Sample records for flowering hormone florigen

  1. The flowering hormone florigen functions as a general systemic regulator of growth and termination

    PubMed Central

    Shalit, Akiva; Rozman, Alexander; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Alvarez, John P.; Bowman, John L.; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    The florigen paradigm implies a universal flowering-inducing hormone that is common to all flowering plants. Recent work identified FT orthologues as originators of florigen and their polypeptides as the likely systemic agent. However, the developmental processes targeted by florigen remained unknown. Here we identify local balances between SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), the tomato precursor of florigen, and SELF-PRUNING (SP), a potent SFT-dependent SFT inhibitor as prime targets of mobile florigen. The graft-transmissible impacts of florigen on organ-specific traits in perennial tomato show that in addition to import by shoot apical meristems, florigen is imported by organs in which SFT is already expressed. By modulating local SFT/SP balances, florigen confers differential flowering responses of primary and secondary apical meristems, regulates the reiterative growth and termination cycles typical of perennial plants, accelerates leaf maturation, and influences the complexity of compound leaves, the growth of stems and the formation of abscission zones. Florigen is thus established as a plant protein functioning as a general growth hormone. Developmental interactions and a phylogenetic analysis suggest that the SFT/SP regulatory hierarchy is a recent evolutionary innovation unique to flowering plants. PMID:19416824

  2. Florigen and anti-florigen – a systemic mechanism for coordinating growth and termination in flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Ayre, Brian G.; Eshed, Yuval

    2014-01-01

    Genetic studies in Arabidopsis established FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) as a key flower-promoting gene in photoperiodic systems. Grafting experiments established unequivocal one-to-one relations between SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT), a tomato homolog of FT, and the hypothetical florigen, in all flowering plants. Additional studies of SFT and SELF PRUNING (SP, homolog of TFL1), two antagonistic genes regulating the architecture of the sympodial shoot system, have suggested that transition to flowering in the day-neutral and perennial tomato is synonymous with “termination.” Dosage manipulation of its endogenous and mobile, graft-transmissible levels demonstrated that florigen regulates termination and transition to flowering in an SP-dependent manner and, by the same token, that high florigen levels induce growth arrest and termination in meristems across the tomato shoot system. It was thus proposed that growth balances, and consequently the patterning of the shoot systems in all plants, are mediated by endogenous, meristem-specific dynamic SFT/SP ratios and that shifts to termination by changing SFT/SP ratios are triggered by the imported florigen, the mobile form of SFT. Florigen is a universal plant growth hormone inherently checked by a complementary antagonistic systemic system. Thus, an examination of the endogenous functions of FT-like genes, or of the systemic roles of the mobile florigen in any plant species, that fails to pay careful attention to the balancing antagonistic systems, or to consider its functions in day-neutral or perennial plants, would be incomplete. PMID:25278944

  3. ZCN8 encodes a potential orthologue of Arabidopsis FT florigen that integrates both endogenous and photoperiod flowering signals in maize

    PubMed Central

    Lazakis, Chloë M.; Coneva, Viktoriya; Colasanti, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Higher plants use multiple perceptive measures to coordinate flowering time with environmental and endogenous cues. Physiological studies show that florigen is a mobile factor that transmits floral inductive signals from the leaf to the shoot apex. Arabidopsis FT protein is widely regarded as the archetype florigen found in diverse plant species, particularly in plants that use inductive photoperiods to flower. Recently, a large family of FT homologues in maize, the Zea CENTRORADIALIS (ZCN) genes, was described, suggesting that maize also contains FT-related proteins that act as a florigen. The product of one member of this large family, ZCN8, has several attributes that make it a good candidate as a maize florigen. Mechanisms underlying the floral transition in maize are less well understood than those of other species, partly because flowering in temperate maize is dependent largely on endogenous signals. The maize indeterminate1 (id1) gene is an important regulator of maize autonomous flowering that acts in leaves to mediate the transmission or production of florigenic signals. This study finds that id1 acts upstream of ZCN8 to control its expression, suggesting a possible new link to flowering in day-neutral maize. Moreover, in teosinte, a tropical progenitor of maize that requires short-day photoperiods to induce flowering, ZCN8 is highly up-regulated in leaves under inductive photoperiods. Finally, vascular-specific expression of ZCN8 in Arabidopsis complements the ft-1 mutation, demonstrating that leaf-specific expression of ZCN8 can induce flowering. These results suggest that ZCN8 may encode a florigen that integrates both endogenous and environmental signals in maize. PMID:21730358

  4. Arabidopsis florigen FT binds to diurnally oscillating phospholipids that accelerate flowering.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Andrés, Fernando; Kanehara, Kazue; Liu, Yu-chi; Dörmann, Peter; Coupland, George

    2014-04-04

    Arabidopsis FT protein is a component of florigen, which transmits photoperiodic flowering signals from leaf companion cells to the shoot apex. Here, we show that FT specifically binds phosphatidylcholine (PC) in vitro. A transgenic approach to increase PC levels in vivo in the shoot meristem accelerates flowering whereas reduced PC levels delay flowering, demonstrating that PC levels are correlated with flowering time. The early flowering is related to FT activity, because expression of FT-effector genes is increased in these plants. Simultaneous increase of FT and PC in the shoot apical meristem further stimulates flowering, whereas a loss of FT function leads to an attenuation of the effect of increased PC. Specific molecular species of PC oscillate diurnally, and night-dominant species are not the preferred ligands of FT. Elevating night-dominant species during the day delays flowering. We suggest that FT binds to diurnally changing molecular species of PC to promote flowering.

  5. Universal florigenic signals triggered by FT homologues regulate growth and flowering cycles in perennial day-neutral tomato.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Eshed, Yuval

    2006-01-01

    The transition from vegetative to floral meristems in higher plants is programmed by the coincidence of internal and environmental signals. Classic grafting experiments have shown that leaves, in response to changing photoperiods, emit systemic signals, dubbed 'florigen', which induce flowering at the shoot apex. The florigen paradigm was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants: nevertheless it implies that although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, the signal is common to all plants. Tomato is a day-neutral, perennial plant, with sympodial and modular organization of its shoots and thus with reiterative regular vegetative/reproductive transitions. SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS a regulator of flowering-time and shoot architecture encodes the tomato orthologue of FT, a major flowering integrator gene in Arabidopsis. SFT generates graft-transmissible signals which complement the morphogenetic defects in sft plants, substitute for light dose stimulus in tomato and for contrasting day-length requirements in Arabidopsis and MARYLAND MAMMOTH tobacco. It is discussed how systemic signals initiated by SFT interact with the SELF PRUNING gene to regulate vegetative to reproductive (V/R) transitions in the context of two flowering systems, one for primary apices and the other for sympodial shoots.

  6. FLOWERING LOCUS T Protein May Act as the Long-Distance Florigenic Signal in the Cucurbits[W

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Kuem; Belanger, Helene; Lee, Young-Jin; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Taoka, Ken-Ichiro; Miura, Eriko; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Gendler, Karla; Jorgensen, Richard A.; Phinney, Brett; Lough, Tony J.; Lucas, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Cucurbita moschata, a cucurbit species responsive to inductive short-day (SD) photoperiods, and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were used to test whether long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA or FT is required for floral induction. Ectopic expression of FT by ZYMV was highly effective in mediating floral induction of long-day (LD)–treated plants. Moreover, the infection zone of ZYMV was far removed from floral meristems, suggesting that FT transcripts do not function as the florigenic signal in this system. Heterografting demonstrated efficient transmission of a florigenic signal from flowering Cucurbita maxima stocks to LD-grown C. moschata scions. Real-time RT-PCR performed on phloem sap collected from C. maxima stocks detected no FT transcripts, whereas mass spectrometry of phloem sap proteins revealed the presence of Cm-FTL1 and Cm-FTL2. Importantly, studies on LD- and SD-treated C. moschata plants established that Cmo-FTL1 and Cmo-FTL2 are regulated by photoperiod at the level of movement into the phloem and not by transcription. Finally, mass spectrometry of florally induced heterografted C. moschata scions revealed that C. maxima FT, but not FT mRNA, crossed the graft union in the phloem translocation stream. Collectively, these studies are consistent with FT functioning as a component of the florigenic signaling system in the cucurbits. PMID:17540715

  7. Photoperiodic control of sugar release during the floral transition: What is the role of sugars in the florigenic signal?

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Marchena, M Isabel; Romero, José M; Valverde, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Florigen is a mobile signal released by the leaves that reaching the shoot apical meristem (SAM), changes its developmental program from vegetative to reproductive. The protein FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) constitutes an important element of the florigen, but other components such as sugars, have been also proposed to be part of this signal. (1-5) We have studied the accumulation and composition of starch during the floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana in order to understand the role of carbon mobilization in this process. In A. thaliana and Antirrhinum majus the gene coding for the Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS) is regulated by the circadian clock (6,7) while in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the homolog gene CrGBSS is controlled by photoperiod and circadian signals. (8,9) In a recent paper(10) we described the role of the central photoperiodic factor CONSTANS (CO) in the regulation of GBSS expression in Arabidopsis. This regulation is in the basis of the change in the balance between starch and free sugars observed during the floral transition. We propose that this regulation may contribute to the florigenic signal and to the increase in sugar transport required during the flowering process.

  8. Phloem-mobile signals affecting flowers: applications for crop breeding.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Roisin C; Kragler, Friedrich

    2013-04-01

    Transport of endogenous macromolecules within and between tissues serves as a signaling pathway to regulate numerous aspects of plant growth. The florigenic FT gene product moves via the phloem from leaves to apical tissues and induces the flowering program in meristems. Similarly, short interfering RNA (siRNA) signals produced in source or sink tissues move cell-to-cell and long distance via the phloem to apical tissues. Recent advances in identifying these mobile signals regulating flowering or the epigenetic status of targeted tissues can be applicable to crop-breeding programs. In this review, we address the identity of florigen, the mechanism of allocation, and how virus-induced flowering and grafting of transgenes producing siRNA signals affecting meiosis can produce transgene-free progenies useful for agriculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant hormone signaling in flowering: An epigenetic point of view.

    PubMed

    Campos-Rivero, Gerardo; Osorio-Montalvo, Pedro; Sánchez-Borges, Rafael; Us-Camas, Rosa; Duarte-Aké, Fátima; De-la-Peña, Clelia

    2017-07-01

    Reproduction is one of the most important phases in an organism's lifecycle. In the case of angiosperm plants, flowering provides the major developmental transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage, and requires genetic and epigenetic reprogramming to ensure the success of seed production. Flowering is regulated by a complex network of genes that integrate multiple environmental cues and endogenous signals so that flowering occurs at the right time; hormone regulation, signaling and homeostasis are very important in this process. Working alone or in combination, hormones are able to promote flowering by epigenetic regulation. Some plant hormones, such as gibberellins, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid and auxins, have important effects on chromatin compaction mediated by DNA methylation and histone posttranslational modifications, which hints at the role that epigenetic regulation may play in flowering through hormone action. miRNAs have been viewed as acting independently from DNA methylation and histone modification, ignoring their potential to interact with hormone signaling - including the signaling of auxins, gibberellins, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid and others - to regulate flowering. Therefore, in this review we examine new findings about interactions between epigenetic mechanisms and key players in hormone signaling to coordinate flowering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Eviatar, Tamar; Rozman, Alexander; Shalit, Akiva; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Amsellem, Ziva; Alvarez, John Paul; Eshed, Yuval

    2006-01-01

    The systemic model for floral induction, dubbed florigen, was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants but implies, in its ultimate form, a graft-transmissible signal that, although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, is common to all plants. We show that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and is encoded by SFT. sft tomato mutant plants are late-flowering, with altered architecture and flower morphology. SFT-dependent graft-transmissible signals complement all developmental defects in sft plants and substitute for long-day stimuli in Arabidopsis, short-day stimuli in Maryland Mammoth tobacco, and light-dose requirements in tomato uniflora mutant plants. The absence of donor SFT RNA from flowering receptor shoots and the localization of the protein in leaf nuclei implicate florigen-like messages in tomato as a downstream pathway triggered by cell-autonomous SFT RNA transcripts. Flowering in tomato is synonymous with termination of the shoot apical meristems, and systemic SFT messages attenuate the growth of apical meristems before and independent of floral production. Floral enhancement by systemic SFT signals is therefore one pleiotropic effect of FT orthologs. PMID:16606827

  11. The tomato FT ortholog triggers systemic signals that regulate growth and flowering and substitute for diverse environmental stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lifschitz, Eliezer; Eviatar, Tamar; Rozman, Alexander; Shalit, Akiva; Goldshmidt, Alexander; Amsellem, Ziva; Alvarez, John Paul; Eshed, Yuval

    2006-04-18

    The systemic model for floral induction, dubbed florigen, was conceived in photoperiod-sensitive plants but implies, in its ultimate form, a graft-transmissible signal that, although activated by different stimuli in different flowering systems, is common to all plants. We show that SFT (SINGLE-FLOWER TRUSS), the tomato ortholog of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), induces flowering in day-neutral tomato and tobacco plants and is encoded by SFT. sft tomato mutant plants are late-flowering, with altered architecture and flower morphology. SFT-dependent graft-transmissible signals complement all developmental defects in sft plants and substitute for long-day stimuli in Arabidopsis, short-day stimuli in Maryland Mammoth tobacco, and light-dose requirements in tomato uniflora mutant plants. The absence of donor SFT RNA from flowering receptor shoots and the localization of the protein in leaf nuclei implicate florigen-like messages in tomato as a downstream pathway triggered by cell-autonomous SFT RNA transcripts. Flowering in tomato is synonymous with termination of the shoot apical meristems, and systemic SFT messages attenuate the growth of apical meristems before and independent of floral production. Floral enhancement by systemic SFT signals is therefore one pleiotropic effect of FT orthologs.

  12. Monopodial and sympodial branching architecture in cotton is differentially regulated by the Gossypium hirsutum SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS and SELF-PRUNING orthologs.

    PubMed

    McGarry, Roisin C; Prewitt, Sarah F; Culpepper, Samantha; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer; Ayre, Brian G

    2016-10-01

    Domestication of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) converted it from a lanky photoperiodic perennial to a day-neutral annual row-crop. Residual perennial traits, however, complicate irrigation and crop management, and more determinate architectures are desired. Cotton simultaneously maintains robust monopodial indeterminate shoots and sympodial determinate shoots. We questioned if and how the FLOWERING LOCUS T/SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS (SFT)-like and TERMINAL FLOWER1/SELF-PRUNING (SP)-like genes control the balance of monopodial and sympodial growth in a woody perennial with complex growth habit. Virus-based manipulation of GhSP and GhSFT expression enabled unprecedented functional analysis of cotton development. GhSP maintains growth in all apices; in its absence, both monopodial and sympodial branch systems terminate precociously. GhSFT encodes a florigenic signal stimulating rapid onset of sympodial branching and flowering in side shoots of wild photoperiodic and modern day-neutral accessions. High florigen concentrations did not alter monopodial apices, implying that once a cotton apex is SP-determined, it cannot be reset by florigen. GhSP is also essential to establish and maintain cambial activity. Dynamic changes in GhSFT and GhSP levels navigate meristems between monopodial and sympodial programs in a single plant. SFT and SP influenced cotton domestication and are ideal targets for further agricultural optimization. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Sucrose accelerates flower opening and delays senescence through a hormonal effect in cut lily flowers.

    PubMed

    Arrom, Laia; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2012-06-01

    Sugars are generally used to extend the vase life of cut flowers. Such beneficial effects have been associated with an improvement of water relations and an increase in available energy for respiration by floral tissues. In this study we aimed at evaluating to what extent (i) endogenous levels of sugars in outer and inner tepals, androecium and gynoecium are altered during opening and senescence of lily flowers; (ii) sugar levels increase in various floral tissues after sucrose addition to the vase solution; and (iii) sucrose addition alters the hormonal balance of floral tissues. Results showed that endogenous glucose levels increased during flower opening and decreased during senescence in all floral organs, while sucrose levels increased in outer and inner tepals and the androecium during senescence. Sucrose treatment accelerated flower opening, and delayed senescence, but did not affect tepal abscission. Such effects appeared to be exerted through a specific increase in the endogenous levels of sucrose in the gynoecium and of glucose in all floral tissues. The hormonal balance was altered in the gynoecium as well as in other floral tissues. Aside from cytokinin and auxin increases in the gynoecium; cytokinins, gibberellins, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels increased in the androecium, while abscisic acid decreased in outer tepals. It is concluded that sucrose addition to the vase solution exerts an effect on flower opening and senescence by, among other factors, altering the hormonal balance of several floral tissues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcription Profiles Reveal Sugar and Hormone Signaling Pathways Mediating Flower Induction in Apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Li-Bo; Zhang, Dong; Li, You-Mei; Shen, Ya-Wen; Zhao, Cai-Ping; Ma, Juan-Juan; An, Na; Han, Ming-Yu

    2015-10-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is regulated by complex gene networks that involve multiple signal pathways to ensure flower bud formation in the next year, but the molecular determinants of apple flower induction are still unknown. In this research, transcriptomic profiles from differentiating buds allowed us to identify genes potentially involved in signaling pathways that mediate the regulatory mechanisms of flower induction. A hypothetical model for this regulatory mechanism was obtained by analysis of the available transcriptomic data, suggesting that sugar-, hormone- and flowering-related genes, as well as those involved in cell-cycle induction, participated in the apple flower induction process. Sugar levels and metabolism-related gene expression profiles revealed that sucrose is the initiation signal in flower induction. Complex hormone regulatory networks involved in cytokinin (CK), abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid pathways also induce apple flower formation. CK plays a key role in the regulation of cell formation and differentiation, and in affecting flowering-related gene expression levels during these processes. Meanwhile, ABA levels and ABA-related gene expression levels gradually increased, as did those of sugar metabolism-related genes, in developing buds, indicating that ABA signals regulate apple flower induction by participating in the sugar-mediated flowering pathway. Furthermore, changes in sugar and starch deposition levels in buds can be affected by ABA content and the expression of the genes involved in the ABA signaling pathway. Thus, multiple pathways, which are mainly mediated by crosstalk between sugar and hormone signals, regulate the molecular network involved in bud growth and flower induction in apple trees. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  15. A Virus-Induced Assay for Functional Dissection and Analysis of Monocot and Dicot Flowering Time Genes.

    PubMed

    Qin, Cheng; Chen, Weiwei; Shen, Jiajia; Cheng, Linming; Akande, Femi; Zhang, Ke; Yuan, Chen; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Cheng, Qi; Liu, Yule; Jackson, Stephen; Hong, Yiguo

    2017-06-01

    Virus-induced flowering (VIF) uses virus vectors to express Flowering Locus T ( FT ) to induce flowering in plants. This approach has recently attracted wide interest for its practical applications in accelerating breeding in crops and woody fruit trees. However, the insight into VIF and its potential as a powerful tool for dissecting florigenic proteins remained to be elucidated. Here, we describe the mechanism and further applications of Potato virus X (PVX)-based VIF in the short-day Nicotiana tabacum cultivar Maryland Mammoth. Ectopic delivery of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) AtFT by PVX/AtFT did not induce the expression of the endogenous FT ortholog NtFT4 ; however, it was sufficient to trigger flowering in Maryland Mammoth plants grown under noninductive long-day conditions. Infected tobacco plants developed no systemic symptoms, and the PVX-based VIF did not cause transgenerational flowering. We showed that the PVX-based VIF is a much more rapid method to examine the impacts of single amino acid mutations on AtFT for floral induction than making individual transgenic Arabidopsis lines for each mutation. We also used the PVX-based VIF to demonstrate that adding a His- or FLAG-tag to the N or C terminus of AtFT could affect its florigenic activity and that this system can be applied to assay the function of FT genes from heterologous species, including tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) SFT and rice ( Oryza sativa ) Hd3a Thus, the PVX-based VIF represents a simple and efficient system to identify individual amino acids that are essential for FT-mediated floral induction and to test the ability of mono- and dicotyledonous FT genes and FT fusion proteins to induce flowering. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Early histological, hormonal, and molecular changes during pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) artificial flowering induction.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Maita Eulalia Ávila; Moreira, Rafael Oliveira; Lima, André Almeida; Ságio, Solange Aparecida; Barreto, Horllys Gomes; Luiz, Sara Lazara Pérez; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Yanes-Paz, Ermis; Ruíz, Yanelis Capdesuñer; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Histological analyses of the shoot apical meristem, leaf gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), and ethylene quantification were carried out during the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Expression profiles from ethylene biosynthesis (AcACS2 and AcACO1), gibberellin metabolism (AcGA2-ox1 and AcDELLA1), and flower development (FT-like gene (AcFT), LFY-like gene (AcLFY), and a PISTILLATA-like gene (AcPI)) genes were analysed during the first 24h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Differentiation processes of the shoot apical meristem into flower buds were already present in the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Ethrel ® 48 lead to a reduction in GA 3 levels, probably triggered by elevated ethylene levels and the positive regulation AcGA2-ox1. AcLFY activation upon Ethrel ® 48 may also have contributed to the reduction of GA 3 levels and, along with the up-regulation of AcPI, are probably associated with the flower induction activation. AcFT and AcDELLA1 do not seem to be regulated by GA 3 and ethylene. Decreased GA 3 and increased ethylene levels suggest an accumulation of AcDELLA1, which may display an important role in pineapple flowering induction. Thus, this study shows that molecular, hormonal, and histological changes are present right after Ethrel ® 48 treatment, providing new insights into how pineapple flowering occurs under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. GmFT2a, a soybean homolog of FLOWERING LOCUS T, is involved in flowering transition and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongbo; Jia, Zhen; Cao, Dong; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Hou, Wensheng; Liu, Yike; Fei, Zhihong; Zhao, Dazhong; Han, Tianfu

    2011-01-01

    Flowering reversion can be induced in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.), a typical short-day (SD) dicot, by switching from SD to long-day (LD) photoperiods. This process may involve florigen, putatively encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, little is known about the potential function of soybean FT homologs in flowering reversion. A photoperiod-responsive FT homologue GmFT (renamed as GmFT2a hereafter) was cloned from the photoperiod-sensitive cultivar Zigongdongdou. GmFT2a gene expression under different photoperiods was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. In situ hybridization showed direct evidence for its expression during flowering-related processes. GmFT2a was shown to promote flowering using transgenic studies in Arabidopsis and soybean. The effects of photoperiod and temperature on GmFT2a expression were also analyzed in two cultivars with different photoperiod-sensitivities. GmFT2a expression is regulated by photoperiod. Analyses of GmFT2a transcripts revealed a strong correlation between GmFT2a expression and flowering maintenance. GmFT2a transcripts were observed continuously within the vascular tissue up to the shoot apex during flowering. By contrast, transcripts decreased to undetectable levels during flowering reversion. In grafting experiments, the early-flowering, photoperiod-insensitive stock Heihe27 promotes the appearance of GmFT2a transcripts in the shoot apex of scion Zigongdongdou under noninductive LD conditions. The photothermal effects of GmFT2a expression diversity in cultivars with different photoperiod-sensitivities and a hypothesis is proposed. GmFT2a expression is associated with flowering induction and maintenance. Therefore, GmFT2a is a potential target gene for soybean breeding, with the aim of increasing geographic adaptation of this crop.

  18. Regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T by a MicroRNA in Brachypodium distachyon[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Liu, Dongfeng; Wu, Jiajie; Zhang, Rongzhi; Qin, Zhengrui; Liu, Danmei; Li, Aili; Fu, Daolin; Zhai, Wenxue; Mao, Long

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) functions at the core of the flowering pathways. Extensive studies have examined the transcriptional regulation of FT; however, other layers of FT regulation remain unclear. Here, we identified miR5200 a Pooideae-specific microRNA that is expressed in leaves and targets Brachypodium distachyon FT orthologs for mRNA cleavage. miR5200 was abundantly expressed in plants grown under short-day (SD) conditions but was dramatically repressed in plants transferred to long-day (LD) conditions. We also found that the epigenetic chromatin status, specifically the levels of histone methylation marks, at miR5200 precursor loci changed in response to daylength. Moreover, artificial interruption of miR5200 activity by target mimicry in B. distachyon altered flowering time in SD but not in LD conditions, suggesting that miR5200 functions in photoperiod-mediated flowering time regulation. Together, these findings illustrate a posttranscriptional regulation mechanism of FT and provide insights into understanding of the multiple concerted pathways for flowering time control in plants. PMID:24285787

  19. 76 FR 60447 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... evaluation of data submitted by Florigene Pty., Ltd., in its petition for a determination of nonregulated status, our analysis of available scientific data, and comments received from the public in response to... alternative identified in the EA. Determination Based on APHIS' analysis of field and laboratory data...

  20. 76 FR 22862 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0040] Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses Correction In notice document 2011-8775 appearing on pages 20623...

  1. Iron-dependent modifications of the flower transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormonal content in an Arabidopsis ferritin mutant

    PubMed Central

    Sudre, Damien; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; Rellán-Álvarez, Rubén; Gaymard, Frédéric; Wohlgemuth, Gert; Fiehn, Oliver; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana; Zamarreño, Angel M.; Bacaicoa, Eva; Duy, Daniela; García-Mina, Jose-María; Abadía, Javier; Philippar, Katrin; López-Millán, Ana-Flor; Briat, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is an important process for flower development and plant fertility. The role of plastids in these processes has been shown to be essential. To document the relationships between plastid iron homeostasis and flower biology further, a global study (transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and hormone analysis) was performed of Arabidopsis flowers from wild-type and triple atfer1-3-4 ferritin mutant plants grown under iron-sufficient or excess conditions. Some major modifications in specific functional categories were consistently observed at these three omic levels, although no significant overlaps of specific transcripts and proteins were detected. These modifications concerned redox reactions and oxidative stress, as well as amino acid and protein catabolism, this latter point being exemplified by an almost 10-fold increase in urea concentration of atfer1-3-4 flowers from plants grown under iron excess conditions. The mutant background caused alterations in Fe–haem redox proteins located in membranes and in hormone-responsive proteins. Specific effects of excess Fe in the mutant included further changes in these categories, supporting the idea that the mutant is facing a more intense Fe/redox stress than the wild type. The mutation and/or excess Fe had a strong impact at the membrane level, as denoted by the changes in the transporter and lipid metabolism categories. In spite of the large number of genes and proteins responsive to hormones found to be regulated in this study, changes in the hormonal balance were restricted to cytokinins, especially in the mutant plants grown under Fe excess conditions. PMID:23682113

  2. Variation in the flowering gene SELF PRUNING 5G promotes day-neutrality and early yield in tomato.

    PubMed

    Soyk, Sebastian; Müller, Niels A; Park, Soon Ju; Schmalenbach, Inga; Jiang, Ke; Hayama, Ryosuke; Zhang, Lei; Van Eck, Joyce; Jiménez-Gómez, José M; Lippman, Zachary B

    2017-01-01

    Plants evolved so that their flowering is triggered by seasonal changes in day length. However, day-length sensitivity in crops limits their geographical range of cultivation, and thus modification of the photoperiod response was critical for their domestication. Here we show that loss of day-length-sensitive flowering in tomato was driven by the florigen paralog and flowering repressor SELF-PRUNING 5G (SP5G). SP5G expression is induced to high levels during long days in wild species, but not in cultivated tomato because of cis-regulatory variation. CRISPR/Cas9-engineered mutations in SP5G cause rapid flowering and enhance the compact determinate growth habit of field tomatoes, resulting in a quick burst of flower production that translates to an early yield. Our findings suggest that pre-existing variation in SP5G facilitated the expansion of cultivated tomato beyond its origin near the equator in South America, and they provide a compelling demonstration of the power of gene editing to rapidly improve yield traits in crop breeding.

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  4. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) –like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. Results To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. Conclusions JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha. PMID:24886195

  5. Expression profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene in alternate bearing 'Hass' avocado trees suggests a role for PaFT in avocado flower induction.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed.

  6. Expression Profiling of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene in Alternate Bearing ‘Hass' Avocado Trees Suggests a Role for PaFT in Avocado Flower Induction

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Dafna; Zviran, Tali; Zezak, Oshrat; Samach, Alon; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2014-01-01

    In many perennials, heavy fruit load on a shoot decreases the ability of the plant to undergo floral induction in the following spring, resulting in a pattern of crop production known as alternate bearing. Here, we studied the effects of fruit load on floral determination in ‘Hass' avocado (Persea americana). De-fruiting experiments initially confirmed the negative effects of fruit load on return to flowering. Next, we isolated a FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene, PaFT, hypothesized to act as a phloem-mobile florigen signal and examined its expression profile in shoot tissues of on (fully loaded) and off (fruit-lacking) trees. Expression analyses revealed a strong peak in PaFT transcript levels in leaves of off trees from the end of October through November, followed by a return to starting levels. Moreover and concomitant with inflorescence development, only off buds displayed up-regulation of the floral identity transcripts PaAP1 and PaLFY, with significant variation being detected from October and November, respectively. Furthermore, a parallel microscopic study of off apical buds revealed the presence of secondary inflorescence axis structures that only appeared towards the end of November. Finally, ectopic expression of PaFT in Arabidopsis resulted in early flowering transition. Together, our data suggests a link between increased PaFT expression observed during late autumn and avocado flower induction. Furthermore, our results also imply that, as in the case of other crop trees, fruit-load might affect flowering by repressing the expression of PaFT in the leaves. Possible mechanism(s) by which fruit crop might repress PaFT expression, are discussed. PMID:25330324

  7. Variations in Hormones and Antioxidant Status in Relation to Flowering in Early, Mid, and Late Varieties of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) of United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Cheruth, Abdul J; Kurup, Shyam S; Subramaniam, Sreeramanan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the status of various hormones responsible for the flower induction of Nagal, Lulu, and Khalas date palm varieties in UAE. The nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant enzymatic activities at preflowering, flowering, and postflowering stages of the date palm varieties were quantified. The ABA and zeatin concentrations were found to be significantly higher during the preflowering stage but gradually decreased during the flowering period and then increased after the flowering stage. Gibberellic acid (GA) concentrations were significantly higher in the early flowering varieties and higher levels of ABA may contribute to the delayed flowering in mid and late varieties. The results on hormone profiling displayed a significant variation between seasons (preflowering, flowering, and postflowering) and also between the three date palms (early, mid, and late flowering varieties). Ascorbic acid (AA) concentration was low at the preflowering stage in the early flowering Nagal (0.694 mg/g dw), which is similar with the late flowering Lulu variety (0.862 mg/g dw). However, Khalas variety showed significantly higher amount of AA content (7.494 mg/g dw) at the preflowering stage when compared to other varieties. In flowering stage, Nagal (0.814 mg/g dw) and Lulu (0.963 mg/g dw) were similar with respect to the production of AA, while the mid flowering variety showed significantly higher amount of AA (9.358 mg/g dw). The Khalas variety produced the highest tocopherol at 4.78 mg/g dw compared to Nagal and Lulu, at 1.997 and 1.908 mg/g dw, respectively, during the preflowering stage. In Nagal variety, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) at the preflowering stage was 0.507 mg/g dw, which was not significantly different from the flowering and postflowering stages at 0.4 and 0.45 mg/g dw, respectively. The GSH was significantly higher in Khalas compared to Nagal and Lulu varieties, at 1.321 mg/g w in the preflowering phase

  8. Comparative transcriptomic analyses of normal and malformed flowers in sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.) to identify the differential expressed genes between normal and malformed flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaidong; Li, Haili; Li, Weijin; Zhong, Jundi; Chen, Yan; Shen, Chenjia; Yuan, Changchun

    2017-10-23

    Sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.), a popular fruit with high medicinal and nutritional properties, is widely cultivated in tropical South Asia and America. The malformed flower is a major cause for a reduction in production of sugar apple. However, little information is available on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple. To gain a comprehensive perspective on the differences between normal and malformed flowers of sugar apple, cDNA libraries from normal and malformation flowers were prepared independently for Illumina sequencing. The data generated a total of 70,189,896 reads that were integrated and assembled into 55,097 unigenes with a mean length of 783 bp. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Among these DEGs, 701 flower development-associated transcript factor encoding genes were included. Furthermore, a large number of flowering- and hormone-related DEGs were also identified, and most of these genes were down-regulated expressed in the malformation flowers. The expression levels of 15 selected genes were validated using quantitative-PCR. The contents of several endogenous hormones were measured. The malformed flowers displayed lower endogenous hormone levels compared to the normal flowers. The expression data as well as hormone levels in our study will serve as a comprehensive resource for investigating the regulation mechanism involved in floral organ development in sugar apple.

  9. Florigen unmasked - exciting prospects for horticulture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pioneer work of Garner and Allard, who coined the term “photoperiod” to describe the dramatic effects of day length on flowering of many plants, led to the widespread commercial use of photoperiod modification to control flowering in plants, particularly ornamentals. M.K. Chailakhyan suggested t...

  10. Tulipa gesneriana and Lilium longiflorum PEBP Genes and Their Putative Roles in Flowering Time Control.

    PubMed

    Leeggangers, Hendrika A C F; Rosilio-Brami, Tamar; Bigas-Nadal, Judit; Rubin, Noam; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Nunez de Caceres Gonzalez, Francisco F; Saadon-Shitrit, Shani; Nijveen, Harm; Hilhorst, Henk W M; Immink, Richard G H; Zaccai, Michele

    2018-01-01

    Floral induction in Tulipa gesneriana and Lilium longiflorum is triggered by contrasting temperature conditions, high and low temperature, respectively. In Arabidopsis, the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a member of the PEBP (phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein) gene family, is a key player in flowering time control. In this study, one PEBP gene was identified and characterized in lily (LlFT) and three PEBP genes were isolated from tulip (TgFT1, TgFT2 and TgFT3). Overexpression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in an early flowering phenotype for LlFT and TgFT2, but a late flowering phenotype for TgFT1 and TgFT3. Overexpression of LlFT in L. longiflorum also resulted in an early flowering phenotype, confirming its proposed role as a flowering time-controlling gene. The tulip PEBP genes TgFT2 and TgFT3 have a similar expression pattern in tulip, but show opposite effects on the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis. Therefore, the difference between these two proteins was further investigated by interchanging amino acids thought to be important for the FT function. This resulted in the conversion of phenotypes in Arabidopsis upon overexpressing the substituted TgFT2 and TgFT3 genes, revealing the importance of these interchanged amino acid residues. Based on all obtained results, we hypothesize that LlFT is involved in creating meristem competence to flowering-related cues in lily, and TgFT2 is considered to act as a florigen involved in the floral induction in tulip. The function of TgFT3 remains unclear, but, based on our observations and phylogenetic analysis, we propose a bulb-specific function for this gene. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Putative sugarcane FT/TFL1 genes delay flowering time and alter reproductive architecture in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carla P; Minow, Mark A A; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio; Colasanti, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Agriculturally important grasses such as rice, maize, and sugarcane are evolutionarily distant from Arabidopsis, yet some components of the floral induction process are highly conserved. Flowering in sugarcane is an important factor that negatively affects cane yield and reduces sugar/ethanol production from this important perennial bioenergy crop. Comparative studies have facilitated the identification and characterization of putative orthologs of key flowering time genes in sugarcane, a complex polyploid plant whose genome has yet to be sequenced completely. Using this approach we identified phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family members in sugarcane that are similar to the archetypical FT and TFL1 genes of Arabidopsis that play an essential role in controlling the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Expression analysis of ScTFL1, which falls into the TFL1-clade of floral repressors, showed transcripts in developing leaves surrounding the shoot apex but not at the apex itself. ScFT1 was detected in immature leaves and apical regions of vegetatively growing plants and, after the floral transition, expression also occurred in mature leaves. Ectopic over-expression of ScTFL1 in Arabidopsis caused delayed flowering in Arabidopsis, as might be expected for a gene related to TFL1. In addition, lines with the latest flowering phenotype exhibited aerial rosette formation. Unexpectedly, over-expression of ScFT1, which has greatest similarity to the florigen-encoding FT, also caused a delay in flowering. This preliminary analysis of divergent sugarcane FT and TFL1 gene family members from Saccharum spp. suggests that their expression patterns and roles in the floral transition has diverged from the predicted role of similar PEBP family members.

  13. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and expression analysis of ERF transcription factor genes in petunia during flower senescence and in response to hormone treatments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanxu; Li, Jingyu; Wang, Huinan; Fu, Zhaodi; Liu, Juan; Yu, Yixun

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene-responsive element-binding factor (ERF) genes constitute one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants. In Arabidopsis and rice, only a few ERF genes have been characterized so far. Flower senescence is associated with increased ethylene production in many flowers. However, the characterization of ERF genes in flower senescence has not been reported. In this study, 13 ERF cDNAs were cloned from petunia. Based on the sequence characterization, these PhERFs could be classified into four of the 12 known ERF families. Their predicted amino acid sequences exhibited similarities to ERFs from other plant species. Expression analyses of PhERF mRNAs were performed in corollas and gynoecia of petunia flower. The 13 PhERF genes displayed differential expression patterns and levels during natural flower senescence. Exogenous ethylene accelerates the transcription of the various PhERF genes, and silver thiosulphate (STS) decreased the transcription of several PhERF genes in corollas and gynoecia. PhERF genes of group VII showed a strong association with the rise in ethylene production in both petals and gynoecia, and might be associated particularly with flower senescence in petunia. The effect of sugar, methyl jasmonate, and the plant hormones abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and 6-benzyladenine in regulating the different PhERF transcripts was investigated. Functional nuclear localization signal analyses of two PhERF proteins (PhERF2 and PhERF3) were carried out using fluorescence microscopy. These results supported a role for petunia PhERF genes in transcriptional regulation of petunia flower senescence processes.

  15. Distinct gene networks modulate floral induction of autonomous maize and photoperiod-dependent teosinte.

    PubMed

    Minow, Mark A A; Ávila, Luis M; Turner, Katie; Ponzoni, Elena; Mascheretti, Iride; Dussault, Forest M; Lukens, Lewis; Rossi, Vincenzo; Colasanti, Joseph

    2018-05-25

    Temperate maize was domesticated from its tropical ancestor, teosinte. Whereas temperate maize is an autonomous day-neutral plant, teosinte is an obligate short-day plant that requires uninterrupted long nights to induce flowering. Leaf-derived florigenic signals trigger reproductive growth in both teosinte and temperate maize. To study the genetic mechanisms underlying floral inductive pathways in maize and teosinte, mRNA and small RNA genome-wide expression analyses were conducted on leaf tissue from plants that were induced or not induced to flower. Transcriptome profiles reveal common differentially expressed genes during floral induction, but a comparison of candidate flowering time genes indicates that photoperiod and autonomous pathways act independently. Expression differences in teosinte are consistent with the current paradigm for photoperiod-induced flowering, where changes in circadian clock output trigger florigen production. Conversely, differentially expressed genes in temperate maize link carbon partitioning and flowering, but also show altered expression of circadian clock genes that are distinct from those altered upon photoperiodic induction in teosinte. Altered miRNA399 levels in both teosinte and maize suggest a novel common connection between flowering and phosphorus perception. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying a strengthened autonomous pathway that enabled maize growth throughout temperate regions.

  16. In vitro flowering ofDendrobium candidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Xu, Z; Chia, T F; Chua, N H

    1997-02-01

    Dendrobium candidum, a wild orchid species from China, normally requires three to four years of cultivation before it can produce flowers. The effects of plant hormones and polyamines on flower initiation of this species in tissue culture were investigated. The addition of spermidine, or BA, or the combination of NAA and BA to the culture medium can induce protocorms or shoots to flower within three to six months with a frequency of 31.6%-45.8%. The flowering frequency can be further increased to 82.8 % on the average by pre-treatment of protocorms in an ABA-containing medium followed by transfer onto MS medium with BA. The induction of precocious flowering depends on the developmental stage of the experimental materials (protocorms, shoots and plantlets) used, and usually occurs only when mt formation is inhibited.

  17. Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Phytohormone Biosynthesis and Signaling Genes in the Flowers of Chinese Chinquapin (Castanea henryi).

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaoming; Yuan, Deyi; Tian, Xiaoming; Zhu, Zhoujun; Liu, Meilan; Cao, Heping

    2017-11-29

    Chinese chinquapin (Castanea henryi) nut provides a rich source of starch and nutrients as food and feed, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of female to male flowers. Little is known about the developmental programs underlying sex differentiation of the flowers. To investigate the involvement of phytohormones during sex differentiation, we described the morphology of male and female floral organs and the cytology of flower sex differentiation, analyzed endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), gibberellins (GAs), cytokinins (CKs), and abscisic acid (ABA) in the flowers, investigated the effects of exogenous hormones on flower development, and evaluated the expression profiles of genes related to biosyntheses and signaling pathways of these four hormones using RNA-Seq combined with qPCR. Morphological results showed that the flowers consisted of unisexual and bisexual catkins, and could be divided into four developmental stages. HPLC results showed that CK accumulated much more in the female flowers than that in the male flowers, GA and ABA showed the opposite results, while IAA did not show a tendency. The effects of exogenous hormones on sex differentiation were consistent with those of endogenous hormones. RNA-Seq combined with qPCR analyses suggest that several genes may play key roles in hormone biosynthesis and sex differentiation. This study presents the first comprehensive report of phytohormone biosynthesis and signaling during sex differentiation of C. henryi, which should provide a foundation for further mechanistic studies of sex differentiation in Castanea Miller species and other nonmodel plants.

  18. The NUCLEAR FACTOR-CONSTANS complex antagonizes Polycomb repression to de-repress FLOWERING LOCUS T expression in response to inductive long days in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Gao, Zheng; Wang, Yizhong; Chen, Zhijuan; Zhang, Wenju; Huang, Jirong; Yu, Hao; He, Yuehui

    2018-07-01

    Many plants sense the seasonal cues, day length or photoperiod changes, to align the timing of the developmental transition to flowering with changing seasons for reproductive success. Inductive day lengths through the photoperiod pathway induce the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) or FT relatives that encode a major mobile florigen to promote flowering. In Arabidopsis thaliana, under inductive long days the photoperiod pathway output CONSTANS (CO) accumulates toward the end of the day, and associates with the B and C subunits of Nuclear Factor Y (NF-Y) to form the NF-CO complex that acts to promote FT expression near dusk, whereas Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function to silence FT expression. How NF-CO acts to antagonize the function of PcG proteins to regulate FT expression remains unclear. Here, we show that the NF-CO complex bound to the proximal FT promoter, through chromatin looping, acts in concert with an NF-Y complex bound to a distal enhancer to reduce the levels of PcG proteins, including both Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and PRC2 at the FT promoter, leading to a relieving of Polycomb silencing and thus FT de-repression near dusk. Thus, our study provides molecular insights on how the 'active' photoperiod pathway and the 'repressive' Polycomb silencing system interact to control temporal FT expression, conferring the long-day induction of flowering in Arabidopsis. © 2018 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Promotion of flowering in the Pinaceae by hormones -- a reality

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Pharis

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of gibberellins as promotors of flowering in Cupressaceae and Taxodiaceae is historically reviewed, emphasizing that these groups of plants respond to polar gibberellins and produce sexual structures after exogenous application of GA3. Species in Pinaceae, on the other hand, can be brought into flowering with non-polar...

  20. A petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flower senescence is mediated in part by changes of plant hormones, such as ethylene, cytokinin and abscisic acid (ABA). Ethylene is known to control flower senescence in many species, especially ethylene sensitive flowers, like petunia, carnation and rose. During flower senescence in petunia and ot...

  1. Delay of iris flower senescence by cytokinins and jasmonates.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Çelikel, Fisun G; Pak, Caroline; Harkema, Harmannus

    2013-05-01

    It is not known whether tepal senescence in Iris flowers is regulated by hormones. We applied hormones and hormone inhibitors to cut flowers and isolated tepals of Iris × hollandica cv. Blue Magic. Treatments with ethylene or ethylene antagonists indicated lack of ethylene involvement. Auxins or auxin inhibitors also did not change the time to senescence. Abscisic acid (ABA) hastened senescence, but an inhibitor of ABA synthesis (norflurazon) had no effect. Gibberellic acid (GA3 ) slightly delayed senescence in some experiments, but in other experiments it was without effect, and gibberellin inhibitors [ancymidol or 4-hydroxy-5-isopropyl-2-methylphenyltrimethyl ammonium chloride-1-piperidine carboxylate (AMO-1618)] were ineffective as well. Salicylic acid (SA) also had no effect. Ethylene, auxins, GA3 and SA affected flower opening, therefore did reach the flower cells. Jasmonates delayed senescence by about 2.0 days. Similarly, cytokinins delayed senescence by about 1.5-2.0 days. Antagonists of the phosphatidylinositol signal transduction pathway (lithium), calcium channels (niguldipine and verapamil), calmodulin action [fluphenazine, trifluoroperazine, phenoxybenzamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7)] or protein kinase activity [1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine hydrochloride (H-7), N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide hydrochloride (H-8) and N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride (H-9)] had no effect on senescence, indicating no role of a few common signal transduction pathways relating to hormone effects on senescence. The results indicate that tepal senescence in Iris cv. Blue Magic is not regulated by endogenous ethylene, auxin, gibberellins or SA. A role of ABA can at present not be excluded. The data suggest the hypothesis that cytokinins and jasmonates are among the natural regulators. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  2. Flower opening and closure: an update.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Wouter G; Kamdee, Chanattika

    2014-11-01

    This review is an update of a 2003 review (Journal of Experimental Botany 54,1801-1812) by the same corresponding author. Many examples of flower opening have been recorded using time-lapse photography, showing its velocity and the required elongation growth. Ethylene regulates flower opening, together with at least gibberellins and auxin. Ethylene and gibberellic acid often promote and inhibit, respectively, the expression of DELLA genes and the stability of DELLA proteins. DELLA results in growth inhibition. Both hormones also inhibited and promoted, respectively, the expression of aquaporin genes required for cell elongation. Arabidopsis miRNA319a mutants exhibited narrow and short petals, whereby miRNA319a indirectly regulates auxin effects. Flower opening in roses was controlled by a NAC transcription factor, acting through miRNA164. The regulatory role of light and temperature, in interaction with the circadian clock, has been further elucidated. The end of the life span in many flowers is determined by floral closure. In some species pollination resulted in earlier closure of turgid flowers, compared with unpollinated flowers. It is hypothesized that this pollination-induced effect is only found in flowers in which closure is regulated by ethylene. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Ovary-derived precursor gibberellin A9 is essential for female flower development in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Lange, Theo

    2016-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones that control many aspects of plant development, including flowering. It is well known that stamen is the source of GAs that regulate male and bisexual flower development. However, little is known about the role of GAs in female flower development. In cucumber, high levels of GA precursors are present in ovaries and high levels of bioactive GA 4 are identified in sepals/petals, reflecting the expression of GA 20-oxidase and 3-oxidase in these organs, respectively. Here, we show that the biologically inactive precursor GA 9 moves from ovaries to sepal/petal tissues where it is converted to the bioactive GA 4 necessary for female flower development. Transient expression of a catabolic GA 2-oxidase from pumpkin in cucumber ovaries decreases GA 9 and GA 4 levels and arrests the development of female flowers, and this can be restored by application of GA 9 to petals thus confirming its function. Given that bioactive GAs can promote sex reversion of female flowers, movement of biologically inactive precursors, instead of the hormone itself, might help to maintain floral organ identity, ensuring fruit and seed production. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Unusual positional effects on flower sex in an andromonoecious tree: Resource competition, architectural constraints, or inhibition by the apical flower?

    PubMed

    Granado-Yela, Carlos; Balaguer, Luis; Cayuela, Luis; Méndez, Marcos

    2017-04-01

    Two, nonmutually exclusive, mechanisms-competition for resources and architectural constraints-have been proposed to explain the proximal to distal decline in flower size, mass, and/or femaleness in indeterminate, elongate inflorescences. Whether these mechanisms also explain unusual positional effects such as distal to proximal declines of floral performance in determinate inflorescences, is understudied. We tested the relative influence of these mechanisms in the andromonoecious wild olive tree, where hermaphroditic flowers occur mainly on apical and the most proximal positions in determinate inflorescences. We experimentally increased the availability of resources for the inflorescences by removing half of the inflorescences per twig or reduced resource availability by removing leaves. We also removed the apical flower to test its inhibitory effect on subapical flowers. The apical flower had the highest probability of being hermaphroditic. Further down, however, the probability of finding a hermaphroditic flower decreased from the base to the tip of the inflorescences. An experimental increase of resources increased the probability of finding hermaphroditic flowers at each position, and vice versa. Removal of the apical flower increased the probability of producing hermaphroditic flowers in proximal positions but not in subapical positions. These results indicate an interaction between resource competition and architectural constraints in influencing the arrangement of the hermaphroditic and male flowers within the inflorescences of the wild olive tree. Subapical flowers did not seem to be hormonally suppressed by apical flowers. The study of these unusual positional effects is needed for a general understanding about the functional implications of inflorescence architecture. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. An ethylene-induced regulatory module delays rose flower senescence by regulating cytokinin content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In many plant species, including rose (Rosa hybrida), flower senescence is promoted by the gaseous hormone, ethylene, and inhibited by cytokinin (CTK) class of hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these antagonistic effects are not well understood. In this current study, we charact...

  6. Promotion of Flowering by Apple Latent Spherical Virus Vector and Virus Elimination at High Temperature Allow Accelerated Breeding of Apple and Pear.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Norioko; Li, Chunjiang; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Plant viral vectors are superior tools for genetic manipulation, allowing rapid induction or suppression of expression of a target gene in plants. This is a particularly effective technology for use in breeding fruit trees, which are difficult to manipulate using recombinant DNA technologies. We reported previously that if apple seed embryos (cotyledons) are infected with an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector (ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1) concurrently expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana florigen (AtFT) gene and suppressing the expression of the apple MdTFL1-1 gene, the period prior to initial flowering (generally lasts 5-12 years) will be reduced to about 2 months. In this study, we examined whether or not ALSV vector technology can be used to promote flowering in pear, which undergoes a very long juvenile period (germination to flowering) similar to that of apple. The MdTFL1 sequence in ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 was replaced with a portion of the pear PcTFL1-1 gene. The resulting virus (ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1) and ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 were used individually for inoculation to pear cotyledons immediately after germination in two inoculation groups. Those inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1 and ALSV-AtFT/PcTFL1 then initiated flower bud formation starting one to 3 months after inoculation, and subsequently exhibited continuous flowering and fruition by pollination. Conversely, Japanese pear exhibited extremely low systemic infection rates when inoculated with ALSV-AtFT/MdTFL1, and failed to exhibit any induction of flowering. We also developed a simple method for eliminating ALSV vectors from infected plants. An evaluation of the method for eliminating the ALSV vectors from infected apple and pear seedlings revealed that a 4-week high-temperature (37°C) incubation of ALSV-infected apples and pears disabled the movement of ALSV to new growing tissues. This demonstrates that only high-temperature treatment can easily eliminate ALSV from infected fruit trees. A method combining the promotion

  7. Identification of Genes Associated with Lemon Floral Transition and Flower Development during Floral Inductive Water Deficits: A Hypothetical Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Xue; Hou, Xiao-Jin; Zhu, Jiao; Zhou, Jing-Jing; Huang, Hua-Bin; Yue, Jian-Qiang; Gao, Jun-Yan; Du, Yu-Xia; Hu, Cheng-Xiao; Hu, Chun-Gen; Zhang, Jin-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is a key factor to induce flowering in many woody plants, but reports on the molecular mechanisms of floral induction and flowering by water deficit are scarce. Here, we analyzed the morphology, cytology, and different hormone levels of lemon buds during floral inductive water deficits. Higher levels of ABA were observed, and the initiation of floral bud differentiation was examined by paraffin sections analysis. A total of 1638 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by RNA sequencing. DEGs were related to flowering, hormone biosynthesis, or metabolism. The expression of some DEGs was associated with floral induction by real-time PCR analysis. However, some DEGs may not have anything to do with flowering induction/flower development; they may be involved in general stress/drought response. Four genes from the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein family were further investigated. Ectopic expression of these genes in Arabidopsis changed the flowering time of transgenic plants. Furthermore, the 5′ flanking region of these genes was also isolated and sequence analysis revealed the presence of several putative cis-regulatory elements, including basic elements and hormone regulation elements. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of these promoters were investigated under water deficit treatment. Based on these findings, we propose a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions, which will enable us to further understand the molecular mechanism of water deficit-regulated flowering in citrus. Highlight: Based on gene activity during floral inductive water deficits identified by RNA sequencing and genes associated with lemon floral transition, a model for citrus flowering under water deficit conditions is proposed. PMID:28659956

  8. An Ethylene-Induced Regulatory Module Delays Flower Senescence by Regulating Cytokinin Content.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Ma, Nan; Jia, Yangchao; Zhang, Yi; Feng, Ming; Jiang, Cai-Zhong; Ma, Chao; Gao, Junping

    2017-01-01

    In many plant species, including rose (Rosa hybrida), flower senescence is promoted by the gaseous hormone ethylene and inhibited by the cytokinin (CTK) class of hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these antagonistic effects are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the association between a pathogenesis-related PR-10 family gene from rose (RhPR10.1) and the hormonal regulation of flower senescence. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed that RhPR10.1 was expressed at high levels during senescence in different floral organs, including petal, sepal, receptacle, stamen, and pistil, and that expression was induced by ethylene treatment. Silencing of RhPR10.1 expression in rose plants by virus-induced gene silencing accelerated flower senescence, which was accompanied by a higher ion leakage rate in the petals, as well as increased expression of the senescence marker gene RhSAG12 CTK content and the expression of three CTK signaling pathway genes were reduced in RhPR10.1-silenced plants, and the accelerated rate of petal senescence that was apparent in the RhPR10.1-silenced plants was restored to normal levels by CTK treatment. Finally, RhHB6, a homeodomain-Leu zipper I transcription factor, was observed to bind to the RhPR10.1 promoter, and silencing of its expression also promoted flower senescence. Our results reveal an ethylene-induced RhHB6-RhPR10.1 regulatory module that functions as a brake of ethylene-promoted senescence through increasing the CTK content. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Flowers, Beautiful Flowers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the lesson described, the middle school students had been studying the artist Georgia O'Keeffe and the history of her work. Students enhanced their flower portraits by adding a matching border and connecting the lesson to other subject areas. Students dissected a flower and drew a small diagram of the flower and labeled the parts. This is an…

  10. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Blooming in Jasminum sambac through De Novo RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Li, Yong

    2015-06-10

    Flower blooming is a critical and complicated plant developmental process in flowering plants. However, insufficient information is available about the complex network that regulates flower blooming in Jasminum sambac. In this study, we used the RNA-Seq platform to analyze the molecular regulation of flower blooming in J. sambac by comparing the transcript profiles at two flower developmental stages: budding and blooming. A total of 4577 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the two floral stages. The Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the DEGs in the "oxidation-reduction process", "extracellular region", "steroid biosynthesis", "glycosphingolipid biosynthesis", "plant hormone signal transduction" and "pentose and glucuronate interconversions" might be associated with flower development. A total of 103 and 92 unigenes exhibited sequence similarities to the known flower development and floral scent genes from other plants. Among these unigenes, five flower development and 19 floral scent unigenes exhibited at least four-fold differences in expression between the two stages. Our results provide abundant genetic resources for studying the flower blooming mechanisms and molecular breeding of J. sambac.

  11. Bamboo Flowering from the Perspective of Comparative Genomics and Transcriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Prasun; Chakraborty, Sukanya; Dutta, Smritikana; Pal, Amita; Das, Malay

    2016-01-01

    Bamboos are an important member of the subfamily Bambusoideae, family Poaceae. The plant group exhibits wide variation with respect to the timing (1–120 years) and nature (sporadic vs. gregarious) of flowering among species. Usually flowering in woody bamboos is synchronous across culms growing over a large area, known as gregarious flowering. In many monocarpic bamboos this is followed by mass death and seed setting. While in sporadic flowering an isolated wild clump may flower, set little or no seed and remain alive. Such wide variation in flowering time and extent means that the plant group serves as repositories for genes and expression patterns that are unique to bamboo. Due to the dearth of available genomic and transcriptomic resources, limited studies have been undertaken to identify the potential molecular players in bamboo flowering. The public release of the first bamboo genome sequence Phyllostachys heterocycla, availability of related genomes Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa provide us the opportunity to study this long-standing biological problem in a comparative and functional genomics framework. We identified bamboo genes homologous to those of Oryza and Brachypodium that are involved in established pathways such as vernalization, photoperiod, autonomous, and hormonal regulation of flowering. Additionally, we investigated triggers like stress (drought), physiological maturity and micro RNAs that may play crucial roles in flowering. We also analyzed available transcriptome datasets of different bamboo species to identify genes and their involvement in bamboo flowering. Finally, we summarize potential research hurdles that need to be addressed in future research. PMID:28018419

  12. A Petunia Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Protein, PhHD-Zip, Plays an Important Role in Flower Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S.; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence. PMID:24551088

  13. A Petunia homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, PhHD-Zip, plays an important role in flower senescence.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaoxiao; Donnelly, Linda; Sun, Daoyang; Rao, Jingping; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Flower senescence is initiated by developmental and environmental signals, and regulated by gene transcription. A homeodomain-leucine zipper transcription factor, PhHD-Zip, is up-regulated during petunia flower senescence. Virus-induced gene silencing of PhHD-Zip extended flower life by 20% both in unpollinated and pollinated flowers. Silencing PhHD-Zip also dramatically reduced ethylene production and the abundance of transcripts of genes involved in ethylene (ACS, ACO), and ABA (NCED) biosynthesis. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was also dramatically reduced in the silenced flowers. Over-expression of PhHD-Zip accelerated petunia flower senescence. Furthermore, PhHD-Zip transcript abundance in petunia flowers was increased by application of hormones (ethylene, ABA) and abiotic stresses (dehydration, NaCl and cold). Our results suggest that PhHD-Zip plays an important role in regulating petunia flower senescence.

  14. Roles of jasmonate signalling in plant inflorescence and flower development.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2015-10-01

    Development of inflorescences and flowers in plants is controlled by the combined action of environmental and genetic signals. Investigations reveal that the phytohormone jasmonate (JA) plays a critical function in plant reproduction such as male fertility, sex determination and seed maturation. Here, we review recent progress on JA synthesis, signalling, the interplay between JAs and other hormones, and regulatory network of JA in controlling the development of inflorescence, flower and the male organ. The conserved and diversified roles of JAs in meristem transition and specification of flower organ identity and number, and multiple regulatory networks of JAs in stamen development are highlighted. Further, this review provides perspectives on future research endeavors to elucidate mechanisms underlying JAs homeostasis and transport during plant reproductive development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox).

    PubMed

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  16. Transcriptomic Analysis of Flower Development in Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Daofeng; Sui, Shunzhao; Ma, Jing; Li, Zhineng; Guo, Yulong; Luo, Dengpan; Yang, Jianfeng; Li, Mingyang

    2014-01-01

    Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is familiar as a garden plant and woody ornamental flower. On account of its unique flowering time and strong fragrance, it has a high ornamental and economic value. Despite a long history of human cultivation, our understanding of wintersweet genetics and molecular biology remains scant, reflecting a lack of basic genomic and transcriptomic data. In this study, we assembled three cDNA libraries, from three successive stages in flower development, designated as the flower bud with displayed petal, open flower and senescing flower stages. Using the Illumina RNA-Seq method, we obtained 21,412,928, 26,950,404, 24,912,954 qualified Illumina reads, respectively, for the three successive stages. The pooled reads from all three libraries were then assembled into 106,995 transcripts, 51,793 of which were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Of these annotated sequences, 32,649 and 21,893 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. We could map 15,587 transcripts onto 312 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database. Based on these transcriptomic data, we obtained a large number of candidate genes that were differentially expressed at the open flower and senescing flower stages. An analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in plant hormone signal transduction pathways indicated that although flower opening and senescence may be independent of the ethylene signaling pathway in wintersweet, salicylic acid may be involved in the regulation of flower senescence. We also succeeded in isolating key genes of floral scent biosynthesis and proposed a biosynthetic pathway for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in wintersweet flowers, based on the annotated sequences. This comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in wintersweet. And our data

  17. FlowerMorphology: fully automatic flower morphometry software.

    PubMed

    Rozov, Sergey M; Deineko, Elena V; Deyneko, Igor V

    2018-05-01

    The software FlowerMorphology is designed for automatic morphometry of actinomorphic flowers. The novel complex parameters of flowers calculated by FlowerMorphology allowed us to quantitatively characterize a polyploid series of tobacco. Morphological differences of plants representing closely related lineages or mutants are mostly quantitative. Very often, there are only very fine variations in plant morphology. Therefore, accurate and high-throughput methods are needed for their quantification. In addition, new characteristics are necessary for reliable detection of subtle changes in morphology. FlowerMorphology is an all-in-one software package to automatically image and analyze five-petal actinomorphic flowers of the dicotyledonous plants. Sixteen directly measured parameters and ten calculated complex parameters of a flower allow us to characterize variations with high accuracy. The program was developed for the needs of automatic characterization of Nicotiana tabacum flowers, but is applicable to many other plants with five-petal actinomorphic flowers and can be adopted for flowers of other merosity. A genetically similar polyploid series of N. tabacum plants was used to investigate differences in flower morphology. For the first time, we could quantify the dependence between ploidy and size and form of the tobacco flowers. We found that the radius of inner petal incisions shows a persistent positive correlation with the chromosome number. In contrast, a commonly used parameter-radius of outer corolla-does not discriminate 2n and 4n plants. Other parameters show that polyploidy leads to significant aberrations in flower symmetry and are also positively correlated with chromosome number. Executables of FlowerMorphology, source code, documentation, and examples are available at the program website: https://github.com/Deyneko/FlowerMorphology .

  18. Coordination of flower development by homeotic master regulators.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiro

    2011-02-01

    Floral homeotic genes encode transcription factors and act as master regulators of flower development. The homeotic protein complex is expressed in a specific whorl of the floral primordium and determines floral organ identity by the combinatorial action. Homeotic proteins continue to be expressed until late in flower development to coordinate growth and organogenesis. Recent genomic studies have shown that homeotic proteins bind thousands of target sites in the genome and regulate the expression of transcription factors, chromatin components and various proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis and signaling and other physiological activities. Further, homeotic proteins program chromatin to direct the developmental coordination of stem cell maintenance and differentiation in shaping floral organs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Conserved Cytochrome P450 Evolved in Seed Plants Regulates Flower Maturation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenhua; Boachon, Benoît; Lugan, Raphaël; Tavares, Raquel; Erhardt, Mathieu; Mutterer, Jérôme; Demais, Valérie; Pateyron, Stéphanie; Brunaud, Véronique; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Pencik, Ales; Achard, Patrick; Gong, Fan; Hedden, Peter; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle; Renault, Hugues

    2015-12-07

    Global inspection of plant genomes identifies genes maintained in low copies across taxa and under strong purifying selection, which are likely to have essential functions. Based on this rationale, we investigated the function of the low-duplicated CYP715 cytochrome P450 gene family that appeared early in seed plants and evolved under strong negative selection. Arabidopsis CYP715A1 showed a restricted tissue-specific expression in the tapetum of flower buds and in the anther filaments upon anthesis. cyp715a1 insertion lines showed a strong defect in petal development, and transient alteration of pollen intine deposition. Comparative expression analysis revealed the downregulated expression of genes involved in pollen development, cell wall biogenesis, hormone homeostasis, and floral sesquiterpene biosynthesis, especially TPS21 and several key genes regulating floral development such as MYB21, MYB24, and MYC2. Accordingly, floral sesquiterpene emission was suppressed in the cyp715a1 mutants. Flower hormone profiling, in addition, indicated a modification of gibberellin homeostasis and a strong disturbance of the turnover of jasmonic acid derivatives. Petal growth was partially restored by the active gibberellin GA3 or the functional analog of jasmonoyl-isoleucine, coronatine. CYP715 appears to function as a key regulator of flower maturation, synchronizing petal expansion and volatile emission. It is thus expected to be an important determinant of flower-insect interaction. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Water relations and plant size aspects of flowering for Agave deserti

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1987-03-01

    The percentage of rosettes of the monocarpic perennial Agave deserti that flowered annually in the north-western Sonoran Desert varied ca. 50-fold for the 8 yr considered. The number of days when the soil water potential in the root zone was above -0.5 MPa, enabling A. deserti to take up water, was approximately linearly related to the annual precipitation, which also varied considerably year-to-year. The percentage of flowering in a particular year could not be predicted from the number of wet days in that year, the year before, or 3 yr before (r/sup 2/ less than or equal to .10, Pmore » > .5), but there was a positive correlation between percentage of flowering and the number of wet days 2 yr previously (r/sup 2/ = .33, P = .1). Also, years with much flowering tended to alternate with those of little flowering (r/sup 2/ = .64, P = .05). Indeed, 95% of the annual variation in the percentage of the rosettes that flowered could be accounted for by the year-to-year alternations together with the number of wet days 2 yr before the flowering (P = .01). Although over 90% of the rosettes with inflorescences were large, averaging 66 leaves and inflorescences 4 m tall, flowering also occurred for a few small rosettes, averaging only nine leaves and inflorescences only 0.8 m tall. The small flowering rosettes were all attached to large flowering rosettes by rhizomes with living cortical cells, suggesting that a hormone or other chemical signal/condition could be passed to the small rosettes leading to their precocious flowering.« less

  1. The Quest for Molecular Regulation Underlying Unisexual Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Rómulo; Silva, Helena G.; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Costa, Maria M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the making of a unisexual flower has been a long-standing quest in plant biology. Plants with male and female flowers can be divided mainly into two categories: dioecious and monoecious, and both sexual systems co-exist in nature in ca of 10% of the angiosperms. The establishment of male and female traits has been extensively described in a hermaphroditic flower and requires the interplay of networks, directly and indirectly related to the floral organ identity genes including hormonal regulators, transcription factors, microRNAs, and chromatin-modifying proteins. Recent transcriptomic studies have been uncovering the molecular processes underlying the establishment of unisexual flowers and there are many parallelisms between monoecious, dioecious, and hermaphroditic individuals. Here, we review the paper entitled “Comparative transcriptomic analysis of male and female flowers of monoecious Quercus suber” published in 2014 in the Frontiers of Plant Science (volume 5 |Article 599) and discussed it in the context of recent studies with other dioecious and monoecious plants that utilized high-throughput platforms to obtain transcriptomic profiles of male and female unisexual flowers. In some unisexual flowers, the developmental programs that control organ initiation fail and male or female organs do not form, whereas in other species, organ initiation and development occur but they abort or arrest during different species-specific stages of differentiation. Therefore, a direct comparison of the pathways responsible for the establishment of unisexual flowers in different species are likely to reveal conserved modules of gene regulatory hubs involved in stamen or carpel development, as well as differences that reflect the different stages of development in which male and/or female organ arrest or loss-of-function occurs. PMID:26925078

  2. Overexpression of the cucumber LEAFY homolog CFL and hormone treatments alter flower development in gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhe; Ye, Dan; Wang, Li-Lin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Hong; Zheng, Ke; Bian, Hong-Wu; Han, Ning; Pan, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jun-Hui; Zhu, Mu-Yuan

    2008-07-01

    Leafy (LFY) and LFY-like genes control the initiation of floral meristems and regulate MADS-box genes in higher plants. The Cucumber-FLO-LFY (CFL) gene, a LFY homolog in Cucumis sativus L. is expressed in the primordia, floral primordia, and each whirl of floral organs during the early stage of flower development. In this study, functions of CFL in flower development were investigated by overexpressing the CFL gene in gloxinia (Sinningia speciosa). Our results show that constitutive CFL overexpression significantly promote early flowering without gibberellin (GA(3)) supplement, suggesting that CFL can serve functionally as a LFY homolog in gloxinia. Moreover, GA(3) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments could modulate the expression of MADS-box genes in opposite directions. GA(3) resembles the overexpression of CFL in the expression of MADS-box genes and the regeneration of floral buds, but ABA inhibits the expression of MADS-box genes and flower development. These results suggest that CFL and downstream MADS-box genes involved in flower development are regulated by GA(3) and ABA.

  3. Involvement of ethylene in sex expression and female flower development in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus).

    PubMed

    Manzano, Susana; Martínez, Cecilia; García, Juan Manuel; Megías, Zoraida; Jamilena, Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Although it is known that ethylene has a masculinizing effect on watermelon, the specific role of this hormone in sex expression and flower development has not been analyzed in depth. By using different approaches the present work demonstrates that ethylene regulates differentially two sex-related developmental processes: sexual expression, i.e. the earliness and the number of female flowers per plant, and the development of individual floral buds. Ethylene production in the shoot apex as well as in male, female and bisexual flowers demonstrated that the female flower requires much more ethylene than the male one to develop, and that bisexual flowers result from a decrease in ethylene production in the female floral bud. The occurrence of bisexual flowers was found to be associated with elevated temperatures in the greenhouse, concomitantly with a reduction of ethylene production in the shoot apex. External treatments with ethephon and AVG, and the use of Cucurbita rootstocks with different ethylene production and sensitivity, confirmed that, as occurs in other cucurbit species, ethylene is required to arrest the development of stamens in the female flower. Nevertheless, in watermelon ethylene inhibits the transition from male to female flowering and reduces the number of pistillate flowers per plant, which runs contrary to findings in other cucurbit species. The use of Cucurbita rootstocks with elevated ethylene production delayed the production of female flowers but reduced the number of bisexual flowers, which is associated with a reduced fruit set and altered fruit shape.

  4. Current progress in orchid flowering/flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsin-Mei; Tong, Chii-Gong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genetic pathways relevant to flowering of Arabidopsis are under the control of environmental cues such as day length and temperatures, and endogenous signals including phytohormones and developmental aging. However, genes and even regulatory pathways for flowering identified in crops show divergence from those of Arabidopsis and often do not have functional equivalents to Arabidopsis and/or existing species- or genus-specific regulators and show modified or novel pathways. Orchids are the largest, most highly evolved flowering plants, and form an extremely peculiar group of plants. Here, we briefly summarize the flowering pathways of Arabidopsis, rice and wheat and present them alongside recent discoveries/progress in orchid flowering and flower developmental processes including our transgenic Phalaenopsis orchids for LEAFY overexpression. Potential biotechnological applications in flowering/flower development of orchids with potential target genes are also discussed from an interactional and/or comparative viewpoint. PMID:28448202

  5. SET DOMAIN GROUP701 encodes a H3K4-methytransferase and regulates multiple key processes of rice plant development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kunpeng; Yu, Yu; Dong, Aiwu; Shen, Wen-Hui

    2017-07-01

    Chromatin-based epigenetic information plays an important role in developmental gene regulation, in response to environment, and in natural variation of gene expression levels. Histone H3 lysine 4 di/trimethylation (H3K4me2/3) is abundant in euchromatin and is generally associated with transcriptional activation. Strikingly, however, enzymes catalyzing H3K4me2/3 remain poorly characterized in crops so far. Here, we investigated the function of the rice SET DOMAIN GROUP 701 (SDG701) gene by molecular and biochemical characterization of the gene product, and by studying effects of its loss or gain of function on plant growth and development. We demonstrated that SDG701 encodes a methytransferase specifically catalyzing H3K4 methylation. Overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that SDG701 is crucial for proper sporophytic plant development as well as for gametophytic transmission that directly impacts rice grain production. In-depth analysis of plant flowering time revealed that SDG701 promotes rice flowering under either long-day or short-day photoperiods. Consistently, the SDG701 protein was found to bind chromatin to promote H3K4me3 and to enhance expression of the rice Hd3a and RFT1 florigens. Collectively, our results establish SDG701 as a major rice H3K4-specific methyltransferase and provide important insights into function of H3K4me3 deposition in transcription activation of florigens in promoting plant flowering. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of flower development in tea (Camellia sinensis (L.)).

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Zhao, Lei; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Linjun; Ding, Shibo

    2017-10-05

    Flowering is a critical and complicated process in plant development, involving interactions of numerous endogenous and environmental factors, but little is known about the complex network regulating flower development in tea plants. In this study, de novo transcriptome assembly and gene expression analysis using Illumina sequencing technology were performed. Transcriptomic analysis assembles gene-related information involved in reproductive growth of C. sinensis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis of the annotated unigenes revealed that the majority of sequenced genes were associated with metabolic and cellular processes, cell and cell parts, catalytic activity and binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and plant hormone signal transduction were enriched among the DEGs. Furthermore, 207 flowering-associated unigenes were identified from our database. Some transcription factors, such as WRKY, ERF, bHLH, MYB and MADS-box were shown to be up-regulated in floral transition, which might play the role of progression of flowering. Furthermore, 14 genes were selected for confirmation of expression levels using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The comprehensive transcriptomic analysis presents fundamental information on the genes and pathways which are involved in flower development in C. sinensis. Our data also provided a useful database for further research of tea and other species of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Flower orientation enhances pollen transfer in bilaterally symmetrical flowers.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, Atushi; Dohzono, Ikumi; Takami, Yasuoki; Hyodo, Fujio

    2009-07-01

    Zygomorphic flowers are usually more complex than actinomorphic flowers and are more likely to be visited by specialized pollinators. Complex zygomorphic flowers tend to be oriented horizontally. It is hypothesized that a horizontal flower orientation ensures effective pollen transfer by facilitating pollinator recognition (the recognition-facilitation hypothesis) and/or pollinator landing (the landing-control hypothesis). To examine these two hypotheses, we altered the angle of Commelina communis flowers and examined the efficiency of pollen transfer, as well as the behavior of their visitors. We exposed unmanipulated (horizontal-), upward-, and downward-facing flowers to syrphid flies (mostly Episyrphus balteatus), which are natural visitors to C. communis. The frequency of pollinator approaches and landings, as well as the amount of pollen deposited by E. balteatus, decreased for the downward-facing flowers, supporting both hypotheses. The upward-facing flowers received the same numbers of approaches and landings as the unmanipulated flowers, but experienced more illegitimate landings. In addition, the visitors failed to touch the stigmas or anthers on the upward-facing flowers, leading to reduced pollen export and receipt, and supporting the landing-control hypothesis. Collectively, our data suggested that the horizontal orientation of zygomorphic flowers enhances pollen transfer by both facilitating pollinator recognition and controlling pollinator landing position. These findings suggest that zygomorphic flowers which deviate from a horizontal orientation may have lower fitness because of decreased pollen transfer.

  9. Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors WRKY12 and WRKY13 Oppositely Regulate Flowering under Short-Day Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Houping; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-11-07

    In plants, photoperiod is an important cue for determining flowering. The floral transition in Arabidopsis thaliana is earlier under long-day (LD) than under short-day (SD) conditions. Flowering of Arabidopsis plants under SD conditions is mainly regulated by the plant hormone gibberellin (GA). Here, we report two WRKY transcription factors function oppositely in controlling flowering time under SD conditions. Phenotypic analysis showed that disruption of WRKY12 caused a delay in flowering, while loss of WRKY13 function promoted flowering. WRKY12 and WRKY13 displayed negatively correlated expression profiles and function successively to regulate flowering. Molecular and genetic analyses demonstrated that FRUITFULL (FUL) is a direct downstream target gene of WRKY12 and WRKY13. Interestingly, we found that DELLA proteins GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE (GAI) and RGA-LIKE1 (RGL1) interacted with WRKY12 and WRKY13, and their interactions interfered with the transcriptional activity of the WRKY12 and WRKY13. Further studies suggested thatWRKY12 and WRKY13 partly mediated the effect of GA 3 on controlling flowering time. Taken together, our results indicate that WRKY12 and WRKY13 oppositely modulate flowering time under SD conditions, which at least partially involves the action of GA. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genetic regulation of maize flower development and sex determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglin; Liu, Baoshen

    2017-01-01

    The determining process of pistil fate are central to maize sex determination, mainly regulated by a genetic network in which the sex-determining genes SILKLESS 1 , TASSEL SEED 1 , TASSEL SEED 2 and the paramutagenic locus Required to maintain repression 6 play pivotal roles. Maize silks, which emerge from the ear shoot and derived from the pistil, are the functional stigmas of female flowers and play a pivotal role in pollination. Previous studies on sex-related mutants have revealed that sex-determining genes and phytohormones play an important role in the regulation of flower organogenesis. The processes determining pistil fate are central to flower development, where a silk identified gene SILKLESS 1 (SK1) is required to protect pistil primordia from a cell death signal produced by two commonly known genes, TASSEL SEED 1 (TS1) and TASSEL SEED 2 (TS2). In this review, maize flower developmental process is presented together with a focus on important sex-determining mutants and hormonal signaling affecting pistil development. The role of sex-determining genes, microRNAs, phytohormones, and the paramutagenic locus Required to maintain repression 6 (Rmr6), in forming a regulatory network that determines pistil fate, is discussed. Cloning SK1 and clarifying its function were crucial in understanding the regulation network of sex determination. The signaling mechanisms of phytohormones in sex determination are also an important research focus.

  11. The Role of Temperature in the Growth and Flowering of Geophytes

    PubMed Central

    Khodorova, Nadezda V.; Boitel-Conti, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    Among several naturally occurring environmental factors, temperature is considered to play a predominant role in controlling proper growth and flowering in geophytes. Most of them require a “warm-cold-warm” sequence to complete their annual cycle. The temperature optima for flower meristem induction and the early stages of floral organogenesis vary between nine and 25 °C, followed, in the autumn, by a several-week period of lower temperature (4–9 °C), which enables stem elongation and anthesis. The absence of low temperature treatment leads to slow shoot growth in spring and severe flowering disorders. Numerous studies have shown that the effects of the temperature surrounding the underground organs during the autumn-winter period can lead to important physiological changes in plants, but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and growth is still unclear. In this mini-review, we describe experimental data concerning the temperature requirements for flower initiation and development, shoot elongation, aboveground growth and anthesis in bulbous plants. The physiological processes that occur during autumn-winter periods in bulbs (water status, hormonal balance, respiration, carbohydrate mobilization) and how these changes might provoke disorders in stem elongation and flowering are examined. A model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, auxin and gibberellin interactions and the growth response is proposed. PMID:27137399

  12. A plant-based chemical genomics screen for the identification of flowering inducers.

    PubMed

    Fiers, Martijn; Hoogenboom, Jorin; Brunazzi, Alice; Wennekes, Tom; Angenent, Gerco C; Immink, Richard G H

    2017-01-01

    Floral timing is a carefully regulated process, in which the plant determines the optimal moment to switch from the vegetative to reproductive phase. While there are numerous genes known that control flowering time, little information is available on chemical compounds that are able to influence this process. We aimed to discover novel compounds that are able to induce flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis. For this purpose we developed a plant-based screening platform that can be used in a chemical genomics study. Here we describe the set-up of the screening platform and various issues and pitfalls that need to be addressed in order to perform a chemical genomics screening on Arabidopsis plantlets. We describe the choice for a molecular marker, in combination with a sensitive reporter that's active in plants and is sufficiently sensitive for detection. In this particular screen, the firefly Luciferase marker was used, fused to the regulatory sequences of the floral meristem identity gene APETALA1 (AP1) , which is an early marker for flowering. Using this screening platform almost 9000 compounds were screened, in triplicate, in 96-well plates at a concentration of 25 µM. One of the identified potential flowering inducing compounds was studied in more detail and named Flowering1 (F1). F1 turned out to be an analogue of the plant hormone Salicylic acid (SA) and appeared to be more potent than SA in the induction of flowering. The effect could be confirmed by watering Arabidopsis plants with SA or F1, in which F1 gave a significant reduction in time to flowering in comparison to SA treatment or the control. In this study a chemical genomics screening platform was developed to discover compounds that can induce flowering in Arabidopsis. This platform was used successfully, to identify a compound that can speed-up flowering in Arabidopsis.

  13. Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana; Corvera-Poiré, Adriana; Chaos Cador, Álvaro; de Folter, Stefan; Gamboa de Buen, Alicia; Garay-Arroyo, Adriana; García-Ponce, Berenice; Jaimes-Miranda, Fabiola; Pérez-Ruiz, Rigoberto V.; Piñeyro-Nelson, Alma; Sánchez-Corrales, Yara E.

    2010-01-01

    Flowers are the most complex structures of plants. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana, which has typical eudicot flowers, have been fundamental in advancing the structural and molecular understanding of flower development. The main processes and stages of Arabidopsis flower development are summarized to provide a framework in which to interpret the detailed molecular genetic studies of genes assigned functions during flower development and is extended to recent genomics studies uncovering the key regulatory modules involved. Computational models have been used to study the concerted action and dynamics of the gene regulatory module that underlies patterning of the Arabidopsis inflorescence meristem and specification of the primordial cell types during early stages of flower development. This includes the gene combinations that specify sepal, petal, stamen and carpel identity, and genes that interact with them. As a dynamic gene regulatory network this module has been shown to converge to stable multigenic profiles that depend upon the overall network topology and are thus robust, which can explain the canalization of flower organ determination and the overall conservation of the basic flower plan among eudicots. Comparative and evolutionary approaches derived from Arabidopsis studies pave the way to studying the molecular basis of diverse floral morphologies. PMID:22303253

  14. Blob Flowers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Elaine

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project called blob flowers in which fifth-grade students created pictures of flowers using watercolor and markers. Explains that the lesson incorporates ideas from art and science. Discusses in detail how the students created their flowers. (CMK)

  15. Eating flowers? Exploring attitudes and consumers' representation of edible flowers.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, H; Cielo, D P; Goméz-Corona, C; Silveira, A A S; Marchesan, T A; Galmarini, M V; Richards, N S P S

    2017-10-01

    Edible flowers have gained more attention in recent years thanks to their perceived health benefits. Despite this attention, it seems that edible flowers are not popularized for consumption in South America, being considered unfamiliar for some cultures from this continent. In this context, the general goal of the present study was to investigate the three dimensions of social representation theory, the representational field, the information and the attitude of the two conditions of edible flowers: a more general "food made with flowers" and more directional product "yoghurt made with flowers", using Brazilian consumers. To achieve this goal, a free word association task was applied. A total of 549 consumers participated in this study. Participants were divided into two conditions, in which the inductor expressions for the free word association task changed: (a) food products made with flowers and (b) yoghurt made with flowers. Results showed a very positive attitude to both situations, and consumers associated Food products made with flowers to "health care" while the central core of yoghurt made with flowers reflected the innovative condition of this product, supported here by their unpredictable character (information generated). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Japanese flowering cherry tree as a woody plant candidate grown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Nyunoya, H.; Funada, R.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Honma, T.; Nagatomo, M.; Nakamura, T.

    We are proposing to raise woody plant in space for several applications Japanese flowering cherry tree is a candidate to do wood science in space Mechanism of sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively Cherry mutants associated with gravity are telling responsible plant hormones and molecular machinery for plant adaptation against action of gravity Space experiment using our wood model contribute to understand molecular and cellular process of gravitropism in plant Tree is considered to be an important member in space agriculture to produce excess oxygen wooden materials for constructing living environment and provide biomass for cultivating mushrooms and insects Furthermore trees and their flowers improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space

  17. Transcriptome of the floral transition in Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush'.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuelian; Yu, Chao; Luo, Le; Wan, Huihua; Zhen, Ni; Xu, Tingliang; Tan, Jiongrui; Pan, Huitang; Zhang, Qixiang

    2017-02-23

    The floral transition plays a vital role in the life of ornamental plants. Despite progress in model plants, the molecular mechanisms of flowering regulation remain unknown in perennial plants. Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' is a unique plant that can flower continuously year-round. In this study, gene expression profiles associated with the flowering transition were comprehensively analyzed during floral transition in the rose. According to the transcriptomic profiles, 85,663 unigenes and 1,637 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, among which 32 unigenes were involved in the circadian clock, sugar metabolism, hormone, and autonomous pathways. A hypothetical model for the regulation of floral transition was proposed in which the candidate genes function synergistically the floral transition process. Hormone contents and biosynthesis and metabolism genes fluctuated during the rose floral transition process. Gibberellins (GAs) inhibited rose floral transition, the content of GAs gradually decreased and GA2ox and SCL13 were upregulated from vegetative (VM) meristem to floral meristem (FM). Auxin plays an affirmative part in mediating floral transition, auxin content and auxin-related gene expression levels were gradually upregulated during the floral transition of the rose. However, ABA content and ABA signal genes were gradually downregulated, suggesting that ABA passively regulates the rose floral transition by participating in sugar signaling. Furthermore, sugar content and sugar metabolism genes increased during floral transition in the rose, which may be a further florigenic signal that activates floral transition. Additionally, FRI, FY, DRM1, ELIP, COP1, CO, and COL16 are involved in the circadian clock and autonomous pathway, respectively, and they play a positively activating role in regulating floral transition. Overall, physiological changes associated with genes involved in the circadian clock or autonomous pathway collectively regulated the

  18. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth. PMID:26371882

  19. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Guo, Guangyu; Xu, Kun; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth.

  20. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  1. Flowers in Their Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the diversity of flowers with regard to the flower paintings of Pierre-Joseph Redoute, books about flowers, and research in genetic studies. Discusses gardening flowers and flowering strategies and criticizes the fact that biology education has moved steadily away from plants. (KHR)

  2. Systemic insecticide and gibberellin reduced cone damage and increased flowering in a spruce seed orchard.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, O; Almqvist, C; Weslien, J

    2012-06-01

    Insects feeding in conifer cones are difficult to control with nonsystemic insecticides. Newly developed systemic insecticides that can be injected into tree trunks may be a possible way of reducing both insect damage and negative side-effects to the surrounding environment, compared with conventional spraying. Several insecticides that could be injected into tree stems were tested on Picea abies (L.) Karst. In one experiment, insecticides (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, abamectin, and imidacloprid) were injected during flowering; in a second experiment two of these insecticides (abamectin and imidacloprid) were injected 1 yr before the expected flowering. In the second experiment insecticide treatment was also combined with treatments with the flower stimulating hormone, gibberellin (GA(4/7)). The only insecticide that reduced damage was abamectin, both after injection during flowering and after injection 1 yr before the expected flowering. Injections with GA(4/7) increased flowering and were as efficient as the conventional application method of drilling but abamectin was not effective in combination with the drilling method. There was no negative effect of the insecticide injections on seed quality. The injections were ineffective against the seed chalcid Megastigmus strobilobius (Ratzeburg), which was found to have an unexpected, negative effect on seed quality. Our results suggest that it may be possible to reduce damage from certain insect species, and to increase flowering by injecting abamectin and GA(4/7) in the year before a cone crop.

  3. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Jurado, Enrique; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1-4 styles; 2-9 stamens; 6.5-41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5-29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5-59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5-77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5-30.5 mm; 4-9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants.

  4. Flower, fruit phenology and flower traits in Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) from northeastern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Adriano, Cristian Adrian; Flores, Joel; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    We characterized variations in Cordia boissieri flowers and established if these variations occur between plants or between flowering events. Flowering and fruiting was measured for 256 plants. A GLM test was used to determine the relationship between flowering and fruit set processes and rainfall. We performed measurements of floral traits to detect variations within the population and between flowering events. The position of the anthers with respect to the ovary was determined in 1,500 flowers. Three out of four flowering events of >80% C. boissieri plants occurred after rainfall events. Only one flowering event occurred in a drought. Most plants flowered at least twice a year. The overlapping of flowering and fruiting only occurred after rainfall. Anthesis lasted three-to-five days, and there were two flower morphs. Half of the plants had longistylus and half had brevistylus flowers. Anacahuita flower in our study had 1–4 styles; 2–9 stamens; 6.5–41.5 mm long corolla; sepals from 4.5–29.5 mm in length; a total length from 15.5–59 mm; a corolla diameter from 10.5–77 mm. The nectar guide had a diameter from 5–30.5 mm; 4–9 lobes; and 5 distinguishable nectar guide colors. The highest variation of phenotypic expression was observed between plants. PMID:27231656

  5. Molecular aspects of flower senescence and strategies to improve flower longevity

    PubMed Central

    Shibuya, Kenichi

    2018-01-01

    Flower longevity is one of the most important traits for ornamental plants. Ethylene plays a crucial role in flower senescence in some plant species. In several species that show ethylene-dependent flower senescence, genetic modification targeting genes for ethylene biosynthesis or signaling has improved flower longevity. Although little is known about regulatory mechanisms of petal senescence in flowers that show ethylene-independent senescence, a recent study of Japanese morning glory revealed that a NAC transcription factor, EPHEMERAL1 (EPH1), is a key regulator in ethylene-independent petal senescence. EPH1 is induced in an age-dependent manner irrespective of ethylene signal, and suppression of EPH1 expression dramatically delays petal senescence. In ethylene-dependent petal senescence, comprehensive transcriptome analyses revealed the involvement of transcription factors, a basic helix-loop-helix protein and a homeodomain-leucine zipper protein, in the transcriptional regulation of the ethylene biosynthesis enzymes. This review summarizes molecular aspects of flower senescence and discusses strategies to improve flower longevity by molecular breeding. PMID:29681752

  6. EARLY FLOWERING3 Regulates Flowering in Spring Barley by Mediating Gibberellin Production and FLOWERING LOCUS T Expression[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Scott A.; Weiss, David; Ross, John J.; Davies, Noel W.; Trevaskis, Ben; Chandler, Peter M.; Swain, Steve M.

    2014-01-01

    EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is a circadian clock gene that contributes to photoperiod-dependent flowering in plants, with loss-of-function mutants in barley (Hordeum vulgare), legumes, and Arabidopsis thaliana flowering early under noninductive short-day (SD) photoperiods. The barley elf3 mutant displays increased expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1); however, it remains unclear whether this is the only factor responsible for the early flowering phenotype. We show that the early flowering and vegetative growth phenotypes of the barley elf3 mutant are strongly dependent on gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. Expression of the central GA biosynthesis gene, GA20oxidase2, and production of the bioactive GA, GA1, were significantly increased in elf3 leaves under SDs, relative to the wild type. Inhibition of GA biosynthesis suppressed the early flowering of elf3 under SDs independently of FT1 and was associated with altered expression of floral identity genes at the developing apex. GA is also required for normal flowering of spring barley under inductive photoperiods, with chemical and genetic attenuation of the GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways suppressing inflorescence development under long-day conditions. These findings illustrate that GA is an important floral promoting signal in barley and that ELF3 suppresses flowering under noninductive photoperiods by blocking GA production and FT1 expression. PMID:24781117

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Flower Sex Differentiation in Jatropha curcas L. Using RNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Yao, Yin-an

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is thought to be a promising biofuel material, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of instaminate/staminate flowers (1/10-1/30). Furthermore, valuable information about flower sex differentiation in this plant is scarce. To explore the mechanism of this process in J. curcas, transcriptome profiling of flower development was carried out, and certain genes related with sex differentiation were obtained through digital gene expression analysis of flower buds from different phases of floral development. After Illumina sequencing and clustering, 57,962 unigenes were identified. A total of 47,423 unigenes were annotated, with 85 being related to carpel and stamen differentiation, 126 involved in carpel and stamen development, and 592 functioning in the later development stage for the maturation of staminate or instaminate flowers. Annotation of these genes provided comprehensive information regarding the sex differentiation of flowers, including the signaling system, hormone biosynthesis and regulation, transcription regulation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. A further expression pattern analysis of 15 sex-related genes using quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gibberellin-regulated protein 4-like protein and AMP-activated protein kinase are associated with stamen differentiation, whereas auxin response factor 6-like protein, AGAMOUS-like 20 protein, CLAVATA1, RING-H2 finger protein ATL3J, auxin-induced protein 22D, and r2r3-myb transcription factor contribute to embryo sac development in the instaminate flower. Cytokinin oxidase, Unigene28, auxin repressed-like protein ARP1, gibberellin receptor protein GID1 and auxin-induced protein X10A are involved in both stages mentioned above. In addition to its function in the differentiation and development of the stamens, the gibberellin signaling pathway also functions in embryo sac development for the instaminate flower. The auxin signaling pathway also participates in both stamen development

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Flower Sex Differentiation in Jatropha curcas L. Using RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gang; Huang, Jian; Yang, Yong; Yao, Yin-an

    2016-01-01

    Background Jatropha curcas is thought to be a promising biofuel material, but its yield is restricted by a low ratio of instaminate / staminate flowers (1/10-1/30). Furthermore, valuable information about flower sex differentiation in this plant is scarce. To explore the mechanism of this process in J. curcas, transcriptome profiling of flower development was carried out, and certain genes related with sex differentiation were obtained through digital gene expression analysis of flower buds from different phases of floral development. Results After Illumina sequencing and clustering, 57,962 unigenes were identified. A total of 47,423 unigenes were annotated, with 85 being related to carpel and stamen differentiation, 126 involved in carpel and stamen development, and 592 functioning in the later development stage for the maturation of staminate or instaminate flowers. Annotation of these genes provided comprehensive information regarding the sex differentiation of flowers, including the signaling system, hormone biosynthesis and regulation, transcription regulation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. A further expression pattern analysis of 15 sex-related genes using quantitative real-time PCR revealed that gibberellin-regulated protein 4-like protein and AMP-activated protein kinase are associated with stamen differentiation, whereas auxin response factor 6-like protein, AGAMOUS-like 20 protein, CLAVATA1, RING-H2 finger protein ATL3J, auxin-induced protein 22D, and r2r3-myb transcription factor contribute to embryo sac development in the instaminate flower. Cytokinin oxidase, Unigene28, auxin repressed-like protein ARP1, gibberellin receptor protein GID1 and auxin-induced protein X10A are involved in both stages mentioned above. In addition to its function in the differentiation and development of the stamens, the gibberellin signaling pathway also functions in embryo sac development for the instaminate flower. The auxin signaling pathway also participates in both

  9. Low flower-size variation in bilaterally symmetrical flowers: Support for the pollination precision hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Nikkeshi, Aoi; Kurimoto, Daiki; Ushimaru, Atushi

    2015-12-01

    The evolutionary shift from radial to bilateral symmetry in flowers is generally associated with the evolution of low flower-size variation. This phenomenon supports the hypothesis that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers can be attributed to low pollinator diversity. In this study, we propose two other hypotheses to explain low flower-size variation in bilateral symmetrical flowers. To test the three hypotheses, we examined the relative importance of pollinator diversity, composition, and bilateral symmetry itself as selective forces on low flower-size variation. We examined pollinator diversity and composition and flower-size variation for 36 species in a seminatural ecosystem with high bee richness and frequent lepidopteran visitation. Bilateral flowers were more frequently visited than radial flowers by larger bees, but functional-group diversity of the pollinators did not differ between symmetry types. Although bilateral flowers had significantly lower flower-size variation than radial flowers, flower-size variation did not vary with pollinator diversity and composition but was instead related to bilateral symmetry. Our results suggest that the lower size variation in bilateral flowers might have evolved under selection favoring the control of pollinator behavior on flowers to enhance the accurate placement of pollen on the body of the pollinator, independent of pollinator type. Because of the limited research on this issue, future work should be conducted in various types of plant-pollinator communities worldwide to further clarify the issue. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Main regulatory pathways, key genes and microRNAs involved in flower formation and development of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis).

    PubMed

    Ge, Wei; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Zhanchao; Hou, Dan; Li, Xueping; Gao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Moso bamboo is characterized by infrequent sexual reproduction and erratic flowering habit; however, the molecular biology of flower formation and development is not well studied in this species. We studied the molecular regulation mechanisms of moso bamboo development and flowering by selecting three key regulatory pathways: plant-pathogen interaction, plant hormone signal transduction and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum at different stages of flowering in moso bamboo. We selected PheDof1, PheMADS14 and six microRNAs involved in the three pathways through KEGG pathway and cluster analysis. Subcellular localization, transcriptional activation, Western blotting, in situ hybridization and qRT-PCR were used to further investigate the expression patterns and regulatory roles of pivotal genes at different flower development stages. Differential expression patterns showed that PheDof1, PheMADS14 and six miRNAs may play vital regulatory roles in flower development and floral transition in moso bamboo. Our research paves way for further studies on metabolic regulatory networks and provides insight into the molecular regulation mechanisms of moso bamboo flowering and senescence. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Shoot bending promotes flower bud formation by miRNA-mediated regulation in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Xing, Libo; Zhang, Dong; Zhao, Caiping; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; An, Na; Han, Mingyu

    2016-02-01

    Flower induction in apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees plays an important life cycle role, but young trees produce fewer and inferior quality flower buds. Therefore, shoot bending has become an important cultural practice, significantly promoting the capacity to develop more flower buds during the growing seasons. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in plant growth, flower induction and stress responses. In this study, we identified miRNAs potentially involved in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and development, as well as in the response to shoot bending. Of the 195 miRNAs identified, 137 were novel miRNAs. The miRNA expression profiles revealed that the expression levels of 68 and 27 known miRNAs were down-regulated and up-regulated, respectively, in response to shoot bending, and that the 31 differentially expressed novel miRNAs between them formed five major clusters. Additionally, a complex regulatory network associated with auxin, cytokinin, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) plays important roles in cell division, bud growth and flower induction, in which related miRNAs and targets mediated regulation. Among them, miR396, 160, 393, and their targets associated with AUX, miR159, 319, 164, and their targets associated with ABA and GA, and flowering-related miRNAs and genes, regulate bud growth and flower bud formation in response to shoot bending. Meanwhile, the flowering genes had significantly higher expression levels during shoot bending, suggesting that they are involved in this regulatory process. This study provides a framework for the future analysis of miRNAs associated with multiple hormones and their roles in the regulation of bud growth, and flower induction and formation in response to shoot bending in apple trees. © 2015 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Flowering in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hui Qiong

    2018-05-01

    The reproductive success of plants is often dependent on their flowering time being adapted to the terrestrial environment, in which gravity remain constant. Whether plants can follow the same rule to determine their flowering time under microgravity in space is unknown. Although numerous attempts have been made to grow a plant through a complete life cycle in space, apparently no published information exists concerning the flowering control of plants under microgravity in space. Here, we focused on two aspects. Firstly the environmental and intrinsic factors under microgravity related to flowering control. Secondly, the plant-derived regulators are involved in flowering control under microgravity condition. The potential environmental and intrinsic factors affect plant flowering under microgravity may include light, biological circadian clock as well as long-distance signaling, while the plant-derived flowering regulators in response to microgravity could include gibberellic acid, ethylene, microRNA and sugar. The results we have obtained from the space experiments on board the Chinese recoverable satellites (the SJ-8 and the SJ-10) and the experiment on the Chinese space lab TG-2 are also introduced. We conclude by suggesting that long-term space experiments from successive generations and a systematic analysis of regulatory networks at the molecular level is needed to understand the mechanism of plant flowering control under microgravity conditions in space.

  13. Variations of metabolites and proteome in Lonicera japonica Thunb. buds and flowers under UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Zheng, Wen; Hu, Xingjiang; Xu, Xiaobao; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Jingkui

    2017-04-01

    Lonicera japonica Thunb., also known as Jin Yin Hua and Japanese honeysuckle, is used as a herbal medicine in Asian countries. Its flowers have been used in folk medicine in the clinic and in making food or healthy beverages for over 1500years in China. To investigate the molecular processes involved in L. japonica development from buds to flowers exposed to UV radiation, a comparative proteomics analysis was performed. Fifty-four proteins were identified as differentially expressed, including 42 that had increased expression and 12 that had decreased expression. The levels of the proteins related to glycolysis, TCA/organic acid transformation, major carbohydrate metabolism, oxidative pentose phosphate, stress, secondary metabolism, hormone, and mitochondrial electron transport were increased during flower opening process after exposure to UV radiation. Six metabolites in L. japonica buds and flowers were identified and relatively quantified using LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity was performed using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay, which revealed that L. japonica buds had more activity than the UV irradiated flowers. This suggests that UV-B radiation induces production of endogenous ethylene in L. japonica buds, thus facilitating blossoming of the buds and activating the antioxidant system. Additionally, the higher metabolite contents and antioxidant properties of L. japonica buds indicate that the L. japonica bud stage may be a more optimal time to harvest than the flower stage when using for medicinal properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Trees as huge flowers and flowers as oversized floral guides: the role of floral color change and retention of old flowers in Tibouchina pulchra

    PubMed Central

    Brito, Vinícius L. G.; Weynans, Kevin; Sazima, Marlies; Lunau, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Floral color changes and retention of old flowers are frequently combined phenomena restricted to the floral guide or single flowers in few-flowered inflorescences. They are thought to increase the attractiveness over long distances and to direct nearby pollinators toward the rewarding flowers. In Tibouchina pulchra, a massively flowering tree, the whole flower changes its color during anthesis. On the first day, the flowers are white and on the next 3 days, they change to pink. This creates a new large-scale color pattern in which the white pre-changed flowers contrast against the pink post-changed ones over the entire tree. We describe the spectral characteristics of floral colors of T. pulchra and test bumblebees’ response to this color pattern when viewed at different angles (simulating long and short distances). The results indicated the role of different color components in bumblebee attraction and the possible scenario in which this flower color pattern has evolved. We tested bumblebees’ preference for simulated trees with 75% pink and 25% white flowers resembling the color patterns of T. pulchra, and trees with green leaves and pink flowers (control) in long-distance approach. We also compared an artificial setting with three pink flowers and one white flower (T. pulchra model) against four pink flowers with white floral guides (control) in short-distance approach. Bumblebees spontaneously preferred the simulated T. pulchra patterns in both approaches despite similar reward. Moreover, in short distances, pollinator visits to peripheral, non-rewarding flowers occurred only half as frequently in the simulated T. pulchra when compared to the control. Thefore, this exceptional floral color change and the retention of old flowers in T. pulchra favors the attraction of pollinators over long distances in a deception process while it honestly directs them toward the rewarding flowers at short distances possibly exploring their innate color preferences. PMID

  15. Say it with flowers: flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  16. Say it with flowers: Flowering acceleration by root communication.

    PubMed

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings.

  17. Mineral and metabolic profiles in tea leaves and flowers during flower development.

    PubMed

    Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Hu, Jianhui; Ding, Zhaotang; Liang, Qing; Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is one of the most popular non-alcoholic beverage crops in the world, and the physiological processes and gene regulations involved in development in tea plants have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the metabolic changes combined with mineral distributions that occur during flower development. Here we detected the contents of 11 elements in tea leaves and flowers and found that, some of them, especially phosphorus, sulfur and copper, showed significant changes during tea flowering. We also detected 122 metabolites in tea leaves and flowers and found that, 72 of them showed significant differences between flowers and leaves, of which sugars, organic acids, and flavonoids dominated. The sugars, such as trehalose and galactose, all accumulated in tea flowers, and the organic acids, such as malic acid, citric acid and fumaric acid involved in TCA cycle. The flavonoids, like epicatechin, catechin gallate and epigallocatechin, were more abundant in leaves. Furthermore, we found that the contents of 33 metabolites changed during the development of flowers. Especially, citric acid, phenylalanine and most flavonoids decreased while fructose and galactose increased during flowering stages in flowers. We also analyzed the correlations between the ions and metabolites and found that, some mineral nutrients including phosphorus, sulfur, manganese and zinc had close relations to organic acids, flavonoids, sugars and several amino acids during flowering. We mapped the metabolic pathway according to the KEGG database. This work will serve as the foundation for a systems biology approach to the understanding of mineral metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. DOFT and DOFTIP1 affect reproductive development in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Liu, Lu; Song, Shiyong; Li, Yan; Shen, Lisha; Yu, Hao

    2017-12-16

    FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis encodes the florigen that moves from leaves to the shoot apical meristem to induce flowering, and this is partly mediated by FT-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1 (FTIP1). Although FT orthologs have been identified in some flowering plants, their endogenous roles in Orchidaceae, which is one of the largest families of flowering plants, are still largely unknown. In this study, we show that DOFT and DOFTIP1, the orchid orthologs of FT and FTIP1, respectively, play important roles in promoting flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. Expression of DOFT and DOFTIP1 increases in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development. Both transcripts are present in significant levels in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, stems, floral buds, and open flowers. Through successful generation of transgenic orchids, we have revealed that overexpression or down-regulation of DOFT accelerates or delays flowering, respectively, while alteration of DOFT expression also greatly affects pseudobulb formation and flower development. In common with their counterparts in Arabidopsis and rice, DOFTIP1 interacts with DOFT and affects flowering time in orchids. Our results suggest that while DOFT and DOFTIP1 play evolutionarily conserved roles in promoting flowering, DOFT may have evolved with hitherto unknown functions pertaining to the regulation of storage organs and flower development in the Orchidaceae family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Grass flower development.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Tanaka, Wakana; Toriba, Taiyo

    2014-01-01

    Grasses bear unique flowers lacking obvious petals and sepals in special inflorescence units, the florets and the spikelet. Despite this, grass floral organs such as stamens and lodicules (petal homologs) are specified by ABC homeotic genes encoding MADS domain transcription factors, suggesting that the ABC model of eudicot flower development is largely applicable to grass flowers. However, some modifications need to be made for the model to fit grasses well: for example, a YABBY gene plays an important role in carpel specification. In addition, a number of genes are involved in the development of the lateral organs that constitute the spikelet. In this review, we discuss recent progress in elucidating the genes required for flower and spikelet development in grasses, together with those involved in fate determination of the spikelet and flower meristems.

  20. Identification of successive flowering phases highlights a new genetic control of the flowering pattern in strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Perrotte, Justine; Guédon, Yann; Gaston, Amèlia; Denoyes, Béatrice

    2016-01-01

    The genetic control of the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering has been deciphered in various perennial species. However, little is known about the genetic control of the dynamics of perpetual flowering, which changes abruptly at well-defined time instants during the growing season. Here, we characterize the perpetual flowering pattern and identify new genetic controls of this pattern in the cultivated strawberry. Twenty-one perpetual flowering strawberry genotypes were phenotyped at the macroscopic scale for their course of emergence of inflorescences and stolons during the growing season. A longitudinal analysis based on the segmentation of flowering rate profiles using multiple change-point models was conducted. The flowering pattern of perpetual flowering genotypes takes the form of three or four successive phases: an autumn-initiated flowering phase, a flowering pause, and a single stationary perpetual flowering phase or two perpetual flowering phases, the second one being more intense. The genetic control of flowering was analysed by quantitative trait locus mapping of flowering traits based on these flowering phases. We showed that the occurrence of a fourth phase of intense flowering is controlled by a newly identified locus, different from the locus FaPFRU, controlling the switch between seasonal and perpetual flowering behaviour. The role of this locus was validated by the analysis of data obtained previously during six consecutive years. PMID:27664957

  1. Effect of cytokinins on delaying petunia flower senescence: a transcriptome study approach.

    PubMed

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Vernieri, Paolo; Mensuali-Sodi, Anna; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Flower senescence is a fascinating natural process that represents the final developmental stage in the life of a flower. Plant hormones play an important role in regulating the timing of flower senescence. Ethylene is a trigger and usually accelerates the senescence rate, while cytokinins are known to delay it. The aim of this work was to study the effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) on petal senescence by transcript profile comparison after 3 or 6 h using a cross-species method by hybridizing petunia samples to a 4 × 44 K Agilent tomato array. The relative content of ethylene, abscisic acid, anthocyanins, total carotenoids and total phenols that determine the physiological behaviours of the petal tissue were measured. BA treatment prolonged the flower life and increased the concentrations of phenols and anthocyanins, while total carotenoids did not increase and were lower than the control. The ethylene biosynthetic and perception gene expressions were studied immediately after treatment until 24 h and all genes were repressed, while ethylene production was strongly induced after 4 days. The microarray analyses highlighted that BA strongly affected gene regulation after 3 h, but only 14% of genes remained differentially expressed after 6 h. The most affected pathways and genes were those related to stress, such as heat shock proteins, abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism and its signalling pathway, lipid metabolism and antioxidant defence systems. A gene annotation enrichment analysis using DAVID showed that the most important gene clusters were involved in energy generation and conservation processes. In addition to the ethylene pathway, cytokinins seem to be strongly involved the regulation of the ABA response in flower tissues.

  2. Hormonal interactions and gene regulation can link monoecy and environmental plasticity to the evolution of dioecy in plants.

    PubMed

    Golenberg, Edward M; West, Nicholas W

    2013-06-01

    Most models for dioecy in flowering plants assume that dioecy arises directly from hermaphroditism through a series of independent feminizing and masculinizing mutations that become chromosomally linked. However, dioecy appears to evolve most frequently through monoecious grades. The major genetic models do not explain the evolution of unisexual flowers in monoecious and submonoecious populations, nor do they account for environmentally induced sexual plasticity. In this review, we explore the roles of environmental stress and hormones on sex determination, and propose a model that can explain the evolution of dioecy through monoecy, and the mechanisms of environmental sex determination. Environmental stresses elicit hormones that allow plants to mediate the negative effects of the stresses. Many of these same hormones are involved in the regulation of floral developmental genes. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms whereby these hormones interact and can act as switchpoints in regulatory pathways. Consequently, differential concentrations of plant hormones can regulate whole developmental pathways, providing a mechanism for differential development within isogenic individuals such as seen in monoecious plants. Sex-determining genes in such systems will evolve to generate clusters of coexpressed suites. Coexpression rather than coinheritance of gender-specific genes will define the sexual developmental fate. Therefore, selection for gender type will drive evolution of the regulatory sequences of such genes rather than their synteny. Subsequent mutations to hyper- or hyposensitive alleles within the hormone response pathway can result in segregating dioecious populations. Simultaneously, such developmental systems will remain sensitive to external stimuli that modify hormone responses.

  3. Phylogeny determines flower size-dependent sex allocation at flowering in a hermaphroditic family.

    PubMed

    Teixido, A L; Guzmán, B; Staggemeier, V G; Valladares, F

    2017-11-01

    In animal-pollinated hermaphroditic plants, optimal floral allocation determines relative investment into sexes, which is ultimately dependent on flower size. Larger flowers disproportionally increase maleness whereas smaller and less rewarding flowers favour female function. Although floral traits are considered strongly conserved, phylogenetic relationships in the interspecific patterns of resource allocation to floral sex remain overlooked. We investigated these patterns in Cistaceae, a hermaphroditic family. We reconstructed phylogenetic relationships among Cistaceae species and quantified phylogenetic signal for flower size, dry mass and nutrient allocation to floral structures in 23 Mediterranean species using Blomberg's K-statistic. Lastly, phylogenetically-controlled correlational and regression analyses were applied to examine flower size-based allometry in resource allocation to floral structures. Sepals received the highest dry mass allocation, followed by petals, whereas sexual structures increased nutrient allocation. Flower size and resource allocation to floral structures, except for carpels, showed a strong phylogenetic signal. Larger-flowered species allometrically allocated more resources to maleness, by increasing allocation to corollas and stamens. Our results suggest a major role of phylogeny in determining interspecific changes in flower size and subsequent floral sex allocation. This implies that flower size balances the male-female function over the evolutionary history of Cistaceae. While allometric resource investment in maleness is inherited across species diversification, allocation to the female function seems a labile trait that varies among closely related species that have diversified into different ecological niches. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. Design a Hummingbird Flower.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity that engages students in designing and making an artificial flower adapted for pollination by hummingbirds. Students work in teams to design flowers that maximize the benefit from attracting hummingbirds. Examines characteristics of real flowers adapted to pollination by hummingbirds. (DLH)

  5. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss.

    PubMed

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-03-25

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport.

  6. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    PubMed Central

    Coudert, Yoan; Palubicki, Wojtek; Ljung, Karin; Novak, Ondrej; Leyser, Ottoline; Harrison, C Jill

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching is a primary contributor to plant architecture, evolving independently in flowering plant sporophytes and moss gametophytes. Mechanistic understanding of branching is largely limited to flowering plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a recent evolutionary origin. We show that in gametophytic shoots of Physcomitrella, lateral branches arise by re-specification of epidermal cells into branch initials. A simple model co-ordinating the activity of leafy shoot tips can account for branching patterns, and three known and ancient hormonal regulators of sporophytic branching interact to generate the branching pattern- auxin, cytokinin and strigolactone. The mode of auxin transport required in branch patterning is a key divergence point from known sporophytic pathways. Although PIN-mediated basipetal auxin transport regulates branching patterns in flowering plants, this is not so in Physcomitrella, where bi-directional transport is required to generate realistic branching patterns. Experiments with callose synthesis inhibitors suggest plasmodesmal connectivity as a potential mechanism for transport. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06808.001 PMID:25806686

  7. Pollinator-mediated selection on flower color, flower scent and flower morphology of Hemerocallis: evidence from genotyping individual pollen grains on the stigma.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Shun K; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2013-01-01

    To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent.

  8. Pollinator-Mediated Selection on Flower Color, Flower Scent and Flower Morphology of Hemerocallis: Evidence from Genotyping Individual Pollen Grains On the Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, Shun K.; Nitta, Kozue; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Kawakubo, Nobumitsu; Yasumoto, Akiko A.; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2013-01-01

    To trace the fate of individual pollen grains through pollination processes, we determined genotypes of single pollen grains deposited on Hemerocallis stigmas in an experimental mixed-species array. Hemerocallis fulva, pollinated by butterflies, has diurnal, reddish and unscented flowers, and H. citrina, pollinated by hawkmoths, has nocturnal, yellowish and sweet scent flowers. We observed pollinator visits to an experimental array of 24 H. fulva and 12 F2 hybrids between the two species (H. fulva and H. citrina) and collected stigmas after every trip bout of swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths. We then measured selection by swallowtail butterflies or hawkmoths through male and female components of pollination success as determined by single pollen genotyping. As expected, swallowtail butterflies imposed selection on reddish color and weak scent: the number of outcross pollen grains acquired is a quadratic function of flower color with the maximum at reddish color, and the combined pollination success was maximal at weak scent (almost unrecognizable for human). This explains why H. fulva, with reddish flowers and no recognizable scent, is mainly pollinated by swallowtail butterflies. However, we found no evidence of hawkmoths-mediated selection on flower color or scent. Our findings do not support a hypothesis that yellow flower color and strong scent intensity, the distinctive floral characteristics of H. citrina, having evolved in adaptations to hawkmoths. We suggest that the key trait that triggers the evolution of nocturnal flowers is flowering time rather than flower color and scent. PMID:24376890

  9. Evolvability of flower geometry: Convergence in pollinator-driven morphological evolution of flowers.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Natalia Joanna; Sicard, Adrien

    2018-07-01

    Flowers represent a key innovation during plant evolution. Driven by reproductive optimization, evolution of flower morphology has been central in boosting species diversification. In most cases, this has happened through specialized interactions with animal pollinators and subsequent reduction of gene flow between specialized morphs. While radiation has led to an enormous variability in flower forms and sizes, recurrent evolutionary patterns can be observed. Here, we discuss the targets of selection involved in major trends of pollinator-driven flower evolution. We review recent findings on their adaptive values, developmental grounds and genetic bases, in an attempt to better understand the repeated nature of pollinator-driven flower evolution. This analysis highlights how structural innovation can provide flexibility in phenotypic evolution, adaptation and speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flower constancy in insect pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Ratnieks, Francis L.W.

    2011-01-01

    As first noted by Aristotle in honeybee workers, many insect pollinators show a preference to visit flowers of just one species during a foraging trip. This “flower constancy” probably benefits plants, because pollen is more likely to be deposited on conspecific stigmas. But it is less clear why insects should ignore rewarding alternative flowers. Many researchers have argued that flower constancy is caused by constraints imposed by insect nervous systems rather than because flower constancy is itself an efficient foraging method. We argue that this view is unsatisfactory because it both fails to explain why foragers flexibly adjust the degree of flower constancy and does not explain why foragers of closely related species show different degrees of constancy. While limitations of the nervous system exist and are likely to influence flower constancy to some degree, the observed behavioural flexibility suggests that flower constancy is a successful foraging strategy given the insect’s own information about different foraging options. PMID:22446521

  11. Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate.

    PubMed

    Akter, Asma; Biella, Paolo; Klecka, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers. Detailed data on foraging behaviour within clusters of different sizes were gathered for honeybees, Apis mellifera, the most abundant visitor of Dracocephalum in the experiments. We found that the total number of flower visitors increased with the increasing number of flowers on individual plants and in larger clusters, but less then proportionally. Although individual honeybees visited more flowers in larger clusters, they visited a smaller proportion of flowers, as has been previously observed. Consequently, visitation rate per flower and unit time peaked in clusters with an intermediate number of flowers. These patterns do not conform to expectations based on optimal foraging theory and the ideal free distribution model. We attribute this discrepancy to incomplete information about the distribution of resources. Detailed observations and video recordings of individual honeybees also showed that the number of flowers had no effect on handling time of flowers by honeybees. We evaluated the implications of these patterns for insect foraging biology and plant reproduction.

  12. Effects of small-scale clustering of flowers on pollinator foraging behaviour and flower visitation rate

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Plants often grow in clusters of various sizes and have a variable number of flowers per inflorescence. This small-scale spatial clustering affects insect foraging strategies and plant reproductive success. In our study, we aimed to determine how visitation rate and foraging behaviour of pollinators depend on the number of flowers per plant and on the size of clusters of multiple plants using Dracocephalum moldavica (Lamiaceae) as a target species. We measured flower visitation rate by observations of insects visiting single plants and clusters of plants with different numbers of flowers. Detailed data on foraging behaviour within clusters of different sizes were gathered for honeybees, Apis mellifera, the most abundant visitor of Dracocephalum in the experiments. We found that the total number of flower visitors increased with the increasing number of flowers on individual plants and in larger clusters, but less then proportionally. Although individual honeybees visited more flowers in larger clusters, they visited a smaller proportion of flowers, as has been previously observed. Consequently, visitation rate per flower and unit time peaked in clusters with an intermediate number of flowers. These patterns do not conform to expectations based on optimal foraging theory and the ideal free distribution model. We attribute this discrepancy to incomplete information about the distribution of resources. Detailed observations and video recordings of individual honeybees also showed that the number of flowers had no effect on handling time of flowers by honeybees. We evaluated the implications of these patterns for insect foraging biology and plant reproduction. PMID:29136042

  13. Flower-like heads from flower-like meristems: pseudanthium development in Davidia involucrata (Nyssaceae).

    PubMed

    Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine; Arndt, Melanie

    2018-05-01

    Flower-like inflorescences (pseudanthia) have fascinated botanists for a long time. They are explained as condensed inflorescences implying that the pseudanthium develops from an inflorescence meristem (IM). However, recent developmental studies identified a new form of reproductive meristem, the floral unit meristem (FUM). It differs from IMs by lacking acropetal growth and shares fractionation, expansion and autonomous space filling with flower meristems (FM). The similarity among FUMs and FMs raises the question how far flower-like heads originate from flower-like meristems. In the present paper, pseudanthium development in Davidia involucrata is investigated using scanning electron microscopy. D. involucrata has pincushion-shaped heads composed of densely aggregated, perianthless flowers and associated with two large showy bracts. Early developmental stages show a huge naked FUM. The FMs appear almost simultaneously and lack subtending bracts. With ongoing FUM expansion new space is generated which is immediately used by further FM fractionation. The heads have only staminate flowers or are andromonoecious with staminate and a single perfect flower in oblique position. All FMs lack perianth structures and fractionate a variable number of stamen primordia. The perfect FM is much larger than the staminate FMs and forms a syncarpous gynoecium with inferior ovary. Pseudanthium development in D. involucrata confirms the morphogenetic similarity to FMs as to acropetal growth limitation, meristem expansion and fractionation. It thus should not be interpreted as a condensed inflorescence, but as a flower equivalent. Furthermore as the FUM develops inside a bud, its development is considered to be influenced by mechanical pressure. The oblique position of the perfect flower, the developmental delay of the proximal flowers, and the variable number of stamens which were observed in the pseudanthium development, can be caused by mechanical pressure. Next to the Asteraceae

  14. DETERMINATE and LATE FLOWERING are two TERMINAL FLOWER1/CENTRORADIALIS homologs that control two distinct phases of flowering initiation and development in pea.

    PubMed

    Foucher, Fabrice; Morin, Julie; Courtiade, Juliette; Cadioux, Sandrine; Ellis, Noel; Banfield, Mark J; Rameau, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Genes in the TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)/CENTRORADIALIS family are important key regulatory genes involved in the control of flowering time and floral architecture in several different plant species. To understand the functions of TFL1 homologs in pea, we isolated three TFL1 homologs, which we have designated PsTFL1a, PsTFL1b, and PsTFL1c. By genetic mapping and sequencing of mutant alleles, we demonstrate that PsTFL1a corresponds to the DETERMINATE (DET) gene and PsTFL1c corresponds to the LATE FLOWERING (LF) gene. DET acts to maintain the indeterminacy of the apical meristem during flowering, and consistent with this role, DET expression is limited to the shoot apex after floral initiation. LF delays the induction of flowering by lengthening the vegetative phase, and allelic variation at the LF locus is an important component of natural variation for flowering time in pea. The most severe class of alleles flowers early and carries either a deletion of the entire PsTFL1c gene or an amino acid substitution. Other natural and induced alleles for LF, with an intermediate flowering time phenotype, present no changes in the PsTFL1c amino acid sequence but affect LF transcript level in the shoot apex: low LF transcript levels are correlated with early flowering, and high LF transcript levels are correlated with late flowering. Thus, different TFL1 homologs control two distinct aspects of plant development in pea, whereas a single gene, TFL1, performs both functions in Arabidopsis. These results show that different species have evolved different strategies to control key developmental transitions and also that the genetic basis for natural variation in flowering time may differ among plant species.

  15. Flower Development and Sex Determination between Male and Female Flowers in Vernicia fordii

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Xu, Yang; Lu, Weili; Hou, Jinyan; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yuting; Wu, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    Vernicia fordii is a monoecious and diclinous species with male and female flowers on the same inflorescence. Low female to male flower ratio is one of the main reasons for low yield in this species. However, little is known of its floral development and sex determination. Here, according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis, the floral development of V. fordii was divided into 12 stages and the first morphological divergence between the male and female flowers was found to occur at stage 7. The male flowers are always unisexual, but the female flowers present bisexual characteristics, with sterile stamen (staminode) restricted to pre-meiosis of mother sporogenous cells and cell death occurring at later development stages. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism underling sex determination at the divergence stage for male and female flowers, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed. In total, 56,065 unigenes were generated and 608 genes were differentially expressed between male and female flowers, among which 310 and 298 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) showed high expression levels in males and females, respectively. The transcriptome data showed that the sexual dimorphism of female flowers was affected by jasmonic acid, transcription factors, and some genes related to the floral meristem activity. Ten candidate genes showed consistent expression in the qRT-PCR validation and DEGs data. In this study, we provide developmental characterization and transcriptomic information for better understanding of the development of unisexual flowers and the regulatory networks underlying the mechanism of sex determination in V. fordii, which would be helpful in the molecular breeding of V. fordii to improve the yield output. PMID:28775735

  16. Flower Development and Sex Determination between Male and Female Flowers in Vernicia fordii.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yingji; Liu, Wenbo; Chen, Xue; Xu, Yang; Lu, Weili; Hou, Jinyan; Ni, Jun; Wang, Yuting; Wu, Lifang

    2017-01-01

    Vernicia fordii is a monoecious and diclinous species with male and female flowers on the same inflorescence. Low female to male flower ratio is one of the main reasons for low yield in this species. However, little is known of its floral development and sex determination. Here, according to the results of scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis, the floral development of V. fordii was divided into 12 stages and the first morphological divergence between the male and female flowers was found to occur at stage 7. The male flowers are always unisexual, but the female flowers present bisexual characteristics, with sterile stamen (staminode) restricted to pre-meiosis of mother sporogenous cells and cell death occurring at later development stages. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism underling sex determination at the divergence stage for male and female flowers, comparative transcriptome analysis was performed. In total, 56,065 unigenes were generated and 608 genes were differentially expressed between male and female flowers, among which 310 and 298 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) showed high expression levels in males and females, respectively. The transcriptome data showed that the sexual dimorphism of female flowers was affected by jasmonic acid, transcription factors, and some genes related to the floral meristem activity. Ten candidate genes showed consistent expression in the qRT-PCR validation and DEGs data. In this study, we provide developmental characterization and transcriptomic information for better understanding of the development of unisexual flowers and the regulatory networks underlying the mechanism of sex determination in V. fordii , which would be helpful in the molecular breeding of V. fordii to improve the yield output.

  17. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty.

    PubMed

    Hůla, Martin; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research.

  18. What flowers do we like? The influence of shape and color on the rating of flower beauty

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that people find flowers beautiful. Surprisingly, we know very little about the actual properties which make flowers so appealing to humans. Although the evolutionary aesthetics provides some theories concerning generally preferred flower traits, empirical evidence is largely missing. In this study, we used an online survey in which residents of the Czech Republic (n = 2006) rated the perceived beauty of 52 flower stimuli of diverse shapes and colors. Colored flowers were preferred over their uncolored versions. When controlling for flower shape, we found an unequal preference for different flower colors, blue being the most and yellow the least preferred. In the overall assessment of beauty, shape was more important than color. Prototypical flowers, i.e., radially symmetrical flowers with low complexity, were rated as the most beautiful. We also found a positive effect of sharp flower contours and blue color on the overall rating of flower beauty. The results may serve as a basis for further studies in some areas of the people-plant interaction research. PMID:27330863

  19. Tropical flowering phenologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    Most tropical plants flower synchronously at species-specific times. This holds at the geographic equator where day length is constant and at the meteorological equator where temperature is virtually aseasonal. Thus, the well-studied environmental cues for flowering at higher latitudes can be irrelevant in the tropics where they are replaced by an abundance of hypotheses. Low and high temperatures, drought and rain, day length, daily solar irradiance, and seasonal changes in solar insolation at the forest canopy or at the top of the atmosphere have all been hypothesized to act as environmental cues for tropical flowering. This abundance of hypotheses has been confronted by a paucity of data, precluding rejection of even one hypothesis. I will use new long-term data sets from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama (9°N, 79°W) and a model selection framework to begin the winnowing. The data extend from 1987 to the present and include more than 250,000 flower records obtained in 1,515 weekly censuses of 200 passive traps and standard meteorological variables obtained just above the forest canopy. The model selection framework was used to evaluate every proximate cue hypothesized to control tropical flowering times for the 55 tree and liana species best represented in the data. Hypotheses concerning seasonal variation in day length, temperature, rainfall and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) best matched the data for five, zero, seven and 32 species, respectively. Many species previously believed to respond to seasonal changes in moisture availability are actually sensitive to seasonal variation in cloud cover and PAR. BCI lies on the meteorological equator, thus it is unsurprising that temperature variation is not a viable proximate cue. The flowering phenology of the remaining 11 species could not be explained by any of the hypothesized proximate cues. Solutions to the environmental control of tropical flowering times remain to be discovered.

  20. Insects on flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2013-01-01

    Insect biodiversity peaks in tropical rainforest environments where a large but as yet unknown proportion of species are found in the canopy. While there has been a proliferation of insect biodiversity research undertaken in the rainforest canopy, most studies focus solely on insects that inhabit the foliage. In a recent paper, we examined the distribution of canopy insects across five microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) in an Australian tropical rainforest, showing that the density (per dry weight gram of microhabitat) of insects on flowers were ten to ten thousand times higher than on the leaves. Flowers also supported a much higher number of species than expected based on their contribution to total forest biomass. Elsewhere we show that most of these beetle species were specialized to flowers with little overlap in species composition between different canopy microhabitats. Here we expand our discussion of the implications of our results with respect to specialization and the generation of insect biodiversity in the rainforest canopy. Lastly, we identify future directions for research into the biodiversity and specialization of flower-visitors in complex tropical rainforests. PMID:23802039

  1. Flower power: tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Laura J; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, Joseph J

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration.

  2. Flower power: Tree flowering phenology as a settlement cue for migrating birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGrath, L.J.; van Riper, Charles; Fontaine, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    1. Neotropical migrant birds show a clear preference for stopover habitats with ample food supplies; yet, the proximate cues underlying these decisions remain unclear. 2. For insectivorous migrants, cues associated with vegetative phenology (e.g. flowering, leaf flush, and leaf loss) may reliably predict the availability of herbivorous arthropods. Here we examined whether migrants use the phenology of five tree species to choose stopover locations, and whether phenology accurately predicts food availability. 3. Using a combination of experimental and observational evidence, we show migrant populations closely track tree phenology, particularly the flowering phenology of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), and preferentially forage in trees with more flowers. Furthermore, the flowering phenology of honey mesquite reliably predicts overall arthropod abundance as well as the arthropods preferred by migrants for food. 4. Together, these results suggest that honey mesquite flowering phenology is an important cue used by migrants to assess food availability quickly and reliably, while in transit during spring migration. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  3. [Natural history of flowers and gravity].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Nakamura, Teruko

    2004-06-01

    Many flowers have coevolved with their pollinator animals. Gravity has been one of selection pressure for the evolution of flowers. Gravity rules morphology and other features of flowers in many aspects. Pair matching between the flower and its specific pollinator is one of factors that determine the fitness of both sides. Evolution of flower morphology and its molecular basis are reviewed briefly. Anemophilous flowers are also under the influence of gravity. Shape and other features of entomophilous flowers have been highly diversed. Gravitropic response and its mechanism are summarized. Recent findings on gravitropism and phototropism of pistils and stamens are presented in this article.

  4. miRNAs involved in the development and differentiation of fertile and sterile flowers in Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri.

    PubMed

    Li, Weixing; He, Zhichong; Zhang, Li; Lu, Zhaogeng; Xu, Jing; Cui, Jiawen; Wang, Li; Jin, Biao

    2017-10-13

    Sterile and fertile flowers are important evolutionary developmental phenotypes in angiosperm flowers. The development of floral organs, critical in angiosperm reproduction, is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanisms underpinning the miRNA regulation of the differentiation and development of sterile and fertile flowers remain unclear. Here, based on investigations of the morphological differences between fertile and sterile flowers, we used high-throughput sequencing to characterize the miRNAs in the differentiated floral organs of Viburnum macrocephalum f. keteleeri. We identified 49 known miRNAs and 67 novel miRNAs by small RNA (sRNA) sequencing and bioinformatics analysis, and 17 of these known and novel miRNA precursors were validated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, by comparing the sequencing results of two sRNA libraries, we found that 30 known and 39 novel miRNA sequences were differentially expressed, and 35 were upregulated and 34 downregulated in sterile compared with fertile flowers. Combined with their predicted targets, the potential roles of miRNAs in V. macrocephalum f. keteleeri flowers include involvement in floral organogenesis, cell proliferation, hormonal pathways, and stress responses. miRNA precursors and targets were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Specifically, miR156a-5p, miR156g, and miR156j expression levels were significantly higher in fertile flowers than in sterile flowers, while SPL genes displayed the opposite expression pattern. Considering that the targets of miR156 are predicted to be SPL genes, we propose that miR156 may be involved in the regulation of stamen development in V. macrocephalum f. keteleeri. We identified miRNAs differentially expressed between fertile and sterile flowers in V. macrocephalum f. keteleeri and provided new insights into the important regulatory roles of miRNAs in the differentiation and development of fertile and

  5. Flowering shoots of ornamental crops as a model to study cellular and molecular aspects of plant gravitropism.

    PubMed

    Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Flowering shoots offer a very convenient and excellent model system for in-depth study of shoot gravitropism in regular stems rather than in special aboveground organs, showing how plants cope with the force of gravity on Earth and change in orientation. Regarding the emerging notion that roots and shoots execute their gravitropic bending by different mechanisms, the use of flowering shoots offers additional confirmation for the suggested shoot-sensing mechanisms initially found in Arabidopsis. As a part of confirming this mechanism, studying this unique model system also enabled elucidation of the sequence of events operating in gravity signalling in shoots. Hence, using the system of flowering shoots provided an additional dimension to our understanding of shoot gravitropism and its hormonal regulation, which has been less advanced than root gravitropism. This is particularly important since the term "shoots" includes various aboveground organs. Hence, unlike other aboveground organs such as pulvini, the asymmetric growth in response to change in shoot orientation is accompanied in cut ornamental spikes by a continuous growth process. This chapter provides an overview of the basic methods, specifically developed or adapted from other graviresponding systems, for determining the main components which play a key role in gravistimulation signalling in flowering shoots.

  6. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Perpetual flowering in strawberry species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies have revealed genetic control of flowering patterns for seasonal flowering (SF) and perpetual flowering (PF) genotypes in the common garden strawberry, with associated links to gene homeologs in diploid alpine strawberry, F. vesca L. Within the genus Fragaria, 22 species and multiple subspec...

  8. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jing; Chang, Xiaoxiao; Kasuga, Takao; Bui, Mai; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during flower senescence. Transcription of PhFBH4 is induced by plant hormones and abiotic stress treatments. Silencing of PhFBH4 using virus-induced gene silencing or an antisense approach extended flower longevity, while transgenic petunia flowers with an overexpression construct showed a reduction in flower lifespan. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was significantly changed in petunia PhFBH4 transgenic flowers. Furthermore, silencing or overexpression of PhFBH4 reduced or increased, respectively, transcript abundances of important ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, ACS1 and ACO1, thereby influencing ethylene production. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the PhFBH4 protein physically interacted with the G-box cis-element in the promoter of ACS1, suggesting that ACS1 was a direct target of the PhFBH4 protein. In addition, ectopic expression of this gene altered plant development including plant height, internode length, and size of leaves and flowers, accompanied by alteration of transcript abundance of the gibberellin biosynthesis-related gene GA2OX3. Our results indicate that PhFBH4 plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development through modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway.

  9. Flower tracking in hawkmoths: behavior and energetics.

    PubMed

    Sprayberry, Jordanna D H; Daniel, Thomas L

    2007-01-01

    As hovering feeders, hawkmoths cope with flower motions by tracking those motions to maintain contact with the nectary. This study examined the tracking, feeding and energetic performance of Manduca sexta feeding from flowers moving at varied frequencies and in different directions. In general we found that tracking performance decreased as frequency increased; M. sexta tracked flowers moving at 1 Hz best. While feeding rates were highest for stationary flowers, they remained relatively constant for all tested frequencies of flower motion. Calculations of net energy gain showed that energy expenditure to track flowers is minimal compared to energy intake; therefore, patterns of net energy gain mimicked patterns of feeding rate. The direction effects of flower motion were greater than the frequency effects. While M. sexta appeared equally capable of tracking flowers moving in the horizontal and vertical motion axes, they demonstrated poor ability to track flowers moving in the looming axis. Additionally, both feeding rates and net energy gain were lower for looming axis flower motions.

  10. A Factor Linking Floral Organ Identity and Growth Revealed by Characterization of the Tomato Mutant unfinished flower development (ufd).

    PubMed

    Poyatos-Pertíñez, Sandra; Quinet, Muriel; Ortíz-Atienza, Ana; Yuste-Lisbona, Fernando J; Pons, Clara; Giménez, Estela; Angosto, Trinidad; Granell, Antonio; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Floral organogenesis requires coordinated interactions between genes specifying floral organ identity and those regulating growth and size of developing floral organs. With the aim to isolate regulatory genes linking both developmental processes (i.e., floral organ identity and growth) in the tomato model species, a novel mutant altered in the formation of floral organs was further characterized. Under normal growth conditions, floral organ primordia of mutant plants were correctly initiated, however, they were unable to complete their development impeding the formation of mature and fertile flowers. Thus, the growth of floral buds was blocked at an early stage of development; therefore, we named this mutant as unfinished flower development ( ufd ). Genetic analysis performed in a segregating population of 543 plants showed that the abnormal phenotype was controlled by a single recessive mutation. Global gene expression analysis confirmed that several MADS-box genes regulating floral identity as well as other genes participating in cell division and different hormonal pathways were affected in their expression patterns in ufd mutant plants. Moreover, ufd mutant inflorescences showed higher hormone contents, particularly ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and strigol compared to wild type. Such results indicate that UFD may have a key function as positive regulator of the development of floral primordia once they have been initiated in the four floral whorls. This function should be performed by affecting the expression of floral organ identity and growth genes, together with hormonal signaling pathways.

  11. Vascular development of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) inflorescence rachis in response to flower number, plant growth regulators and defoliation.

    PubMed

    Gourieroux, Aude M; Holzapfel, Bruno P; McCully, Margaret E; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Rogiers, Suzy Y

    2017-09-01

    The grapevine inflorescence is a determinate panicle and as buds emerge, shoot, flower and rachis development occur simultaneously. The growth and architecture of the rachis is determined by genetic and environmental factors but here we examined the role of flower and leaf number as well as hormones on its elongation and vascular development. The consequences of rachis morphology and vascular area on berry size and composition were also assessed. One week prior to anthesis, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon field vines were exposed to manual flower removal, exogenous plant growth regulators or pre-bloom leaf removal. Manual removal of half the flowers along the vertical axis of the inflorescence resulted in a shorter rachis in both cultivars. Conversely, inflorescences treated with gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) and the synthetic cytokinin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) resulted in a longer rachis while pre-bloom removal of all leaves on the inflorescence-bearing shoot did not alter rachis length relative to untreated inflorescences. Across the treatments, the cross-sectional areas of the conducting xylem and phloem in the rachis were positively correlated to rachis girth, flower number at anthesis, bunch berry number, bunch berry fresh mass and bunch sugar content at harvest. Conversely, average berry size and sugar content were not linked to rachis vascular area. These data indicate that the morphological and vascular development of the rachis was more responsive to flower number and plant growth regulators than to leaf removal.

  12. Effect of pollination and fertilization on the expression of genes related to floral transition, hormone synthesis and berry development in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Dauelsberg, Patricia; Matus, José Tomás; Poupin, María Josefina; Leiva-Ampuero, Andrés; Godoy, Francisca; Vega, Andrea; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2011-09-15

    In the present work, the effect of assisted fertilization on anatomical, morphological and gene expression changes occurring in carpels and during early stages of berry development in Vitis vinifera were studied. Inflorescences were emasculated before capfall, immediately manually pollinated (EP) and fruit development was compared to emasculated but non-pollinated (ENP) and self-pollinated inflorescences (NESP). The diameter of berries derived from pollinated flowers (EP and NESP) was significantly higher than from non-pollinated flowers (ENP) at 21 days after emasculation/pollination (DAE), and a rapid increase in the size of the inner mesocarp, together with the presence of an embryo-like structure, were observed. The expression of gibberellin oxidases (GA20ox and GA2ox), anthranilate synthase (related to auxin synthesis) and cytokinin synthase coding genes was studied to assess the relationship between hormone synthesis and early berry development, while flower patterning genes were analyzed to describe floral transition. Significant expression changes were found for hormone-related genes, suggesting that their expression at early stages of berry development (13 DAE) is related to cell division and differentiation of mesocarp tissue at a later stage (21 DAE). Expression of hormone-related genes also correlates with the expression of VvHB13, a gene related to mesocarp expansion, and with an increased repression of floral patterning genes (PISTILLATA and TM6), which may contribute to prevent floral transition inhibiting fruit growth before fertilization takes place. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Endogenous ethylene does not regulate opening of unstressed Iris flowers but strongly inhibits it in water-stressed flowers.

    PubMed

    Çelikel, Fisun G; van Doorn, Wouter G

    2012-09-15

    The floral buds of Iris flowers (Iris x hollandica) are enclosed by two sheath leaves. Flower opening depends on lifting the flower up to a position whereby the tepals can move laterally. This upward movement is carried out by elongation of the subtending pedicel and ovary. In the pedicels and ovaries of unstressed control flowers, the concentration of ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and the rate of ethylene production increased during d 0-1 of flower opening, and then decreased. Exposure to ≥200 nL L(-1) ethylene for 24 h at 20°C inhibited elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and inhibited flower opening. However, pulsing of unstressed flowers with solutions containing inhibitors of ethylene synthesis (AOA, AVG), or an inhibitor of ethylene action (STS), did not affect pedicel+ovary elongation or flower opening. When the flowers were dehydrated for 2 d at 20°C and 60% RH, they did not open when subsequently placed in water, and showed inhibited elongation in the pedicel+ovary. This dehydration treatment resulted in elevated pedicel+ovary ACC levels and in increased ethylene production. Treatment with STS prevented the increase in ACC levels and ethylene production, overcame the effect of dehydration on elongation of the pedicel+ovary, and resulted in full flower opening. It is concluded that flower opening in unstressed Iris flowers is not regulated by endogenous ethylene. An increase in endogenous ethylene above normal levels during stress, by contrast, strongly inhibited flower opening, due to its inhibitory effect on elongation of the pedicel+ovary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. 'Who's who' in two different flower types of Calluna vulgaris (Ericaceae): morphological and molecular analyses of flower organ identity

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The ornamental crop Calluna vulgaris is of increasing importance to the horticultural industry in the northern hemisphere due to a flower organ mutation: the flowers of the 'bud-flowering' phenotype remain closed i.e. as buds throughout the total flowering period and thereby maintain more colorful flowers for a longer period of time than the wild-type. This feature is accompanied and presumably caused by the complete lack of stamens. Descriptions of this botanical particularity are inconsistent and partially conflicting. In order to clarify basic questions of flower organ identity in general and stamen loss in detail, a study of the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' flower type of C. vulgaris was initiated. Results Flowers were examined by macro- and microscopic techniques. Organ development was investigated comparatively in both the wild-type and the 'bud-flowering' type by histological analyses. Analysis of epidermal cell surface structure of vegetative tissues and perianth organs using scanning electron microscopy revealed that in wild-type flowers the outer whorls of colored organs may be identified as sepals, while the inner ones may be identified as petals. In the 'bud-flowering' type, two whorls of sepals are directly followed by the gynoecium. Both, petals and stamens, are completely missing in this flower type. The uppermost whorl of green leaves represents bracts in both flower types. In addition, two MADS-box genes (homologs of AP3/DEF and SEP1/2) were identified in C. vulgaris using RACE-PCR. Expression analysis by qRT-PCR was conducted for both genes in leaves, bracts, sepals and petals. These experiments revealed an expression pattern supporting the organ classification based on morphological characteristics. Conclusions Organ identity in both wild-type and 'bud-flowering' C. vulgaris was clarified using a combination of microscopic and molecular methods. Our results for bract, sepal and petal organ identity are supported by the 'ABCDE

  15. Say it with flowers

    PubMed Central

    Falik, Omer; Hoffmann, Ishay; Novoplansky, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The timing of reproduction is a critical determinant of fitness, especially in organisms inhabiting seasonal environments. Increasing evidence suggests that inter-plant communication plays important roles in plant functioning. Here, we tested the hypothesis that flowering coordination can involve communication between neighboring plants. We show that soil leachates from Brassica rapa plants growing under long-day conditions accelerated flowering and decreased allocation to vegetative organs in target plants growing under non-inductive short-day conditions. The results suggest that besides endogenous signaling and external abiotic cues, flowering timing may involve inter-plant communication, mediated by root exudates. The study of flowering communication is expected to illuminate neglected aspects of plant reproductive interactions and to provide novel opportunities for controlling the timing of plant reproduction in agricultural settings. PMID:24598343

  16. Biology of flower-infecting fungi.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Henry K; Scherm, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic symptoms such as blossom blights (group 1), and specialist flower pathogens which infect inflorescences either through the gynoecium (group 2) or systemically through the apical meristem (group 3). This three-tier system is supported by life history attributes such as host range, mode of spore transmission, degree of host sterilization as a result of infection, and whether or not the fungus undergoes an obligate sexual cycle, produces resting spores in affected inflorescences, and is r- or K-selected. Across the three groups, the flower as an infection court poses important challenges for disease management. Ecologically and evolutionarily, terms and concepts borrowed from the study of venereal (sexually transmitted) diseases of animals do not adequately capture the range of strategies employed by fungi that infect flowers.

  17. Stars and Flowers, Flowers and Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minti, Hari

    2012-12-01

    The author, a graduated from the Bucharest University (1964), actually living and working in Israel, concerns his book to variable stars and flowers, two domains of his interest. The analogies includes double stars, eclipsing double stars, eclipses, Big Bang. The book contains 34 chapters, each of which concerns various relations between astronomy and other sciences and pseudosciences such as Psychology, Religion, Geology, Computers and Astrology (to which the author is not an adherent). A special part of the book is dedicated to archeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, as well as to history of astronomy. Between the main points of interest of these parts: ancient sanctuaries in Sarmizegetusa (Dacia), Stone Henge(UK) and other. The last chapter of the book is dedicated to flowers. The book is richly illustrated. It is designed for a wide circle of readers.

  18. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    PubMed Central

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  19. Flower scents from the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Joulain, Daniel

    2008-06-01

    For a long time, exotic scents from the islands of the South Pacific have universally been appreciated. Most frequently, fragrant flowers (e.g., frangipani, jasmine sambac, tiaré, pua kenikeni) are used locally for ornamental purposes such as flower garlands (leis). Despite their powerful and delightful fragrance, very few of these flowers have been commercially employed in this part of the world for perfume manufacturing. Creative perfumers are nevertheless strongly interested to better understand these fragrances and to use them, either genuine or artificially reconstituted. Analytical results on the fragrance of these flowers are reported, together with some economical considerations.

  20. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  1. [Morphogenetic lability of reproductive structures in Ruppia maritima (Ruppiaceae, Alismatales): from two lateral flowers to a terminal flower].

    PubMed

    Lokk, I É; Sokolov, D D; Remizova, M V

    2011-01-01

    Flowers of Ruppia are normally arranged into an open two-flowered spike, but sometimes the two lateral flowers are congenitally united with each other and form a terminal flower-like structure. This developmental abnormality resembles those described in well-investigated mutants of model organisms of developmental genetics such as Arabidopsis Antirrhinum. A study of Ruppia allows investigating morphogenetic lability of this feature in natural populations. These data will be important for understanding evolutionary transitions between open and closed inflorescences. This paper presents first data on frequencies ofterminal flower-like structures in natural populations of Ruppia maritima and first observations of their development. Vascular supply of inflorescences with free and united flowers is compared for the first time. Strong differences in frequencies of occurrence of terminal flower-like structures among examined natural populations are revealed. Data on variation of organ numbers in flowers of plants from different populations allow hypothesizing that increased size of floral primordia is a factor that plays a role in their amalgamation into ajoint primordium of a terminal structure. Vascular system of inflorescences of R. maritima with united flowers is quite similar to the vascular system of a flower and nothing contradicts a hypothesis on terminal position ofthis structure. Transversally inserted stamens in inflorescences with united flowers are usually of inverted polarity. This appears to be the first documented example of an inversion of relative polarity of stamens and carpels in angiosperms.

  2. Plant hormones including ethylene are recruited in calyx inflation in Solanaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ramzan; Hu, Jinyong; He, Chaoying

    2012-07-01

    Plant hormones direct many processes of floral and post-floral morphogenesis in Angiosperms. However, their role in shaping floral morphological novelties, such as inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) exhibited by a few genera of the Solanaceae, remains unknown. In Withania and Physalis, sepals resume growth after pollination and encapsulate the mature fruit to form a balloon-like structure, i.e. ICS. The epidermal cells of calyx show enlargement and lobation post-fertilization. Application of hormones to depistillated flower buds of Withania revealed that cytokinins and gibberellins mimic fertilization signals. The ICS development is a synchronous step with fruit development; both processes are under the control of more or less the same set of hormones, including cytokinins and gibberellic acids. Interestingly, inhibition of ethylene in the system is sufficient to yield inflated calyx in Withania. In contrast, Tubocapsicum, a closely related species and an evolutionary natural loss mutant of ICS - showed no response to applied hormones, and ethylene led to inflation of the receptacle indirectly. In addition to hormones, the expression of an MPF2-like MADS-box transcription factor in sepals is essential for ICS formation. Nevertheless, the interactions between MPF2-like genes and hormones are barely detectable at the transcript level. Our data provide insight into the role of hormones in generating floral morphological diversity during evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Large and abundant flowers increase indirect costs of corollas: a study of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean species of contrasting flower size.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Valladares, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Large floral displays receive more pollinator visits but involve higher production and maintenance costs. This can result in indirect costs which may negatively affect functions like reproductive output. In this study, we explored the relationship between floral display and indirect costs in two pairs of coflowering sympatric Mediterranean Cistus of contrasting flower size. We hypothesized that: (1) corolla production entails direct costs in dry mass, N and P, (2) corollas entail significant indirect costs in terms of fruit set and seed production, (3) indirect costs increase with floral display, (4) indirect costs are greater in larger-flowered sympatric species, and (5) local climatic conditions influence indirect costs. We compared fruit set and seed production of petal-removed flowers and unmanipulated control flowers and evaluated the influence of mean flower number and mean flower size on relative fruit and seed gain of petal-removed and control flowers. Fruit set and seed production were significantly higher in petal-removed flowers in all the studied species. A positive relationship was found between relative fruit gain and mean individual flower size within species. In one pair of species, fruit gain was higher in the large-flowered species, as was the correlation between fruit gain and mean number of open flowers. In the other pair, the correlation between fruit gain and mean flower size was also higher in the large-flowered species. These results reveal that Mediterranean environments impose significant constraints on floral display, counteracting advantages of large flowers from the pollination point of view with increased indirect costs of such flowers.

  4. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-06-05

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier flowering phenology affected plant reproduction and the level of pollen limitation using warmed and unwarmed open top chambers in the Horqin Sandy Land of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The results of this study indicated that artificial warming markedly advanced flower phenology rather than extending the duration of the flowering. Additionally, warming was found to significantly reduce flower density which led to seed production reduction, since there were insignificant effects observed on fruit set and seed number per fruit. Experimental floral manipulations showed that warming did not affect pollen limitation. These results revealed the negative effects of advanced phenology induced by warming on flower density and reproductive output, as well as the neutral effects on reproductive success and pollen limitation intensity of long surviving plants.

  5. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-04-22

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties.

  7. "Say it...near the flower shop": further evidence of the effect of flowers on mating.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    For millennia, flowers have been used to convey romance. In this study, 18-25-year-old women (N = 600) walking alone in a shopping mall were approached by an attractive 20-year-old male-confederate who solicited them for their phone number. The women were solicited as they were walking in the area of a flower shop, a cake shop, or a women's shoes shop. It was found that women agreed more favorably to the confederate's courtship solicitation when solicited in the area of the flower shop. Positive mood induced by exposure to flowers was used to explain these results.

  8. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M.; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. Methods We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant–pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. Key Results We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. Conclusions The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant–pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant–pollinator associations. PMID:27325897

  9. Cool night-time temperatures induce the expression of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Tong, Xinran; Lee, Jae; Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Kim, Soo-Hyung; Imaizumi, Takato

    2016-07-01

    Day length and ambient temperature are major stimuli controlling flowering time. To understand flowering mechanisms in more natural conditions, we explored the effect of daily light and temperature changes on Arabidopsis thaliana. Seedlings were exposed to different day/night temperature and day-length treatments to assess expression changes in flowering genes. Cooler temperature treatments increased CONSTANS (CO) transcript levels at night. Night-time CO induction was diminished in flowering bhlh (fbh)-quadruple mutants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript levels were reduced at dusk, but increased at the end of cooler nights. The dusk suppression, which was alleviated in short vegetative phase (svp) mutants, occurred particularly in younger seedlings, whereas the increase during the night continued over 2 wk. Cooler temperature treatments altered the levels of FLOWERING LOCUS M-β (FLM-β) and FLM-δ splice variants. FT levels correlated strongly with flowering time across treatments. Day/night temperature changes modulate photoperiodic flowering by changing FT accumulation patterns. Cooler night-time temperatures enhance FLOWERING BHLH (FBH)-dependent induction of CO and consequently increase CO protein. When plants are young, cooler temperatures suppress FT at dusk through SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) function, perhaps to suppress precocious flowering. Our results suggest day length and diurnal temperature changes combine to modulate FT and flowering time. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Cyanogenic Glucosides and Derivatives in Almond and Sweet Cherry Flower Buds from Dormancy to Flowering

    PubMed Central

    Del Cueto, Jorge; Ionescu, Irina A.; Pičmanová, Martina; Gericke, Oliver; Motawia, Mohammed S.; Olsen, Carl E.; Campoy, José A.; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger L.; Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Almond and sweet cherry are two economically important species of the Prunus genus. They both produce the cyanogenic glucosides prunasin and amygdalin. As part of a two-component defense system, prunasin and amygdalin release toxic hydrogen cyanide upon cell disruption. In this study, we investigated the potential role within prunasin and amygdalin and some of its derivatives in endodormancy release of these two Prunus species. The content of prunasin and of endogenous prunasin turnover products in the course of flower development was examined in five almond cultivars – differing from very early to extra-late in flowering time – and in one sweet early cherry cultivar. In all cultivars, prunasin began to accumulate in the flower buds shortly after dormancy release and the levels dropped again just before flowering time. In almond and sweet cherry, the turnover of prunasin coincided with increased levels of prunasin amide whereas prunasin anitrile pentoside and β-D-glucose-1-benzoate were abundant in almond and cherry flower buds at certain developmental stages. These findings indicate a role for the turnover of cyanogenic glucosides in controlling flower development in Prunus species. PMID:28579996

  11. Aspects of Clock Resetting in Flowering of Xanthium 1

    PubMed Central

    Papenfuss, Herbert D.; Salisbury, Frank B.

    1967-01-01

    a single inductive cycle. It is suggested that phytochrome may influence only the phase of the clock and not other aspects of flowering such as synthesis of flowering hormone. PMID:16656693

  12. A flower's nano-powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenzel, Tobias; Vignolini, Silvia

    2018-04-01

    When it comes to shapes and colours, flowers are one of nature’s most praised objects – but there is more to them than meets the eye. Tobias Wenzel and Silvia Vignolini reveal an ingenious strategy flowers use to become coloured and attract pollinators

  13. Pollinators show flower colour preferences but flowers with similar colours do not attract similar pollinators.

    PubMed

    Reverté, Sara; Retana, Javier; Gómez, José M; Bosch, Jordi

    2016-08-01

    Colour is one of the main floral traits used by pollinators to locate flowers. Although pollinators show innate colour preferences, the view that the colour of a flower may be considered an important predictor of its main pollinators is highly controversial because flower choice is highly context-dependent, and initial innate preferences may be overridden by subsequent associative learning. Our objective is to establish whether there is a relationship between flower colour and pollinator composition in natural communities. We measured the flower reflectance spectrum and pollinator composition in four plant communities (85 plant species represented by 109 populations, and 32 305 plant-pollinator interactions in total). Pollinators were divided into six taxonomic groups: bees, ants, wasps, coleopterans, dipterans and lepidopterans. We found consistent associations between pollinator groups and certain colours. These associations matched innate preferences experimentally established for several pollinators and predictions of the pollination syndrome theory. However, flowers with similar colours did not attract similar pollinator assemblages. The explanation for this paradoxical result is that most flower species are pollination generalists. We conclude that although pollinator colour preferences seem to condition plant-pollinator interactions, the selective force behind these preferences has not been strong enough to mediate the appearance and maintenance of tight colour-based plant-pollinator associations. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Foraging behavior of three bee species in a natural mimicry system: female flowers which mimic male flowers in Ecballium elaterium (Cucurbitaceae).

    PubMed

    Dukas, Reuyen

    1987-12-01

    The behavior of Apis mellifera and two species of solitary bees which forage in the flowers of monoecious Ecballium elaterium (L.) A. Rich (Cucurbitaceae) were compared. The female flowers of E. elaterium resemble male flowers visually but are nectarless, and their number is relatively smaller. Apis mellifera was found to discriminate between the two genders and to pay relatively fewer visits to female flowers (mean of 30% relative to male flowers) from the beginning of their activity in the morning. The time spent by honeybees in female flowers is very short compared to that spent in male flowers. It is surmised that the bees remember the differences between the flowers where they foraged on the previous days. In contrast, the two species of solitary bees Lasioglossum politum (Morawitz) (Halictidae) and Ceratina mandibularis Fiese (Anthophoridae) visit the female flowers with nearly equal frequencies at the beginning of each foraging day and stay longer in these flowers. Over the day there is a decline in the relative frequency of visits to female flowers and also in the mean time spent in them. The study shows that bees can collect rewards at high efficiency from the flowers of Ecballium elaterium because of their partial discrimination ability and the scarcity of the mimic flowers. It is suggested that the memory pattern of some solitary bees may be different from that of Apis mellifera. It seems that the limited memory and discrimination ability of bees can lead to a high frequency of visits to the mimic flowers during a long flowering season.

  15. Loss of floral repressor function adapts rice to higher latitudes in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Ariza, Jorge; Galbiati, Francesca; Goretti, Daniela; Brambilla, Vittoria; Shrestha, Roshi; Pappolla, Andrea; Courtois, Brigitte; Fornara, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to discriminate variations in day length allows plants to align flowering with the most favourable season of the year. This capacity has been altered by artificial selection when cultivated varieties became adapted to environments different from those of initial domestication. Rice flowering is promoted by short days when HEADING DATE 1 (Hd1) and EARLY HEADING DATE 1 (Ehd1) induce the expression of florigenic proteins encoded by HEADING DATE 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T 1 (RFT1). Repressors of flowering antagonize such induction under long days, maintaining vegetative growth and delaying flowering. To what extent artificial selection of long day repressor loci has contributed to expand rice cultivation to Europe is currently unclear. This study demonstrates that European varieties activate both Hd3a and RFT1 expression regardless of day length and their induction is caused by loss-of-function mutations at major long day floral repressors. However, their contribution to flowering time control varies between locations. Pyramiding of mutations is frequently observed in European germplasm, but single mutations are sufficient to adapt rice to flower at higher latitudes. Expression of Ehd1 is increased in varieties showing reduced or null Hd1 expression under natural long days, as well as in single hd1 mutants in isogenic backgrounds. These data indicate that loss of repressor genes has been a key strategy to expand rice cultivation to Europe, and that Ehd1 is a central node integrating floral repressive signals. PMID:25732533

  16. Flowers and Wild Megachilid Bees Share Microbes.

    PubMed

    McFrederick, Quinn S; Thomas, Jason M; Neff, John L; Vuong, Hoang Q; Russell, Kaleigh A; Hale, Amanda R; Mueller, Ulrich G

    2017-01-01

    Transmission pathways have fundamental influence on microbial symbiont persistence and evolution. For example, the core gut microbiome of honey bees is transmitted socially and via hive surfaces, but some non-core bacteria associated with honey bees are also found on flowers, and these bacteria may therefore be transmitted indirectly between bees via flowers. Here, we test whether multiple flower and wild megachilid bee species share microbes, which would suggest that flowers may act as hubs of microbial transmission. We sampled the microbiomes of flowers (either bagged to exclude bees or open to allow bee visitation), adults, and larvae of seven megachilid bee species and their pollen provisions. We found a Lactobacillus operational taxonomic unit (OTU) in all samples but in the highest relative and absolute abundances in adult and larval bee guts and pollen provisions. The presence of the same bacterial types in open and bagged flowers, pollen provisions, and bees supports the hypothesis that flowers act as hubs of transmission of these bacteria between bees. The presence of bee-associated bacteria in flowers that have not been visited by bees suggests that these bacteria may also be transmitted to flowers via plant surfaces, the air, or minute insect vectors such as thrips. Phylogenetic analyses of nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the Lactobacillus OTU dominating in flower- and megachilid-associated microbiomes is monophyletic, and we propose the name Lactobacillus micheneri sp. nov. for this bacterium.

  17. PhERF6, interacting with EOBI, negatively regulates fragrance biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Zhina; Yang, Li; Chen, Qian; Shao, Lu; Liu, Juanxu; Yu, Yixun

    2017-09-01

    In petunia, the production of volatile benzenoids/phenylpropanoids determines floral aroma, highly regulated by development, rhythm and ethylene. Previous studies identified several R2R3-type MYB trans-factors as positive regulators of scent biosynthesis in petunia flowers. Ethylene response factors (ERFs) have been shown to take part in the signal transduction of hormones, and regulation of metabolism and development processes in various plant species. Using virus-induced gene silencing technology, a negative regulator of volatile benzenoid biosynthesis, PhERF6, was identified by a screen for regulators of the expression of genes related to scent production. PhERF6 expression was temporally and spatially connected with scent production and was upregulated by exogenous ethylene. Up-/downregulation of the mRNA level of PhERF6 affected the expression of ODO1 and several floral scent-related genes. PhERF6 silencing led to a significant increase in the concentrations of volatiles emitted by flowers. Yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and co-immunoprecipitation assays indicated that PhERF6 interacted with the N-terminus of EOBI, which includes two DNA binding domains. Our results show that PhERF6 negatively regulates volatile production in petunia flowers by competing for the binding of the c-myb domains of the EOBI protein with the promoters of genes related to floral scent. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  19. Precocious flowering in trees: the FLOWERING LOCUS T gene as a research and breeding tool in Populus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanling; Harry, David E; Ma, Cathleen; Yuceer, Cetin; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Vikram, Vikas; Shevchenko, Olga; Etherington, Elizabeth; Strauss, Steven H

    2010-06-01

    Expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and its homologues has been shown to accelerate the onset of flowering in a number of plant species, including poplar (Populus spp.). The application of FT should be of particular use in forest trees, as it could greatly accelerate and enable new kinds of breeding and research. Recent evidence showing the extent to which FT is effective in promoting flowering in trees is discussed, and its effectiveness in poplar is reported. Results using one FT gene from Arabidopsis and two from poplar, all driven by a heat-inducible promoter, transformed into two poplar genotypes are also described. Substantial variation in flowering response was observed depending on the FT gene and genetic background. Heat-induced plants shorter than 30 cm failed to flower as well as taller plants. Plants exposed to daily heat treatments lasting 3 weeks tended to produce fewer abnormal flowers than those in heat treatments of shorter durations; increasing the inductive temperature from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C produced similar benefits. Using optimal induction conditions, approximately 90% of transgenic plants could be induced to flower. When induced FT rootstocks were grafted with scions that lacked FT, flowering was only observed in rootstocks. The results suggest that a considerable amount of species- or genotype-specific adaptation will be required to develop FT into a reliable means for shortening the generation cycle for breeding in poplar.

  20. The Vaccinium corymbosum FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT): a flowering activator reverses photoperiodic and chilling requirements in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Jiang, Ning; Hancock, James F

    2013-11-01

    The blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T ( FT )-like gene ( VcFT ) cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering. Blueberry is a woody perennial bush with a longer juvenile period than annual crops, requiring vernalization to flower normally. Few studies have been reported on the molecular mechanism of flowering in blueberry or other woody plants. Because FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) from Arabidopsis thaliana plays a multifaceted role in generating mobile molecular signals to regulate plant flowering time, isolation and functional analysis of the blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) FT-like gene (VcFT) will facilitate the elucidation of molecular mechanisms of flowering in woody plants. Based on EST sequences, a 525-bpVcFT was identified and cloned from the cDNA of a tetraploid, northern highbush blueberry cultivar, Bluecrop. Ectopic expression of 35S:VcFT in tobacco induced flowering an average of 28 days earlier than wild-type plants. Expression of the 35S:VcFT in the blueberry cultivar Aurora resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype, which flowered not only during in vitro culture, a growth stage when nontransgenic shoots had not yet flowered, but also in 6-10-week old, soil-grown transgenic plants, in contrast to the fact that at least 1 year and 800 chilling hours are required for the appearance of the first flower of both nontransgenic 'Aurora' and transgenic controls with the gusA. These results demonstrate that the VcFT is a functional floral activator and overexpression of the VcFT is able to reverse the photoperiodic and chilling requirements and drive early and continuous flowering.

  1. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards

    PubMed Central

    Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-01-01

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators (‘concealed-nectar plants’); (2) natural enemies (‘open-nectar plants’); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., ‘multi-functional’ mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that ‘multi-functional’ flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards. PMID:28930157

  2. Getting More Power from Your Flowers: Multi-Functional Flower Strips Enhance Pollinators and Pest Control Agents in Apple Orchards.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alistair John; Wilby, Andrew; Sutton, Peter; Wäckers, Felix

    2017-09-20

    Flower strips are commonly recommended to boost biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services (e.g., pollination and pest control) on farmland. However, significant knowledge gaps remain regards the extent to which they deliver on these aims. Here, we tested the efficacy of flower strips that targeted different subsets of beneficial arthropods (pollinators and natural enemies) and their ecosystem services in cider apple orchards. Treatments included mixes that specifically targeted: (1) pollinators ('concealed-nectar plants'); (2) natural enemies ('open-nectar plants'); or (3) both groups concurrently (i.e., 'multi-functional' mix). Flower strips were established in alleyways of four orchards and compared to control alleyways (no flowers). Pollinator (e.g., bees) and natural enemy (e.g., parasitoid wasps, predatory flies and beetles) visitation to flower strips, alongside measures of pest control (aphid colony densities, sentinel prey predation), and fruit production, were monitored in orchards over two consecutive growing seasons. Targeted flower strips attracted either pollinators or natural enemies, whereas mixed flower strips attracted both groups in similar abundance to targeted mixes. Natural enemy densities on apple trees were higher in plots containing open-nectar plants compared to other treatments, but effects were stronger for non-aphidophagous taxa. Predation of sentinel prey was enhanced in all flowering plots compared to controls but pest aphid densities and fruit yield were unaffected by flower strips. We conclude that 'multi-functional' flower strips that contain flowering plant species with opposing floral traits can provide nectar and pollen for both pollinators and natural enemies, but further work is required to understand their potential for improving pest control services and yield in cider apple orchards.

  3. Ectopic expression of GA 2-oxidase 6 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) causes dwarfism, late flowering and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jindong; Liao, Xiaoying; He, Reqing; Zhong, Ming; Feng, Panpan; Li, Xinmei; Tang, Dongying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development. Additionally, BnGA2ox6 overexpression enhanced chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll accumulation, and downregulated mRNA expression levels of the CHL1 and RCCR genes, which are involved in the chlorophyll degradation. These findings suggest that BnGA2ox6 regulates plant hight, silique development, flowering and chlorophyll accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Pollination Services of Mango Flower Pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Huda, A. Nurul; Salmah, M. R. Che; Hassan, A. Abu; Hamdan, A.; Razak, M. N. Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Measuring wild pollinator services in agricultural production is very important in the context of sustainable management. In this study, we estimated the contribution of native pollinators to mango fruit set production of two mango cultivars Mangifera indica (L). cv. ‘Sala’ and ‘Chok Anan’. Visitation rates of pollinators on mango flowers and number of pollen grains adhering to their bodies determined pollinator efficiency for reproductive success of the crop. Chok Anan failed to produce any fruit set in the absence of pollinators. In natural condition, we found that Sala produced 4.8% fruit set per hermaphrodite flower while Chok Anan produced 3.1% per flower. Hand pollination tremendously increased fruit set of naturally pollinated flower for Sala (>100%), but only 33% for Chok Anan. Pollinator contribution to mango fruit set was estimated at 53% of total fruit set production. Our results highlighted the importance of insect pollinations in mango production. Large size flies Eristalinus spp. and Chrysomya spp. were found to be effective pollen carriers and visited more mango flowers compared with other flower visitors. PMID:26246439

  5. Dormancy release and flowering time in Ziziphus jujuba Mill., a "direct flowering" fruit tree, has a facultative requirement for chilling.

    PubMed

    Meir, Michal; Ransbotyn, Vanessa; Raveh, Eran; Barak, Simon; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Zaccai, Michele

    2016-03-15

    In deciduous fruit trees, the effect of chilling on flowering has mostly been investigated in the "indirect flowering" group, characterized by a period of rest between flower bud formation and blooming. In the present study, we explored the effects of chilling and chilling deprivation on the flowering of Ziziphus jujuba, a temperate deciduous fruit tree belonging to the "direct flowering" group, in which flower bud differentiation, blooming and fruit development occur after dormancy release, during a single growing season. Dormancy release, vegetative growth and flowering time in Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li were assessed following several treatments of chilling. Chilling treatments quantitatively decreased the timing of vegetative bud dormancy release, thereby accelerating flowering, but had no effect on the time from dormancy release to flowering. Trees grown at a constant temperature of 25°C, without chilling, broke dormancy and flowered, indicating the facultative character of chilling in this species. We measured the expression of Z. jujuba LFY and AP1 homologues (ZjLFY and ZjAP1). Chilling decreased ZjLFY expression in dormant vegetative buds but had no effect on ZjAP1expression, which reached peak expression before dormancy release and at anthesis. In conclusion, chilling is not obligatory for dormancy release of Z. jujuba cv. Ben-Li vegetative buds. However, the exposure to chilling during dormancy does accelerate vegetative bud dormancy release and flowering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative. Thus searching for flower in the pre-Cretaceous has been a tantalising task for palaeobotanists for a long time. Here, we report a typical flower, Euanthus panii gen. et sp. nov., from the Middle–Late Jurassic of Liaoning, China. Euanthus has sepals, petals, androecium with tetrasporangiate dithecate anthers and gynoecium with enclosed ovules, organised just like in perfect flowers of extant angiosperms. The discovery of Euanthus implies that typical angiosperm flowers have already been in place in the Jurassic, and provides a new insight unavailable otherwise for the evolution of flowers. PMID:27134345

  7. A perfect flower from the Jurassic of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhong-Jian; Wang, Xin

    2016-07-03

    Flower, enclosed ovule and tetrasporangiate anther are three major characters distinguishing angiosperms from other seed plants. Morphologically, typical flowers are characterised by an organisation with gynoecium and androecium surrounded by corolla and calyx. Theoretically, flowers are derived from their counterparts in ancient ancestral gymnosperms. However, as for when, how and from which groups, there is no consensus among botanists yet. Although angiosperm-like pollen and angiosperms have been claimed in the Triassic and Jurassic, typical flowers with the aforesaid three key characters are still missing in the pre-Cretaceous age, making many interpretations of flower evolution tentative. Thus searching for flower in the pre-Cretaceous has been a tantalising task for palaeobotanists for a long time. Here, we report a typical flower, Euanthus panii gen. et sp. nov. , from the Middle-Late Jurassic of Liaoning, China. Euanthus has sepals, petals, androecium with tetrasporangiate dithecate anthers and gynoecium with enclosed ovules, organised just like in perfect flowers of extant angiosperms. The discovery of Euanthus implies that typical angiosperm flowers have already been in place in the Jurassic, and provides a new insight unavailable otherwise for the evolution of flowers.

  8. Where have all the blue flowers gone: pollinator responses and selection on flower colour in New Zealand Wahlenbergia albomarginata.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Bischoff, M; Lord, J M; Robertson, A W

    2012-02-01

    Although pollinators are thought to select on flower colour, few studies have experimentally decoupled effects of colour from correlated traits on pollinator visitation and pollen transfer. We combined selection analysis and phenotypic manipulations to measure the effect of petal colour on visitation and pollen export at two spatial scales in Wahlenbergia albomarginata. This species is representative of many New Zealand alpine herbs that have secondarily evolved white or pale flowers. The major pollinators, solitary bees, exerted phenotypic selection on flower size but not colour, quantified by bee vision. When presented with manipulated flowers, bees visited flowers painted blue to resemble a congener over white flowers in large, but not small, experimental arrays. Pollen export was higher for blue flowers in large arrays. Pollinator preference does not explain the pale colouration of W. albomarginata, as commonly hypothesized. Absence of bright blue could be driven instead by indirect selection of correlated characters. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Pleiotropy, redundancy and the evolution of flowers.

    PubMed

    Albert, Victor A; Oppenheimer, David G; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2002-07-01

    Most angiosperm flowers are tightly integrated, functionally bisexual shoots that have carpels with enclosed ovules. Flowering plants evolved from within the gymnosperms, which lack this combination of innovations. Paradoxically, phylogenetic reconstructions suggest that the flowering plant lineage substantially pre-dates the evolution of flowers themselves. We provide a model based on known gene regulatory networks whereby positive selection on a single, partially redundant gene duplicate 'trapped' the ancestors of flower-bearing plants into the condensed, bisexual state approximately 130 million years ago. The LEAFY (LFY) gene of Arabidopsis encodes a master regulator that functions as the main conduit of environmental signals to the reproductive developmental program. We directly link the elimination of one LFY paralog, pleiotropically maintained in gymnosperms, to the sudden appearance of flowers in the fossil record.

  10. Hormonal regulation of floret closure of rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Youming; Zeng, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Plant hormones play important roles in regulating every aspect of growth, development, and metabolism of plants. We are interested in understanding hormonal regulation of floret opening and closure in plants. This is a particularly important problem for hybrid rice because regulation of flowering time is vitally important in hybrid rice seed production. However, little was known about the effects of plant hormones on rice flowering. We have shown that jasmonate and methyl jasmonate play significant roles in promoting rice floret opening. In this study, we investigated the effects of auxins including indole-3-acidic acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 1-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (DIC) and abscisic acid (ABA) on floret closure of four fertile and three sterile varieties of rice. The results from field studies in three growing seasons in 2013–2015 showed that the percentages of closed florets were significantly lower in plants treated with IAA, IBA, 2,4-D, DIC and NAA and that the durations of floret opening were significantly longer in plants treated with the same auxins. The auxins exhibited time- and concentration-dependant effects on floret closure. ABA displayed opposite effects of auxins because it increased the percentages of floret closure and decreased the length of floret opening of rice varieties. The degree of auxin-inhibiting and ABA-promoting effects on floret closure was varied somewhat but not significantly different among the rice varieties. Endogenous IAA levels were the highest in florets collected shortly before opening followed by a sharp decline in florets with maximal angles of opening and a significant jump of IAA levels shortly after floret closure in both fertile and sterile rice plants. ABA levels showed an opposite trend in the same samples. Our results showed that auxins delayed but ABA promoted the closure of rice floret regardless of the varieties

  11. Anthocyanin Profiles in Flowers of Grape Hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Lou, Qian; Wang, Lin; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Yali

    2017-04-26

    Grape hyacinth ( Muscari spp.) is a popular ornamental bulbous perennial famous for its blue flowers. To understand the chemical basis of the rich blue colors in this plant, anthocyanin profiles of six blue flowering grape hyacinths as well as one pink and one white cultivar were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Along with two known compounds, eight putative anthocyanins were identified in the tepals of grape hyacinth for the first time. The accumulation and distribution of anthocyanins in the plant showed significant cultivar and flower development specificity. Violet-blue flowers mainly contained simple delphinidin-type anthocyanins bearing one or two methyl-groups but no acyl groups, whereas white and pink flowers synthesised more complex pelargonidin/cyanidin-derivatives with acyl-moieties but no methyl-groups. The results partially reveal why solid blue, orange or red flowers are rare in this plant in nature. In addition, pelargonidin-type anthocyanins were found for the first time in the genus, bringing more opportunities in terms of breeding of flower color in grape hyacinth.

  12. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6) Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ying-Xiong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism. PMID:29312375

  13. A flower image retrieval method based on ROI feature.

    PubMed

    Hong, An-Xiang; Chen, Gang; Li, Jun-Li; Chi, Zhe-Ru; Zhang, Dan

    2004-07-01

    Flower image retrieval is a very important step for computer-aided plant species recognition. In this paper, we propose an efficient segmentation method based on color clustering and domain knowledge to extract flower regions from flower images. For flower retrieval, we use the color histogram of a flower region to characterize the color features of flower and two shape-based features sets, Centroid-Contour Distance (CCD) and Angle Code Histogram (ACH), to characterize the shape features of a flower contour. Experimental results showed that our flower region extraction method based on color clustering and domain knowledge can produce accurate flower regions. Flower retrieval results on a database of 885 flower images collected from 14 plant species showed that our Region-of-Interest (ROI) based retrieval approach using both color and shape features can perform better than a method based on the global color histogram proposed by Swain and Ballard (1991) and a method based on domain knowledge-driven segmentation and color names proposed by Das et al.(1999).

  14. Transcriptional Analysis of Flowering Time in Switchgrass

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tornqvist, Carl-Erik; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Kim, Jeongwoon

    Over the past two decades, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has emerged as a priority biofuel feedstock. The bulk of switchgrass biomass is in the vegetative portion of the plant; therefore, increasing the length of vegetative growth will lead to an increase in overall biomass yield. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the control of flowering time in switchgrass that would assist in development of cultivars with longer vegetative phases through delayed flowering. RNA sequencing was used to assess genome-wide expression profiles across a developmental series between switchgrass genotypes belonging to the two main ecotypes: upland, typically earlymore » flowering, and lowland, typically late flowering. Leaf blades and tissues enriched for the shoot apical meristem (SAM) were collected in a developmental series from emergence through anthesis for RNA extraction. RNA from samples that flanked the SAM transition stage was sequenced for expression analyses. The analyses revealed differential expression patterns between early- and late-flowering genotypes for known flowering time orthologs. Namely, genes shown to play roles in photoperiod response and the circadian clock in other species were identified as potential candidates for regulating flowering time in the switchgrass genotypes analyzed. Based on their expression patterns, many of the differentially expressed genes could also be classified as putative promoters or repressors of flowering. The candidate genes presented here may be used to guide switchgrass improvement through marker-assisted breeding and/or transgenic or gene editing approaches.Over the past two decades, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has emerged as a priority biofuel feedstock. The bulk of switchgrass biomass is in the vegetative portion of the plant; therefore, increasing the length of vegetative growth will lead to an increase in overall biomass yield. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the control of flowering time in

  15. Transcriptional Analysis of Flowering Time in Switchgrass

    DOE PAGES

    Tornqvist, Carl-Erik; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Kim, Jeongwoon; ...

    2017-04-27

    Over the past two decades, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has emerged as a priority biofuel feedstock. The bulk of switchgrass biomass is in the vegetative portion of the plant; therefore, increasing the length of vegetative growth will lead to an increase in overall biomass yield. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the control of flowering time in switchgrass that would assist in development of cultivars with longer vegetative phases through delayed flowering. RNA sequencing was used to assess genome-wide expression profiles across a developmental series between switchgrass genotypes belonging to the two main ecotypes: upland, typically earlymore » flowering, and lowland, typically late flowering. Leaf blades and tissues enriched for the shoot apical meristem (SAM) were collected in a developmental series from emergence through anthesis for RNA extraction. RNA from samples that flanked the SAM transition stage was sequenced for expression analyses. The analyses revealed differential expression patterns between early- and late-flowering genotypes for known flowering time orthologs. Namely, genes shown to play roles in photoperiod response and the circadian clock in other species were identified as potential candidates for regulating flowering time in the switchgrass genotypes analyzed. Based on their expression patterns, many of the differentially expressed genes could also be classified as putative promoters or repressors of flowering. The candidate genes presented here may be used to guide switchgrass improvement through marker-assisted breeding and/or transgenic or gene editing approaches.Over the past two decades, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has emerged as a priority biofuel feedstock. The bulk of switchgrass biomass is in the vegetative portion of the plant; therefore, increasing the length of vegetative growth will lead to an increase in overall biomass yield. The goal of this study was to gain insight into the control of flowering time in

  16. Carbohydrate Status of Tulip Bulbs during Cold-Induced Flower Stalk Elongation and Flowering.

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, H.; Rook, F.; Kolloffel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of a cold treatment on the carbohydrate status of the scales and flower stalk of Tulipa gesneriana L. cv Apeldoorn bulbs during growth after planting was studied and compared with bulbs not given cold treatment. Bulbs were stored dry for 12 weeks at 5[deg]C (precooled) or 17[deg]C (noncooled). Only the 5[deg]C treatment led to rapid flower stalk elongation and flowering following planting at higher temperatures. Precooling enhanced mobilization of starch, fructans, and sucrose in the scales. The cold-stimulated starch breakdown was initially accompanied by increased [alpha]-amylase activity per scale. In noncooled bulbs, [alpha]-amylase activity slightly decreased or remained more or less constant. Cold-induced flower stalk elongation was partially accompanied by a decrease in the sucrose content and an increase in the glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight. The starch content in internodes initially decreased and subsequently increased; [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode showed a peak pattern during starch breakdown and increased thereafter. The internodes of noncooled bulbs, on the contrary, accumulated sucrose. Their glucose content and invertase activity per g dry weight remained low. Starch breakdown was not found and [alpha]-amylase activity per g dry weight of the lowermost internode remained at a low level. Precooling of tulip bulbs thus favors reserve mobilization in the scales and flower stalk and glucose accumulation in the elongating internodes. PMID:12232100

  17. Sepal phenolic profile during Helleborus niger flower development.

    PubMed

    Schmitzer, Valentina; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Stampar, Franci

    2013-11-01

    Morphological changes and phenolic patterns of developing hellebore sepals and the effects of pistil removal on these parameters were studied by comparing six flower stages of Helleborus niger. Color changes were evaluated colorimetrically, chlorophyll content was measured spectrophotometrically, and anthocyanins and flavonols were identified and quantified with HPLC-MS. Pistil removal not only altered the morphological development of hellebore flower resulting in smaller flower and significant color changes but also lead to several biochemical modifications. Five cyanidin glycosides have been identified from the group of anthocyanins in hellebore. Individual and total anthocyanin content increased from bud to subsequent developmental stages. Moreover, significantly higher content levels of individual and total anthocyanins have been measured in non-pollinated flower sepals compared to sepals of pollinated flowers. From the group of flavonols eight quercetin and kaempferol compounds have been quantified in hellebore sepals. Flavonol content significantly decreased during flower development with lowest levels recorded in sepals of non-pollinated and senescent pollinated hellebore flowers. Sepals of pollinated flowers contained highest levels of chlorophyll and significantly lower amounts of chlorophyll were measured in non-pollinated flowers and in sepals of senescent stage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional homogenization of flower visitor communities with urbanization.

    PubMed

    Deguines, Nicolas; Julliard, Romain; de Flores, Mathieu; Fontaine, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Land-use intensification and resulting habitat loss are put forward as the main causes of flower visitor decline. However, the impact of urbanization, the prime driver of land-use intensification in Europe, is poorly studied. In particular, our understanding of whether and how it affects the composition and functioning of flower visitor assemblages is scant, yet required to cope with increasing urbanization worldwide. Here, we use a nation-wide dataset of plant-flower visitor (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) interactions sampled by citizen scientists following a standardized protocol to assess macroecological changes in richness and composition of flower visitor communities with urbanization. We measured the community composition by quantifying the relative occurrence of generalist and specialist flower visitors based on their specialisation on flowering plant families. We show that urbanization is associated with reduced flower visitor richness and a shift in community composition toward generalist insects, indicating a modification of the functional composition of communities. These results suggest that urbanization affects not only the richness of flower visitor assemblages but may also cause their large-scale functional homogenization. Future research should focus on designing measures to reconcile urban development with flower visitor conservation.

  19. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Carrie S; Reagon, Michael; Olsen, Kenneth M; Jia, Yulin; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-10-01

    • Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature. Many crops have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading the agricultural environment. Given the shared species designation of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) and its the invasive conspecific weed, weedy rice, we assessed the extent to which flowering time differed between these groups. We further assessed whether genes affecting flowering time variation in rice could play a role in the evolution of weedy rice in the United States.• We quantified flowering time under day-neutral conditions in weedy, cultivated, and wild Oryza groups. We also sequenced two candidate gene regions: Hd1, a locus involved in promotion of flowering under short days, and the promoter of Hd3a, a locus encoding the mobile signal that induces flowering.• We found that flowering time has diverged between two distinct weedy rice groups, such that straw-hull weeds tend to flower earlier and black-hull awned weeds tend to flower later than cultivated rice. These differences are consistent with weed Hd1 alleles. At both loci, weeds share haplotypes with their cultivated progenitors, despite significantly different flowering times.• Our phenotypic data indicate the existence of multiple flowering strategies in weedy rice. Flowering differences between weeds and ancestors suggest this trait has evolved rapidly. From a weed management standpoint, there is the potential for overlap in flowering of black-hull awned weeds and crops in the United States, permitting hybridization and the potential escape of genes from crops. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Effect of Ethylene on Flower Abscission: a Survey

    PubMed Central

    VAN DOORN, WOUTER G.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of ethylene on flower abscission was investigated in monocotyledons and eudicotyledons, in about 300 species from 50 families. In all species studied except Cymbidium, flower abscission was highly sensitive to ethylene. Flower fall was not consistent among the species in any family studied. It also showed no relationship with petal senescence or abscission, nor with petal colour changes or flower closure. Results suggest that flower abscission is generally mediated by endogenous ethylene, but that some exceptional ethylene‐insensitive abscission occurs in the Orchidaceae. PMID:12102524

  1. Interactions of OsMADS1 with Floral Homeotic Genes in Rice Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Liang, Wanqi; Yin, Changsong; Yang, Xuelian; Ping, Baozhe; Li, Anxue; Jia, Ru; Chen, Mingjiao; Luo, Zhijing; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Xiangxiang; Zhang, Dabing; Yuan, Zheng

    2015-09-01

    During reproductive development, rice plants develop unique flower organs which determine the final grain yield. OsMADS1, one of SEPALLATA-like MADS-box genes, has been unraveled to play critical roles in rice floral organ identity specification and floral meristem determinacy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying interactions of OsMADS1 with other floral homeotic genes in regulating flower development remains largely elusive. In this work, we studied the genetic interactions of OsMADS1 with B-, C-, and D-class genes along with physical interactions among their proteins. We show that the physical and genetic interactions between OsMADS1 and OsMADS3 are essential for floral meristem activity maintenance and organ identity specification; while OsMADS1 physically and genetically interacts with OsMADS58 in regulating floral meristem determinacy and suppressing spikelet meristem reversion. We provided important genetic evidence to support the neofunctionalization of two rice C-class genes (OsMADS3 and OsMADS58) during flower development. Gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR analyses further revealed that OsMADS1 affects the expression of many genes involved in floral identity and hormone signaling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-PCR assay further demonstrated that OsMADS17 is a direct target gene of OsMADS1. Taken together, these results reveal that OsMADS1 has diversified regulatory functions in specifying rice floral organ and meristem identity, probably through its genetic and physical interactions with different floral homeotic regulators. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Model of white oak flower survival and maturation

    Treesearch

    David R. Larsen; Robert A. Cecich

    1997-01-01

    A stochastic model of oak flower dynamics is presented that integrates a number of factors which appear to affect the oak pistillate flower development process. The factors are modeled such that the distribution of the predicted flower populations could have come from the same distribution as the observed flower populations. Factors included in the model are; the range...

  3. Accelerated Growth and Initial Flowering of S2 Pinus Banksiana Selected for Precocious Flowering

    Treesearch

    Hyun Kang; Robert A. Cecich

    1999-01-01

    An accelerated growth protocol was applied in a greenhouse to hasten flowering in 13 S2 lines of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) selected for precocious flowering. Seeds were sown on October 1. After the artificial "summer, fall, winter, and spring," seedlings were placed outdoors between June 20 and November 1. Ovulate strobili were...

  4. Spring Flowers: Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Eloise; Levin, Ted

    1978-01-01

    Defining and describing a number of spring flowers, this article includes illustrations and explanations that demonstrate "art and science are born of the same parents". The flowers discussed are skunk cabbage, bellwort, spring beauty, jack-in-the-pulpit, Solomon's seal, wild geranium, showy orchids, moccasin flower, bluets, apple, and Indian…

  5. Low temperatures are required to induce the development of fertile flowers in transgenic male and female early flowering poplar (Populus tremula L.)

    PubMed Central

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lehnhardt, Denise; Briones, Valentina; Nilsson, Ove; Fladung, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Until now, artificial early flowering poplar systems have mostly led to the development of sterile flowers. In this study, several strategies aimed at inducting fertile flowers in pHSP::AtFT transgenic poplar were evaluated, in particular the influence of temperature and photoperiod. Our results provide evidence that temperature, and not photoperiod, is the key factor required for the development of fertile flowers in early flowering poplar. Fertile flowers were only obtained when a cold treatment phase of several weeks was used after the heat treatment phase. Heat treatments induced AtFT gene activity through activation of the heat-shock promoter (pHSP). Photoperiod did not show a similar influence on flower fertility as pollen grains were obtained under both long- and short-day conditions. Fertility was confirmed in flowers of both male and female plants. For the first time, crosses were successfully performed with transgenic female early flowering poplar. All mature flowers obtained after 8 weeks of inductive treatments were fertile. Gene expression studies also confirmed that cold temperatures influenced expression of poplar genes homologous to ‘pollen development genes’ from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Homology and expression patterns suggested a role for PtTDF1, PtBAM1, PtSERK1/2 and PtMS1 on anther and pollen development in poplar flowers. The system developed in this study allows a fast and very reliable induction of fertile poplar flowers in a very short period of time. The non-reproductive phase, usually 7–10 years, can now be shortened to 6–10 months, and fertile flowers can be obtained independently of the season. This system is a reliable tool for breeding purposes (high-speed breeding technology), genomics and biosafety research. PMID:27052434

  6. Low temperatures are required to induce the development of fertile flowers in transgenic male and female early flowering poplar (Populus tremula L.).

    PubMed

    Hoenicka, Hans; Lehnhardt, Denise; Briones, Valentina; Nilsson, Ove; Fladung, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Until now, artificial early flowering poplar systems have mostly led to the development of sterile flowers. In this study, several strategies aimed at inducting fertile flowers in pHSP::AtFT transgenic poplar were evaluated, in particular the influence of temperature and photoperiod. Our results provide evidence that temperature, and not photoperiod, is the key factor required for the development of fertile flowers in early flowering poplar. Fertile flowers were only obtained when a cold treatment phase of several weeks was used after the heat treatment phase. Heat treatments induced AtFT gene activity through activation of the heat-shock promoter (pHSP). Photoperiod did not show a similar influence on flower fertility as pollen grains were obtained under both long- and short-day conditions. Fertility was confirmed in flowers of both male and female plants. For the first time, crosses were successfully performed with transgenic female early flowering poplar. All mature flowers obtained after 8 weeks of inductive treatments were fertile. Gene expression studies also confirmed that cold temperatures influenced expression of poplar genes homologous to 'pollen development genes' from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Homology and expression patterns suggested a role for PtTDF1, PtBAM1, PtSERK1/2 and PtMS1 on anther and pollen development in poplar flowers. The system developed in this study allows a fast and very reliable induction of fertile poplar flowers in a very short period of time. The non-reproductive phase, usually 7-10 years, can now be shortened to 6-10 months, and fertile flowers can be obtained independently of the season. This system is a reliable tool for breeding purposes (high-speed breeding technology), genomics and biosafety research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Dominus for cut flower production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumigation with methyl bromide was the principal method of soilborne pest control in cut flower production. Many cut flower growers in Florida have ceased production, but those that remain are restricted in the fumigants that they are able to utilize due to proximity to potable water sources and oc...

  8. Teaching Flowers: A Photo Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewson, Federico

    2017-01-01

    "Teaching Flowers" reflects on humanity's deep connections to horticulture by gathering varied thoughts from seminal writers in the field. In addition, this visual article draws attention to labor issues within the U.S. floral industry by documenting the author's exploration of flowers as social sculpture in New York City.

  9. Explaining the apparent paradox of persistent selection for early flowering.

    PubMed

    Austen, Emily J; Rowe, Locke; Stinchcombe, John R; Forrest, Jessica R K

    2017-08-01

    Decades of observation in natural plant populations have revealed pervasive phenotypic selection for early flowering onset. This consistent pattern seems at odds with life-history theory, which predicts stabilizing selection on age and size at reproduction. Why is selection for later flowering rare? Moreover, extensive evidence demonstrates that flowering time can and does evolve. What maintains ongoing directional selection for early flowering? Several non-mutually exclusive processes can help to reconcile the apparent paradox of selection for early flowering. We outline four: selection through other fitness components may counter observed fecundity selection for early flowering; asymmetry in the flowering-time-fitness function may make selection for later flowering hard to detect; flowering time and fitness may be condition-dependent; and selection on flowering duration is largely unaccounted for. In this Viewpoint, we develop these four mechanisms, and highlight areas where further study will improve our understanding of flowering-time evolution. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. [Literature study on species of honeysuckle flower].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Chao-Xia; Li, Jian; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Honeysuckle flower is a traditional herbal medicine in China Through systemically sorting and studying literature of Chinese medicine, this article pointed out that leech used by the traditional Chinese medicine in ancient time has the features of twist vine, slight purple stem with clothing hair; opposite growing leaves, ovule shape with clothing hair on both side; two flowers growing from one pedicel, labiate corolla with 3.2 cm longth, flower grows from white color to yellow color, each branch axil grows only one pedicel, the involucre is ovoid shape, and the flower season is from mid-March to mid-May. Among all species of caprifoliaceae, only Lonicera japonica Thunb. meets these botanic features. Therefore, L. japonica Thunb. should be used as the orthodox species of herbal honeysuckle flower.

  11. Warming Contracts Flowering Phenology in an Alpine Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabis, M. D.; Winkler, D. E.; Kueppers, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    In alpine ecosystems where temperature increases associated with anthropogenic climate change are likely to be amplified, the flowering phenology of plants may be particularly sensitive to changes in environmental signals. For example, earlier snowmelt and higher temperature have been found to be important factors driving plant emergence and onset of flowering. However, few studies have examined the interactive role of soil moisture in response to warming. Using infrared heating to actively warm plots crossed with manual watering over the growing season in a moist alpine meadow at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, our preliminary results indicate that community-level phenology (length of flowering time across all species) was contracted with heating but was unaffected by watering. At the species level, additional water extended the length of the flowering season by one week for almost half (43%) of species. Heating, which raised plant and surface soil temperatures (+1.5 C) advanced snowmelt by ~7.6 days days and reduced soil moisture by ~2%, advanced flowering phenology for 86% of species. The response of flowering phenology to combined heating and watering was predominantly a heating effect. However, watering did appear to mitigate advances in end of flowering for 22% of species. The length of flowering season, for some species, appears to be tied, in part, to moisture availability as alleviating ambient soil moisture stress delayed phenology in unheated plots. Therefore, we conclude that both temperature and moisture appear to be important factors driving flowering phenology in this alpine ecosystem. The relationship between flowering phenology and species- or community-level productivity is not well established, but heating advanced community peak productivity by 5.4 days, and also reduced peak productivity unless additional water was provided, indicating some consistency between drivers of productivity and drivers of flowering phenology.

  12. Cut flowers: a potential pesticide hazard.

    PubMed Central

    Morse, D L; Baker, E L; Landrigan, P J

    1979-01-01

    Following reports of ten cases of possible organophosphate pesticide poisoning in florists exposed to pesticide residues on cut flowers, we conducted a prospective random-sample survey to determine residual pesticide levels on flowers imported into the United States via Miami, Florida. A sample of all flowers imported into Miami on three days in January 1977 showed that 18 (17.7 per cent) of 105 lots contained pesticide residue levels greater than 5 ppm, and that three lots had levels greater than 400 ppm. Azodrin (monocrotophos) was the most important contaminant with levels of 7.7--4,750 ppm detected in nine lots. We examined 20 quarantine workers in Miami and 12 commercial florists exposed to contaminated flowers. Occasional nonspecific symptoms compatible with possible organophosphate exposure were noted, but we found no abnormalities in plasma or red blood cell cholinesterase levels. This study documents a previously unrecognized potential source of occupational pesticide exposure and suggests that safety standards should be set for residue levels on cut flowers. PMID:420356

  13. Insects on flowers: The unexpectedly high biodiversity of flower-visiting beetles in a tropical rainforest canopy.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Insect biodiversity peaks in tropical rainforest environments where a large but as yet unknown proportion of species are found in the canopy. While there has been a proliferation of insect biodiversity research undertaken in the rainforest canopy, most studies focus solely on insects that inhabit the foliage. In a recent paper, we examined the distribution of canopy insects across five microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves, flowers, fruit and suspended dead wood) in an Australian tropical rainforest, showing that the density (per dry weight gram of microhabitat) of insects on flowers were ten to ten thousand times higher than on the leaves. Flowers also supported a much higher number of species than expected based on their contribution to total forest biomass. Elsewhere we show that most of these beetle species were specialized to flowers with little overlap in species composition between different canopy microhabitats. Here we expand our discussion of the implications of our results with respect to specialization and the generation of insect biodiversity in the rainforest canopy. Lastly, we identify future directions for research into the biodiversity and specialization of flower-visitors in complex tropical rainforests.

  14. A Regulatory Network for Coordinated Flower Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Ploense, Sara E.; Wu, Miin-Feng; Yadav, Vandana; Tholl, Dorothea; Chételat, Aurore; Haupt, Ina; Kennerley, Brian J.; Hodgens, Charles; Farmer, Edward E.; Nagpal, Punita; Reed, Jason W.

    2012-01-01

    For self-pollinating plants to reproduce, male and female organ development must be coordinated as flowers mature. The Arabidopsis transcription factors AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 6 (ARF6) and ARF8 regulate this complex process by promoting petal expansion, stamen filament elongation, anther dehiscence, and gynoecium maturation, thereby ensuring that pollen released from the anthers is deposited on the stigma of a receptive gynoecium. ARF6 and ARF8 induce jasmonate production, which in turn triggers expression of MYB21 and MYB24, encoding R2R3 MYB transcription factors that promote petal and stamen growth. To understand the dynamics of this flower maturation regulatory network, we have characterized morphological, chemical, and global gene expression phenotypes of arf, myb, and jasmonate pathway mutant flowers. We found that MYB21 and MYB24 promoted not only petal and stamen development but also gynoecium growth. As well as regulating reproductive competence, both the ARF and MYB factors promoted nectary development or function and volatile sesquiterpene production, which may attract insect pollinators and/or repel pathogens. Mutants lacking jasmonate synthesis or response had decreased MYB21 expression and stamen and petal growth at the stage when flowers normally open, but had increased MYB21 expression in petals of older flowers, resulting in renewed and persistent petal expansion at later stages. Both auxin response and jasmonate synthesis promoted positive feedbacks that may ensure rapid petal and stamen growth as flowers open. MYB21 also fed back negatively on expression of jasmonate biosynthesis pathway genes to decrease flower jasmonate level, which correlated with termination of growth after flowers have opened. These dynamic feedbacks may promote timely, coordinated, and transient growth of flower organs. PMID:22346763

  15. Record-Breaking Early Flowering in the Eastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Temple, Stanley A.; Primack, Richard B.; Davis, Charles C.

    2013-01-01

    Flowering times are well-documented indicators of the ecological effects of climate change and are linked to numerous ecosystem processes and trophic interactions. Dozens of studies have shown that flowering times for many spring-flowering plants have become earlier as a result of recent climate change, but it is uncertain if flowering times will continue to advance as temperatures rise. Here, we used long-term flowering records initiated by Henry David Thoreau in 1852 and Aldo Leopold in 1935 to investigate this question. Our analyses demonstrate that record-breaking spring temperatures in 2010 and 2012 in Massachusetts, USA, and 2012 in Wisconsin, USA, resulted in the earliest flowering times in recorded history for dozens of spring-flowering plants of the eastern United States. These dramatic advances in spring flowering were successfully predicted by historical relationships between flowering and spring temperature spanning up to 161 years of ecological change. These results demonstrate that numerous temperate plant species have yet to show obvious signs of physiological constraints on phenological advancement in the face of climate change. PMID:23342001

  16. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  17. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  18. Flowers & Weeds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the topics and teaching strategies employed in an Issues in Biology course. Discusses flowers, plant breeding, potatoes and tomatoes, the chocolate tree, weeds, Arabidopis, gene transfers, and plant genes/human genes. Contains 22 references. (JRH)

  19. Flowering in Xanthium strumarium

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Maggy; Kinet, Jean-Marie; Bodson, Monique; Havelange, Andrée; Jacqmard, Annie; Bernier, Georges

    1981-01-01

    Vegetative plants of Xanthium strumarium L. grown in long days were induced to flower by exposure to one or several 16-hour dark periods. The distribution of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot was described, and a scoring system was designed to assess the development of the female inflorescences. The time of movement of the floral stimulus out of the induced leaf and the timing of action of high temperature were shown to be similar for both the apical male and lateral female inflorescences. Strong photoperiodic induction of the plants favored female sex expression, while maleness was enhanced by exogenous gibberellic acid. The problem of the control of sex expression in Xanthium is discussed in relation to the distribution pattern of male and female inflorescences on the flowering shoot and to the state of the meristem at the time of the arrival of the floral stimulus. Images PMID:16661844

  20. A possible role for flowering locus T-encoding genes in interpreting environmental and internal cues affecting olive (Olea europaea L.) flower induction.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Amnon; Bakhshian, Ortal; Cerezo-Medina, Sergio; Paltiel, Judith; Adler, Chen; Ben-Ari, Giora; Mercado, Jose Angel; Pliego-Alfaro, Fernando; Lavee, Shimon; Samach, Alon

    2017-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) inflorescences, formed in lateral buds, flower in spring. However, there is some debate regarding time of flower induction and inflorescence initiation. Olive juvenility and seasonality of flowering were altered by overexpressing genes encoding flowering locus T (FT). OeFT1 and OeFT2 caused early flowering under short days when expressed in Arabidopsis. Expression of OeFT1/2 in olive leaves and OeFT2 in buds increased in winter, while initiation of inflorescences occurred i n late winter. Trees exposed to an artificial warm winter expressed low levels of OeFT1/2 in leaves and did not flower. Olive flower induction thus seems to be mediated by an increase in FT levels in response to cold winters. Olive flowering is dependent on additional internal factors. It was severely reduced in trees that carried a heavy fruit load the previous season (harvested in November) and in trees without fruit to which cold temperatures were artificially applied in summer. Expression analysis suggested that these internal factors work either by reducing the increase in OeFT1/2 expression or through putative flowering repressors such as TFL1. With expected warmer winters, future consumption of olive oil, as part of a healthy Mediterranean diet, should benefit from better understanding these factors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Using daily temperature to predict phenology trends in spring flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Kim, Soo-Ock; Kim, Dae-Jun; Moon, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Jin I.

    2015-05-01

    The spring season in Korea features a dynamic landscape with a variety of flowers blooming sequentially one after another. This enables local governments to earn substantial sightseeing revenues by hosting festivals featuring spring flowers. Furthermore, beekeepers move from the southern tip of the Korean Peninsula all the way northward in a quest to secure spring flowers as nectar sources for a sustained period of time. However, areal differences in flowering dates of flower species are narrowing, which has economic consequences. Analysis of data on flowering dates of forsythia ( Forsythia koreana) and cherry blossom ( Prunus serrulata), two typical spring flower species, as observed for the past 60 years at six weather stations of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) indicated that the difference between the flowering date of forsythia, the earliest blooming flower in spring, and cherry blossom, which flowers later than forsythia, was 14 days on average in the climatological normal year for the period 1951-1980, compared with 11 days for the period 1981-2010. In 2014, the gap narrowed further to 7 days, making it possible in some locations to see forsythias and cherry blossoms blooming at the same time. Synchronized flowering of these two flower species is due to acceleration of flowering due to an abnormally high spring temperature, and this was more pronounced in the later-blooming cherry blossom than forsythia. While cherry blossom flowering dates across the nation ranged from March 31 to April 19 (an areal difference of 20 days) for the 1951-1980 normal year, the difference ranged from March 29 to April 12 (an areal difference of 16 days) for the 1981-2010 normal year, and in 2014, the flowering dates spanned March 25 and March 30 (an areal difference of 6 days). In the case of forsythia, the gap was narrower than in cherry blossoms. Climate change in the Korean Peninsula, reflected by rapid temperature hikes in late spring in contrast to a slow

  2. Ozone and infection of geranium flowers by Botrytis cinerea

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-01-01

    Flowering plants of geranium cultivars were exposed to 0.2, 0.35, and 0.55 ppm ozone for 4-hr periods at 20/sup 0/C in a greenhouse fumigation chamber. Three fully-opened flower heads were sprayed with a spore suspension of Botrytis cinerea at 2000, 1000, or 500 spores/ml immediately before exposure to ozone began. Sterile distilled water was sprayed on noninoculated flower heads. All flowers were examined for evidence of infection 24 hr after the end of the ozone-exposure periods. All flower heads were then removed and placed in wet, loosely tied plastic bags and incubated at 20/sup 0/C for 72 hr, with examinationmore » at 24-hr intervals for evidence of infection. Ozone at 0.2 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent or inhibit flower infection by B. cinerea at all inoculum levels. Natural infection also occurred on some noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.35 ppm did not injure the plants or prevent infection, but did inhibit pathogenesis at the 500-spore/ml inoculum level and on noninoculated flowers. Ozone at 0.55 ppm caused moderate injury on all plants. Ozone at this level did not prevent infection, but did restrict pathogenesis on all inoculated and noninoculated flowers.« less

  3. [LEAFY, a master regulator of flower development].

    PubMed

    Vachon, Gilles; Tichtinsky, Gabrielle; Parcy, François

    2012-01-01

    Flowering plants or angiosperms constitute the vast majority of plant species. Their evolutionary success is largely due to the efficiency of the flower as reproductive structure. Work performed on model plant species in the last 20 years has identified the LEAFY gene as a key regulator of flower development. LEAFY is a unique plant transcription factor responsible for the formation of the earliest floral stage as well as for the induction of homeotic genes triggering floral organ determination. But LEAFY is also present in non-flowering plants such as mosses, ferns and gymnosperms. Recent studies suggest that LEAFY might play a role in cell division and meristem development in basal plants, a function that is probably more ancestral than the later acquired floral function. Analyzing the evolution of the role and the biochemical properties of this peculiar regulator starts to shade light on the mysterious origin of flowering plants. © Société de Biologie, 2012.

  4. When can stress facilitate divergence by altering time to flowering?

    PubMed

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Ally, Dilara; Hodgins, Kathryn A

    2015-12-01

    Stressors and heterogeneity are ubiquitous features of natural environments, and theory suggests that when environmental qualities alter flowering schedules through phenotypic plasticity, assortative mating can result that promotes evolutionary divergence. Therefore, it is important to determine whether common ecological stressors induce similar changes in flowering time. We review previous studies to determine whether two important stressors, water restriction and herbivory, induce consistent flowering time responses among species; for example, how often do water restriction and herbivory both delay flowering? We focus on the direction of change in flowering time, which affects the potential for divergence in heterogeneous environments. We also tested whether these stressors influenced time to flowering and nonphenology traits using Mimulus guttatus. The literature review suggests that water restriction has variable effects on flowering time, whereas herbivory delays flowering with exceptional consistency. In the Mimulus experiment, low water and herbivory advanced and delayed flowering, respectively. Overall, our results temper theoretical predictions for evolutionary divergence due to habitat-induced changes in flowering time; in particular, we discuss how accounting for variation in the direction of change in flowering time can either increase or decrease the potential for divergence. In addition, we caution against adaptive interpretations of stress-induced phenology shifts.

  5. [Functional saponins in tea flower (flower buds of Camellia sinensis): gastroprotective and hypoglycemic effects of floratheasaponins and qualitative and quantitative analysis using HPLC].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Wang, Tao; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Nakamura, Seikou; Nagatomo, Akifumi; Matsuda, Hisashi; Harima, Shoichi

    2008-01-01

    As a part of our characterization studies on the bioactive saponin constituents of tea flowers (Camellia sinensis, flower buds), the methanolic extract and 1-butanol-soluble portion (the saponin fraction) from the flower buds were found to exhibit potent inhibitory effects on ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats and on serum glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded rats. Among the constituents of the 1-butanol-soluble portion, floratheasaponins A, B, and C showed gastroprotective and hypoglycemic activities. Furthermore, we have developed qualitative and quantitative methods using HPLC for the principle saponins, floratheasaponins A-F, in tea flowers, which were previously found to show antiallergic and antiobesity effects. Using those methods, the saponin composition of Indian tea flowers were found to be similar to those of Chinese (Anhui) but not of Japanese tea flowers. On the other hand, it was found that the floratheasaponin contents in tea flowers varied markedly during the blooming period, and they were abundant at half-bloom. Additionally, the contents of caffeine in the tea flowers were examined using HPLC.

  6. Genetic control of flowering and biomass in switchgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early flowering can negatively affect biomass yield of switchgrass. In temperate regions of the USA, flowering occurs in switchgrass around the time of peak biomass yield (about 5 to 8 weeks prior to killing frost), effectively reducing the length of the growing season. The use of late-flowering swi...

  7. Comparative evolution of flower and fruit morphology

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    Angiosperm diversification has resulted in a vast array of plant morphologies. Only recently has it been appreciated that diversification might have proceeded quite differently for the two key diagnostic structures of this clade, flowers and fruits. These structures are hypothesized to have experienced different selective pressures via their interactions with animals in dispersal mutualisms, resulting in a greater amount of morphological diversification in animal-pollinated flowers than in animal-dispersed fruits. I tested this idea using size and colour traits for the flowers and fruits of 472 species occurring in three floras (St John, Hawaii and the Great Plains). Phylogenetically controlled analyses of nearest-neighbour distances in multidimensional trait space matched the predicted pattern: in each of the three floras, flowers were more divergent from one another than were fruits. In addition, the spacing of species clusters differed for flowers versus fruits in the flora of St John, with clusters in flower space more divergent than those in fruit space. The results are consistent with the idea that a major driver of angiosperm diversification has been stronger selection for divergent floral morphology than for divergent fruit morphology, although genetic, physiological and ecological constraints may also play a role. PMID:19474045

  8. Are flowers vulnerable to xylem cavitation during drought?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Ping; Brodribb, Timothy J

    2017-05-17

    Water stress is known to cause xylem cavitation in the leaves, roots and stems of plants, but little is known about the vulnerability of flowers to xylem damage during drought. This is an important gap in our understanding of how and when plants become damaged by water stress. Here we address fundamental questions about if and when flowers suffer cavitation damage, using a new technique of cavitation imaging to resolve the timing of cavitation in water-stressed flower petals compared with neighbouring leaves. Leaves and flowers from a sample of two herbaceous and two woody eudicots were exposed to a severe water stress while the spatial and temporal propagation of embolism through veins was recorded. Although in most cases water potentials inducing 50% embolism of herbaceous flower veins were more negative than neighbouring leaves, there was no significant difference between the average vulnerability of leaves and petals of herbaceous species. In both woody species, petals were more vulnerable to cavitation than leaves, in one case by more than 3 MPa. Early cavitation and subsequent damage of flowers in the two woody species would thus be expected to precede leaf damage during drought. Similar cavitation thresholds of flowers and leaves in the herb sample suggest that cavitation during water shortage in these species will occur simultaneously among aerial tissues. Species-specific differences in the cavitation thresholds of petals provide a new axis of variation that may explain contrasting flowering ecology among plant species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Multisensory integration in Lepidoptera: Insights into flower-visitor interactions.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Michiyo; Stewart, Finlay J; Ômura, Hisashi

    2017-04-01

    As most work on flower foraging focuses on bees, studying Lepidoptera can offer fresh perspectives on how sensory capabilities shape the interaction between flowers and insects. Through a combination of innate preferences and learning, many Lepidoptera persistently visit particular flower species. Butterflies tend to rely on their highly developed sense of colour to locate rewarding flowers, while moths have evolved sophisticated olfactory systems towards the same end. However, these modalities can interact in complex ways; for instance, butterflies' colour preference can shift depending on olfactory context. The mechanisms by which such cross-modal interaction occurs are poorly understood, but the mushroom bodies appear to play a central role. Because of the diversity seen within Lepidoptera in terms of their sensory capabilities and the nature of their relationships with flowers, they represent a fruitful avenue for comparative studies to shed light on the co-evolution of flowers and flower-visiting insects. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Identification of jasmine flower (Jasminum sp.) based on the shape of the flower using sobel edge and k-nearest neighbour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qur’ania, A.; Sarinah, I.

    2018-03-01

    People often wrong in knowing the type of jasmine by just looking at the white color of the jasmine, while not all white flowers including jasmine and not all jasmine flowers have white. There is a jasmine that is yellow and there is a jasmine that is white and purple.The aim of this research is to identify Jasmine flower (Jasminum sp.) based on the shape of the flower image-based using Sobel edge detection and k-Nearest Neighbor. Edge detection is used to detect the type of flower from the flower shape. Edge detection aims to improve the appearance of the border of a digital image. While k-Nearest Neighbor method is used to classify the classification of test objects into classes that have neighbouring properties closest to the object of training. The data used in this study are three types of jasmine namely jasmine white (Jasminum sambac), jasmine gambir (Jasminum pubescens), and jasmine japan (Pseuderanthemum reticulatum). Testing of jasmine flower image resized 50 × 50 pixels, 100 × 100 pixels, 150 × 150 pixels yields an accuracy of 84%. Tests on distance values of the k-NN method with spacing 5, 10 and 15 resulted in different accuracy rates for 5 and 10 closest distances yielding the same accuracy rate of 84%, for the 15 shortest distance resulted in a small accuracy of 65.2%.

  11. Genetic Architecture of Flowering-Time Variation in Brachypodium distachyon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Woods, Daniel P.; Bednarek, Ryland; Bouché, Frédéric

    The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a nondomesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time.more » A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was used to develop SNP markers for genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control differences in flowering time were identified. Many of the flowering-time QTLs are detected across a range of photoperiod and vernalization conditions, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering within this population is robust. The two major QTLs identified in undomesticated B. distachyon colocalize with VERNALIZATION1/PHYTOCHROME C and VERNALIZATION2, loci identified as flowering regulators in the domesticated crops wheat and barley. This suggests that variation in flowering time is controlled in part by a set of genes broadly conserved within pooid grasses.« less

  12. Genetic Architecture of Flowering-Time Variation in Brachypodium distachyon

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, Daniel P.; Bednarek, Ryland; Bouché, Frédéric; ...

    2016-10-14

    The transition to reproductive development is a crucial step in the plant life cycle, and the timing of this transition is an important factor in crop yields. Here, we report new insights into the genetic control of natural variation in flowering time in Brachypodium distachyon, a nondomesticated pooid grass closely related to cereals such as wheat (Triticum spp.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between the rapid-flowering accession Bd21 and the delayed-flowering accession Bd1-1 were grown in a variety of environmental conditions to enable exploration of the genetic architecture of flowering time.more » A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was used to develop SNP markers for genetic map construction, and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control differences in flowering time were identified. Many of the flowering-time QTLs are detected across a range of photoperiod and vernalization conditions, suggesting that the genetic control of flowering within this population is robust. The two major QTLs identified in undomesticated B. distachyon colocalize with VERNALIZATION1/PHYTOCHROME C and VERNALIZATION2, loci identified as flowering regulators in the domesticated crops wheat and barley. This suggests that variation in flowering time is controlled in part by a set of genes broadly conserved within pooid grasses.« less

  13. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao-Kun; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2009-05-01

    The thermoregulatory flower of the Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can maintain a relatively stable temperature despite great variations in ambient temperature during anthesis. The thermoregulation has been hypothesized to offer a direct energy reward for pollinators in lotus flowers. This study aims to examine whether the stable temperature maintained in the floral chamber influences the fertilization process and seed development. An artificial refrigeration instrument was employed to cool flowers during the fertilization process and post-fertilization period in an experimental population. The effect of temperature on post-pollination events was also examined by removing petals in two field populations. Treatments with low floral temperature did not reduce stigma receptivity or pollen viability in undehisced anthers. Low temperature during the fertilization period significantly decreased seed set per flower but low temperature during the phase of seed development had no effect, suggesting that temperature regulation by lotus flowers facilitated fertilization success. Hand-pollination treatments in two field populations indicated that seed set of flowers with petals removed was lower than that of intact flowers in north China, where ambient temperatures are low, but not in south China, confirming that reducing the temperature of carpels did influence post-pollination events. The experiments suggest that floral thermoregulation in lotus could enhance female reproductive success by facilitating fertilization.

  14. Phenological mismatch with abiotic conditions implications for flowering in Arctic plants.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Helen C; Høye, Toke T; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Forchhammer, Mads C

    2015-03-01

    Although many studies have examined the phenological mismatches between interacting organisms, few have addressed the potential for mismatches between phenology and seasonal weather conditions. In the Arctic, rapid phenological changes in many taxa are occurring in association with earlier snowmelt. The timing of snowmelt is jointly affected by the size of the late winter snowpack and the temperature during the spring thaw. Increased winter snowpack results in delayed snowmelt, whereas higher air temperatures and faster snowmelt advance the timing of snowmelt. Where interannual variation in snowpack is substantial, changes in the timing of snowmelt can be largely uncoupled from changes in air temperature. Using detailed, long-term data on the flowering phenology of four arctic plant species from Zackenberg, Greenland, we investigate whether there is a phenological component to the temperature conditions experienced prior to and during flowering. In particular, we assess the role of timing of flowering in determining pre-flowering exposure to freezing temperatures and to the temperatures-experienced prior to flowering. We then examine the implications of flowering phenology for flower abundance. Earlier snowmelt resulted in greater exposure to freezing conditions, suggesting an increased potential for a mismatch between the timing of flowering and seasonal weather conditions and an increased potential for negative consequences, such as freezing 'damage. We also found a parabolic relationship between the timing of flowering and the temperature experienced during flowering after taking interannual temperature effects into account. If timing of flowering advances to a cooler period of the growing season, this may moderate the effects of a general warming trend across years. Flower abundance was quadratically associated with the timing of flowering, such that both early and late flowering led to lower flower abundance than did intermediate flowering. Our results

  15. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  16. A comparative study on the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and passion flower on the menopausal symptoms of women referring to Isfahan city health care centers.

    PubMed

    Fahami, Fariba; Asali, Zahra; Aslani, Abolfazl; Fathizadeh, Nahid

    2010-01-01

    With regard to an increase in the life expectancy for women and the consistency of the menopause age, a significant portion of women's age is passed after the menopause. Menopause is considered as a critical and sensitive period due to the changes and the disorders that are involved in it. Vasomotor symptoms, sleep disorders and psycho-mental changes are among the most prevalent symptoms of this period. Hormone therapy is a common treatment and it involves some problems for most individuals. The purpose of this study was to comparatively examine the effects of two herbal medications, Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower, on menopause symptoms. This study was of a clinical-experimental type which was done in 1388 in Isfahan. The sample included 59 menopausal women who had the conditions for entering into the study. The individuals were selected via simple sampling and were assigned randomly into two groups of Hypericum Perforatum treatment group (30 women) and Passion Flower group (29 women). The required data were filled out through interview, Personal Characteristics Questionnaire, and Cooperman's Index for menopause symptoms in three stages of pre-intervention, the third week of intervention, and the sixth week of intervention. The results were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods and the statistical software of SPSS. The findings showed that the average score of menopause symptoms in two treatment groups of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower had a significant decrease throughout the third and the sixth weeks of study (p < 0.05). In addition, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups and both herbs equally resulted in a decrease in the menopause symptoms scores (p > 0.05). With regard to the effects of Hypericum Perforatum and Passion Flower on treating menopause precocious symptoms (vasomotor signs, insomnia, depression, anger, headache, etc.), these two herbs can be used as an alternative treatment

  17. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  18. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  19. The pea GIGAS gene is a FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog necessary for graft-transmissible specification of flowering but not for responsiveness to photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Valérie; Laurie, Rebecca E; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ridge, Stephen; Knowles, Claire L; Liew, Lim Chee; Sussmilch, Frances C; Murfet, Ian C; Macknight, Richard C; Weller, James L

    2011-01-01

    Garden pea (Pisum sativum) was prominent in early studies investigating the genetic control of flowering and the role of mobile flowering signals. In view of recent evidence that genes in the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) family play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals, we isolated the FT gene family in pea and examined the regulation and function of its members. Comparison with Medicago truncatula and soybean (Glycine max) provides evidence of three ancient subclades (FTa, FTb, and FTc) likely to be common to most crop and model legumes. Pea FT genes show distinctly different expression patterns with respect to developmental timing, tissue specificity, and response to photoperiod and differ in their activity in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana, suggesting they may have different functions. We show that the pea FTa1 gene corresponds to the GIGAS locus, which is essential for flowering under long-day conditions and promotes flowering under short-day conditions but is not required for photoperiod responsiveness. Grafting, expression, and double mutant analyses show that GIGAS/FTa1 regulates a mobile flowering stimulus but also provide clear evidence for a second mobile flowering stimulus that is correlated with expression of FTb2 in leaf tissue. These results suggest that induction of flowering by photoperiod in pea results from interactions among several members of a diversified FT family.

  20. Short-term effects of burn season on flowering phenology of savanna plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Leicht-Young, S. A.; Grundel, R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effect of season of burn on flowering phenology of groundlayer species, in the year following burns, in a mesic-sand Midwestern oak savanna. Burn treatments were fall, early-season, growing-season, late-season, and 1 or 5 years after a prior early-season wildfire. For these treatments, we compared the number of flowering stems and of flowers for species overall, for the 20 most prolifically flowering species, as well as for species grouped by flowering phenoperiods, and by growth form. Growing-season burn had a significant negative effect on number of flowering stems and total number of flowers. This effect occurred when either the burn occurred during the flowering season or during the season prior to the flowering phenoperiod. Tradescantia ohiensis showed expedited flowering and Phlox pilosa showed delayed flowering in response to early-season burning. Flowering of early shrubs was reduced by the previous fall and early-spring fires, while flowering of mid-season blooming shrubs was reduced by the early- and growing-season burns. Vaccinium and Gaylussacia, early-flowering shrubs, produced fewer flowers 1 year after than 5 years after an early-season burn. Arabis lyrata showed reduced flowering from the early-season burn. We also found four instances where the early-spring burn effect on flowering was more severe than the fall burn effect, suggesting that many frequent early-season burns may be deleterious to flowering and reproduction of some species. Burns occurring too frequently in the same season could negatively affect future flowering and reproduction of these plant species.

  1. The role of WOX genes in flower development

    PubMed Central

    Costanzo, Enrico; Trehin, Christophe; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Background WOX (Wuschel-like homeobOX) genes form a family of plant-specific HOMEODOMAIN transcription factors, the members of which play important developmental roles in a diverse range of processes. WOX genes were first identified as determining cell fate during embryo development, as well as playing important roles in maintaining stem cell niches in the plant. In recent years, new roles have been identified in plant architecture and organ development, particularly at the flower level. Scope In this review, the role of WOX genes in flower development and flower architecture is highlighted, as evidenced from data obtained in the last few years. The roles played by WOX genes in different species and different flower organs are compared, and differential functional recruitment of WOX genes during flower evolution is considered. Conclusions This review compares available data concerning the role of WOX genes in flower and organ architecture among different species of angiosperms, including representatives of monocots and eudicots (rosids and asterids). These comparative data highlight the usefulness of the WOX gene family for evo–devo studies of floral development. PMID:24973416

  2. Two novel aromatic glucosides, marylaurencinosides D and E, from the fresh flowers of Cymbidium Great Flower 'Marylaurencin'.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kazuko; Okahuji, Mariko; Iseki, Kanako; Ito, Takuya; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Kawano, Sachiko; Hashimoto, Toshihiro

    2014-04-01

    Two novel aromatic glucosides, named marylaurencinosides D (1) and E (2), were isolated from the fresh flowers of Cymbidium Great Flower 'Marylaurencin'. In addition, eight known aromatic compounds (3-10) were isolated. These structures were determined on the basis of NMR experiments as well as chemical evidence.

  3. Synchrony in the phenology of a culturally iconic spring flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Tim H.; Mizera, Tadeusz; Wójtowicz, Wanda; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2012-03-01

    We examine the flowering phenology of the cultural iconic Spring Snowflake Leucojum vernum, a considerable tourist attraction, recorded from two sites in western Poland. Flowering dates at the two sites were closely correlated but about 6 days later at the more natural area. The end of flowering was associated with the start of canopy leafing. Early flowering was related to a longer flowering season which may benefit ecotourism under future climate warming.

  4. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches.

  5. Synthesis and microstructural control of flower-like cadmium germanate

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Pei, L.Z., E-mail: lzpei@ahut.edu.cn; Yang, Y.; Pei, Y.Q.

    Flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} have been synthesized using a facile hydrothermal process with ethylenediamine. The roles of hydrothermal conditions on the size and morphology of the flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} were investigated. The research results show that the obtained Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} presents a flower-like microstructures composed by radial nanorods with diameter of 50-100 nm and length of 0.5-2 {mu}m, respectively. The formation mechanism of the flower-like Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} is explained according to the ethylenediamine-assisted nucleation-'Ostwald ripening' process. - Highlights: {yields}Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-like microstructures were synthesized using ethylenediamine. {yields}Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-likemore » microstructures can be controlled by growth conditions. {yields}Ethylenediamine induces the growth of the Cd{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}O{sub 6} flower-like microstructures.« less

  6. Postharvest: Cut flowers and potted plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the past fifty years, the cut flower market has changed dramatically, from a local market with growers located on city outskirts, to a global one; flowers and cut foliage sourced from throughout the world are sold as bunches or combined into arrangements and bouquets in the major target markets. ...

  7. Bees, birds and yellow flowers: pollinator-dependent convergent evolution of UV patterns.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, S; Junker, R R; Alves-Dos-Santos, I; Melo, G A R; Amaral-Neto, L P; Sazima, M; Wolowski, M; Freitas, L; Lunau, K

    2016-01-01

    Colour is one of the most obvious advertisements of flowers, and occurs in a huge diversity among the angiosperms. Flower colour is responsible for attraction from a distance, whereas contrasting colour patterns within flowers aid orientation of flower visitors after approaching the flowers. Due to the striking differences in colour vision systems and neural processing across animal taxa, flower colours evoke specific behavioural responses by different flower visitors. We tested whether and how yellow flowers differ in their spectral reflectance depending on the main pollinator. We focused on bees and birds and examined whether the presence or absence of the widespread UV reflectance pattern of yellow flowers predicts the main pollinator. Most bee-pollinated flowers displayed a pattern with UV-absorbing centres and UV-reflecting peripheries, whereas the majority of bird-pollinated flowers are entirely UV- absorbing. In choice experiments we found that bees did not show consistent preferences for any colour or pattern types. However, all tested bee species made their first antennal contact preferably at the UV-absorbing area of the artificial flower, irrespective of its spatial position within the flower. The appearance of UV patterns within flowers is the main difference in spectral reflectance between yellow bee- and bird-pollinated flowers, and affects the foraging behaviour of flower visitors. The results support the hypothesis that flower colours and the visual capabilities of their efficient pollinators are adapted to each other. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Identification of flowering genes in strawberry, a perennial SD plant

    PubMed Central

    Mouhu, Katriina; Hytönen, Timo; Folta, Kevin; Rantanen, Marja; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Elomaa, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Background We are studying the regulation of flowering in perennial plants by using diploid wild strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) as a model. Wild strawberry is a facultative short-day plant with an obligatory short-day requirement at temperatures above 15°C. At lower temperatures, however, flowering induction occurs irrespective of photoperiod. In addition to short-day genotypes, everbearing forms of wild strawberry are known. In 'Baron Solemacher' recessive alleles of an unknown repressor, SEASONAL FLOWERING LOCUS (SFL), are responsible for continuous flowering habit. Although flower induction has a central effect on the cropping potential, the molecular control of flowering in strawberries has not been studied and the genetic flowering pathways are still poorly understood. The comparison of everbearing and short-day genotypes of wild strawberry could facilitate our understanding of fundamental molecular mechanisms regulating perennial growth cycle in plants. Results We have searched homologs for 118 Arabidopsis flowering time genes from Fragaria by EST sequencing and bioinformatics analysis and identified 66 gene homologs that by sequence similarity, putatively correspond to genes of all known genetic flowering pathways. The expression analysis of 25 selected genes representing various flowering pathways did not reveal large differences between the everbearing and the short-day genotypes. However, putative floral identity and floral integrator genes AP1 and LFY were co-regulated during early floral development. AP1 mRNA was specifically accumulating in the shoot apices of the everbearing genotype, indicating its usability as a marker for floral initiation. Moreover, we showed that flowering induction in everbearing 'Baron Solemacher' and 'Hawaii-4' was inhibited by short-day and low temperature, in contrast to short-day genotypes. Conclusion We have shown that many central genetic components of the flowering pathways in Arabidopsis can be identified from

  9. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Amelia A.; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology—the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  10. Flowering phenology shifts in response to biodiversity loss.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Amelia A; Zavaleta, Erika S; Selmants, Paul C

    2017-03-28

    Observational studies and experimental evidence agree that rising global temperatures have altered plant phenology-the timing of life events, such as flowering, germination, and leaf-out. Other large-scale global environmental changes, such as nitrogen deposition and altered precipitation regimes, have also been linked to changes in flowering times. Despite our increased understanding of how abiotic factors influence plant phenology, we know very little about how biotic interactions can affect flowering times, a significant knowledge gap given ongoing human-caused alteration of biodiversity and plant community structure at the global scale. We experimentally manipulated plant diversity in a California serpentine grassland and found that many plant species flowered earlier in response to reductions in diversity, with peak flowering date advancing an average of 0.6 days per species lost. These changes in phenology were mediated by the effects of plant diversity on soil surface temperature, available soil N, and soil moisture. Peak flowering dates were also more dispersed among species in high-diversity plots than expected based on monocultures. Our findings illustrate that shifts in plant species composition and diversity can alter the timing and distribution of flowering events, and that these changes to phenology are similar in magnitude to effects induced by climate change. Declining diversity could thus contribute to or exacerbate phenological changes attributed to rising global temperatures.

  11. Flower thermoregulation facilitates fertilization in Asian sacred lotus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiao-Kun; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The thermoregulatory flower of the Asian sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) can maintain a relatively stable temperature despite great variations in ambient temperature during anthesis. The thermoregulation has been hypothesized to offer a direct energy reward for pollinators in lotus flowers. This study aims to examine whether the stable temperature maintained in the floral chamber influences the fertilization process and seed development. Methods An artificial refrigeration instrument was employed to cool flowers during the fertilization process and post-fertilization period in an experimental population. The effect of temperature on post-pollination events was also examined by removing petals in two field populations. Key Results Treatments with low floral temperature did not reduce stigma receptivity or pollen viability in undehisced anthers. Low temperature during the fertilization period significantly decreased seed set per flower but low temperature during the phase of seed development had no effect, suggesting that temperature regulation by lotus flowers facilitated fertilization success. Hand-pollination treatments in two field populations indicated that seed set of flowers with petals removed was lower than that of intact flowers in north China, where ambient temperatures are low, but not in south China, confirming that reducing the temperature of carpels did influence post-pollination events. Conclusions The experiments suggest that floral thermoregulation in lotus could enhance female reproductive success by facilitating fertilization. PMID:19282320

  12. Unexpected diversity during community succession in the apple flower microbiome.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-02-26

    Despite its importance to the host, the flower microbiome is poorly understood. We report a culture-independent, community-level assessment of apple flower microbial diversity and dynamics. We collected flowers from six apple trees at five time points, starting before flowers opened and ending at petal fall. We applied streptomycin to half of the trees when flowers opened. Assessment of microbial diversity using tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the apple flower communities were rich and diverse and dominated by members of TM7 and Deinococcus-Thermus, phyla about which relatively little is known. From thousands of taxa, we identified six successional groups with coherent dynamics whose abundances peaked at different times before and after bud opening. We designated the groups Pioneer, Early, Mid, Late, Climax, and Generalist communities. The successional pattern was attributed to a set of prevalent taxa that were persistent and gradually changing in abundance. These taxa had significant associations with other community members, as demonstrated with a cooccurrence network based on local similarity analysis. We also detected a set of less-abundant, transient taxa that contributed to general tree-to-tree variability but not to the successional pattern. Communities on trees sprayed with streptomycin had slightly lower phylogenetic diversity than those on unsprayed trees but did not differ in structure or succession. Our results suggest that changes in apple flower microbial community structure are predictable over the life of the flower, providing a basis for ecological understanding and disease management. Flowering plants (angiosperms) represent a diverse group of an estimated 400,000 species, and their successful cultivation is essential to agriculture. Yet fundamental knowledge of flower-associated microbiotas remains largely unknown. Even less well understood are the changes that flower microbial communities experience through time. Flowers are

  13. Enhancing Flower Color through Simultaneous Expression of the B-peru and mPAP1 Transcription Factors under Control of a Flower-Specific Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Da-Hye; Park, Sangkyu; Lee, Jong-Yeol; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Lim, Sun-Hyung

    2018-01-01

    Flower color is a main target for flower breeding. A transgenic approach for flower color modification requires a transgene and a flower-specific promoter. Here, we expressed the B-peru gene encoding a basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor (TF) together with the mPAP1 gene encoding an R2R3 MYB TF to enhance flower color in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), using the tobacco anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) promoter (PANS) to drive flower-specific expression. The transgenic tobacco plants grew normally and produced either dark pink (PANSBP_DP) or dark red (PANSBP_DR) flowers. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that the expression of five structural genes in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway increased significantly in both PANSBP_DP and PANSBP_DR lines, compared with the non-transformed (NT) control. Interestingly, the expression of two regulatory genes constituting the active MYB-bHLH-WD40 repeat (WDR) (MBW) complex decreased significantly in the PANSBP_DR plants but not in the PANSBP_DP plants. Total flavonol and anthocyanin abundance correlated with flower color, with an increase of 1.6–43.2 fold in the PANSBP_DP plants and 2.0–124.2 fold in the PANSBP_DR plants. Our results indicate that combinatorial expression of B-peru and mPAP1 genes under control of the ANS promoter can be a useful strategy for intensifying flower color without growth retardation. PMID:29361688

  14. Overexpression of AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in Arabidopsis and effects key flowering-related genes in poplar.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Ye, Meixia; Su, Xiaoxing; Liao, Weihua; Ma, Huandi; Gao, Kai; Lei, Bingqi; An, Xinmin

    2015-08-01

    APETALA1 plays a crucial role in the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase and in floral development. In this study, to determine the effect of AP1 expression on flowering time and floral organ development, transgenic Arabidopsis and poplar overexpressing of AtAP1M3 (Arabidopsis AP1 mutant by dominant negative mutation) were generated. Transgenic Arabidopsis with e35Spro::AtAP1M3 displayed phenotypes with delayed-flowering compared to wild-type and flowers with abnormal sepals, petals and stamens. In addition, transgenic Arabidopsis plants exhibited reduced growth vigor compared to the wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of AtAP1M3 in poplar resulted in up- or down-regulation of some endogenous key flowering-related genes, including floral meristems identity gene LFY, B-class floral organ identity genes AP3 and PI, flowering pathway integrator FT1 and flower repressors TFL1 and SVP. These results suggest that AtAP1M3 regulates flowering time and floral development in plants.

  15. Genes encoding the vacuolar Na+/H+ exchanger and flower coloration.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Fukada-Tanaka, S; Inagaki, Y; Saito, N; Yonekura-Sakakibara, K; Tanaka, Y; Kusumi, T; Iida, S

    2001-05-01

    Vacuolar pH plays an important role in flower coloration: an increase in the vacuolar pH causes blueing of flower color. In the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil or Pharbitis nil), a shift from reddish-purple buds to blue open flowers correlates with an increase in the vacuolar pH. We describe details of the characterization of a mutant that carries a recessive mutation in the Purple (Pr) gene encoding a vacuolar Na+/H+ exchanger termed InNHX1. The genome of I. nil carries one copy of the Pr (or InNHX1) gene and its pseudogene, and it showed functional complementation to the yeast nhx1 mutation. The mutant of I. nil, called purple (pr), showed a partial increase in the vacuolar pH during flower-opening and its reddish-purple buds change into purple open flowers. The vacuolar pH in the purple open flowers of the mutant was significantly lower than that in the blue open flowers. The InNHX1 gene is most abundantly expressed in the petals at around 12 h before flower-opening, accompanying the increase in the vacuolar pH for the blue flower coloration. No such massive expression was observed in the petunia flowers. Since the NHX1 genes that promote the transport of Na+ into the vacuoles have been regarded to be involved in salt tolerance by accumulating Na+ in the vacuoles, we can add a new biological role for blue flower coloration in the Japanese morning glory by the vacuolar alkalization.

  16. The evolution of flowering strategies in US weedy rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Local adaptation in plants often involves changes in flowering time in response to day length and temperature differences. Many crop varieties have been selected for uniformity in flowering time. In contrast, variable flowering may be important for increased competitiveness in weed species invading ...

  17. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  18. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  19. Flower biology and biologically-based integrated fire blight management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire blight infection is generally initiated in flowers, and thus, research has been directed to the biology and microbial ecology of flowers as related to this disease. In addition to investigations involving apple and pear flowers, Manchurian crab apple (Malus manchurica), closely related to appl...

  20. FLOWER IPv4/IPv6 Network Flow Summarization software

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nickless, Bill; Curtis, Darren; Christy, Jason

    FLOWER was written as a refactoring/reimplementation of the existing Flo software used by the Cooperative Protection Program (CPP) to provide network flow summaries for analysis by the Operational Analysis Center (OAC) and other US Department of Energy cyber security elements. FLOWER is designed and tested to operate at 10 gigabits/second, nearly 10 times faster than competing solutions. FLOWER output is optimized for importation into SQL databases for categorization and analysis. FLOWER is written in C++ using current best software engineering practices.

  1. How the Flowers Came to Be.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Linda; Brescia, William, Ed.

    The booklet tells the story of Josephine, a little Choctaw girl, who picks wild flowers and hurts her Aunt's feelings. Josephine later learns from her grandmother the importance of respecting nature and how the flowers came to be. The story introduces constellations, how weaving came to the Choctaw, how the sick were prayed for, and why wild…

  2. CaAP2 transcription factor is a candidate gene for a flowering repressor and a candidate for controlling natural variation of flowering time in Capsicum annuum.

    PubMed

    Borovsky, Yelena; Sharma, Vinod K; Verbakel, Henk; Paran, Ilan

    2015-06-01

    The APETALA2 transcription factor homolog CaAP2 is a candidate gene for a flowering repressor in pepper, as revealed by induced-mutation phenotype, and a candidate underlying a major QTL controlling natural variation in flowering time. To decipher the genetic control of transition to flowering in pepper (Capsicum spp.) and determine the extent of gene function conservation compared to model species, we isolated and characterized several ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)-induced mutants that vary in their flowering time compared to the wild type. In the present study, we report on the isolation of an early-flowering mutant that flowers after four leaves on the primary stem compared to nine leaves in the wild-type 'Maor'. By genetic mapping and sequencing of putative candidate genes linked to the mutant phenotype, we identified a member of the APETALA2 (AP2) transcription factor family, CaAP2, which was disrupted in the early-flowering mutant. CaAP2 is a likely ortholog of AP2 that functions as a repressor of flowering in Arabidopsis. To test whether CaAP2 has an effect on controlling natural variation in the transition to flowering in pepper, we performed QTL mapping for flowering time in a cross between early and late-flowering C. annuum accessions. We identified a major QTL in a region of chromosome 2 in which CaAP2 was the most significant marker, explaining 52 % of the phenotypic variation of the trait. Sequence comparison of the CaAP2 open reading frames in the two parents used for QTL mapping did not reveal significant variation. In contrast, significant differences in expression level of CaAP2 were detected between near-isogenic lines that differ for the flowering time QTL, supporting the putative function of CaAP2 as a major repressor of flowering in pepper.

  3. Arabidopsis and Tobacco SUPERMAN regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S.; Wu, Hen-ming; Cheung, Alice Y.

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation. PMID:20980362

  4. Post-flowering nitrate uptake in wheat is controlled by N status at flowering, with a putative major role of root nitrate transporter NRT2.1.

    PubMed

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO₃⁻) uptake under non-limiting NO₃⁻ conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO₃⁻ uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO₃⁻ uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300-400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO₃⁻ correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO₃⁻ transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO₃⁻ uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat.

  5. Ants and ant scent reduce bumblebee pollination of artificial flowers.

    PubMed

    Cembrowski, Adam R; Tan, Marcus G; Thomson, James D; Frederickson, Megan E

    2014-01-01

    Ants on flowers can disrupt pollination by consuming rewards or harassing pollinators, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of these exploitative and interference forms of competition on pollinator behavior. Using highly rewarding and quickly replenishing artificial flowers that simulate male or female function, we allowed bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) to forage (1) on flowers with or without ants (Myrmica rubra) and (2) on flowers with or without ant scent cues. Bumblebees transferred significantly more pollen analogue both to and from ant-free flowers, demonstrating that interference competition with ants is sufficient to modify pollinator foraging behavior. Bees also removed significantly less pollen analogue from ant-scented flowers than from controls, making this the first study to show that bees can use ant scent to avoid harassment at flowers. Ant effects on pollinator behavior, possibly in addition to their effects on pollen viability, may contribute to the evolution of floral traits minimizing ant visitation.

  6. Management of flowering rush in the Detroit Lakes, Minnesota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus) is an invasive aquatic plant introduced to North America from Eurasia in 1897. Flowering rush can grow either submersed or emergent from wet soil habitats to waters that are up to 5 m deep. Flowering rush was first observed in the Detroit Lake system in the 196...

  7. The role of WOX genes in flower development.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Enrico; Trehin, Christophe; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    WOX (Wuschel-like homeobOX) genes form a family of plant-specific HOMEODOMAIN transcription factors, the members of which play important developmental roles in a diverse range of processes. WOX genes were first identified as determining cell fate during embryo development, as well as playing important roles in maintaining stem cell niches in the plant. In recent years, new roles have been identified in plant architecture and organ development, particularly at the flower level. In this review, the role of WOX genes in flower development and flower architecture is highlighted, as evidenced from data obtained in the last few years. The roles played by WOX genes in different species and different flower organs are compared, and differential functional recruitment of WOX genes during flower evolution is considered. This review compares available data concerning the role of WOX genes in flower and organ architecture among different species of angiosperms, including representatives of monocots and eudicots (rosids and asterids). These comparative data highlight the usefulness of the WOX gene family for evo-devo studies of floral development. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A phenological mid-domain effect in flowering diversity.

    PubMed

    Morales, Manuel A; Dodge, Gary J; Inouye, David W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we test the mid-domain hypothesis as an explanation for observed patterns of flowering diversity in two sub-alpine communities of insect-pollinated plants. Observed species richness patterns showed an early-season increase in richness, a mid-season peak, and a late-season decrease. We show that a "mid-domain" null model can qualitatively match this pattern of flowering species richness, with R(2) values typically greater than 60%. We find significant or marginally significant departures from expected patterns of diversity for only 3 out of 12 year-site combinations. On the other hand, we do find a consistent pattern of departure when comparing observed versus null-model predicted flowering diversity averaged across years. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that ecological factors shape patterns of flowering phenology, but that the strength or nature of these environmental forcings may differ between years or the two habitats we studied, or may depend on species-specific characteristics of these plant communities. We conclude that mid-domain null models provide an important baseline from which to test departure of expected patterns of flowering diversity across temporal domains. Geometric constraints should be included first in the list of factors that drive seasonal patterns of flowering diversity.

  9. Analysis of conifer FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER1-like genes provides evidence for dramatic biochemical evolution in the angiosperm FT lineage.

    PubMed

    Klintenäs, Maria; Pin, Pierre A; Benlloch, Reyes; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Nilsson, Ove

    2012-12-01

    In flowering plants, homologs of the Arabidopsis phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are key components in controlling flowering time. We show here that, although FT homologs are found in all angiosperms with completed genome sequences, there is no evidence to date that FT-like genes exist in other groups of plants. Through phylogeny reconstructions and heterologous expression, we examined the biochemical function of the Picea (spruces) and Pinus (pines) PEBP families - two gymnosperm taxa phylogenetically distant from the angiosperms. We have defined a lineage of gymnosperm PEBP genes, termed the FT/TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1)-like genes, that share sequence characteristics with both the angiosperm FT- and TFL1-like clades. When expressed in Arabidopsis, FT/TFL1-like genes repressed flowering, indicating that the proteins are biochemically more similar to the angiosperm TFL1-like proteins than to the FT-like proteins. This suggests that the regulation of the vegetative-to-reproductive switch might differ in gymnosperms compared with angiosperms. Molecular evolution studies suggest that plasticity at exon 4 contributes to the divergence of FT-like function in floral promotion. In addition, the presence of FT-like genes in basal angiosperms indicates that the FT-like function emerged at an early stage during the evolution of flowering plants as a means to regulate flowering time. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. Cultivation of Tomato Tissues Capable of Forming Flowers and Fruits in Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    The final phase of this research project was designed to develop a practical method for producing a steady supply of fresh cherry tomato fruits over a period of several months, for possible use as a fresh vegetable supplement to a standard diet of astronauts on extended missions. This effort was successful. We were able to excise immature flowers from Pixie tomato plants grown in a controlled condition room, implant them on artificial media under aseptic conditions, and get them to develop into edible fruits in a little over a month. The medium (Murashige-Skoog) was purchased from Sigma, supplemented with sugar plus a synthetic analog of the plant hormone cytokinin, and adjusted to pH 5.8. A temperature of at least 25 C and visible light helped to produce ripe red fruits within 7 weeks. To ensure a steady supply of such tomatoes, we found it possible to store the explanted flower buds in MS medium at 5 C for at least 6 weeks without significant loss of ability to develop into fruits. This means that many containers could be prepared before launch and put into a refrigerator; a convenient number could then be removed periodically to guarantee a succession of harvests during the life of an extended mission. Details are found in the attached reprints. Subsequent applications for funds for flight or continued research were denied, and the project was terminated.

  11. Jasmine flower extract lowers prolactin.

    PubMed

    Finny, Philip; Stephen, Charles; Jacob, Rajesh; Tharyan, Prathap; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-04-01

    Antipsychotic drugs frequently cause amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea. Jasmine flowers used topically were as effective as oral Bromocriptine in suppressing puerperal lactation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intranasal jasmine flower extract (JFE) to reduce prolactin levels of patients on stable doses of antipsychotic drugs. This is a randomized, double blind, crossover clinical trial. An aqueous-ethanol extract of jasmine flowers was prepared and used as nasal drops. A decrease in serum prolactin of ≥25 ng/mL was considered a significant response. Ten out of 35 women had a significant drop in the serum prolactin while on the JFE. The non-responders to JFE were on higher doses of antipsychotic drugs. The main side effect was a transient and mild burning sensation in the nose. A cost analysis favoured JFE over dopamine agonists. JFE contains a prolactin-lowering substance which needs further characterisation. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake in Wheat Is Controlled by N Status at Flowering, with a Putative Major Role of Root Nitrate Transporter NRT2.1

    PubMed Central

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the simultaneous improvement of both yield and grain protein is difficult because of the strong negative relationship between these two traits. However, some genotypes deviate positively from this relationship and this has been linked to their ability to take up nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period, regardless of their N status at flowering. The physiological and genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake relating to N satiety are poorly understood. This study uses semi-hydroponic culture of cv. Récital under controlled conditions to explore these controls. The first objective was to record the effects of contrasting N status at flowering on post-flowering nitrate (NO3 -) uptake under non-limiting NO3 - conditions, while following the expression of key genes involved in NO3 - uptake and assimilation. We found that post-flowering NO3 - uptake was strongly influenced by plant N status at flowering during the first 300–400 degree-days after flowering, overlapping with a probable regulation of nitrate uptake exerted by N demand for growth. The uptake of NO3 - correlated well with the expression of the gene TaNRT2.1, coding for a root NO3 - transporter, which seems to play a major role in post-flowering NO3 - uptake. These results provide a useful knowledge base for future investigation of genetic variability in post-flowering N uptake and may lead to concomitant gains in both grain yield and grain protein in wheat. PMID:25798624

  13. Southern Monarchs do not Develop Learned Preferences for Flowers With Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marina Vasconcelos; Trigo, José Roberto; Rodrigues, Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Danaus butterflies sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) from nectar and leaves of various plant species for defense and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that the southern monarch butterfly Danaus erippus shows innate preferences for certain flower colors and has the capacity to develop learned preferences for artificial flowers presenting advantageous floral rewards such as PAs. We predicted that orange and yellow flowers would be innately preferred by southern monarchs. Another prediction is that flowers with both sucrose and PAs would be preferred over those having sucrose only, regardless of flower color. In nature, males of Danaus generally visit PA sources more often than females, so we expected that males of D. erippus would exhibit a stronger learned preference for PA sources than the females. In the innate preference tests, adults were offered artificial non-rewarding yellow, orange, blue, red, green, and violet flowers. Orange and yellow artificial flowers were most visited by southern monarchs, followed by blue and red ones. No individual visited either green or violet flowers. For assessing learned preferences for PA flowers over flowers with no PAs, southern monarchs were trained to associate orange flowers with sucrose plus the PA monocrotaline vs. yellow flowers with sucrose only; the opposite combination was used to train another set of butterflies. In the tests, empty flowers were offered to trained butterflies. Neither males nor females showed learned preferences for flower colors associated with PAs in the training set. Thus, southern monarchs resemble the sister species Danaus plexippus in their innate preferences for orange and yellow flowers. Southern monarchs, similarly to temperate monarchs, might not be as PA-demanding as are other danaine species.

  14. Radical Scavenging Activity From Ethanolic Extract Of Malvaceae Family’s Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artanti, A. N.; Rahmadanny, N.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-04-01

    Sea hibiscus flower (Hibiscus tiliaceus L.), shoe flower (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.), and turk’s cap flower (Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.) are a plant that belongs to the same family, Malvaceae. There are expected contain of anthocyanins as active compound. Several studied shows that some flowers could protect human body from free radical danger exposure. This study has been done to examine ethanolic extract from malvaceae family’s which has potency as radical scavenger. Antiradical activity assay was determined by DPPH method with IC50 value as parameter. Based on the study the malvaceae family’s flower was contain of tannins, polyphenols, saponin, and anthocyanine. The radical scavenging activity respectively from the lowest to the higest activity are vitamin c (4,05 ppm ± 0,094), Turk’s cap flower (6,80 ppm ± 0,22), shoe flower (14,62 ppm ± 0,104) and sea hibiscus flower (38,8 ppm ± 0,086). The three of the extract was having strong antioxidant activity.

  15. Cytokinin Regulates the Activity of Reproductive Meristems, Flower Organ Size, Ovule Formation, and Thus Seed Yield in Arabidopsis thaliana[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bartrina, Isabel; Otto, Elisabeth; Strnad, Miroslav; Werner, Tomáš; Schmülling, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The size and activity of the shoot apical meristem is regulated by transcription factors and low molecular mass signals, including the plant hormone cytokinin. The cytokinin status of the meristem depends on different factors, including metabolic degradation of the hormone, which is catalyzed by cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX) enzymes. Here, we show that CKX3 and CKX5 regulate the activity of the reproductive meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana. CKX3 is expressed in the central WUSCHEL (WUS) domain, while CKX5 shows a broader meristematic expression. ckx3 ckx5 double mutants form larger inflorescence and floral meristems. An increased size of the WUS domain and enhanced primordia formation indicate a dual function for cytokinin in defining the stem cell niche and delaying cellular differentiation. Consistent with this, mutation of a negative regulator gene of cytokinin signaling, ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE PHOSPHOTRANSFER PROTEIN 6, which is expressed at the meristem flanks, caused a further delay of differentiation. Terminal cellular differentiation was also retarded in ckx3 ckx5 flowers, which formed more cells and became larger, corroborating the role of cytokinin in regulating flower organ size. Furthermore, higher activity of the ckx3 ckx5 placenta tissue established supernumerary ovules leading to an increased seed set per silique. Together, the results underpin the important role of cytokinin in reproductive development. The increased cytokinin content caused an ~55% increase in seed yield, highlighting the relevance of sink strength as a yield factor. PMID:21224426

  16. RNA-Seq-based transcriptome analysis of dormant flower buds of Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youyin; Li, Yongqiang; Xin, Dedong; Chen, Wenrong; Shao, Xu; Wang, Yue; Guo, Weidong

    2015-01-25

    Bud dormancy is a critical biological process allowing Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) to survive in winter. Due to the lake of genomic information, molecular mechanisms triggering endodormancy release in flower buds have remained unclear. Hence, we used Illumina RNA-Seq technology to carry out de novo transcriptome assembly and digital gene expression profiling of flower buds. Approximately 47million clean reads were assembled into 50,604 sequences with an average length of 837bp. A total of 37,650 unigene sequences were successfully annotated. 128 pathways were annotated by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis, and metabolic, biosynthesis of second metabolite and plant hormone signal transduction accounted for higher percentage in flower bud. In critical period of endodormancy release, 1644, significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from expression profile. DEGs related to oxidoreductase activity were especially abundant in Gene Ontology (GO) molecular function category. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis demonstrated that DEGs were involved in various metabolic processes, including phytohormone metabolism. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that levels of DEGs for abscisic acid and gibberellin biosynthesis decreased while the abundance of DEGs encoding their degradation enzymes increased and GID1 was down-regulated. Concomitant with endodormancy release, MADS-box transcription factors including P. pseudocerasus dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpcDAM), Agamous-like2, and APETALA3-like genes, shown remarkably epigenetic roles. The newly generated transcriptome and gene expression profiling data provide valuable genetic information for revealing transcriptomic variation during bud dormancy in Chinese cherry. The uncovered data should be useful for future studies of bud dormancy in Prunus fruit trees lacking genomic information. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  17. Three Types of Flower Structures in a Divergent-Wrench Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Liu, Chi-yang

    2017-12-01

    Flower structures are typical features of wrench fault zones. In conventional studies, two distinct kinds of flower structures have been identified based on differences in their internal structural architecture: (1) negative flower structures characterized by synforms and normal separations and (2) positive flower structures characterized by antiforms and reverse separations. In addition to negative and positive flower structures, in this study, a third kind of flower structure was identified in a divergent-wrench fault zone, a hybrid characterized by both antiforms and normal separations. Negative flower structures widely occur in divergent-wrench fault zones, and their presence indicates the combined effects of extensional and strike-slip motion. In contrast, positive and hybrid flower structures occur only in fault restraining bends and step overs. A hybrid flower structure can be considered as product of a kind of structural deformation typical of divergent-wrench zones; it is the result of the combined effects of extensional, compressional, and strike-slip strains under a locally appropriate compressional environment. The strain situation in it represents the transition stage that in between positive and negative flower structures. Kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the hybrid flower structures indicate the salient features of structural deformation in restraining bends and step overs along divergent-wrench faults, including the coexistence of three kinds of strains (i.e., compression, extension, and strike-slip) and synchronous presence of compressional (i.e., typical fault-bend fold) and extensional (normal faults) deformation in the same place. Hybrid flower structures are also favorable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons because of their special structural configuration in divergent-wrench fault zones.

  18. Why Is a Flower Five-Petaled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines why many flowers are five-petaled through the use of a five-petaled model that draws insights from the location of cell clusters at a shoot apex, rather than by way of the Fibonacci sequence or the golden ratio as in the past. The conclusion drawn is that flowers are most likely to be five-petaled, followed by six-petaled;…

  19. Goethe and the ABC model of flower development.

    PubMed

    Coen, E

    2001-06-01

    About 10 years ago, the ABC model for the genetic control of flower development was proposed. This model was initially based on the analysis of mutant flowers but has subsequently been confirmed by molecular analysis. This paper describes the 200-year history behind this model, from the late 18th century when Goethe arrived at his idea of plant metamorphosis, to the genetic studies on flower mutants carried out on Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum in the late 20th century.

  20. The Flavonoid Pathway Regulates the Petal Colors of Cotton Flower

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jiafu; Wang, Maojun; Tu, Lili; Nie, Yichun; Lin, Yongjun; Zhang, Xianlong

    2013-01-01

    Although biochemists and geneticists have studied the cotton flower for more than one century, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the dramatic color change that occurs during its short developmental life following blooming. Through the analysis of world cotton germplasms, we found that all of the flowers underwent color changes post-anthesis, but there is a diverse array of petal colors among cotton species, with cream, yellow and red colors dominating the color scheme. Genetic and biochemical analyses indicated that both the original cream and red colors and the color changes post-anthesis were related to flavonoid content. The anthocyanin content and the expression of biosynthesis genes were both increased from blooming to one day post-anthesis (DPA) when the flower was withering and undergoing abscission. Our results indicated that the color changes and flavonoid biosynthesis of cotton flowers were precisely controlled and genetically regulated. In addition, flavonol synthase (FLS) genes involved in flavonol biosynthesis showed specific expression at 11 am when the flowers were fully opened. The anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) genes, which are responsible for proanthocyanidins biosynthesis, showed the highest expression at 6 pm on 0 DPA, when the flowers were withered. Light showed primary, moderate and little effects on flavonol, anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis, respectively. Flavonol biosynthesis was in response to light exposure, while anthocyanin biosynthesis was involved in flower color changes. Further expression analysis of flavonoid genes in flowers of wild type and a flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H) silenced line showed that the development of cotton flower color was controlled by a complex interaction between genes and light. These results present novel information regarding flavonoids metabolism and flower development. PMID:23951318

  1. Nectar yeasts warm the flowers of a winter-blooming plant

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Pozo, María I.

    2010-01-01

    Yeasts are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic microbiota, yet their ecological functionality remains relatively unexplored in comparison with other micro-organisms. This paper formulates and tests the novel hypothesis that heat produced by the sugar catabolism of yeast populations inhabiting floral nectar can increase the temperature of floral nectar and, more generally, modify the within-flower thermal microenvironment. Two field experiments were designed to test this hypothesis for the winter-blooming herb Helleborus foetidus (Ranunculaceae). In experiment 1, the effect of yeasts on the within-flower thermal environment was tested by excluding them from flowers, while in experiment 2 the test involved artificial inoculation of virgin flowers with yeasts. Nectary temperature (Tnect), within-flower air temperature (Tflow) and external air temperature (Tair) were measured on experimental and control flowers in both experiments. Experimental exclusion of yeasts from the nectaries significantly reduced, and experimental addition of yeasts significantly increased, the temperature excess of nectaries (ΔTnect = Tnect − Tair) and the air space inside flowers in relation to the air just outside the flowers. In non-experimental flowers exposed to natural pollinator visitation, ΔTnect was linearly related to log yeast cell density in nectar, and reached +6°C in nectaries with the densest yeast populations. The warming effect of nectar-dwelling yeasts documented in this study suggests novel ecological mechanisms potentially linking nectarivorous microbes with winter-blooming plants and their insect pollinators. PMID:20147331

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-23 - Cut flowers from Hawaii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cut flowers from Hawaii. 318.13-23 Section 318.13-23... From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-23 Cut flowers from Hawaii. (a) Except for cut blooms and leis... paragraph (b) of this section, cut flowers may be moved interstate from Hawaii under limited permit, to a...

  7. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A.; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. PMID:27591432

  8. Impacts of climate change on spring flower tourism in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanjiong

    2016-04-01

    The beauty of blooming flowers causes spring to be one of the most picturesque and pleasant seasons in which to travel. However, the blooming time of plant species are very sensitive to small changes in climate. Therefore, recent climate change may shift flowering time and, as a result, may affect timing of spring tourism for tourists. In order to prove this assumption, we gathered data of first flowering date and end of flowering date (1963-2014) for 49 common ornamental plants in Beijing, China. In addition, we used the number of messages (2010-2014) posted on Sina Weibo (one of the most popular microblogs sites in China, in use by well over 30% of internet users, with a market penetration similar to the United States' Twitter) to indicate the tourist numbers of five scenic spots in Beijing. These spots are most famous places for seeing spring flowers, including the Summer Palace, Yuyuantan Park, Beijing Botanical Garden, Jingshan Park, Dadu City Wall Relics Park. The results showed that the number of species in flower starts to increase in early spring and peaks in middle spring, and then begins to decrease from late spring. The date when the number of species in flower peaks can be defined as best date of spring flower tourism, because on this day people can see blooming flowers of most plant species. The best date of spring flower tourism varied from March 31 to May 1 among years with a mean of April 20. At above scenic spots characterized by the beauty of blooming flowers, tourist numbers also had a peak value during spring. Furthermore, peak time of tourist numbers derived from Weibo varied among different years and was related to best date of spring flower tour derived from phenological data. This suggests that the time of spring outing for tourists is remarkably attracted by flowering phenology. From 1963 to 2014, the best date of spring flower tour became earlier at a rate of 1.6 days decade-1, but the duration for spring flower tour (defined as width at

  9. Susceptibility of blackberry flowers to freezing temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops during spring frost events. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at different reproductive stages of development (tight bud to green drupe) was determined using two methods. One method i...

  10. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs). These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA) mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter) the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent). Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1) were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) were

  11. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  12. Flower-visiting behavior of male bees is triggered by nectar-feeding insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Abe, Tetsuto; Yamaura, Yuichi; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2007-08-01

    Bees are important pollinators for many flowering plants. Female bees are thought to be more effective pollinators than male bees because they carry much more pollen than males. Males of some solitary bee species are known to patrol near flowers that females visit. Because patrolling males visit flowers to mate or defend their territories, they may function as pollinators. However, the significance of patrolling males to pollination has not been studied. We studied males of a solitary bee, Heriades fulvohispidus (Megachilidae), patrolling near flowers and visiting flowers that attracted nectar-feeding insects, including conspecifics, on the Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands. To test the hypothesis that patrolling male bees may function as pollen vectors, we compared the frequency of visits by H. fulvohispidus to flowers of an endemic plant, Schima mertensiana (Theaceae); comparisons were made among flowers with a dead H. fulvohispidus, a dead beetle, a piece of plastic, and nothing (control flowers). Patrolling H. fulvohispidus more frequently visited flowers with a dead conspecific, a dead beetle, or a piece of plastic than the control flowers. Our experiment demonstrates that nectar-feeding insects (including conspecifics and other insects) enhance the flower-visiting frequency of patrolling H. fulvohispidus males on S. mertensiana flowers. Furthermore, we observed S. mertensiana pollen on patrolling males as well as females, suggesting that male bees may also function as pollen vectors.

  13. Adaptation to climate through flowering phenology: a case study in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Burgarella, Concetta; Chantret, Nathalie; Gay, Laurène; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Bonhomme, Maxime; Tiffin, Peter; Young, Nevin D; Ronfort, Joelle

    2016-07-01

    Local climatic conditions likely constitute an important selective pressure on genes underlying important fitness-related traits such as flowering time, and in many species, flowering phenology and climatic gradients strongly covary. To test whether climate shapes the genetic variation on flowering time genes and to identify candidate flowering genes involved in the adaptation to environmental heterogeneity, we used a large Medicago truncatula core collection to examine the association between nucleotide polymorphisms at 224 candidate genes and both climate variables and flowering phenotypes. Unlike genome-wide studies, candidate gene approaches are expected to enrich for the number of meaningful trait associations because they specifically target genes that are known to affect the trait of interest. We found that flowering time mediates adaptation to climatic conditions mainly by variation at genes located upstream in the flowering pathways, close to the environmental stimuli. Variables related to the annual precipitation regime reflected selective constraints on flowering time genes better than the other variables tested (temperature, altitude, latitude or longitude). By comparing phenotype and climate associations, we identified 12 flowering genes as the most promising candidates responsible for phenological adaptation to climate. Four of these genes were located in the known flowering time QTL region on chromosome 7. However, climate and flowering associations also highlighted largely distinct gene sets, suggesting different genetic architectures for adaptation to climate and flowering onset. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. The effect of flower-like and non-flower-like visual properties on choice of unrewarding patterns by bumblebees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orbán, Levente L.; Plowright, Catherine M. S.

    2013-07-01

    How do distinct visual stimuli help bumblebees discover flowers before they have experienced any reward outside of their nest? Two visual floral properties, type of a pattern (concentric vs radial) and its position on unrewarding artificial flowers (central vs peripheral on corolla), were manipulated in two experiments. Both visual properties showed significant effects on floral choice. When pitted against each other, pattern was more important than position. Experiment 1 shows a significant effect of concentric pattern position, and experiment 2 shows a significant preference towards radial patterns regardless of their position. These results show that the presence of markings at the center of a flower are not so important as the presence of markings that will direct bees there.

  15. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Refuges, flower strips, biodiversity and agronomic interest.

    PubMed

    Roy, Grégory; Wateau, Karine; Legrand, Mickaël; Oste, Sandrine

    2008-01-01

    Several arthropods are natural predators of pests, and they are able to reduce and control their population development. FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais (Federation Regionate de Defense contre les Organismes Nuisibles = Regional Federation for Pest Control) has begun for a long time to form farmers to the recognition of beneficial arthropods and to show them their usefulness. These beneficial insects or arachnids are present everywhere, in orchards and even in fields which are areas relatively poor in biodiversity. Adults feed in the flower strips instead larvae and some adults feed on preys such as aphids or caterpillars. Most of the time, beneficial insects can regulate pest but sometimes, in agricultural area, they can't make it early enough and efficiently. Their action begin too late and there biodiversity and number are too low. It's possible to enhance their action by manipulating the ecological infrastructures, like sewing flower strips or installing refuges. Flower strips increase the density of natural enemies and make them be present earlier in the field in order to control pests. Refuges permit beneficial's to spend winter on the spot. So they're able to be active and to grow in number earlier. From 2004 to 2007, on the one hand, FREDON Nord Pas-de-Calais has developed a research program. Its purpose was to inventory practices and also tools and means available and to judge the advisability of using such or such beneficial refuge in orchards. On the second hand, it studied the impact in orchard of refuges on population of beneficial's and the difference there were between manufactured refuges and homemade refuges. Interesting prospects were obtained with some of them. Otherwise, since 2003, FREDON has studied flower strips influence on beneficial population and their impact on pest control. In cabbage fields, results of trials have shown that flower strips lead to a reduction of aphid number under acceptable economic level, up to 50 meters from flower strips

  17. Increasing the applications of Crocus sativus flowers as natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Díaz, Jéssica; Sánchez, Ana M; Maggi, Luana; Martínez-Tomé, Magdalena; García-Diz, Luis; Murcia, M Antonia; Alonso, Gonzalo L

    2012-11-01

    Large amounts of floral bio-residues (92.6 g per 100 g of flowers) are generated and wasted in the production of saffron (Crocus sativus) spice. Progress in mechanization of saffron crop offer the opportunity to expand the uses of C. sativus flowers, beyond the spice (dried stigmas). The antioxidant potential of flowers of saffron, their separate parts (tepals, stamens, styles, and stigmas) and floral bio-residues were evaluated by 4 in vitro assays: lipid peroxidation, deoxyribose assay, Rancimat test, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. Phenolic content and crocetin ester composition were also determined. All the samples studied showed to be potential antioxidants. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents were observed in tepals. Stamens showed lower phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents than those of whole flowers, tepals, and floral bio-residues. Crocetin esters were not found in tepals or stamens. Stamens exhibited the most potent LOO(•) and OH(•) radicals scavenging activity, being higher than those of food antioxidant propyl gallate. Flowers of saffron, tepals, stamens, styles, and floral bio-residues showed LOO(•), OH(•), and ABTS(•-) radicals scavenging activity, while stigmas showed LOO(•) and ABTS(•-) radicals scavenging activity. All samples studied improved the oxidative stability of sunflower oil in Rancimat test. These antioxidant properties could suggest the application of this floral material as functional ingredients with the subsequent added value. Saffron spice, the most valuable spice worldwide, is the dried stigma that only represents 7.4% of Crocus sativus flowers. Other parts of the flowers different to stigmas are discarded. Flower harvest and all the postharvest steps to produce saffron spice are performed manually. Mechanization of flower collection, stigma separation, and dehydration process is a revolution in saffron spice production, which increases the productive capacity making it

  18. Poplar FT2 Shortens the Juvenile Phase and Promotes Seasonal Flowering[W

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Liu, Yunxia; Luthe, Dawn S.; Yuceer, Cetin

    2006-01-01

    Many woody perennials, such as poplar (Populus deltoides), are not able to form flower buds during the first several years of their life cycle. They must undergo a transition from the juvenile phase to the reproductive phase to be competent to produce flower buds. After this transition, trees begin to form flower buds in the spring of each growing season. The genetic factors that control flower initiation, ending the juvenile phase, are unknown in poplar. The factors that regulate seasonal flower bud formation are also unknown. Here, we report that poplar FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), a relative of the Arabidopsis thaliana flowering-time gene FT, controls first-time and seasonal flowering in poplar. The FT2 transcript is rare during the juvenile phase of poplar. When juvenile poplar is transformed with FT2 and transcript levels are increased, flowering is induced within 1 year. During the transition between vegetative and reproductive growth in mature trees, FT2 transcripts are abundant during reproductive growth under long days. Subsequently, floral meristems emerge on flanks of the axillary inflorescence shoots. These findings suggest that FT2 is part of the flower initiation pathway in poplar and plays an additional role in regulating seasonal flower initiation that is integrated with the poplar perennial growth habit. PMID:16844908

  19. Apple flower detection using deep convolutional networks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In order to optimize fruit production, a portion of the flowers and fruitlets of apple trees must be removed early in the growing season. The proportion to be removed is determined by the bloom intensity, i.e., the number of flowers present in the orchard. Several automated computer vision systems...

  20. Photosynthate partitioning during flowering in relation to senescence of spinach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sklensky, D.; Davies, P.J.

    1990-05-01

    Male spinach plants are frequently cited as a counter-example to the nutrient drain hypothesis. Photosynthate partitioning in both male and female plants was examined. Leaves just below the inflorescences in plants at various stages of flowering were labelled with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} and the photosynthate allowed to partition for three hours. The leaves, flowers and stems of the inflorescence, and the other above ground vegetative tissue were harvested. These parts were combusted in a sample oxidizer for the collection of the {sup 14}CO{sub 2}. Allocation to the male and female flowers at very early stages are similar. As the flowersmore » develop further, male flowers receive more photosynthate than do female flowers in early fruit production. Thus it is possible that nutrient drain to the flowers in male spinach plants is sufficient to account for senescence.« less

  1. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    PubMed Central

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (p<0.001). In comparison, an intermediate growth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  2. Temporal and intraclonal variation of flowering and pseudovivipary in Poa bulbosa

    PubMed Central

    Ofir, Micha; Kigel, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Versatility in the reproductive development of pseudoviviparous grasses in response to growth conditions is an intriguing reproduction strategy. To better understand this strategy, this study examined variation in flowering and pseudovivipary among populations, co-occurring clones within populations, and among tillers in individual clones of Poa bulbosa, a summer-dormant geophytic grass that reproduces sexually by seed, and asexually by basal tiller bulbs and bulbils formed in proliferated panicles. Methods Clones were collected from 17 populations across a rainfall gradient. Patterns of reproduction were monitored for 11 years in a common garden experiment and related to interannual differences in climatic conditions. Intraclonal variation in flowering and pseudovivipary was studied in a phytotron, under daylengths marginal for flowering induction. Key Results Clones showed large temporal variability in their reproductive behaviour. They flowered in some years but not in others, produced normal or proliferated panicles in different years, or became dormant without flowering. Proliferating clones did not show a distinct time sequence of flowering and proliferation across years. Populations differed in incidence of flowering and proliferation. The proportion of flowering clones increased with decreasing rainfall at the site of population origin, but no consistent relationship was found between flowering and precipitation in the common garden experiment across years. In contrast, flowering decreased at higher temperatures during early growth stages after bulb sprouting. Pulses of soil fertilization greatly increased the proportion of flowering clones and panicle production. High intraclonal tiller heterogeneity was observed, as shown by the divergent developmental fates of daughter plants arising from bulbs from the same parent clone and grown under similar conditions. Panicle proliferation was enhanced by non-inductive 8 h short days, while

  3. The impact of plant and flower age on mating patterns

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Avritt, Joy J.; Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Medeiros, Juliana S.; Shaner, Marieken G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over a season, plant condition, amount of ongoing reproduction and biotic and abiotic environmental factors vary. As flowers age, flower condition and amount of pollen donated and received also vary. These internal and external changes are significant for fitness if they result in changes in reproduction and mating. Scope Literature from several fields was reviewed to provide a picture of the changes that occur in plants and flowers that can affect mating over a season. As flowers age, both the entire flower and individual floral whorls show changes in appearance and function. Over a season, changes in mating often appear as alteration in seed production vs. pollen donation. In several species, older, unpollinated flowers are more likely to self. If flowers are receiving pollen, staying open longer may increase the number of mates. In wild radish, for which there is considerable information on seed paternity, older flowers produce fewer seeds and appear to discriminate less among pollen donors. Pollen donor performance can also be linked to maternal plant age. Different pollinators and mates are available across the season. Also in wild radish, maternal plants appear to exert the most control over paternity when they are of intermediate age. Conclusions Although much is known about the characters of plants and flowers that can change over a season, there is less information on the effects of age on mating. Several studies document changes in self-pollination over time, but very few, other than those on wild radish, consider more subtle aspects of differential success of pollen donors over time. PMID:19875519

  4. A new allele of flower color gene W1 encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase is responsible for light purple flowers in wild soybean Glycine soja.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryoji; Dubouzet, Joseph G; Matsumura, Hisakazu; Yasuda, Kentaro; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2010-07-28

    Glycine soja is a wild relative of soybean that has purple flowers. No flower color variant of Glycine soja has been found in the natural habitat. B09121, an accession with light purple flowers, was discovered in southern Japan. Genetic analysis revealed that the gene responsible for the light purple flowers was allelic to the W1 locus encoding flavonoid 3'5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H). The new allele was designated as w1-lp. The dominance relationship of the locus was W1 >w1-lp >w1. One F2 plant and four F3 plants with purple flowers were generated in the cross between B09121 and a Clark near-isogenic line with w1 allele. Flower petals of B09121 contained lower amounts of four major anthocyanins (malvidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, delphinidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and delphinidin 3-O-glucoside) common in purple flowers and contained small amounts of the 5'-unsubstituted versions of the above anthocyanins, peonidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside, cyanidin 3,5-di-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, suggesting that F3'5'H activity was reduced and flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase activity was increased. F3'5'H cDNAs were cloned from Clark and B09121 by RT-PCR. The cDNA of B09121 had a unique base substitution resulting in the substitution of valine with methionine at amino acid position 210. The base substitution was ascertained by dCAPS analysis. The polymorphism associated with the dCAPS markers co-segregated with flower color in the F2 population. F3 progeny test, and dCAPS and indel analyses suggested that the plants with purple flowers might be due to intragenic recombination and that the 65 bp insertion responsible for gene dysfunction might have been eliminated in such plants. B09121 may be the first example of a flower color variant found in nature. The light purple flower was controlled by a new allele of the W1 locus encoding F3'5'H. The flower petals contained unique anthocyanins not found in soybean and G. soja. B09121 may be a useful tool for studies of

  5. Water relations of Calycanthus flowers: Hydraulic conductance, capacitance, and embolism resistance.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Adam B; Simonin, Kevin A; McCulloh, Katherine A; Brodersen, Craig R; Dawson, Todd E

    2018-03-30

    For most angiosperms, producing and maintaining flowers is critical to sexual reproduction, yet little is known about the physiological processes involved in maintaining flowers throughout anthesis. Among extant species, flowers of the genus Calycanthus have the highest hydraulic conductance and vein densities of species measured to date, yet they can wilt by late morning under hot conditions. Here, we combine diurnal measurements of gas exchange and water potential, pressure-volume relations, functional responses of gas exchange, and characterization of embolism formation using high resolution X-ray computed microtomography to determine drought responses of Calycanthus flowers. Transpiration from flowers frequently exceeded transpiration from leaves, and flowers were unable to limit transpiration under conditions of high vapour pressure deficit. As a result, they rely heavily on hydraulic capacitance to prevent water potential declines. Despite having high water potentials at turgor loss, flowers were very resistant to embolism formation, with no embolism apparent until tepal water potentials had declined to -2 MPa. Although Calycanthus flowers remain connected to the stem xylem and have high hydraulic capacitance, their inability to curtail transpiration leads to turgor loss. These results suggest that extreme climate events may cause flower failure, potentially preventing successful reproduction. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Global warming and flowering times in Thoreau's Concord: a community perspective.

    PubMed

    Miller-Rushing, Abraham J; Primack, Richard B

    2008-02-01

    As a result of climate change, many plants are now flowering measurably earlier than they did in the past. However, some species' flowering times have changed much more than others. Data at the community level can clarify the variation in flowering responses to climate change. In order to determine how North American species' flowering times respond to climate, we analyzed a series of previously unstudied records of the dates of first flowering for over 500 plant taxa in Concord, Massachusetts, USA. These records began with six years of observations by the famous naturalist Henry David Thoreau from 1852 to 1858, continued with 16 years of observations by the botanist Alfred Hosmer in 1878 and 1888-1902, and concluded with our own observations in 2004, 2005, and 2006. From 1852 through 2006, Concord warmed by 2.4 degrees C due to global climate change and urbanization. Using a subset of 43 common species, we determined that plants are now flowering seven days earlier on average than they did in Thoreau's times. Plant flowering times were most correlated with mean temperatures in the one or two months just before flowering and were also correlated with January temperatures. Summer-flowering species showed more interannual variation in flowering time than did spring-flowering species, but the flowering times of spring-flowering species correlated more strongly to mean monthly temperatures. In many cases, such as within the genera Betula and Solidago, closely related, co-occurring species responded to climate very differently from one another. The differences in flowering responses to warming could affect relationships in plant communities as warming continues. Common St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) are particularly responsive to changes in climate, are common across much of the United States, and could serve as indicators of biological responses to climate change. We discuss the need for researchers to be aware

  7. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Methods Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Key Results Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Conclusions Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in

  8. Variation in highbush blueberry floral volatile profiles as a function of pollination status, cultivar, time of day and flower part: implications for flower visitation by bees.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Parra, Leonardo; Quiroz, Andrés; Isaacs, Rufus

    2011-06-01

    Studies of the effects of pollination on floral scent and bee visitation remain rare, particularly in agricultural crops. To fill this gap, the hypothesis that bee visitation to flowers decreases after pollination through reduced floral volatile emissions in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum, was tested. Other sources of variation in floral emissions and the role of floral volatiles in bee attraction were also examined. Pollinator visitation to blueberry flowers was manipulated by bagging all flowers within a bush (pollinator excluded) or leaving them unbagged (open pollinated), and then the effect on floral volatile emissions and future bee visitation were measured. Floral volatiles were also measured from different blueberry cultivars, times of the day and flower parts, and a study was conducted to test the attraction of bees to floral volatiles. Open-pollinated blueberry flowers had 32 % lower volatile emissions than pollinator-excluded flowers. In particular, cinnamyl alcohol, a major component of the floral blend that is emitted exclusively from petals, was emitted in lower quantities from open-pollinated flowers. Although, no differences in cinnamyl alcohol emissions were detected among three blueberry cultivars or at different times of day, some components of the blueberry floral blend were emitted in higher amounts from certain cultivars and at mid-day. Field observations showed that more bees visited bushes with pollinator-excluded flowers. Also, more honey bees were caught in traps baited with a synthetic blueberry floral blend than in unbaited traps. Greater volatile emissions may help guide bees to unpollinated flowers, and thus increase plant fitness and bee energetic return when foraging in blueberries. Furthermore, the variation in volatile emissions from blueberry flowers depending on pollination status, plant cultivar and time of day suggests an adaptive role of floral signals in increasing pollination of flowers.

  9. De novo sequencing and comparative transcriptome analysis of the male and hermaphroditic flowers provide insights into the regulation of flower formation in andromonoecious taihangia rupestris.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiguo; Zhang, Lihui; Ding, Zhan; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Yandi; Gong, Hongmei; Chang, Tianjun; Zhang, Yanwen

    2017-02-28

    Taihangia rupestris, an andromonoecious plant species, bears both male and hermaphroditic flowers within the same individual. However, the establishment and development of male and hermaphroditic flowers in andromonoecious Taihangia remain poorly understood, due to the limited genetic and sequence information. To investigate the potential molecular mechanism in the regulation of Taihangia flower formation, we used de novo RNA sequencing to compare the transcriptome profiles of male and hermaphroditic flowers at early and late developmental stages. Four cDNA libraries, including male floral bud, hermaphroditic floral bud, male flower, and hermaphroditic flower, were constructed and sequenced by using the Illumina RNA-Seq method. Totally, 84,596,426 qualified Illumina reads were obtained and then assembled into 59,064 unigenes, of which 24,753 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. In addition, 12,214, 7,153, and 8,115 unigenes were assigned into 53 Gene Ontology (GO) functional groups, 25 Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG) categories, and 126 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways, respectively. By pairwise comparison of unigene abundance between the samples, we identified 1,668 differential expressed genes (DEGs), including 176 transcription factors (TFs) between the male and hermaphroditic flowers. At the early developmental stage, we found 263 up-regulated genes and 436 down-regulated genes expressed in hermaphroditic floral buds, while 844 up-regulated genes and 314 down-regulated genes were detected in hermaphroditic flowers at the late developmental stage. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that a large number of DEGs were associated with a wide range of functions, including cell cycle, epigenetic processes, flower development, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid pathway. Finally, real-time quantitative PCR was conducted to validate the DEGs identified in the present study. In this study, transcriptome

  10. Preliminary sensory evaluation of edible flowers from wild Allium species.

    PubMed

    D'Antuono, L Filippo; Manco, Manuela Agata

    2013-11-01

    The use of edible flowers as an aesthetic and flavour component of specific dishes is gaining popularity, and their production is becoming an interesting niche market activity for growers. Allium is an important genus of flowering plants, also including traditional wild food species. The combination of tradition with the new uses of flowers is appealing, requiring, however, explorative acceptance assays for its exploitation. The flowers of the native Mediterranean species Allium neapolitanum, A. roseum and A. triquetrum were subject to hedonic visual, smell and flavour evaluation. Panellists also indicated specific flavour notes and their opinion about the more suitable uses. All the species were positively rated. A. roseum was preferred for all respects; A. triquetrum obtained the lowest visual rating, whereas A. neapolitanum had the lowest flavour rating. A spicy note was the main determinant of high flavour ratings. Dishes retaining the visual appearance of flowers were indicated as more suitable to combine with Allium flowers. This is the first attempt at sensory evaluation of Allium flowers. Nutritional and health promotion properties and toxicity risks do not represent major issues for these products, because of potentially low consumption levels. The main constraint for a wider use of Allium flowers is represented by the absence of a consolidated consumption habit and regular supply. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Transcriptomic and lipidomic profiles of glycerolipids during Arabidopsis flower development.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuki; Teo, Norman Z W; Shui, Guanghou; Chua, Christine H L; Cheong, Wei-Fun; Parameswaran, Sriram; Koizumi, Ryota; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Wenk, Markus R; Ito, Toshiro

    2014-07-01

    Flower glycerolipids are the yet-to-be discovered frontier of the lipidome. Although ample evidence suggests important roles for glycerolipids in flower development, stage-specific lipid profiling in tiny Arabidopsis flowers is challenging. Here, we utilized a transgenic system to synchronize flower development in Arabidopsis. The transgenic plant PAP1::AP1-GR ap1-1 cal-5 showed synchronized flower development upon dexamethasone treatment, which enabled massive harvesting of floral samples of homogenous developmental stages for glycerolipid profiling. Glycerolipid profiling revealed a decrease in concentrations of phospholipids involved in signaling during the early development stages, such as phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol, and a marked increase in concentrations of nonphosphorous galactolipids during the late stage. Moreover, in the midstage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration was increased transiently, which suggests the stimulation of the phosphoinositide metabolism. Accompanying transcriptomic profiling of relevant glycerolipid metabolic genes revealed simultaneous induction of multiple phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes associated with the increased phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate concentration, with a high degree of differential expression patterns for genes encoding other glycerolipid-metabolic genes. The phosphatidic acid phosphatase mutant pah1 pah2 showed flower developmental defect, suggesting a role for phosphatidic acid in flower development. Our concurrent profiling of glycerolipids and relevant metabolic gene expression revealed distinct metabolic pathways stimulated at different stages of flower development in Arabidopsis. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Flower abscission in Vitis vinifera L. triggered by gibberellic acid and shade discloses differences in the underlying metabolic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Sara; Scafidi, Pietro; Cardoso, Vania; Leitao, Antonio E.; Di Lorenzo, Rosario; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Goulao, Luis F.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding abscission is both a biological and an agronomic challenge. Flower abscission induced independently by shade and gibberellic acid (GAc) sprays was monitored in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) growing under a soilless greenhouse system during two seasonal growing conditions, in an early and late production cycle. Physiological and metabolic changes triggered by each of the two distinct stimuli were determined. Environmental conditions exerted a significant effect on fruit set as showed by the higher natural drop rate recorded in the late production cycle with respect to the early cycle. Shade and GAc treatments increased the percentage of flower drop compared to the control, and at a similar degree, during the late production cycle. The reduction of leaf gas exchanges under shade conditions was not observed in GAc treated vines. The metabolic profile assessed in samples collected during the late cycle differently affected primary and secondary metabolisms and showed that most of the treatment-resulting variations occurred in opposite trends in inflorescences unbalanced in either hormonal or energy deficit abscission-inducing signals. Particularly concerning carbohydrates metabolism, sucrose, glucose, tricarboxylic acid metabolites and intermediates of the raffinose family oligosaccharides pathway were lower in shaded and higher in GAc samples. Altered oxidative stress remediation mechanisms and indolacetic acid (IAA) concentration were identified as abscission signatures common to both stimuli. According to the global analysis performed, we report that grape flower abscission mechanisms triggered by GAc application and C-starvation are not based on the same metabolic pathways. PMID:26157448

  13. Patterning of inflorescences and flowers by the F-Box protein DOUBLE TOP and the LEAFY homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER of petunia.

    PubMed

    Souer, Erik; Rebocho, Alexandra B; Bliek, Mattijs; Kusters, Elske; de Bruin, Robert A M; Koes, Ronald

    2008-08-01

    Angiosperms display a wide variety of inflorescence architectures differing in the positions where flowers or branches arise. The expression of floral meristem identity (FMI) genes determines when and where flowers are formed. In Arabidopsis thaliana, this is regulated via transcription of LEAFY (LFY), which encodes a transcription factor that promotes FMI. We found that this is regulated in petunia (Petunia hybrida) via transcription of a distinct gene, DOUBLE TOP (DOT), a homolog of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Mutation of DOT or its tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) homolog ANANTHA abolishes FMI. Ubiquitous expression of DOT or UFO in petunia causes very early flowering and transforms the inflorescence into a solitary flower and leaves into petals. Ectopic expression of DOT or UFO together with LFY or its homolog ABERRANT LEAF AND FLOWER (ALF) in petunia seedlings activates genes required for identity or outgrowth of organ primordia. DOT interacts physically with ALF, suggesting that it activates ALF by a posttranslational mechanism. Our findings suggest a wider role than previously thought for DOT and UFO in the patterning of flowers and indicate that the different roles of LFY and UFO homologs in the spatiotemporal control of floral identity in distinct species result from their divergent expression patterns.

  14. Discussion on Comprehensive Utilization Value of Scutellaria Baicalensis Flower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yagang; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    The chemical constituents of Scutellaria baicalensis flower are flavonoids, volatile oils and melanin, It has anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti angiogenic and antithrombotic pharmacological effects, and it has the effect of clearing away heat and relieving lung fire. Scutellaria baicalensis flower is rich in resources, cheap, easy to obtain, accurate effect, With the prevention and treatment of a variety of diseases. In this paper, the ancient application, chemical constituents, pharmacological actions and comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower were reviewed, The purpose of this study was to explore the value of its development and utilization, so as to provide reference for the comprehensive utilization of Scutellaria baicalensis flower.

  15. [Nutritional content, functional properties and conservation of edible flowers. Review].

    PubMed

    Lara-Cortés, Estrella; Osorio-Díaz, Perla; Jiménez-Aparicio, Antonio; Bautista-Bañios, Silvia

    2013-09-01

    The floriphagia that is the consumption of flowers as a food, is an old practice not widespread among consumers until some decades ago. Edible flowers contribute to increasing the appearance of food. They can provide biologically active substances including vitamin A, C, riboflavins, niacin, minerals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron and potassium that are eventually beneficial to consumers' health. This review includes some examples of edible flowers including roses, violets and nasturtium among others, uses and applications, sensorial characteristics and nutritional values that lead them to be considered as functional food: An important factor that affects the quality of edible flowers is the form in which they are preserved since it may affect their sensorial and nutritional characteristics. However, not all flowers can be eaten as food since there are some of them that can be toxic or even mortal. Finally, although the consumption of flowers is an ancient practice, there is little regulation in this regard. Of the review on edible flowers, it is concluded that there are still numerous aspects about them to evaluate such as nutritional and functional characteristics, conservation and regulation with the aim to extend its consumption.

  16. Orchid flowers tolerance to gamma-radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko

    2000-03-01

    Cut flowers are fresh goods that may be treated with fumigants such as methyl bromide to meet the needs of the quarantine requirements of importing countries. Irradiation is a non-chemical alternative to substitute the methyl bromide treatment of fresh products. In this research, different cut orchids were irradiated to examine their tolerance to gamma-rays. A 200 Gy dose did inhibit the Dendrobium palenopsis buds from opening, but did not cause visible damage to opened flowers. Doses of 800 and 1000 Gy were damaging because they provoked the flowers to drop from the stem. Cattleya irradiated with 750 Gy did not show any damage, and were therefore eligible for the radiation treatment. Cymbidium tolerated up to 300 Gy and above this dose dropped prematurely. On the other hand, Oncydium did not tolerate doses above 150 Gy.

  17. Spatial and temporal transcriptome changes occurring during flower opening and senescence of the ephemeral hibiscus flower, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    PubMed

    Trivellini, Alice; Cocetta, Giacomo; Hunter, Donald A; Vernieri, Paolo; Ferrante, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Flowers are complex systems whose vegetative and sexual structures initiate and die in a synchronous manner. The rapidity of this process varies widely in flowers, with some lasting for months while others such as Hibiscus rosa-sinensis survive for only a day. The genetic regulation underlying these differences is unclear. To identify key genes and pathways that coordinate floral organ senescence of ephemeral flowers, we identified transcripts in H. rosa-sinensis floral organs by 454 sequencing. During development, 2053 transcripts increased and 2135 decreased significantly in abundance. The senescence of the flower was associated with increased abundance of many hydrolytic genes, including aspartic and cysteine proteases, vacuolar processing enzymes, and nucleases. Pathway analysis suggested that transcripts altering significantly in abundance were enriched in functions related to cell wall-, aquaporin-, light/circadian clock-, autophagy-, and calcium-related genes. Finding enrichment in light/circadian clock-related genes fits well with the observation that hibiscus floral development is highly synchronized with light and the hypothesis that ageing/senescence of the flower is orchestrated by a molecular clock. Further study of these genes will provide novel insight into how the molecular clock is able to regulate the timing of programmed cell death in tissues. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. DNA tests for strawberry: perpetual flowering - Bx215

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perpetual flowering strawberries have great economic value to the fresh market industry. Floral initiation in strawberry is largely determined by photoperiod, temperature, and genetics. Commercially grown strawberries are generally classified as remontant (repeated or perpetual flowering, day neutr...

  19. Flower Constancy, Insect Psychology, and Plant Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chittka, Lars; Thomson, James D.; Waser, Nickolas M.

    Individuals of some species of pollinating insects tend to restrict their visits to only a few of the available plant species, in the process bypassing valuable food sources. The question of why this flower constancy exists is a rich and important one with implications for the organization of natural communities of plants, floral evolution, and our understanding of the learning processes involved in finding food. Some scientists have assumed that flower constancy is adaptive per se. Others argued that constancy occurs because memory capacity for floral features in insects is limited, but attempts to identify the limitations often remained rather simplistic. We elucidate now different sensory and motor memories from natural foraging tasks are stored and retrieved, using concepts from modern learning science and visual search, and conclude that flower constancy is likely to have multiple causes. Possible constraints favoring constancy are interference sensitivity of short-term memory, and temporal limitations on retrieving information from long-term memory as rapidly as from short-term memory, but further empirical evidence is needed to substantiate these possibilities. In addition, retrieving memories may be slower and more prone to errors when there are several options than when an insect copes with only a single task. In addition to memory limitations, we also point out alternative explanations for flower constancy. We then consider the way in which floral parameters, such as interplant distances, nectar rewards, flower morphology, and floral color (as seen through bees' eyes) affect constancy. Finally, we discuss the implications of pollinator constancy for plant evolution. To date there is no evidence that flowers have diverged to favor constancy, although the appropriate tests may not have yet been conducted. However, there is good evidence against the notion that pollinator constancy is involved in speciation or maintenance of plant species integrity.

  20. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-08-28

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower(®), firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone's camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower(®) has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application's efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market's spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play.

  1. vitisFlower®: Development and Testing of a Novel Android-Smartphone Application for Assessing the Number of Grapevine Flowers per Inflorescence Using Artificial Vision Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Arturo; Millan, Borja; Gaston, Daniel; Diago, María-Paz; Tardaguila, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Grapevine flowering and fruit set greatly determine crop yield. This paper presents a new smartphone application for automatically counting, non-invasively and directly in the vineyard, the flower number in grapevine inflorescence photos by implementing artificial vision techniques. The application, called vitisFlower®, firstly guides the user to appropriately take an inflorescence photo using the smartphone’s camera. Then, by means of image analysis, the flowers in the image are detected and counted. vitisFlower® has been developed for Android devices and uses the OpenCV libraries to maximize computational efficiency. The application was tested on 140 inflorescence images of 11 grapevine varieties taken with two different devices. On average, more than 84% of flowers in the captures were found, with a precision exceeding 94%. Additionally, the application’s efficiency on four different devices covering a wide range of the market’s spectrum was also studied. The results of this benchmarking study showed significant differences among devices, although indicating that the application is efficiently usable even with low-range devices. vitisFlower is one of the first applications for viticulture that is currently freely available on Google Play. PMID:26343664

  2. Why background colour matters to bees and flowers.

    PubMed

    Bukovac, Zoë; Shrestha, Mani; Garcia, Jair E; Burd, Martin; Dorin, Alan; Dyer, Adrian G

    2017-05-01

    Flowers are often viewed by bee pollinators against a variety of different backgrounds. On the Australian continent, backgrounds are very diverse and include surface examples of all major geological stages of the Earth's history, which have been present during the entire evolutionary period of Angiosperms. Flower signals in Australia are also representative of typical worldwide evolutionary spectral adaptations that enable successful pollination. We measured the spectral properties of 581 natural surfaces, including rocks, sand, green leaves, and dry plant materials, sampled from tropical Cairns through to the southern tip of mainland Australia. We modelled in a hexagon colour space, how interactions between background spectra and flower-like colour stimuli affect reliable discrimination and detection in bee pollinators. We calculated the extent to which a given locus would be conflated with the loci of a different flower-colour stimulus using empirically determined colour discrimination regions for bee vision. Our results reveal that whilst colour signals are robust in homogeneous background viewing conditions, there could be significant pressure on plant flowers to evolve saliently-different colours to overcome background spectral noise. We thus show that perceptual noise has a large influence on how colour information can be used in natural conditions.

  3. Effect of extending the photoperiod with low-intensity red or far-red light on the timing of shoot elongation and flower-bud formation of 1-year-old Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia).

    PubMed

    Ito, Akiko; Saito, Takanori; Nishijima, Takaaki; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effects of light quality (wavelength) on shoot elongation and flower-bud formation in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai), we treated 1-year-old trees with the following: (i) 8 h sunlight + 16 h dark (SD); (ii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h red light (LD(SD + R)); or (iii) 8 h sunlight + 16 h far-red (FR) light (LD(SD + FR)) daily for 4 months from early April (before the spring flush) until early August in 2009 and 2010. In both years, shoot elongation stopped earlier in the LD(SD + FR) treatment than in the SD and LD(SD + R) treatments. After 4 months of treatments, 21% (2009) or 40% (2010) of LD(SD + FR)-treated trees formed flower buds in the shoot apices, whereas all the shoot apices from SD or LD(SD + R)-treated plants remained vegetative. With an additional experiment conducted in 2012, we confirmed that FR light at 730 nm was the most efficacious wavelength to induce flower-bud formation. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that the expression of two floral meristem identity gene orthologues, LEAFY (PpLFY2a) and APETALA1 (PpMADS2-1a), were up-regulated in the shoot apex of LD(SD + FR). In contrast, the expression of a flowering repressor gene, TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PpTFL1-1a, PpTFL1-2a), was down-regulated. In addition, expression of an orthologue of the flower-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (PpFT1a) was positively correlated with flower-bud formation, although the expression of another orthologue, PpFT2a, was negatively correlated with shoot growth. Biologically active cytokinin and gibberellic acid concentrations in shoot apices were reduced with LD(SD + FR) treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that pear plants are able to regulate flowering in response to the R : FR ratio. Furthermore, LD(SD + FR) treatment terminated shoot elongation and subsequent flower-bud formation in the shoot apex at an earlier time, possibly by influencing the expression of flowering-related genes and modifying

  4. [Primary speciation analysis of iron in edible flowers].

    PubMed

    Peng, Shan-shan; Huang, Guo-qing

    2003-02-01

    In this paper seven primary speciations of iron in three edible flowers, i.e. chrysanthemum, cottonrose hibiscus and honeysucker have been studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. Speciation parameters of iron such as extractive rate, residue rate, immerse-residue ratio in the samples were calculated. It was found that the first extractive rates of Fe were higher than the second ones in all three edible flowers, and the immerse-residue ratios of Fe were similar to the extractive rates. But the extraction of iron in all three edible flowers were no more than fifty percent. It is showed that the iron isn't easy to extract by water in the three edible flowers. The recovery was in the range of 96.5%-103.2% and RSD was in the range of 1.2%-3.1%. The results were satisfactory.

  5. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysenko, Vladimir; Varduny, Tatyana

    2013-11-01

    Chlorophylless flower petals are known to be composed of non-photosynthetic tissues. Here, we show that the light energy storage that can be photoacoustically measured in flower petals of Petunia hybrida is approximately 10-12%. We found that the supposed chlorophylless photosynthesis is an anoxygenic, anthocyanin-dependent process occurring in blue flower petals (ADAPFP), accompanied by non-respiratory light-dependent oxygen uptake and a 1.5-fold photoinduced increase in ATP levels. Using a simple, adhesive tape stripping technique, we have obtained a backside image of an intact flower petal epidermis, revealing sword-shaped ingrowths connecting the cell wall and vacuole, which is of interest for the further study of possible vacuole-related photosynthesis. Approaches to the interpretations of ADAPFP are discussed, and we conclude that these results are not impossible in terms of the known photochemistry of anthocyanins.

  6. Laser capture microdissection to study flower morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawełkowicz, Magdalena Ewa; Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Kowalczuk, Cezary; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2017-08-01

    Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) is a sample preparation microscopic method that enables isolation of an interesting cell or cells population from human, animal or plant tissue. This technique allows for obtaining pure sample from heterogeneous mixture. From isolated cells, it is possible to obtain the appropriate quality material used for genomic research in transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. We used LCM method to study flower morphogenesis and specific bud's organ organization and development. The genes expression level in developing flower buds of male (B10) and female (2gg) lines were analyzed with qPCR. The expression was checked for stamen and carpel primordia obtained with LCM and for whole flower buds at successive stages of growth.

  7. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R.; Playfair, Susan R.; Polgar, Caroline A.; Primack, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe—a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  8. Cranberry flowering times and climate change in southern Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Ellwood, Elizabeth R; Playfair, Susan R; Polgar, Caroline A; Primack, Richard B

    2014-09-01

    Plants in wild and agricultural settings are being affected by the warmer temperatures associated with climate change. Here we examine the degree to which the iconic New England cranberry, Vaccinium macrocarpon, is exhibiting signs of altered flowering phenology. Using contemporary records from commercial cranberry bogs in southeastern Massachusetts in the United States, we found that cranberry plants are responsive to temperature. Flowering is approximately 2 days earlier for each 1 °C increase in May temperature. We also investigated the relationship between cranberry flowering and flight dates of the bog copper, Lycaena epixanthe-a butterfly dependent upon cranberry plants in its larval stage. Cranberry flowering and bog copper emergence were found to be changing disproportionately over time, suggesting a potential ecological mismatch. The pattern of advanced cranberry flowering over time coupled with increased temperature has implications not only for the relationship between cranberry plants and their insect associates but also for agricultural crops in general and for the commercial cranberry industry.

  9. The ancestral flower of angiosperms and its early diversification

    PubMed Central

    Sauquet, Hervé; von Balthazar, Maria; Magallón, Susana; Doyle, James A.; Endress, Peter K.; Bailes, Emily J.; Barroso de Morais, Erica; Bull-Hereñu, Kester; Carrive, Laetitia; Chartier, Marion; Chomicki, Guillaume; Coiro, Mario; Cornette, Raphaël; El Ottra, Juliana H. L.; Epicoco, Cyril; Foster, Charles S. P.; Jabbour, Florian; Haevermans, Agathe; Haevermans, Thomas; Hernández, Rebeca; Little, Stefan A.; Löfstrand, Stefan; Luna, Javier A.; Massoni, Julien; Nadot, Sophie; Pamperl, Susanne; Prieu, Charlotte; Reyes, Elisabeth; dos Santos, Patrícia; Schoonderwoerd, Kristel M.; Sontag, Susanne; Soulebeau, Anaëlle; Staedler, Yannick; Tschan, Georg F.; Wing-Sze Leung, Amy; Schönenberger, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and a series of important palaeobotanical discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of angiosperm diversification. Yet, the origin and early evolution of their most characteristic feature, the flower, remains poorly understood. In particular, the structure of the ancestral flower of all living angiosperms is still uncertain. Here we report model-based reconstructions for ancestral flowers at the deepest nodes in the phylogeny of angiosperms, using the largest data set of floral traits ever assembled. We reconstruct the ancestral angiosperm flower as bisexual and radially symmetric, with more than two whorls of three separate perianth organs each (undifferentiated tepals), more than two whorls of three separate stamens each, and more than five spirally arranged separate carpels. Although uncertainty remains for some of the characters, our reconstruction allows us to propose a new plausible scenario for the early diversification of flowers, leading to new testable hypotheses for future research on angiosperms. PMID:28763051

  10. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Klocko, Amy L; Ma, Cathleen; Robertson, Sarah; Esfandiari, Elahe; Nilsson, Ove; Strauss, Steven H

    2016-02-01

    Eucalyptus trees are among the most important species for industrial forestry worldwide. However, as with most forest trees, flowering does not begin for one to several years after planting which can limit the rate of conventional and molecular breeding. To speed flowering, we transformed a Eucalyptus grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). We found that FT expression led to very early flowering, with events showing floral buds within 1-5 months of transplanting to the glasshouse. The most rapid flowering was observed when the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was used to drive the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene (AtFT). Early flowering was also observed with AtFT overexpression from a 409S ubiquitin promoter and under heat induction conditions with Populus trichocarpa FT1 (PtFT1) under control of a heat-shock promoter. Early flowering trees grew robustly, but exhibited a highly branched phenotype compared to the strong apical dominance of nonflowering transgenic and control trees. AtFT-induced flowers were morphologically normal and produced viable pollen grains and viable self- and cross-pollinated seeds. Many self-seedlings inherited AtFT and flowered early. FT overexpression-induced flowering in Eucalyptus may be a valuable means for accelerating breeding and genetic studies as the transgene can be easily segregated away in progeny, restoring normal growth and form. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Spring Flowers--The Harvest of a Sensitive Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Ted

    1977-01-01

    Twelve flowers are described in the order of their appearance in the spring. Drawings compliment the text. Flowers are the Hepatica, Bloodroot, Red Trillium, Wild Ginger, Marsh Marigold, Juneberry, Shadbush, Wild Iris, Clintonia, Starflower, Labrador Tea, Bunchberry, and Partridge Berry. (NQ)

  12. Symbolic Dynamics, Flower Automata and Infinite Traces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foryś, Wit; Oprocha, Piotr; Bakalarski, Slawomir

    Considering a finite alphabet as a set of allowed instructions, we can identify finite words with basic actions or programs. Hence infinite paths on a flower automaton can represent order in which these programs are executed and a flower shift related with it represents list of instructions to be executed at some mid-point of the computation.

  13. The evolution of ovule number and flower size in wind-pollinated plants.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Jannice; Barrett, Spencer C H

    2011-02-01

    In angiosperms, ovules are "packaged" within individual flowers, and an optimal strategy should occur depending on pollination and resource conditions. In animal-pollinated species, wide variation in ovule number per flower occurs, and this contrasts with wind-pollinated plants, where most species possess uniovulate flowers. This pattern is usually explained as an adaptive response to low pollen receipt in wind-pollinated species. Here, we develop a phenotypic model for the evolution of ovule number per flower that incorporates the aerodynamics of pollen capture and a fixed resource pool for provisioning of flowers, ovules, and seeds. Our results challenge the prevailing explanation for the association between uniovulate flowers and wind pollination. We demonstrate that when flowers are small and inexpensive, as they are in wind-pollinated species, ovule number should be minimized and lower than the average number of pollen tubes per style, even under stochastic pollination and fertilization regimes. The model predicts that plants benefit from producing many small inexpensive flowers, even though some flowers capture too few pollen grains to fertilize their ovules. Wind-pollinated plants with numerous flowers distributed throughout the inflorescence, each with a single ovule or a few ovules, sample more of the airstream, and this should maximize pollen capture and seed production.

  14. Molecular genetic analyses of microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong

    2005-01-01

    In flowering plants, male reproductive development requires the formation of the stamen, including the differentiation of anther tissues. Within the anther, male meiosis produces microspores, which further develop into pollen grains, relying on both sporophytic and gametophytic gene functions. The mature pollen is released when the anther dehisces, allowing pollination to occur. Molecular studies have identified a large number of genes that are expressed during stamen and pollen development. Genetic analyses have demonstrated the function of some of these genes in specifying stamen identity, regulating anther cell division and differentiation, controlling male meiosis, supporting pollen development, and promoting anther dehiscence. These genes encode a variety of proteins, including transcriptional regulators, signal transduction proteins, regulators of protein degradation, and enzymes for the biosynthesis of hormones. Although much has been learned in recent decades, much more awaits to be discovered and understood; the future of the study of plant male reproduction remains bright and exciting with the ever-growing tool kits and rapidly expanding information and resources for gene function studies.

  15. A Matter of Contrast: Yellow Flower Colour Constrains Style Length in Crocus species.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Klaus; Konzmann, Sabine; Bossems, Jessica; Harpke, Doerte

    2016-01-01

    Most flowers display distinct colour patterns comprising two different areas. The peripheral large-area component of floral colour patterns attracts flower visitors from some distance and the central small-area component guides flower visitors towards landing sites. Whereas the peripheral colour is largely variable among species, the central colour, produced mostly by anthers and pollen or pollen mimicking floral guides, is predominantly yellow and UV-absorbing. This holds also for yellow flowers that regularly display a UV bull's eye pattern. Here we show that yellow-flowering Crocus species are a noticeable exception, since yellow-flowering Crocus species-being entirely UV-absorbing-exhibit low colour contrast between yellow reproductive organs and yellow tepals. The elongated yellow or orange-yellow style of Crocus flowers is a stamen-mimicking structure promoting cross-pollination by facilitating flower visitors' contact with the apical stigma before the flower visitors are touching the anthers. Since Crocus species possess either yellow, violet or white tepals, the colour contrast between the stamen-mimicking style and the tepals varies among species. In this study comprising 106 Crocus species, it was tested whether the style length of Crocus flowers is dependent on the corolla colour. The results show that members of the genus Crocus with yellow tepals have evolved independently up to twelve times in the genus Crocus and that yellow-flowering Crocus species possess shorter styles as compared to violet- and white-flowering ones. The manipulation of flower visitors by anther-mimicking elongated styles in Crocus flowers is discussed.

  16. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Results Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC50 =11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC50 = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC50 = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Conclusions Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products. PMID:22672352

  17. Inhibition of melanogenesis and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huey-Chun; Hsieh, Wan-Yu; Niu, Yu-Lin; Chang, Tsong-Min

    2012-06-06

    Magnolia grandiflora L. flower is wildly used in Asian as a traditional herbal medication. The purpose of the study was to investigate the antimelanogenic and antioxidant properties of Magnolia grandiflora L. flower extract. In the study, the inhibitory effects of M. grandiflora L. flower extract on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Meanwhile, the antioxidative capacity of the flower extract was also investigated. Our results revealed that M. grandiflora L. flower extract inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 11.1%; v/v), the flower extract also effectively suppressed intracellular tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 13.6%; v/v) and decreased the amount of melanin (IC(50) = 25.6%; v/v) in a dose-dependent manner in B16F10 cells. Protein expression level of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) were also decreased by the flower extract. Additionally, antioxidant capacities such as ABTS(+) free radical scavenging activity, reducing capacity and total phenolic content of the flower extract were increased in a dose-dependent pattern. Our results concluded that M. grandiflora L. flower extract decreased the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1, and then inhibited melanogenesis in B16F10 cells. The flower extract also show antioxidant capacities and depleted cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, M. grandiflora L. flower extract could be applied as a type of dermatological whitening agent in skin care products.

  18. Recent advances in the research and development of blue flowers.

    PubMed

    Noda, Naonobu

    2018-01-01

    Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering. For example, introduction of the F3 ' 5 ' H gene encoding flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase can produce delphinidin in various flowers such as roses and carnations, turning the flower color purple or violet. Furthermore, the world's first blue chrysanthemum was recently produced by introducing the A3 ' 5 ' GT gene encoding anthocyanin 3',5'- O -glucosyltransferase, in addition to F3 ' 5 ' H , into the host plant. The B-ring glucosylated delphinidin-based anthocyanin that is synthesized by the two transgenes develops blue coloration by co-pigmentation with colorless flavone glycosides naturally present in the ray floret of chrysanthemum. This review focuses on the biotechnological efforts to develop blue flowers, and describes future prospects for blue flower breeding and commercialization.

  19. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Tropic responses were examined in azalea Rhododendrom pulchrum and lily Lilium cv. 'Casablanca' flowers. Orientation of the flowers in these two species depicts several up/down characteristics, such as angle of the corolla opening, alignment or configuration of a specific petal at the top, plus direction in the curved tip of the pistil and stamen. Gravity was found to be the prime factor, with light as a secondary signal that determines gravitropism in the pistil of the azalea. Within the azalea, sedimented amyloplasts were observed throughout the cells along the inner layers below the epidermis. In lily flowers, no sedimented amyloplasts were found in style cells, and phototropic responses caused upward bending of the pistil. Responses of lily pistils to monochromatic light were consistent with the action spectrum for phototropism in the shoots of monocotyledonous plants. We discuss how these features may increase the fitness for pollination in these two species.

  20. Unique Crystallization of Fullerenes: Fullerene Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jungah; Park, Chibeom; Song, Intek; Lee, Minkyung; Kim, Hyungki; Choi, Hee Cheul

    2016-01-01

    Solution-phase crystallization of fullerene molecules strongly depends on the types of solvent and their ratios because solvent molecules are easily included in the crystal lattice and distort its structure. The C70 (solute)–mesitylene (solvent) system yields crystals with various morphologies and structures, such as cubes, tubes, and imperfect rods. Herein, using C60 and C70 dissolved in mesitylene, we present a novel way to grow unique flower-shaped crystals with six symmetric petals. The different solubility of C60 and C70 in mesitylene promotes nucleation of C70 with sixfold symmetry in the early stage, which is followed by co-crystallization of both C60 and C70 molecules, leading to lateral petal growth. Based on the growth mechanism, we obtained more complex fullerene crystals, such as multi-deck flowers and tube-flower complexes, by changing the sequence and parameters of crystallization. PMID:27561446

  1. Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability.

    PubMed

    Flo, Víctor; Bosch, Jordi; Arnan, Xavier; Primante, Clara; Martín González, Ana M; Barril-Graells, Helena; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2018-01-01

    Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2) To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition. We monitored weekly flowering patterns in a Mediterranean scrubland community (23 species) over 8 years. Floral resource availability was estimated based on field measures of pollen and nectar production per flower. We analysed inter-annual variation in flowering phenology (duration and date of peak bloom) and flower production, and inter-annual and monthly variability in flower, pollen and nectar species composition. We also investigated potential phylogenetic effects on inter-annual variability of flowering patterns. We found dramatic variation in yearly flower production both at the species and community levels. There was also substantial variation in flowering phenology. Importantly, yearly fluctuations were far from synchronous across species, and resulted in significant changes in floral resources availability and composition at the community level. Changes were especially pronounced late in the season, at a time when flowers are scarce and pollinator visitation rates are particularly high. We discuss the consequences of our findings for pollinator visitation and plant reproductive success in the current scenario of climate change.

  2. Yearly fluctuations of flower landscape in a Mediterranean scrubland: Consequences for floral resource availability

    PubMed Central

    Primante, Clara; Martín González, Ana M.; Barril-Graells, Helena

    2018-01-01

    Species flower production and flowering phenology vary from year to year due to extrinsic factors. Inter-annual variability in flowering patterns may have important consequences for attractiveness to pollinators, and ultimately, plant reproductive output. To understand the consequences of flowering pattern variability, a community approach is necessary because pollinator flower choice is highly dependent on flower context. Our objectives were: 1) To quantify yearly variability in flower density and phenology; 2) To evaluate whether changes in flowering patterns result in significant changes in pollen/nectar composition. We monitored weekly flowering patterns in a Mediterranean scrubland community (23 species) over 8 years. Floral resource availability was estimated based on field measures of pollen and nectar production per flower. We analysed inter-annual variation in flowering phenology (duration and date of peak bloom) and flower production, and inter-annual and monthly variability in flower, pollen and nectar species composition. We also investigated potential phylogenetic effects on inter-annual variability of flowering patterns. We found dramatic variation in yearly flower production both at the species and community levels. There was also substantial variation in flowering phenology. Importantly, yearly fluctuations were far from synchronous across species, and resulted in significant changes in floral resources availability and composition at the community level. Changes were especially pronounced late in the season, at a time when flowers are scarce and pollinator visitation rates are particularly high. We discuss the consequences of our findings for pollinator visitation and plant reproductive success in the current scenario of climate change. PMID:29346453

  3. Attraction of New Zealand flower thrips, Thrips obscuratus, to cis-jasmone, a volatile identified from Japanese honeysuckle flowers.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Mitchell, V J; McLaren, G F; Manning, L M; Bunn, B; Suckling, D M

    2009-06-01

    This work was undertaken to identify floral compound(s) produced by honeysuckle flowers, Lonicera japonica (Thunberg), that mediate the attraction of New Zealand flower thrips Thrips obscuratus (Crawford). Volatiles were collected during the day and night and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine their emission over these two periods. Nine compounds were identified in the headspace; the main compound was linalool, and the other compounds were germacrene D, E,E-alpha-farnesene, nerolidol, cis-jasmone, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and indole. There was a quantitative difference between day and night volatiles, with cis-3-hexenyl acetate, hexyl acetate, cis-hexenyl tiglate, and cis-jasmone emitted in higher amounts during the day compared to the night. When the compounds were tested individually in field trapping experiments, only cis-jasmone attracted New Zealand flower thrips in a significant number. In another field trapping experiment, cis-jasmone caught similar numbers of New Zealand flower thrips compared to a floral blend formulated to mimic the ratios of the compounds emitted during the day, while catch with the night-emitted floral blend was not significantly different from the control. Subsequently, two field trapping experiments were conducted to determine the optimal attraction dose for cis-jasmone, a range of 1-100 mg loaded onto a red rubber stopper was tested, and the highest catches were in traps baited with 100 mg loading. A higher range of 100-1000 mg loaded into polyethylene vials was tested, and the highest catch was in traps baited with 500 mg. In another experiment aimed at comparing the attraction efficacy of cis-jasmone with the two other known thrips attractants (ethyl nicotinate and p-anisaldehyde), ethyl nicotinate showed the highest trap catch followed by cis-jasmone. A smaller number of Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) was attracted to traps baited with cis-jasmone. These results

  4. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Jimena; Vázquez, Diego P

    2016-01-01

    Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity-stability relationship, given that elevation had a positive effect on

  5. Flower diversity and bee reproduction in an arid ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Diego P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diverse flower communities are more stable in floral resource production along the flowering season, but the question about how the diversity and stability of resources affect pollinator reproduction remains open. High plant diversity could favor short foraging trips, which in turn would enhance bee fitness. In addition to plant diversity, greater temporal stability of floral resources in diverse communities could favor pollinator fitness because such communities are likely to occupy the phenological space more broadly, increasing floral availability for pollinators throughout the season. In addition, this potential effect of flower diversity on bee reproduction could be stronger for generalist pollinators because they can use a broader floral spectrum. Based on above arguments we predicted that pollinator reproduction would be positively correlated to flower diversity, and to temporal stability in flower production, and that this relationship would be stronger for the most generalized pollinator species. Materials and Methods: Using structural equation models, we evaluated the effect of these variables and other ecological factors on three estimates of bee reproduction (average number of brood cells per nest per site, total number of brood cells per site, and total number of nests per site), and whether such effects were modulated by bee generalization on floral resources. Results: Contrary to our expectations, flower diversity had no effect on bee reproduction, stability in flower production had a weakly negative effect on one of the bee reproductive variables, and the strength of the fitness-diversity relationship was unrelated to bee generalization. In contrast, elevation had a negative effect on bee reproduction, despite the narrow elevation range encompassed by our sites. Discussion: Flower diversity did not affect the reproduction of the solitary bees studied here. This result could stem from the context dependence of the diversity

  6. Repellency of Lantana camara (Verbenaceae) flowers against Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Dua, V K; Gupta, N C; Pandey, A C; Sharma, V P

    1996-09-01

    The repellent effect of Lantana camara flowers was evaluated against Aedes mosquitoes. Lantana flower extract in coconut oil provided 94.5% protection from Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti. The mean protection time was 1.9 h. One application of Lantana flower can provide more than 50% protection up to 4 h against the possible bites of Aedes mosquitoes. No adverse effects of the human volunteers were observed through 3 months after the application.

  7. The microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE3 Module Regulates Ambient Temperature-Responsive Flowering via FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Joon; Lee, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Wanhui; Jung, Hye Seung; Huijser, Peter; Ahn, Ji Hoon

    2012-01-01

    The flowering time of plants is affected by modest changes in ambient temperature. However, little is known about the regulation of ambient temperature-responsive flowering by small RNAs. In this study, we show that the microRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE3 (SPL3) module directly regulates FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression in the leaf to control ambient temperature-responsive flowering. Overexpression of miR156 led to more delayed flowering at a lower ambient temperature (16°C), which was associated with down-regulation of FT and FRUITFULL expression. Among miR156 target genes, SPL3 mRNA levels were mainly reduced, probably because miR156-mediated cleavage of SPL3 mRNA was higher at 16°C. Overexpression of miR156-resistant SPL3 [SPL3(−)] caused early flowering, regardless of the ambient temperature, which was associated with up-regulation of FT and FRUITFULL expression. Reduction of miR156 activity by target mimicry led to a phenotype similar to that of SUC2::rSPL3 plants. FT up-regulation was observed after dexamethasone treatment in GVG-rSPL3 plants. Misexpression and artificial microRNA-mediated suppression of FT in the leaf dramatically altered the ambient temperature-responsive flowering of plants overexpressing miR156 and SPL3(−). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that the SPL3 protein directly binds to GTAC motifs within the FT promoter. Lesions in TERMINAL FLOWER1, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, and EARLY FLOWERING3 did not alter the expression of miR156 and SPL3. Taken together, our data suggest that the interaction between the miR156-SPL3 module and FT is part of the regulatory mechanism controlling flowering time in response to ambient temperature. PMID:22427344

  8. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies.

  9. Flower development: open questions and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wellmer, Frank; Bowman, John L; Davies, Brendan; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Franks, Robert G; Graciet, Emmanuelle; Gregis, Veronica; Ito, Toshiro; Jack, Thomas P; Jiao, Yuling; Kater, Martin M; Ma, Hong; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Prunet, Nathanaël; Riechmann, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Almost three decades of genetic and molecular analyses have resulted in detailed insights into many of the processes that take place during flower development and in the identification of a large number of key regulatory genes that control these processes. Despite this impressive progress, many questions about how flower development is controlled in different angiosperm species remain unanswered. In this chapter, we discuss some of these open questions and the experimental strategies with which they could be addressed. Specifically, we focus on the areas of floral meristem development and patterning, floral organ specification and differentiation, as well as on the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolutionary changes that have led to the astounding variations in flower size and architecture among extant and extinct angiosperms.

  10. [Standardization of the sour orange flower and leaf].

    PubMed

    Carnat, A; Carnat, A P; Fraisse, D; Lamaison, J L

    1999-09-01

    Dried flowers (1 batch) and leaves (6 batches) of sour orange Citrus aurantium L. had a similar flavonoid pattern. But the flavonoid levels of flowers were higher than those of leaves. The mean levels of the principal flavonoid compounds were respectively: total flavonoids 12.35 and 1.06%, neohesperidin 5.44 and 0.08%, naringin 1.93 and 0.06%, eriocitrin 0.38 and 0.25%. 18 batches of commercial origine were also examined for a comparative study. Specifications were proposed for a revision of the monographs "Sour orange flower" and "Sour orange leaf" of the French Pharmacopoeia.

  11. Unexpected Diversity during Community Succession in the Apple Flower Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; McManus, Patricia S.; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite its importance to the host, the flower microbiome is poorly understood. We report a culture-independent, community-level assessment of apple flower microbial diversity and dynamics. We collected flowers from six apple trees at five time points, starting before flowers opened and ending at petal fall. We applied streptomycin to half of the trees when flowers opened. Assessment of microbial diversity using tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the apple flower communities were rich and diverse and dominated by members of TM7 and Deinococcus-Thermus, phyla about which relatively little is known. From thousands of taxa, we identified six successional groups with coherent dynamics whose abundances peaked at different times before and after bud opening. We designated the groups Pioneer, Early, Mid, Late, Climax, and Generalist communities. The successional pattern was attributed to a set of prevalent taxa that were persistent and gradually changing in abundance. These taxa had significant associations with other community members, as demonstrated with a cooccurrence network based on local similarity analysis. We also detected a set of less-abundant, transient taxa that contributed to general tree-to-tree variability but not to the successional pattern. Communities on trees sprayed with streptomycin had slightly lower phylogenetic diversity than those on unsprayed trees but did not differ in structure or succession. Our results suggest that changes in apple flower microbial community structure are predictable over the life of the flower, providing a basis for ecological understanding and disease management. PMID:23443006

  12. Thyroid Storm Caused by a Chinese Herb Contaminated with Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Vandenberghe, Hilde; Thompson, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 70 Final Diagnosis: Thyroid storm Symptoms: Atrial fibrillation • confusion • hyperthermia • tachycardia Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Intubation • cardioversion Specialty: Critical Care Medicine Objective: Adverse events of drug therapy Background: We report a case of thyroid storm caused by consuming a Chinese herb contaminated with thyroid hormones. Case Report: A 70-year-old man presented to an emergency department after 2 days of nausea, vomiting, and weakness. Three days previously, he had started taking Cordyceps powder and “Flower Man Sang Hung” as recommended by his Chinese physician. Following admission, the patient deteriorated and was eventually diagnosed with thyroid storm complicated by rapid atrial fibrillation requiring cardioversion, intubation, and intensive care admission. The analysis of the Chinese herb “Flower Man Sang Hung” was positive for levothyroxine. The patient was extubated 11 days after admission and discharged to a rehabilitation centre after 17 days of hospitalization. The Chinese medicine physician was informed of the events. Conclusions: Herbal products can be the source of illness, medication interactions, and contamination. Awareness should be raised among Chinese medicine physicians, allopathic physicians, and their patients. Clinicians should also have a low threshold of suspicion to seek laboratory analysis of suspect substances when the cause of the clinical presentation is unclear. PMID:25644333

  13. Hormone levels

    MedlinePlus

    Blood or urine tests can determine the levels of various hormones in the body. This includes reproductive hormones, thyroid hormones, adrenal hormones, pituitary hormones, and many others. For more information, see: ...

  14. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  15. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a breeding target for a novel everbearing trait and tailored flowering responses in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.).

    PubMed

    Koskela, Elli Aurora; Sønsteby, Anita; Flachowsky, Henryk; Heide, Ola Mikal; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Elomaa, Paula; Hytönen, Timo

    2016-09-01

    The effects of daylength and temperature on flowering of the cultivated octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) have been studied extensively at the physiological level, but information on the molecular pathways controlling flowering in the species is scarce. The flowering pathway has been studied at the molecular level in the diploid short-day woodland strawberry (F. vesca L.), in which the FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FvFT1)-SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (FvSOC1)-TERMINAL FLOWER1 (FvTFL1) pathway is essential for the correct timing of flowering. In this work, we show by transgenic approach that the silencing of the floral repressor FaTFL1 in the octoploid short-day cultivar 'Elsanta' is sufficient to induce perpetual flowering under long days without direct changes in vegetative reproduction. We also demonstrate that although the genes FaFT1 and FaSOC1 show similar expression patterns in different cultivars, the regulation of FaTFL1 varies widely from cultivar to cultivar and is correlated with floral induction, indicating that the transcription of FaTFL1 occurs at least partially independently of the FaFT1-FaSOC1 module. Our results indicate that changing the expression patterns of FaTFL1 through biotechnological or conventional breeding approaches could result in strawberries with specific flowering and runnering characteristics including new types of everbearing cultivars. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Functional optics of glossy buttercup flowers.

    PubMed

    van der Kooi, Casper J; Elzenga, J Theo M; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2017-02-01

    Buttercup ( Ranunculus spp.) flowers are exceptional because they feature a distinct gloss (mirror-like reflection) in addition to their matte-yellow coloration. We investigated the optical properties of yellow petals of several Ranunculus and related species using (micro)spectrophotometry and anatomical methods. The contribution of different petal structures to the overall visual signal was quantified using a recently developed optical model. We show that the coloration of glossy buttercup flowers is due to a rare combination of structural and pigmentary coloration. A very flat, pigment-filled upper epidermis acts as a thin-film reflector yielding the gloss, and additionally serves as a filter for light backscattered by the strongly scattering starch and mesophyll layers, which yields the matte-yellow colour. We discuss the evolution of the gloss and its two likely functions: it provides a strong visual signal to insect pollinators and increases the reflection of sunlight to the centre of the flower in order to heat the reproductive organs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño, Martín E.; Davis, Jeremy J.; Mortari, Daniele

    2013-08-01

    The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations, generalizing Harmonic Flower Constellations (the symmetric subset of Flower Constellations) as well as the Walker/ Mozhaev constellations, is presented here. This theory is a new general framework to design symmetric constellations using a 2× 2 lattice matrix of integers or by its minimal representation, the Hermite normal form. From a geometrical point of view, the phasing of satellites is represented by a regular pattern (lattice) on a two-Dimensional torus. The 2-D lattice theory of Flower Constellations does not require any compatibility condition and uses a minimum set of integer parameters whose meaning are explored throughout the paper. This general minimum-parametrization framework allows us to obtain all symmetric distribution of satellites. Due to the J_2 effect this design framework is meant for circular orbits and for elliptical orbits at critical inclination, or to design elliptical constellations for the unperturbed Keplerian case.

  18. Recent advances in the research and development of blue flowers

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Naonobu

    2018-01-01

    Flower color is the most important trait in the breeding of ornamental plants. In the floriculture industry, however, bluish colored flowers of desirable plants have proved difficult to breed. Many ornamental plants with a high production volume, such as rose and chrysanthemum, lack the key genes for producing the blue delphinidin pigment or do not have an intracellular environment suitable for developing blue color. Recently, it has become possible to incorporate a blue flower color trait through progress in molecular biological analysis of pigment biosynthesis genes and genetic engineering. For example, introduction of the F3′5′H gene encoding flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase can produce delphinidin in various flowers such as roses and carnations, turning the flower color purple or violet. Furthermore, the world’s first blue chrysanthemum was recently produced by introducing the A3′5′GT gene encoding anthocyanin 3′,5′-O-glucosyltransferase, in addition to F3′5′H, into the host plant. The B-ring glucosylated delphinidin-based anthocyanin that is synthesized by the two transgenes develops blue coloration by co-pigmentation with colorless flavone glycosides naturally present in the ray floret of chrysanthemum. This review focuses on the biotechnological efforts to develop blue flowers, and describes future prospects for blue flower breeding and commercialization. PMID:29681750

  19. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  20. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis. PMID:27869146

  1. Flower development and sex specification in wild grapevine.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Miguel Jesus Nunes; Coito, João Lucas; Silva, Helena Gomes; Cunha, Jorge; Costa, Maria Manuela Ribeiro; Rocheta, Margarida

    2014-12-12

    Wild plants of Vitis closely related to the cultivated grapevine (V. v. vinifera) are believed to have been first domesticated 10,000 years BC around the Caspian Sea. V. v. vinifera is hermaphrodite whereas V. v. sylvestris is a dioecious species. Male flowers show a reduced pistil without style or stigma and female flowers present reflexed stamens with infertile pollen. V. vinifera produce perfect flowers with all functional structures. The mechanism for flower sex determination and specification in grapevine is still unknown. To understand which genes are involved during the establishment of male, female and complete flowers, we analysed and compared the transcription profiles of four developmental stages of the three genders. We showed that sex determination is a late event during flower development and that the expression of genes from the ABCDE model is not directly correlated with the establishment of sexual dimorphism. We propose a temporal comprehensive model in which two mutations in two linked genes could be players in sex determination and indirectly establish the Vitis domestication process. Additionally, we also found clusters of genes differentially expressed between genders and between developmental stages that suggest a role involved in sex differentiation. Also, the detection of differentially transcribed regions that extended existing gene models (intergenic regions) between sexes suggests that they may account for some of the variation between the subspecies. There is no evidence of differences of expression levels in genes from the ABCDE model that could explain the shift from hermaphroditism to dioecy. We propose that sex specification occurs after floral organ identity has been established and therefore, sex determination genes might be having an effect downstream of the ABCDE model genes.For the first time a full transcriptomic analysis was performed in different flower developmental stages in the same individual. Our experimental approach

  2. Alteration of Hormonal Levels in a Rootless Epiphytic Bromeliad in Different Phenological Phases.

    PubMed

    Mercier; Endres

    1999-11-01

    Major changes in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinin (CK) levels occur at different phenological phases of Tillandsia recurvata shoots. This epiphytic rootless bromeliad was chosen as suitable material for hormonal analysis because CK synthesis is restricted to the shoots, thus avoiding problems in the interpretation of results caused by translocation and interconversion of CK forms between roots and leaves encountered in plants with both organs. Young plants of T. recurvata have weak apical dominance because side shoots appeared early in development, and branch growth was correlated with a strong increase in the level of zeatin. The flowering phase was characterized by a significant increase in free base CKs, zeatin, and isopentenyladenine compared with the levels found in adult vegetative shoots. In contrast, both free-base CKs declined in the fruiting phenological phase, and the IAA level increased dramatically. It was concluded that in phases characterized by intense organ formation, such as in the juvenile and flowering stages, there was an enhancement of CK content, mainly caused by zeatin, leading to a lower IAA/CK ratio. Higher ratios were correlated with phases that showed no organogenesis, such as adult and fruiting phenologies.

  3. Ecological Implications of a Flower Size/Number Trade-Off in Tropical Forest Trees

    PubMed Central

    Kettle, Chris J.; Maycock, Colin R.; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Hollingsworth, Pete M.; Khoo, Eyen; Sukri, Rahayu Sukmaria Haji; Burslem, David F. R. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background In angiosperms, flower size commonly scales negatively with number. The ecological consequences of this trade-off for tropical trees remain poorly resolved, despite their potential importance for tropical forest conservation. We investigated the flower size number trade-off and its implications for fecundity in a sample of tree species from the Dipterocarpaceae on Borneo. Methodology/Principal Findings We combined experimental exclusion of pollinators in 11 species, with direct and indirect estimates of contemporary pollen dispersal in two study species and published estimates of pollen dispersal in a further three species to explore the relationship between flower size, pollinator size and mean pollen dispersal distance. Maximum flower production was two orders of magnitude greater in small-flowered than large-flowered species of Dipterocarpaceae. In contrast, fruit production was unrelated to flower size and did not differ significantly among species. Small-flowered species had both smaller-sized pollinators and lower mean pollination success than large-flowered species. Average pollen dispersal distances were lower and frequency of mating between related individuals was higher in a smaller-flowered species than a larger-flowered confamilial. Our synthesis of pollen dispersal estimates across five species of dipterocarp suggests that pollen dispersal scales positively with flower size. Conclusions and Their Significance Trade-offs embedded in the relationship between flower size and pollination success contribute to a reduction in the variance of fecundity among species. It is therefore plausible that these processes could delay competitive exclusion and contribute to maintenance of species coexistence in this ecologically and economically important family of tropical trees. These results have practical implications for tree species conservation and restoration. Seed collection from small-flowered species may be especially vulnerable to cryptic genetic

  4. Red-purple flower color and delphinidin-type pigments in the flowers of Pueraria lobata (Leguminosae).

    PubMed

    Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Tanikawa, Natsu; Nakayama, Masayoshi

    2017-05-01

    A previously undescribed acylated anthocyanin was extracted from the red-purple flowers of Pueraria lobata with 5% HOAc-H 2 O, and determined to be petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside], by chemical and spectroscopic methods. In addition, two known acylated anthocyanins, delphinidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] and malvidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] were identified. Delphinidin 3,5-di-glucoside, petunidin 3,5-di-glucoside, and malvidin 3,5-di-glucoside, have been known as major components of P. lobata in the former study. However, malonyl esters amounts were detected over 10 times compared with non-malonyl esters amounts. In those anthocyanins the most abundant anthocyanin was petunidin 3-O-(β-glucopyranoside)-5-O-[6-O-(malonyl)-β-glucopyranoside] in total flowers. On the visible absorption spectral curve of fresh red-purple petals, one characteristic absorption maximum was observed at 520 nm, which is similar to those of flowers containing pelargonidin derivatives. In contrast, the absorption spectral curve of old violet petals was observed at 500(sh), 536, 564(sh), and 613(sh) nm, which are similar to those of violet flowers containing delphinidin-type pigments. Pressed juices of both fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals had pH5.2 and 5.5 respectively, and had the same flavonoid constitution. Crude fresh red-purple petal pigments extracted by pH 2.2 and pH 5.2 buffers exhibited the same color and spectral curves as fresh red-purple petals and old violet petals, respectively. Moreover, in a cross-TLC experiment of crude extracted pigments, red-purple color was exhibited by the anthocyanin region and the crossed region of anthocyanins and isoflavone. Thus, it may be assumed that the unusually low pH in the vacuole of fresh petals plays an important role to form red-purple flower color against weak acidic pH in the vacuole of old violet P

  5. Perigone Lobe Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Rafflesia cantleyi Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xin-Wei; Mat-Isa, Mohd-Noor; Mohd-Elias, Nur-Atiqah; Aizat-Juhari, Mohd Afiq; Goh, Hoe-Han; Dear, Paul H; Chow, Keng-See; Haji Adam, Jumaat; Mohamed, Rahmah; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd; Wan, Kiew-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Rafflesia is a biologically enigmatic species that is very rare in occurrence and possesses an extraordinary morphology. This parasitic plant produces a gigantic flower up to one metre in diameter with no leaves, stem or roots. However, little is known about the floral biology of this species especially at the molecular level. In an effort to address this issue, we have generated and characterised the transcriptome of the Rafflesia cantleyi flower, and performed a comparison with the transcriptome of its floral bud to predict genes that are expressed and regulated during flower development. Approximately 40 million sequencing reads were generated and assembled de novo into 18,053 transcripts with an average length of 641 bp. Of these, more than 79% of the transcripts had significant matches to annotated sequences in the public protein database. A total of 11,756 and 7,891 transcripts were assigned to Gene Ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. In addition, 6,019 transcripts could be mapped to 129 pathways in Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. Digital abundance analysis identified 52 transcripts with very high expression in the flower transcriptome of R. cantleyi. Subsequently, analysis of differential expression between developing flower and the floral bud revealed a set of 105 transcripts with potential role in flower development. Our work presents a deep transcriptome resource analysis for the developing flower of R. cantleyi. Genes potentially involved in the growth and development of the R. cantleyi flower were identified and provide insights into biological processes that occur during flower development.

  6. Altered expression of CmNRRa changes flowering time of Chrysanthemum morifolium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuman; Lian, Lijuan; Liu, Qing; Xiao, Na; Fang, Rongxiang; Liu, Qinglin; Chen, Xiaoying

    2013-04-01

    Flowering time is an important ornamental trait for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium, Dendranthema x grandiflorum) floricultural production. In this study, CmNRRa, an orthologous gene of OsNRRa that regulates root growth in response to nutrient stress in rice, was identified from Chrysanthemum and its role in flowering time was studied. The entire CmNRRa cDNA sequence was determined using a combinatorial PCR approach along with 5' and 3' RACE methods. CmNRRa expression levels in various tissues were monitored by real-time RT-PCR. CmNRRa was strongly expressed in flower buds and peduncles, suggesting that CmNRRa plays a regulatory role in floral development. To investigate the biological function of CmNRRa in chrysanthemums, overexpression and knockdown of CmNRRa were carried out using transgenic Chrysanthemum plants generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. CmNRRa expression levels in the transgenic plants were assayed by real-time RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. The transgenic plants showed altered flowering times compared with nontransgenic plants. CmNRRa-RNAi transgenic plants flowered 40-64 days earlier, while CmNRRa-overexpressing plants exhibited a delayed flowering phenotype. These results revealed a negative effect of CmNRRa on flowering time modulation. Alteration of CmNRRa expression levels might be an effective means of controlling flowering time in Chrysanthemum. These results possess potential application in molecular breeding of chrysanthemums that production year-round, and may improve commercial chrysanthemum production in the flower industry. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species.

    PubMed

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species-Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa-concerning six flower parameters-angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.

  8. Testing the influence of gravity on flower symmetry in five Saxifraga species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koethe, Sebastian; Bloemer, Judith; Lunau, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Flower symmetry is considered a species-specific trait and is categorized in asymmetry, actinomorphic symmetry, bisymmetry and zygomorphic symmetry. Here we report on the intra-individual variation of flower symmetry in the genus Saxifraga and the influence of light, gravity and intrinsic factors on the development of flower symmetry. We tested five species— Saxifraga cuneifolia, Saxifraga imparilis, Saxifraga rotundifolia, Saxifraga stolonifera and Saxifraga umbrosa—concerning six flower parameters—angles between petals, petal length, petal pigmentation, angular position of carpels, movement of stamens and (only for S. imparilis and S. stolonifera) the length of the two lower elongated petals in regard to their position towards the stem. Specimens of all species were tested on a vertical clinostat as a gravity compensator, on a horizontal clinostat as a light incidence compensator and on a stationary control. The results show that the angle of incident light has no apparent impact on flower symmetry, whereas gravity affects the angular position of petals in S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa and the petal colouration in S. rotundifolia. In S. cuneifolia and S. umbrosa, the absence of directional gravity resulted in the development of actinomorphic flowers, whereas the corresponding control flowers were zygomorphic. The development of flowers in S. rotundifolia was not altered by this treatment. The length of the two elongated petals in S. stolonifera and S. imparilis was not affected by gravity, but rather was determined by position of the flower within the inflorescence and resulted in asymmetrical flowers.

  9. Irreversible commitment to flowering in two mango cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, the state of Nayarit, Mexico has experienced variations in rainfall distribution and warmer temperatures during the autumn-winter season which have caused erratic flowering of mango. The early-flowering cultivars, such as ‘Ataulfo’, have been less affected than tardy ones such as ‘T...

  10. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa).

    PubMed

    Du, Yiwei; He, Wei; Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23-26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes.

  11. Flowering-Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) Regulates Flowering Time and Yield Potential by Affecting Histone H2B Monoubiquitination in Rice (Oryza Sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Changwang; Chen, Xi; Gou, Lanming; Zhu, Fugui; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jianfu; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Flowering time is a critical trait for crops cultivated under various temperature/photoperiod conditions around the world. To understand better the flowering time of rice, we used the vector pTCK303 to produce several lines of RNAi knockdown transgenic rice and investigated their flowering times and other agronomic traits. Among them, the heading date of FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice was 23–26 days earlier than that of wild-type plants. FRRP1 is a novel rice gene that encodes a C3HC4-type Really Interesting Novel Gene (RING) finger domain protein. In addition to the early flowering time, FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice caused changes on an array of agronomic traits, including plant height, panicle length and grain length. We analyzed the expression of some key genes associated with the flowering time and other agronomic traits in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown lines and compared with that in wild-type lines. The expression of Hd3a increased significantly, which was the key factor in the early flowering time. Further experiments showed that the level of histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) was noticeably reduced in the FRRP1-RNAi knockdown transgenic rice lines compared with wild-type plants and MBP-FRRP1-F1 was capable of self-ubiquitination. The results indicate that Flowering Related RING Protein 1 (FRRP1) is involved in histone H2B monoubiquitination and suggest that FRRP1 functions as an E3 ligase in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, FRRP1 probably regulates flowering time and yield potential in rice by affecting histone H2B monoubiquitination, which leads to changes in gene expression in multiple processes. PMID:26934377

  12. Functional characterization of AGAMOUS-subfamily members from cotton during reproductive development and in response to plant hormones.

    PubMed

    de Moura, Stéfanie Menezes; Artico, Sinara; Lima, Cássio; Nardeli, Sarah Muniz; Berbel, Ana; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2017-03-01

    Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of five MADS-box genes (GhMADS3, GhMADS4, GhMADS5, GhMADS6 and GhMADS7) belonging to the AGAMOUS-subfamily in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses were performed using diploid (G. arboreum, G. raimondii) and tetraploid (G. barbadense, G. hirsutum) cotton genomes, as well as the AG-subfamily members from Arabidopsis thaliana, Petunia hybrida and Antirrhinum majus. qPCR analysis showed that the AG-subfamily genes had high expression during flower and fruit development in G. hirsutum. In situ hybridization analysis also substantiates the involvement of AG-subfamily members on reproductive tissues of G. hirsutum, including ovule and ovary. The effect of plant hormones on AG-subfamily genes expression was verified in cotton fruits treated with gibberellin, auxin and brassinosteroid. All the genes were significantly regulated in response to auxin, whereas only GhMADS3, GhMADS4 and GhMADS7 genes were also regulated by brassinosteroid treatment. In addition, we have investigated the GhMADS3 and GhMADS4 overexpression effects in Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, the transgenic plants from both cotton AG-like genes in Arabidopsis significantly altered the fruit size compared to the control plants. This alteration suggests that cotton AG-like genes might act regulating fruit formation. Our results demonstrate that members of the AG-subfamily in G. hirsutum

  13. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  14. A flower-like Ising model. Thermodynamic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejdani, R.; Ifti, M.

    1995-03-01

    We consider a flower-like Ising model, in which there are some additional bonds (in the “flower-core”) compared to a pure Ising chain. To understand the behaviour of this system and particularly the competition between ferromagnetic (usual) bonds along the chain and antiferromagnetic (additional) bonds across the chain, we study analytically and iteratively the main thermodynamic quantities. Very interesting is, in the zero-field and zero-temperature limit, the behaviour of the magnetization and the susceptibility, closely related to the ground state configurations and their degeneracies. This degeneracy explains the existence of non-zero entropy at zero temperature, in our results. Also, this model could be useful for the experimental investigations in studying the saturation curves for the enzyme kinetics or the melting curves for DNA-denaturation in some flower-like configurations.

  15. Hormone Distribution and Transcriptome Profiles in Bamboo Shoots Provide Insights on Bamboo Stem Emergence and Growth.

    PubMed

    Gamuyao, Rico; Nagai, Keisuke; Ayano, Madoka; Mori, Yoshinao; Minami, Anzu; Kojima, Mikiko; Suzuki, Takamasa; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Reuscher, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    Growth and development are tightly co-ordinated events in the lifetime of living organisms. In temperate bamboo plants, spring is the season when environmental conditions are suitable for the emergence of new shoots. Previous studies demonstrated that bamboo plants undergo an energy-consuming 'fast stem growth' phase. However, the events during the initiation of stem elongation in bamboo are poorly understood. To understand the onset of bamboo stem growth, we performed hormone and transcriptome profiling of tissue regions in newly elongating shoots of the Moso bamboo Phyllostachys edulis. The growth hormones auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins accumulated in the shoot apex, while the stress hormones ABA, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) are predominantly found in the lower part of the stem. The mature basal part of the stem showed enrichment of transcripts associated with cell wall metabolism and biosynthesis of phenylpropanoid metabolites, such as lignin. In the young upper stem region, expression of cell formation- and DNA synthesis-related genes was enriched. Moreover, the apical region showed enhanced expression of genes involved in meristem maintenance, leaf differentiation and development, abaxial/adaxial polarity and flowering. Our findings integrate the spatial regulation of hormones and transcriptome programs during the initiation of bamboo stem growth. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adaptation of flower and fruit colours to multiple, distinct mutualists.

    PubMed

    Renoult, Julien P; Valido, Alfredo; Jordano, Pedro; Schaefer, H Martin

    2014-01-01

    Communication in plant-animal mutualisms frequently involves multiple perceivers. A fundamental uncertainty is whether and how species adapt to communicate with groups of mutualists having distinct sensory abilities. We quantified the colour conspicuousness of flowers and fruits originating from one European and two South American plant communities, using visual models of pollinators (bee and fly) and seed dispersers (bird, primate and marten). We show that flowers are more conspicuous than fruits to pollinators, and the reverse to seed dispersers. In addition, flowers are more conspicuous to pollinators than to seed dispersers and the reverse for fruits. Thus, despite marked differences in the visual systems of mutualists, flower and fruit colours have evolved to attract multiple, distinct mutualists but not unintended perceivers. We show that this adaptation is facilitated by a limited correlation between flower and fruit colours, and by the fact that colour signals as coded at the photoreceptor level are more similar within than between functional groups (pollinators and seed dispersers). Overall, these results provide the first quantitative demonstration that flower and fruit colours are adaptations allowing plants to communicate simultaneously with distinct groups of mutualists. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. [The changes in spectral features of the staple-food bamboos of giant panda after flowering].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-Hua; Wu, Yan

    2012-12-01

    Large-area flowering of the giant pandas' staple food is an important factor which can influence their survival. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the bamboo flowering. Foping Nature Reserve was taken as the study area. The research selected the giant pandas' staple-food bamboos Bashania fargesii, Fargesia qinlingensis and Fargesia dracocephala with different flowering situations (i. e., flowering, potential flowering, non-flowering with far distance) to measure the spectral reflectance of bamboo leaves. We studied the influence of bamboo flowering on the spectral features of three bamboo species through analyzing the original spectral reflectance and their red edge parameters. The results showed that (1) the flowering changed the spectra features of bamboo species. The spectral reflectance of B. fargesii shows a pattern: flowering bamboo < potential flowering bamboo < non-flowering bamboo with far distance, while F. qinlingensis and F. dracocephala show the different pattern: flowering bamboo > or = potential flowering bamboo > non-flowering bamboo with far distance. Among three bamboo species, F. dracocephala showed the greatest change, and then F. qinlingensis. (2) After bamboo flowering, the red edge of B. fargesii has no obvious shifting, while the other two bamboos have distinctive shifting towards the shorter waves. The study found that the original spectral feature and the red edge all changed under various flowering states, which can be used to provide the experimental basis and theoretic support for the future prediction of bamboo flowering through remote sensing.

  18. Experimental evidence of pollination in marine flowers by invertebrate fauna

    PubMed Central

    van Tussenbroek, Brigitta I.; Villamil, Nora; Márquez-Guzmán, Judith; Wong, Ricardo; Monroy-Velázquez, L. Verónica; Solis-Weiss, Vivianne

    2016-01-01

    Pollen transport by water-flow (hydrophily) is a typical, and almost exclusive, adaptation of plants to life in the marine environment. It is thought that, unlike terrestrial environments, animals are not involved in pollination in the sea. The male flowers of the tropical marine angiosperm Thalassia testudinum open-up and release pollen in mucilage at night when invertebrate fauna is active. Here we present experimental evidence that, in the absence of water-flow, these invertebrates visit the flowers, carry and transfer mucilage mass with embedded pollen from the male flowers to the stigmas of the female flowers. Pollen tubes are formed on the stigmas, indicating that pollination is successful. Thus, T. testudinum has mixed abiotic–biotic pollination. We propose a zoobenthophilous pollination syndrome (pollen transfer in the benthic zone by invertebrate animals) which shares many characteristics with hydrophily, but flowers are expected to open-up during the night. PMID:27680661

  19. The influence of pigmentation patterning on bumblebee foraging from flowers of Antirrhinum majus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Heather M.; Milne, Georgina; Rands, Sean A.; Vignolini, Silvia; Martin, Cathie; Glover, Beverley J.

    2013-03-01

    Patterns of pigmentation overlying the petal vasculature are common in flowering plants and have been postulated to play a role in pollinator attraction. Previous studies report that such venation patterning is significantly more attractive to bee foragers in the field than ivory or white flowers without veins. To dissect the ways in which venation patterning of pigment can influence bumblebee behaviour, we investigated the response of flower-naïve individuals of Bombus terrestris to veined, ivory and red near-isogenic lines of Antirrhinum majus. We find that red venation shifts flower colour slightly, although the ivory background is the dominant colour. Bees were readily able to discriminate between ivory and veined flowers under differential conditioning but showed no innate preference when presented with a free choice of rewarding ivory and veined flowers. In contrast, both ivory and veined flowers were selected significantly more often than were red flowers. We conclude that advantages conferred by venation patterning might stem from bees learning of their use as nectar guides, rather than from any innate preference for striped flowers.

  20. In Vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale L.: a woody ornamental vine yielding aromatic oil from flowers.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sabita; Bhattacharyya, Sanghamitra

    2010-01-01

    The growing demand for flower extracts in perfume trade can primarily be met by increasing flower production and multiplying planting material. The major commercial aromatic flower yielding plants including Jasminum officinale L., a member of the Family Oleaceae have drawn the attention of a large section of the concerned sectors leading to a thrust upon developing advanced propagation technologies for these floral crops, in addition to conventional nature-dependent agro-techniques. This chapter describes concisely and critically, a protocol developed for in vitro propagation of Jasminum officinale by shoot regeneration from existing as well as newly developed adventitious axillary buds via proper phytohormonal stimulation. To start with nodal segments as explants, March-April is the most ideal time of the year when planting material suitable for in vitro multiplication is abundantly available. Prior to inoculation of explants in the culture medium, special care is needed to reduce microbial contamination by spraying on selected spots of the donor plant with anti-microbial agents 24 h prior to collection; treatment with antiseptic solution after final cleaning and surface sterilization by treating explants with mercuric chloride. Inoculated explants are free from brown leaching from cut ends by two consecutive subcultures within 48 h in MS basal medium. Multiplication of shoots, average 4-5 at each node, takes place in MS medium containing 4.0 mg/L BAP, 0.1 mg/L NAA, and 40 g/L sucrose over a period of 8 weeks. For elongation of regenerated shoots, cultures are transferred to MS medium, supplemented with a single growth hormone, kinetin at 2.0 mg/L. Emergence and elongation of roots from shoot base is facilitated by placing on the notch of a filter paper bridge. The hardened in vitro propagated plants are able to grow normally in soil like other conventionally propagated Jasminum officinale.

  1. Susceptibility of blackberry flower parts to subfreezing temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Injury of tight buds, open flowers and green fruit often occur in fruit crops in later winter to early spring frosts. In this study, freezing tolerance of ‘Triple Crown’ blackberry flowers at various maturity ranging from tight bud to green drupe stage was determined using two freezing methods. On...

  2. Tropism in azalea and lily flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, M.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Nakamura, T.; Yamashita, M.

    Flowers have coevolved with pollinator animals. Some flowers have the up-down directional features in their form and orientation, which results the higher success of pollination under the influence of gravity. Azalea, Rhododendron pulchrum, flower responds against gravity, and orients the specific petal at its top. This petal with honey mark guides pollinator animals to nectary of the flower. Pistil and stamen bend upward by sensing gravity, and increase probability of their contact with pollinator. There was large sediment amyloplast found in sectioned tissue of style. In addition to this action of gravity, phototropic response was also observed at lesser degree, while the gravitational cue was removed by the 3D-clinorotation of the plant. In contrast to azalea, pistil of lily flower senses light in order to determine the direction of bending. Lily, Lilium cv. 'Casablanca', tepals open horizontally or slightly inclined downward. After its anthesis, pistil and stamen start to bend upward by light. Gravity induced no tropic response at all, evidenced by the experiment conducted under dark. Sediment amyloplast was not found in lily style. Phototropic response of pistil and stamen in lily was activated by blue light even at lower energy density. On the other hand, red light was not effective to induce the tropic response even with substantial energy density. This action spectrum of light agreed with those for the phototropism shown in coleoptile of monocotyledonous plants. Because the tropism of style was not hindered at removal of stigma, reception site for incident light is neither restricted to stigma nor its close vicinity, but distributes through style. The process of lily pistil elongation was analyzed in details to identify the site of its initiation and propagation of bending movement through the anthesis period. Elongation started at basal part of pistil and propagated towards its top after opening of perianth. Steep bending occurred at the basal zone of

  3. Use of transcriptome sequencing to understand the pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.).

    PubMed

    Huang, You-Jun; Liu, Li-Li; Huang, Jian-Qin; Wang, Zheng-Jia; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Xiang; Zheng, Bing-Song; Chen, Ming

    2013-10-10

    Different from herbaceous plants, the woody plants undergo a long-period vegetative stage to achieve floral transition. They then turn into seasonal plants, flowering annually. In this study, a preliminary model of gene regulations for seasonal pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis) was proposed. The genome-wide dynamic transcriptome was characterized via the joint-approach of RNA sequencing and microarray analysis. Differential transcript abundance analysis uncovered the dynamic transcript abundance patterns of flowering correlated genes and their major functions based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. To explore pistillate flowering mechanism in hickory, a comprehensive flowering gene regulatory network based on Arabidopsis thaliana was constructed by additional literature mining. A total of 114 putative flowering or floral genes including 31 with differential transcript abundance were identified in hickory. The locations, functions and dynamic transcript abundances were analyzed in the gene regulatory networks. A genome-wide co-expression network for the putative flowering or floral genes shows three flowering regulatory modules corresponding to response to light abiotic stimulus, cold stress, and reproductive development process, respectively. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited which are meaningful to understand the hickory specific seasonal flowering mechanism better. Flowering event of pistillate flower bud in hickory is triggered by several pathways synchronously including the photoperiod, autonomous, vernalization, gibberellin, and sucrose pathway. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited from the genome-wide co-expression network function module analysis. Moreover, the analysis provides a potential FLC-like gene based vernalization pathway and an 'AC' model for pistillate flower development in hickory. This work provides an available framework for pistillate flower development in hickory, which is

  4. Use of transcriptome sequencing to understand the pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Different from herbaceous plants, the woody plants undergo a long-period vegetative stage to achieve floral transition. They then turn into seasonal plants, flowering annually. In this study, a preliminary model of gene regulations for seasonal pistillate flowering in hickory (Carya cathayensis) was proposed. The genome-wide dynamic transcriptome was characterized via the joint-approach of RNA sequencing and microarray analysis. Results Differential transcript abundance analysis uncovered the dynamic transcript abundance patterns of flowering correlated genes and their major functions based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. To explore pistillate flowering mechanism in hickory, a comprehensive flowering gene regulatory network based on Arabidopsis thaliana was constructed by additional literature mining. A total of 114 putative flowering or floral genes including 31 with differential transcript abundance were identified in hickory. The locations, functions and dynamic transcript abundances were analyzed in the gene regulatory networks. A genome-wide co-expression network for the putative flowering or floral genes shows three flowering regulatory modules corresponding to response to light abiotic stimulus, cold stress, and reproductive development process, respectively. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited which are meaningful to understand the hickory specific seasonal flowering mechanism better. Conclusions Flowering event of pistillate flower bud in hickory is triggered by several pathways synchronously including the photoperiod, autonomous, vernalization, gibberellin, and sucrose pathway. Totally 27 potential flowering or floral genes were recruited from the genome-wide co-expression network function module analysis. Moreover, the analysis provides a potential FLC-like gene based vernalization pathway and an 'AC’ model for pistillate flower development in hickory. This work provides an available framework for pistillate flower

  5. Kiwifruit Flower Odor Perception and Recognition by Honey Bees, Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Twidle, Andrew M; Mas, Flore; Harper, Aimee R; Horner, Rachael M; Welsh, Taylor J; Suckling, David M

    2015-06-17

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from male and female kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') flowers were collected by dynamic headspace sampling. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) perception of the flower VOCs was tested using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennogram detection. Honey bees consistently responded to six compounds present in the headspace of female kiwifruit flowers and five compounds in the headspace of male flowers. Analysis of the floral volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and microscale chemical derivatization showed the compounds to be nonanal, 2-phenylethanol, 4-oxoisophorone, (3E,6E)-α-farnesene, (6Z,9Z)-heptadecadiene, and (8Z)-heptadecene. Bees were then trained via olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension response (PER) to synthetic mixtures of these compounds using the ratios present in each flower type. Honey bees trained to the synthetic mixtures showed a high response to the natural floral extracts, indicating that these may be the key compounds for honey bee perception of kiwifruit flower odor.

  6. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jagadish, S. V. Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N.; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P. V. Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation. PMID:27446143

  7. [Study on volatile components from flowers of Gymnema sylvestre].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Qin; Zhen, Han-Shen; Huang, Pei-Qian

    2013-04-01

    To analyze the volatile components from flowers of Gymnema sylvestre. Volatile components of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre were extracted by water vapor distilling, and the components were separated and identified by GC-MS. 55 components were separated and 33 components were identified, accounting for 88.73% of all quantity. The principal volatile components are Phytol, Pentacosane, 10-Heneicosene (c, t), 3-Eicosene, (E) -and 2-Methyl-Z-2-docosane. The research can pro-vide scientific basis for chemical component research of flowers of Gymnema sylvestre.

  8. De novo Transcriptome Profiling of Flowers, Flower Pedicels and Pods of Lupinus luteus (Yellow Lupine) Reveals Complex Expression Changes during Organ Abscission.

    PubMed

    Glazinska, Paulina; Wojciechowski, Waldemar; Kulasek, Milena; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Klajn, Natalia; Kesy, Jacek; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Yellow lupine ( Lupinus luteus L., Taper c.), a member of the legume family ( Fabaceae L.), has an enormous practical importance. Its excessive flower and pod abscission represents an economic drawback, as proper flower and seed formation and development is crucial for the plant's productivity. Generative organ detachment takes place at the basis of the pedicels, within a specialized group of cells collectively known as the abscission zone (AZ). During plant growth these cells become competent to respond to specific signals that trigger separation and lead to the abolition of cell wall adhesion. Little is known about the molecular network controlling the yellow lupine organ abscission. The aim of our study was to establish the divergences and similarities in transcriptional networks in the pods, flowers and flower pedicels abscised or maintained on the plant, and to identify genes playing key roles in generative organ abscission in yellow lupine. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified 166,473 unigenes representing 219,514 assembled unique transcripts from flowers, flower pedicels and pods undergoing abscission and from control organs. Comparison of the cDNA libraries from dropped and control organs helped in identifying 1,343, 2,933 and 1,491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the flowers, flower pedicels and pods, respectively. In DEG analyses, we focused on genes involved in phytohormonal regulation, cell wall functioning and metabolic pathways. Our results indicate that auxin, ethylene and gibberellins are some of the main factors engaged in generative organ abscission. Identified 28 DEGs common for all library comparisons are involved in cell wall functioning, protein metabolism, water homeostasis and stress response. Interestingly, among the common DEGs we also found an miR169 precursor, which is the first evidence of micro RNA engaged in abscission. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the identified DEGs were predominantly

  9. De novo Transcriptome Profiling of Flowers, Flower Pedicels and Pods of Lupinus luteus (Yellow Lupine) Reveals Complex Expression Changes during Organ Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Glazinska, Paulina; Wojciechowski, Waldemar; Kulasek, Milena; Glinkowski, Wojciech; Marciniak, Katarzyna; Klajn, Natalia; Kesy, Jacek; Kopcewicz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L., Taper c.), a member of the legume family (Fabaceae L.), has an enormous practical importance. Its excessive flower and pod abscission represents an economic drawback, as proper flower and seed formation and development is crucial for the plant's productivity. Generative organ detachment takes place at the basis of the pedicels, within a specialized group of cells collectively known as the abscission zone (AZ). During plant growth these cells become competent to respond to specific signals that trigger separation and lead to the abolition of cell wall adhesion. Little is known about the molecular network controlling the yellow lupine organ abscission. The aim of our study was to establish the divergences and similarities in transcriptional networks in the pods, flowers and flower pedicels abscised or maintained on the plant, and to identify genes playing key roles in generative organ abscission in yellow lupine. Based on de novo transcriptome assembly, we identified 166,473 unigenes representing 219,514 assembled unique transcripts from flowers, flower pedicels and pods undergoing abscission and from control organs. Comparison of the cDNA libraries from dropped and control organs helped in identifying 1,343, 2,933 and 1,491 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the flowers, flower pedicels and pods, respectively. In DEG analyses, we focused on genes involved in phytohormonal regulation, cell wall functioning and metabolic pathways. Our results indicate that auxin, ethylene and gibberellins are some of the main factors engaged in generative organ abscission. Identified 28 DEGs common for all library comparisons are involved in cell wall functioning, protein metabolism, water homeostasis and stress response. Interestingly, among the common DEGs we also found an miR169 precursor, which is the first evidence of micro RNA engaged in abscission. A KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the identified DEGs were predominantly

  10. Behavioral consequences of innate preferences and olfactory learning in hawkmoth–flower interactions

    PubMed Central

    Riffell, Jeffrey A.; Alarcón, Ruben; Abrell, Leif; Davidowitz, Goggy; Bronstein, Judith L.; Hildebrand, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Spatiotemporal variability in floral resources can have ecological and evolutionary consequences for both plants and the pollinators on which they depend. Seldom, however, can patterns of flower abundance and visitation in the field be linked with the behavioral mechanisms that allow floral visitors to persist when a preferred resource is scarce. To explore these mechanisms better, we examined factors controlling floral preference in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta in the semiarid grassland of Arizona. Here, hawkmoths forage primarily on flowers of the bat-adapted agave, Agave palmeri, but shift to the moth-adapted flowers of their larval host plant, Datura wrightii, when these become abundant. Both plants emit similar concentrations of floral odor, but scent composition, nectar, and flower reflectance are distinct between the two species, and A. palmeri flowers provide six times as much chemical energy as flowers of D. wrightii. Behavioral experiments with both naïve and experienced moths revealed that hawkmoths learn to feed from agave flowers through olfactory conditioning but readily switch to D. wrightii flowers, for which they are the primary pollinator, based on an innate odor preference. Behavioral flexibility and the olfactory contrast between flowers permit the hawkmoths to persist within a dynamic environment, while at the same time to function as the major pollinator of one plant species. PMID:18305169

  11. Subalpine bumble bee foraging distances and densities in relation to flower availability.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Susan E

    2009-06-01

    Bees feed almost exclusively on nectar and pollen from flowers. However, little is known about how food availability limits bee populations, especially in high elevation areas. Foraging distances and relationships between forager densities and resource availability can provide insights into the potential for food limitation in mobile consumer populations. For example, if floral resources are limited, bee consumers should fly farther to forage, and they should be more abundant in areas with more flowers. I estimated subalpine bumble bee foraging distances by calculating forager recapture probabilities at increasing distances from eight marking locations. I measured forager and flower densities over the flowering season in six half-hectare plots. Because subalpine bumble bees have little time to build their colonies, they may forage over short distances and forager density may not be constrained by flower density. However, late in the season, when floral resources dwindle, foraging distances may increase, and there may be stronger relationships between forager and flower densities. Throughout the flowering season, marked bees were primarily found within 100 m (and never >1,000 m) from their original marking location, suggesting that they typically did not fly far to forage. Although the density of early season foraging queens increased with early-season flower density, the density of mid- and late-season workers and males did not vary with flower density. Short foraging distances and no relationships between mid- and late-season forager and flower densities suggest that high elevation bumble bees may have ample floral resources for colony growth reproduction.

  12. Delay of flower senescence by bacterial endophytes expressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Charles, T C; Glick, B R

    2012-11-01

    The ability of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing plant growth-promoting bacterial (PGPB) endophytes Pseudomonas fluorescens YsS6 and Pseudomonas migulae 8R6, their ACC deaminase minus mutants and the rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4 to delay the senescence of mini carnation cut flowers was assessed. Fresh cut flowers were incubated with either a bacterial cell suspension, the ethylene precursor ACC, the ethylene inhibitor l-α-(aminoethoxyvinyl)-glycine or 0·85% NaCl at room temperature for 11 days. Levels of flower senescence were recorded every other day. To verify the presence of endophytes inside the plant tissues, scanning electron microscopy was performed. Among all treatments, flowers treated with wild-type ACC deaminase-containing endophytic strains exhibited the most significant delay in flower senescence, while flowers treated with the ACC deaminase minus mutants senesced at a rate similar to the control. Flowers treated with Ps. putida UW4 senesced more rapidly than untreated control flowers. The only difference between wild-type and mutant bacterial endophytes was ACC deaminase activity so that it may be concluded that this enzyme is directly responsible for the significant delay in flower senescence. Despite containing ACC deaminase activity, Ps. putida UW4 is not taken up by the cut flowers and therefore has no effect on prolonging their shelf life. The world-wide cut flower industry currently uses expensive and potentially environmentally dangerous chemical inhibitors of ethylene to prolong the shelf life of cut flowers. The use of PGPB endophytes with ACC deaminase activity has the potential to replace the chemicals that are currently used by the cut flower industry. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Flowering, die-back and recovery of a semelparous woody bamboo in the Atlantic Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montti, Lía; Campanello, Paula I.; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2011-07-01

    Chusquea ramosissima is a semelparous woody bamboo growing in the understory of the semideciduous Atlantic Forest that increases in abundance after disturbance and consequently has profound effects on vegetation dynamics. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima may open a window of opportunity leaving space vacant for the recruitment of tree seedlings. We describe the flowering pattern and seedling demography of this species at different spatio-temporal scales between the years 2001 and 2009, and evaluate if tree seedling abundance of canopy species increased after the flowering event. At a landscape scale, flowering sites were interspersed with sites that did not flower. At a local scale, the flowering extended over 5 years, with flowering and non-flowering culms intermingled, also in small patches (i.e., 4 m 2). Seeds germinated soon after flowering and die-back. Four successive seedling cohorts were studied. Mortality rate was high during the first 4 months after seedling emergence but several fast-growing seedlings were able to become established successfully. At the end of the study, 10%-20% of the initial number of bamboo seedlings in each cohort survived. Seedling abundance of tree canopy species was similar in flowering and non-flowering sites. C. ramosissima was able to re-colonize and perpetuate in sites it previously occupied. The coexistence of flowering and non-flowering culms at different spatio-temporal scales and clonal growth by rhizomes, together with the successful bamboo seedlings establishment, enhanced bamboo persistence in gaps and disturbed sites. Flowering and death of C. ramosissima did not facilitate seedling growth of canopy tree species.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Flower Volatiles from Nine Citrus at Three Blooming Stages

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Muhammad; Song, Min; Fan, Fangjuan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yaying; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-01-01

    Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled. PMID:24232454

  15. Comparative analysis of flower volatiles from nine citrus at three blooming stages.

    PubMed

    Azam, Muhammad; Song, Min; Fan, Fangjuan; Zhang, Bo; Xu, Yaying; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong

    2013-11-13

    Volatiles from flowers at three blooming stages of nine citrus cultivars were analyzed by headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-GC-MS. Up to 110 volatiles were detected, with 42 tentatively identified from citrus flowers for the first time. Highest amounts of volatiles were present in fully opened flowers of most citrus, except for pomelos. All cultivars were characterized by a high percentage of either oxygenated monoterpenes or monoterpene hydrocarbons, and the presence of a high percentage of nitrogen containing compounds was also observed. Flower volatiles varied qualitatively and quantitatively among citrus types during blooming. Limonene was the most abundant flower volatile only in citrons; α-citral and β-citral ranked 2nd and 3rd only for Bergamot, and unopened flowers of Ponkan had a higher amount of linalool and β-pinene while much lower amount of γ-terpinene and p-cymene than Satsuma. Taking the average of all cultivars, linalool and limonene were the top two volatiles for all blooming stages; β-pinene ranked 3rd in unopened flowers, while indole ranked 3rd for half opened and fully opened flower volatiles. As flowers bloomed, methyl anthranilate increased while 2-hexenal and p-cymene decreased. In some cases, a volatile could be high in both unopened and fully opened flowers but low in half opened ones. Through multivariate analysis, the nine citrus cultivars were clustered into three groups, consistent with the three true citrus types. Furthermore, an influence of blooming stages on clustering was observed, especially with hybrids Satsuma and Huyou. Altogether, it was suggested that flower volatiles can be suitable markers for revealing the genetic relationships between citrus cultivars but the same blooming stage needs to be strictly controlled.

  16. Ecological causes and consequences of flower color polymorphism in a self-pollinating plant (Boechera stricta).

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Priya; McDurmon, Ansley; Mattoon, Emily; Keefe, Michaela; Carley, Lauren; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Bingham, Robin; Anderson, Jill T

    2018-04-01

    Intraspecific variation in flower color is often attributed to pollinator-mediated selection, yet this mechanism cannot explain flower color polymorphisms in self-pollinating species. Indirect selection mediated via biotic and abiotic stresses could maintain flower color variation in these systems. The selfing forb, Boechera stricta, typically displays white flowers, but some individuals produce purple flowers. We quantified environmental correlates of flower color in natural populations. To disentangle plasticity from genotypic variation, we performed a multiyear field experiment in five gardens. In controlled conditions, we evaluated herbivore preferences and the effects of drought stress and soil pH on flower color expression. In natural populations, purple-flowered individuals experienced lower foliar herbivory than did their white-flowered counterparts. This pattern also held in the common gardens. Additionally, low-elevation environments induced pigmented flowers (plasticity), and the likelihood of floral pigmentation decreased with source elevation of maternal families (genetic cline). Viability selection favored families with pigmented flowers. In the laboratory, herbivores exerted greater damage on tissue derived from white- vs purple-flowered individuals. Furthermore, drought induced pigmentation in white-flowered lineages, and white-flowered plants had a fecundity advantage in the well-watered control. Flower color variation in selfing species is probably maintained by herbivory, drought stress, and other abiotic factors that vary spatially. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  18. Has climatic warming altered spring flowering date of Sonoran Desert shrubs?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    2007-01-01

    With global warming, flowering at many locations has shifted toward earlier dates of bloom. A steady increase in average annual temperature since the late 1890s makes it likely that flowering also has advanced in the northern Sonoran Desert of the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. In this study, phenological models were used to predict annual date of spring bloom in the northern Sonoran Desert from 1894 to 2004; then, herbarium specimens were assessed for objective evidence of the predicted shift in flowering time. The phenological models were derived from known flowering requirements (triggers and heat sums) of Sonoran Desert shrubs. According to the models, flowering might have advanced by 20-41 d from 1894 to 2004. Analysis of herbarium specimens collected during the 20th century supported the model predictions. Over time, there was a significant increase in the proportion of shrub specimens collected in flower in March and a significant decrease in the proportion collected in May. Thus, the flowering curve - the proportion of individuals in flower in each spring month - shifted toward the start of the calendar year between 1900 and 1999. This shift could not be explained by collection activity: collectors showed no tendency to be active earlier in the year as time went on, nor did activity toward the end of spring decline in recent decades. Earlier bloom eventually could have substantial impacts on plant and animal communities in the Sonoran Desert, especially on migratory hummingbirds and population dynamics of shrubs.

  19. Flowering and biomass allocation in U.S. Atlantic coast Spartina alterniflora.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Sarah C; Ivens-Duran, Morgan; Bertness, Mark D; Davey, Earl; Deegan, Linda A; Leslie, Heather M

    2015-05-01

    Salt marshes are highly productive and valuable ecosystems, providing many services on which people depend. Spartina alterniflora Loisel (Poaceae) is a foundation species that builds and maintains salt marshes. Despite this species' importance, much of its basic reproductive biology is not well understood, including flowering phenology, seed production, and the effects of flowering on growth and biomass allocation. We sought to better understand these life history traits and use that knowledge to consider how this species may be affected by climate change. We examined temporal and spatial patterns in flowering and seed production in S. alterniflora at a latitudinal scale (along the U.S. Atlantic coast), regional scale (within New England), and local scale (among subhabitats within marshes) and determined the impact of flowering on growth allocation using field and greenhouse studies. Flowering stem density did not vary along a latitudinal gradient, while at the local scale plants in the less submerged panne subhabitats produced fewer flowers and seeds than those in more frequently submerged subhabitats. We also found that a shift in biomass allocation from above to belowground was temporally related to flowering phenology. We expect that environmental change will affect seed production and that the phenological relationship with flowering will result in limitations to belowground production and thus affect marsh elevation gain. Salt marshes provide an excellent model system for exploring the interactions between plant ecology and ecosystem functioning, enabling better predictions of climate change impacts. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    control of flowering rush, Butomus umbellatus P. Häfliger, R. Leiner, C. Baan, A. Martins, S. Soukou, D. Sjolie, I. Toševski and H.L...2014 to 00-06-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploration for the Biological Control of Flowering Rush, Butomus umbellatus 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911NF-14...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Flowering rush (Butomus umbellatus

  1. Cloning of a FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog in Wasabia japonica (Matsum).

    PubMed

    Kubo, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nozue, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A FLOWERING LOCUS T ortholog (WjFT) was identified in Wasabia japonica. Heterologous expression of WjFT remarkably promoted the flowering of Arabidopsis. The expression of WjFT was examined in field-grown wasabi in October and November of 2009, and February of 2010 because the differentiation of flower buds occurs in autumn in field-grown wasabi. No expression of WjFT was detected in October, it was slightly increased in November, and highly increased in February. WjFT might be useful for examining the flowering response of wasabi.

  2. The sweet cherry (Prunus avium) FLOWERING LOCUS T gene is expressed during floral bud determination and can promote flowering in a winter-annual Arabidopsis accession.

    PubMed

    Yarur, Antonia; Soto, Esteban; León, Gabriel; Almeida, Andrea Miyasaka

    2016-12-01

    FT gene is expressed in leaves and buds and is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. In woody fruit perennial trees, floral determination, dormancy and bloom, depends on perception of different environmental and endogenous cues which converge to a systemic signaling gene known as FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). In long-day flowering plants, FT is expressed in the leaves on long days. The protein travels through the phloem to the shoot apical meristem, where it induces flower determination. In perennial plants, meristem determination and flowering are separated by a dormancy period. Meristem determination takes place in summer, but flowering occurs only after a dormancy period and cold accumulation during winter. The roles of FT are not completely clear in meristem determination, dormancy release, and flowering in perennial plants. We cloned FT from sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and analyzed its expression pattern in leaves and floral buds during spring and summer. Phylogenetic analysis shows high identity of the FT cloned sequence with orthologous genes from other Rosaceae species. Our results show that FT is expressed in both leaves and floral buds and increases when the daylight reached 12 h. The peak in FT expression was coincident with floral meristem identity genes expression and morphological changes typical of floral meristem determination. The Edi-0 Arabidopsis ecotype, which requires vernalization to flower, was transformed with a construct for overexpression of PavFT. These transgenic plants showed an early-flowering phenotype without cold treatment. Our results suggest that FT is involved in floral meristem determination and bud development in sweet cherry. Moreover, we show that FT is expressed in both leaves and floral buds in this species, in contrast to annual plants.

  3. Hydraulic conductance and the maintenance of water balance in flowers.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Adam B; Brodersen, Craig R; Dawson, Todd E

    2016-10-01

    Flowers face desiccating conditions, yet little is known about their ability to transport water. We quantified variability in floral hydraulic conductance (Kflower ) for 20 species from 10 families and related it to traits hypothesized to be associated with liquid and vapour phase water transport. Basal angiosperm flowers had trait values associated with higher water and carbon costs than monocot and eudicot flowers. Kflower was coordinated with water supply (vein length per area, VLA) and loss (minimum epidermal conductance, gmin ) traits among the magnoliids, but was insensitive to variation in these traits among the monocots and eudicots. Phylogenetic independent contrast (PIC) correlations revealed that few traits had undergone coordinated evolution. However, VLA and the desiccation time (Tdes ), the quotient of water content and gmin , had significant trait and PIC correlations. The near absence of stomata from monocot and eudicot flowers may have been critical in minimizing water loss rates among these clades. Early divergent, basal angiosperm flowers maintain higher Kflower because of traits associated with high rates water loss and water supply, while monocot and eudicot flowers employ a more conservative strategy of limiting water loss and may rely on stored water to maintain turgor and delay desiccation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Methylation controls the low temperature induction of flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dennis, E S; Bilodeau, P; Burn, J; Finnegan, E J; Genger, R; Helliwell, C; Kang, B J; Sheldon, C C; Peacock, W J

    1998-01-01

    Control of the transition to flowering is critical for reproductive success of a plant. Studies in Arabidopsis have led us to suggest how this species has harnessed the environmental cue of a period of low temperature to ensure flowering occurs at an appropriate time. We propose that Arabidopsis has both vernalization-independent and vernalization-dependent pathways for the initiation of inflorescence development in the shoot apex. The vernalization-independent pathway may be concerned with the supply of carbohydrate to the shoot apex. In late flowering ecotypes which respond to vernalization the vernalization-independent pathway is blocked by the action of two dominant repressors of flowering, FRI and FLC, which interact to produce very late flowering plants which respond strongly to vernalization. We have isolated a gene which may correspond to FLC. We suggest the vernalization-dependent pathway, which may be concerned with apical GA biosynthesis, is blocked by methylation of a gene critical for flowering. This gene may correspond to that encoding kaurenoic acid hydroxylase (KAH), an enzyme catalysing a step in the GA biosynthetic pathway. Under this scheme vernalization causes unblocking of this pathway by demethylation possibly of the KAH gene and consequent biosynthesis of active GAs in the apex.

  5. Shielding Flowers Developing under Stress: Translating Theory to Field Application

    PubMed Central

    Chayut, Noam; Sobol, Shiri; Nave, Nahum; Samach, Alon

    2014-01-01

    Developing reproductive organs within a flower are sensitive to environmental stress. A higher incidence of environmental stress during this stage of a crop plants’ developmental cycle will lead to major breaches in food security. Clearly, we need to understand this sensitivity and try and overcome it, by agricultural practices and/or the breeding of more tolerant cultivars. Although passion fruit vines initiate flowers all year round, flower primordia abort during warm summers. This restricts the season of fruit production in regions with warm summers. Previously, using controlled chambers, stages in flower development that are sensitive to heat were identified. Based on genetic analysis and physiological experiments in controlled environments, gibberellin activity appeared to be a possible point of horticultural intervention. Here, we aimed to shield flowers of a commercial cultivar from end of summer conditions, thus allowing fruit production in new seasons. We conducted experiments over three years in different settings, and our findings consistently show that a single application of an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis to vines in mid-August can cause precocious flowering of ~2–4 weeks, leading to earlier fruit production of ~1 month. In this case, knowledge obtained on phenology, environmental constraints and genetic variation, allowed us to reach a practical solution. PMID:27135506

  6. Flower drinking and masculinity in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Olwen; Hwang, Shu-Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the role of the hostess club culture in the creation and maintenance of masculinity in Taiwan. The article focuses on flower drinking (the consumption of alcohol in bars, often integrated with prostitution), which is a common practice in Taiwan. Data were obtained from 58 in-depth interviews with men from a variety of occupations and social backgrounds (mean age = 38.50, SD = 11.00) and 73 questionnaires administered to soldiers (mean age = 21.00, SD = 1.10). Findings indicated that demonstration of skill at flower drinking and facility with the related social etiquette are important channels for male bonding that were central to the mid- to upper-class participants' professional development. Flower drinking also provided a method of discriminating men from other men through their choices of why and where to go and how to behave while there. Specific ways that Taiwanese masculinity differs from Western and from Japanese masculinity, and support for the continuing relevance of the traditional Confucian ideal of masculinity, wen-wu, are discussed.

  7. Involvement of abscisic acid in correlative control of flower abscission in soybean

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yarrow, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Studies were carried out in three parts: (1) analysis of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) in abscising and non-abscising flowers, (2) partitioning of radio-labelled ABA and photoassimilates within the soybean raceme, and (3) shading experiments, wherein endogenous levels, metabolism and partitioning of ABA were determined. Endogenous concentrations of ABA failed to show any consistent relationship to abscission of soybean flowers. Partitioning of radiolabelled ABA and photoassimilates displayed consistently higher sink strengths (% DPM) for both /sup 3/H-ABA and /sup 14/C-photoassimilates for non-abscising flowers than for abscising flowers within control racemes. Shading flowers with aluminum foil, 48 hrs prior to sampling, resultedmore » in lowered endogenous ABA concentrations at 12, 17 and 22 days after anthesis (DAA), but not at 0 or 4 DAA. No differences were found in the catabolism of /sup 3/H-ABA between shaded (abscising) and non-shaded (non-abscising) flowers. Reduced partitioning of ABA and photoassimilates to shaded flowers resulted when shades were applied at 0, 4, 12, and 17 DAA, but not at 22 DAA.« less

  8. Molecular mechanisms underlying the diverse array of petal colors in chrysanthemum flowers.

    PubMed

    Ohmiya, Akemi

    2018-01-01

    Chrysanthemum ( Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is one of the most important floricultural crops in the world. Although the origin of modern chrysanthemum cultivars is uncertain, several species belonging to the family Asteraceae are considered to have been integrated during the long history of breeding. The flower color of ancestral species is limited to yellow, pink, and white, and is derived from carotenoids, anthocyanins, and the absence of both pigments, respectively. A wide range of flower colors, including purplish-red, orange, red, and dark red, has been developed by increasing the range of pigment content or the combination of both pigments. Recently, green-flowered cultivars containing chlorophylls in their ray petals have been produced, and have gained popularity. In addition, blue/violet flowers have been developed using a transgenic approach. Flower color is an important trait that influences the commercial value of chrysanthemum cultivars. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate flower pigmentation may provide important implications for the rationale manipulation of flower color. This review describes the pigment composition, genetics, and molecular basis of ray petal color formation in chrysanthemum cultivars.

  9. Synchronous flowering despite differences in snowmelt timing among habitats of Empetrum hermaphroditum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienau, Miriam J.; Kröncke, Michael; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Otte, Annette; Graae, Bente J.; Hagen, Dagmar; Milbau, Ann; Durka, Walter; Eckstein, R. Lutz

    2015-11-01

    The topography within arctic-alpine landscapes is very heterogeneous, resulting in diverse snow distribution patterns, with different snowmelt timing in spring. This may influence the phenological development of arctic and alpine plant species and asynchronous flowering may promote adaptation of plants to their local environments. We studied how flowering phenology of the dominant dwarf shrub Empetrum hermaphroditum varied among three habitats (exposed ridges, sheltered depressions and birch forest) differing in winter snow depth and thus snowmelt timing in spring, and whether the observed patterns were consistent across three different study areas. Despite significant differences in snowmelt timing between habitats, full flowering of E. hermaphroditum was nearly synchronous between the habitats, and implies a high flowering overlap. Our data show that exposed ridges, which had a long lag phase between snowmelt and flowering, experienced different temperature and light conditions than the two late melting habitats between snowmelt and flowering. Our study demonstrates that small scale variation seems matter less to flowering of Empetrum than interannual differences in snowmelt timing.

  10. Aggregation of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) Males on Iris spp. Flowers Releasing Methyl Anthranilate.

    PubMed

    Ohler, Bonnie J; Guédot, Christelle; Zack, Richard S; Landolt, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Aggregations of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae) were observed on flowers of Iris pallida Lamarck (Asparagales: Iridaceae), whereas no T. glabra (Meigen) were observed on nearby Iris germanica L. flowers. Sampling of T. glabra on I. pallida flowers revealed the presence of males only. In a previous study, T. glabra males were attracted to methyl anthranilate. We found methyl anthranilate in extracts of I. pallida flowers on which T. glabra aggregated, but not in extracts of I. germanica flowers. Applying methyl anthranilate to I. germanica flowers elicited attraction of T. glabra to the flowers. This study suggests that I. pallida flowers may attract T. glabra males to aggregate because they release the known attractant, methyl anthranilate, whereas I. germanica flowers may not be attractive because they do not release methyl anthranilate. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. High frequency early in vitro flowering of Dendrobium Madame Thong-In (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Sim, Guek Eng; Loh, Chiang Shiong; Goh, Chong Jin

    2007-04-01

    We have successfully developed a method to induce early in vitro flowering of the self-pollinated seedlings of a tropical orchid hybrid, Dendrobium Madame Thong-In. Transition of vegetative shoot apical meristem to inflorescence meristem was observed when young protocorms were cultured in modified KC liquid medium. In contrast, protocorms cultured on Gelrite-solidified medium only produced axillary shoots and roots. CW was required to trigger the transitional shoot apical meristem and BA enhanced inflorescence stalk initiation and flower bud formation. However, normal flower development was deformed in liquid medium but developed fully upon transferring to two-layered (liquid over Gelrite-solidified) medium. Under optimal condition, in vitro flowering was observed about 5 months after seed sowing. Segregation of flower colours was observed in these seedlings and seedpods formed upon artificial pollination of the in vitro flowers.

  12. Peace, a MYB-like transcription factor, regulates petal pigmentation in flowering peach ‘Genpei’ bearing variegated and fully pigmented flowers

    PubMed Central

    Uematsu, Chiyomi; Inagaki, Azusa

    2014-01-01

    Flowering peach Prunus persica cv. Genpei bears pink and variegated flowers on a single tree. The structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were expressed strongly in pink petals but only very weakly or not at all in variegated petals. A cDNA clone encoding a MYB-like gene, isolated from pink petals was strongly expressed only in pink petals. Introduction of this gene, via biolistics gave magenta spots in the white areas of variegated petals, therefore this gene was named as Peace (peach anthocyanin colour enhancement). Differences in Peace expression determine the pattern of flower colouration in flowering peach. The R2R3 DNA-binding domain of Peace is similar to those of other plant MYBs regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Key amino acids for tertiary structure and the motif for interaction with bHLH proteins were conserved in Peace. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Peace is closely related to AtMYB123 (TT2), which regulates proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, and to anthocyanin regulators in monocots rather than to regulators in dicots. This is the first report that a TT2-like R2R3 MYB has been shown to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:24453228

  13. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants

    PubMed Central

    Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species. PMID:22090384

  14. FReD: the floral reflectance database--a web portal for analyses of flower colour.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Sarah E J; Faruq, Samia; Savolainen, Vincent; McOwan, Peter W; Chittka, Lars

    2010-12-10

    Flower colour is of great importance in various fields relating to floral biology and pollinator behaviour. However, subjective human judgements of flower colour may be inaccurate and are irrelevant to the ecology and vision of the flower's pollinators. For precise, detailed information about the colours of flowers, a full reflectance spectrum for the flower of interest should be used rather than relying on such human assessments. The Floral Reflectance Database (FReD) has been developed to make an extensive collection of such data available to researchers. It is freely available at http://www.reflectance.co.uk. The database allows users to download spectral reflectance data for flower species collected from all over the world. These could, for example, be used in modelling interactions between pollinator vision and plant signals, or analyses of flower colours in various habitats. The database contains functions for calculating flower colour loci according to widely-used models of bee colour space, reflectance graphs of the spectra and an option to search for flowers with similar colours in bee colour space. The Floral Reflectance Database is a valuable new tool for researchers interested in the colours of flowers and their association with pollinator colour vision, containing raw spectral reflectance data for a large number of flower species.

  15. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    PubMed

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  16. De novo transcriptome analysis in Dendrobium and identification of critical genes associated with flowering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Shen, Qi; Lin, Renan; Zhao, Zhuangliu; Shen, Chenjia; Sun, Chongbo

    2017-10-01

    Artificial control of flowering time is pivotal for the ornamental value of orchids including the genus Dendrobium. Although various flowering pathways have been revealed in model plants, little information is available on the genetic regualtion of flowering in Dendrobium. To identify the critical genes associated with flowering, transcriptomes from four organs (leaf, root, stem and flower) of D. officinale were analyzed in our study. In total, 2645 flower-specific transcripts were identified. Functional annotation and classification suggested that several metabolic pathways, including four sugar-related pathways and two fatty acid-related pathways, were enriched. A total of 24 flowering-related transcripts were identified in D. officinale according to the similarities to their homologous genes from Arabidopsis, suggesting that most classical flowering pathways existed in D. officinale. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the FLOWERING LOCUS T homologs in orchids are highly conserved during evolution process. In addition, expression changes in nine randomly-selected critical flowering-related transcripts between the vegetative stage and reproductive stage were quantified by qRT-PCR analysis. Our study provided a number of candidate genes and sequence resources for investigating the mechanisms underlying the flowering process of the Dendrobium genus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. QTL mapping for flowering-time and photoperiod insensitivity of cotton Gossypium darwinii Watt.

    PubMed

    Kushanov, Fakhriddin N; Buriev, Zabardast T; Shermatov, Shukhrat E; Turaev, Ozod S; Norov, Tokhir M; Pepper, Alan E; Saha, Sukumar; Ulloa, Mauricio; Yu, John Z; Jenkins, Johnie N; Abdukarimov, Abdusattor; Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim Y

    2017-01-01

    Most wild and semi-wild species of the genus Gossypium are exhibit photoperiod-sensitive flowering. The wild germplasm cotton is a valuable source of genes for genetic improvement of modern cotton cultivars. A bi-parental cotton population segregating for photoperiodic flowering was developed by crossing a photoperiod insensitive irradiation mutant line with its pre-mutagenesis photoperiodic wild-type G. darwinii Watt genotype. Individuals from the F2 and F3 generations were grown with their parental lines and F1 hybrid progeny in the long day and short night summer condition (natural day-length) of Uzbekistan to evaluate photoperiod sensitivity, i.e., flowering-time during the seasons 2008-2009. Through genotyping the individuals of this bi-parental population segregating for flowering-time, linkage maps were constructed using 212 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) and three cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) markers. Six QTLs directly associated with flowering-time and photoperiodic flowering were discovered in the F2 population, whereas eight QTLs were identified in the F3 population. Two QTLs controlling photoperiodic flowering and duration of flowering were common in both populations. In silico annotations of the flanking DNA sequences of mapped SSRs from sequenced cotton (G. hirsutum L.) genome database has identified several potential 'candidate' genes that are known to be associated with regulation of flowering characteristics of plants. The outcome of this research will expand our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of photoperiodic flowering. Identified markers should be useful for marker-assisted selection in cotton breeding to improve early flowering characteristics.

  18. Synthesis of low-size flower-like AlOOH structures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bakina, Olga V., E-mail: ovbakina@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Glazkova, Elena A., E-mail: ovbakina@ispms.tsc.ru, E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S., E-mail: asl@ispms.tsc.ru

    Al/Cu, Al/Zn, and Al/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of metal pairs in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C forming flower-like hierarchical porous structures with a high specific surface area. As the Al/Cu nanopowder is oxidized with water, flower-like pseudoboehmite composite structures are formed with the size of under 1.0 μm; structurally heterogeneous electron-dense spherical inclusions of unreacted metal copper and intermetallides are identified inside them. Al/Fe product transformations are presented by the flower-like pseudoboehmite surrounded by lamellar structures enriched with ferric oxides. Al/Zn nanoparticlesmore » react with water, forming the flower-like pseudoboehmite and mainly hexagonal zinc oxide laminae. The composite particles obtained can be used as antibacterial agents in manufacturing medical supplies.« less

  19. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  20. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  1. Proteomic Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins during Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Flower Development

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Zhu, Yanqiao; Hou, Longyu; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Flower development, pollination, and fertilization are important stages in the sexual reproduction process of plants; they are also critical steps in the control of seed formation and development. During alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seed production, some distinct phenomena such as a low seed setting ratio, serious flower falling, and seed abortion commonly occur. However, the causes of these phenomena are complicated and largely unknown. An understanding of the mechanisms that regulate alfalfa flowering is important in order to increase seed yield. Hence, proteomic technology was used to analyze changes in protein expression during the stages of alfalfa flower development. Flower samples were collected at pre-pollination (S1), pollination (S2), and the post-pollination senescence period (S3). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified, including 17 down-regulated in pollinated flowers, one up-regulated in pollinated and senesced flowers, and six up-regulated in senesced flowers. The largest proportions of the identified proteins were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, defense response, oxidation reduction, cell death, and programmed cell death (PCD). Their expression profiles demonstrated that energy metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, and amino acid metabolism provided the nutrient foundation for pollination in alfalfa. Furthermore, there were three proteins involved in multiple metabolic pathways: dual specificity kinase splA-like protein (kinase splALs), carbonic anhydrase, and NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase-like protein. Expression patterns of these proteins indicated that MAPK cascades regulated multiple processes, such as signal transduction, stress response, and cell death. PCD also played an important role in the alfalfa flower developmental process, and regulated both pollination and flower senescence. The current study sheds some light on protein expression profiles during alfalfa flower development and

  2. Flowering after disaster: Early Danian buckthorn (Rhamnaceae) flowers and leaves from Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Gandolfo, Maria A.; Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Southern-Hemisphere terrestrial communities from the early Paleocene are poorly known, but recent work on Danian plant fossils from the Salamanca Formation in Chubut Province, Argentina are providing critical data on earliest Paleocene floras. The fossils described here come from a site in the Salamanca Formation dating to ca. 1 million years or less after the end-Cretaceous extinction event; they are the first fossil flowers reported from the Danian of South America, and possible the entire Southern Hemisphere. They are compressions and impressions in flat-laminated light gray shale, and they belong to the family Rhamnaceae (buckthorns). Flowers of Notiantha grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are pentamerous, with distinctly keeled calyx lobes projecting from the hypanthium, clawed and cucullate emarginate petals, antepetalous stamens, and a pentagonal floral disk that fills the hypanthium. Their phylogenetic position was evaluated using a molecular scaffold approach combined with morphological data. Results indicate that the flowers are most like those of extant ziziphoid Rhamnaceae. The associated leaves, assigned to Suessenia grandensis gen. et sp. nov. are simple and ovate, with serrate margins and three acrodromous basal veins. They conform to the distinctive leaves of some extant Rhamnaceae in the ziziphoid and ampelozizyphoid clades. These fossils provide the first unequivocal megafossil evidence of Rhamnaceae in the Southern Hemisphere, demonstrating that Rhamnaceae expanded beyond the tropics by the earliest Paleocene. Given previous reports of rhamnaceous pollen in the late Paleogene and Neogene of Antarctica and southern Australia, this new occurrence increases the possibility of high-latitude dispersal of this family between South America and Australia via Antarctica during the Cenozoic. PMID:28489895

  3. Gloss, colour and grip: multifunctional epidermal cell shapes in bee- and bird-pollinated flowers.

    PubMed

    Papiorek, Sarah; Junker, Robert R; Lunau, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Flowers bear the function of filters supporting the attraction of pollinators as well as the deterrence of floral antagonists. The effect of epidermal cell shape on the visual display and tactile properties of flowers has been evaluated only recently. In this study we quantitatively measured epidermal cell shape, gloss and spectral reflectance of flowers pollinated by either bees or birds testing three hypotheses: The first two hypotheses imply that bee-pollinated flowers might benefit from rough surfaces on visually-active parts produced by conical epidermal cells, as they may enhance the colour signal of flowers as well as the grip on flowers for bees. In contrast, bird-pollinated flowers might benefit from flat surfaces produced by flat epidermal cells, by avoiding frequent visitation from non-pollinating bees due to a reduced colour signal, as birds do not rely on specific colour parameters while foraging. Moreover, flat petal surfaces in bird-pollinated flowers may hamper grip for bees that do not touch anthers and stigmas while consuming nectar and thus, are considered as nectar thieves. Beside this, the third hypothesis implies that those flower parts which are vulnerable to nectar robbing of bee- as well as bird-pollinated flowers benefit from flat epidermal cells, hampering grip for nectar robbing bees. Our comparative data show in fact that conical epidermal cells are restricted to visually-active parts of bee-pollinated flowers, whereas robbing-sensitive parts of bee-pollinated as well as the entire floral surface of bird-pollinated flowers possess on average flat epidermal cells. However, direct correlations between epidermal cell shape and colour parameters have not been found. Our results together with published experimental studies show that epidermal cell shape as a largely neglected flower trait might act as an important feature in pollinator attraction and avoidance of antagonists, and thus may contribute to the partitioning of flower-visitors.

  4. Dynamic Pulse-Driven Flowering Phenology in a Semiarid Shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krell, N.; Papuga, S. A.; Kipnis, E. L.; Nelson, K.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated springtime temperature has been convincingly linked to an increasingly earlier onset of phenological activity. Studies highlighting this phenomenon have generally been conducted in ecosystems where energy is the primary limiting factor. Importantly, phenological studies in semiarid ecosystems where water is the major limiting factor are rare. In semiarid ecosystems, the timing of phenological activity is also highly sensitive to discrete moisture pulses from infrequent precipitation events. The objective of this study is to identify the triggers of flowering phenology in a semiarid creosotebush-dominated ecosystem. Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) is a repeat-flowering evergreen shrub that is the dominant species in three of the North American deserts. We present results from six years of daily meteorological and phenological data collected within the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. Our site is equipped with an eddy covariance tower providing estimates of water and carbon fluxes and associated meteorological variables including precipitation and soil moisture at multiple depths. Additionally, three digital cameras distributed within the footprint of the eddy provide daily images of phenological activity. Our results highlight substantial interannual variability in flowering phenology, both in spring and summer flowering. We show that spring flowering activity tends to be associated with energy triggers (e.g. temperature, growing degree days), whereas summer flowering activity tends to be associated with moisture triggers (e.g. large precipitation events, deep soil moisture). Our study suggests that changes in frequency and duration of precipitation events will impact timing of phenological activity resulting in important consequences for vegetation dynamics and pollinator behavior.

  5. GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sawa, Mariko; Kay, Steve A

    2011-07-12

    Plants perceive environmental signals such as day length and temperature to determine optimal timing for the transition from vegetative to floral stages. Arabidopsis flowers under long-day conditions through the CONSTANS (CO)-FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulatory module. It is thought that the environmental cues for photoperiodic control of flowering are initially perceived in the leaves. We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1. Normally, CO and FT are expressed exclusively in vascular bundles, whereas GI is expressed in various tissues. To better elucidate the role of tissue-specific expression of GI in the flowering pathway, we established transgenic lines in which GI is expressed exclusively in mesophyll, vascular bundles, epidermis, shoot apical meristem, or root. We found that GI expressed in either mesophyll or vascular bundles rescues the late-flowering phenotype of the gi-2 loss-of-function mutant under both short-day and long-day conditions. Interestingly, GI expressed in mesophyll or vascular tissues increases FT expression without up-regulating CO expression under short-day conditions. Furthermore, we examined the interaction between GI and FT repressors in mesophyll. We found that GI can bind to three FT repressors: SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP), TEMPRANILLO (TEM)1, and TEM2. Finally, our chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that GI binds to FT promoter regions that are near the SVP binding sites. Taken together, our data further elucidate the multiple roles of GI in the regulation of flowering time.

  6. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants

    PubMed Central

    Walworth, Aaron E.; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora (‘VcFT-Aurora’), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in ‘VcFT-Aurora’. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all

  7. Transcript Profile of Flowering Regulatory Genes in VcFT-Overexpressing Blueberry Plants.

    PubMed

    Walworth, Aaron E; Chai, Benli; Song, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    In order to identify genetic components in flowering pathways of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), a transcriptome reference composed of 254,396 transcripts and 179,853 gene contigs was developed by assembly of 72.7 million reads using Trinity. Using this transcriptome reference and a query of flowering pathway genes of herbaceous plants, we identified potential flowering pathway genes/transcripts of blueberry. Transcriptome analysis of flowering pathway genes was then conducted on leaf tissue samples of transgenic blueberry cv. Aurora ('VcFT-Aurora'), which overexpresses a blueberry FLOWERING LOCUS T-like gene (VcFT). Sixty-one blueberry transcripts of 40 genes showed high similarities to 33 known flowering-related genes of herbaceous plants, of which 17 down-regulated and 16 up-regulated genes were identified in 'VcFT-Aurora'. All down-regulated genes encoded transcription factors/enzymes upstream in the signaling pathway containing VcFT. A blueberry CONSTANS-LIKE 5-like (VcCOL5) gene was down-regulated and associated with five other differentially expressed (DE) genes in the photoperiod-mediated flowering pathway. Three down-regulated genes, i.e., a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 2-like gene (VcMAF2), a MADS-AFFECTING FLOWERING 5-like gene (VcMAF5), and a VERNALIZATION1-like gene (VcVRN1), may function as integrators in place of FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) in the vernalization pathway. Because no CONSTAN1-like or FLOWERING LOCUS C-like genes were found in blueberry, VcCOL5 and VcMAF2/VcMAF5 or VRN1 might be the major integrator(s) in the photoperiod- and vernalization-mediated flowering pathway, respectively. The major down-stream genes of VcFT, i.e., SUPPRESSOR of Overexpression of Constans 1-like (VcSOC1), LEAFY-like (VcLFY), APETALA1-like (VcAP1), CAULIFLOWER 1-like (VcCAL1), and FRUITFULL-like (VcFUL) genes were present and showed high similarity to their orthologues in herbaceous plants. Moreover, overexpression of VcFT promoted expression of all of these

  8. Sterile flowers increase pollinator attraction and promote female success in the Mediterranean herb Leopoldia comosa

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Carolina L.; Traveset, Anna; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Large floral displays have opposing consequences for animal-pollinated angiosperms: they attract more pollinators but also enable elevated among-flower self-pollination (geitonogamy). The presence of sterile flowers as pollinator signals may enhance attraction while allowing displays of fewer open fertile flowers, limiting geitonogamy. The simultaneous contributions of fertile and non-fertile display components to pollinator attraction and reproductive output remain undetermined. Methods The simultaneous effects of the presence of sterile flowers and fertile-flower display size in two populations of Leopoldia comosa were experimentally assessed. Pollinator behaviour, pollen removal and deposition, and fruit and seed production were compared between intact plants and plants with sterile flowers removed. Key Results The presence of sterile flowers almost tripled pollinator attraction, supplementing the positive effect of the number of fertile flowers on the number of bees approaching inflorescences. Although attracted bees visited more flowers on larger inflorescences, the number visited did not additionally depend on the presence of sterile flowers. The presence of sterile flowers improved all aspects of plant performance, the magnitude of plant benefit being context dependent. During weather favourable to pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased pollen deposition on stigmas of young flowers, but this difference was not evident in older flowers, probably because of autonomous self-pollination in poorly visited flowers. Total pollen receipt per stigma decreased with increasing fertile display size. In the population with more pollinators, the presence of sterile flowers increased fruit number but not seed set or mass, whereas in the other population sterile flowers enhanced seeds per fruit, but not fruit production. These contrasts are consistent with dissimilar cross-pollination and autonomous self-pollination, coupled with the

  9. The Overlooked Biodiversity of Flower-Visiting Invertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Wardhaugh, Carl W.; Stork, Nigel E.; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S.

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the ‘diversity jigsaw puzzle’ than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness. PMID

  10. The overlooked biodiversity of flower-visiting invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Wardhaugh, Carl W; Stork, Nigel E; Edwards, Will; Grimbacher, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Estimates suggest that perhaps 40% of all invertebrate species are found in tropical rainforest canopies. Extrapolations of total diversity and food web analyses have been based almost exclusively on species inhabiting the foliage, under the assumption that foliage samples are representative of the entire canopy. We examined the validity of this assumption by comparing the density of invertebrates and the species richness of beetles across three canopy microhabitats (mature leaves, new leaves and flowers) on a one hectare plot in an Australian tropical rainforest. Specifically, we tested two hypotheses: 1) canopy invertebrate density and species richness are directly proportional to the amount of resource available; and 2) canopy microhabitats represent discrete resources that are utilised by their own specialised invertebrate communities. We show that flowers in the canopy support invertebrate densities that are ten to ten thousand times greater than on the nearby foliage when expressed on a per-unit resource biomass basis. Furthermore, species-level analyses of the beetle fauna revealed that flowers support a unique and remarkably rich fauna compared to foliage, with very little species overlap between microhabitats. We reject the hypothesis that the insect fauna on mature foliage is representative of the greater canopy community even though mature foliage comprises a very large proportion of canopy plant biomass. Although the significance of the evolutionary relationship between flowers and insects is well known with respect to plant reproduction, less is known about the importance of flowers as resources for tropical insects. Consequently, we suggest that this constitutes a more important piece of the 'diversity jigsaw puzzle' than has been previously recognised and could alter our understanding of the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions and food web dynamics, and provide a better foundation for accurately estimating global species richness.

  11. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size

    PubMed Central

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size. PMID:28496449

  12. Differences in Flower Transcriptome between Grapevine Clones Are Related to Their Cluster Compactness, Fruitfulness, and Berry Size.

    PubMed

    Grimplet, Jérôme; Tello, Javier; Laguna, Natalia; Ibáñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Grapevine cluster compactness has a clear impact on fruit quality and health status, as clusters with greater compactness are more susceptible to pests and diseases and ripen more asynchronously. Different parameters related to inflorescence and cluster architecture (length, width, branching, etc.), fruitfulness (number of berries, number of seeds) and berry size (length, width) contribute to the final level of compactness. From a collection of 501 clones of cultivar Garnacha Tinta, two compact and two loose clones with stable differences for cluster compactness-related traits were selected and phenotyped. Key organs and developmental stages were selected for sampling and transcriptomic analyses. Comparison of global gene expression patterns in flowers at the end of bloom allowed identification of potential gene networks with a role in determining the final berry number, berry size and ultimately cluster compactness. A large portion of the differentially expressed genes were found in networks related to cell division (carbohydrates uptake, cell wall metabolism, cell cycle, nucleic acids metabolism, cell division, DNA repair). Their greater expression level in flowers of compact clones indicated that the number of berries and the berry size at ripening appear related to the rate of cell replication in flowers during the early growth stages after pollination. In addition, fluctuations in auxin and gibberellin signaling and transport related gene expression support that they play a central role in fruit set and impact berry number and size. Other hormones, such as ethylene and jasmonate may differentially regulate indirect effects, such as defense mechanisms activation or polyphenols production. This is the first transcriptomic based analysis focused on the discovery of the underlying gene networks involved in grapevine traits of grapevine cluster compactness, berry number and berry size.

  13. Flowering pathway is regulated by bulb size in Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily).

    PubMed

    Lazare, S; Zaccai, M

    2016-07-01

    Lilium longiflorum (Easter lily) vegetative propagation occurs through production of underground bulbs containing apical and axillary meristems. In addition, sexual reproduction is achieved by flowering of elongated shoots above the bulb. It is generally accepted that L. longiflorum has an obligatory requirement for vernalisation and that long day (LD) regime hastens flowering. However, the effect of bulb size and origin, with respect to axillary or apical meristems on flowering, as well as the interactions between these meristems are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of bulb size, vernalisation and photoperiod on L. longiflorum flowering. To this end, we applied vernalisation and photoperiod treatments to the different bulb sizes and used a system of constant ambient temperature of 25 °C, above vernalisation spectrum, to avoid cold-dependent floral induction during plant growth. Vernalisation and LD hasten flowering in all bulbs. Large, non-vernalised bulbs invariably remained at a vegetative stage. However, small non-vernalised bulbs flowered under LD conditions. These results demonstrate for the first time that cold exposure is not an obligatory prerequisite for L. longiflorum flowering, and that an alternative flowering pathway can bypass vernalisation in small bulbs. We suggest that apical dominance interactions determine the distinct flowering pathways of the apical and axillary meristems. Similar floral induction is achieved in propagated bulblets from scaling. These innovative findings in the field of geophyte floral induction represent valuable applicative knowledge for lily production. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. On the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models.

    PubMed

    Proïa, Frédéric; Pernet, Alix; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Clotault, Jérémy

    2016-08-07

    In this paper, we develop a statistical methodology applied to the characterization of flowering curves using Gaussian mixture models. Our study relies on a set of rosebushes flowering data, and Gaussian mixture models are mainly used to quantify the reblooming properties of each one. In this regard, we also suggest our own selection criterion to take into account the lack of symmetry of most of the flowering curves. Three classes are created on the basis of a principal component analysis conducted on a set of reblooming indicators, and a subclassification is made using a longitudinal k-means algorithm which also highlights the role played by the precocity of the flowering. In this way, we obtain an overview of the correlations between the features we decided to retain on each curve. In particular, results suggest the lack of correlation between reblooming and flowering precocity. The pertinent indicators obtained in this study will be a first step towards the comprehension of the environmental and genetic control of these biological processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the evolution and development of flower size in Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Landis, Jacob B; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2017-06-23

    Flower size varies dramatically across angiosperms, representing innovations over the course of >130 million years of evolution and contributing substantially to relationships with pollinators. However, the genetic underpinning of flower size is not well understood. Saltugilia (Polemoniaceae) provides an excellent non-model system for extending the genetic study of flower size to interspecific differences that coincide with variation in pollinators. Using targeted gene capture methods, we infer phylogenetic relationships among all members of Saltugilia to provide a framework for investigating the genetic control of flower size differences via RNA-Seq de novo assembly. Nuclear concatenation and species tree inference methods provide congruent topologies. The inferred evolutionary trajectory of flower size is from small flowers to larger flowers. We identified 4 to 10,368 transcripts that are differentially expressed during flower development, with many unigenes associated with cell wall modification and components of the auxin and gibberellin pathways. Saltugilia is an excellent model for investigating covarying floral and pollinator evolution. Four candidate genes from model systems (BIG BROTHER, BIG PETAL, GASA, and LONGIFOLIA) show differential expression during development of flowers in Saltugilia, and four other genes (FLOWERING-PROMOTING FACTOR 1, PECTINESTERASE, POLYGALACTURONASE, and SUCROSE SYNTHASE) fit into hypothesized organ size pathways. Together, these gene sets provide a strong foundation for future functional studies to determine their roles in specifying interspecific differences in flower size.

  16. Modification of flower colour by suppressing β-ring carotene hydroxylase genes in Oncidium.

    PubMed

    Wang, H-M; To, K-Y; Lai, H-M; Jeng, S-T

    2016-03-01

    Oncidium 'Gower Ramsey' (Onc. GR) is a popular cut flower, but its colour is limited to bright yellow. The β-ring carotene hydroxylase (BCH2) gene is involved in carotenoid biogenesis for pigment formation. However, the role of BCH2 in Onc. GR is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the functions of three BCH2 genes, BCH-A2, BCH-B2 and BCH-C2 isolated from Onc. GR, to analyse their roles in flower colour. RT-PCR expression profiling suggested that BCH2 was mainly expressed in flowers. The expression of BCH-B2 remained constant while that of BCH-A2 gradually decreased during flower development. Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens to introduce BCH2 RNA interference (RNAi), we created transgenic Oncidium plants with down-regulated BCH expression. In the transgenic plants, flower colour changed from the bright yellow of the wild type to light and white-yellow. BCH-A2 and BCH-B2 expression levels were significantly reduced in the transgenic flower lips, which make up the major portion of the Oncidium flower. Sectional magnification of the flower lip showed that the amount of pigmentation in the papillate cells of the adaxial epidermis was proportional to the intensity of yellow colouration. HPLC analyses of the carotenoid composition of the transgenic flowers suggested major reductions in neoxanthin and violaxanthin. In conclusion, BCH2 expression regulated the accumulation of yellow pigments in the Oncidium flower, and the down-regulation of BCH-A2 and BCH-B2 changed the flower colour from bright yellow to light and white-yellow. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Corolla chirality does not contribute to directed pollen movement in Hypericum perforatum (Hypericaceae): mirror image pinwheel flowers function as radially symmetric flowers in pollination.

    PubMed

    Diller, Carolina; Fenster, Charles B

    2016-07-01

    Corolla chirality, the pinwheel arrangement of petals within a flower, is found throughout the core eudicots. In 15 families, different chiral type flowers (i.e., right or left rotated corolla) exist on the same plant, and this condition is referred to as unfixed/enantiomorphic corolla chirality. There are no investigations on the significance of unfixed floral chirality on directed pollen movement even though analogous mirror image floral designs, for example, enantiostyly, has evolved in response to selection to direct pollinator and pollen movement. Here, we examine the role of corolla chirality on directing pollen transfer, pollinator behavior, and its potential influence on disassortative mating. We quantified pollen transfer and pollinator behavior and movement for both right and left rotated flowers in two populations of Hypericum perforatum. In addition, we quantified the number of right and left rotated flowers at the individual level. Pollinators were indifferent to corolla chirality resulting in no difference in pollen deposition between right and left flowers. Corolla chirality had no effect on pollinator and pollen movement between and within chiral morphs. Unlike other mirror image floral designs, corolla chirality appears to play no role in promoting disassortative mating in this species.

  18. Silencing Nicotiana attenuata LHY and ZTL alters circadian rhythms in flowers

    PubMed Central

    Yon, Felipe; Joo, Youngsung; Cortés Llorca, Lucas; Rothe, Eva; Baldwin, Ian T.; Kim, Sang-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Summary The rhythmic opening/closing and volatile emissions of flowers is known to attract pollinators at specific times. That these rhythms are maintained under constant light or dark conditions suggests a circadian clock involvement. Although a forward and reverse genetic approach led to the identification of core circadian clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana, involvement of these clock components for floral rhythms remained untested likely due to weak diurnal rhythms in A. thaliana flowers.Here we addressed the role of these core clock components in the flowers of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata, whose flowers open at night, emit benzyl acetone (BA) scents, and move vertically through a 140° arc.We first measured N. attenuata floral rhythms under constant light conditions. The results suggest that the circadian clock controls flower opening, BA emission, and pedicel movement, but not flower closing.We generated transgenic N. attenuata lines silenced in the homologous genes of Arabidopsis LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and ZEITLUPE (ZTL), which are known as a core clock component. Silencing NaLHY and NaZTL strongly altered floral rhythms in different ways, indicating that conserved clock components in N. attenuata coordinate these floral rhythms. PMID:26439540

  19. Flavonoids, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity in the Flower of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chunhua; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong; Li, Xian

    2011-01-01

    Flavonoids and phenolics are abundant in loquat flowers. Methanol had the highest extraction efficiency among five solvents, followed by ethanol. Considering the safety and residue, ethanol is better as extraction solvent. The average content of flavonoids and phenolics of loquat flower of five cultivars were 1.59 ± 0.24 and 7.86 ± 0.87 mg/g DW, respectively, when using ethanol as extraction solvent. The contents of both bioactive components in flowers at different developmental stages and in the various flower tissues clearly differed, with the highest flavonoids and phenolics content in flowers of stage 3 (flower fully open) and petal, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS methods. The values of ABTS method was highest, followed by DPPH, the lowest was FRAP, when using vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) as unit. Correlation analysis showed that the ABTS method showed the highest correlation coefficients with flavonoids and phenolics, i.e., 0.886 and 0.973, respectively. PMID:21686159

  20. Happy Mother's Day - Flowers Fields as Seen by NASA Satellite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA satellite image acquired February 2, 2008. Outside the ground is frozen, quite possibly covered in snow and ice, and yet, stroll through a supermarket in North America or Europe in February, and you’ll be confronted with large displays of roses. We expect flowers in winter, and equatorial countries meet those expectations. A quarter of the cut flowers sold in Europe are grown in Kenya. Straddling the equator, Kenya gets steady sunlight dealt out in days that vary little in length. It’s the perfect climate for flowers year-round. The center of Kenya’s flower industry is Lake Naivasha, shown here. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) flying on NASA’s Terra satellite captured this image of Lake Naivasha on February 2, 2008. Bright white squares mix with fields of green, tan, and purple along the shores of the lake. Sunlight glints off the long rows of glass greenhouses, turning them silvery blue and white in this view from space. Fallow fields are tan and pink, while growing plants turn the ground bright green. Roses, lilies, and carnations are the most common flowers grown in the greenhouses and fields scattered around the lake. The large-scale industry shown here extends into small-scale rural farms elsewhere in Kenya, where smaller filler flowers are grown. The flowers provide an important source of income to Kenya, but the industry comes with a price. Flowers are not held to the same standards for chemical residues as food products, which are tightly regulated. Strong chemical pesticides can be used on the flowers to produce the perfect, pest-free bloom, and this could pose a health risk to workers and local wildlife, including hippos, environmental groups told the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 2002. The chemicals may also have threatened the water quality of Lake Naivasha, one of Kenya’s few freshwater lakes. The Kenya Flower Council instituted a code of conduct establishing

  1. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  2. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  3. An evaluation of yellow-flowering magnolias and magnolia rootstocks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yellow-flowering magnolias were evaluated for flower color, bloom duration and growth rate in USDA Hardiness Zone 6b. Of the thirty selections evaluated, all were reported to have yellow blooms; however, tepal color ranged from light pink with some yellow coloration, to creamy yellow to dark yellow....

  4. A large scale joint analysis of flowering time reveals independent temperate adaptations in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modulating days to flowering is a key mechanism in plants for adapting to new environments, and variation in days to flowering drives population structure by limiting mating. To elucidate the genetic architecture of flowering across maize, a quantitative trait, we mapped flowering in five global pop...

  5. Blooming Knit Flowers: Loop-Linked Soft Morphing Structures for Soft Robotics.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Woo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    A loop-linked structure, which is capable of morphing in various modes, including volumetric transformation, is developed based on knitting methods. Morphing flowers (a lily-like, a daffodil-like, gamopetalous, and a calla-like flower) are fabricated using loop patterning, and their blooming motion is demonstrated by controlling a current that selectively actuates the flowers petals. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. The role of pollinators in maintaining variation in flower colour in the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea

    PubMed Central

    Thairu, Margaret W.; Brunet, Johanne

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Flower colour varies within and among populations of the Rocky Mountain columbine, Aquilegia coerulea, in conjunction with the abundance of its two major pollinators, hawkmoths and bumble-bees. This study seeks to understand whether the choice of flower colour by these major pollinators can help explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea populations. Methods Dual choice assays and experimental arrays of blue and white flowers were used to determine the preference of hawkmoths and bumble-bees for flower colour. A test was made to determine whether a differential preference for flower colour, with bumble-bees preferring blue and hawkmoths white flowers, could explain the variation in flower colour. Whether a single pollinator could maintain a flower colour polymorphism was examined by testing to see if preference for a flower colour varied between day and dusk for hawkmoths and whether bumble-bees preferred novel or rare flower colour morphs. Key Results Hawkmoths preferred blue flowers under both day and dusk light conditions. Naïve bumble-bees preferred blue flowers but quickly learned to forage randomly on the two colour morphs when similar rewards were presented in the flowers. Bees quickly learned to associate a flower colour with a pollen reward. Prior experience affected the choice of flower colour by bees, but they did not preferentially visit novel flower colours or rare or common colour morphs. Conclusions Differences in flower colour preference between the two major pollinators could not explain the variation in flower colour observed in A. coerulea. The preference of hawkmoths for flower colour did not change between day and dusk, and bumble-bees did not prefer a novel or a rare flower colour morph. The data therefore suggest that factors other than pollinators may be more likely to affect the flower colour variation observed in A. coerulea. PMID:25808657

  7. Transcriptome analysis of Jatropha curcas L. flower buds responded to the paclobutrazol treatment.

    PubMed

    Seesangboon, Anupharb; Gruneck, Lucsame; Pokawattana, Tittinat; Eungwanichayapant, Prapassorn Damrongkool; Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Popluechai, Siam

    2018-06-01

    Jatropha seeds can be used to produce high-quality biodiesel due to their high oil content. However, Jatropha produces low numbers of female flowers, which limits seed yield. Paclobutrazol (PCB), a plant growth retardant, can increase number of Jatropha female flowers and seed yield. However, the underlying mechanisms of flower development after PCB treatment are not well understood. To identify the critical genes associated with flower development, the transcriptome of flower buds following PCB treatment was analyzed. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis revealed that the flower developmental stage between PCB-treated and control flower buds was similar. Based on the presence of sex organs, flower buds at 0, 4, and 24 h after treatment were chosen for global transcriptome analysis. In total, 100,597 unigenes were obtained, 174 of which were deemed as interesting based on their response to PCB treatment. Our analysis showed that the JcCKX5 and JcTSO1 genes were up-regulated at 4 h, suggesting roles in promoting organogenic capacity and ovule primordia formation in Jatropha. The JcNPGR2, JcMGP2-3, and JcHUA1 genes were down-regulated indicating that they may contribute to increased number of female flowers and amount of seed yield. Expression of cell division and cellulose biosynthesis-related genes, including JcGASA3, JcCycB3;1, JcCycP2;1, JcKNAT7, and JcCSLG3 was decreased, which might have caused the compacted inflorescences. This study represents the first report combining SEM-based morphology, qRT-PCR and transcriptome analysis of PCB-treated Jatropha flower buds at different stages of flower development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Fruit regulates seasonal expression of flowering genes in alternate-bearing ‘Moncada’ mandarin

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Carmen González-Mas, M.; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Agustí, Manuel; Iglesias, Domingo J.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The presence of fruit has been widely reported to act as an inhibitor of flowering in fruit trees. This study is an investigation into the effect of fruit load on flowering of ‘Moncada’ mandarin and on the expression of putative orthologues of genes involved in flowering pathways to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying alternate bearing in citrus. Methods The relationship between fruit load and flowering intensity was examined first. Defruiting experiments were further conducted to demonstrate the causal effect of fruit removal upon flowering. Finally, the activity of flowering-related genes was investigated to determine the extent to which their seasonal expression is affected by fruit yield. Key Results First observations and defruiting experiments indicated a significant inverse relationship between preceding fruit load and flowering intensity. Moreover, data indicated that when fruit remained on the tree from November onwards, a dramatic inhibition of flowering occurred the following spring. The study of the expression pattern of flowering-genes of on (fully loaded) and off (without fruits) trees revealed that homologues of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1), APETALA1 (AP1) and LEAFY (LFY) were negatively affected by fruit load. Thus, CiFT expression showed a progressive increase in leaves from off trees through the study period, the highest differences found from December onwards (10-fold). Whereas differences in the relative expression of SOC1 only reached significance from September to mid-December, CsAP1 expression was constantly higher in those trees through the whole study period. Significant variations in CsLFY expression only were found in late February (close to 20 %). On the other hand, the expression of the homologues of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) did not appear to be related to fruit load. Conclusions These results suggest for the first time

  9. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues.

    PubMed

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts.

  10. The Complexity of Background Clutter Affects Nectar Bat Use of Flower Odor and Shape Cues

    PubMed Central

    Muchhala, Nathan; Serrano, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Given their small size and high metabolism, nectar bats need to be able to quickly locate flowers during foraging bouts. Chiropterophilous plants depend on these bats for their reproduction, thus they also benefit if their flowers can be easily located, and we would expect that floral traits such as odor and shape have evolved to maximize detection by bats. However, relatively little is known about the importance of different floral cues during foraging bouts. In the present study, we undertook a set of flight cage experiments with two species of nectar bats (Anoura caudifer and A. geoffroyi) and artificial flowers to compare the importance of shape and scent cues in locating flowers. In a training phase, a bat was presented an artificial flower with a given shape and scent, whose position was constantly shifted to prevent reliance on spatial memory. In the experimental phase, two flowers were presented, one with the training-flower scent and one with the training-flower shape. For each experimental repetition, we recorded which flower was located first, and then shifted flower positions. Additionally, experiments were repeated in a simple environment, without background clutter, or a complex environment, with a background of leaves and branches. Results demonstrate that bats visit either flower indiscriminately with simple backgrounds, with no significant difference in terms of whether they visit the training-flower odor or training-flower shape first. However, in a complex background olfaction was the most important cue; scented flowers were consistently located first. This suggests that for well-exposed flowers, without obstruction from clutter, vision and/or echolocation are sufficient in locating them. In more complex backgrounds, nectar bats depend more heavily on olfaction during foraging bouts. PMID:26445216

  11. Oral administration of arginine enhances the growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in short children.

    PubMed

    Loche, S; Carta, D; Muntoni, A C; Corda, R; Pintor, C

    1993-10-01

    We have evaluated the effect of oral administration of arginine chlorhydrate on the growth hormone response to growth hormone releasing hormone in a group of nine short prepubertal children (six boys and four girls). Arginine chlorhydrate 10 g, administered orally 60 min before an i.v. bolus injection of growth hormone releasing hormone 1-29, 1 microgram/kg, significantly enhanced the growth hormone response to the neuropeptide, confirming the results of previous studies which used the i.v. route. Furthermore, our data strengthen the view that the effects of arginine chlorhydrate on growth hormone secretion are mediated by inhibition of endogenous somatostatin release.

  12. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  13. Phytohormone and assimilate profiles in emasculated flowers of the black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) during development.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Yuan, Cunquan; Dai, Li; Xi, Yang; Li, Yunfei; Hu, Ruiyang; Sun, Yuhan; Xu, Zhaohe; Li, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Emasculation and bagging of flowers, which are widely used in the controlled pollination of monoclinous plants, may induce premature senescence, flower abscission and low fruit set. To determine the mechanism responsible for these phenomena, levels of abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), ethylene, soluble sugars, reducing sugars and free amino acids in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) flowers subjected to different treatments were quantified at different developmental stages. The phytohormones and assimilates were also quantified in untreated flowers to investigate the presence of discernible patterns. The levels of ethylene and ABA in emasculated and bagged (EB) flowers increased prematurely compared with those of untreated flowers, whereas the content of reducing sugars in EB flowers decreased compared with that of untreated flowers. These results indicated that the premature increase in ethylene and ABA synthesis, and the decrease in reducing sugars content, in EB flowers may cause flower abscission and result in low fruit set, which may be relevant for assimilate applications and future research on the regulation of controlled pollinations with exogenous phytohormones.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    PubMed

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  15. Spatial variation in the community of insects associated with the flowers of Pachycereus weberi (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Castro, Dulce María; Valverde, Pedro Luis; Vite, Fernando; Carrillo-Ruiz, Hortensia

    2014-08-01

    The positive relationship between productivity and species diversity is well-known. Insect communities associated with the flowers of Cactaceae species represent an interesting system to explore the productivity-diversity relationship because branches facing the equator receive more photosynthetically active radiation and have higher productivity. Thus, flowers with contrasting orientations within an individual, and even within a single branch, might differ in productivity. Therefore, higher abundance, species richness, and diversity are expected for the insect communities associated with south-facing flowers. This hypothesis was tested in Pachycereus weberi (J.M. Coulter) Backeberg (Cactaceae). Insects within flowers with contrasting orientations were collected and its abundance, richness, and diversity were estimated. We also asked if insects prefer big flowers. Thus, flower volume was estimated and regression analyses were conducted to test if there is a positive relationship between flower size and insect abundance. Flower orientation did not affect species richness. However, species abundance and diversity were different in flowers with contrasting orientations. In general, species abundance was higher in flowers facing southwards than in north-facing flowers. On the contrary, species diversity was higher in north-facing flowers. Abundance of Coleoptera was explained by flower volume in south-facing flowers. Contrary to our hypothesis, total diversity was greater in the less productive oriented flowers. Three possible explanations are discussed to explain the low diversity found in the highly productive, south-facing flowers. Our study provides evidence for the effects of productivity on the structure of insect communities at a very small-scale.

  16. Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from India and China--geographic variations.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina

    2012-05-01

    Seven Jasminum sambac flower absolutes from different locations in the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Focus was placed on 41 key ingredients to investigate geographic variations in this species. These seven absolutes were compared with an Indian bud absolute and commercially available J. sambac flower absolutes from India and China. All absolutes showed broad variations for the 10 main ingredients between 8% and 96%. In addition, the odor of Indian and Chinese J. sambac flower absolutes were assessed.

  17. An Interactive System For Fourier Analysis Of Artichoke Flower Shape.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Impedovo, Sebastiano; Fanelli, Anna M.; Ligouras, Panagiotis

    1984-06-01

    In this paper we present an interactive system which allows the Fourier analysis of the artichoke flower-head profile. The system consistsof a DEC pdp 11/34 computer with both a a track-following device and a Tektronix 4010/1 graphic and alpha numeric display on-line. Some experiments have been carried out taking into account some different parental types of artichoke flower-head samples. It is shown here that a narrow band of only eight harmonics is sufficient to classify different artichoke flower shapes.

  18. Stamen-derived bioactive gibberellin is essential for male flower development of Cucurbita maxima L.

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta Lange, Maria João; Knop, Nicole; Lange, Theo

    2012-01-01

    Gibberellin (GA) signalling during pumpkin male flower development is highly regulated, including biosynthetic, perception, and transduction pathways. GA 20-oxidases, 3-oxidases, and 2-oxidases catalyse the final part of GA synthesis. Additionally, 7-oxidase initiates this part of the pathway in some cucurbits including Cucurbita maxima L. (pumpkin). Expression patterns for these GA-oxidase-encoding genes were examined by competitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and endogenous GA levels were determined during pumpkin male flower development. In young flowers, GA20ox3 transcript levels are high in stamens, followed by high levels of the GA precursor GA9. Later, just before flower opening, transcript levels for GA3ox3 and GA3ox4 increase in the hypanthium and stamens, respectively. In the stamen, following GA3ox4 expression, bioactive GA4 levels rise dramatically. Accordingly, catabolic GA2ox2 and GA2ox3 transcript levels are low in developing flowers, and increase in mature flowers. Putative GA receptor GID1b and DELLA repressor GAIPb transcript levels do not change in developing flowers, but increase sharply in mature flowers. Emasculation arrests floral development completely and leads to abscission of premature flowers. Application of GA4 (but not of its precursors GA12-aldehyde or GA9) restores normal growth of emasculated flowers. These results indicate that de novo GA4 synthesis in the stamen is under control of GA20ox3 and GA3ox4 genes just before the rapid flower growth phase. Stamen-derived bioactive GA is essential and sufficient for male flower development, including the petal and the pedicel growth. PMID:22268154

  19. A quantitative framework for flower phenotyping in cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.).

    PubMed

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value.

  20. A Quantitative Framework for Flower Phenotyping in Cultivated Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chacón, Borja; Ballester, Roberto; Birlanga, Virginia; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Pérez-Pérez, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most important breeding goals in ornamental crops are plant appearance and flower characteristics where selection is visually performed on direct offspring of crossings. We developed an image analysis toolbox for the acquisition of flower and petal images from cultivated carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) that was validated by a detailed analysis of flower and petal size and shape in 78 commercial cultivars of D. caryophyllus, including 55 standard, 22 spray and 1 pot carnation cultivars. Correlation analyses allowed us to reduce the number of parameters accounting for the observed variation in flower and petal morphology. Convexity was used as a descriptor for the level of serration in flowers and petals. We used a landmark-based approach that allowed us to identify eight main principal components (PCs) accounting for most of the variance observed in petal shape. The effect and the strength of these PCs in standard and spray carnation cultivars are consistent with shared underlying mechanisms involved in the morphological diversification of petals in both subpopulations. Our results also indicate that neighbor-joining trees built with morphological data might infer certain phylogenetic relationships among carnation cultivars. Based on estimated broad-sense heritability values for some flower and petal features, different genetic determinants shall modulate the responses of flower and petal morphology to environmental cues in this species. We believe our image analysis toolbox could allow capturing flower variation in other species of high ornamental value. PMID:24349209

  1. Public tolerance to defoliation and flower distortion in a public horticulture garden.

    PubMed

    Sadof, Clifford S; Sclar, D Casey

    2002-04-01

    Surveys of visitor and grower perception of live potted plant quality were conducted in various locations in a large public display garden. Canna lily, Canna x generalis L.H.Bailey, was used to examine effects of defoliation by Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman, on public perception. Chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum x morifolium Ramat., were used to identify visitor and grower tolerance to flower distortion caused by western flower thrips, Fr