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Sample records for flt3 ligand elicits

  1. The nasal dendritic cell-targeting Flt3 ligand as a safe adjuvant elicits effective protection against fatal pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Kosuke; Fujihashi, Kohtaro; Oma, Keita; Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Hollingshead, Susan K; Sekine, Shinichi; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ito, Hiro-O; Briles, David E; Oishi, Kazunori

    2011-07-01

    We have previously shown that a pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA)-based vaccine containing DNA plasmid encoding the Flt3 ligand (FL) gene (pFL) as a nasal adjuvant prevented nasal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, we further investigated the safety and efficacy of this nasal vaccine for the induction of PspA-specific antibody (Ab) responses against lung infection with S. pneumoniae. C57BL/6 mice were nasally immunized with recombinant PspA/Rx1 (rPspA) plus pFL three times at weekly intervals. When dynamic translocation of pFL was initially examined, nasal pFL was taken up by nasal dendritic cells (DCs) and epithelial cells (nECs) but not in the central nervous systems, including olfactory nerve and epithelium. Of importance, nasal pFL induced FL protein synthesis with minimum levels of inflammatory cytokines in the nasal washes (NWs) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). NWs and BALF as well as plasma of mice given nasal rPspA plus pFL contained increased levels of rPspA-specific secretory IgA and IgG Ab responses that were correlated with elevated numbers of CD8(+) and CD11b(+) DCs and interleukin 2 (IL-2)- and IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells in the nasal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (NALT) and cervical lymph nodes (CLNs). The in vivo protection by rPspA-specific Abs was evident in markedly reduced numbers of CFU in the lungs, airway secretions, and blood when mice were nasally challenged with Streptococcus pneumoniae WU2. Our findings show that nasal pFL is a safe and effective mucosal adjuvant for the enhancement of bacterial antigen (Ag) (rPspA)-specific protective immunity through DC-induced Th2-type and IL-2 cytokine responses.

  2. FLT3 ligand impedes the efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takashi; Yang, Xiaochuan; Knapper, Steven; White, Paul; Smith, B. Douglas; Galkin, Steven; Small, Donald; Burnett, Alan

    2011-01-01

    We examined in vivo FLT3 inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia patients treated with chemotherapy followed by the FLT3 inhibitor lestaurtinib, comparing newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients with relapsed patients. Because we noted that in vivo FLT3 inhibition by lestaurtinib was less effective in the relapsed patients compared with the newly diagnosed patients, we investigated whether plasma FLT3 ligand (FL) levels could influence the efficacy of FLT3 inhibition in these patients. After intensive chemotherapy, FL levels rose to a mean of 488 pg/mL on day 15 of induction therapy for newly diagnosed patients, whereas they rose to a mean of 1148 pg/mL in the relapsed patients. FL levels rose even higher with successive courses of chemotherapy, to a mean of 3251 pg/mL after the fourth course. In vitro, exogenous FL at concentrations similar to those observed in patients mitigated FLT3 inhibition and cytotoxicity for each of 5 different FLT3 inhibitors (lestaurtinib, midostaurin, sorafenib, KW-2449, and AC220). The dramatic increase in FL level after chemotherapy represents a possible obstacle to inhibiting FLT3 in this clinical setting. These findings could have important implications regarding the design and outcome of trials of FLT3 inhibitors and furthermore suggest a rationale for targeting FL as a therapeutic strategy. PMID:21263155

  3. The Cytokine Flt3-Ligand in Normal and Malignant Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Mooney, Ciaran James; Brown, Geoffrey; Rolink, Antonius

    2017-01-01

    The cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Its receptor, Flt3, is expressed on myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cell progenitors and is considered an important growth and differentiation factor for several hematopoietic lineages. Activating mutations of Flt3 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In the present review we provide an overview of our current knowledge on the role of FL in the generation of blood cell lineages. We examine recent studies on Flt3 expression by hematopoietic stem cells and its potential instructive action at early stages of hematopoiesis. In addition, we review current findings on the role of mutated FLT3 in leukemia and the development of FLT3 inhibitors for therapeutic use to treat AML. The importance of mouse models in elucidating the role of Flt3-ligand in normal and malignant hematopoiesis is discussed. PMID:28538663

  4. Dual inhibition of AKT/FLT3-ITD by A674563 overcomes FLT3 ligand-induced drug resistance in FLT3-ITD positive AML

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenchao; Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Zou, Fengming; Zhao, Zheng; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Juan; Liu, Feiyang; Wang, Li; Stone, Richard M.; Galinksy, Ilene A.; Griffin, James D.; Zhang, Shanchun; Weisberg, Ellen L.; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qingsong

    2016-01-01

    The FLT3-ITD mutation is one of the most prevalent oncogenic mutations in AML. Several FLT3 kinase inhibitors have shown impressive activity in clinical evaluation, however clinical responses are usually transient and clinical effects are rapidly lost due to drug resistance. One of the resistance mechanisms in the AML refractory patients involves FLT3-ligand induced reactivation of AKT and/or ERK signaling via FLT3 wt kinase. Via a screen of numerous AKT kinase inhibitors, we identified the well-established orally available AKT inhibitor, A674563, as a dual suppressor of AKT and FLT3-ITD. A674563 suppressed FLT3-ITD positive AML both in vitro and in vivo. More importantly, compared to other FLT3 inhibitors, A674563 is able to overcome FLT3 ligand-induced drug resistance through simultaneous inhibition of FLT3-ITD- and AKT-mediated signaling. Our findings suggest that A674563 might be a potential drug candidate for overcoming FLT3 ligand-mediated drug resistance in FLT3-ITD positive AML. PMID:27074558

  5. Eradication of acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 ligand-targeted miR-150 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xi; Bugno, Jason; Hu, Chao; Yang, Yang; Herold, Tobias; Qi, Jun; Chen, Ping; Gurbuxani, Sandeep; Arnovitz, Stephen; Strong, Jennifer; Ferchen, Kyle; Ulrich, Bryan; Weng, Hengyou; Wang, Yungui; Huang, Hao; Li, Shenglai; Neilly, Mary Beth; Larson, Richard A.; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Jin, Jie; Li, Zejuan; Bradner, James E.; Hong, Seungpyo; Chen, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a common and fatal form of hematopoietic malignancy. Overexpression and/or mutations of FLT3 have been shown to occur in the majority cases of AML. Our analysis of a large-scale AML patient cohort (n=562) indicates that FLT3 is particularly highly expressed in some subtypes of AML such as AML with t(11q23)/MLL-rearrangements or FLT3-ITD. Such AML subtypes are known to be associated with unfavorable prognosis. To treat FLT3-overexpressing AML, we developed a novel targeted nanoparticle system: FLT3 ligand (FLT3L)-conjugated G7 poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) nanosized dendriplex encapsulating miR-150, a pivotal tumor-suppressor and negative regulator of FLT3. We show that the FLT3L-guided miR-150 nanoparticles selectively and efficiently target FLT3-overexpressing AML cells, and significantly inhibit viability/growth and promote apoptosis of the AML cells. Our proof-of-concept animal model studies demonstrate that the FLT3L-guided miR-150 nanoparticles tend to concentrate in bone marrow, and significantly inhibit progression of FLT3-overexpressing AML in vivo, while exhibiting no obvious side effects on normal hematopoiesis. Collectively, we have developed a novel targeted therapeutic strategy, using FLT3L-guided miR-150-based nanoparticles, to treat FLT3-overexpressing AML with high efficacy and minimal side effects. PMID:27280396

  6. Ectodomain shedding of FLT3 ligand is mediated by TACE 1

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Keisuke; Morioka, Hideo; Takaishi, Hironari; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Blobel, Carl P.; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    FLT3 ligand (FLT3L) has diverse roles in the hematopoietic system, which include stimulating proliferation of hematopoietic precursors and development of natural killer cells and dendritic cells. FLT3L is initially synthesized as a membrane-bound protein, which must be cleaved to become a soluble growth factor. However, little is known about the enzyme involved in the proteolytic release of FLT3L. In the current study, we show that shedding of FLT3L is metalloprotease-dependent, and that this proteolytic activity was abolished in fibroblasts lacking TNFα converting enzyme (TACE) and could be rescued by reintroducing wildtype TACE in these cells. Moreover, we found that cells derived from the thymus of conditional TACE-deficient mice produce less FLT3L, and that serum FLT3L levels in these TACE mutant mice are significantly lower, both after LPS treatment and in the absence of such a challenge, further corroborating the relevance of TACE as FLT3L sheddase in vivo. Considering the involvements of FLT3 and FLT3L in hematopoietic malignancies and stem cell mobilization, the identification of the enzyme involved in FLT3L shedding may have important clinical implications. PMID:19494263

  7. Flt3 Ligand Regulates the Development of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Fetal and Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Baerenwaldt, Anne; von Burg, Nicole; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Sitte, Selina; Horvath, Edit; Peter, Annick; Voehringer, David; Rolink, Antonius G; Finke, Daniela

    2016-03-15

    Flt3 ligand (Flt3L) promotes survival of lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), but its role in regulating innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) during fetal and adult life is not understood. By using Flt3L knockout and transgenic mice, we demonstrate that Flt3L controls ILC numbers by regulating the pool of α4β7(-) and α4β7(+) lymphoid tissue inducer cell progenitors in the fetal liver and common lymphoid progenitors in the bone marrow. Deletion of flt3l severely reduced the number of fetal liver progenitors and lymphoid tissue inducer cells in the neonatal intestine, resulting in impaired development of Peyer's patches. In the adult intestine, NK cells and group 2 and 3 ILCs were severely reduced. This effect occurred independently of DCs as ILC numbers were normal in mice in which DCs were constitutively deleted. Finally, we could show that administration of Flt3L increased the number of NKp46(-) group 3 ILCs in wild-type and even in Il7(-/-) mice, which generally have reduced numbers of ILCs. Taken together, Flt3L significantly contributes to ILC and Peyer's patches development by targeting lymphoid progenitor cells during fetal and adult life. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Barley as a green factory for the production of functional Flt3 ligand.

    PubMed

    Erlendsson, Lýdur S; Muench, Marcus O; Hellman, Ulf; Hrafnkelsdóttir, Soffía M; Jonsson, Anders; Balmer, Yves; Mäntylä, Einar; Orvar, Björn L

    2010-02-01

    Biologically active recombinant human Flt3 ligand was expressed and isolated from transgenic barley seeds. Its expression is controlled by a tissue specific promoter that confines accumulation of the recombinant protein to the endosperm tissue of the seed. The recombinant Flt3 ligand variant expressed in the seeds contains an HQ-tag for affinity purification on immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resin. The tagged protein was purified from seed extracts to near homogeneity using sequential chromatography on IMAC affinity resin and cation exchange resin. We also show that the recombinant Flt3 ligand protein undergoes posttranslational modifications: it is a glycoprotein containing alpha-1,3-fucose and alpha-1,2-xylose. The HQ-tagged Flt3 ligand variant exhibits comparable biological activity to commercial Flt3 ligand. This is the first report showing expression and accumulation of recombinant human growth factor in barley seeds with a yield of active protein similar to a bacterial expression system. The present results demonstrate that plant molecular farming is a viable approach for the bioproduction of human-derived growth factors.

  9. Computer aided drug discovery of highly ligand efficient, low molecular weight imidazopyridine analogs as FLT3 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Frett, Brendan; McConnell, Nick; Smith, Catherine C.; Wang, Yuanxiang; Shah, Neil P.; Li, Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    The FLT3 kinase represents an attractive target to effectively treat AML. Unfortunately, no FLT3 targeted therapeutic is currently approved. In line with our continued interests in treating kinase related disease for anti-FLT3 mutant activity, we utilized pioneering synthetic methodology in combination with computer aided drug discovery and identified low molecular weight, highly ligand efficient, FLT3 kinase inhibitors. Compounds were analyzed for biochemical inhibition, their ability to selectively inhibit cell proliferation, for FLT3 mutant activity, and preliminary aqueous solubility. Validated hits were discovered that can serve as starting platforms for lead candidates. PMID:25765758

  10. FLT3 Ligand as a Molecular Adjuvant for Naked RNA Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Kreiter, Sebastian; Diken, Mustafa; Selmi, Abderraouf; Petschenka, Jutta; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Intranodal immunization with antigen-encoding naked mRNA has proven to be an efficacious and safe approach to induce antitumor immunity. Thanks to its unique characteristics, mRNA can act not only as a source for antigen but also as an adjuvant for activation of the immune system. The search for additional adjuvants that can be combined with mRNA to further improve the potency of the immunization revealed Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3ligand as a potent candidate. Systemic administration of the dendritic cell-activating FLT3 ligand prior to or along with mRNA immunization-enhanced priming and expansion of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells in lymphoid organs, T-cell homing into melanoma tumors, and therapeutic activity of the intranodally administered mRNA. Both compounds demonstrate a successful combination in terms of boosting the immune response. This chapter describes methods for intranodal immunization with naked mRNA by co-administration of FLT3 ligand, which leads to strong synergistic effects.

  11. Irreversible pan-ERBB inhibitor canertinib elicits anti-leukaemic effects and induces the regression of FLT3-ITD transformed cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Nordigården, Amanda; Zetterblad, Jenny; Trinks, Cecilia; Gréen, Henrik; Eliasson, Pernilla; Druid, Pia; Lotfi, Kourosh; Rönnstrand, Lars; Walz, Thomas M; Jönsson, Jan-Ingvar

    2011-10-01

    Recent findings have indicated that tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the ERBB receptor family display anti-leukaemic effects, despite the lack of receptor expression on human leukaemic cells. The occurrence of activating mutations in the gene encoding FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has rendered inhibition of this receptor a promising therapeutic target. Due to possibility of cross-reactivity, we investigated the effect of the irreversible pan-ERBB inhibitor canertinib (CI-1033) on leukaemic cells expressing FLT3. The drug had anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on primary AML cells and human leukaemic cell lines expressing mutated FLT3. In several AML patient samples, a blast cell population expressing FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) was eradicated by canertinib. Canertinib inhibited receptor autophosphorylation and kinase activity of both mutated and FLT3 ligand stimulated wildtype FLT3, leading to inhibition of the PI3-kinase and MAP kinase pathways. Apoptotic induction was dependent on pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein BCL2L11/BIM because siRNA silencing attenuated apoptosis. Moreover, the drug induced regression of cells expressing FLT3-ITD in a murine in vivo-transplantation model at previously described tolerated doses. These results indicate that canertinib, as an irreversible TKI, could constitute a novel treatment regimen in patients with mutated or overexpressed FLT3. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A type I IFN–Flt3 ligand axis augments plasmacytoid dendritic cell development from common lymphoid progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ling; Chen, Ting-Ting; Pai, Li-Mei; Wesoly, Joanna; Bluyssen, Hans A.R.

    2013-01-01

    During infections and inflammation, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are the most potent type I interferon (IFN-I)–producing cells. However, the developmental origin of pDCs and the signals dictating pDC generation remain incompletely understood. Here, we report a synergistic role for IFN-I and Flt3 ligand (FL) in pDC development from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs). Both conventional DCs (cDCs) and pDCs were generated from CLPs in response to FL, whereas pDC generation required higher concentrations of FL and concurrent IFN-I signaling. An absence of IFN-I receptor, impairment of IFN-I signaling, or neutralization of IFN-I significantly impeded pDC development from CLPs. Furthermore, FL induced IFN-I expression in CLPs, which in turn induced Flt3 up-regulation that facilitated survival and proliferation of CLPs, as well as their differentiation into pDCs. Collectively, these results define a critical role for the FL/IFN-I/Flt3 axis in pDC differentiation from CLPs. PMID:24145513

  13. HIV gag protein is efficiently cross-presented when targeted with an antibody towards the DEC-205 receptor in Flt3 ligand-mobilized murine dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Bozzacco, Leonia; Trumpfheller, Christine; Huang, Yaoxing; Longhi, Maria Paula; Shimeliovich, Irina; Schauer, Joseph D.; Park, Chae Gyu; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dendritic cells present exogenous proteins to MHC class I restricted CD8+ T cells. This function does not require endogenous antigen synthesis within DC, providing the potential to elicit CD8+ T cell responses to immune complexes, inactivated microbes, dying cells and proteins like ovalbumin. In mice, the CD8+ or DEC-205+ DC are specialized for cross-presentation, and this subset can be increased 10 fold in numbers following Flt3L treatment in vivo. Therefore we studied cross-presentation by abundant Flt3L DC using HIV gag protein. When enriched by positive selection with anti-CD11c beads, cells from Flt3L mice are not only more abundant but are more highly enriched in CD11c high DC, particularly the DEC-205+ subset. DC cross-present HIV gag to primed CD8+ T cells, but when the antigen is delivered within an antibody to DEC-205 receptor, cross-presentation becomes 100 fold more efficient than non-targeted antigen. This finding requires gag to be engineered into anti-DEC antibody, not just mixed with antibody. Flt3L DC are a valuable tool to study cross-presentation, since their use overcomes the obstacle posed by the low number of cross-presenting DC in the steady state. These findings support future experiments to use Flt3L to enhance presentation of DC-targeted vaccines. PMID:19830741

  14. Flt3 ligand improves the innate response to respiratory syncytial virus and limits lung disease upon RSV reexposure in neonate mice.

    PubMed

    Remot, Aude; Descamps, Delphyne; Jouneau, Luc; Laubreton, Daphné; Dubuquoy, Catherine; Bouet, Stephan; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Rebours, Emmanuelle; Petit-Camurdan, Agnès; Riffault, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe bronchiolitis in infants worldwide. The immunological factors responsible for RSV susceptibility in infants are poorly understood. Here, we used the BALB/c mouse model of neonatal RSV infection to study the mechanisms leading to severe disease upon reexposure to the virus when adults. Two major deficiencies in neonatal lung innate responses were found: a poor DCs mobilization, and a weak engagement of the IFNI pathway. The administration of Flt3 ligand (Flt3-L), a growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of hematopoietic cells, to neonates before RSV-infection, resulted in increased lung DC number, and reconditioned the IFNI pathway upon RSV neonatal infection. Besides, neonates treated with Flt3-L were protected against exacerbated airway disease upon adult reexposure to RSV. This was associated with a reorientation of RSV-specific responses toward Th1-mediated immunity. Thus, the poor lung DCs and IFNI responses to RSV in neonates may be partly responsible for the deleterious long-term consequences revealed upon adult reexposure to RSV, which could be prevented by Flt3-L treatment. These results open new perspectives for developing neonatal immuno-modulating strategies to reduce the burden of bronchiolitis.

  15. Flt3L is a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yejing; Waldemer, Rachel J.; Nalluri, Ramakrishna; Nuzzi, Paul D.; Chen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Summary Various cues initiate multiple signaling pathways to regulate the highly coordinated process of skeletal myogenesis. Myoblast differentiation comprises a series of ordered events starting with cell cycle withdrawal and ending with myocyte fusion, with each step probably controlled by multiple extracellular signals and intracellular signaling pathways. Here we report the identification of Fms-like tyrokine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) signaling as a novel regulator of skeletal myogenesis. Flt3L is a multifunctional cytokine in immune cells, but its involvement in skeletal muscle formation has not been reported. We found that Flt3L is expressed in C2C12 myoblasts, with levels increasing throughout differentiation. Knockdown of Flt3L, or its receptor Flt3, suppresses myoblast differentiation, which is rescued by recombinant Flt3L or Flt3, respectively. Differentiation is not rescued, however, by recombinant ligand when the receptor is knocked down, or vice versa, suggesting that Flt3L and Flt3 function together. Flt3L knockdown also inhibits differentiation in mouse primary myoblasts. Both Flt3L and Flt3 are highly expressed in nascent myofibers during muscle regeneration in vivo, and Flt3L siRNA impairs muscle regeneration, validating the physiological significance of Flt3L function in myogenesis. We have identified a cellular mechanism for the myogenic function of Flt3L, as we show that Flt3L promotes cell cycle exit that is necessary for myogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we identify Erk as a relevant target of Flt3L signaling during myogenesis, and demonstrate that Flt3L suppresses Erk signaling through p120RasGAP. In summary, our work reveals an unexpected role for an immunoregulatory cytokine in skeletal myogenesis and a new myogenic pathway. PMID:23704355

  16. Flt3 ligand expands CD103+ dendritic cells, FoxP3+ T regulatory cells and attenuates Crohn’s-like murine ileitis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Colm B.; Aherne, Carol M.; McNamee, Eóin N.; Lebsack, Matthew D. P.; Eltzschig, Holger; Jedlicka, Paul; Rivera-Nieves, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Background Imprinting an effector or regulatory phenotype on naïve T cells requires education at induction sites by dendritic cells (DC). In the current studies we analyzed the effect of inflammation on the frequency of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) and the effect of altering their frequency by administration of Flt3-L in chronic ileitis. Design Using a TNF-driven model of ileitis (i.e. TNFΔARE) that recapitulates many features of Crohn’s disease (CD), we assessed dynamic changes in the frequency and functional state of MP within the inflamed ileum by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and by generating CX3CR1 GFP-reporter TNFΔARE mice. Finally, we assessed the effect of Flt3-L supplementation on the severity of ileitis, the frequency of CD103+ DC and of FoxP3+ Tregs in TNFΔARE mice. Results CD11cHi/MHCII+ MP accumulated in inflamed ilea, predominantly mediated by expansion of the CX3CR1+ MP subpopulation. This coincided with a decreased pro-regulatory CD103+ DC. The phenotype of these MP was that of activated cells, as they expressed increased CD80 and CD86 on their surface. Flt3-ligand administration resulted in a preferential expansion of CD103+ DC that attenuated the severity of ileitis in 20-week-old TNFΔARE mice, mediated by increased CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ Tregs. Conclusions Our findings support a role for Flt3-L as a potential therapeutic in Crohn’s-like ileitis. PMID:22068168

  17. An autologous in situ tumor vaccination approach for hepatocellular carcinoma. 2. Tumor-specific immunity and cure after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy and systemic CD40-ligand and Flt3-ligand gene therapy in an orthotopic tumor model.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Yujo; Deb, Niloy J; Garg, Madhur K; Kabarriti, Rafi; Fan, Zuoheng; Alfieri, Alan A; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta; Guha, Chandan

    2014-08-01

    Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease that radiation therapy (RT) currently has a limited role in treating because of the potential for developing fatal radiation-induced liver disease. However, recently diffuse HCC, "radio-inducible suicide gene therapy" has been shown to enhance local tumor control and residual microscopic disease within the liver for diffuse HCC, by using a combination of chemoactivation and molecular radiosensitization. We have demonstrated that the addition of recombinant adenovirus-expressing human Flt3 ligand (Adeno-Flt3L) after radio-inducible suicide gene therapy induced a Th1-biased, immune response and enhanced tumor control in an ectopic model of HCC. We hypothesized that sequential administration of recombinant adenovirus-expressing CD40L (Adeno-CD40L) could further potentiate the efficacy of our trimodal therapy with RT + HSV-TK + Adeno-Flt3L. We examined our hypothesis in an orthotopic model of diffuse HCC using BNL1ME A.7R.1 (BNL) cells in Balb/c mice. BNL murine hepatoma cells (5 × 10(4)) transfected with an expression vector of HSV-TK under the control of a radiation-inducible promoter were injected intraportally into BALB/cJ mice. Fourteen days after the HCC injection, mice were treated with a 25 Gy dose of radiation to the whole liver, followed by ganciclovir (GCV) treatment and systemic adenoviral cytokine gene therapy (Flt3L or CD40L or both). Untreated mice died in 27 ± 4 days. Radiation therapy alone had a marginal effect on survival (median = 35 ± 7 days) and the addition of HSV-TK/GCV gene therapy improved the median survival to 47 ± 6 days. However, the addition of Adeno-Flt3L to radiation therapy and HSV-TK/GCV therapy significantly (P = 0.0005) increased survival to a median of 63 ± 20 days with 44% (7/16) of the animals still alive 116 days after tumor implantation. The curative effect of Flt3L was completely abolished when using immunodeficient nude mice or mice depleted for CD4, CD8 and

  18. Ligand-independent FLT3 activation does not cooperate with MLL-AF4 to immortalize/transform cord blood CD34+ cells.

    PubMed

    Montes, R; Ayllón, V; Prieto, C; Bursen, A; Prelle, C; Romero-Moya, D; Real, P J; Navarro-Montero, O; Chillón, C; Marschalek, R; Bueno, C; Menendez, P

    2014-03-01

    MLL-AF4 fusion is hallmark in high-risk infant pro-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pro-B-ALL). Our limited understanding of MLL-AF4-mediated transformation reflects the absence of human models reproducing this leukemia. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) constitute likely targets for transformation. We previously reported that MLL-AF4 enhanced hematopoietic engraftment and clonogenic potential in cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ HSPCs but was not sufficient for leukemogenesis, suggesting that additional oncogenic lesions are required for MLL-AF4-mediated transformation. MLL-AF4+ pro-B-ALL display enormous levels of FLT3, and occasionally FLT3-activating mutations, thus representing a candidate cooperating event in MLL-AF4+ pro-B-ALL. We have explored whether FLT3.TKD (tyrosine kinase domain) mutation or increased expression of FLT3.WT (wild type) cooperates with MLL-AF4 to immortalize/transform CB-CD34+ HSPCs. In vivo, FLT3.TKD/FLT3.WT alone, or in combination with MLL-AF4, enhances hematopoietic repopulating function of CB-CD34+ HSPCs without impairing migration or hematopoietic differentiation. None of the animals transplanted with MLL-AF4+FLT3.TKD/WT-CD34+ HSPCs showed any sign of disease after 16 weeks. In vitro, enforced expression of FLT3.TKD/FLT3.WT conveys a transient overexpansion of MLL-AF4-expressing CD34+ HSPCs associated to higher proportion of cycling cells coupled to lower apoptotic levels, but does not augment clonogenic potential nor confer stable replating. Together, FLT3 activation does not suffice to immortalize/transform MLL-AF4-expressing CB-CD34+ HSPCs, suggesting the need of alternative (epi)-genetic cooperating oncogenic lesions.

  19. Optimization of retroviral gene transduction of mobilized primitive hematopoietic progenitors by using thrombopoietin, Flt3, and Kit ligands and RetroNectin culture.

    PubMed

    Murray, L; Luens, K; Tushinski, R; Jin, L; Burton, M; Chen, J; Forestell, S; Hill, B

    1999-07-20

    We have investigated the ability of several cytokine combinations to improve retrovirus-mediated transduction of human primitive hematopoietic progenitors (PHPs) from mobilized peripheral blood (MPB). Retroviral infection of CD34+ cells was performed by culture on fibronectin fragment CH-296 (RetroNectin, RN), using the truncated human nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) as the transgene reporter. Transgene expression among progeny of PHPs was assayed by FACS analysis after long-term stromal culture (LTC). Transgene delivery to PHPs was assessed by PCR of individual stromal culture-derived methylcellulose colonies (LTC-CFCs). Compared with interleukin 3 (IL-3), IL-6, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), the combination of thrombopoietin (TPO), Flt3 ligand (FL), and Kit ligand (KL) effected a 73-fold increase in NGFR expression among CD34+ cells (to 14%) and a 14-fold increase in NGFR expression among total cells (to 10%) after LTC. In addition, a 2.4-fold increase in neo gene marking of LTC-CFCs was observed. A preclinical study comparing the effect of high-speed centrifugation ("spinoculation") or culture on RN during exposure to retroviral particles in teflon cell culture bags showed no difference in the efficiency of transduction of PHPs between these two methods.

  20. Revisiting emergency anti-apoptotic cytokinotherapy: erythropoietin synergizes with stem cell factor, FLT-3 ligand, trombopoietin and interleukin-3 to rescue lethally-irradiated mice.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Michel; Grenier, Nancy; Hérodin, Francis

    2012-06-01

    We have re-evaluated the benefit of using erythropoietin (Epo) as a pleiotropic cytokine to counteract hematological and extra-hematological toxicity following lethal irradiation. B6D2F1 mice were exposed to a dose of 9 Gy gamma radiation resulting in 90% mortality at 30 days, and then injected with stem cell factor, FLT-3 ligand, thrombopoietin and interleukin-3 [i.e. SFT3] at two and 24 hours with or without Epo (1,000 IU/kg) at 2 hours and day 8. As controls, two groups of irradiated mice were given only Epo or Phosphate-buffered saline. Epo synergized with SFT3 to rescue lethally-irradiated mice from radiation-induced death (survival: 60%, 95% and 5% respectively for SFT3, SFT3+Epo and controls at 30 days, p<0.05), whereas Epo alone exhibited no protective effect. Hematopoietic parameters did not differ significantly between SFT3 and SFT3+Epo groups during the animal death period. Some beneficial effects on gastro-intestinal toxicity were noticed following administration of Epo, although lung, liver and kidney were not protected. Further studies are necessary to understand fully the mechanisms involved in these effects of Epo in order to optimize treatment with cytokines following high-dose irradiation.

  1. Adaptor protein Lnk binds to and inhibits normal and leukemic FLT3

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Tong; Koren-Michowitz, Maya; Ding, Ling-Wen; Gueller, Saskia; Gery, Sigal; Tabayashi, Takayuki; Bergholz, Ulla; Kazi, Julhash U.; Rönnstrand, Lars; Stocking, Carol; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2012-01-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with important roles in hematopoietic progenitor cell survival and proliferation. It is mutated in approximately one-third of AML patients, mostly by internal tandem duplications (ITDs). Adaptor protein Lnk is a negative regulator of hematopoietic cytokine signaling. In the present study, we show that Lnk interacts physically with both wild-type FLT3 (FLT3-WT) and FLT3-ITD through the SH2 domains. We have identified the tyrosine residues 572, 591, and 919 of FLT3 as phosphorylation sites involved in direct binding to Lnk. Lnk itself was tyrosine phosphorylated by both FLT3 ligand (FL)–activated FLT3-WT and constitutively activated FLT3-ITD. Both shRNA-mediated depletion and forced overexpression of Lnk demonstrated that activation signals emanating from both forms of FLT3 are under negative regulation by Lnk. Moreover, Lnk inhibited 32D cell proliferation driven by different FLT3 variants. Analysis of primary BM cells from Lnk-knockout mice showed that Lnk suppresses the expansion of FL-stimulated hematopoietic progenitors, including lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors. The results of the present study show that through direct binding to FLT3, Lnk suppresses FLT3-WT/ITD–dependent signaling pathways involved in the proliferation of hematopoietic cells. Therefore, modulation of Lnk expression levels may provide a unique therapeutic approach for FLT3-ITD–associated hematopoietic disease. PMID:22942183

  2. FLT3-regulated antigens as targets for leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brackertz, B; Conrad, H; Daniel, J; Kast, B; Krönig, H; Busch, D H; Adamski, J; Peschel, C; Bernhard, H

    2011-01-01

    The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the juxtamembrane domain lead to the constitutive activation of the FLT3 kinase inducing the activation of multiple genes, which may result in the expression of leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs). We analyzed the regulation of LAA in FLT3-wild-type (WT)- and FLT3-ITD+ myeloid cells to identify potential targets for antigen-specific immunotherapy for AML patients. Antigens, such as PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin, WT-1 and PRAME, were upregulated by constitutively active FLT3-ITD as well as FLT3-WT activated by FLT3 ligand (FL). Cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones against PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin and an AML-directed CTL clone recognized AML cell lines and primary AML blasts expressing FLT3-ITD, as well as FLT3-WT+ myeloid dendritic cells in the presence of FL. Downregulation of FLT3 led to the abolishment of CTL recognition. Comparing our findings concerning LAA upregulation by the FLT3 kinase with those already made for the Bcr-Abl kinase, we found analogies in the LAA expression pattern. Antigens upregulated by both FLT3 and Bcr-Abl may be promising targets for the development of immunotherapeutical approaches against myeloid leukemia of different origin. PMID:22829124

  3. FLT3-regulated antigens as targets for leukemia-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Brackertz, B; Conrad, H; Daniel, J; Kast, B; Krönig, H; Busch, D H; Adamski, J; Peschel, C; Bernhard, H

    2011-03-01

    The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is highly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Internal tandem duplications (ITD) of the juxtamembrane domain lead to the constitutive activation of the FLT3 kinase inducing the activation of multiple genes, which may result in the expression of leukemia-associated antigens (LAAs). We analyzed the regulation of LAA in FLT3-wild-type (WT)- and FLT3-ITD(+) myeloid cells to identify potential targets for antigen-specific immunotherapy for AML patients. Antigens, such as PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin, WT-1 and PRAME, were upregulated by constitutively active FLT3-ITD as well as FLT3-WT activated by FLT3 ligand (FL). Cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) clones against PR-3, RHAMM, Survivin and an AML-directed CTL clone recognized AML cell lines and primary AML blasts expressing FLT3-ITD, as well as FLT3-WT(+) myeloid dendritic cells in the presence of FL. Downregulation of FLT3 led to the abolishment of CTL recognition. Comparing our findings concerning LAA upregulation by the FLT3 kinase with those already made for the Bcr-Abl kinase, we found analogies in the LAA expression pattern. Antigens upregulated by both FLT3 and Bcr-Abl may be promising targets for the development of immunotherapeutical approaches against myeloid leukemia of different origin.

  4. The new and recurrent FLT3 juxtamembrane deletion mutation shows a dominant negative effect on the wild-type FLT3 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sandhöfer, Nadine; Bauer, Julia; Reiter, Katrin; Dufour, Annika; Rothenberg, Maja; Konstandin, Nikola P.; Zellmeier, Evelyn; Tizazu, Belay; Greif, Philipp A.; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Polzer, Harald; Spiekermann, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most frequently mutated genes. Recently, a new and recurrent juxtamembrane deletion mutation (p.Q569Vfs*2) resulting in a truncated receptor was identified. The mutated receptor is expressed on the cell surface and still binds its ligand but loses the ability to activate ERK signaling. FLT3 p.Q569fs-expressing Ba/F3 cells show no proliferation after ligand stimulation. Furthermore, coexpressed with the FLT3 wild-type (WT) receptor, the truncated receptor suppresses stimulation and activation of the WT receptor. Thus, FLT3 p.Q569Vfs*2, to our knowledge, is the first FLT3 mutation with a dominant negative effect on the WT receptor. PMID:27346558

  5. Activation of protein phosphatase 2A in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia cells enhances the cytotoxicity of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Erwin M.; Harrison, Celeste; Kahl, Richard; Flanagan, Hayley; Panicker, Nikita; Mashkani, Baratali; Don, Anthony S.; Morris, Jonathan; Toop, Hamish; Lock, Richard B.; Powell, Jason A.; Thomas, Daniel; Guthridge, Mark A.; Moore, Andrew; Ashman, Leonie K.; Skelding, Kathryn A.; Enjeti, Anoop; Verrills, Nicole M.

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), via co-expression of its ligand or by genetic mutation, is common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we show that FLT3 activation inhibits the activity of the tumor suppressor, protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Using BaF3 cells transduced with wildtype or mutant FLT3, we show that FLT3-induced PP2A inhibition sensitizes cells to the pharmacological PP2A activators, FTY720 and AAL(S). FTY720 and AAL(S) induced cell death and inhibited colony formation of FLT3 activated cells. Furthermore, PP2A activators reduced the phosphorylation of ERK and AKT, downstream targets shared by both FLT3 and PP2A, in FLT3/ITD+ BaF3 and MV4-11 cell lines. PP2A activity was lower in primary human bone marrow derived AML blasts compared to normal bone marrow, with blasts from FLT3-ITD patients displaying lower PP2A activity than WT-FLT3 blasts. Reduced PP2A activity was associated with hyperphosphorylation of the PP2A catalytic subunit, and reduced expression of PP2A structural and regulatory subunits. AML patient blasts were also sensitive to cell death induced by FTY720 and AAL(S), but these compounds had minimal effect on normal CD34+ bone marrow derived monocytes. Finally, PP2A activating compounds displayed synergistic effects when used in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in FLT3-ITD+ cells. A combination of Sorafenib and FTY720 was also synergistic in the presence of a protective stromal microenvironment. Thus combining a PP2A activating compound and a FLT3 inhibitor may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating AML. PMID:27329844

  6. FLT3-ITD and its current role in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro; Chávez-Valencia, Venice

    2017-06-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a proto-oncogene involved in crucial steps of haematopoiesis such as proliferation, differentiation and survival. In recent years, FLT3 has been an important marker in different haematological malignancies, highlighting in acute myeloid leukaemia, where FLT3 mutations have been associated with the clinical prognosis, treatment and survival of patients. The most common form of FLT3 mutation is an internal tandem duplication (ITD) that promotes ligand-independent auto-phosphorylation and constitutive activation of the receptor. FLT3-ITD has been strongly associated with a bad prognosis, leukocytosis, high blast counts, increased risk of relapse and shorter overall survival. In order to improve the clinical condition of FLT3-ITD-positive patients, several FLT3 inhibitors have been developed showing variable results. Currently, the main challenges to be overcome are the different forms of resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. Thus, the purpose of this review is to present, in a general way, the current role that FLT3-ITD mutation plays in patients with AML, with a particular emphasis on the molecular mechanisms associated with clinical prognosis, treatment, and survival of patients.

  7. G-749, a novel FLT3 kinase inhibitor, can overcome drug resistance for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Kyu; Kim, Hong Woo; Lee, In Yong; Lee, Jungmi; Lee, Jaekyoo; Jung, Dong Sik; Lee, Sang Yeop; Park, Sung Ho; Hwang, Haejun; Choi, Jang-Sik; Kim, Jung-Ho; Kim, Se Won; Kim, Jung Keun; Cools, Jan; Koh, Jong Sung

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activations of Fms-like tyrosine receptor kinase (FLT) 3 are implicated in the pathogenesis of 20% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). G-749 is a novel FLT3 inhibitor that showed potent and sustained inhibition of the FLT3 wild type and mutants including FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835Y, FLT3-ITD/N676D, and FLT3-ITD/F691L in cellular assays. G-749 retained its inhibitory potency in various drug-resistance milieus such as patient plasma, FLT3 ligand surge, and stromal protection. Furthermore, it displayed potent antileukemic activity in bone marrow blasts from AML patients regardless of FLT3 mutation status, including those with little or only minor responses to AC220 or PKC412. Oral administration of G-749 yielded complete tumor regression and increased life span in animal models. Thus, G-749 appears to be a promising next-generation drug candidate for the treatment of relapsed and refractory AML patients with various FLT3-ITD/FLT3-TKD mutants and further shows the ability to overcome drug resistance. PMID:24532805

  8. Flt3 ligand-generated murine plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells differ in their capacity to prime naive CD8 T cells and to generate memory cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Angelov, Georgi S; Tomkowiak, Martine; Marçais, Antoine; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline

    2005-07-01

    Mature dendritic cells (DCs) have the capacity to induce efficient primary T cell response and effector cell differentiation. Thus, these cells are a major tool in the design of various immunotherapeutic protocols. We have tested the capacity of different subsets of matured DCs pulsed with a peptide to induce the differentiation of naive CD8 T cells into memory cells in vivo. Flt3 ligand (FL) induces the differentiation of conventional DCs (cDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (PDCs) from murine bone marrow precursors in vitro. After maturation, both subsets become strong stimulators of Ag-specific T cell responses in vitro. However, the in vivo T cell stimulatory capacity of these DC subsets has not been studied in detail. In the present study, we demonstrate that mature FL-generated DCs induce efficient peptide-specific CD8 T cell response and memory cell differentiation in vivo. This is mainly due to the cDC subset because the PDC subset induced only a negligible primary CD8 response without detectable levels of memory CD8 T cell differentiation. Thus, in vitro FL-generated mature cDCs, but not PDCs, are potent stimulators of peptide-specific CD8 T cell responses and memory generation in vivo.

  9. DOCK2 interacts with FLT3 and modulates the survival of FLT3-expressing leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, M; Hamaker, M; Li, L; Small, D; Duffield, A S

    2017-03-01

    The FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene is the most commonly mutated gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and patients carrying internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations have a poor prognosis. Long-term inhibition of FLT3 activity in these patients has been elusive. To provide a more complete understanding of FLT3 biology, a mass spectroscopy-based screen was performed to search for FLT3-interacting proteins. The screen identified dedicator of cytokinesis 2 (DOCK2), which is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, and its expression is limited to hematolymphoid cells. We show that DOCK2 is expressed in leukemia cell lines and primary AML samples, and DOCK2 co-immunoprecipitates with wild-type FLT3 and FLT3/ITD. Knockdown (KD) of DOCK2 by shRNA selectively reduced cell proliferation and colony formation in leukemia cell lines with increased FLT3 activity, and greatly sensitized these cells to cytarabine treatment, alone and in combination with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors. DOCK2 KD in an FLT3/ITD-positive leukemia cell line also significantly prolonged survival in a mouse xenograft model. These findings suggest that DOCK2 is a potential therapeutic target for novel AML treatments, as this protein regulates the survival of leukemia cells with elevated FLT3 activity and sensitizes FLT3/ITD leukemic cells to conventional antileukemic agents.

  10. [Analysis of Flt-3 expression and Flt-3/ITD mutation in acute myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya-Lun; Wang, Tong; Xu, Feng; Gang, Yan; Wang, Jie

    2006-06-01

    This study was aimed to explore the relationship between Flt-3 expression, Flt-3/ITD mutation in acute leukemia (AL) cell line and pathogenesis of AL, especially AML. The Flt-3 expression and Flt-3/ITD mutation were detected by RT-PCR and sequencing method in 82 leukemia cell lines including 20 AML, 57 ALL and 5 CML cell lines. The results indicated that positive results of Flt-3 expression were obtained in 48 out of 77 AL cell line, the positive rate was 62%; 12 cell lines were positive in 20 AML cell lines, the positive rate was 60%; 33 cell lines was positive in 57 ALL cell lines, the positive rate was 58%; 3 cell lines were positive in 5 CML cell lines, the positive rate was 60%. There was abnormal gene product in 1 AMOL cell line out of 12 AML cell lines with Flt-3 positive expression (positive rate 8.3%). DNA sequencing of abnormal gene product showed two coding duplication sequence with 29 bp long. The positive rate of Flt-3 expression in undifferentiated cell line was prominently higher than that in mature B cell ALL (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the Flt-3 expression is different in various leukemia cells. Flt-3/ITD duplication was found in one AML cell line. The detection of Flt-3 gene and Flt-3/ITD mutation may contribute to the diagnosis of ALL, especially to AML.

  11. The stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha dependent migration of human cord blood CD34 haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells switches from protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha dependence to PKC-alpha independence upon prolonged culture in the presence of Flt3-ligand and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Kassmer, Susannah H; Niggemann, Bernd; Schiermeier, Sven; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Addition of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 to the culture medium of human cord blood haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been shown to lead to an altered stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-dependent migratory phenotype. This study investigated whether this effect was attributed to a differential engagement of protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes. The migratory activity of both Flt3-ligand and Flt3-ligand/IL-6 cultured cord blood HSPCs was PKC-alpha dependent on day 1, but PKC-alpha independent after 5 d of cultivation. PKC-alpha expression was not down-regulated in cells cultured for 5 d indicating a switch of signalling molecules directing cell migration.

  12. Human Flt3L generates dendritic cells from canine peripheral blood precursors: implications for a dog glioma clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Weidong; Candolfi, Marianela; Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Puntel, Mariana; Moore, Peter F; Avalos, Julie; Young, John D; Khan, Dorothy; Donelson, Randy; Pluhar, G Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2010-06-11

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis. We have developed a conditional cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic approach using adenoviral vectors (Ads) encoding the immunostimulatory cytokine, human soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (hsFlt3L) and the conditional cytotoxic molecule, i.e., Herpes Simplex Type 1- thymide kinase (TK). This therapy triggers an anti-tumor immune response that leads to tumor regression and anti-tumor immunological memory in intracranial rodent cancer models. We aim to test the efficacy of this immunotherapy in dogs bearing spontaneous GBM. In view of the controversy regarding the effect of human cytokines on dog immune cells, and considering that the efficacy of this treatment depends on hsFlt3L-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), in the present work we tested the ability of Ad-encoded hsFlt3L to generate DCs from dog peripheral blood and compared its effects with canine IL-4 and GM-CSF. Our results demonstrate that hsFlT3L expressed form an Ad vector, generated DCs from peripheral blood cultures with very similar morphological and phenotypic characteristics to canine IL-4 and GM-CSF-cultured DCs. These include phagocytic activity and expression of CD11c, MHCII, CD80 and CD14. Maturation of DCs cultured under both conditions resulted in increased secretion of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Importantly, hsFlt3L-derived antigen presenting cells showed allostimulatory potential highlighting their ability to present antigen to T cells and elicit their proliferation. These results demonstrate that hsFlt3L induces the proliferation of canine DCs and support its use in upcoming clinical trials for canine GBM. Our data further support the translation of hsFlt3L to be used for dendritic cells' vaccination and gene therapeutic approaches from rodent models to canine patients and its future implementation in human clinical trials.

  13. Human Flt3L Generates Dendritic Cells from Canine Peripheral Blood Precursors: Implications for a Dog Glioma Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunyan; Muhammad, A. K. M. Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Puntel, Mariana; Moore, Peter F.; Avalos, Julie; Young, John D.; Khan, Dorothy; Donelson, Randy; Pluhar, G. Elizabeth; Ohlfest, John R.; Wawrowsky, Kolja; Lowenstein, Pedro R.; Castro, Maria G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis. We have developed a conditional cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic approach using adenoviral vectors (Ads) encoding the immunostimulatory cytokine, human soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (hsFlt3L) and the conditional cytotoxic molecule, i.e., Herpes Simplex Type 1- thymide kinase (TK). This therapy triggers an anti-tumor immune response that leads to tumor regression and anti-tumor immunological memory in intracranial rodent cancer models. We aim to test the efficacy of this immunotherapy in dogs bearing spontaneous GBM. In view of the controversy regarding the effect of human cytokines on dog immune cells, and considering that the efficacy of this treatment depends on hsFlt3L-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs), in the present work we tested the ability of Ad-encoded hsFlt3L to generate DCs from dog peripheral blood and compared its effects with canine IL-4 and GM-CSF. Methodology/Principal Findings Our results demonstrate that hsFlT3L expressed form an Ad vector, generated DCs from peripheral blood cultures with very similar morphological and phenotypic characteristics to canine IL-4 and GM-CSF-cultured DCs. These include phagocytic activity and expression of CD11c, MHCII, CD80 and CD14. Maturation of DCs cultured under both conditions resulted in increased secretion of IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Importantly, hsFlt3L-derived antigen presenting cells showed allostimulatory potential highlighting their ability to present antigen to T cells and elicit their proliferation. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate that hsFlt3L induces the proliferation of canine DCs and support its use in upcoming clinical trials for canine GBM. Our data further support the translation of hsFlt3L to be used for dendritic cells' vaccination and gene therapeutic approaches from rodent models to canine patients and its future implementation in human clinical

  14. Protective effect of Flt3L on organ structure during advanced multiorgan dysfunction syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, GUANG; LU, JIANGYANG; GUO, HUIQIN; LIU, QIAN; WANG, HONGWEI

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine whether fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L) protects the organs of mice with multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to normal control, MODS and Flt3L treatment groups. The mouse models of MODS were established using intraperitoneal zymosan injections, followed by normal saline injections. The treatment group received 5 μg/kg Flt3L for seven days, beginning on day five following zymosan injection. On day 12, the mortality rates of the Flt3L treatment and the MODS groups were 7 and 18%, respectively. Marked pathological changes were observed in the liver, lungs, kidneys and heart of the mice with MODS, including degeneration and focal necrosis of parenchyma cells. Mild pathological changes were observed in different organs of the Flt3L-treated mice. In the MODS group, the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was significantly reduced, whereas the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly increased compared with that in the normal control group; thus, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was reduced. In the Flt3L treatment group, the average number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not significantly different to the average number of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the normal group. In conclusion, Flt3L administration improved the immune status and alleviated the organ damage in mice with late-phase MODS. PMID:25672780

  15. ATM/G6PD-driven redox metabolism promotes FLT3 inhibitor resistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Angelo; Alvarez-Calderon, Francesca; Kim, Jihye; Nemkov, Travis; Adane, Biniam; Rozhok, Andrii I.; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Vijay; Pollyea, Daniel A.; Wempe, Michael F.; Jordan, Craig T.; Serkova, Natalie J.; Tan, Aik Choon; Hansen, Kirk C.; DeGregori, James

    2016-01-01

    Activating mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and drive leukemic cell growth and survival. Although FLT3 inhibitors have shown considerable promise for the treatment of AML, they ultimately fail to achieve long-term remissions as monotherapy. To identify genetic targets that can sensitize AML cells to killing by FLT3 inhibitors, we performed a genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi)-based screen that identified ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) as being synthetic lethal with FLT3 inhibitor therapy. We found that inactivating ATM or its downstream effector glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) sensitizes AML cells to FLT3 inhibitor induced apoptosis. Examination of the cellular metabolome showed that FLT3 inhibition by itself causes profound alterations in central carbon metabolism, resulting in impaired production of the antioxidant factor glutathione, which was further impaired by ATM or G6PD inactivation. Moreover, FLT3 inhibition elicited severe mitochondrial oxidative stress that is causative in apoptosis and is exacerbated by ATM/G6PD inhibition. The use of an agent that intensifies mitochondrial oxidative stress in combination with a FLT3 inhibitor augmented elimination of AML cells in vitro and in vivo, revealing a therapeutic strategy for the improved treatment of FLT3 mutated AML. PMID:27791036

  16. How I treat FLT3-mutated AML

    PubMed Central

    Pratz, Keith W.

    2017-01-01

    FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML), despite not being recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system, is readily recognized as a particular challenge by clinical specialists who treat acute leukemia. This is especially true with regards to the patients harboring the most common type of FLT3 mutation, the internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation. Here we present 4 patient cases from our institution and discuss how our management reflects what we have learned about this subtype of the disease. We also reflect on how we anticipate the management might change in the near future, with the emergence of clinically useful tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:27872057

  17. FLT3LG — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: Dendritic cells (DCs) provide the key link between innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing pathogens and priming pathogen-specific immune responses. FLT3LG controls the development of DCs and is particularly important for plasmacytoid DCs and CD8 (see MIM 186910)-positive classical DCs and their CD103 (ITGAE; MIM 604682)-positive tissue counterparts (summary by Sathaliyawala et al., 2010 [PubMed 20933441]).[supplied by OMIM, Jan 2011

  18. FLT3 kinase inhibitor TTT-3002 overcomes both activating and drug resistance mutations in FLT3 in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hayley S.; Nguyen, Bao; Duffield, Amy S.; Li, Li; Galanis, Allison; Williams, Allen B.; Brown, Patrick A.; Levis, Mark J.; Leahy, Daniel J.; Small, Donald

    2014-01-01

    There have been a number of clinical trials testing the efficacy of FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). patients harboring a constitutively activating mutation in FLT3 However, there has been limited efficacy, most often due to inadequate achievement of FLT3 inhibition through a variety of mechanisms In a previous study, TTT-3002 was identified as a novel FLT3 inhibitor with the most potent activity to date against FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) mutations Here the activity of TTT-3002 is demonstrated against a broad spectrum of FLT3 activating point mutations (FLT3/PMs), including the most frequently occurring D835 mutations The compound is also active against a number of point mutations selected for in FLT3/ITD alleles that confer resistance to other TKIs, including the F691L gatekeeper mutation TTT-3002 maintains activity against relapsed AML patient samples that are resistant to sorafenib and AC220 Studies utilizing human plasma samples from healthy donors and AML patients indicate that TTT-3002 is only moderately protein bound compared to several other TKIs currently in clinical trials Tumor burden of mice in a FLT3 TKI-resistant transplant model is significantly improved by oral dosing of TTT-3002 Therefore, TTT-3002 has demonstrated preclinical potential as a promising new FLT3 TKI that may overcome some of the limitations of other TKIs in the treatment of FLT3-mutant AML PMID:25060518

  19. The role of FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Amir T; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2017-04-01

    FLT3 mutations are present in about one-third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Several FLT3 inhibitors have been used in clinical trials, and these include midostaurin, sorafenib, quizartinib, crenolanib, and gilteritinib. Monotherapy with early tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) did not have much success; however, later generation agents have shown more promising results. Combination with conventional chemotherapy may have benefit as evidenced by recently presented results, and data from ongoing trials are eagerly awaited. Several trials are also evaluating TKI given after HSCT, and a large international randomized trial is planned. We may be close to an era of targeted therapy where the standard of care for this biologically defined subset will involve incorporation of a FLT3 TKI during induction chemotherapy and after HSCT. It is important that our community continues to collaborate to conduct well-designed clinical trials to properly define the role of FLT3 TKIs in therapy for FLT3-mutant AML. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microenvironmental hypoxia regulates FLT3 expression and biology in AML.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Silvia; Wagner, Michaela; Kuett, Alexander; Drolle, Heidrun; Polzer, Harald; Spiekermann, Karsten; Rieger, Christina; Fiegl, Michael

    2015-11-30

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is a receptor tyrosine kinase constitutively expressed by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) blasts. In addition, 25% of AML patients harbour a FLT3-ITD mutation, associated with inferior outcome due to increased relapse rate. Relapse might be propagated by interactions between AML blasts and the bone marrow microenvironment. Besides cellular elements of the microenvironment (e.g. mesenchymal stromal cells), bone marrow hypoxia has emerged as an additional crucial component. Hence, effects of hypoxia on FLT3 expression and biology could provide novel insight into AML biology. Here we show that 25% of AML patients down-regulate FLT3 expression on blasts in response to in vitro hypoxia (1% O2), which was independent of its mutational state. While virtually no AML cell lines regulate FLT3 in response to hypoxia, the down-regulation could be observed in Ba/F3 cells stably transfected with different FLT3 mutants. Hypoxia-mediated down-regulation was specific for FLT3, reversible and proteasome-dependent; with FLT3 half-life being significantly shorter at hypoxia. Also, PI-3K inhibition could partially abrogate down-regulation of FLT3. Hypoxia-mediated down-regulation of FLT3 conferred resistance against cytarabine in vitro. In conclusion, FLT3 expression in AML is dependent on the oxygen partial pressure, but response to hypoxia differs.

  1. Pim kinases modulate resistance to FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Green, Alexa S.; Maciel, Thiago T.; Hospital, Marie-Anne; Yin, Chae; Mazed, Fetta; Townsend, Elizabeth C.; Pilorge, Sylvain; Lambert, Mireille; Paubelle, Etienne; Jacquel, Arnaud; Zylbersztejn, Florence; Decroocq, Justine; Poulain, Laury; Sujobert, Pierre; Jacque, Nathalie; Adam, Kevin; So, Jason C. C.; Kosmider, Olivier; Auberger, Patrick; Hermine, Olivier; Weinstock, David M.; Lacombe, Catherine; Mayeux, Patrick; Vanasse, Gary J.; Leung, Anskar Y.; Moura, Ivan C.; Bouscary, Didier; Tamburini, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is frequently detected in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and is associated with a dismal long-term prognosis. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors provide short-term disease control, but relapse invariably occurs within months. Pim protein kinases are oncogenic FLT3-ITD targets expressed in AML cells. We show that increased Pim kinase expression is found in relapse samples from AML patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors. Ectopic Pim-2 expression induces resistance to FLT3 inhibition in both FLT3-ITD–induced myeloproliferative neoplasm and AML models in mice. Strikingly, we found that Pim kinases govern FLT3-ITD signaling and that their pharmacological or genetic inhibition restores cell sensitivity to FLT3 inhibitors. Finally, dual inhibition of FLT3 and Pim kinases eradicates FLT3-ITD+ cells including primary AML cells. Concomitant Pim and FLT3 inhibition represents a promising new avenue for AML therapy. PMID:26601252

  2. Gilteritinib, a FLT3/AXL inhibitor, shows antileukemic activity in mouse models of FLT3 mutated acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masamichi; Kaneko, Naoki; Ueno, Yoko; Yamada, Masaki; Tanaka, Ruriko; Saito, Rika; Shimada, Itsuro; Mori, Kenichi; Kuromitsu, Sadao

    2017-05-17

    Advances in the understanding of the molecular basis for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have generated new potential targets for treatment. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in AML and mutations in this gene are associated with poor overall survival. AXL plays a role in the activation of FLT3 and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of AML. The studies reported here evaluated the ability of a novel FLT3/AXL inhibitor, gilteritinib, to block mutated FLT3 in cellular and animal models of AML. Initial kinase studies showed that gilteritinib, a type I tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was highly selective for both FLT3 and AXL while having weak activity against c-KIT. Gilteritinib demonstrated potent inhibitory activity against the internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and FLT3-D835Y point mutations in cellular assays using MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells as well as Ba/F3 cells expressing mutated FLT3. Gilteritinib also inhibited FLT3-F691 mutations, although to a lesser degree, in these assays. Furthermore, gilteritinib decreased the phosphorylation levels of FLT3 and its downstream targets in both cellular and animal models. In vivo, gilteritinib was distributed at high levels in xenografted tumors after oral administration. The decreased FLT3 activity and high intratumor distribution of gilteritinib translated to tumor regression and improved survival in xenograft and intra-bone marrow transplantation models of FLT3-driven AML. No overt toxicity was seen in mouse models treated with gilteritinib. These results indicate that gilteritinib may be an important next-generation FLT3 inhibitor for use in the treatment of FLT3 mutation-positive AML.

  3. The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Shp2, Positively Contributes to FLT3-ITD-Induced Hematopoietic Progenitor Hyperproliferation and Malignant Disease In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nabinger, Sarah C.; Li, XingJun; Ramdas, Baskar; He, Yantao; Zhang, Xian; Zeng, Lifan; Richine, Briana; Bowling, Joshua D.; Fukuda, Seiji; Goenka, Shreevrat; Liu, Ziyue; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Yu, Menggang; Sandusky, George E.; Boswell, H. Scott; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Kapur, Reuben; Chan, Rebecca J.

    2014-01-01

    Internal tandem duplications in the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (FLT3-ITDs) confer a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia. We hypothesized that increased recruitment of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, Shp2, to FLT3-ITDs contributes to FLT3 ligand (FL)-independent hyperproliferation and STAT5 activation. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated constitutive association of Shp2 with the FLT3-ITD, N51-FLT3, as well as with STAT5. Knock-down of Shp2 in Baf3/N51-FLT3 cells significantly reduced proliferation while having little effect on WT-FLT3-expressing cells. Consistently, mutation of N51-FLT3 tyrosine 599 to phenylalanine or genetic disruption of Shp2 in N51-FLT3-expressing bone marrow low density mononuclear cells reduced proliferation and STAT5 activation. In transplants, genetic disruption of Shp2 in vivo yielded increased latency to and reduced severity of FLT3-ITD-induced malignancy. Mechanistically, Shp2 co-localizes with nuclear phospho-STAT5, is present at functional interferon-γ activation sites (GAS) within the BCL2L1 promoter, and positively activates the human BCL2L1 promoter, suggesting that Shp2 works with STAT5 to promote pro-leukemogenic gene expression. Further, using a small molecule Shp2 inhibitor, the proliferation of N51-FLT3-expressing bone marrow progenitors and primary AML samples was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that Shp2 positively contributes to FLT3-ITD-induced leukemia and suggest that Shp2 inhibition may provide a novel therapeutic approach to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23103841

  4. FLT3 inhibitors: clinical potential in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Hospital, Marie-Anne; Green, Alexa S; Maciel, Thiago T; Moura, Ivan C; Leung, Anskar Y; Bouscary, Didier; Tamburini, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy that is cured in as few as 15%–40% of cases. Tremendous improvements in AML prognostication arose from a comprehensive analysis of leukemia cell genomes. Among normal karyotype AML cases, mutations in the FLT3 gene are the ones most commonly detected as having a deleterious prognostic impact. FLT3 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor, and alterations of the FLT3 gene such as internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) deregulate FLT3 downstream signaling pathways in favor of increased cell proliferation and survival. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) emerged as a new therapeutic option in FLT3-ITD AML, and clinical trials are ongoing with a variety of TKI either alone, combined with chemotherapy, or even as maintenance after allogenic stem cell transplantation. However, a wide range of molecular resistance mechanisms are activated upon TKI therapy, thus limiting their clinical impact. Massive research efforts are now ongoing to develop more efficient FLT3 TKI and/or new therapies targeting these resistance mechanisms to improve the prognosis of FLT3-ITD AML patients in the future. PMID:28223820

  5. RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Maul, Katrin; Tekin, Nilgün; Indenbirken, Daniela; Prassolov, Vladimir; Serve, Hubert; Cammenga, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induced by the cooperative action of deregulated genes that perturb self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase are common mutations in AML, confer poor prognosis, and stimulate myeloproliferation. AML patient samples with FLT3-ITD express high levels of RUNX1, a transcription factor with known tumor-suppressor function. In this study, to understand this paradox, we investigated the impact of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD coexpression. FLT3-ITD directly impacts on RUNX1 activity, whereby up-regulated and phosphorylated RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. Inactivating RUNX1 in tumors releases the differentiation block and down-regulates genes controlling ribosome biogenesis. We identified Hhex as a direct target of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD stimulation and confirmed high HHEX expression in FLT3-ITD AMLs. HHEX could replace RUNX1 in cooperating with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. These results establish and elucidate the unanticipated oncogenic function of RUNX1 in AML. We predict that blocking RUNX1 activity will greatly enhance current therapeutic approaches using FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:28213513

  6. Incorporating FLT3 inhibitors into acute myeloid leukemia treatment regimens

    PubMed Central

    Pratz, Keith; Levis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    FMS-Like-Tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) mutations are found in about 30% of cases of acute myeloid leukemia and confer an increased relapse rate and reduced overall survival. Targeting of this tyrosine kinase by direction inhibition is the focus of both preclinical and clinical research in AML. Several molecules in clinical development inhibit FLT3 with varying degrees of specificity. Preclinical models suggest that these compounds enhance the cytotoxicity of conventional chemotherapeutics against FLT3 mutant leukemia cells. The pharmacodynamic interactions between FLT3 inhibitors and chemotherapy appear to be sequence dependent. When the FLT3 inhibitor is used prior to chemotherapy, antagonism is displayed, while if FLT3 inhibition is instituted after to exposure to chemotherapy, synergistic cytotoxicity is seen. The combination of FLT3 inhibitors with chemotherapy is also complicated by potential pharmacokinetic obstacles, such as plasma protein binding and p-glycoprotein interactions. Ongoing and future studies are aimed at incorporating FLT3 inhibitors into conventional induction and consolidation therapy specifically for patients with FLT3 mutant AML. PMID:18452067

  7. RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce leukemia.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kira; Maul, Katrin; Tekin, Nilgün; Kriebitzsch, Neele; Indenbirken, Daniela; Prassolov, Vladimir; Müller, Ursula; Serve, Hubert; Cammenga, Jörg; Stocking, Carol

    2017-03-06

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is induced by the cooperative action of deregulated genes that perturb self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation. Internal tandem duplications (ITDs) in the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase are common mutations in AML, confer poor prognosis, and stimulate myeloproliferation. AML patient samples with FLT3-ITD express high levels of RUNX1, a transcription factor with known tumor-suppressor function. In this study, to understand this paradox, we investigated the impact of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD coexpression. FLT3-ITD directly impacts on RUNX1 activity, whereby up-regulated and phosphorylated RUNX1 cooperates with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. Inactivating RUNX1 in tumors releases the differentiation block and down-regulates genes controlling ribosome biogenesis. We identified Hhex as a direct target of RUNX1 and FLT3-ITD stimulation and confirmed high HHEX expression in FLT3-ITD AMLs. HHEX could replace RUNX1 in cooperating with FLT3-ITD to induce AML. These results establish and elucidate the unanticipated oncogenic function of RUNX1 in AML. We predict that blocking RUNX1 activity will greatly enhance current therapeutic approaches using FLT3 inhibitors. © 2017 Behrens et al.

  8. FLT-3 Expression and Function on Microglia in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    DeBoy, Cynthia A.; Rus, Horea; Tegla, Cosmin; Cudrici, Cornelia; Jones, Melina V.; Pardo, Carlos A.; Small, Donald; Whartenby, Katharine A.; Calabresi, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration and resident microglial activation within the central nervous system (CNS) are pathological events in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). While MS therapies target the peripheral immune system, no treatment is currently known to also modulate microglia. FMS-like tyrosine-3 (FLT-3) is expressed on hematopoietic and dendritic cells. We reported that FLT-3 inhibition ameliorates early actively induced EAE by predominantly modulating dendritic cell function as compared to microglia. We demonstrate in this report that FLT-3 is expressed in perivascular cuffs, brain parenchyma and in non-lesioned gray and white matter within MS brain but not in these regions within control brain. Furthermore, we demonstrate that FLT-3 is expressed on two populations of cells within MS brain; one which expresses the dendritic cell marker CD209, and the other which does not, suggesting that FLT-3 within MS brain is expressed on infiltrating dendritic cells and a non-dendritic cell such as microglia. Additionally, we report that FLT-3 inhibition in murine microglia blocks, in a dose dependent manner, IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC class II and CD86, and LPS-induced secretion of IL-6. These data suggest that FLT-3 is involved in microglial cell’s capacity to respond to environmental cues to function as antigen presenting cells and mediate CNS inflammation. Furthermore these data suggest that FLT-3 may be a therapeutic target on microglia to mitigate CNS inflammation. PMID:20566414

  9. Inhibition of FLT3 in AML: a focus on sorafenib.

    PubMed

    Antar, A; Otrock, Z K; El-Cheikh, J; Kharfan-Dabaja, M A; Battipaglia, G; Mahfouz, R; Mohty, M; Bazarbachi, A

    2017-03-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is one of the most commonly mutated genes in AML. FLT3 is mutated in ~30% of patients with AML, either by internal tandem duplications (FLT3-ITD) of the juxta-membrane domain or by a point mutation, usually involving the tyrosine kinase domain. Several FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors are being evaluated in multiple studies aiming at improving outcomes. The most widely used is sorafenib, a potent multikinase inhibitor approved for hepatocellular carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma. Sorafenib monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, has been evaluated in various settings in AML, including front-line, relapsed or refractory disease including post-allograft failures and, more recently, as post-transplant maintenance therapy. Encouraging data have emerged with several other agents like lestaurtinib, midostaurin, crenolanib, gilteritinib and quizartinib. Although transient responses to FLT3 inhibitors are often observed in case of disease relapse, the most promising approach is the use of FLT3 inhibitors either in combination with induction chemotherapy or as consolidation/maintenance therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In this review, we summarize the clinical data on sorafenib and other FLT3 inhibitors in AML.

  10. Selective FLT3 inhibition of FLT3-ITD+ acute myeloid leukaemia resulting in secondary D835Y mutation: a model for emerging clinical resistance patterns.

    PubMed

    Moore, A S; Faisal, A; Gonzalez de Castro, D; Bavetsias, V; Sun, C; Atrash, B; Valenti, M; de Haven Brandon, A; Avery, S; Mair, D; Mirabella, F; Swansbury, J; Pearson, A D J; Workman, P; Blagg, J; Raynaud, F I; Eccles, S A; Linardopoulos, S

    2012-07-01

    Acquired resistance to selective FLT3 inhibitors is an emerging clinical problem in the treatment of FLT3-ITD(+) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The paucity of valid pre-clinical models has restricted investigations to determine the mechanism of acquired therapeutic resistance, thereby limiting the development of effective treatments. We generated selective FLT3 inhibitor-resistant cells by treating the FLT3-ITD(+) human AML cell line MOLM-13 in vitro with the FLT3-selective inhibitor MLN518, and validated the resistant phenotype in vivo and in vitro. The resistant cells, MOLM-13-RES, harboured a new D835Y tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) mutation on the FLT3-ITD(+) allele. Acquired TKD mutations, including D835Y, have recently been identified in FLT3-ITD(+) patients relapsing after treatment with the novel FLT3 inhibitor, AC220. Consistent with this clinical pattern of resistance, MOLM-13-RES cells displayed high relative resistance to AC220 and Sorafenib. Furthermore, treatment of MOLM-13-RES cells with AC220 lead to loss of the FLT3 wild-type allele and the duplication of the FLT3-ITD-D835Y allele. Our FLT3-Aurora kinase inhibitor, CCT137690, successfully inhibited growth of FLT3-ITD-D835Y cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that dual FLT3-Aurora inhibition may overcome selective FLT3 inhibitor resistance, in part due to inhibition of Aurora kinase, and may benefit patients with FLT3-mutated AML.

  11. Prolonged exposure to FLT3 inhibitors leads to resistance via activation of parallel signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Piloto, Obdulio; Wright, Melissa; Brown, Patrick; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Levis, Mark; Small, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Continuous treatment of malignancies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) may select for resistant clones (ie, imatinib mesylate). To study resistance to TKIs targeting FLT3, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is frequently mutated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), we developed resistant human cell lines through prolonged coculture with FLT3 TKIs. FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines and primary samples still exhibit inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation on FLT3 TKI treatment. However, FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines and primary samples often show continued activation of downstream PI3K/Akt and/or Ras/MEK/MAPK signaling pathways as well as continued expression of genes involved in FLT3-mediated cellular transformation. Inhibition of these signaling pathways restores partial sensitivity to FLT3 TKIs. Mutational screening of FLT3 TKI-resistant cell lines revealed activating N-Ras mutations in 2 cell lines that were not present in the parental FLT3 TKI-sensitive cell line. Taken together, these data indicate that FLT3 TKI-resistant cells most frequently become FLT3 independent because of activation of parallel signaling pathways that provide compensatory survival/proliferation signals when FLT3 is inhibited. Anti-FLT3 mAb treatment was still cytotoxic to FLT3 TKI-resistant clones. An approach combining FLT3 TKIs with anti-FLT3 antibodies and/or inhibitors of important pathways downstream of FLT3 may reduce the chances of developing resistance. PMID:17047150

  12. Arsenic trioxide and all-trans-retinoic acid selectively exert synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cells via co-inhibition of FLT3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Na; Tang, Yan-Lai; Zhang, Yin-Chuan; Zhang, Zu-Han; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Ke, Zhi-Yong; Li, Yu; Tan, Hui-Zhen; Huang, Li-Bin; Luo, Xue-Qun

    2017-03-09

    FLT3-ITD mutations occur in approximately 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a poor outcome. Currently available FLT3 inhibitors have in vitro but limited clinical activity in FLT3-ITD AML. Reports have shown that an arsenic trioxide (ATO)/all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combination improves prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia, especially with FLT3-ITD, and ATO or ATRA alone enhances apoptosis in FLT3-ITD AML cells treated with FLT3 inhibitors, providing a rationale to investigate the role of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML. Here, we demonstrate that an ATO/ATRA combination selectively exerts synergistic cytotoxicity against FLT3-ITD AML cell lines (MV4;11/MOLM-13). The signaling pathways affected by ATO/ATRA include FLT3/STAT5/MYC, FLT3/STAT5/E2F1, FLT3/ERK/ATF5 and FLT3/AKT/ATF5.ATF5 may function as an oncogene in FLT3-ITD AML. Our findings provide experimental evidence that supports further exploration of ATO/ATRA in FLT3-ITD AML in vivo and warrants a clinical evaluation of regimens comprising an ATO/ATRA combination.

  13. TALENs-mediated gene disruption of FLT3 in leukemia cells: Using genome-editing approach for exploring the molecular basis of gene abnormality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jue; Li, Tongjuan; Zhou, Mi; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Xiaoxi; Zhou, Shiqiu; Wang, Na; Huang, Liang; Zhao, Lei; Cao, Yang; Xiao, Min; Ma, Ding; Zhou, Pengfei; Shang, Zhen; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2015-12-16

    Novel analytic tools are needed to elucidate the molecular basis of leukemia-relevant gene mutations in the post-genome era. We generated isogenic leukemia cell clones in which the FLT3 gene was disrupted in a single allele using TALENs. Isogenic clones with mono-allelic disrupted FLT3 were compared to an isogenic wild-type control clone and parental leukemia cells for transcriptional expression, downstream FLT3 signaling and proliferation capacity. The global gene expression profiles of mutant K562 clones and corresponding wild-type controls were compared using RNA-seq. The transcriptional levels and the ligand-dependent autophosphorylation of FLT3 were decreased in the mutant clones. TALENs-mediated FLT3 haplo-insufficiency impaired cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro. These inhibitory effects were maintained in vivo, improving the survival of NOD/SCID mice transplanted with mutant K562 clones. Cluster analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of isogenic clones was determined by the FLT3 mutant status rather than the deviation among individual isogenic clones. Differentially expressed genes between the mutant and wild-type clones revealed an activation of nonsense-mediated decay pathway in mutant K562 clones as well as an inhibited FLT3 signaling. Our data support that this genome-editing approach is a robust and generally applicable platform to explore the molecular bases of gene mutations.

  14. The MERTK/FLT3 inhibitor MRX-2843 overcomes resistance-conferring FLT3 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Minson, Katherine A; Smith, Catherine C; DeRyckere, Deborah; Libbrecht, Clara; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B; Huey, Madeline G; Lasater, Elisabeth A; Kirkpatrick, Gregory D; Stashko, Michael A; Zhang, Weihe; Jordan, Craig T; Kireev, Dmitri; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V; Earp, H Shelton; Shah, Neil P; Graham, Douglas K

    2016-03-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-targeted (FLT3-targeted) therapies have shown initial promise for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) expressing FLT3-activating mutations; however, resistance emerges rapidly. Furthermore, limited options exist for the treatment of FLT3-independent AML, demonstrating the need for novel therapies that reduce toxicity and improve survival. MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in 80% to 90% of AMLs and contributes to leukemogenesis. Here, we describe MRX-2843, a type 1 small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that abrogates activation of both MERTK and FLT3 and their downstream effectors. MRX-2843 treatment induces apoptosis and inhibits colony formation in AML cell lines and primary patient samples expressing MERTK and/or FLT3-ITD, with a wide therapeutic window compared with that of normal human cord blood cells. In murine orthotopic xenograft models, once-daily oral therapy prolonged survival 2- to 3-fold over that of vehicle-treated controls. Additionally, MRX-2843 retained activity against quizartinib-resistant FLT3-ITD-mutant proteins with clinically relevant alterations at the D835 or F691 loci and prolonged survival in xenograft models of quizartinib-resistant AML. Together, these observations validate MRX-2843 as a translational agent and support its clinical development for the treatment of AML.

  15. The MERTK/FLT3 inhibitor MRX-2843 overcomes resistance-conferring FLT3 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Minson, Katherine A.; Smith, Catherine C.; Libbrecht, Clara; Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; Huey, Madeline G.; Lasater, Elisabeth A.; Kirkpatrick, Gregory D.; Stashko, Michael A.; Zhang, Weihe; Jordan, Craig T.; Kireev, Dmitri; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V.; Earp, H. Shelton; Shah, Neil P.; Graham, Douglas K.

    2016-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3–targeted (FLT3-targeted) therapies have shown initial promise for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) expressing FLT3-activating mutations; however, resistance emerges rapidly. Furthermore, limited options exist for the treatment of FLT3-independent AML, demonstrating the need for novel therapies that reduce toxicity and improve survival. MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase is overexpressed in 80% to 90% of AMLs and contributes to leukemogenesis. Here, we describe MRX-2843, a type 1 small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that abrogates activation of both MERTK and FLT3 and their downstream effectors. MRX-2843 treatment induces apoptosis and inhibits colony formation in AML cell lines and primary patient samples expressing MERTK and/or FLT3-ITD, with a wide therapeutic window compared with that of normal human cord blood cells. In murine orthotopic xenograft models, once-daily oral therapy prolonged survival 2- to 3-fold over that of vehicle-treated controls. Additionally, MRX-2843 retained activity against quizartinib-resistant FLT3-ITD–mutant proteins with clinically relevant alterations at the D835 or F691 loci and prolonged survival in xenograft models of quizartinib-resistant AML. Together, these observations validate MRX-2843 as a translational agent and support its clinical development for the treatment of AML. PMID:27158668

  16. Internal Tandem Duplication Mutations in FLT3 Gene Augment Chemotaxis to Cxcl12 Protein by Blocking the Down-regulation of the Rho-associated Kinase via the Cxcl12/Cxcr4 Signaling Axis*

    PubMed Central

    Onish, Chie; Mori-Kimachi, Satomi; Hirade, Tomohiro; Abe, Mariko; Taketani, Takeshi; Suzumiya, Junji; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu; Yamaguchi, Seiji; Kapur, Reuben; Fukuda, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    Internal tandem duplication mutations in the Flt3 gene (ITD-FLT3) enhance cell migration toward the chemokine Cxcl12, which is highly expressed in the therapy-protective bone marrow niche, providing a potential mechanism underlying the poor prognosis of ITD-FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia. We aimed to investigate the mechanisms linking ITD-FLT3 to increased cell migration toward Cxcl12. Classification of the expression of Cxcl12-regulated genes in ITD-FLT3+ cells demonstrated that the enhanced migration of ITD-FLT3+ cells toward Cxcl12 was associated with the differential expression of genes downstream of Cxcl12/Cxcr4, which are functionally distinct from those expressed in ITD-FLT3− cells but are independent of the Cxcr4 expression levels. Among these differentially regulated genes, the expression of Rock1 in the ITD-FLT3+ cells that migrated toward Cxcl12 was significantly higher than in ITD-FLT3− cells that migrated toward Cxcl12. In ITD-FLT3− cells, Rock1 expression and Mypt1 phosphorylation were transiently up-regulated but were subsequently down-regulated by Cxcl12. In contrast, the presence of ITD-FLT3 blocked the Cxcl12-induced down-regulation of Rock1 and early Mypt1 dephosphorylation. Likewise, the FLT3 ligand counteracted the Cxcl12-induced down-regulation of Rock1 in ITD-FLT3− cells, which coincided with enhanced cell migration toward Cxcl12. Rock1 antagonists or Rock1 shRNA abolished the enhanced migration of ITD-FLT3+ cells toward Cxcl12. Our findings demonstrate that ITD-FLT3 increases cell migration toward Cxcl12 by antagonizing the down-regulation of Rock1 expression. These findings suggest that the aberrant modulation of Rock1 expression and activity induced by ITD-FLT3 may enhance acute myeloid leukemia cell chemotaxis to the therapy-protective bone marrow niche, where Cxcl12 is abundantly expressed. PMID:25237195

  17. Cabozantinib is selectively cytotoxic in acute myeloid leukemia cells with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jeng-Wei; Wang, An-Ni; Liao, Heng-An; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Hou, Hsin-An; Hu, Chung-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fan; Ou, Da-Liang; Lin, Liang-In

    2016-07-01

    Cabozantinib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that exhibits anti-tumor activity in several cancers. We found that cabozantinib was significantly cytotoxic to MV4-11 and Molm-13 cells that harbored FLT3-ITD, resulting in IC50 values of 2.4 nM and 2.0 nM, respectively. However, K562, OCI-AML3 and THP-1 (leukemia cell lines lacking FLT3-ITD) were resistant to cabozantinib, showing IC50 values in the micromolar range. Cabozantinib arrested MV4-11 cell growth at the G0/G1 phase within 24 h, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, AKT and ERK. Additionally, cabozantinib induced MV4-11 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (as indicated by annexin V staining and high levels of cleaved caspase 3 and PARP-1), down-regulated the anti-apoptotic protein survivin and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic protein Bak. Thus, cabozantinib is selectively cytotoxic to leukemia cells with FLT3-ITD, causing cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. In mouse xenograft model, cabozantinib significantly inhibited MV4-11 and Molm-13 tumor growth at a dosage of 10 mg/kg and showed longer survival rate. Clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of cabozantinib in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with FLT3-ITD are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MuLV-related endogenous retroviral elements and Flt3 participate in aberrant end-joining events that promote B-cell leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Radia M; Papp, Eniko; Grandal, Ildiko; Kowalski, Paul E; Nutter, Lauryl; Wong, Raymond C C; Joseph-George, Ann M; Danska, Jayne S; Guidos, Cynthia J

    2014-06-01

    During V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes, p53 and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) suppress aberrant rejoining of DNA double-strand breaks induced by recombinase-activating genes (Rags)-1/2, thus maintaining genomic stability and limiting malignant transformation during B-cell development. However, Rag deficiency does not prevent B-cell leukemogenesis in p53/NHEJ mutant mice, revealing that p53 and NHEJ also suppress Rag-independent mechanisms of B-cell leukemogenesis. Using several cytogenomic approaches, we identified a novel class of activating mutations in Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3), a receptor tyrosine kinase important for normal hematopoiesis in Rag/p53/NHEJ triple-mutant (TM) B-cell leukemias. These mutant Flt3 alleles were created by complex genomic rearrangements with Moloney leukemia virus (MuLV)-related endogenous retroviral (ERV) elements, generating ERV-Flt3 fusion genes encoding an N-terminally truncated mutant form of Flt3 (trFlt3) that was transcribed from ERV long terminal repeats. trFlt3 protein lacked most of the Flt3 extracellular domain and induced ligand-independent STAT5 phosphorylation and proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, expression of trFlt3 in p53/NHEJ mutant hematopoietic progenitor cells promoted development of clinically aggressive B-cell leukemia. Thus, repetitive MuLV-related ERV sequences can participate in aberrant end-joining events that promote development of aggressive B-cell leukemia. © 2014 Johnson et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  19. Rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3L exhibit distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    N'diaye, Marie; Warnecke, Andreas; Flytzani, Sevasti; Abdelmagid, Nada; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja; Harris, Robert A; Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb

    2016-03-01

    Dendritic cells are professional APCs that play a central role in the initiation of immune responses. The limited ex vivo availability of dendritic cells inspires the widespread use of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as an alternative in research. However, the functional characteristics of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are incompletely understood. Therefore, we compared functional and phenotypic characteristics of rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells generated with GM-CSF/IL-4 or FLT3 ligand bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. A comparison of surface markers revealed that FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD103, and CD4 and baseline levels of MHC class II, CD40, and CD86, which were highly up-regulated upon stimulation. Conversely, GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells constitutively expressed signal regulatory protein α, CD11c, and CD11b but only mildly up-regulated MHC class II, CD40, or CD86 following stimulation. Expression of dendritic cell-associated core transcripts was restricted to FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells . GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were superior at phagocytosis but were outperformed by FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells at antigen presentation and T cell stimulation in vitro. Stimulated GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more TNF, CCL5, CCL20, and NO, whereas FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells secreted more IL-6 and IL-12. Finally, whereas GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants added to resting T cell cultures promoted forkhead box p3(+) regulatory T cell populations, FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cell culture supernatants drove Th17 differentiation. We conclude that rat GM-CSF/IL-4-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and FLT3 ligand-bone marrow-derived dendritic cells are functionally distinct. Our data support the current rationale that FLT3

  20. All-trans retinoic acid synergizes with FLT3 inhibition to eliminate FLT3/ITD+ leukemia stem cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hayley S.; Greenblatt, Sarah M.; Shirley, Courtney M.; Duffield, Amy S.; Bruner, J. Kyle; Li, Li; Nguyen, Bao; Jung, Eric; Aplan, Peter D.; Ghiaur, Gabriel; Jones, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) portends a poor prognosis, and ineffective targeting of the leukemic stem cell (LSC) population remains one of several obstacles in treating this disease. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been used in several clinical trials for the treatment of nonpromyelocytic AML with limited clinical activity observed. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used as monotherapy also achieve limited clinical responses and are thus far unable to affect cure rates in AML patients. We explored the efficacy of combining ATRA and FLT3 TKIs to eliminate FLT3/internal tandem duplication (ITD)+ LSCs. Our studies reveal highly synergistic drug activity, preferentially inducing apoptosis in FLT3/ITD+ cell lines and patient samples. Colony-forming unit assays further demonstrate decreased clonogenicity of FLT3/ITD+ cells upon treatment with ATRA and TKI. Most importantly, the drug combination depletes FLT3/ITD+ LSCs in a genetic mouse model of AML, and prolongs survival of leukemic mice. Furthermore, engraftment of primary FLT3/ITD+ patient samples is reduced in mice following treatment with FLT3 TKI and ATRA in combination, with evidence of cellular differentiation occurring in vivo. Mechanistically, we provide evidence that the synergism of ATRA and FLT3 TKIs is at least in part due to the observation that FLT3 TKI treatment upregulates the antiapoptotic protein Bcl6, limiting the drug’s apoptotic effect. However, cotreatment with ATRA reduces Bcl6 expression to baseline levels through suppression of interleukin-6 receptor signaling. These studies provide evidence of the potential of this drug combination to eliminate FLT3/ITD+ LSCs and reduce the rate of relapse in AML patients with FLT3 mutations. PMID:27103744

  1. FLT3 inhibition: a moving and evolving target in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Leung, A Y H; Man, C-H; Kwong, Y-L

    2013-02-01

    Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene is a gain-of-function mutation common in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). It is associated with inferior prognosis and response to chemotherapy. Single base mutations at the FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) also leads to a gain of function, although its prognostic significance is less well defined because of its rarity. The clinical benefits of FLT3 inhibition are generally limited to AML with FLT3-ITD. However, responses are transient and leukaemia progression invariably occurs. There is compelling evidence that leukaemia clones carrying both ITD and TKD mutations appear when resistance to FLT3 inhibitors occurs. Interestingly, the emergence of double ITD and TKD mutants can be recapitulated in vitro when FLT3-ITD+ leukaemia cell lines are treated with mutagens and FLT3 inhibitors. Furthermore, murine xenotransplantation models also suggest that, in some cases, the FTL3-ITD and TKD double mutants actually exist in minute amounts before treatment with FLT3 inhibitors, expand under the selection pressure of FLT3 inhibition and become the predominant resistant clone(s) during the drug-refractory phase. On the basis of this model of clonal evolution, a multipronged strategy using more potent FLT3 inhibitors, and a combinatorial approach targeting both FLT3-dependent and FLT3-independent pathways, will be needed to improve outcome.

  2. Development and Characterization of FLT3-Specific Curcumin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles as a Drug Delivery System for Treating FLT3-Overexpressing Leukemic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tima, Singkome; Okonogi, Siriporn; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Pickens, Chad; Berkland, Cory; Anuchapreeda, Songyot

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a curcumin (CM) nanoparticle targeted to Feline McDonough Sarcoma (FMS)-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) protein on the surface of leukemic cells and to evaluate their properties, specificity, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory effect on FLT3 protein level in FLT3 overexpressing leukemic cells, EoL-1 and MV-4-11 cells. FLT3-specific peptides were conjugated onto modified poloxamer 407 (P407) using the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC). The thin film hydration method was performed for FLT3-specific CM-loaded polymeric micelles (FLT3-CM-micelles) preparation. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy were used to determine rate of cellular uptake. 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to test the cytotoxicity of the micelles on leukemic cells. FLT3-CM-micelles demonstrated a mean particle size less than 50 nm, high entrapment efficiency, and high rate of CM uptake by leukemic cells. The intracellular CM fluorescence is related to FLT3 protein levels on the leukemic cell surfaces. Moreover, FLT3-CM-micelles demonstrated an excellent cytotoxic effect and decreased FLT3 protein expression in the leukemic cells. The FLT3-CM-micelles could enhance both solubility and cytotoxicity of CM on FLT3 overexpressing leukemic cells. These promising nanoparticles may be used for enhancing anti-leukemic activity of CM and developed as a targeted drug delivery system in the future. PMID:27751588

  3. Expression of caveolin-1 and podocalyxin in rat lungs challenged with 2-kDa macrophage-activating lipopeptide and Flt3L.

    PubMed

    Tschernig, T; Pabst, R; Kasper, M; El-Hadi, Mustafa; Singh, B

    2014-04-01

    Caveolin-1 is one of the important regulators of vascular permeability in inflamed lungs. Podocalyxin is a CD34 protein expressed on vascular endothelium and has a role in podocyte development in the kidney. Few data are available on the expression of caveolin-1 and podocalyxin in lungs challenged with Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonists such as mycoplasma-derived macrophage activating lipopeptide or with immune modulators such as Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 ligand (Flt3L), which expands dendritic cell populations in the lung. Because of the significance of pathogen-derived molecules that act through TLR2 and of the role of immune modulators in lung physiology, we examine the immunohistochemical expression of caveolin-1 and podocalyxin in lungs from rats challenged with a 2-kDa macrophage-activating lipopeptide (MALP-2) and Flt3L. Normal rat lungs expressed caveolin-1 in alveolar septa, vascular endothelium and airway epithelium, especially along the lateral borders of epithelial cells but not in alveolar macrophages. MALP-2 and Flt3L decreased and increased, respectively, the expression of caveolin-1. Caveolin-1 expression seemed to increase in microvessels in bronchiole-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) in Flt3L-challenged lungs but not in normal or MALP-2-treated lungs. Podocalyxin was absent in the epithelium and alveolar macrophages but was present in the vasculature of control, Flt3L- and MALP-2-treated rats. Compared with control and MALP-2-treated rats, Flt3L-treated lungs showed greater expression of podocalyxin in BALT vasculature and at the interface of monocytes and the endothelium. These immunohistochemical data describing the altered expression of caveolin-1 and podocalyxin in lungs treated with MALP-2 or Flt3L encourage further mechanistic studies on the role of podocalyxin and caveolin-1 in lung inflammation.

  4. Palbociclib treatment of FLT3-ITD+ AML cells uncovers a kinase-dependent transcriptional regulation of FLT3 and PIM1 by CDK6

    PubMed Central

    Uras, Iris Z.; Walter, Gina J.; Scheicher, Ruth; Bellutti, Florian; Prchal-Murphy, Michaela; Tigan, Anca S.; Valent, Peter; Heidel, Florian H.; Kubicek, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia; Fröhling, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia have constitutively activating internal tandem duplications (ITDs) of the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase. Such mutations are associated with a poor prognosis and a high propensity to relapse after remission. FLT3 inhibitors are being developed as targeted therapy for FLT3-ITD+ acute myeloid leukemia; however, their use is complicated by rapid development of resistance, which illustrates the need for additional therapeutic targets. We show that the US Food and Drug Administration–approved CDK4/6 kinase inhibitor palbociclib induces apoptosis of FLT3-ITD leukemic cells. The effect is specific for FLT3-mutant cells and is ascribed to the transcriptional activity of CDK6: CDK6 but not its functional homolog CDK4 is found at the promoters of the FLT3 and PIM1 genes, another important leukemogenic driver. There CDK6 regulates transcription in a kinase-dependent manner. Of potential clinical relevance, combined treatment with palbociclib and FLT3 inhibitors results in synergistic cytotoxicity. Simultaneously targeting two critical signaling nodes in leukemogenesis could represent a therapeutic breakthrough, leading to complete remission and overcoming resistance to FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:27099147

  5. EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-mediated apoptosis and Flt3L-induced immunotherapy inhibits tumor growth in a breast cancer mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Manish; Vemula, Sai V.; Sharma, Anurag; Ahi, Yadvinder S.; Mittal, Shalini; Bangari, Dinesh S.; Mittal, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in several types of cancers and is currently being pursued as a target for breast cancer therapeutics. The EphA2 ligand EphrinA1 induces EphA2 phosphorylation and intracellular internalization and degradation, thus inhibiting tumor progression. The hematopoietic growth factor, FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor ligand (Flt3L), promotes expansion and mobilization of functional dendritic cells. Methods We tested the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells focusing on the receptor-ligand-mediated apoptosis of breast cancer cells. In order to determine whether the EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction-associated apoptosis and Flt3L-mediated immunotherapy would have an additive effect in inhibiting tumor growth, we used an immunocompetent mouse model of breast cancer to evaluate intratumoral (i.t.) inoculation strategies with human adenovirus (HAd) vectors expressing either EphrinA1 (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc), Flt3L (HAd-Flt3L) or a combination of EphrinA1-Fc + Flt3L (HAd-EphrinA1-Fc + HAd-Flt3L). Results In vitro analysis demonstrated that an EphrinA1-EphA2 interaction led to apoptosis-related changes in breast cancer cells. In vivo, three i.t. inoculations of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc showed potent inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, increased inhibition in tumor growth was observed with the combination of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc and HAd-Flt3L accompanied by the generation of an anti-tumor adaptive immune response. Conclusions The results indicating induction of apoptosis and inhibition of mammary tumor growth show the potential therapeutic benefits of HAd-EphrinA1-Fc. In combination with HAd-Flt3L, this represents a promising strategy to effectively induce mammary tumor regression by HAd vector-based therapy. PMID:22228563

  6. Using combination therapy to override stromal-mediated chemoresistance in mutant FLT3-positive AML: Synergism between FLT3 inhibitors, dasatinib/multi-targeted inhibitors, and JAK inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Weisberg, Ellen; Liu, Qingsong; Nelson, Erik; Kung, Andrew L.; Christie, Amanda L.; Bronson, Rod; Sattler, Martin; Sanda, Takaomi; Zhao, Zheng; Hur, Wooyoung; Mitsiades, Constantine; Smith, Robert; Daley, John F.; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Griffin, James D.; Gray, Nathanael

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progenitors are frequently characterized by activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3. Protein tyrosine kinases are integral components of signaling cascades that play a role in both FLT3-mediated transformation as well as viability pathways that are advantageous to leukemic cell survival. The bone marrow microenvironment can diminish AML sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We hypothesized that inhibition of protein kinases in addition to FLT3 may be effective in overriding drug resistance in AML. We used a cell-based model mimicking stromal protection as part of an unbiased high-throughput chemical screen to identify kinase inhibitors with the potential to override microenvironment-mediated drug resistance in mutant FLT3-positive AML. Several related multi-targeted kinase inhibitors, including dasatinib, with the capability of reversing microenvironment-induced resistance to FLT3 inhibition were identified and validated. We validated synergy in vitro and demonstrated effective combination potential in vivo. In particular Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors were effective in overriding stromal protection and potentiating FLT3 inhibition in primary AML and cell lines. These results hint at a novel concept of using combination therapy to override drug resistance in mutant FLT3-positive AML in the bone marrow niche and suppress or eradicate residual disease. PMID:22469781

  7. Temporal Changes in FLT3-ITD Regulation of Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Leukemogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pediatric and adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Genetic differences between pediatric and adult AML may underlie differences in outcomes and...products can suppress leukemogenesis. Reprogramming therapies may offer a novel approach for treating AML. 15. SUBJECT TERMS FLT3-ITD, leukemia ...project is to understand why FLT3-Internal Tandem Duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) more frequently in adults than in

  8. DNA repair contributes to the drug-resistant phenotype of primary acute myeloid leukaemia cells with FLT3 internal tandem duplications and is reversed by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412.

    PubMed

    Seedhouse, C H; Hunter, H M; Lloyd-Lewis, B; Massip, A-M; Pallis, M; Carter, G I; Grundy, M; Shang, S; Russell, N H

    2006-12-01

    The presence of internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor influences the risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We have investigated DNA repair in FLT3-ITD and wild-type (WT) cells. Using the comet assay, we have demonstrated that the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412 significantly inhibits repair of DNA damage in the MV4-11-FLT3-ITD cell line and FLT3-ITD patient samples but not in the HL-60-FLT3-WT cell line or FLT3-WT patient samples. Following the discovery that transcript levels of the DNA repair gene RAD51 are significantly correlated with FLT3 transcript levels in FLT3-ITD patients, we further investigated the role of RAD51 in FLT3-ITD-AML. The reduction in DNA repair in PKC412-treated FLT3-ITD cells was shown to be associated with downregulation of RAD51 mRNA and protein expression and correlates with the maintenance of phosphorylated H2AX levels, implying that PKC412 inhibits the homologous recombination double-strand break repair pathway in FLT3-ITD cells. Using FLT3-short interfering RNA (siRNA), we also demonstrated that genetic silencing of FLT3 results in RAD51 downregulation in FLT3-ITD cells but not in FLT3-WT cells. This work suggests that the use of FLT3 inhibitors such as PKC412 may reverse the drug-resistant phenotype of FLT3-ITD-AML cells by inhibiting repair of chemotherapy-induced genotoxic damage and thereby reduce the risk of disease relapse.

  9. Flt3 does not play a critical role in murine myeloid leukemias induced by MLL fusion genes.

    PubMed

    Albouhair, Stéphanie; Morgado, Ester; Lavau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Leukemias harboring MLL translocations are frequent in children and adults, and respond poorly to therapies. The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is highly expressed in these leukemias. In vitro studies have shown that pediatric MLL-rearranged ALL cells are sensitive to FLT3 inhibitors and clinical trials are ongoing to measure their therapeutic efficacy. We sought to determine the contribution of Flt3 in the pathogenesis of MLL-rearranged leukemias using a myeloid leukemia mouse model. Bone marrow from Flt3 null mice transduced with MLL-ENL or MLL-CBP was transplanted into host mice and Flt3 (-/-) leukemias were compared to their Flt3 wild type counterparts. Flt3 deficiency did not delay disease onset and had minimal impact on leukemia characteristics. To determine the anti-leukemic effect of FLT3 inhibition we studied the sensitivity of MLL-ENL leukemia cells to the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412 ex vivo. As previously reported for human MLL-rearranged leukemias, murine MLL-ENL leukemia cells with higher Flt3 levels were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of PKC412. Interestingly, Flt3 deficient leukemia samples also displayed some sensitivity to PKC412. Our findings demonstrate that myeloid leukemias induced by MLL-rearranged genes are not dependent upon Flt3 signaling. They also highlight the discrepancy between the sensitivity of cells to Flt3 inhibition in vitro and the lack of contribution of Flt3 to the pathogenesis of MLL-rearranged leukemias in vivo.

  10. Specific detection of Flt3 point mutations by highly sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Sebastian; Krause, Claudia; Loncarevic, Ivan F; Müller, Rouven; Kunert, Christa; Wedding, Ulrich; Sayer, Herbert G; Clement, Joachim H; Höffken, Klaus

    2005-06-01

    Among activating class III receptor tyrosine kinase (Flt3) mutations, internal tandem duplications of Flt3 (Flt3-ITD) are detected in about 25% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In contrast, mutations within the tyrosine kinase domain of Flt3 (Flt3-TKD mutations) are less frequent (approximately 7%), and there are only limited data on the frequency of recently demonstrated activating Flt3 point mutation at codon 592 (Flt3-V592A mutation). We evaluated a new approach for rapid screening of Flt3-TKD and Flt3-V592A mutations using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) principle in a group of 122 patients. Based on individual Flt3-TKD mutations, we designed patient-specific primers to perform a highly sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for rapid detection of minimal residual disease (MRD). We also used a model system with MonoMac-6 cells carrying the Flt3-V592A mutation to establish a mutation-specific real-time PCR approach also for this molecular aberration. We identified 9 cases (8%) of Flt3-TKD mutations (5 cases of mutation D835Y, 3 cases of mutation D835H, and 1 case of mutation Del836), and no cases of Flt3-V592A mutation. Screening for Flt3-TKD mutations with fluorescent probes is equivalent to conventional screening using standard PCR followed by EcoRV restriction. We present a real-time PCR protocol that can be used for MRD analyses based on individual Flt3-TKD mutations. Examples of MRD analyses are presented for all 3 subtypes of Flt3-TKD mutation identified in this study. In summary, we demonstrate new methodological approaches for rapid screening of Flt3 point mutations and for detection of MRD based on patient-specific Flt3-TKD mutations.

  11. Crystal structure of the FLT3 kinase domain bound to the inhibitor quizartinib (AC220)

    DOE PAGES

    Zorn, Julie A.; Wang, Qi; Fujimura, Eric; ...

    2015-04-02

    More than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients possess activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 or FLT3. A small-molecule inhibitor of FLT3 (known as quizartinib or AC220) that is currently in clinical trials appears promising for the treatment of AML. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the kinase domain of FLT3 in complex with quizartinib. FLT3 with quizartinib bound adopts an “Abl-like” inactive conformation with the activation loop stabilized in the “DFG-out” orientation and folded back onto the kinase domain. This conformation is similar to that observed for the uncomplexed intracellular domain ofmore » FLT3 as well as for related receptor tyrosine kinases, except for a localized induced fit in the activation loop. The co-crystal structure reveals the interactions between quizartinib and the active site of FLT3 that are key for achieving its high potency against both wild-type FLT3 as well as a FLT3 variant observed in many AML patients. This co-complex further provides a structural rationale for quizartinib-resistance mutations.« less

  12. Crystal structure of the FLT3 kinase domain bound to the inhibitor quizartinib (AC220)

    SciTech Connect

    Zorn, Julie A.; Wang, Qi; Fujimura, Eric; Barros, Tiago; Kuriyan, John; Boggon, Titus J.

    2015-04-02

    More than 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients possess activating mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 or FLT3. A small-molecule inhibitor of FLT3 (known as quizartinib or AC220) that is currently in clinical trials appears promising for the treatment of AML. Here, we report the co-crystal structure of the kinase domain of FLT3 in complex with quizartinib. FLT3 with quizartinib bound adopts an “Abl-like” inactive conformation with the activation loop stabilized in the “DFG-out” orientation and folded back onto the kinase domain. This conformation is similar to that observed for the uncomplexed intracellular domain of FLT3 as well as for related receptor tyrosine kinases, except for a localized induced fit in the activation loop. The co-crystal structure reveals the interactions between quizartinib and the active site of FLT3 that are key for achieving its high potency against both wild-type FLT3 as well as a FLT3 variant observed in many AML patients. This co-complex further provides a structural rationale for quizartinib-resistance mutations.

  13. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors in acute myeloid leukemia: clinical implications and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Sabine; Levis, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Internal tandem duplications of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene are one of the most frequent gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with poor clinical outcome. The remission rate is high with intensive chemotherapy, but most patients eventually relapse. During the last decade, FLT3 mutations have emerged as an attractive target for a molecularly specific treatment strategy. Targeting FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinases in AML has shown encouraging results in the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, but in most patients responses are incomplete and not sustained. Newer, more specific compounds seem to have a higher potency and selectivity against FLT3. During therapy with FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) the induction of acquired resistance has emerged as a clinical problem. Therefore, optimization of the targeted therapy and potential treatment options to overcome resistance is currently the focus of clinical research. In this review we discuss the use and limitations of TKIs as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of FLT3 mutated AML, including mechanisms of resistance to TKIs as well as possible novel strategies to improve FLT3 inhibitor therapy. PMID:23631653

  14. Fetal and neonatal hematopoietic progenitors are functionally and transcriptionally resistant to Flt3-ITD mutations

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Shaina N; Cluster, Andrew S; Yang, Wei; Busken, Kelsey A; Patel, Riddhi M; Ryoo, Jiyeon; Magee, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    The FLT3 Internal Tandem Duplication (FLT3ITD) mutation is common in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but rare in early childhood AML. It is not clear why this difference occurs. Here we show that Flt3ITD and cooperating Flt3ITD/Runx1 mutations cause hematopoietic stem cell depletion and myeloid progenitor expansion during adult but not fetal stages of murine development. In adult progenitors, FLT3ITD simultaneously induces self-renewal and myeloid commitment programs via STAT5-dependent and STAT5-independent mechanisms, respectively. While FLT3ITD can activate STAT5 signal transduction prior to birth, this signaling does not alter gene expression until hematopoietic progenitors transition from fetal to adult transcriptional states. Cooperative interactions between Flt3ITD and Runx1 mutations are also blunted in fetal/neonatal progenitors. Fetal/neonatal progenitors may therefore be protected from leukemic transformation because they are not competent to express FLT3ITD target genes. Changes in the transcriptional states of developing hematopoietic progenitors may generally shape the mutation spectra of human leukemias. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18882.001 PMID:27879203

  15. Repression of Flt3 by Pax5 is crucial for B-cell lineage commitment

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa L.; Carotta, Sebastian; Corcoran, Lynn M.; Nutt, Stephen L.

    2006-01-01

    Early B-lymphopoiesis requires the growth-factor receptors, IL-7R and Flt3, and the activity of a number of transcription factors. One factor, Pax5, is required for commitment to the B-cell lineage, although the molecular mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We demonstrate here that an important function of Pax5 is to repress Flt3 transcription in B-cell progenitors, as Pax5-deficient pro-B cells express abundant Flt3 that is rapidly silenced upon the reintroduction of Pax5, whereas enforced expression of Flt3 in wild-type progenitors significantly impairs B-cell development. These findings demonstrate that the repression of Flt3 by Pax5 is essential for normal B-lymphopoiesis. PMID:16618805

  16. Spontaneous Remission in an Older Patient with Relapsed FLT3 ITD Mutant AML

    PubMed Central

    Mendler, Jason H.; Evans, Andrew; Deeb, George; Starostik, Petr; Wallace, Paul K.; Wang, Eunice S.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous remission (SR) of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a very rare phenomenon. AML characterized by FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3 ITD) is typically associated with an aggressive clinical course with rapid progression, relapse, and short overall survival in the absence of transplantation. We report here the first case of SR of FLT3 ITD mutant AML in the literature. Our patient was an elderly woman with relapsed NPM1 and FLT3 ITD mutant AML whose disease underwent SR for a brief duration without precipitating cause. We review the potential immune mechanisms underlying SR in AML and discuss the implications for novel immunotherapeutic approaches for FLT3 mutant AML. PMID:28127477

  17. Midostaurin and Decitabine in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia and FLT3 Mutation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-10

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With FLT3/ITD Mutation; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Gene Mutations; FLT3 Tyrosine Kinase Domain Point Mutation; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Improved FLT3/ITD PCR assay predicts outcome following allogeneic transplant for AML

    PubMed Central

    Grunwald, Michael R.; Tseng, Li-Hui; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Pratz, Keith W.; Eshleman, James R.; Levis, Mark J.; Gocke, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients harboring internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene carry a poor prognosis. While allogeneic transplantation may improve outcomes, relapse occurs frequently. The FLT3/ITD mutation has been deemed an unsuitable minimal residual disease (MRD) marker because it is unstable and because the standard assay for the mutation is relatively insensitive. The FLT3 mutation is undetectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at pre- or post-transplant time points in many FLT3/ITD AML patients who subsequently relapse following transplant. We report the application of a new technique, tandem duplication PCR (TD-PCR), for detecting MRD in FLT3/ITD AML patients. Between October 2004 and January 2012, 54 FLT3/ITD AML patients in remission underwent transplantation at our institution. Of 37 patients with available Day 60 marrow samples, 28 (76%) were evaluable for MRD detection. In seven (25%) of the 28 patients, the FLT3/ITD mutation was detectable by TD-PCR, but not by standard PCR, on day 60. Six out of the seven patients (86%) with MRD by TD-PCR have relapsed to date compared with only 2 of 21 (10%) patients who were negative for MRD (p = 0.0003). The ability to detect MRD by this sensitive technique may provide an opportunity for early clinical intervention. PMID:25240816

  19. FLT3-ITDs Instruct a Myeloid Differentiation and Transformation Bias in Lymphomyeloid Multipotent Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Adam J.; Kharazi, Shabnam; Atkinson, Deborah; Macaulay, Iain; Pecquet, Christian; Loughran, Stephen; Lutteropp, Michael; Woll, Petter; Chowdhury, Onima; Luc, Sidinh; Buza-Vidas, Natalija; Ferry, Helen; Clark, Sally-Ann; Goardon, Nicolas; Vyas, Paresh; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Sitnicka, Ewa; Nerlov, Claus; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Whether signals mediated via growth factor receptors (GFRs) might influence lineage fate in multipotent progenitors (MPPs) is unclear. We explored this issue in a mouse knockin model of gain-of-function Flt3-ITD mutation because FLT3-ITDs are paradoxically restricted to acute myeloid leukemia even though Flt3 primarily promotes lymphoid development during normal hematopoiesis. When expressed in MPPs, Flt3-ITD collaborated with Runx1 mutation to induce high-penetrance aggressive leukemias that were exclusively of the myeloid phenotype. Flt3-ITDs preferentially expanded MPPs with reduced lymphoid and increased myeloid transcriptional priming while compromising early B and T lymphopoiesis. Flt3-ITD-induced myeloid lineage bias involved upregulation of the transcription factor Pu.1, which is a direct target gene of Stat3, an aberrantly activated target of Flt3-ITDs, further establishing how lineage bias can be inflicted on MPPs through aberrant GFR signaling. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into how oncogenic mutations might subvert the normal process of lineage commitment and dictate the phenotype of resulting malignancies. PMID:23727242

  20. Integration of Hedgehog and mutant FLT3 signaling in myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yiting; Gondek, Lukasz; Li, Li; Wang, Qiuju; Ma, Haley; Chang, Emily; Huso, David L.; Foerster, Sarah; Marchionni, Luigi; McGovern, Karen; Watkins, D. Neil; Peacock, Craig D.; Levis, Mark; Smith, B. Douglas; Merchant, Akil A.; Small, Donald; Matsui, William

    2015-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations resulting in constitutive kinase activity are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and carry a poor prognosis. Several agents targeting FLT3 have been developed, but their limited clinical activity suggests that the inhibition of other factors contributing to the malignant phenotype is required. We examined gene expression data sets as well as primary specimens and found that the expression of GLI2, a major effector of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, was increased in FLT3-ITD compared to wild type FLT3 AML. To examine the functional role of the Hh pathway, we studied mice in which Flt3-ITD expression results in an indolent myeloproliferative state and found that constitutive Hh signaling accelerated the development of AML by enhancing STAT5 signaling and the proliferation of bone marrow myeloid progenitors. Furthermore, combined FLT3 and Hh pathway inhibition limited leukemic growth in vitro and in vivo, and this approach may serve as a therapeutic strategy for FLT3-ITD AML. PMID:26062848

  1. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting FLT3 in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Pan, Yihang; Guo, Yao; Zhao, Wanke; Ho, Wanting Tina; Wang, Jianlong; Xu, Mingjiang; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2017-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid lineage of blood cells. Although significant progress has been made in treating many types of cancers during recent years, AML remains a deadly disease with survival rate lagging behind other blood cancers. A combination of toxic chemotherapies has been the standard AML treatment for more than 40 years. With intensive efforts to define the pathogenesis of AML, novel therapeutic drugs targeting key molecular defects in AML are being developed. Mutated in nearly 30% of AML, FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) represents one of the most attractive targets. FLT3 mutants resulted from either internal tandem duplication (ITD) or point mutations possess enhanced kinase activity and cause constitutive activation of signaling. To date, several small molecule inhibitors of FLT3 have been developed but their clinical efficacy is limited due to a lack of potency and the generation of drug resistance. Therefore, next-generation FLT3 inhibitors overcoming these limitations are urgently in need. This review focuses on the pathological role of mutant FLT3 in the development of AML, the current status of FLT3 inhibitor development, and mechanisms underlining the development of resistance to existing FLT3 inhibitors. PMID:28607922

  2. FLT3-ITD drives Ara-C resistance in leukemic cells via the induction of RUNX3.

    PubMed

    Damdinsuren, Anar; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Ito, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Jin, Guilan; Tsukamoto, Hideo; Asai, Satomi; Ando, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Hayato

    2015-12-01

    Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITD) are well known to correlate with a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We previously reported that FLT3-ITD confers resistance to cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C), a key cytotoxic agent in AML treatments. In order to elucidate the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying the Ara-C resistance induced by FLT3-ITD, we performed a microarray gene expression analysis of the human leukemic cell line K562 transduced with FLT3-ITD (K562/FLT3-ITD) and identified RUNX3 as a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. The transcriptional induction of the RUNX3 expression by FLT3-ITD was noted on a Luciferase assay. The knockdown of the RUNX3 expression in the K562/FLT3-ITD cells increased the sensitivity to Ara-C, and the exogenous expression of RUNX3 per se resulted in the enhancement of Ara-C resistance in the K562 cells. A relationship between the FLT3-ITD-induced RUNX3 expression and Ara-C resistance was also observed in AML cells with an endogenous FLT3-ITD expression. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that RUNX3 is a prerequisite for Ara-C resistance via FLT3-ITD signaling.

  3. IMC-EB10, an anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibody, prolongs survival and reduces nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient engraftment of some acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines and primary leukemic samples.

    PubMed

    Piloto, Obdulio; Nguyen, Bao; Huso, David; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Li, Yiwen; Witte, Larry; Hicklin, Daniel J; Brown, Patrick; Small, Donald

    2006-05-01

    The class III receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is expressed on the blasts of >90% of patients with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL). In addition, it is expressed at extremely high levels in ALL patients with mixed lineage leukemia rearrangements or hyperdiploidy and is sometimes mutated in these same patients. In this report, we investigate the effects of treating ALL cell lines and primary samples with human anti-FLT3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) capable of preventing binding of FLT3 ligand. In vitro studies, examining the ability of two anti-FLT3 mAbs (IMC-EB10 and IMC-NC7) to affect FLT3 activation and downstream signaling in ALL cell lines and primary blasts, yielded variable results. FLT3 phosphorylation was consistently inhibited by IMC-NC7 treatment, but in some cell lines, IMC-EB10 actually stimulated FLT3 activation, possibly as a result of antibody-mediated receptor dimerization. Through antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity, such an antibody could still prove efficacious against leukemia cells in vivo. In fact, IMC-EB10 treatment significantly prolonged survival and/or reduced engraftment of several ALL cell lines and primary ALL samples in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. This occurred even when IMC-EB10 treatment resulted in FLT3 activation in vitro. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PCR analysis of IMC-EB10-treated NOD/SCID mice surviving 150 days post-leukemic cell injection revealed that FLT3 immunotherapy reduced leukemic engraftment below the level of detection in these assays (<0.001%). Furthermore, in vivo IMC-EB10 treatment did not select for resistant cells, because cells surviving IMC-EB10 treatment remain sensitive to IMC-EB10 cytotoxicity upon retransplantation. In vivo studies involving either partial depletion or activation of natural killer (NK) cells show that most of the cytotoxic effect of IMC-EB10 is mediated through NK cells. Therefore, such an antibody, either

  4. Discovery of a Diaminopyrimidine FLT3 Inhibitor Active against Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Profiling of the kinase-binding capabilities of an aminopyrimidine analogue detected in a cellular screen of the St. Jude small-molecule collection led to the identification of a novel series of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) inhibitors. Structure–activity relationship studies led to the development of compounds exhibiting good potency against MV4-11 and MOLM13 acute myelogenous leukemia cells driven by FLT3, regardless of their FLT3 mutation status. In vitro pharmacological profiling demonstrated that compound 5e shows characteristics suitable for further preclinical development. PMID:28580438

  5. Inhibition of MEK5 by BIX02188 induces apoptosis in cells expressing the oncogenic mutant FLT3-ITD

    SciTech Connect

    Razumovskaya, Elena; Sun, Jianmin; Roennstrand, Lars

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we have demonstrated that FLT3 activation leads to activation of ERK5. {yields} We have demonstrated that ERK5 is involved in activation of AKT downstream of FLT3. {yields} (BIX02188) blocks activation of ERK5 and induces apoptosis in FLT3 Ba/F3 cells. {yields} (BIX02188) induce apoptosis in the two leukemic cell lines MV4-11 and MOLM-13. -- Abstract: Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) is a growth factor receptor normally expressed on hematopoietic progenitor cells. Approximately one third of all patients with AML carry an activating mutation in FLT3 that drives proliferation and survival of the leukemic cells. The most common activating mutation is the so-called internal tandem duplication (ITD), which involves an in-frame duplication of a segment of varying length in the region of the FLT3 gene that encodes the juxtamembrane domain. The pathways downstream of FLT3-ITD are partially known but further knowledge regarding the downstream signal transduction molecules is important in order to develop alternative strategies for pharmacological intervention. In this paper we have studied the role of MEK/ERK5 in FLT3-ITD mediated transformation. We have found that both wild-type FLT3 and FLT3-ITD activate MEK5 leading to the activation of ERK5. By use of the selective inhibitor of MEK5, (BIX02188), we have shown that activation of AKT downstream of FLT3 is partially dependent on ERK5. Furthermore, inhibition of MEK5/ERK5 induces apoptosis of both FLT3-ITD transfected Ba/F3 cells as well as the FLT3-ITD carrying leukemic cell lines MV4-11 and MOLM-13. These results suggest that MEK5/ERK5 is important for FLT3-ITD induced hematopoietic transformation and may thus represent an alternative therapeutic target in the treatment of FLT3-ITD positive leukemia.

  6. FLT3 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia: what is the best approach in 2013?

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia who harbor an FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) mutation present several dilemmas for the clinician. The results of an FLT3 mutation test, which can be influenced by several variables, need to be interpreted according to the clinical setting and there is a need for internationally standardized FLT3 mutation assays. Because of the lack of prospective studies, the role of allogeneic transplantation as consolidation therapy is still somewhat controversial, but the preponderance of evidence suggests that transplantation in first remission, if possible, is probably the best option. Clinically useful FLT3 inhibitors are hopefully on the near horizon and are being studied in the context of current treatment paradigms. PMID:24319184

  7. Differential requirement for wild-type Flt3 in leukemia-initiation among mouse models of human leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Luchsinger, Larry; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

    2014-01-01

    FLT3 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in acute leukemias. However, the role in leukemogenesis of wt Flt3, which is highly expressed in many hematological malignancies, is unclear. We show here that in mouse models established by retroviral transduction of leukemic fusion proteins deletion of Flt3 strongly inhibits MLL-ENL and to lesser extent p210BCR-ABL-induced leukemogenesis, but has no effect in MLL-AF9 or AML1-ETO9a models. Flt3 acts at the level of leukemic stem cells (LSCs), as a fraction of LSCs in MLL-ENL, but not in MLL-AF9-induced leukemia, expressed Flt3 in vivo, and Flt3 expression on LSCs was associated with leukemia development in this model. Furthermore, efficiency of MLL-ENL, but not of MLL-AF9-induced leukemia induction was significantly enhanced after transduction of Flt3+ compared to Flt3− wt myeloid progenitors. However, Flt3 is not required for immortalization of bone marrow cells in vitro by MLL-ENL and does not affect colony-formation by MLL-ENL LSCs in vitro, suggesting that in vitro models do not reflect the in vivo biology of MLL-ENL leukemia with respect to Flt3 requirement. We conclude that wt Flt3 plays a role in leukemia initiation in vivo, which is, however, not universal. PMID:24269847

  8. A pharmacodynamic study of the FLT3 inhibitor KW-2449 yields insight into the basis for clinical response.

    PubMed

    Pratz, Keith W; Cortes, Jorge; Roboz, Gail J; Rao, Niranjan; Arowojolu, Omotayo; Stine, Adam; Shiotsu, Yukimasa; Shudo, Aiko; Akinaga, Shiro; Small, Donald; Karp, Judith E; Levis, Mark

    2009-04-23

    Internal tandem duplication mutations of FLT3 (FLT3/ITD mutations) are common in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confer a poor prognosis. This would suggest that FLT3 is an ideal therapeutic target, but FLT3 targeted therapy has produced only modest benefits in clinical trials. Due to technical obstacles, the assessment of target inhibition in patients treated with FLT3 inhibitors has been limited and generally only qualitative. KW-2449 is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor that induces cytotoxicity in Molm14 cells (which harbor an FLT3/ITD mutation). The cytotoxic effect occurs primarily at concentrations sufficient to inhibit FLT3 autophosphorylation to less than 20% of its baseline. We report here correlative data from a phase 1 trial of KW-2449, a trial in which typical transient reductions in the peripheral blast counts were observed. Using quantitative measurement of FLT3 inhibition over time in these patients, we confirmed that FLT3 was inhibited, but only transiently to less than 20% of baseline. Our results suggest that the failure to fully inhibit FLT3 in sustained fashion may be an underlying reason for the minimal success of FLT3 inhibitors to date, and stress the importance of confirming in vivo target inhibition when taking a targeted agent into the clinical setting.

  9. Targeting FLT3-ITD signaling mediates ceramide-dependent mitophagy and attenuates drug resistance in AML.

    PubMed

    Dany, Mohammed; Gencer, Salih; Nganga, Rose; Thomas, Raquela J; Oleinik, Natalia; Baron, Kyla D; Szulc, Zdzislaw M; Ruvolo, Peter; Kornblau, Steven; Andreeff, Michael; Ogretmen, Besim

    2016-10-13

    Signaling pathways regulated by mutant Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-internal tandem duplication (ITD), which mediate resistance to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell death, are poorly understood. Here, we reveal that pro-cell death lipid ceramide generation is suppressed by FLT3-ITD signaling. Molecular or pharmacologic inhibition of FLT3-ITD reactivated ceramide synthesis, selectively inducing mitophagy and AML cell death. Mechanistically, FLT3-ITD targeting induced ceramide accumulation on the outer mitochondrial membrane, which then directly bound autophagy-inducing light chain 3 (LC3), involving its I35 and F52 residues, to recruit autophagosomes for execution of lethal mitophagy. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of LC3 prevented AML cell death in response to FLT3-ITD inhibition by crenolanib, which was restored by wild-type (WT)-LC3, but not mutants of LC3 with altered ceramide binding (I35A-LC3 or F52A-LC3). Mitochondrial ceramide accumulation and lethal mitophagy induction in response to FLT3-ITD targeting was mediated by dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) activation via inhibition of protein kinase A-regulated S637 phosphorylation, resulting in mitochondrial fission. Inhibition of Drp1 prevented ceramide-dependent lethal mitophagy, and reconstitution of WT-Drp1 or phospho-null S637A-Drp1 but not its inactive phospho-mimic mutant (S637D-Drp1), restored mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in response to crenolanib in FLT3-ITD(+) AML cells expressing stable shRNA against endogenous Drp1. Moreover, activating FLT3-ITD signaling in crenolanib-resistant AML cells suppressed ceramide-dependent mitophagy and prevented cell death. FLT3-ITD(+) AML drug resistance is attenuated by LCL-461, a mitochondria-targeted ceramide analog drug, in vivo, which also induced lethal mitophagy in human AML blasts with clinically relevant FLT3 mutations. Thus, these data reveal a novel mechanism which regulates AML cell death by ceramide-dependent mitophagy in response

  10. Profiling of somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3-ITD at diagnosis and relapse.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manoj; Nagata, Yasunobu; Kanojia, Deepika; Mayakonda, Anand; Yoshida, Kenichi; Haridas Keloth, Sreya; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ding, Ling-Wen; Alpermann, Tamara; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Lin, De-Chen; Chien, Wenwen; Madan, Vikas; Liu, Li-Zhen; Tan, Kar-Tong; Sampath, Abhishek; Venkatesan, Subhashree; Inokuchi, Koiti; Wakita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Chng, Wee Joo; Kham, Shirley-Kow Yin; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Sanada, Masashi; Schiller, Joanna; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Kornblau, Steven M; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Haferlach, Torsten; Lill, Michael; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Shih, Lee-Yung; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Blau, Olga; Yang, Henry; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H Phillip

    2015-11-26

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a grave prognosis. To identify the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 13 matched diagnosis, relapse, and remission trios followed by targeted sequencing of 299 genes in 67 FLT3-ITD patients. The FLT3-ITD genome has an average of 13 mutations per sample, similar to other AML subtypes, which is a low mutation rate compared with that in solid tumors. Recurrent mutations occur in genes related to DNA methylation, chromatin, histone methylation, myeloid transcription factors, signaling, adhesion, cohesin complex, and the spliceosome. Their pattern of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggests that these genes have a strong biological relationship. In addition, we identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes such as MLL3, NSD1, FAT1, FAT4, and IDH3B. Mutations in 9 genes were observed in the relapse-specific phase. DNMT3A mutations are the most stable mutations, and this DNMT3A-transformed clone can be present even in morphologic complete remissions. Of note, all AML matched trio samples shared at least 1 genomic alteration at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting common ancestral clones. Two types of clonal evolution occur at relapse: either the founder clone recurs or a subclone of the founder clone escapes from induction chemotherapy and expands at relapse by acquiring new mutations. Relapse-specific mutations displayed an increase in transversions. Functional assays demonstrated that both MLL3 and FAT1 exert tumor-suppressor activity in the FLT3-ITD subtype. An inhibitor of XPO1 synergized with standard AML induction chemotherapy to inhibit FLT3-ITD growth. This study clearly shows that FLT3-ITD AML requires additional driver genetic alterations in addition to FLT3-ITD alone. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Profiling of somatic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3-ITD at diagnosis and relapse

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Yasunobu; Kanojia, Deepika; Mayakonda, Anand; Yoshida, Kenichi; Haridas Keloth, Sreya; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Okuno, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Ding, Ling-Wen; Alpermann, Tamara; Sun, Qiao-Yang; Lin, De-Chen; Chien, Wenwen; Madan, Vikas; Liu, Li-Zhen; Tan, Kar-Tong; Sampath, Abhishek; Venkatesan, Subhashree; Inokuchi, Koiti; Wakita, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Chng, Wee Joo; Kham, Shirley-Kow Yin; Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Sanada, Masashi; Schiller, Joanna; Kreuzer, Karl-Anton; Kornblau, Steven M.; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Haferlach, Torsten; Lill, Michael; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Shih, Lee-Yung; Blau, Igor-Wolfgang; Blau, Olga; Yang, Henry; Ogawa, Seishi; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation is an aggressive hematologic malignancy with a grave prognosis. To identify the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, whole-exome sequencing was performed on 13 matched diagnosis, relapse, and remission trios followed by targeted sequencing of 299 genes in 67 FLT3-ITD patients. The FLT3-ITD genome has an average of 13 mutations per sample, similar to other AML subtypes, which is a low mutation rate compared with that in solid tumors. Recurrent mutations occur in genes related to DNA methylation, chromatin, histone methylation, myeloid transcription factors, signaling, adhesion, cohesin complex, and the spliceosome. Their pattern of mutual exclusivity and cooperation among mutated genes suggests that these genes have a strong biological relationship. In addition, we identified mutations in previously unappreciated genes such as MLL3, NSD1, FAT1, FAT4, and IDH3B. Mutations in 9 genes were observed in the relapse-specific phase. DNMT3A mutations are the most stable mutations, and this DNMT3A-transformed clone can be present even in morphologic complete remissions. Of note, all AML matched trio samples shared at least 1 genomic alteration at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting common ancestral clones. Two types of clonal evolution occur at relapse: either the founder clone recurs or a subclone of the founder clone escapes from induction chemotherapy and expands at relapse by acquiring new mutations. Relapse-specific mutations displayed an increase in transversions. Functional assays demonstrated that both MLL3 and FAT1 exert tumor-suppressor activity in the FLT3-ITD subtype. An inhibitor of XPO1 synergized with standard AML induction chemotherapy to inhibit FLT3-ITD growth. This study clearly shows that FLT3-ITD AML requires additional driver genetic alterations in addition to FLT3-ITD alone. PMID:26438511

  12. Glutaminase inhibition improves FLT3 inhibitor therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Mark A; Nemkov, Travis; Reisz, Julie A; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Hansen, Kirk C; D'Alessandro, Angelo; DeGregori, James

    2017-09-22

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a blood cancer that is poorly responsive to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and a diagnosis of AML is usually fatal. More effective and better-tolerated therapies for AML are desperately needed. Activating mutations in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are one of the most frequently observed genetic defects in AML. FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors have shown impressive anti-leukemic activity in clinical trials, however, sustained remissions using these inhibitors as monotherapy have not been achieved. Our previous studies have implicated impaired glutamine metabolism in response to FLT3 inhibitors as a dominant factor causing AML cell death. In this study, we have employed metabolic flux analysis to examine the effects of FLT3 inhibition on glutamine utilization in FLT3-mutated AML cells using stable isotope tracers. We found that the FLT3 inhibitor AC220 profoundly inhibited glutamine flux into the antioxidant factor glutathione, due to defective glutamine import. Additionally, we found that the glutaminase inhibitor, CB-839, similarly impaired glutathione production by effectively blocking flux of glutamine into glutamate. Moreover, the combination of AC220 with CB-839 synergized to deplete glutathione, induce mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cause loss of viability through apoptotic cell death. In vivo, glutaminase inhibition with CB-839 facilitated leukemic cell elimination by AC220 and significantly improved survival in a patient-derived xenograft AML mouse model. Thus, targeting glutaminase in combination with FLT3 may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for improving treatment of FLT3-mutated AML. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Flt3 Does Not Play a Critical Role in Murine Myeloid Leukemias Induced by MLL Fusion Genes

    PubMed Central

    Albouhair, Stéphanie; Morgado, Ester; Lavau, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Leukemias harboring MLL translocations are frequent in children and adults, and respond poorly to therapies. The receptor tyrosine kinase FLT3 is highly expressed in these leukemias. In vitro studies have shown that pediatric MLL-rearranged ALL cells are sensitive to FLT3 inhibitors and clinical trials are ongoing to measure their therapeutic efficacy. We sought to determine the contribution of Flt3 in the pathogenesis of MLL-rearranged leukemias using a myeloid leukemia mouse model. Bone marrow from Flt3 null mice transduced with MLL-ENL or MLL-CBP was transplanted into host mice and Flt3−/− leukemias were compared to their Flt3 wild type counterparts. Flt3 deficiency did not delay disease onset and had minimal impact on leukemia characteristics. To determine the anti-leukemic effect of FLT3 inhibition we studied the sensitivity of MLL-ENL leukemia cells to the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412 ex vivo. As previously reported for human MLL-rearranged leukemias, murine MLL-ENL leukemia cells with higher Flt3 levels were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of PKC412. Interestingly, Flt3 deficient leukemia samples also displayed some sensitivity to PKC412. Our findings demonstrate that myeloid leukemias induced by MLL-rearranged genes are not dependent upon Flt3 signaling. They also highlight the discrepancy between the sensitivity of cells to Flt3 inhibition in vitro and the lack of contribution of Flt3 to the pathogenesis of MLL-rearranged leukemias in vivo. PMID:23977266

  14. An essential pathway links FLT3-ITD, HCK and CDK6 in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Sophie; Voisset, Edwige; Tisserand, Julie C.; Mosca, Cyndie; Prebet, Thomas; Santamaria, David; Dubreuil, Patrice; Sepulveda, Paulo De

    2016-01-01

    CDK4/CDK6 and RB proteins drive the progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the activity of the CDK/Cyclin D complex is increased. The mechanism involved is unknown, as are the respective roles played by CDK4 or CDK6 in this process. Here, we report that AML cells carrying FLT3-ITD mutations are dependent on CDK6 for cell proliferation while CDK4 is not essential. We showed that FLT3-ITD signaling is responsible for CDK6 overexpression, through a pathway involving the SRC-family kinase HCK. Accordingly, FLT3-ITD failed to transform primary hematopoietic progenitor cells from Cdk6−/− mice. Our results demonstrate that CDK6 is the primary target of CDK4/CDK6 inhibitors in FLT3-ITD positive AML. Furthermore, we delineate an essential protein kinase pathway -FLT3/HCK/CDK6- in the context of AML with FLT3-ITD mutations. PMID:27323399

  15. Oncogenic roles of PRL-3 in FLT3-ITD induced acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhou, Jian Biao; Al-Aidaroos, Abdul Qader O; Guo, Ke; Valk, Peter J; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chng, Wee Joo; Hong, Cheng William; Mills, Ken; Zeng, Qi

    2013-09-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations are prevalent mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. This study investigates the regulation and function of PRL-3 in leukaemia cell lines and AML patients associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. PRL-3 expression is upregulated by the FLT3-STAT5 signalling pathway in leukaemia cells, leading an activation of AP-1 transcription factors via ERK and JNK pathways. PRL-3-depleted AML cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth. Clinically, high PRL-3 mRNA expression was associated with FLT3-ITD mutations in four independent AML datasets with 1158 patients. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis on our Cohort 1 with 221 patients identified PRL-3 as a novel prognostic marker independent of other clinical parameters. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed high PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival among 491 patients with normal karyotype. Targeting PRL-3 reversed the oncogenic effects in FLT3-ITD AML models in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we suggest that PRL-3 could serve as a prognostic marker to predict poorer survival and as a promising novel therapeutic target for AML patients.

  16. Regulation of the Flt3 Gene in Haematopoietic Stem and Early Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Giacomo; Walton, David Scott; Vegiopoulos, Alexandros; Del Pozzo, Walter; O’Neill, Laura Patricia; Frampton, Jonathan; Dumon, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    The MYB transcription factor plays critical roles in normal and malignant haematopoiesis. We previously showed that MYB was a direct activator of FLT3 expression within the context of acute myeloid leukaemia. During normal haematopoiesis, increasing levels of FLT3 expression determine a strict hierarchy within the haematopoietic stem and early progenitor compartment, which associates with lymphoid and myeloid commitment potential. We use the conditional deletion of the Myb gene to investigate the influence of MYB in Flt3 transcriptional regulation within the haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) hierarchy. In accordance with previous report, in vivo deletion of Myb resulted in rapid biased differentiation of HSC with concomitant loss of proliferation capacity. We find that loss of MYB activity also coincided with decreased FLT3 expression. At the chromatin level, the Flt3 promoter is primed in immature HSC, but occupancy of further intronic elements determines expression. Binding to these locations, MYB and C/EBPα need functional cooperation to activate transcription of the locus. This cooperation is cell context dependent and indicates that MYB and C/EBPα activities are inter-dependent in controlling Flt3 expression to influence lineage commitment of multipotential progenitors. PMID:26382271

  17. Oncogenic roles of PRL-3 in FLT3-ITD induced acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Eun; Yuen, Hiu Fung; Zhou, Jian Biao; Al-aidaroos, Abdul Qader O; Guo, Ke; Valk, Peter J; Zhang, Shu Dong; Chng, Wee Joo; Hong, Cheng William; Mills, Ken; Zeng, Qi

    2013-01-01

    FLT3-ITD mutations are prevalent mutations in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). PRL-3, a metastasis-associated phosphatase, is a downstream target of FLT3-ITD. This study investigates the regulation and function of PRL-3 in leukaemia cell lines and AML patients associated with FLT3-ITD mutations. PRL-3 expression is upregulated by the FLT3-STAT5 signalling pathway in leukaemia cells, leading an activation of AP-1 transcription factors via ERK and JNK pathways. PRL-3-depleted AML cells showed a significant decrease in cell growth. Clinically, high PRL-3 mRNA expression was associated with FLT3-ITD mutations in four independent AML datasets with 1158 patients. Multivariable Cox-regression analysis on our Cohort 1 with 221 patients identified PRL-3 as a novel prognostic marker independent of other clinical parameters. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed high PRL-3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with poorer survival among 491 patients with normal karyotype. Targeting PRL-3 reversed the oncogenic effects in FLT3-ITD AML models in vitro and in vivo. Herein, we suggest that PRL-3 could serve as a prognostic marker to predict poorer survival and as a promising novel therapeutic target for AML patients. PMID:23929599

  18. SKLB-677, an FLT3 and Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, displays potent activity in models of FLT3-driven AML

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shuang; Yang, Ling-Ling; Niu, Ting; Cheng, Chuan; Zhong, Lei; Zheng, Ming-Wu; Xiong, Yu; Li, Lin-Li; Xiang, Rong; Chen, Li-Juan; Zhou, Qiao; Wei, Yu-Quan; Yang, Sheng-Yong

    2015-01-01

    FLT3 has been identified as a valid target for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and some FLT3 inhibitors have shown very good efficacy in treating AML in clinical trials. Nevertheless, recent studies indicated that relapse and drug resistance are still difficult to avoid, and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are considered one of the most important contributors. Here, we report the characterization of SKLB-677, a new FLT3 inhibitor developed by us recently. SKLB-677 exhibits low nanomolar potency in biochemical and cellular assays. It is efficacious in animal models at doses as low as 1mg/kg when administrated orally once daily. In particular, SKLB-677 but not first-generation and second-generation FLT3 inhibitors in clinical trials has the ability to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling; Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for the development of LSCs, but not necessary for the development of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). This compound indeed showed considerable suppression effects on leukemia stem-like cells in in vitro functional assays, but had no influence on normal HSCs. Collectively, SKLB-677 is an interesting lead compound for the treatment of AML, and deserves further investigations. PMID:26497577

  19. Quantitative trait mapping reveals a regulatory axis involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PRDM16, transforming growth factor-β2 and FLT3 in hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Avagyan, Serine; Aguilo, Francesca; Kamezaki, Kenjiro

    2011-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is the process whereby BM HSCs renew to maintain their number or to differentiate into committed progenitors to generate all blood cells. One approach to gain mechanistic insight into this complex process is the investigation of quantitative genetic variation in hematopoietic function among inbred mouse strains. We previously showed that TGF-β2 is a genetically determined positive regulator of hematopoiesis. In the presence of unknown nonprotein serum factors TGF-β2, but not TGF-β1 or -β3, enhances progenitor proliferation in vitro, an effect that is subject to mouse strain-dependent variation mapping to a locus on chr.4, Tb2r1. TGF-β2–deficient mice show hematopoietic defects, demonstrating the physiologic role of this cytokine. Here, we show that TGF-β2 specifically and predominantly cell autonomously enhances signaling by FLT3 in vitro and in vivo. A coding polymorphism in Prdm16 (PR-domain-containing 16) underlies Tb2r1 and differentially regulates transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), identifying lipid PPAR ligands as the serum factors required for regulation of FLT3 signaling by TGF-β2. We furthermore show that PPARγ agonists play a FLT3-dependent role in stress responses of progenitor cells. These observations identify a novel regulatory axis that includes PPARs, Prdm16, and TGF-β2 in hematopoiesis. PMID:21967974

  20. Quantitative trait mapping reveals a regulatory axis involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PRDM16, transforming growth factor-β2 and FLT3 in hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Serine; Aguilo, Francesca; Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

    2011-12-01

    Hematopoiesis is the process whereby BM HSCs renew to maintain their number or to differentiate into committed progenitors to generate all blood cells. One approach to gain mechanistic insight into this complex process is the investigation of quantitative genetic variation in hematopoietic function among inbred mouse strains. We previously showed that TGF-β2 is a genetically determined positive regulator of hematopoiesis. In the presence of unknown nonprotein serum factors TGF-β2, but not TGF-β1 or -β3, enhances progenitor proliferation in vitro, an effect that is subject to mouse strain-dependent variation mapping to a locus on chr.4, Tb2r1. TGF-β2-deficient mice show hematopoietic defects, demonstrating the physiologic role of this cytokine. Here, we show that TGF-β2 specifically and predominantly cell autonomously enhances signaling by FLT3 in vitro and in vivo. A coding polymorphism in Prdm16 (PR-domain-containing 16) underlies Tb2r1 and differentially regulates transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), identifying lipid PPAR ligands as the serum factors required for regulation of FLT3 signaling by TGF-β2. We furthermore show that PPARγ agonists play a FLT3-dependent role in stress responses of progenitor cells. These observations identify a novel regulatory axis that includes PPARs, Prdm16, and TGF-β2 in hematopoiesis.

  1. Quaternary structures of HIV Env immunogen exhibit conformational vicissitudes and interface diminution elicited by ligand binding

    PubMed Central

    Moscoso, Carlos G.; Sun, Yide; Poon, Selina; Xing, Li; Kan, Elaine; Martin, Loïc; Green, Dominik; Lin, Frank; Vahlne, Anders G.; Barnett, Susan; Srivastava, Indresh; Cheng, R. Holland

    2011-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein is the key element mediating entry into host cells. Conformational rearrangement of Env upon binding to the host CD4 receptor and chemokine coreceptor drives membrane fusion. We elucidated the quaternary arrangement of the soluble Env trimeric immunogen o-gp140ΔV2TV1, in both its native (unliganded) and CD4-induced (liganded) states by cryoelectron microscopy and molecular modeling. The liganded conformation was elicited by binding gp140 to the synthetic CD4-mimicking miniprotein CD4m. Upon CD4m binding, an outward domain shift of the three gp120 subunits diminishes gp120–gp41 interactions, whereas a “flat open” concave trimer apex is observed consequent to gp120 tilting away from threefold axis, likely juxtaposing the fusion peptide with the host membrane. Additional features observed in the liganded conformation include rotations of individual gp120 subunits that may release gp41 for N- and C-helix refolding and also may lead to optimal exposure of the elicited coreceptor binding site. Such quaternary arrangements of gp140 lead to the metastable liganded conformation, with putative locations of exposed epitopes contributing to a description of sequential events occurring prior to membrane fusion. Our observations imply a mechanism whereby a soluble Env trimeric construct, as opposed to trimers extracted from virions, may better expose crucial epitopes such as the CD4 binding site and V3, as well as epitopes in the vicinity of gp41, subsequent to conjugation with CD4m. Structural features gleaned from our studies should aid the design of Env-based immunogens for inducement of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies against exposed conformational epitopes. PMID:21444771

  2. Deletion and deletion/insertion mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Kristin K.; Smonskey, Matthew T.; DeFedericis, HanChun; Deeb, George; Sait, Sheila N.J.; Wetzler, Meir; Wang, Eunice S.; Starostik, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to FLT3 ITD mutations, in-frame deletions in the FLT3 gene have rarely been described in adult acute leukemia. We report two cases of AML with uncommon in-frame mutations in the juxtamembrane domain of the FLT3 gene: a 3-bp (c.1770_1774delCTACGinsGT; p.F590_V592delinsLF) deletion/insertion and a 12-bp (c.1780_1791delTTCAGAGAATAT; p.F594_Y597del) deletion. We verified by sequencing that the reading frame of the FLT3 gene was preserved and by cDNA analysis that the mRNA of the mutant allele was expressed in both cases. Given the recent development of FLT3 inhibitors, our findings may be of therapeutic value for AML patients harboring similar FLT3 mutations. PMID:25379410

  3. Flt3 is a target of coumestrol in protecting against UVB-induced skin photoaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Gaeun; Baek, Sohee; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lim, Tae-gyu; Lee, Charles C; Yang, Hee; Kang, Young-Gyu; Park, Jun Seong; Augustin, Martin; Mrosek, Michael; Lee, Chang Yong; Dong, Zigang; Huber, Robert; Lee, Ki Won

    2015-12-01

    While skin aging is a naturally occurring process by senescence, exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation accelerates wrinkle formation and sagging of skin. UV induces skin aging by degrading collagen via activating matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we show that coumestrol, a metabolite of the soybean isoflavone daidzein, has a preventive effect on skin photoaging in three-dimensional human skin equivalent model. Coumestrol inhibited UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and activity. Whole human kinase profiling assay identified FLT3 kinase as a novel target protein of coumestrol in UVB-induced signaling pathway in skin. Coumestrol suppresses FLT3 kinase activity, and subsequently, Ras/MEK/ERK and Akt/p70 ribosomal S6 kinase pathway. This suppresses AP-1 activity and in turn, diminishes MMP-1 gene transcription. Using X-ray crystallography, the binding of coumestrol to FLT3 was defined and implied ATP-competitive inhibition. Residues Lys644 and Phe830 showed local changes to accommodate coumestrol in the ATP-binding pocket. 4-APIA, a pharmacological inhibitor of FLT3, inhibited MMP-1 expression and induced signal transduction changes similar to coumestrol. Taken together, coumestrol inhibits UVB-induced MMP-1 expression by suppressing FLT3 kinase activity. These findings suggest that coumestrol is a novel dietary compound with potential application in preventing and improving UVB-associated skin aging.

  4. FLT3-ITD Mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kumsaen, Piyawan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Sirijerachai, Chittima; Chainansamit, Su-On; Wisanuyothin, Nittaya; Kuwatjanakul, Pichayanan; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2016-01-01

    The FLT3-ITD mutation is one of the most frequent genetic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) where it is associated with a poor prognosis. The FLT3-ITD mutation could, therefore, be a potential molecular prognostic marker important for risk-stratified treatment options. We amplified the FLT3 gene at exon 14 and 15 in 52 AML patients (aged between 2 months and 74 years) from 4 referral centers (a university hospital and 3 regional hospitals in Northeast Thailand), using a simple PCR method. FLT3-ITD mutations were found in 10 patients (19.2%), being more common in adults than in children (21.1% vs. 14.3%) and more prevalent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3) than AML-non M3 (4 of 10 AML-M3 vs. 6 of 42 AML- non M3 patients). Duplication sequences varied in size-between 27 and 171 nucleotides (median=63.5) and in their location. FLT3-ITD mutations with common duplication sequences accounted for a significant percentage in AML patients in northeastern Thailand. This simple PCR method is feasible for routine laboratory practice and these data could help tailor use of the national protocol for AML.

  5. Single cell analysis exposes intratumor heterogeneity and suggests that FLT3-ITD is a late event in leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shouval, Roni; Shlush, Liran I; Yehudai-Resheff, Shlomit; Ali, Shahnaz; Pery, Neta; Shapiro, Ehud; Tzukerman, Maty; Rowe, Jacob M; Zuckerman, Tsila

    2014-06-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) commonly occurs in acute myeloid leukemia and is considered rare in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Acute leukemia has poor prognosis, mainly due to relapse. Standard FLT3-ITD diagnostic techniques are based on genomic polymerase chain reaction and have recently incorporated GeneScan (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) to identify variations of the FLT3 gene. As this is an average-based assay utilized in a heterogeneous leukemic cell population, we hypothesized that cells of acute leukemia, considered FLT3-ITD-negative by standard methods, could possess a fraction of FLT3-ITD-positive cells. The present study employed single cell mutation analysis to evaluate the FLT3-ITD status in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (n = 5) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (n = 3) patients. A total of 541 single leukemic cells and 36 mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers were analyzed. Seven patients, considered FLT3-ITD-negative according to bulk DNA analysis, appeared to possess a small fraction of FLT3-ITD-positive cells based on single cell analysis. Moreover, this approach revealed the heterogeneity of the tumor as evident by different FLT3-ITD mutations present in the same patient. The presence of a minor clone carrying FLT3-ITD in almost all patients tested provides evidence that this lesion is a common late event in leukemogenesis. Additionally, 3 relapsed patients demonstrated loss of heterozygosity of the normal allele, affecting 25%-100% of the cells found to be FLT3-ITD-positive. Though further clinical testing is warranted, these findings may have implications on the prognostic significance of FLT3-ITD and the use of targeted therapy. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. FLT3 is implicated in cytarabine transport by human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 in pediatric acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Català, Albert; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Caviedes-Cárdenas, Liska; Malatesta, Roberta; Rives, Susana; Vega-García, Nerea

    2016-01-01

    FLT3 abnormalities are negative prognostic markers in acute leukemia. Infant leukemias are a subgroup with frequent MLL (KMT2A) rearrangements, FLT3 overexpression and high sensitivity to cytarabine, but dismal prognosis. Cytarabine is transported into cells by Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter-1 (hENT1, SLC29A1), but the mechanisms that regulate hENT1 in acute leukemia have been scarcely studied. We explored the expression and functional link between FLT3 and main cytarabine transporters in 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL rearrangement (ALL-MLL+) and other subtypes of leukemia, and in leukemia cell lines. A significant positive correlation was found between FLT3 and hENT1 expression in patients. Cytarabine uptake into cells was mediated mainly by hENT1, hENT2 and hCNT1. hENT1-mediated uptake of cytarabine was transiently abolished by the FLT3 inhibitor PKC412, and this effect was associated with decreased hENT1 mRNA and protein levels. Noticeably, the cytotoxicity of cytarabine was lower when cells were first exposed to FLT3 inhibitors (PKC412 or AC220), probably due to decreased hENT1 activity, but we observed a higher cytotoxic effect if FLT3 inhibitors were administered after cytarabine. FLT3 regulates hENT1 activity and thereby affects cytarabine cytotoxicity. The sequence of administration of cytarabine and FLT3 inhibitors is important to maintain their efficacy. PMID:27391351

  7. Niche-mediated depletion of the normal hematopoietic stem cell reservoir by Flt3-ITD–induced myeloproliferation

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Sahoko; Thongjuea, Supat; Jamieson, Lauren; Atkinson, Deborah; Kharazi, Shabnam; Suda, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Although previous studies suggested that the expression of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) initiates downstream of mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), FLT3 internal tandem duplications (FLT3 ITDs) have recently been suggested to intrinsically suppress HSCs. Herein, single-cell interrogation found Flt3 mRNA expression to be absent in the large majority of phenotypic HSCs, with a strong negative correlation between Flt3 and HSC-associated gene expression. Flt3-ITD knock-in mice showed reduced numbers of phenotypic HSCs, with an even more severe loss of long-term repopulating HSCs, likely reflecting the presence of non-HSCs within the phenotypic HSC compartment. Competitive transplantation experiments established that Flt3-ITD compromises HSCs through an extrinsically mediated mechanism of disrupting HSC-supporting bone marrow stromal cells, with reduced numbers of endothelial and mesenchymal stromal cells showing increased inflammation-associated gene expression. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a cell-extrinsic potent negative regulator of HSCs, was overexpressed in bone marrow niche cells from FLT3-ITD mice, and anti-TNF treatment partially rescued the HSC phenotype. These findings, which establish that Flt3-ITD–driven myeloproliferation results in cell-extrinsic suppression of the normal HSC reservoir, are of relevance for several aspects of acute myeloid leukemia biology. PMID:28637883

  8. Evolution of a FLT3-TKD mutated subclone at meningeal relapse in acute promyelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bochtler, Tilmann; Fröhling, Stefan; Weichert, Wilko; Endris, Volker; Thiede, Christian; Hutter, Barbara; Hundemer, Michael; Ho, Anthony D.; Krämer, Alwin

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the case of an acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patient who—although negative for FLT3 mutations at diagnosis—developed isolated FLT3 tyrosine kinase II domain (FLT3-TKD)-positive meningeal relapse, which, in retrospect, could be traced back to a minute bone marrow subclone present at first diagnosis. Initially, the 48-yr-old female diagnosed with high-risk APL had achieved complete molecular remission after standard treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy according to the AIDA (ATRA plus idarubicin) protocol. Thirteen months after the start of ATRA maintenance, the patient suffered clinically overt meningeal relapse along with minute molecular traces of PML/RARA (promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha) in the bone marrow. Following treatment with arsenic trioxide and ATRA in combination with intrathecal cytarabine and methotrexate, the patient achieved a complete molecular remission in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and bone marrow, which currently lasts for 2 yr after completion of therapy. Whole-exome sequencing and subsequent ultradeep targeted resequencing revealed a heterozygous FLT3-TKD mutation in CSF leukemic cells (p.D835Y, c.2503G>T, 1000/1961 reads [51%]), which was undetectable in the concurrent bone marrow sample. Interestingly, the FLT3-TKD mutated meningeal clone originated from a small bone marrow subclone present in a variant allele frequency of 0.4% (6/1553 reads) at initial diagnosis. This case highlights the concept of clonal evolution with a subclone harboring an additional mutation being selected as the “fittest” and leading to meningeal relapse. It also further supports earlier suggestions that FLT3 mutations may play a role for migration and clonal expansion in the CSF sanctuary site. PMID:27626069

  9. Differential requirement for wild-type Flt3 in leukemia initiation among mouse models of human leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kamezaki, Kenjiro; Luchsinger, Larry L; Snoeck, Hans-Willem

    2014-03-01

    FLT3 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in acute leukemias. However, the role in leukemogenesis of wild-type (wt) FLT3, which is highly expressed in many hematologic malignancies, is unclear. We show here that in mouse models established by retroviral transduction of leukemic fusion proteins, deletion of Flt3 strongly inhibits MLL-ENL and to lesser extent p210(BCR-ABL)-induced leukemogenesis, but has no effect in MLL-AF9 or AML1-ETO9a models. Flt3 acts at the level of leukemic stem cells (LSCs), as a fraction of LSCs in MLL-ENL, but not in MLL-AF9-induced leukemia, expressed Flt3 in vivo, and Flt3 expression on LSCs was associated with leukemia development in this model. Furthermore, efficiency of MLL-ENL, but not of MLL-AF9-induced leukemia induction was significantly enhanced after transduction of Flt3(+) compared to Flt3(-) wt myeloid progenitors. However, Flt3 is not required for immortalization of bone marrow cells in vitro by MLL-ENL and does not affect colony formation by MLL-ENL LSCs in vitro, suggesting that in vitro models do not reflect the in vivo biology of MLL-ENL leukemia with respect to Flt3 requirement. We conclude that wt Flt3 plays a role in leukemia initiation in vivo, which is, however, not universal. Copyright © 2014 ISEH - Society for Hematology and Stem Cells. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Applications of microchip electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for screening FLT3-ITD gene mutation in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Leng, Xin; Li, Ling-Di; Li, Jin-Lan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of microchip electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for screening FLT3-ITD gene mutation in acute myeloid leukemia. The FLT3-ITD mutation in the genomic DNA samples from 214 untreated AML patients were separately detected by PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis, then the DNA direct sequencing analysis was carried out. The results from PCR-microchip electrophoresis showed that there were 151 FLT3-ITD mutation negative, 58 FLT3-ITD mutation positive (58/214, 27.1%) and 5 FLT3-ITD mutation doubtful positive (5/214, 2.3%), while the outcomes from PCR-capillary electrophoresis displayed that there were 147 FLT3-ITD mutation negative and 67 FLT3-ITD mutation positive (67/214, 31.3%) without doubtful positive. In the 67 FLT3-ITD mutation positive samples detected by using PCR-capillary electrophoresis, 4 samples were detected as the negative while 5 samples were measured as the doubtful positive by using PCR-microchip electrophoresis. The followed sequencing analysis demonstrated that the above 9 samples were all FLT3-ITD mutation positive, indicating that PCR-capillary electrophoresis was more accurate and sensitive in screening the FLT3-ITD mutation, although statistic analysis showed that there were no significant differences in the detected results between PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis groups (Pearson Chi-squared Test, P > 0.05). It is concluded that both PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis were convenient and fast for screening FLT3-ITD mutation, but the accuracy of PCR-microchip electrophoresis awaits further improvement.

  11. The Flt3 Internal Tandem Duplication Alters Chemotherapy Response In Vitro and In Vivo in a p53-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pardee, Timothy S.; Zuber, Johannes; Lowe, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The FLT3 internal tandem duplication (Flt3-ITD) confers a worse prognosis for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. As AML is treated with cytarabine (Ara-C) and an anthracycline we sought to determine the effects of the Flt3-ITD on response to these agents. Methods A genetically defined mouse model of AML was used to examine the effects of the Flt3-ITD on response to cytarabine and doxorubicin in vitro and in vivo. Results In vitro, the Flt3-ITD conferred resistance to doxorubicin and doxorubicin plus Ara-C, but sensitivity to Ara-C alone. This resistance was reversible by the Flt3-ITD inhibitor sorafenib. The Flt3-ITD did not affect DNA damage levels following treatment but was associated with increased levels of p53. The p53 response was critical to the observed changes as the Flt3-ITD had no effect on chemotherapy response in the setting of p53 null AML. In vivo, the Flt3-ITD accelerated engraftment that was partially reversible by Ara-C but not doxorubicin. Additionally, Ara-C provided a significant reduction in disease burden and a survival advantage that was not increased by the addition of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin alone lead to only minimal disease reduction and no survival benefit. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the Flt3-ITD confers sensitivity to cytarabine, but resistance to doxorubicin in a manner that depends on p53. Thus, patients with Flt3-ITD positive AML may not benefit from treatment with an anthracycline. PMID:21288478

  12. Selective FLT3 inhibitor FI-700 neutralizes Mcl-1 and enhances p53-mediated apoptosis in AML cells with activating mutations of FLT3 through Mcl-1/Noxa axis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, K; Konopleva, M; Tsao, T; Andreeff, M; Ishida, H; Shiotsu, Y; Jin, L; Tabe, Y; Nakakuma, H

    2010-01-01

    Treatment using Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) inhibitors is a promising approach to overcome the dismal prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with activating FLT3 mutations. Current trials are combining FLT3 inhibitors with p53-activating conventional chemotherapy. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of FLT3 inhibitors are poorly understood. We investigated the interaction of FLT3 and p53 pathways after their simultaneous blockade using the selective FLT3 inhibitor FI-700 and the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 in AML. We found that FI-700 immediately reduced antiapoptotic Mcl-1 levels and enhanced Nutlin-induced p53-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in FLT3/internal tandem duplication cells through the Mcl-1/Noxa axis. FI-700 induced proteasome-mediated degradation of Mcl-1, resulting in the reduced ability of Mcl-1 to sequester proapoptotic Bim. Nutlin-3 induced Noxa, which displaced Bim from Mcl-1. The FI-700/Nutlin-3 combination profoundly activated Bax and induced apoptosis. Our findings suggest that FI-700 actively enhances p53 signaling toward mitochondrial apoptosis and that a combination strategy aimed at inhibiting FLT3 and activating p53 signaling could potentially be effective in AML.

  13. Efficacy of a Mer and Flt3 tyrosine kinase small molecule inhibitor, UNC1666, in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Sherick, Alisa B.; Zhang, Weihe; Menachof, Kelly K.; Hill, Amanda A.; Rinella, Sean; Kirkpatrick, Gregory; Page, Lauren S.; Stashko, Michael A.; Jordan, Craig T.; Wei, Qi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Dehui; DeRyckere, Deborah; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen; Earp, H. Shelton; Graham, Douglas K.

    2015-01-01

    Mer and Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated as therapeutic targets in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this manuscript we describe UNC1666, a novel ATP-competitive small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which potently diminishes Mer and Flt3 phosphorylation in AML. Treatment with UNC1666 mediated biochemical and functional effects in AML cell lines expressing Mer or Flt3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), including decreased phosphorylation of Mer, Flt3 and downstream effectors Stat, Akt and Erk, induction of apoptosis in up to 98% of cells, and reduction of colony formation by greater than 90%, compared to treatment with vehicle. These effects were dose-dependent, with inhibition of downstream signaling and functional effects correlating with the degree of Mer or Flt3 kinase inhibition. Treatment of primary AML patient samples expressing Mer and/or Flt3-ITD with UNC1666 also inhibited Mer and Flt3 intracellular signaling, induced apoptosis, and inhibited colony formation. In summary, UNC1666 is a novel potent small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that decreases oncogenic signaling and myeloblast survival, thereby validating dual Mer/Flt3 inhibition as an attractive treatment strategy for AML. PMID:25762638

  14. Plasma inhibitory activity (PIA): a pharmacodynamic assay reveals insights into the basis for cytotoxic response to FLT3 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Mark; Brown, Patrick; Smith, B. Douglas; Stine, Adam; Pham, Rosalyn; Stone, Richard; DeAngelo, Daniel; Galinsky, Ilene; Giles, Frank; Estey, Elihu; Kantarjian, Hagop; Cohen, Pamela; Wang, Yanfeng; Roesel, Johannes; Karp, Judith E.; Small, Donald

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a useful surrogate assay for monitoring the efficacy of FLT3 inhibition in patients treated with oral FLT3 inhibitors. The plasma inhibitory activity (PIA) for FLT3 correlates with clinical activity in patients treated with CEP-701 and PKC412. Using the PIA assay, along with in vitro phosphorylation and cytotoxicity assays in leukemia cells, we compared PKC412 and its metabolite, CGP52421, with CEP-701. While both drugs could effectively inhibit FLT3 in vitro, CEP-701 was more cytotoxic to primary samples at comparable levels of FLT3 inhibition. PKC412 appears to be more selective than CEP-701 and therefore less effective at inducing cytotoxicity in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples in vitro. However, the PKC412 metabolite CGP52421 is less selective than its parent compound, PKC412, and is more cytotoxic against primary blast samples at comparable levels of FLT3 inhibition. The plasma inhibitory activity assay represents a useful correlative tool in the development of small-molecule inhibitors. Our application of this assay has revealed that the metabolite CGP52421 may contribute a significant portion of the antileukemia activity observed in patients receiving oral PKC412. Additionally, our results suggest that nonselectivity may constitute an important component of the cytotoxic effect of FLT3 inhibitors in FLT3-mutant AML. PMID:16857987

  15. Chronic FLT3-ITD Signaling in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Is Connected to a Specific Chromatin Signature

    PubMed Central

    Cauchy, Pierre; James, Sally R.; Zacarias-Cabeza, Joaquin; Ptasinska, Anetta; Imperato, Maria Rosaria; Assi, Salam A.; Piper, Jason; Canestraro, Martina; Hoogenkamp, Maarten; Raghavan, Manoj; Loke, Justin; Akiki, Susanna; Clokie, Samuel J.; Richards, Stephen J.; Westhead, David R.; Griffiths, Michael J.; Ott, Sascha; Bonifer, Constanze; Cockerill, Peter N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by recurrent mutations that affect the epigenetic regulatory machinery and signaling molecules, leading to a block in hematopoietic differentiation. Constitutive signaling from mutated growth factor receptors is a major driver of leukemic growth, but how aberrant signaling affects the epigenome in AML is less understood. Furthermore, AML cells undergo extensive clonal evolution, and the mutations in signaling genes are often secondary events. To elucidate how chronic growth factor signaling alters the transcriptional network in AML, we performed a system-wide multi-omics study of primary cells from patients suffering from AML with internal tandem duplications in the FLT3 transmembrane domain (FLT3-ITD). This strategy revealed cooperation between the MAP kinase (MAPK) inducible transcription factor AP-1 and RUNX1 as a major driver of a common, FLT3-ITD-specific gene expression and chromatin signature, demonstrating a major impact of MAPK signaling pathways in shaping the epigenome of FLT3-ITD AML. PMID:26212328

  16. FLT3 and NPM-1 mutations in a cohort of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients from India

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Suchitra; Garg, Swati; Madkaikar, Manisha; Gupta, Maya; Jijina, Farah; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with t (15;17) is a distinct category of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is reported to show better response to anthracyclin based chemotherapy. A favorable overall prognosis over other subtypes of AML has been reported for APL patients but still about 15% patients relapse. Methods: This study evaluated the presence of Famus like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) and nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) gene mutations in a cohort of 40 APL patients. Bone marrow/peripheral blood samples from patients at the time of diagnosis and follow-up were processed for immunophenotyping, cytogenetic markers and isolation of DNA and RNA. Samples were screened for the presence of mutations in FLT3 and NPM1 genes using polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing. Results: Frequency of FLT3/internal tandem duplication and FLT3/tyrosine kinase domain was found to be 25% and 7% respectively. We observed a high frequency of NPM1 mutation (45%) in the present population of APL patients. PMID:25400345

  17. Facile identification of dual FLT3-Aurora A inhibitors: a computer-guided drug design approach.

    PubMed

    Chang Hsu, Yung; Ke, Yi-Yu; Shiao, Hui-Yi; Lee, Chieh-Chien; Lin, Wen-Hsing; Chen, Chun-Hwa; Yen, Kuei-Jung; Hsu, John T-A; Chang, Chungming; Hsieh, Hsing-Pang

    2014-05-01

    Computer-guided drug design is a powerful tool for drug discovery. Herein we disclose the use of this approach for the discovery of dual FMS-like receptor tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-Aurora A inhibitors against cancer. An Aurora hit compound was selected as a starting point, from which 288 virtual molecules were screened. Subsequently, some of these were synthesized and evaluated for their capacity to inhibit FLT3 and Aurora kinase A. To further enhance FLT3 inhibition, structure-activity relationship studies of the lead compound were conducted through a simplification strategy and bioisosteric replacement, followed by the use of computer-guided drug design to prioritize molecules bearing a variety of different terminal groups in terms of favorable binding energy. Selected compounds were then synthesized, and their bioactivity was evaluated. Of these, one novel inhibitor was found to exhibit excellent inhibition of FLT3 and Aurora kinase A and exert a dramatic antiproliferative effect on MOLM-13 and MV4-11 cells, with an IC50 value of 7 nM. Accordingly, it is considered a highly promising candidate for further development.

  18. A Novel Tandem Duplication Assay to Detect Minimal Residual Disease in FLT3/ITD AML

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Tseng, Li-Hui; Dudley, Jonathan C.; Riel, Stacey; Tsai, Harrison; Zheng, Gang; Pratz, Keith W.; Levis, Mark J.; Gocke, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Internal tandem duplication (ITD) of the FLT3 gene is associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with a normal karyotype. The current standard PCR assay for FLT3/ITD detection is not sufficiently sensitive to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD). Clone-specific assays may have sufficient sensitivity but are not practical to implement, since each clone-specific primer/probe requires clinical validation. Objective To develop an assay for clinical molecular diagnostics laboratories to monitor MRD in FLT3/ITD AMLs. Methods We designed a simple novel assay, tandem duplication PCR (TD-PCR), and tested its sensitivity, specificity and clinical utility in FLT3/ITD AML patients. Results TD-PCR was capable of detecting a single ITD molecule and was applicable to 75% of ITD mutants tested. TD-PCR detected MRD in bone marrow prior to patient relapse. TD-PCR also identified low level ITD mutants not only in FLT3/ITD AMLs but also in initial diagnostic specimens reportedly negative by the standard assay in patients who progressed with the same ITDs detected by the TD-PCR assay. Conclusion Detection of MRD by TD-PCR may guide patient selection for early clinical intervention. In contrast to clone-specific approaches, TD-PCR assay can be more easily validated for MRD detection in clinical laboratories due to standardized primers and a universal positive control. In addition, our results on multi-clonality and low-level ITDs suggest that further studies are warranted to elucidate their clinical/biological significance. PMID:26446915

  19. Functional Pathway Analysis Using SCNP of FLT3 Receptor Pathway Deregulation in AML Provides Prognostic Information Independent from Mutational Status

    PubMed Central

    Cesano, Alessandra; Putta, Santosh; Rosen, David B.; Cohen, Aileen C.; Gayko, Urte; Mathi, Kavita; Woronicz, John; Hawtin, Rachael E.; Cripe, Larry; Sun, Zhuoxin; Tallman, Martin S.; Paietta, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (FLT3) internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations result in constitutive activation of this receptor and have been shown to increase the risk of relapse in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, substantial heterogeneity in clinical outcomes still exists within both the ITD mutated and unmutated AML subgroups, suggesting alternative mechanisms of disease relapse not accounted by FLT3 mutational status. Single cell network profiling (SCNP) is a multiparametric flow cytometry based assay that simultaneously measures, in a quantitative fashion and at the single cell level, both extracellular surface marker levels and changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to extracellular modulators. We previously reported an initial characterization of FLT3 ITD-mediated signaling using SCNP. Herein SCNP was applied sequentially to two separate cohorts of samples collected from elderly AML patients at diagnosis. In the first (training) study, AML samples carrying unmutated, wild-type FLT3 (FLT3 WT) displayed a wide range of induced signaling, with a fraction having signaling profiles comparable to FLT3 ITD AML samples. Conversely, the FLT3 ITD AML samples displayed more homogeneous induced signaling, with the exception of patients with low (<40%) mutational load, which had profiles comparable to FLT3 WT AML samples. This observation was then confirmed in an independent (verification) cohort. Data from the second cohort were also used to assess the association between SCNP data and disease-free survival (DFS) in the context of FLT3 and nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutational status among patients who achieved complete remission (CR) to induction chemotherapy. The combination of SCNP read outs together with FLT3 and NPM1 molecular status improved the DFS prediction accuracy of the latter. Taken together, these results emphasize the value of comprehensive functional assessment of biologically relevant signaling pathways in AML

  20. Knock-in of an internal tandem duplication mutation into murine FLT3 confers myeloproliferative disease in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Piloto, Obdulio; Nguyen, Ho Bao; Greenberg, Kathleen; Takamiya, Kogo; Racke, Frederick; Huso, David; Small, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Constitutive activation of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) by internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations is one of the most common molecular alterations known in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To investigate the role FLT3/ITD mutations play in the development of leukemia, we generated a FLT3/ITD knock-in mouse model by inserting an ITD mutation into the juxtamembrane domain of murine Flt3. FLT3wt/ITD mice developed myeloproliferative disease, characterized by splenomegaly, leukocytosis, and myeloid hypercellularity, which progressed to mortality by 6 to 20 months. Bone marrow (BM) and spleen from FLT3wt/ITD mice had an increased fraction of granulocytes/monocytes and dendritic cells, and a decreased fraction of B-lymphocytes. No sign of acute leukemia was observed over the lifetime of these mice. BM from FLT3wt/ITD mice showed enhanced potential to generate myeloid colonies in vitro. BM from FLT3wt/ITD mice also produced more spleen colonies in the in vivo colony-forming unit (CFU)–spleen assay. In the long-term competitive repopulation assay, BM cells from FLT3wt/ITD mice outgrew the wild-type competitor cells and showed increased myeloid and reduced lymphoid expansion activity. In summary, our data indicate that expression of FLT3/ITD mutations alone is capable of conferring normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) with enhanced myeloid expansion. It also appears to suppress B lymphoid maturation. Additional cooperative events appear to be required to progress to acute leukemia. PMID:18245664

  1. A novel bicistronic high-capacity gutless adenovirus vector that drives constitutive expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase and tet-inducible expression of Flt3L for glioma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Puntel, Mariana; Muhammad, A K M G; Candolfi, Marianela; Salem, Alireza; Yagiz, Kader; Farrokhi, Catherine; Kroeger, Kurt M; Xiong, Weidong; Curtin, James F; Liu, Chunyan; Bondale, Niyati S; Lerner, Jonathan; Pechnick, Robert N; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2010-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly primary brain tumor. Conditional cytotoxic/immune-stimulatory gene therapy (Ad-TK and Ad-Flt3L) elicits tumor regression and immunological memory in rodent GBM models. Since the majority of patients enrolled in clinical trials would exhibit adenovirus immunity, which could curtail transgene expression and therapeutic efficacy, we used high-capacity adenovirus vectors (HC-Ads) as a gene delivery platform. Herein, we describe for the first time a novel bicistronic HC-Ad driving constitutive expression of herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-TK) and inducible Tet-mediated expression of Flt3L within a single-vector platform. We achieved anti-GBM therapeutic efficacy with no overt toxicities using this bicistronic HC-Ad even in the presence of systemic Ad immunity. The bicistronic HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L was delivered into intracranial gliomas in rats. Survival, vector biodistribution, neuropathology, systemic toxicity, and neurobehavioral deficits were assessed for up to 1 year posttreatment. Therapeutic efficacy was also assessed in animals preimmunized against Ads. We demonstrate therapeutic efficacy, with vector genomes being restricted to the brain injection site and an absence of overt toxicities. Importantly, antiadenoviral immunity did not inhibit therapeutic efficacy. These data represent the first report of a bicistronic vector platform driving the expression of two therapeutic transgenes, i.e., constitutive HSV1-TK and inducible Flt3L genes. Further, our data demonstrate no promoter interference and optimum gene delivery and expression from within this single-vector platform. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and toxicity of this bicistronic HC-Ad vector in an animal model of GBM strongly supports further preclinical testing and downstream process development of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L for a future phase I clinical trial for GBM.

  2. Internal tandem duplication and tyrosine kinase domain mutations in FLT3 alter the response to daunorubicin in Ba/F3 cells.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shinichiro; Shirahama, Kumi

    2016-01-01

    Internal tandem duplication (ITD) and activating point mutations, mainly at aspartic acid 835 in the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), are frequently identified in the Fms-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) receptor gene in acute myeloid leukemia. The ITD in FLT3 (FLT3-ITD) confers resistance to several chemotherapeutic drugs; however, the relative effects of FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD mutations on the efficacy of these drugs have not been reported. In the present study, ITD or TKD mutant forms of FLT3 in Ba/F3 cells were expressed, as in the absence of interleukin-3 (IL-3) the growth of these cells is completely dependent on FLT3 oncogenic signals. As a result, the 50% effective dose for daunorubicin was significantly higher in both Ba/F3-FLT3-ITD clones, and also in one of the two Ba/F3-FLT3-TKD clones when cells were cultured without IL-3. This phenomenon was not observed for cytarabine in either Ba/F3-FLT3-ITD or Ba/F3-FLT3-TKD cells. Collectively, these results indicate that ITD and TKD mutations in FLT3 may confer daunorubicin resistance in Ba/F3 cells.

  3. Characterisation and Clinical Significance of FLT3-ITD and non-ITD in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Patients in Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Noraini Mat; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Ali Nagi Al-Jamal, Hamid; Husin, Azlan; Hussein, Abdul Rahim; Hassan, Rosline

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) receptor gene may promote proliferation via activation of multiple signaling pathways. FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) is the most common gene alteration found in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and has been associated with poor prognosis. We performed mutational analysis of exons 14-15 and 20 of the FLT3 gene in 54 AML patients using PCR-CSGE (conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis) followed by sequencing analysis to characterise FLT3 mutations in adult patients diagnosed with AML at Hospital USM, Kelantan, Northeast Peninsular Malaysia. FLT3 exon 14-15 mutations were identified in 7 of 54 patients (13%) whereas no mutation was found in FLT3 exon 20. Six ITDs and one non-ITD mutation were found in exon 14 of the juxtamembrane (JM) domain of FLT3. FLT3-ITD mutations were associated with a significantly higher blast percentage (p-value=0.008) and white blood cell count (p-value=0.023) but there was no significant difference in median overall survival time for FLT3-ITD+/FLT3-ITD- within 2 years (p-value=0.374). The incidence of FLT3-ITD in AML patients in this particular region of Malaysia is low compared to the Western world and has a significant association with WBC and blast percentage.

  4. ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Deepa B.; Li, Junling; Tapang, Paul; Owen McCall, J.; Pease, Lori J.; Dai, Yujia; Wei, Ru-Qi; Albert, Daniel H.; Bouska, Jennifer J.; Osterling, Donald J.; Guo, Jun; Marcotte, Patrick A.; Johnson, Eric F.; Soni, Niru; Hartandi, Kresna; Michaelides, Michael R.; Davidsen, Steven K.; Priceman, Saul J.; Chang, Jenny C.; Rhodes, Katrin; Shah, Neil; Moore, Theodore B.; Sakamoto, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    In 15% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aberrant proliferation is a consequence of a juxtamembrane mutation in the FLT3 gene (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3–internal tandem duplication [FLT3-ITD]), causing constitutive kinase activity. ABT-869 (a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK, as well as Pim-1 expression in MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 cells (IC50 approximately 1-10 nM) harboring the FLT3-ITD. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of these cells (IC50 = 4 and 6 nM, respectively) through the induction of apoptosis (increased sub-G0/G1 phase, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage), whereas cells harboring wild-type (wt)–FLT3 were less sensitive. In normal human blood spiked with AML cells, ABT-869 inhibited phosphorylation of FLT3 (IC50 approximately 100 nM), STAT5, and ERK, and decreased Pim-1 expression. In methylcellulose-based colony-forming assays, ABT-869 had no significant effect up to 1000 nM on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, whereas in AML patient samples harboring both FLT3-ITD and wt-FLT3, ABT-869 inhibited colony formation (IC50 = 100 and 1000 nM, respectively). ABT-869 dose-dependently inhibited MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 flank tumor growth, prevented tumor formation, regressed established MV-4-11 xenografts, and increased survival by 20 weeks in an MV-4-11 engraftment model. In tumors, ABT-869 inhibited FLT3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). ABT-869 is under clinical development for AML. PMID:17209055

  5. ABT-869, a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor: inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation and signaling in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Deepa B; Li, Junling; Tapang, Paul; Owen McCall, J; Pease, Lori J; Dai, Yujia; Wei, Ru-Qi; Albert, Daniel H; Bouska, Jennifer J; Osterling, Donald J; Guo, Jun; Marcotte, Patrick A; Johnson, Eric F; Soni, Niru; Hartandi, Kresna; Michaelides, Michael R; Davidsen, Steven K; Priceman, Saul J; Chang, Jenny C; Rhodes, Katrin; Shah, Neil; Moore, Theodore B; Sakamoto, Kathleen M; Glaser, Keith B

    2007-04-15

    In 15% to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), aberrant proliferation is a consequence of a juxtamembrane mutation in the FLT3 gene (FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication [FLT3-ITD]), causing constitutive kinase activity. ABT-869 (a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) inhibited the phosphorylation of FLT3, STAT5, and ERK, as well as Pim-1 expression in MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 cells (IC(50) approximately 1-10 nM) harboring the FLT3-ITD. ABT-869 inhibited the proliferation of these cells (IC(50) = 4 and 6 nM, respectively) through the induction of apoptosis (increased sub-G(0)/G(1) phase, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage), whereas cells harboring wild-type (wt)-FLT3 were less sensitive. In normal human blood spiked with AML cells, ABT-869 inhibited phosphorylation of FLT3 (IC(50) approximately 100 nM), STAT5, and ERK, and decreased Pim-1 expression. In methylcellulose-based colony-forming assays, ABT-869 had no significant effect up to 1000 nM on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells, whereas in AML patient samples harboring both FLT3-ITD and wt-FLT3, ABT-869 inhibited colony formation (IC(50) = 100 and 1000 nM, respectively). ABT-869 dose-dependently inhibited MV-4-11 and MOLM-13 flank tumor growth, prevented tumor formation, regressed established MV-4-11 xenografts, and increased survival by 20 weeks in an MV-4-11 engraftment model. In tumors, ABT-869 inhibited FLT3 phosphorylation, induced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL]) and decreased proliferation (Ki67). ABT-869 is under clinical development for AML.

  6. Potent Activity of Ponatinib (AP24534) in Models of FLT3-Driven Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Gozgit, Joseph M.; Wong, Matthew J.; Wardwell, Scott; Tyner, Jeffrey W.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Mohemmad, Qurish K.; Narasimhan, Narayana I.; Shakespeare, William C.; Wang, Frank; Druker, Brian J.; Clackson, Tim; Rivera, Victor M.

    2011-01-01

    Ponatinib (AP24534) is a novel multitargeted kinase inhibitor that potently inhibits native and mutant BCR-ABL at clinically achievable drug levels. Ponatinib also has in vitro inhibitory activity against a discrete set of kinases implicated in the pathogenesis of other hematologic malignancies, including FLT3, KIT, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1), and platelet derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα). Here, using leukemic cell lines containing activated forms of each of these receptors, we show that ponatinib potently inhibits receptor phosphorylation and cellular proliferation with IC50 values comparable to those required for inhibition of BCR-ABL (0.3 to 20 nmol/L). The activity of ponatinib against the FLT3-ITD mutant, found in up to 30% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, was particularly notable. In MV4-11 (FLT3-ITD+/+) but not RS4;11 (FLT3-ITD−/−) AML cells, ponatinib inhibited FLT3 signaling and induced apoptosis at concentrations of less than 10 nmol/L. In an MV4-11 mouse xenograft model, once daily oral dosing of ponatinib led to a dose-dependent inhibition of signaling and tumor regression. Ponatinib inhibited viability of primary leukemic blasts from a FLT3-ITD positive AML patient (IC50 4 nmol/L) but not those isolated from 3 patients with AML expressing native FLT3. Overall, these results support the investigation of ponatinib in patients with FLT3-ITD–driven AML and other hematologic malignancies driven by KIT, FGFR1, or PDGFRα. PMID:21482694

  7. FLT3 mutational status is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes after allogeneic transplantation in AML

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yumeng; Braun, Thomas; Chang, Lawrence; Bixby, Dale; Hanauer, David A.; Chughtai, Komal A.; Gatza, Erin; Couriel, Daniel; Goldstein, Steven; Pawarode, Attaphol; Reddy, Pavan; Riwes, Mary; Connelly, James; Harris, Andrew; Kitko, Carrie; Levine, John; Yanik, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic HCT has been increasingly used in the setting of FLT3 mutated AML. However, its role in conferring durable relapse-free intervals remains in question. Herein, we sought to investigate FLT3 mutational status on transplant outcomes. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 262 consecutive AML patients who underwent first-time allogeneic HCT (2008-2014), of whom 171 had undergone FLT3-ITD mutational testing. FLT3 mutated AML was associated with nearly twice the relapse risk (RR) compared with those without FLT3 mutation 3 years post-HCT (63% vs. 37%, P<0.001), and with a shorter median time to relapse (100 vs. 121 days). FLT3 mutational status remained significantly associated with this outcome after controlling for patient, disease, and transplant-related risk factors (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of FLT3 mutation with increased 3-year RR (HR 3.63, 95% CI: 2.13, 6.19, P<0.001), and inferior disease-free survival (HR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.29, 3.27, P<0.01) and overall survival (HR 1.92, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.24, P<0.05). These data demonstrate high risk of early relapse after allogeneic HCT for FLT3 mutated AML that translates into adverse disease-free and overall survival outcomes. Additional targeted and coordinated interventions are needed to maintain durable remission after allogeneic HCT in this high-risk population. PMID:26191952

  8. Mll partial tandem duplication and Flt3 internal tandem duplication in a double knock-in mouse recapitulates features of counterpart human acute myeloid leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Zorko, Nicholas A.; Bernot, Kelsie M.; Whitman, Susan P.; Siebenaler, Ronald F.; Ahmed, Elshafa H.; Marcucci, Gabriele G.; Yanes, Daniel A.; McConnell, Kathleen K.; Mao, Charlene; Kalu, Chidimma; Zhang, Xiaoli; Jarjoura, David; Dorrance, Adrienne M.; Heerema, Nyla A.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Huang, Gang; Marcucci, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-partial tandem duplication (PTD) associates with high-risk cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Concurrent presence of FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) is observed in 25% of patients with MLL-PTD AML. However, mice expressing either Mll-PTD or Flt3-ITD do not develop AML, suggesting that 2 mutations are necessary for the AML phenotype. Thus, we generated a mouse expressing both Mll-PTD and Flt3-ITD. MllPTD/WT:Flt3ITD/WT mice developed acute leukemia with 100% penetrance, at a median of 49 weeks. As in human MLL-PTD and/or the FLT3-ITD AML, mouse blasts exhibited normal cytogenetics, decreased Mll-WT-to-Mll-PTD ratio, loss of the Flt3-WT allele, and increased total Flt3. Highlighting the adverse impact of FLT3-ITD dosage on patient survival, mice with homozygous Flt3-ITD alleles, MllPTD/WT:Flt3ITD/ITD, demonstrated a nearly 30-week reduction in latency to overt AML. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that Mll-PTD contributes to leukemogenesis as a gain-of-function mutation and describe a novel murine model closely recapitulating human AML. PMID:22674806

  9. PML/RARα and FLT3-ITD induce an APL-like disease in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Louise M.; Kutok, Jeffrey L.; Williams, Ifor R.; Boulton, Christina L.; Amaral, Sonia M.; Curley, David P.; Ley, Timothy J.; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells invariably express aberrant fusion proteins involving the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα). The most common fusion partner is promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML), which is fused to RARα in the balanced reciprocal chromosomal translocation, t(15;17)(q22:q11). Expression of PML/RARα from the cathepsin G promoter in transgenic mice causes a nonfatal myeloproliferative syndrome in all mice; about 15% go on to develop APL after a long latent period, suggesting that additional mutations are required for the development of APL. A candidate target gene for a second mutation is FLT3, because it is mutated in approximately 40% of human APL cases. Activating mutations in FLT3, including internal tandem duplication (ITD) in the juxtamembrane domain, transform hematopoietic cell lines to factor independent growth. FLT3-ITDs also induce a myeloproliferative disease in a murine bone marrow transplant model, but are not sufficient to cause AML. Here, we test the hypothesis that PML/RARα can cooperate with FLT3-ITD to induce an APL-like disease in the mouse. Retroviral transduction of FLT3-ITD into bone marrow cells obtained from PML/RARα transgenic mice results in a short latency APL-like disease with complete penetrance. This disease resembles the APL-like disease that occurs with long latency in the PML/RARα transgenics, suggesting that activating mutations in FLT3 can functionally substitute for the additional mutations that occur during mouse APL progression. The leukemia is transplantable to secondary recipients and is ATRA responsive. These observations document cooperation between PML/RARα and FLT3-ITD in development of the murine APL phenotype. PMID:12060771

  10. NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA mutations in pediatric patients with AML from Argentina: incidence and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Patricia; Campos, B; Digiorge, J A; Gallego, M S; Medina, A; Rossi, J G; Felice, M S; Alonso, C N

    2016-11-01

    Mutations in NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA genes are found in 25-35 % of adult acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cases and correlate with prognosis. To date, there have been no reports about these mutations in pediatric AML from Argentina. The aims of the present study were to describe the incidence of NPM1, FLT3 and CEBPA mutations and to analyze their prognostic impact in this population. The incidences of these mutations within a population of 216 pediatric AML cases were: NPM1-mutated 4.2 %, CEBPA-mutated 1.9 %, FLT3-ITD 10.2 % and FLT3-TKD 7.9 %. Among 33 patients with normal karyotype, we found significantly higher frequencies for NPM1-mutated 24.2 % and CEBPA-mutated 12.1 %. Overall survival (pOS) for the 163 eligible non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cases was 46.2 ± 4.3 %, while leukemia-free survival probability was 51.0 ± 4.4 % (n = 135). The NPM1-mutated/FLT3-ITD-negative genotype showed better outcome than any other combined NPM1/FLT3 genotype; this difference was statistically significant within the group of high-risk patients (pOS ± SE 83.3 ± 15.2 % versus 33.1 ± 4.7 %; p = 0.0251). This is the first report of the frequencies of these mutations in Argentina. Despite the limited number of patients, a favorable prognosis of AML with genotype NPM1-mutated/FLT3-ITD-negative was confirmed. This is especially relevant within the high-risk group of patients, as it may contribute to the detection of patients with better prognosis, and thus avoid unnecessary treatment intensification.

  11. A randomized assessment of adding the kinase inhibitor lestaurtinib to first-line chemotherapy for FLT3-mutated AML.

    PubMed

    Knapper, Steven; Russell, Nigel; Gilkes, Amanda; Hills, Robert K; Gale, Rosemary E; Cavenagh, James D; Jones, Gail; Kjeldsen, Lars; Grunwald, Michael R; Thomas, Ian; Konig, Heiko; Levis, Mark J; Burnett, Alan K

    2017-03-02

    The clinical benefit of adding FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)-directed small molecule therapy to standard first-line treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not yet been established. As part of the UK AML15 and AML17 trials, patients with previously untreated AML and confirmed FLT3-activating mutations, mostly younger than 60 years, were randomly assigned either to receive oral lestaurtinib (CEP701) or not after each of 4 cycles of induction and consolidation chemotherapy. Lestaurtinib was commenced 2 days after completing chemotherapy and administered in cycles of up to 28 days. The trials ran consecutively. Primary endpoints were overall survival in AML15 and relapse-free survival in AML17; outcome data were meta-analyzed. Five hundred patients were randomly assigned between lestaurtinib and control: 74% had FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations, 23% FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain point mutations, and 2% both types. No significant differences were seen in either 5-year overall survival (lestaurtinib 46% vs control 45%; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI 0.70-1.15; P = .3) or 5-year relapse-free survival (40% vs 36%; hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI 0.69-1.12; P = .3). Exploratory subgroup analysis suggested survival benefit with lestaurtinib in patients receiving concomitant azole antifungal prophylaxis and gemtuzumab ozogamicin with the first course of chemotherapy. Correlative studies included analysis of in vivo FLT3 inhibition by plasma inhibitory activity assay and indicated improved overall survival and significantly reduced rates of relapse in lestaurtinib-treated patients who achieved sustained greater than 85% FLT3 inhibition. In conclusion, combining lestaurtinib with intensive chemotherapy proved feasible in younger patients with newly diagnosed FLT3-mutated AML, but yielded no overall clinical benefit. The improved clinical outcomes seen in patients achieving sustained FLT3 inhibition encourage continued evaluation of FLT3-directed therapy alongside

  12. The AML1-ETO fusion gene and the FLT3 length mutation collaborate in inducing acute leukemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schessl, Christina; Rawat, Vijay P.S.; Cusan, Monica; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Kohl, Tobias M.; Rosten, Patricia M.; Spiekermann, Karsten; Humphries, R. Keith; Schnittger, Susanne; Kern, Wolfgang; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Bohlander, Stefan K.; Feuring-Buske, Michaela; Buske, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The molecular characterization of leukemia has demonstrated that genetic alterations in the leukemic clone frequently fall into 2 classes, those affecting transcription factors (e.g., AML1-ETO) and mutations affecting genes involved in signal transduction (e.g., activating mutations of FLT3 and KIT). This finding has favored a model of leukemogenesis in which the collaboration of these 2 classes of genetic alterations is necessary for the malignant transformation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. The model is supported by experimental data indicating that AML1-ETO and FLT3 length mutation (FLT3-LM), 2 of the most frequent genetic alterations in AML, are both insufficient on their own to cause leukemia in animal models. Here we report that AML1-ETO collaborates with FLT3-LM in inducing acute leukemia in a murine BM transplantation model. Moreover, in a series of 135 patients with AML1-ETO–positive AML, the most frequently identified class of additional mutations affected genes involved in signal transduction pathways including FLT3-LM or mutations of KIT and NRAS. These data support the concept of oncogenic cooperation between AML1-ETO and a class of activating mutations, recurrently found in patients with t(8;21), and provide a rationale for therapies targeting signal transduction pathways in AML1-ETO–positive leukemias. PMID:16025155

  13. Arsenic trioxide in front-line therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (C9710): prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations and complex karyotype.

    PubMed

    Poiré, Xavier; Moser, Barry K; Gallagher, Robert E; Laumann, Kristina; Bloomfield, Clara D; Powell, Bayard L; Koval, Gregory; Gulati, Kabir; Holowka, Nicholas; Larson, Richard A; Tallman, Martin S; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Sher, Dorie; Willman, Cheryl; Paietta, Elisabeth; Stock, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The addition of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to frontline therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to result in significant improvements in disease-free survival (DFS). FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in APL, but its prognostic significance remains unclear. We analyzed 245 newly diagnosed adult patients with APL treated on intergroup trial C9710 and evaluated previously defined biological and prognostic factors and their relationship to FLT3 mutations and to additional karyotypic abnormalities. FLT3 mutations were found in 48% of patients, including 31% with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), 14% with a point mutation (FLT3-D835) and 2% with both mutations. The FLT3-ITD mutant level was uniformly low, < 0.5. Neither FLT3 mutation had an impact on remission rate, induction death rate, DFS or overall survival (OS). The addition of ATO consolidation improved outcomes regardless of FLT3 mutation type or level, initial white blood cell count, PML-RARA isoform type or transcript level. The presence of a complex karyotype was strongly associated with an inferior OS independently of post-remission treatment. In conclusion, the addition of ATO to frontline therapy overcomes the impact of previously described adverse prognostic factors including FLT3 mutations. However, complex karyotype is strongly associated with an inferior OS despite ATO therapy.

  14. Arsenic trioxide in front-line therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (C9710): prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations and complex karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Poiré, Xavier; Moser, Barry K.; Gallagher, Robert E.; Laumann, Kristina; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Powell, Bayard L.; Koval, Gregory; Gulati, Kabir; Holowka, Nicholas; Larson, Richard A.; Tallman, Martin S.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Sher, Dorie; Willman, Cheryl; Paietta, Elisabeth; Stock, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The addition of arsenic trioxide (ATO) to frontline therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been shown to result in significant improvements in disease-free survival (DFS). FLT3 mutations are frequently observed in APL, but its prognostic significance remains unclear. We analyzed 245 newly diagnosed adult patients with APL treated on intergroup trial C9710 and evaluated previously defined biological and prognostic factors and their relationship to FLT3 mutations and to additional karyotypic abnormalities. FLT3 mutations were found in 48% of patients, including 31% with an internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), 14% with a point mutation (FLT3-D835) and 2% with both mutations. The FLT3-ITD mutant level was uniformly low, <0.5. Neither FLT3 mutation had an impact on remission rate, induction death rate, DFS or overall survival (OS). The addition of ATO consolidation improved outcomes regardless of FLT3 mutation type or level, initial white blood cell count, PML–RARA isoform type or transcript level. The presence of a complex karyotype was strongly associated with an inferior OS independently of post-remission treatment. In conclusion, the addition of ATO to frontline therapy overcomes the impact of previously described adverse prognostic factors including FLT3 mutations. However, complex karyotype is strongly associated with an inferior OS despite ATO therapy. PMID:24160850

  15. Prognostic significance of FLT3 mutational status and expression levels in MLL-AF4+ and MLL-germline acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chillón, M C; Gómez-Casares, M T; López-Jorge, C E; Rodriguez-Medina, C; Molines, A; Sarasquete, M E; Alcoceba, M; Miguel, J D G-S; Bueno, C; Montes, R; Ramos, F; Rodríguez, J N; Giraldo, P; Ramírez, M; García-Delgado, R; Fuster, J L; González-Díaz, M; Menendez, P

    2012-11-01

    There is barely any information about the prognostic significance of FLT3 expression and mutational status in cytogenetically distinct subgroups of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We analyzed the presence of FLT3-tyrosine kinase domain (TKD) and FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations as well as FLT3 expression levels in 54 newly diagnosed patients with B-ALL (n=49) or T-ALL (n=5). All B/T-ALL samples tested negative for the presence of FLT3-TKD or FLT3-ITD. None of the T-ALL and E2A-PBX1+ B-ALL overexpressed FLT3. In contrast, mainly MLL-AF4+ B-ALL but also ETV6-RUNX1+, BCR-ABL+ or B-ALL displaying normal cytogenetics exhibited significantly higher FLT3 expression levels than normal bone marrow, supporting that aberrantly increased transcription of FLT3, rather than activating FLT3 mutations, contributes to the pathogenesis of these B-ALL. Using the median FLT3 expression as cut-off value we found that high-level FLT3 expression is associated with an extremely poor 1-year overall survival (OS; 0 vs 71%; P=0.002) and disease-free survival (DFS; 0 vs 43%; P=0.03) in MLL-AF4+ B-ALL but not in MLL-germline B-ALL. Cox regression analysis with OS/DFS as end points showed that age>14 years and high-level FLT3 expression were independent prognostic factors when all ALL patients were analyzed together. Importantly, when the MLL-AF4+ B-ALL subgroup was analyzed separately, high-level FLT3 expression was the only independent prognostic factor for OS and treatment outcome. These findings indicate that high FLT3 expression identifies MLL-AF4+ ALL patients at very high risk of treatment failure and poor survival, emphasizing the value of ongoing/future clinical trials for FLT3 inhibitors.

  16. DNMT3A Haploinsufficiency Transforms FLT3ITD Myeloproliferative Disease into a Rapid, Spontaneous, and Fully Penetrant Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sara E; Qin, Tingting; Muench, David E; Masuda, Kohei; Venkatasubramanian, Meenakshi; Orr, Emily; Suarez, Lauren; Gore, Steven D; Delwel, Ruud; Paietta, Elisabeth; Tallman, Martin S; Fernandez, Hugo; Melnick, Ari; Le Beau, Michelle M; Kogan, Scott; Salomonis, Nathan; Figueroa, Maria E; Grimes, H Leighton

    2016-05-01

    Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) represents nearly 50% of human AML. Co-occurring mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A and the FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) are common in CN-AML and confer a poorer prognosis. We demonstrate that mice with Flt3-internal tandem duplication (Flt3(ITD)) and inducible deletion of Dnmt3a spontaneously develop a rapidly lethal, completely penetrant, and transplantable AML of normal karyotype. AML cells retain a single Dnmt3a floxed allele, revealing the oncogenic potential of Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency. FLT3(ITD)/DNMT3A-mutant primary human and murine AML exhibit a similar pattern of global DNA methylation associated with changes in the expression of nearby genes. In the murine model, rescuing Dnmt3a expression was accompanied by DNA remethylation and loss of clonogenic potential, suggesting that Dnmt3a-mutant oncogenic effects are reversible. Dissection of the cellular architecture of the AML model using single-cell assays, including single-cell RNA sequencing, identified clonogenic subpopulations that express genes sensitive to the methylation of nearby genomic loci and responsive to DNMT3A levels. Thus, Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency transforms Flt3(ITD) myeloproliferative disease by modulating methylation-sensitive gene expression within a clonogenic AML subpopulation. DNMT3A haploinsufficiency results in reversible epigenetic alterations that transform FLT3(ITD)-mutant myeloproliferative neoplasm into AML. Cancer Discov; 6(5); 501-15. ©2016 AACR.This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 461. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. UNC2025, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable MER/FLT3 Dual Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported a potent small molecule Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitor UNC1062. However, its poor PK properties prevented further assessment in vivo. We report here the sequential modification of UNC1062 to address DMPK properties and yield a new potent and highly orally bioavailable Mer inhibitor, 11, capable of inhibiting Mer phosphorylation in vivo, following oral dosing as demonstrated by pharmaco-dynamic (PD) studies examining phospho-Mer in leukemic blasts from mouse bone marrow. Kinome profiling versus more than 300 kinases in vitro and cellular selectivity assessments demonstrate that 11 has similar subnanomolar activity against Flt3, an additional important target in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with pharmacologically useful selectivity versus other kinases examined. PMID:25068800

  18. UNC2025, a potent and orally bioavailable MER/FLT3 dual inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weihe; DeRyckere, Deborah; Hunter, Debra; Liu, Jing; Stashko, Michael A; Minson, Katherine A; Cummings, Christopher T; Lee, Minjung; Glaros, Trevor G; Newton, Dianne L; Sather, Susan; Zhang, Dehui; Kireev, Dmitri; Janzen, William P; Earp, H Shelton; Graham, Douglas K; Frye, Stephen V; Wang, Xiaodong

    2014-08-28

    We previously reported a potent small molecule Mer tyrosine kinase inhibitor UNC1062. However, its poor PK properties prevented further assessment in vivo. We report here the sequential modification of UNC1062 to address DMPK properties and yield a new potent and highly orally bioavailable Mer inhibitor, 11, capable of inhibiting Mer phosphorylation in vivo, following oral dosing as demonstrated by pharmaco-dynamic (PD) studies examining phospho-Mer in leukemic blasts from mouse bone marrow. Kinome profiling versus more than 300 kinases in vitro and cellular selectivity assessments demonstrate that 11 has similar subnanomolar activity against Flt3, an additional important target in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), with pharmacologically useful selectivity versus other kinases examined.

  19. Effect of small interfering RNA targeting wild-type FLT3 in acute myeloid leukaemia cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, C-M; Sheng, G-Y; Lu, J; Xie, L; Bai, S-T; Xu, X-J; Liu, Y-F

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence the wild-type FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) cells, in vitro and in vivo. FLT3 siRNA was introduced into the human AML cell line, THP1, and into a THP1 xenograft tumour model in BALB/c nude mice. FLT3 siRNA effectively reduced both the mRNA and the protein levels of FLT3, arrested cells in G(0)/G(1) phase, inhibited THP1 cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Intraperitoneal injection of FLT3 siRNA suppressed tumour growth in BALB/c nude mice. FLT3 siRNA treatment also reduced cyclin D1 and Bcl-2 protein levels, and increased the nuclear level of silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors protein both in vitro and in vivo. These data suggest that FLT3 siRNA is a strong inhibitor of FLT3 expression in vitro and in vivo, and may provide a new therapeutic target for AML.

  20. The STAT5 Inhibitor Pimozide Displays Efficacy in Models of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Driven by FLT3 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Erik A.; Walker, Sarah R.; Xiang, Michael; Weisberg, Ellen; Bar-Natan, Michal; Barrett, Rosemary; Liu, Suiyang; Kharbanda, Surender; Christie, Amanda L.; Nicolais, Maria; Griffin, James D.; Stone, Richard M.; Kung, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the transcription factor STAT5 is essential for the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) containing the FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation. FLT3 ITD is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase that drives the activation of STAT5, leading to the growth and survival of AML cells. Although there has been some success in identifying tyrosine kinase inhibitors that block the function of FLT3 ITD, there remains a continued need for effective treatment of this disease. We have identified the psychotropic drug pimozide as an effective inhibitor of STAT5 function. Pimozide inhibits the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5, leading to the death of AML cells through the induction of apoptosis. Pimozide shows a combinatorial effect with the tyrosine kinase inhibitors midostaurin (PKC412) and sunitinib in the inhibition of STAT5 tyrosine phosphorylation and the induction of apoptosis. Significantly, pimozide reduces the tumor burden in a mouse model of FLT3-driven AML. Therefore, identifying STAT5 inhibitors may provide a new avenue for the treatment of AML, and these may be effective alone or in combination with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:23264850

  1. Phase I Trial of Maintenance Sorafenib after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for FLT3-ITD AML

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Bin; Li, Shuli; Lane, Andrew A.; Connolly, Christine; Del Rio, Candice; Valles, Betsy; Curtis, Morgan; Ballen, Karen; Cutler, Corey; Dey, Bimalangshu R.; El-Jawahri, Areej; Fathi, Amir T.; Ho, Vincent T.; Joyce, Amy; McAfee, Steven; Rudek, Michelle; Rajkhowa, Trivikram; Verselis, Sigitas; Antin, Joseph H.; Spitzer, Thomas R.; Levis, Mark; Soiffer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The FLT3-ITD mutation is associated with a high relapse rate for patients with AML even after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Sorafenib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor which inhibits the FLT3 tyrosine kinase and has shown encouraging activity in FLT3-ITD AML. We conducted a phase I trial of maintenance sorafenib after HSCT in patients with FLT3-ITD AML (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398501). Patients received a variety of conditioning regimens and graft sources. A dose escalation 3+3 cohort design was used to define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with an additional 10 patients treated at the MTD. Sorafenib was initiated between days 45 and 120 after HSCT continued for twelve 28-day cycles. Twenty-two patients were enrolled (status at HSCT: CR1=16, CR2=3, refractory=3). The MTD was established at 400 mg BID with one DLT observed (pericardial effusion). Two patients died of transplant-related causes, both unrelated to sorafenib. Two patients stopped sorafenib after relapse and 5 stopped due to attributable toxicities after the DLT period. Median follow-up for surviving patients is 16.7 months after HSCT (range, 8.1–35.0). There was one case of grade II acute GVHD after starting sorafenib and the 12-month cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 38% (90% CI, 21%–56%). For all patients, one-year progression-free survival (PFS) is 85% (90% CI, 66%–94%) and one-year overall survival (OS) is 95% (90% CI, 79%–99%) after HSCT. For patients in CR1 / CR2 prior to HSCT (n=19), one-year PFS is 95% (90% CI, 76%–99%) and one-year OS is 100% with only one patient who has relapsed. Sorafenib is safe after HSCT for FLT3-ITD AML and merits further investigation for the prevention of relapse. PMID:25239228

  2. Prognostic value of FLT3 mutations in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Barragán, Eva; Montesinos, Pau; Camos, Mireia; González, Marcos; Calasanz, Maria J.; Román-Gómez, José; Gómez-Casares, Maria T.; Ayala, Rosa; López, Javier; Fuster, Óscar; Colomer, Dolors; Chillón, Carmen; Larrayoz, María J.; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; González-Campos, José; Manso, Félix; Amador, Maria L.; Vellenga, Edo; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) gene mutations are frequent in acute promyelocytic leukemia but their prognostic value is not well established. Design and Methods We evaluated FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutations in patients treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy enrolled in two subsequent trials of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) and Hemato-Oncologie voor Volwassenen Nederland (HOVON) groups between 1996 and 2005. Results FLT3-internal tandem duplication and FLT3-D835 mutation status was available for 306 (41%) and 213 (29%) patients, respectively. Sixty-eight (22%) and 20 (9%) patients had internal tandem duplication and D835 mutations, respectively. Internal tandem duplication was correlated with higher white blood cell and blast counts, lactate dehydrogenase, relapse-risk score, fever, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, BCR3 isoform, M3 variant subtype, and expression of CD2, CD34, human leukocyte antigen-DR, and CD11b surface antigens. The FLT3-D835 mutation was not significantly associated with any clinical or biological characteristic. Univariate analysis showed higher relapse and lower survival rates in patients with a FLT3-internal tandem duplication, while no impact was observed in relation to FLT3-D835. The prognostic value of the FLT3-internal tandem duplication was not retained in the multivariate analysis. Conclusions FLT3-internal tandem duplication mutations are associated with several hematologic features in acute promyelocytic leukemia, in particular with high white blood cell counts, but we were unable to demonstrate an independent prognostic value in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. PMID:21685470

  3. Ihog and Boi elicit Hh signaling via Ptc but do not aid Ptc in sequestering the Hh ligand

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Darius; Haitian He, Billy; Li, Sally; Althaus, Irene W.; Holtz, Alexander M.; Allen, Benjamin L.; Charron, Frédéric; van Meyel, Donald J.

    2014-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted molecules essential for tissue development in vertebrates and invertebrates. Hh reception via the 12-pass transmembrane protein Patched (Ptc) elicits intracellular signaling through Smoothened (Smo). Hh binding to Ptc is also proposed to sequester the ligand, limiting its spatial range of activity. In Drosophila, Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and Brother of ihog (Boi) are two conserved and redundant transmembrane proteins that are essential for Hh pathway activation. How Ihog and Boi activate signaling in response to Hh remains unknown; each can bind both Hh and Ptc and so it has been proposed that they are essential for both Hh reception and sequestration. Using genetic epistasis we established here that Ihog and Boi, and their orthologs in mice, act upstream or at the level of Ptc to allow Hh signal transduction. In the Drosophila developing wing model we found that it is through Hh pathway activation that Ihog and Boi maintain the boundary between the anterior and posterior compartments. We dissociated the contributions of Ptc from those of Ihog/Boi and, surprisingly, found that cells expressing Ptc can retain and sequester the Hh ligand without Ihog and Boi, but that Ihog and Boi cannot do so without Ptc. Together, these results reinforce the central role for Ptc in Hh binding in vivo and demonstrate that, although Ihog and Boi are dispensable for Hh sequestration, they are essential for pathway activation because they allow Hh to inhibit Ptc and thereby relieve its repression of Smo. PMID:25231763

  4. Ihog and Boi elicit Hh signaling via Ptc but do not aid Ptc in sequestering the Hh ligand.

    PubMed

    Camp, Darius; Haitian He, Billy; Li, Sally; Althaus, Irene W; Holtz, Alexander M; Allen, Benjamin L; Charron, Frédéric; van Meyel, Donald J

    2014-10-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted molecules essential for tissue development in vertebrates and invertebrates. Hh reception via the 12-pass transmembrane protein Patched (Ptc) elicits intracellular signaling through Smoothened (Smo). Hh binding to Ptc is also proposed to sequester the ligand, limiting its spatial range of activity. In Drosophila, Interference hedgehog (Ihog) and Brother of ihog (Boi) are two conserved and redundant transmembrane proteins that are essential for Hh pathway activation. How Ihog and Boi activate signaling in response to Hh remains unknown; each can bind both Hh and Ptc and so it has been proposed that they are essential for both Hh reception and sequestration. Using genetic epistasis we established here that Ihog and Boi, and their orthologs in mice, act upstream or at the level of Ptc to allow Hh signal transduction. In the Drosophila developing wing model we found that it is through Hh pathway activation that Ihog and Boi maintain the boundary between the anterior and posterior compartments. We dissociated the contributions of Ptc from those of Ihog/Boi and, surprisingly, found that cells expressing Ptc can retain and sequester the Hh ligand without Ihog and Boi, but that Ihog and Boi cannot do so without Ptc. Together, these results reinforce the central role for Ptc in Hh binding in vivo and demonstrate that, although Ihog and Boi are dispensable for Hh sequestration, they are essential for pathway activation because they allow Hh to inhibit Ptc and thereby relieve its repression of Smo.

  5. Detectable FLT3-ITD or RAS mutation at the time of transformation from MDS to AML predicts for very poor outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Badar, Talha; Patel, Keyur P; Thompson, Philip A; DiNardo, Courtney; Takahashi, Koichi; Cabrero, Monica; Borthakur, Gautam; Cortes, Jorge; Konopleva, Marina; Kadia, Tapan; Bohannan, Zach; Pierce, Sherry; Jabbour, Elias J; Ravandi, Farhad; Daver, Naval; Luthra, Raja; Kantarjian, Hagop; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Background The molecular events that drive the transformation from myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have yet to be fully characterized. We hypothesized that detection of these mutations at the time of transformation from MDS to AML may lead to poorer outcomes. Methods We analyzed 102 MDS patients who were admitted to our institution between 2004 and 2013, had wild-type (wt) FLT3-ITD and RAS at diagnosis, progressed to AML, and had serial mutation testing at both the MDS and AML stages. Results We detected FLT3-ITD and/or RAS mutations in twenty-seven (26%) patients at the time of transformation to AML. Twenty-two patients (81%) had RAS mutations and five (19%) had FLT3-ITD mutations. The median survival after leukemia transformation in patients who had detectable RAS and/or FLT3-ITD mutations was 2·4 months compared to 7·5 months in patients who retained wt RAS and FLT3-ITD (hazard ratio [HR]: 3·08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·9–5·0, p < 0·0001). In multivariate analysis, FLT3-ITD and RAS mutations had independent prognostic significance for poor outcome. Conclusions We conclude that 26% of patients had detectable FLT3-ITD or RAS mutation at transformation to AML, and these mutations were associated with very poor outcome. PMID:26547258

  6. The prevalence and clinical profiles of FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations in a cohort of patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia from southwest China.

    PubMed

    Gou, Haimei; Zhou, Juan; Ye, Yuanxin; Hu, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengqiao; Zhang, Jingya; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Peng, Wu; Zhou, Yanhong; Zhou, Yi; Song, Xingbo; Lu, Xiaojun; Ying, Binwu

    2016-06-01

    While a substantial amount of data on gene mutations related to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) prognosis from western and other populations have been reported, these studies largely describe one or two genes. Additionally, in southwest China, only insufficient data exist regarding FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, NPM1, C-KIT, DNMT3A, and CEBPA mutations have been widely used in clinical settings. Therefore, a comprehensive study about these mutations of clinical importance in the prognosis of AML in western China is necessary. In a cohort of 255 patients with de novo AML, we retrospectively analyzed the prevalence of the six gene mutations, and then we assessed the results in conjunction with clinical characteristics and treatment responses. As for the frequencies of these mutations, the NPM1 mutation occurred most frequently (17.7 %; 42/237), followed by the CEBPA mutation (15.0 %; 19/127) and the FLT3-ITD mutation (10.2 %; 25/244). The frequencies of the FLT3-TKD, DNMT3A, and C-KIT mutations were 3.7 % (9/234), 4.0 % (9/225) and 4.2 % (10/238), respectively. These mutations were closely related to clinical characteristics including FAB classification, gender and age, hemogram, blasts (%), fusion genes, and immunophenotypes. Additionally, a higher complete remission (CR) rate was found in NPM1-mutated patients. The occurrence of these mutations is variable among different countries and regions worldwide, which may provide clues to the etiology of AML. Besides, we identified new clinical characteristics that advance our understanding of these mutations and further clarify the involvement of these mutations in the development of leukemia.

  7. Expression of protein-tyrosine phosphatases in Acute Myeloid Leukemia cells: FLT3 ITD sustains high levels of DUSP6 expression

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important regulators of cellular signaling and changes in PTP activity can contribute to cell transformation. Little is known about the role of PTPs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was therefore to establish a PTP expression profile in AML cells and to explore the possible role of FLT3 ITD (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 with internal tandem duplication), an important oncoprotein in AML for PTP gene expression. PTP mRNA expression was analyzed in AML cells from patients and in cell lines using a RT-qPCR platform for detection of transcripts of 92 PTP genes. PTP mRNA expression was also analyzed based on a public microarray data set for AML patients. Highly expressed PTPs in AML belong to all PTP subfamilies. Very abundantly expressed PTP genes include PTPRC, PTPN2, PTPN6, PTPN22, DUSP1, DUSP6, DUSP10, PTP4A1, PTP4A2, PTEN, and ACP1. PTP expression was further correlated with the presence of FLT3 ITD, focusing on a set of highly expressed dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs). Elevated expression of DUSP6 in patients harboring FLT3 ITD was detected in this analysis. The mechanism and functional role of FLT3 ITD-mediated upregulation of DUSP6 was then explored using pharmacological inhibitors of FLT3 ITD signal transduction and si/shRNA technology in human and murine cell lines. High DUSP6 expression was causally associated with the presence of FLT3 ITD and dependent on FLT3 ITD kinase activity and ERK signaling. DUSP6 depletion moderately increased ERK1/2 activity but attenuated FLT3 ITD-dependent cell proliferation of 32D cells. In conclusion, DUSP6 may play a contributing role to FLT3 ITD-mediated cell transformation. PMID:22784513

  8. Adaptation of the plasma inhibitory activity assay to detect Aurora, ABL and FLT3 kinase inhibition by AT9283 in pediatric leukemia.

    PubMed

    Podesta, Jennifer E; Sugar, Richard; Squires, Matt; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Pearson, Andrew D J; Moore, Andrew S

    2011-09-01

    Non-invasive assessment of biomarker modulation is important for evaluating targeted therapeutics, particularly in pediatrics. The plasma inhibitory activity (PIA) assay is used clinically to assess FLT3 inhibition ex vivo and guide dosing. AT9283 is a novel Aurora kinase inhibitor with secondary activity against FLT3 and ABL. We adapted the PIA assay to simultaneously detect inhibition of Aurora and FLT3 in AML, and Aurora and ABL in CML by AT9283. Furthermore, we optimized the assay for children, where limited blood volumes are available for pharmacodynamic studies. Simultaneously detecting multiple kinase inhibition may identify important mechanisms of action for novel anti-leukemic drugs.

  9. Silvestrol exhibits significant in vivo and in vitro antileukemic activities and inhibits FLT3 and miR-155 expressions in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Activating mutations [internal tandem duplication (ITD)] or overexpression of the FMS-like tyrosine kinase receptor-3 (FLT3) gene are associated with poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, underscoring the need for novel therapeutic approaches. The natural product silvestrol has potent antitumor activity in several malignancies, but its therapeutic impact on distinct molecular high-risk AML subsets remains to be fully investigated. We examined here the preclinical activity of silvestrol in FLT3-ITD and FLT3 wild-type (wt) AML. Methods Silvestrol in vitro anti-leukemic activity was examined by colorimetric cell viability assay, colony-forming and flow cytometry assays assessing growth inhibition and apoptosis, respectively. Pharmacological activity of silvestrol on FLT3 mRNA translation, mRNA and protein expression was determined by RNA-immunoprecipitation, qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses, respectively. Silvestrol in vivo efficacy was investigated using MV4-11 leukemia-engrafted mice. Results Silvestrol shows antileukemia activity at nanomolar concentrations both in FLT3-wt overexpressing (THP-1) and FLT3-ITD (MV4-11) expressing AML cell lines (IC50 = 3.8 and 2.7 nM, respectively) and patients’ primary blasts [IC50 = ~12 nM (FLT3-wt) and ~5 nM (FLT3-ITD)]. Silvestrol increased apoptosis (~4fold, P = 0.0001), and inhibited colony-formation (100%, P < 0.0001) in primary blasts. Silvestrol efficiently inhibited FLT3 translation reducing FLT3 protein expression by 80–90% and decreased miR-155 levels (~60%), a frequently co-regulated onco-miR in FLT3-ITD-positive AML. The median survival of silvestrol-treated vs vehicle-treated mice was 63 vs 29 days post-engraftment, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Silvestrol exhibits significant in vivo and in vitro antileukemic activities in AML through a novel mechanism resulting in inhibition of FLT3 and miR-155 expression. These encouraging results warrant a rapid

  10. Role of allogeneic transplantation for FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia: Outcomes from 133 consecutive newly-diagnosed patients from a single institution

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E.; Sung, Anthony; Kim, Sharon; Smith, B. Douglas; Karp, Judith E.; Gore, Steven D.; Jones, Richard J; Fuchs, Ephraim; Luznik, Leo; McDevitt, Michael; Levis, Mark

    2011-01-01

    AML patients with FLT3/ITD mutations have an inferior survival compared to AML patients with wild-type (WT) FLT3, primarily due to an increased relapse rate. Allogeneic transplant represents a post-remission therapy that is effective at reducing the risk of relapse for many cases of poor-risk AML. Whether or not allogeneic transplant in first complete remission (CR) can improve outcomes for patients with FLT3/ITD AML remains controversial. Our institution has adopted a policy of pursuing allogeneic transplant, including the use of alternate donors, for FLT3/ITD AML patients in remission. As part of an IRB-approved study, we performed a review of the clinical data from November 1, 2004 to October 31, 2008 on all adult patients under the age of 60 presenting in consecutive fashion to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins with newly diagnosed non-M3 AML. We followed their outcomes through August 1, 2010. During the study period, 133 previously untreated AML patients between the ages of 20 and 59 were diagnosed and received induction and consolidation therapy at our institution. Of these 133 patients, 31 (23%) harbored a FLT3/ITD mutation at diagnosis. The median OS (overall survival) from the time of diagnosis for the FLT3/ITD AML patients was compared to the OS of the entire cohort and found to be comparable (19.3 months versus 15.5 months p=0.56.) Historically, OS for FLT3/ITD AML patients is significantly worse than for AML patients lacking this mutation. However, the OS for the 31 FLT3/ITD patients reported here was comparable to the 102 patients with WT FLT3 over the same 4 year time period. One difference that might have contributed to the surprising outcomes for the FLT3/ITD group is our aggressive pursuit of allogeneic BMT in CR1 within this group (60% of FLT3/ITD vs. 17% with WT). Our single institution study of consecutively treated AML patients supports the hypothesis that allogeneic transplant in early CR1 improves the long term

  11. Role of allogeneic transplantation for FLT3/ITD acute myeloid leukemia: outcomes from 133 consecutive newly diagnosed patients from a single institution.

    PubMed

    DeZern, Amy E; Sung, Anthony; Kim, Sharon; Smith, B Douglas; Karp, Judith E; Gore, Steven D; Jones, Richard J; Fuchs, Ephraim; Luznik, Leo; McDevitt, Michael; Levis, Mark

    2011-09-01

    Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) patients with FLT3/ITD mutations have an inferior survival compared to AML patients with wild-type (WT) FLT3, primarily because of an increased relapse rate. Allogeneic transplantation represents a postremission therapy that is effective at reducing the risk of relapse for many cases of poor-risk AML. Whether or not allogeneic transplantation in first complete remission (CR) can improve outcomes for patients with FLT3/ITD AML remains controversial. Our institution has adopted a policy of pursuing allogeneic transplantation, including the use of alternate donors, for FLT3/ITD AML patients in remission. As part of an instituional review board-approved study, we performed a review of the clinical data from November 1, 2004, to October 31, 2008, on all adult patients under the age of 60 presenting in consecutive fashion to the Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins with newly diagnosed non-M3 AML. We followed their outcomes through August 1, 2010. During the study period, 133 previously untreated AML patients between the ages of 20 and 59 were diagnosed and received induction and consolidation therapy at our institution. Of these 133 patients, 31 (23%) harbored an FLT3/ITD mutation at diagnosis. The median overall survival (OS) from the time of diagnosis for the FLT3/ITD AML patients was compared to the OS of the entire cohort and found to be comparable (19.3 months versus 15.5 months, P = .56). Historically, OS for FLT3/ITD AML patients is significantly worse than for AML patients lacking this mutation. However, the OS for the 31 FLT3/ITD patients reported here was comparable to the 102 patients with WT FLT3 over the same 4-year time period. One difference that might have contributed to the surprising outcomes for the FLT3/ITD group is our aggressive pursuit of allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) in CR1 within this group (60% of FLT3/ITD versus 17% with WT). Our single-institution study of consecutively treated

  12. FLT3-internal tandem duplication in a pediatric patient with t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Machiko; Kaku, Hidefumi; Ito, Tateki; Funata, Nobuaki; Taki, Tomohiko; Shimada, Akira; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2010-12-01

    Patients diagnosed with t(8;21)-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are currently considered to have good prognoses, but about half of these patients relapse. FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) is generally thought to be strongly associated with poor prognosis in AML, but is rarely reported in patients with t(8;21)-AML. Expression of the neural cell-adhesion molecule (CD56) is also associated with a significantly shorter complete remission duration and survival in patients with t(8;21)-AML. Patients with t(8;21)-AML expressing CD56 have been reported to exhibit a higher incidence of granulocytic sarcoma (GS), and t(8;21)-AML with GS results in a less favorable prognosis than AML with this translocation alone. Here, we report on a 15-year-old girl with t(8;21)-AML having both CD56 expression and FLT3-ITD. This patient underwent unrelated donor bone marrow transplantation and achieved complete remission, but thereafter presented with obstructive jaundice caused by GS compression of the common bile duct without bone marrow invasion at relapse. Autopsy revealed multiple nodules of the stomach membrane and invasion into the head of the pancreas. For earlier detection of relapse, we suggest that it would be useful to examine existence of GS in CD56-positive t(8;21)-AML patients at diagnosis and hematologic remission. Even though t(8;21)-AML is less likely to co-occur with FLT3-ITD in pediatric patients, this report suggests that prognostic factors, including FLT3 and KIT genes and the surface marker CD56, should be analyzed in these patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tamoxifen-elicited uterotrophy: cross-species and cross-ligand analysis of the gene expression program

    PubMed Central

    Kwekel, Joshua C; Forgacs, Agnes L; Burgoon, Lyle D; Williams, Kurt J; Zacharewski, Timothy R

    2009-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is a well characterized breast cancer drug and selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) which also has been associated with a small increase in risk for uterine cancers. TAM's partial agonist activation of estrogen receptor has been characterized for specific gene promoters but not at the genomic level in vivo.Furthermore, reducing uncertainties associated with cross-species extrapolations of pharmaco- and toxicogenomic data remains a formidable challenge. Results A comparative ligand and species analysis approach was conducted to systematically assess the physiological, morphological and uterine gene expression alterations elicited across time by TAM and ethynylestradiol (EE) in immature ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. Differential gene expression was evaluated using custom cDNA microarrays, and the data was compared to identify conserved and divergent responses. 902 genes were differentially regulated in all four studies, 398 of which exhibit identical temporal expression patterns. Conclusion Comparative analysis of EE and TAM differentially expressed gene lists suggest TAM regulates no unique uterine genes that are conserved in the rat and mouse. This demonstrates that the partial agonist activities of TAM extend to molecular targets in regulating only a subset of EE-responsive genes. Ligand-conserved, species-divergent expression of carbonic anhydrase 2 was observed in the microarray data and confirmed by real time PCR. The identification of comparable temporal phenotypic responses linked to related gene expression profiles demonstrates that systematic comparative genomic assessments can elucidate important conserved and divergent mechanisms in rodent estrogen signalling during uterine proliferation. PMID:19400957

  14. Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Improves Survival in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia Characterized by a High Allelic Ratio of Mutant FLT3-ITD.

    PubMed

    Ho, Anthony D; Schetelig, Johannes; Bochtler, Tilmann; Schaich, Markus; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Hänel, Mathias; Rösler, Wolf; Einsele, Hermann; Kaufmann, Martin; Serve, Hubert; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Stelljes, Matthias; Mayer, Jiri; Reichle, Albrecht; Baldus, Claudia D; Schmitz, Norbert; Kramer, Michael; Röllig, Christoph; Bornhäuser, Martin; Thiede, Christian; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2016-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) as a postremission therapy in patients with FLT3-ITD-positive intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains controversial. FLT3-ITD mutations are heterogeneous with respect to allelic ratio, location, and length of the insertion, with a high mutant-to-wild-type ratio consistently associated with inferior prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the role of alloHCT in first remission in relationship to the allelic ratio and presence or absence of nucleophosmin 1 mutations (NPM1) in the Study Alliance Leukemia AML2003 trial. FLT3-ITD mutations were detected in 209 patients and concomitant NPM1 mutations in 148 patients. Applying a predefined cutoff ratio of .8, AML was grouped into high- and low-ratio FLT3-ITD AML (HR(FLT3-ITD) and LR(FLT3-ITD)). Sixty-one patients (29%) were transplanted in first remission. Overall survival (OS) (HR, .3; 95% CI, .16 to .7; P = .004) and event-free survival (EFS) (HR, .4; 95% CI, .16 to .9; P = .02) were significantly increased in patients with HR(FLT3-ITD) AML who received alloHCT as consolidation treatment compared with patients who received consolidation chemotherapy. Patients with LR(FLT3-ITD) AML and wild-type NPM1 who received alloHCT in first remission had increased OS (HR, .3; 95% CI, .1 to .8; P = .02) and EFS (HR, .2; 95% CI, .1 to .8; P = .02), whereas alloHCT in first remission did not have a significant impact on OS and EFS in patients with LR(FLT3-ITD) AML and concomitant NPM1 mutation. In conclusion, our results provide additional evidence that alloHCT in first remission improves EFS and OS in patients with HR(FLT3-ITD) AML and in patients with LR(FLT3-ITD) AML and wild-type NPM1. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Long FLT3 internal tandem duplications and reduced PML-RARα expression at diagnosis characterize a high-risk subgroup of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients

    PubMed Central

    Chillón, María Carmen; Santamaría, Carlos; García-Sanz, Ramón; Balanzategui, Ana; María Eugenia, Sarasquete; Alcoceba, Miguel; Marín, Luis; Caballero, María Dolores; Vidriales, María Belén; Ramos, Fernando; Bernal, Teresa; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; de Coca, Alfonso García; Peñarrubia, María Jesús; Queizán, José Antonio; Giraldo, Pilar; San Miguel, Jesús F.; González, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    Background Internal tandem duplications of the FLT3 gene (FLT3-ITDs) are frequent in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), however its clinical impact remains controversial. Design and Methods We analyzed the prognostic significance of FLT3-ITD mutant level and size, as well as FLT3-D835 point mutations, PML-RARα expression and other predictive factors in 129 APL patients at diagnosis enrolled on the Spanish LPA96 (n=43) or LPA99 (n=86) PETHEMA trials. Results FLT3-ITDs and D835 mutations were detected in 21% and 9% of patients, respectively. Patients with increased ITD mutant/wild-type ratio or longer ITD size displayed shorter 5-year relapse-free survival (RFS) (P=0.048 and P<0.0001, respectively). However, patients with D835 mutations did not show differences in RFS or overall survival (OS). Moreover, patients with initial normalized copy number (NCN) of PML-RARα transcripts less than the 25th percentile had adverse clinical features and shorter 5-year RFS (P<0.0001) and OS (P=0.004) compared to patients with higher NCN. Patients with low NCN showed increased incidence of ITDs (P=0.001), with higher ratios (P<0.0001) and/or longer sizes (P=0.007). Multivariate analysis showed that long FLT3-ITD (P=0.001), low PML-RARα levels (P=0.004) and elevated WBC counts (>10×109/L) (P=0.018) were independent predictors for shorter RFS. We identified a subgroup of patients with high WBC, long FLT3-ITD and low NCN of transcripts that showed an extremely bad prognosis (5-year RFS 23.4%, P<0.0001). Conclusions In conclusion, FLT3-ITD size and PML-RARα transcript levels at diagnosis could contribute to improve the risk stratification in APL. PMID:20133893

  16. Revealing very small FLT3 ITD mutated clones by ultra-deep sequencing analysis has important clinical implications in AML patients

    PubMed Central

    Zuffa, Elisa; Franchini, Eugenia; Papayannidis, Cristina; Baldazzi, Carmen; Simonetti, Giorgia; Testoni, Nicoletta; Abbenante, Maria Chiara; Paolini, Stefania; Sartor, Chiara; Parisi, Sarah; Marconi, Giovanni; Cattina, Federica; Bochicchio, Maria Teresa; Venturi, Claudia; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Cavo, Michele; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD), one of the most frequent mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), is reported to be an unstable marker, as it can evolve from FLT3 ITD- to ITD+ during the disease course. A single-gene sensitive mutational screening approach may be helpful for better clarifying the exact timing of mutation occurrence, especially when FLT3 ITD appears to occur late, at disease progression. We developed an amplicon-based ultra-deep-sequencing (UDS) approach for FLT3 mutational screening. We exploited this highly sensitive technology for the retrospective screening of diagnosis, relapse and follow-up samples of 5 out of 256 cytogenetically normal (CN-) AML who were FLT3 wild-type at presentation, but tested ITD+ at relapse or disease progression. Our study revealed that all patients carried a small ITD+ clone at diagnosis, which was undetectable by routine analysis (0,2–2% abundance). The dynamics of ITD+ clones from diagnosis to disease progression, assessed by UDS, reflected clonal evolution under treatment pressure. UDS appears as a valuable tool for FLT3 mutational screening and for the assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up, by detecting small ITD+ clones that may survive chemotherapy, evolve over time and definitely worsen the prognosis of CN-AML patients. PMID:26384303

  17. Establishment of xenotransplantation model of human CN-AML with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) in NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Shang, Zhen; Wang, Jue; Wang, Di; Xiao, Min; Li, Tong-juan; Wang, Na; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2013-06-01

    Patients with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML), as high-risk molecular group in CN-AML, are associated with a worse prognosis than other CN-AML patients. It is beneficial to generate xenotransplantation model of FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML to better understand the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of such AML subtype. The purpose of present study was to establish the xenotransplantation model in NOD/SCID mice with FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML primary cells. The FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML primary cells from 3 of 7 cases were successfully transplanted into NOD/SCID mice, and human CD45 positive cells were detected in the peripheral blood, spleen and bone marrow of mice by using flow cytometry. Infiltration of human leukemia cells in various organs of mice was observed by using immunohistochemistry. Gene analysis confirmed sustained FLT3/ITD mutation without NPM1 mutation in mice. By performing serial transplantation, it was found that characteristics of the leukemia cells in secondary and tertiary generation models remained unchanged. Moreover, in vivo cytarabine administration could extend survival of NOD/SCID mice, which was consistent with clinical observation. In conclusion, we successfully established xenotransplantation model of human FLT3-ITD (mut) /NPM1 (-) CN-AML in NOD/SCID mice. The model was able to present primary disease and suitable to evaluate the curative effects of new drugs or therapy strategies.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based FLT3 inhibitors as anti-leukemic agents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jee Sun; Park, Chun-Ho; Lee, Chulho; Kim, Hwan; Oh, Changmok; Choi, Yejoo; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Han, Gyoonhee

    2014-10-06

    The most common mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are those that cause the activation of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3). Therefore, FLT3 is regarded as a potential target for the treatment of AML. A novel series of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine-based analogs was designed and synthesized as FLT3 inhibitors. All synthesized compounds were assayed for the tyrosine kinase activity of FLT3 and growth inhibitory activity in four human leukemia cell lines (THP1, MV4-11, K562, and HL-60). Among these compounds, compound 17a, which possesses relatively short and simple substituents at the C6 position of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine, emerged as the most promising anti-leukemic agent. Compound 17a exhibited potent inhibition of FLT3-positive leukemic cell growth and of the FLT3 D835Y kinase; such inhibition is required for the successful treatment of AML. The data supports the further investigation of this class of compounds as potential anti-leukemic agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Favorable outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia harboring a low-allelic burden FLT3-ITD mutation and concomitant NPM1 mutation: relevance to post-remission therapy.

    PubMed

    Pratcorona, Marta; Brunet, Salut; Nomdedéu, Josep; Ribera, Josep Maria; Tormo, Mar; Duarte, Rafael; Escoda, Lourdes; Guàrdia, Ramon; Queipo de Llano, M Paz; Salamero, Olga; Bargay, Joan; Pedro, Carmen; Martí, Josep Maria; Torrebadell, Montserrat; Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Camós, Mireia; Colomer, Dolors; Hoyos, Montserrat; Sierra, Jorge; Esteve, Jordi

    2013-04-04

    Risk associated to FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may depend on mutational burden and its interaction with other mutations. We analyzed the effect of FLT3-ITD/FLT3 wild-type (FLT3wt) ratio depending on NPM1 mutation (NPM1mut) in 303 patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics AML treated with intensive chemotherapy. Among NPM1mut patients, FLT3wt and low ratio (<0.5) subgroups showed similar overall survival, relapse risk, and leukemia-free survival, whereas high ratio (≥0.5) patients had a worse outcome. In NPM1wt AML, FLT3-ITD subgroups showed a comparable outcome, with higher risk of relapse and shortened overall survival than FLT3wt patients. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in CR1 was associated with a reduced relapse risk in all molecular subgroups with the exception of NPM1mut AML with absent or low ratio FLT3-ITD. In conclusion, effect of FLT3 burden is modulated by NPM1 mutation, especially in patients with a low ratio.

  20. Flt3-L gene therapy enhances immunocytokine-mediated antitumor effects and induces long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zane C; Sondel, Paul M; Bates, Mary Kay; Gillies, Stephen D; Herweijer, Hans

    2007-11-01

    Therapeutic treatment with hu14.18-IL-2 immunocytokine (IC) or Flt3-L (FL) protein is initially effective at resolving established intradermal NXS2 neuroblastoma tumors in mice. However, many treated animals develop recurrent disease. We previously found that tumors recurring following natural killer (NK) mediated IC treatment show augmented MHC class I expression, while the tumors that recurred following T cell dependent Flt3-L treatment exhibited decreased MHC class I expression. We hypothesized that this divergent MHC modulation on recurrent tumors was due to therapy-specific immunoediting. We further postulated that combining IC and Flt3-L treatments might decrease the likelihood of recurrent disease by preventing MHC modulation as a mechanism for immune escape. We now report that combinatorial treatment of FL plus hu14.18-IL-2 IC provides greater antitumor benefit than treatment with either alone, suppressing development of recurrent disease. We administered FL by gene therapy using a clinically relevant approach: hydrodynamic limb vein (HLV) delivery of DNA for transgene expression by myofibers. Delivery of FL DNA by HLV injection in mice resulted in systemic expression of >10 ng/ml of FL in blood at day 3, and promoted up to a fourfold and tenfold increase in splenic NK and dendritic cells (DCs), respectively. Furthermore, the combination of FL gene therapy plus suboptimal IC treatment induced a greater expansion in the absolute number of splenic NK and DCs than achieved by individual component treatments. Mice that received combined FL gene therapy plus IC exhibited complete and durable resolution of established NXS2 tumors, and demonstrated protection from subsequent rechallenge with NXS2 tumor.

  1. Characterization of children with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the AIEOP AML-2002 study group.

    PubMed

    Manara, E; Basso, G; Zampini, M; Buldini, B; Tregnago, C; Rondelli, R; Masetti, R; Bisio, V; Frison, M; Polato, K; Cazzaniga, G; Menna, G; Fagioli, F; Merli, P; Biondi, A; Pession, A; Locatelli, F; Pigazzi, M

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent molecular markers have been routinely used in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for risk assessment at diagnosis, whereas their post-induction monitoring still represents a debated issue. We evaluated the prognostic value and biological impact of minimal residual disease (MRD) and of the allelic ratio (AR) of FLT3-internal-tandem duplication (ITD) in childhood AML. We retrospectively screened 494 children with de novo AML for FLT3-ITD mutation, identifying 54 harboring the mutation; 51% of them presented high ITD-AR at diagnosis and had worse event-free survival (EFS, 19.2 versus 63.5% for low ITD-AR, <0.05). Forty-one percent of children with high levels of MRD after the 1st induction course, measured by a patient-specific real-time-PCR, had worse EFS (22.2 versus 59.4% in low-MRD patients, P<0.05). Next, we correlated these parameters with gene expression, showing that patients with high ITD-AR or persistent MRD had characteristic expression profiles with deregulated genes involved in methylation and acetylation. Moreover, patients with high CyclinA1 expression presented an unfavorable EFS (20.3 versus 51.2% in low CyclinA1 group, P<0.01). Our results suggest that ITD-AR levels and molecular MRD should be considered in planning clinical management of FLT3-ITD patients. Different transcriptional activation of epigenetic and oncogenic profiles may explain variability in outcome among these patients, for whom novel therapeutic approaches are desirable.

  2. A Leukemia-Associated CD34/CD123/CD25/CD99+ Immunophenotype Identifies FLT3-Mutated Clones in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniela F; Ottone, Tiziana; Guerrera, Gisella; Lavorgna, Serena; Cittadini, Michela; Buccisano, Francesco; De Bardi, Marco; Gargano, Francesca; Maurillo, Luca; Divona, Mariadomenica; Noguera, Nélida I; Consalvo, Maria Irno; Borsellino, Giovanna; Bernardi, Giorgio; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano; Battistini, Luca; Lo-Coco, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP) and their correlation with fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) and nucleophosmin (NPM1) gene mutational status in order to contribute a better identification of patients at highest risk of relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Bone marrow samples from 132 patients with AML were analyzed by nine-color multiparametric flow cytometry. We confirmed the presence of the mutation in diagnostic samples and in sorted cells by conventional RT-PCR and by patient-specific RQ-PCR. Within the CD34(+) cell fraction, we identified a discrete population expressing high levels of the IL3 receptor α-chain (CD123) and MIC-2 (CD99) in combination with the IL2 receptor α-chain (CD25). The presence of this population positively correlated with the internal tandem duplications (ITD) mutation in the FLT3 gene (r = 0.71). Receiver operating characteristics showed that, within the CD34(+) cell fraction a percentage of CD123/CD99/CD25(+) cells ≥11.7% predicted FLT3-ITD mutations with a specificity and sensitivity of >90%. CD34/CD123/CD99/CD25(+) clones were also detectable at presentation in 3 patients with FLT3 wild-type/NPM1(+) AML who relapsed with FLT3-ITD/NPM1(+) AML. Quantitative real-time PCR designed at relapse for each FLT3-ITD in these three cases confirmed the presence of low copy numbers of the mutation in diagnostic samples. Our results suggest that the CD34/CD25/CD123/CD99(+) LAIP is strictly associated with FLT3-ITD-positive cells. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Does FLT3 mutation impact survival after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia? A Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis.

    PubMed

    Deol, Abhinav; Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Hai-Lin; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph Harry; Battiwalla, Minoo; Bornhauser, Martin; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Camitta, Bruce; Chen, Yi-Bin; Cutler, Corey S; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hamadani, Mehdi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Jagasia, Madan; Kamble, Rammurti; Koreth, John; Lazarus, Hillard M; Liesveld, Jane; Litzow, Mark R; Marks, David I; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F; Reshef, Ran; Rowe, Jacob M; Saad, Ayman A; Sabloff, Mitchell; Schouten, Harry C; Shea, Thomas C; Soiffer, Robert J; Uy, Geoffrey L; Waller, Edmond K; Wiernik, Peter H; Wirk, Baldeep; Woolfrey, Ann E; Bunjes, Donald; Devine, Steven; de Lima, Marcos; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Weisdorf, Dan; Khoury, Hanna Jean; Saber, Wael

    2016-10-01

    Patients with FMS like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a poor prognosis and are referred for early allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were used to evaluate 511 adult patients with de novo AML who underwent HCT during 2008 through 2011 to determine whether FLT3 mutations had an impact on HCT outcomes. In total, 158 patients (31%) had FLT3 mutations. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed an increased risk of relapse at 3 years in the FLT3 mutated group compared with the wild-type (WT) group (38% [95% confidence interval (CI), 30%-45%] vs 28% [95% CI, 24%-33%]; P = .04; relative risk, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.15-2.22]; P = .0048). However, FLT3 mutation status was not significantly associated with nonrelapse mortality, leukemia-free survival, or overall survival. Although more patients in the FLT3 mutated group died from relapsed primary disease compared with those in the WT group (60% vs 46%), the 3-year overall survival rate was comparable for the 2 groups (mutated group: 49%; 95% CI, 40%-57%; WT group: 55%, 95% CI, 50%-60%; P = .20). The current data indicate that FLT3 mutation status did not adversely impact overall survival after HCT, and about 50% of patients with this mutation who underwent HCT were long-term survivors. Cancer 2016;122:3005-3014. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. FLT3 Mutations in Early T-Cell Precursor ALL Characterize a Stem Cell Like Leukemia and Imply the Clinical Use of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Martin; Coskun, Ebru; Fransecky, Lars; Mochmann, Liliana H.; Bartram, Isabelle; Farhadi Sartangi, Nasrin; Heesch, Sandra; Gökbuget, Nicola; Schwartz, Stefan; Brandts, Christian; Schlee, Cornelia; Haas, Rainer; Dührsen, Ulrich; Griesshammer, Martin; Döhner, Hartmut; Ehninger, Gerhard; Burmeister, Thomas; Blau, Olga; Thiel, Eckhard; Hoelzer, Dieter; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Baldus, Claudia D.

    2013-01-01

    Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) has been identified as high-risk subgroup of acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with a high rate of FLT3-mutations in adults. To unravel the underlying pathomechanisms and the clinical course we assessed molecular alterations and clinical characteristics in a large cohort of ETP-ALL (n = 68) in comparison to non-ETP T-ALL adult patients. Interestingly, we found a high rate of FLT3-mutations in ETP-ALL samples (n = 24, 35%). Furthermore, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL was characterized by a specific immunophenotype (CD2+/CD5-/CD13+/CD33-), a distinct gene expression pattern (aberrant expression of IGFBP7, WT1, GATA3) and mutational status (absence of NOTCH1 mutations and a low frequency, 21%, of clonal TCR rearrangements). The observed low GATA3 expression and high WT1 expression in combination with lack of NOTCH1 mutations and a low rate of TCR rearrangements point to a leukemic transformation at the pluripotent prothymocyte stage in FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL. The clinical outcome in ETP-ALL patients was poor, but encouraging in those patients with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (3-year OS: 74%). To further explore the efficacy of targeted therapies, we demonstrate that T-ALL cell lines transfected with FLT3 expression constructs were particularly sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, FLT3 mutated ETP-ALL defines a molecular distinct stem cell like leukemic subtype. These data warrant clinical studies with the implementation of FLT3 inhibitors in addition to early allogeneic stem cell transplantation for this high risk subgroup. PMID:23359050

  5. PRL-3, a metastasis associated tyrosine phosphatase, is involved in FLT3-ITD signaling and implicated in anti-AML therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianbiao; Bi, Chonglei; Chng, Wee-Joo; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Mahara, Sylvia; Tay, Kian-Ghee; Zeng, Qi; Li, Jie; Guo, Ke; Tan, Cheng Peow Bobby; Yu, Hanry; Albert, Daniel H; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2011-05-12

    Combination with other small molecule drugs represents a promising strategy to improve therapeutic efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors in the clinic. We demonstrated that combining ABT-869, a FLT3 inhibitor, with SAHA, a HDAC inhibitor, led to synergistic killing of the AML cells with FLT3 mutations and suppression of colony formation. We identified a core gene signature that is uniquely induced by the combination treatment in 2 different leukemia cell lines. Among these, we showed that downregulation of PTP4A3 (PRL-3) played a role in this synergism. PRL-3 is downstream of FLT3 signaling and ectopic expression of PRL-3 conferred therapeutic resistance through upregulation of STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) pathway activity and anti-apoptotic Mcl-1 protein. PRL-3 interacts with HDAC4 and SAHA downregulates PRL-3 via a proteasome dependent pathway. In addition, PRL-3 protein was identified in 47% of AML cases, but was absent in myeloid cells in normal bone marrows. Our results suggest such combination therapies may significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy of FLT3 inhibitors. PRL-3 plays a potential pathological role in AML and it might be a useful therapeutic target in AML, and warrant clinical investigation.

  6. Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency transforms Flt3-ITD myeloproliferative disease into a rapid, spontaneous, and fully-penetrant acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sara E.; Qin, Tingting; Muench, David E.; Masuda, Kohei; Venkatasubramanian, Meenakshi; Orr, Emily; Suarez, Lauren; Gore, Steven D.; Delwel, Ruud; Paietta, Elisabeth; Tallman, Martin S.; Fernandez, Hugo; Melnick, Ari; Le Beau, Michelle M.; Kogan, Scott; Salomonis, Nathan; Figueroa, Maria E.; Grimes, H. Leighton

    2016-01-01

    Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) represents nearly 50% of human AML. Co-occurring mutations in the de novo DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A and the FMS related tyrosine kinase 3 FLT3 are common in CN-AML and confer a poorer prognosis. We demonstrate that mice with Flt3-internal-tandem duplication (Flt3ITD) and inducible deletion of Dnmt3a spontaneously develop a rapidly-lethal, completely-penetrant, and transplantable AML of normal karyotype. AML cells retain a single Dnmt3a floxed allele, revealing the oncogenic potential of Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency. FLT3-ITD/DNMT3A-mutant primary human and murine AML exhibit a similar pattern of global DNA methylation associated with changes in the expression of nearby genes. In the murine model, rescuing DNMT3A expression was accompanied by DNA re-methylation and loss of clonogenic potential, suggesting that Dnmt3a-mutant oncogenic effects are reversible. Dissection of the cellular architecture of the AML model using single-cell assays identified clonogenic subpopulations that express genes sensitive to the methylation of nearby genomic loci, and responsive to Dnmt3a levels. Thus, Dnmt3a haploinsufficiency transforms Flt3ITD myeloproliferative disease by modulating methylation-sensitive gene expression within a clonogenic AML subpopulation. PMID:27016502

  7. MiR-424 and miR-155 deregulated expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukaemia: correlation with NPM1 and FLT3 mutation status

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNA have a central role in normal haematopoiesis and are deregulated in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). The purpose of the study was to investigate by qRT-PCR the expression of miRNAs involved in myeloid differentiation (miR-424, miR-155, miR-223, miR-17-5p) in 48 patients with cytogenetically normal AML well characterized for NPM1 and/or FLT3 mutations. Three types of normalization were used for the data validation. Findings We found that miR-424 was down-modulated in AMLs with NPM1mutA regardless of FLT3 status. On the contrary, miR-155 showed up-regulation in patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplications (ITD) with or without NPM1 mutations. No significant associations were found by analyzing miR-223 and miR-17-5p in relation to FLT3 and NPM1 status. Conclusions This study supports the view that major genetic subsets of CN-AML are associated with distinct miRNA signatures and suggests that miR-424 and miR-155 deregulation is involved in the pathogenesis of CN-AML with NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations, respectively. PMID:22681934

  8. Sorafenib induces paradoxical phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in acute myeloid leukemia cells lacking FLT3-ITD mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fouladi, Fariba; Jehn, Lutz B.; Metzelder, Stephan K.; Hub, Florian; Henkenius, Katharina; Burchert, Andreas; Brendel, Cornelia; Stiewe, Thorsten; Neubauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the RAS and FLT3 genes are frequently found in cells of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), leading to constitutive activation of signaling pathways that regulate fundamental cellular processes, and are therefore attractive targets for AML therapy. The multi-targeted kinase inhibitor sorafenib is efficacious in AML with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD), but resistance to therapy is an important clinical problem. It is unclear whether AML lacking FLT3-ITD responds to sorafenib. Using AML cell lines, we have shown that a low concentration of sorafenib induces opposing effects depending on the oncogenic background. In FLT3-ITD positive cells sorafenib blocks Erk activity and cell proliferation, and triggers apoptosis. However, in cells lacking FLT3-ITD, sorafenib paradoxically activates Erk2, and stimulates cellular proliferation and metabolic activity. Thus, depending on the genetic context, sorafenib is a beneficial inhibitor or paradoxical activator of mitogenic signaling pathways in AML. These results harbor important consequences in planning clinical trials in AML. PMID:25665465

  9. Optimization of imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based kinase inhibitors: identification of a dual FLT3/Aurora kinase inhibitor as an orally bioavailable preclinical development candidate for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bavetsias, Vassilios; Crumpler, Simon; Sun, Chongbo; Avery, Sian; Atrash, Butrus; Faisal, Amir; Moore, Andrew S; Kosmopoulou, Magda; Brown, Nathan; Sheldrake, Peter W; Bush, Katherine; Henley, Alan; Box, Gary; Valenti, Melanie; de Haven Brandon, Alexis; Raynaud, Florence I; Workman, Paul; Eccles, Suzanne A; Bayliss, Richard; Linardopoulos, Spiros; Blagg, Julian

    2012-10-25

    Optimization of the imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based series of Aurora kinase inhibitors led to the identification of 6-chloro-7-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (27e), a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinases (Aurora-A K(d) = 7.5 nM, Aurora-B K(d) = 48 nM), FLT3 kinase (K(d) = 6.2 nM), and FLT3 mutants including FLT3-ITD (K(d) = 38 nM) and FLT3(D835Y) (K(d) = 14 nM). FLT3-ITD causes constitutive FLT3 kinase activation and is detected in 20-35% of adults and 15% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), conferring a poor prognosis in both age groups. In an in vivo setting, 27e strongly inhibited the growth of a FLT3-ITD-positive AML human tumor xenograft (MV4-11) following oral administration, with in vivo biomarker modulation and plasma free drug exposures consistent with dual FLT3 and Aurora kinase inhibition. Compound 27e, an orally bioavailable dual FLT3 and Aurora kinase inhibitor, was selected as a preclinical development candidate for the treatment of human malignancies, in particular AML, in adults and children.

  10. Optimization of Imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-Based Kinase Inhibitors: Identification of a Dual FLT3/Aurora Kinase Inhibitor as an Orally Bioavailable Preclinical Development Candidate for the Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine-based series of Aurora kinase inhibitors led to the identification of 6-chloro-7-(4-(4-chlorobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-3H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (27e), a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinases (Aurora-A Kd = 7.5 nM, Aurora-B Kd = 48 nM), FLT3 kinase (Kd = 6.2 nM), and FLT3 mutants including FLT3-ITD (Kd = 38 nM) and FLT3(D835Y) (Kd = 14 nM). FLT3-ITD causes constitutive FLT3 kinase activation and is detected in 20–35% of adults and 15% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), conferring a poor prognosis in both age groups. In an in vivo setting, 27e strongly inhibited the growth of a FLT3-ITD-positive AML human tumor xenograft (MV4–11) following oral administration, with in vivo biomarker modulation and plasma free drug exposures consistent with dual FLT3 and Aurora kinase inhibition. Compound 27e, an orally bioavailable dual FLT3 and Aurora kinase inhibitor, was selected as a preclinical development candidate for the treatment of human malignancies, in particular AML, in adults and children. PMID:23043539

  11. qPCR in gastrointestinal stromal tumors: Evaluation of reference genes and expression analysis of KIT and the alternative receptor tyrosine kinases FLT3, CSF1-R, PDGFRB, MET and AXL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) represent the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. About 85% carry an activating mutation in the KIT or PDGFRA gene. Approximately 10% of GIST are so-called wild type GIST (wt-GIST) without mutations in the hot spots. In the present study we evaluated appropriate reference genes for the expression analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and fresh frozen samples from gastrointestinal stromal tumors. We evaluated the gene expression of KIT as well as of the alternative receptor tyrosine kinase genes FLT3, CSF1-R, PDGFRB, AXL and MET by qPCR. wt-GIST were compared to samples with mutations in KIT exon 9 and 11 and PDGFRA exon 18 in order to evaluate whether overexpression of these alternative RTK might contribute to the pathogenesis of wt-GIST. Results Gene expression variability of the pooled cDNA samples is much lower than the single reverse transcription cDNA synthesis. By combining the lowest variability values of fixed and fresh tissue, the genes POLR2A, PPIA, RPLPO and TFRC were chosen for further analysis of the GIST samples. Overexpression of KIT compared to the corresponding normal tissue was detected in each GIST subgroup except in GIST with PDGFRA exon 18 mutation. Comparing our sample groups, no significant differences in the gene expression levels of FLT3, CSF1R and AXL were determined. An exception was the sample group with KIT exon 9 mutation. A significantly reduced expression of CSF1R, FLT3 and PDGFRB compared to the normal tissue was detected. GIST with mutations in KIT exon 9 and 11 and in PDGFRA exon 18 showed a significant PDGFRB downregulation. Conclusions As the variability of expression levels for the reference genes is very high comparing fresh frozen and formalin-fixed tissue there is a strong need for validation in each tissue type. None of the alternative receptor tyrosine kinases analyzed is associated with the pathogenesis of wild-type or mutated GIST. It

  12. FLT3L and Plerixafor Combination Increases Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization and Leads to Improved Transplantation Outcome

    PubMed Central

    He, Shun; Chu, Jianhong; Vasu, Sumithira; Deng, Youcai; Yuan, Shunzong; Zhang, Jianying; Fan, Zhijin; Hofmeister, Craig C.; He, Xiaoming; Marsh, Henry C.; Devine, Steven M.; Yu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation has curative potential for patients with hematological malignancies. Clinically, HSCs derived from mobilized peripheral blood are used more frequently than bone marrow. However, current standard mobilizing agents yield grafts that may not contain sufficient HSCs. Here, using murine models, we discovered that FLT3L synergized with Plerixafor to mobilize phenotypically defined HSCs, and their combination (FP) was superior to G-CSF alone or in combination with Plerixafor (GP). Additionally, FP mobilized more Treg cells, NK cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells compared with G-CSF alone or GP. Both syngeneic and allogeneic grafts mobilized by FP led to long-term survival in transplanted mice. Collectively, FP represents a promising novel and potent mobilization regimen with potential clinical application in both the autologous and allogeneic transplantation settings. PMID:24365795

  13. Flt3L-mobilized dendritic cells bearing H2-Kbm1 apoptotic cells do not induce cross-tolerance to CD8+ T cells across a class I MHC mismatched barrier.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Maria-Luisa; Cote-Sierra, Javier; Rodriguez-Barbosa, Jose-Ignacio

    2011-05-01

    Tolerization of allogeneic CD8(+) T cells is still a pending issue in the field of transplantation research to achieve long-term survival. To test whether dendritic cells (DC) bearing allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I mismatched apoptotic cells could induce cross-tolerance to alloreactive CD8(+) T cells, the following experimental strategy was devised. Rag2/γ(c) KO B6 mice were treated with Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)-transduced B16 melanoma cells to drive a rapid expansion and mobilization of DC in vivo. Of all DC populations expanded, splenic CD11c(+) CD103(+) CD8α(+) DC were selectively involved in the process of antigen clearance of X-ray irradiated apoptotic thymocytes in vivo. Considering that CD11c(+) CD103(+) CD8α(+) DC selectively take up apoptotic cells and that they are highly specialized in cross-presenting antigen to CD8(+) T cells, we investigated whether B6 mice adoptively transferred with Flt3L-derived DC loaded with donor-derived apoptotic thymocytes could induce tolerance to bm1 skin allografts. Our findings on host anti-donor alloresponse, as revealed by skin allograft survival and cytotoxic T lymphocyte assays, indicated that the administration of syngeneic DC presenting K(bm1) donor-derived allopeptides through the indirect pathway of antigen presentation was not sufficient to induce cross-tolerance to alloreactive CD8(+) T cells responding to bm1 alloantigens in a murine model of skin allograft transplantation across an MHC class I mismatched barrier.

  14. NOTCH2 and FLT3 gene mis-splicings are common events in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): new potential targets in AML

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Natan, Michal; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Pilarski, Patrick M.; Bach, Christian; Pevzner, Samuel; Calimeri, Teresa; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Lode, Laurence; Verselis, Sigitas; Fox, Edward A.; Galinsky, Ilene; Mathews, Steven; Dagogo-Jack, Ibiayi; Wadleigh, Martha; Steensma, David P.; Motyckova, Gabriela; Deangelo, Daniel J.; Quackenbush, John; Tenen, Daniel G.; Stone, Richard M.; Griffin, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed an increase in alternative splicing of multiple RNAs in cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) compared with CD34+ bone marrow cells from normal donors. Aberrantly spliced genes included a number of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, and genes involved in regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, and cell differentiation. Among the most commonly mis-spliced genes (>70% of AML patients) were 2, NOTCH2 and FLT3, that encode myeloid cell surface proteins. The splice variants of NOTCH2 and FLT3 resulted from complete or partial exon skipping and utilization of cryptic splice sites. Longitudinal analyses suggested that NOTCH2 and FLT3 aberrant splicing correlated with disease status. Correlation analyses between splice variants of these genes and clinical features of patients showed an association between NOTCH2-Va splice variant and overall survival of patients. Our results suggest that NOTCH2 and FLT3 mis-splicing is a common characteristic of AML and has the potential to generate transcripts encoding proteins with altered function. Thus, splice variants of these genes might provide disease markers and targets for novel therapeutics. PMID:24574459

  15. Visualization of bone marrow monocyte mobilization using Cx3cr1gfp/+Flt3L−/− reporter mouse by multiphoton intravital microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Maximilien; Chong, Shu Zhen; Devi, Sapna; Chew, Weng Keong; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Ginhoux, Florent; Tan, Suet Mien; Ng, Lai Guan

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that play critical roles in inflammation and immune defense. A better comprehension of how monocytes are mobilized and recruited is fundamental to understand their biologic role in disease and steady state. The BM represents a major “checkpoint” for monocyte homeostasis, as it is the primary site for their production and release. Our study determined that the Cx3cr1gfp/+ mouse strain is currently the most ideal model for the visualization of monocyte behavior in the BM by multiphoton intravital microscopy. However, we observed that DCs are also labeled with high levels of GFP and thus, interfere with the accuracy of monocyte tracking in vivo. Hence, we generated a Cx3cr1gfp/+Flt3L−/− reporter mouse and showed that whereas monocyte numbers were not affected, DC numbers were reduced significantly, as DCs but not monocytes depend on Flt3 signaling for their development. We thus verified that mobilization of monocytes from the BM in Cx3cr1gfp/+Flt3L−/− mice is intact in response to LPS. Collectively, our study demonstrates that the Cx3cr1gfp/+Flt3L−/− reporter mouse model represents a powerful tool to visualize monocyte activities in BM and illustrates the potential of a Cx3cr1gfp/+-based, multifunctionality fluorescence reporter approach to dissect monocyte function in vivo. PMID:25516753

  16. The value of molecular stratification for CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotypes in older patients with acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Glenda J; Bustraan, Sophia; Hills, Robert K; Ali, Akbar; Goldstone, Anthony H; Burnett, Alan K; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2016-02-01

    Older adult patients (≥60 years) with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) are generally considered to be poor-risk and there is limited information available regarding risk stratification based on molecular characterization in this age group, particularly for the double-mutant CEBPA (CEBPA(DM) ) genotype. To investigate whether a molecular favourable-risk genotype can be identified, we investigated CEBPA, NPM1 and FLT3 status and prognostic impact in a cohort of 301 patients aged 60 years or more with intermediate-risk cytogenetics, all treated intensively. Overall survival (OS) at 1 year was highest in the 12 patients (4%) that were CEBPA(DM) compared to the 76 (28%) with a mutant NPM1 and wild-type FLT3 (NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) ) genotype or all other patients (75%, 54%, 33% respectively), with median survival 15·2, 13·6 and 6·6 months, although the benefit was short-term (OS at 3 years 17%, 29%, 12% respectively). Combination of the CEBPA(DM) and NPM1(MUT) FLT3(WT) genotype patients defined a molecular group with favourable prognosis (P < 0·0001 in multivariate analysis), with 57% of patients alive at 1 year compared to 33% for all other patients. Knowledge of genotype in older cytogenetically intermediate-risk patients might influence therapy decisions.

  17. Selective Akt Inhibitors Synergize with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Effectively Override Stroma-Associated Cytoprotection of Mutant FLT3-Positive AML Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Nelson, Erik; Sattler, Martin; Liu, Feiyang; Nicolais, Maria; Zhang, Jianming; Mitsiades, Constantine; Smith, Robert W.; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Nonami, Atsushi; Griffin, James D.; Gray, Nathanael

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients commonly show rapid and significant peripheral blood blast cell reduction, however a marginal decrease in bone marrow blasts. This suggests a protective environment and highlights the demand for a better understanding of stromal:leukemia cell communication. As a strategy to improve clinical efficacy, we searched for novel agents capable of potentiating the stroma-diminished effects of TKI treatment of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Methods We designed a combinatorial high throughput drug screen using well-characterized kinase inhibitor-focused libraries to identify novel kinase inhibitors capable of overriding stromal-mediated resistance to TKIs, such as PKC412 and AC220. Standard liquid culture proliferation assays, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, and immunoblotting were carried out with cell lines or primary AML to validate putative candidates from the screen and characterize the mechanism(s) underlying observed synergy. Results and Conclusions Our study led to the observation of synergy between selective Akt inhibitors and FLT3 inhibitors against mutant FLT3-positive AML in either the absence or presence of stroma. Our findings are consistent with evidence that Akt activation is characteristic of mutant FLT3-transformed cells, as well as observed residual Akt activity following FLT3 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, our study highlights the potential importance of Akt as a signaling factor in leukemia survival, and supports the use of the co-culture chemical screen to identify agents able to potentiate TKI anti-leukemia activity in a cytoprotective microenvironment. PMID:23437141

  18. Synergistic cell death in FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia by combined treatment with metformin and 6-benzylthioinosine.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Himalee S; Bradley, Heath L; Tripathi, Shweta; Yu, Wen-Mei; Tse, William; Qu, Cheng-Kui; Bunting, Kevin D

    2016-11-01

    Current therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primarily includes high-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy with or without allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Targeting unique cellular metabolism of cancer cells is a potentially less toxic approach. Monotherapy with mitochondrial inhibitors like metformin have met with limited success since escape mechanisms such as increased glycolytic ATP production, especially in hyperglycemia, can overcome the metabolic blockade. As an alternative strategy for metformin therapy, we hypothesized that the combination of 6-benzylthioinosine (6-BT), a broad-spectrum metabolic inhibitor, and metformin could block this drug resistance mechanism. Metformin treatment alone resulted in significant suppression of ROS and mitochondrial respiration with increased glycolysis accompanied by modest cytotoxicity (10-25%). In contrast, 6-BT monotherapy resulted in inhibition of glucose uptake, decreased glycolysis, and decreased ATP with minimal changes in ROS and mitochondrial respiration. The combination of 6-BT with metformin resulted in significant cytotoxicity (60-70%) in monocytic AML cell lines and was associated with inhibition of FLT3-ITD activated STAT5 and reduced c-Myc and GLUT-1 expression. Therefore, although the anti-tumor and metabolic effects of metformin have been limited by the metabolic reprogramming within cells, the novel combination of 6-BT and metformin targets this bypass mechanism resulting in reduced glycolysis, STAT5 inhibition, and increased cell death. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tandem duplication PCR: an ultra-sensitive assay for the detection of internal tandem duplications of the FLT3 gene

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Tseh; Tseng, Li-Hui; Beierl, Katie; Hsieh, Antony; Thiess, Michele; Chase, Nadine; Stafford, Amanda; Levis, Mark J.; Eshleman, James R.; Gocke, Christopher D.

    2013-01-01

    Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FLT3 gene have been associated with a poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Detection of ITD-positive minor clones at the initial diagnosis and during the minimal residual disease (MRD) stage may be essential. We previously designed a delta-PCR strategy to improve the sensitivity to 0.1% ITD-positive leukemia cells and showed that minor mutants with an allele burden of less than 1% can be clinically significant. In this study, we report on tandem duplication PCR (TD-PCR), a modified inverse PCR assay, and demonstrate a limit of detection of a few molecules of ITD mutants. The TD-PCR was initially designed to confirm ITD mutation of an amplicon which was undetectable by capillary electrophoresis and was incidentally isolated by a molecular fraction collecting tool. Subsequently, TD-PCR detected ITD mutation in 2 of 77 patients previously reported as negative for ITD mutation by a standard PCR assay. TD-PCR can also potentially be applied to monitor MRD with high analytic sensitivity in a portion of ITD-positive AML patients. Further studies using TD-PCR to detect ITD mutants at diagnosis may clarify the clinical significance of those ITD mutants with extremely low allele burden. PMID:23846441

  20. Selective inhibition of FLT3 by gilteritinib in relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia: a multicentre, first-in-human, open-label, phase 1-2 study.

    PubMed

    Perl, Alexander E; Altman, Jessica K; Cortes, Jorge; Smith, Catherine; Litzow, Mark; Baer, Maria R; Claxton, David; Erba, Harry P; Gill, Stan; Goldberg, Stuart; Jurcic, Joseph G; Larson, Richard A; Liu, Chaofeng; Ritchie, Ellen; Schiller, Gary; Spira, Alexander I; Strickland, Stephen A; Tibes, Raoul; Ustun, Celalettin; Wang, Eunice S; Stuart, Robert; Röllig, Christoph; Neubauer, Andreas; Martinelli, Giovanni; Bahceci, Erkut; Levis, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Internal tandem duplication mutations in FLT3 are common in acute myeloid leukaemia and are associated with rapid relapse and short overall survival. The clinical benefit of FLT3 inhibitors in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia has been limited by rapid generation of resistance mutations, particularly in codon Asp835 (D835). We aimed to assess the highly selective oral FLT3 inhibitor gilteritinib in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia. In this phase 1-2 trial, we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older with acute myeloid leukaemia who either were refractory to induction therapy or had relapsed after achieving remission with previous treatment. Patients were enrolled into one of seven dose-escalation or dose-expansion cohorts assigned to receive once-daily doses of oral gilteritinib (20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, 120 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, or 450 mg). Cohort expansion was based on safety and tolerability, FLT3 inhibition in correlative assays, and antileukaemic activity. Although the presence of an FLT3 mutation was not an inclusion criterion, we required ten or more patients with locally confirmed FLT3 mutations (FLT3(mut+)) to be enrolled in expansion cohorts at each dose level. On the basis of emerging findings, we further expanded the 120 mg and 200 mg dose cohorts to include FLT3(mut+) patients only. The primary endpoints were the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of gilteritinib. Safety and tolerability were assessed in the safety analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of gilteritinib). Responses were assessed in the full analysis set (all patients who received at least one dose of study drug and who had at least one datapoint post-treatment). Pharmacokinetics were assessed in a subset of the safety analysis set for which sufficient data for concentrations of gilteritinib in plasma were available to enable derivation of one or more pharmacokinetic variables. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number

  1. AKT1 induces caspase-mediated cleavage of the CDK inhibitor p27Kip1 during cell cycle progression in leukemia cells transformed by FLT3-ITD

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xinping; Liu, Suiyang; Kharbanda, Surender; Stone, Richard M

    2011-01-01

    p27Kip1 cleavage and caspase-3 regulate cell cycle in human myeloma cells and B cells however regulation of p27Kip1 cleavage during the cell cycle is not known. In BaF3-FLT3-ITD cells, p27Kip1 undergoes C-terminal cleavage. Inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway is associated with decreased cleavage of p27Kip1 and G1 phase arrest. The caspase-3 inhibitor reduces p27Kip1 cleavage and inhibits cell proliferation. Knockdown shRNA against AKT1 reduces cleavage of p27Kip1, inhibits caspase-3 activation, and is associated with a delay in cell cycle progression. Taken together, these findings indicate that AKT1 induces caspase-mediated cleavage of p27Kip1, required for G1-S progression in FLT3-ITD cells. PMID:22142798

  2. PML-RARα kinetics and impact of FLT3-ITD mutations in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia treated with ATRA and ATO or ATRA and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cicconi, L; Divona, M; Ciardi, C; Ottone, T; Ferrantini, A; Lavorgna, S; Alfonso, V; Paoloni, F; Piciocchi, A; Avvisati, G; Ferrara, F; Di Bona, E; Albano, F; Breccia, M; Cerqui, E; Sborgia, M; Kropp, M G; Santoro, A; Levis, A; Sica, S; Amadori, S; Voso, M T; Mandelli, F; Lo-Coco, F

    2016-10-01

    The APL0406 study showed that arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) are not inferior to standard ATRA and chemotherapy (CHT) in newly diagnosed, low-intermediaterisk acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). We analysed the kinetics of promyelocytic leukaemia-retinoic acid receptor-α (PML-RARα) transcripts by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in bone marrow samples from 184 patients and assessed the prognostic impact of fms-related tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) in 159 patients enrolled in this trial in Italy. After induction therapy, the reduction of PML-RARα transcripts was significantly greater in patients receiving ATRA-CHT as compared with those treated with ATRA-ATO (3.4 vs 2.9 logs; P=0.0182). Conversely, at the end of consolidation, a greater log reduction of PML-RARα transcripts was detected in the ATRA-ATO as compared with the ATRA-CHT group (6.3 vs 5.3 logs; P=0.0024). FLT3-ITD mutations had no significant impact on either event-free survival (EFS) or cumulative incidence of relapse in patients receiving ATRA-ATO, whereas a trend for inferior EFS was observed in FLT3-ITD-positive patients receiving ATRA-CHT. Our study shows at the molecular level that ATRA-ATO exerts at least equal and probably superior antileukaemic efficacy compared with ATRA-CHT in low-intermediaterisk APL. The data also suggest that ATRA-ATO may abrogate the negative prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD.

  3. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Intermediate Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia negative for FLT3-ITD, NPM1- or biallelic CEBPA Mutations.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, K; Thiede, C; Schäfer-Eckart, K; Schmitz, N; Aulitzky, W E; Krämer, A; Rösler, W; Hänel, M; Einsele, H; Baldus, C D; Trappe, R U; Stölzel, F; Middeke, J M; Röllig, C; Taube, F; Kramer, M; Serve, H; Berdel, W E; Ehninger, G; Bornhäuser, M; Schetelig, J

    2017-09-01

    The value of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) as post-remission treatment is not well defined for patients with intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) without FLT3 -ITD, biallelic CEBPA -, or NPM1 mutations (here referred to as NPM1 mut-neg / CEBPA dm-neg / FLT3 -ITD neg AML) in first complete remission (CR1). We addressed this question using data from two prospective randomized controlled trials on intensive induction- and risk-stratified post-remission therapy The NPM1 mut-neg / CEBPA dm-neg / FLT3 -ITD neg AML subgroup comprised 497 patients, aged 18-60 years. In donor versus no-donor analyses, patients with a matched related donor had a longer relapse-free survival (RFS) (HR 0.5; 95%-CI, 0.3 - 0.9, p =  .02) and a trend towards better overall survival (OS) (HR 0.6, 95%-CI, 0.3 - 1.1, p =  .08) compared to patients who received post-remission chemotherapy. Notably, only 58% of patients in the donor group were transplanted in CR1. We therefore complemented the donor versus no-donor analysis with multivariable Cox regression analyses, where alloHCT was tested as a time-dependent covariate: OS (HR 0.58, 95%-CI, 0.37 - 0.9, p =  .02) and RFS (HR 0.51; 95%-CI, 0.34 - 0.76; p =  .001) for patients who received alloHCT compared to chemotherapy in CR1 were significantly longer. Outside clinical trials, alloHCT should be the preferred post-remission treatment for patients with intermediate risk NPM1 mut-neg /CEBPA dm-neg /FLT3-ITD neg AML in CR1.

  4. Uterotonic Neuromedin U Receptor 2 and Its Ligands Are Upregulated by Inflammation in Mice and Humans, and Elicit Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Nadeau-Vallée, Mathieu; Boudreault, Amarilys; Leimert, Kelycia; Hou, Xin; Obari, Dima; Madaan, Ankush; Rouget, Raphaël; Zhu, Tang; Belarbi, Lydia; Brien, Marie-Ève; Beaudry-Richard, Alexandra; Olson, David M; Girard, Sylvie; Chemtob, Sylvain

    2016-09-01

    Uterine labor requires the conversion of a quiescent (propregnancy) uterus into an activated (prolabor) uterus, with increased sensitivity to endogenous uterotonic molecules. This activation is induced by stressors, particularly inflammation in term and preterm labor. Neuromedin U (NmU) is a neuropeptide known for its uterocontractile effects in rodents. The objective of the study was to assess the expression and function of neuromedin U receptor 2 (NmU-R2) and its ligands NmU and the more potent neuromedin S (NmS) in gestational tissues, and the possible implication of inflammatory stressors in triggering this system. Our data show that NmU and NmS are uterotonic ex vivo in murine tissue, and they dose-dependently trigger labor by acting specifically via NmU-R2. Expression of NmU-R2, NmU, and NmS is detected in murine and human gestational tissues by immunoblot, and the expression of NmS in placenta and of NmU-R2 in uterus increases considerably with gestation age and labor, which is associated with amplified NmU-induced uterocontractile response in mice. NmU- and NmS-induced contraction is associated with increased NmU-R2-coupled Ca(++) transients, and Akt and Erk activation in murine primary myometrial smooth muscle cells (mSMCs), which are potentiated with gestational age. NmU-R2 is upregulated in vitro in mSMCs and in vivo in uterus in response to proinflammatory interleukin 1beta (IL1beta), which is associated with increased NmU-induced uterocontractile response and Ca(++) transients in murine and human mSMCs; additionally, placental NmS is markedly upregulated in vivo in response to IL1beta. In human placenta at term, immunohistological analysis revealed NmS expression primarily in cytotrophoblasts; furthermore, stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Gram-negative endotoxin) markedly upregulates NmS expression in primary human cytotrophoblasts isolated from term placentas. Correspondingly, decidua of women with clinical signs of infection who delivered

  5. High rate of hematological responses to sorafenib in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    De Freitas, Tiago; Marktel, Sarah; Piemontese, Simona; Carrabba, Matteo G; Tresoldi, Cristina; Messina, Carlo; Lupo Stanghellini, Maria Teresa; Assanelli, Andrea; Corti, Consuelo; Bernardi, Massimo; Peccatori, Jacopo; Vago, Luca; Ciceri, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Relapse represents the most significant cause of failure of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for FLT3-ITD-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and available therapies are largely unsatisfactory. In this study, we retrospectively collected data on the off-label use of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sorafenib, either alone or in association with hypomethylating agents and adoptive immunotherapy, in 13 patients with post-transplantation FLT3-ITD-positive AML relapses. Hematological response was documented in 12 of 13 patients (92%), and five of 13 (38%) achieved complete bone marrow remission. Treatment was overall manageable in the outpatient setting, although all patients experienced significant adverse events, especially severe cytopenias (requiring a donor stem cell boost in five patients) and typical hand-foot syndrome. None of the patients developed graft-vs.-host disease following sorafenib alone, whereas this was frequently observed when this was given in association with donor T-cell infusions. Six patients are alive and in remission at the last follow-up, and four could be bridged to a second allogeneic HSCT, configuring a 65 ± 14% overall survival at 100 d from relapse. Taken together, our data suggest that sorafenib might represent a valid treatment option for patients with FLT3-ITD-positive post-transplantation relapses, manageable also in combination with other therapeutic strategies.

  6. Characterizing and Overriding the Structural Mechanism of the Quizartinib-resistant FLT3 “Gatekeeper” F691L Mutation with PLX3397

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Catherine C.; Zhang, Chao; Lin, Kimberly; Lasater, Elisabeth A.; Zhang, Ying; Massi, Evan; Damon, Lauren E.; Pendleton, Matthew; Bashir, Ali; Sebra, Robert; Perl, Alexander; Kasarskis, Andrew; Shellooe, Rafe; Tsang, Garson; Carias, Heidi; Powell, Ben; Burton, Elizabeth A.; Matusow, Bernice; Zhang, Jiazhong; Spevak, Wayne; Ibrahim, Prabha N.; Le, Mai H.; Hsu, Henry H.; Habets, Gaston; West, Brian L.; Bollag, Gideon; Shah, Neil P.

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase domain mutations are a common cause of acquired clinical resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) used to treat cancer, including the FLT3 inhibitor quizartinib. Mutation of kinase “gatekeeper” residues, which control access to an allosteric pocket adjacent to the ATP-binding site, have been frequently implicated in TKI resistance. The molecular underpinnings of gatekeeper mutation-mediated resistance are incompletely understood. We report the first co-crystal structure of FLT3 with the TKI quizartinib, which demonstrates that quizartinib binding relies on essential edge-to-face aromatic interactions with the gatekeeper F691 residue, and F830 within the highly conserved DFG motif in the activation loop. This reliance makes quizartinib critically vulnerable to gatekeeper and activation loop substitutions while minimizing the impact of mutations elsewhere. Moreover, we identify PLX3397, a novel FLT3 inhibitor that retains activity against the F691L mutant due to a binding mode that depends less vitally on specific interactions with the gatekeeper position. PMID:25847190

  7. Novel anticancer compound [trifluoromethyl-substituted pyrazole N-nucleoside] inhibits FLT3 activity to induce differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Ayman M; Taha, Mutasem O; Aziz, Mohammad A; Al-Qudah, Mahmoud A; AbuTayeh, Reem F; Rizvi, Syed A

    2016-06-01

    Anticancer properties of chemically synthesized compounds have continuously been optimized for better efficacy and selectivity. Derivatives of heterocyclic compounds are well known to have selective antiproliferative effect against many types of cancer. In this study, we investigated the ability of an indigenously synthesized anticancer molecule, G-11 [1-(2",3",4",6"-Tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-4-(3'-trifluoromethylphenylhydrazono)-3-trifluoromethyl-1,4-dihydropyrazol-5-one], to cause selective cytotoxicity and induce differentiation in the acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells. G-11 was able to exert cytotoxic effect on hematological (Jurkat, U937, K562, HL-60, CCRF-SB) and solid tumor (MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, Caco-2) cell lines, with IC50 values significantly lower than noncancerous cells (HEK-293, BJ and Vero) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. G-11 induced differentiation of HL-60 cells to granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages by inhibiting the activation of FLT3 (CD135 tyrosine kinase). ITD-FLT3 mutation found in many acute myeloid leukemia patients could also be targeted by G-11 as exhibited by its inhibitory effect on MOLM-13 and MV4-11 cell lines. Molecular docking studies suggest the involvement of Leu616, Asp698, Cys694 and Cys828 residues in binding of G-11 to FLT3. The ability of G-11 to cause selective cytotoxicity and induce differentiation in cancer cells could be clinically relevant for therapeutic gains.

  8. Retinal Photoreceptor Expresses Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) and Elicits Innate Responses Following TLR Ligand and Bacterial Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pawan Kumar; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in host defense against microbial pathogens. Our previous studies have shown that TLRs are expressed on various retinal cells (Microglia and Müller glia) and orchestrate retinal innate responses in bacterial endophthalmitis. In this study, we used a well-characterized mouse cone photoreceptor cell line (661W); and demonstrated that these cells express all known TLRs. Although the stimulation of 661W cells with TLR ligands (Pam3Cys, PolyI:C, LPS, Flagellin, Poly DT, and ODN) did not alter TLR expression, downstream TLR-signaling pathways (NF-κB, p38, and ERK) are activated. Moreover, TLR-activated 661W cells secreted significant amounts of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1β, MIP-2, and KC) in their culture supernatant, as assessed by ELISA. A similar trend was observed in 661W cells challenged with live bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). Interestingly, the neutralization of TLR2, a major receptor for S. aureus recognition, did not significantly attenuate bacterial-induced inflammatory mediators, suggesting the existence of TLR2-independent mechanisms in photoreceptor cells. Together, these results indicate that photoreceptors constitutively express functional TLRs and possess the ability to initiate innate responses following pathogen challenge, implicating their role in retinal innate immunity. PMID:25767877

  9. Haematopoietic cell transplantation with and without sorafenib maintenance for patients with FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukaemia in first complete remission.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Andrew M; Li, Shuli; Fathi, Amir T; Wadleigh, Martha; Ho, Vincent T; Collier, Kerry; Connolly, Christine; Ballen, Karen K; Cutler, Corey S; Dey, Bimalangshu R; El-Jawahri, Areej; Nikiforow, Sarah; McAfee, Steven L; Koreth, John; Deangelo, Daniel J; Alyea, Edwin P; Antin, Joseph H; Spitzer, Thomas R; Stone, Richard M; Soiffer, Robert J; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2016-11-01

    We performed a retrospective study analysing the effect of sorafenib, an oral fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 (FLT3)/multikinase inhibitor, as post-transplant maintenance in adult patients with FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We identified consecutive patients with FLT3-ITD AML diagnosed between 2008 and 2014 who received haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in first complete remission (CR1). Post-HCT initiation of sorafenib (yes/no) was evaluated as a time-varying covariate in the overall survival/progression-free survival (OS/PFS) analysis and we performed a landmark analysis of controls alive without relapse at the median date of sorafenib initiation. We identified 26 sorafenib patients and 55 controls. Median follow-up was 27·2 months post-HCT for sorafenib survivors, and 38·4 months for controls (P = 0·021). The median time to initiating sorafenib was 68 days post-HCT; 43 controls were alive without relapse at this cut-off. Sorafenib patients had improved 2-year OS in the d+68 landmark analysis (81% vs. 62%, P = 0·029). Sorafenib was associated with improved 2-year PFS (82% vs. 53%, P = 0·0081) and lower 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse (8·2% vs. 37·7%, P = 0·0077). In multivariate analysis, sorafenib significantly improved OS [Hazard ratio (HR) 0·26, P = 0·021] and PFS (HR 0·25, P = 0·016). There was no difference in 2-year non-relapse mortality (9·8% vs. 9·3%, P = 0·82) or 1-year chronic graft-versus-host disease (55·5% vs. 37·2%, P = 0·28). These findings suggest potential benefit of post-HCT sorafenib in FLT3-ITD AML, and support further evaluation of post-HCT FLT3 inhibition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. PCB153-elicited hepatic responses in the immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice: Comparative toxicogenomic effects of dioxin and non-dioxin-like ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Burgoon, Lyle D.; Ibrahim-Aibo, Daher; Mets, Bryan D.; Tashiro, Colleen; Potter, Dave; Sharratt, Bonnie; Harkema, Jack R.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.

    2010-03-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous contaminants found as complex mixtures of coplanar and non-coplanar congeners. The hepatic temporal and dose-dependent effects of the most abundant non-dioxin-like congener, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153), were examined in immature, ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice, and compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand. Animals were gavaged once with 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil vehicle and sacrificed 4, 12, 24, 72 or 168 h post dose. In the dose-response study, mice were gavaged with 1, 3, 10, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg PCB153 or sesame oil for 24 h. Significant increases in relative liver weights were induced with 300 mg/kg PCB153 between 24 and 168 h, accompanied by slight vacuolization and hepatocellular hypertrophy. The hepatic differential expression of 186 and 177 genes was detected using Agilent 4 x 44 K microarrays in the time course (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.999) and dose-response (|fold change| >= 1.5, P1(t) >= 0.985) studies, respectively. Comparative analysis with TCDD suggests that the differential gene expression elicited by PCB153 was not mediated by the AhR. Furthermore, constitutive androstane and pregnane X receptor (CAR/PXR) regulated genes including Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, Ces2, Insig2 and Abcc3 were dose-dependently induced by PCB153. Collectively, these results suggest that the hepatocellular effects elicited by PCB153 are qualitatively and quantitatively different from TCDD and suggestive of CAR/PXR regulation.

  11. Decision Analysis of Postremission Therapy in Cytogenetically Intermediate-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Impact of FLT3 Internal Tandem Duplication, Nucleophosmin, and CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Alpha.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Saiko; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Fukunaga, Keiko; Yui, Shunsuke; Wakita, Satoshi; Kanamori, Heiwa; Usuki, Kensuke; Uoshima, Nobuhiko; Yanada, Masamitsu; Shono, Katsuhiro; Ueki, Toshimitsu; Mizuno, Ishikazu; Yano, Shingo; Takeuchi, Jin; Kanda, Junya; Okamura, Hiroshi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Inokuchi, Koiti; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2016-06-01

    We performed a decision analysis comparing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) versus chemotherapy in first complete remission for patients with cytogenetically intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia, depending on the presence or absence of FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD), nucleophosmin (NPM1), and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) mutations. Adjusted means of the patient-reported EQ-5D index were used as quality-of-life (QOL) estimates. In 332 patients for which FLT3-ITD status was available, FLT3-ITD was present in 60. In 272 patients without FLT3-ITD, NPM1 mutations were present in 83. CEBPA biallelic mutations were detected in 53 patients. For patients harboring FLT3-ITD, allo-HCT improved life expectancy (LE) (52 versus 32 months during 10-year observation) and QOL-adjusted life expectancy (QALE, 36 versus 21). Monte-Carlo simulation identified allo-HCT as the favored strategy in 100% of simulations. In patients without FLT3-ITD, allo-HCT improved LE/QALE with or without NPM1 mutations. However, sensitivity analyses showed that the results were not robust enough. For patients harboring CEBPA biallelic mutations, chemotherapy was favored (LE, 53 versus 84; QALE, 37 versus 59), whereas, for patients with monoallelic mutations or wild-type CEBPA, allo-HCT was favored (LE, 68 versus 54; QALE, 48 versus 37). Sensitivity analyses did not change the results in either group. In conclusion, based on a Markov decision analysis, allo-HCT was a favored postremission strategy in patients with FLT3-ITD, and chemotherapy was favored in patients with biallelic CEBPA mutations. A prospective study is warranted to determine the value of allo-HCT, especially in FLT3-ITD-negative patients. Copyright © 2016 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Common and biased signaling pathways of the chemokine receptor CCR7 elicited by its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 in leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Mark A; Legler, Daniel F

    2016-06-01

    Chemokines are pivotal regulators of cell migration during continuous immune surveillance, inflammation, homeostasis, and development. Chemokine binding to their 7-transmembrane domain, G-protein-coupled receptors causes conformational changes that elicit intracellular signaling pathways to acquire and maintain an asymmetric architectural organization and a polarized distribution of signaling molecules necessary for directional cell migration. Leukocytes rely on the interplay of chemokine-triggered migration modules to promote amoeboid-like locomotion. One of the most important chemokine receptors for adaptive immune cell migration is the CC-chemokine receptor CCR7. CCR7 and its ligands CCL19 and CCL21 control homing of T cells and dendritic cells to areas of the lymph nodes where T cell priming and the initiation of the adaptive immune response occur. Moreover, CCR7 signaling also contributes to T cell development in the thymus and to lymphorganogenesis. Although the CCR7-CCL19/CCL21 axis evolved to benefit the host, inappropriate regulation or use of these proteins can contribute or cause pathobiology of chronic inflammation, tumorigenesis, and metastasis, as well as autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it appears as the CCR7-CCL19/CCL21 axis is tightly regulated at numerous intersections. Here, we discuss the multiple regulatory mechanism of CCR7 signaling and its influence on CCR7 function. In particular, we focus on the functional diversity of the 2 CCR7 ligands, CCL19 and CCL21, as well as on their impact on biased signaling. The understanding of the molecular determinants of biased signaling and the multiple layers of CCR7 regulation holds the promise for potential future therapeutic intervention.

  13. FLT3-ITD confers resistance to the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors by protecting the mTOR/4EBP1/Mcl-1 pathway through STAT5 activation in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nogami, Ayako; Oshikawa, Gaku; Okada, Keigo; Fukutake, Shusaku; Umezawa, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Toshikage; Kurosu, Tetsuya; Miura, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD are the most frequent tyrosine kinase mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), with the former associated with poor prognosis. Here, we show that the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 or the Akt inhibitor MK-2206 induced apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway more efficiently in hematopoietic 32D cells driven by FLT3-TKD (32D/TKD) than FLT3-ITD (32D/ITD), which robustly activated STAT5. The resistance to GDC-0941 and MK-2206 was gained by expression of the constitutively activated STAT5 mutant STAT5A1*6 in 32D/TKD cells, while it was abrogated by the STAT5 inhibitor pimozide in 32D/ITD cells or FLT3-ITD-expressing human leukemic MV4–11 cells. GDC-0941 or MK-2206 induced dephosphorylation of 4EBP1 more conspicuously in 32D/TKD than in 32D/ITD, which was prevented or augmented by STAT5A1*6 or pimozide, respectively, and correlated with downregulation of the eIF4E/eIF4G complex formation and Mcl-1 expression. Furthermore, exogenous expression of Mcl-1 endowed resistance to GDC-0941 and MK-2206 on 32D/TKD cells. Finally, it was confirmed in primary AML cells with FLT3-ITD that pimozide enhanced 4EBP1 dephosphorylation and Mcl-1 downregulation to augment cytotoxicity of GDC-0941. These data suggest that the robust STAT5 activation by FLT3-ITD protects cells treated with the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitors from apoptosis by maintaining Mcl-1 expression through the mTORC1/4EBP1/eIF4E pathway. PMID:25826077

  14. Rapid Exercise-Induced Mobilization of Dendritic Cells Is Potentially Mediated by a Flt3L- and MMP-9-Dependent Process in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Deckx, Nathalie; Wens, Inez; Nuyts, Amber H; Lee, Wai-Ping; Hens, Niel; Koppen, Gudrun; Goossens, Herman; Van Damme, Pierre; Berneman, Zwi N; Eijnde, Bert O; Cools, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    In healthy individuals, one exercise bout induces a substantial increase in the number of circulating leukocytes, while their function is transiently suppressed. The effect of one exercise bout in multiple sclerosis (MS) is less studied. Since recent evidence suggests a role of dendritic cells (DC) in the pathogenesis of MS, we investigated the effect of one combined endurance/resistance exercise bout on the number and function of DC in MS patients and healthy controls. Our results show a rapid increase in the number of DC in response to physical exercise in both MS patients and controls. Further investigation revealed that in particular DC expressing the migratory molecules CCR5 and CD62L were increased upon acute physical activity. This may be mediated by Flt3L- and MMP-9-dependent mobilization of DC, as demonstrated by increased circulating levels of Flt3L and MMP-9 following one exercise bout. Circulating DC display reduced TLR responsiveness after acute exercise, as evidenced by a less pronounced upregulation of activation markers, HLA-DR and CD86, on plasmacytoid DC and conventional DC, respectively. Our results indicate mobilization of DC, which may be less prone to drive inflammatory processes, following exercise. This may present a negative feedback mechanism for exercise-induced tissue damage and inflammation.

  15. Interaction of retinal bZIP transcription factor NRL with Flt3-interacting zinc-finger protein Fiz1: possible role of Fiz1 as a transcriptional repressor.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Kenneth P; Swain, Prabodh K; Khanna, Hemant; Dowd, Mary; Apel, Ingrid J; Swaroop, Anand

    2003-02-15

    NRL (neural retina leucine zipper) is a basic motif leucine zipper transcription factor of the Maf-subfamily. Multiple phosphorylated isoforms of NRL are detected specifically in rod photoreceptors. NRL regulates the expression of several rod-specific genes, including rhodopsin and cGMP phosphodiesterase beta-subunit, in synergy with other transcription factors (e.g. the homeodomain protein CRX). Missense mutations in the human NRL gene are associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, whereas the loss of its function leads to rodless retina in Nrl-knockout mice that exhibit enhanced S-cone function. To further elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) underlying NRL-mediated transcriptional regulation, we used yeast two-hybrid screening to isolate NRL-interacting proteins in the retina and report the identification of Flt3-interacting zinc-finger protein, Fiz1. Interaction of Fiz1 and NRL-leucine zipper was validated by GST pulldown assays and co-immunoprecipitation from bovine retinal nuclear extracts. Fiz1 suppressed NRL- but not CRX-mediated transactivation of rhodopsin promoter activity in transiently transfected CV1 cells. The mRNA and the protein for both Fiz1 and its only other known interacting protein Flt3, a receptor tyrosine kinase, are expressed in the retina. Our results indicate potential cross-talk among signaling pathways in the retina and suggest that the function of NRL is modulated by its interaction with specific repressor proteins.

  16. Structure-based design of oxygen-linked macrocyclic kinase inhibitors: discovery of SB1518 and SB1578, potent inhibitors of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Anders; William, Anthony; Blanchard, Stéphanie; Lee, Angeline; Nagaraj, Harish; Wang, Haishan; Teo, Eeling; Tan, Evelyn; Goh, Kee Chuan; Dymock, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Macrocycles from our Aurora project were screened in a kinase panel and were found to be active on other kinase targets, mainly JAKs, FLT3 and CDKs. Subsequently these compounds became leads in our JAK2 project. Macrocycles with a basic nitrogen in the linker form a salt bridge with Asp86 in CDK2 and Asp698 in FLT3. This residue is conserved in most CDKs resulting in potent pan CDK inhibition. One of the main project objectives was to achieve JAK2 potency with 100-fold selectivity against CDKs. Macrocycles with an ether linker have potent JAK2 activity with the ether oxygen forming a hydrogen bond to Ser936. A hydrogen bond to the equivalent residues of JAK3 and most CDKs cannot be formed resulting in good selectivity for JAK2 over JAK3 and CDKs. Further optimization of the macrocyclic linker and side chain increased JAK2 and FLT3 activity as well as improving DMPK properties. The selective JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor 11 (Pacritinib, SB1518) has successfully finished phase 2 clinical trials for myelofibrosis and lymphoma. Another selective JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor, 33 (SB1578), has entered phase 1 clinical development for the non-oncology indication rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. Synthetic strategy for increasing solubility of potential FLT3 inhibitor thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives through structural modifications at the C2 and C6 positions.

    PubMed

    Oh, Changmok; Kim, Hyuntae; Kang, Jong Soon; Yun, Jieun; Sim, Jaejun; Kim, Hwan-Mook; Han, Gyoonhee

    2017-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder of hematopoietic progenitor cell. In AML, a mutation in FLT3 is commonly occurs and is associated with poor prognosis. We have previously reported that thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivative compound 1 exhibited better antiproliferative activity against MV4-11 cells which harbor mutant FLT3 than AC220, which is a well-known FLT3 inhibitor, and has good microsomal stability. However, compound 1 had poor solubility. We then carried out further structural modification at the C2 and the C6 positions of thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidine scaffold. Compound 13b, which possesses a thiazole moiety at the C2 position, exhibited better antiproliferative activity than compound 1 and showed increased solubility and moderate microsomal stability. These results indicate that compound 13b could be a promising potential FLT inhibitor for AML chemotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for cytogenetically normal AML and identification of high-risk subgroup using WT1 expression in association with NPM1 and FLT3-ITD mutations.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jae-Ho; Kim, Hee-Je; Jeon, Young-Woo; Lee, Sung-Eun; Cho, Byung-Sik; Eom, Ki-Seong; Kim, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Seok; Min, Chang-Ki; Cho, Seok-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Jong-Wook; Min, Woo-Sung

    2015-06-06

    According to recent guidelines, cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN AML) is divided into four molecular subgroups based on nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutations. All subgroups except for isolated NPM1mut are associated with poor prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed 223 patients with CN AML, 156 of whom were treated with standard chemotherapy. For postremission therapy, patients with available donors underwent allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and the rest were treated with autologous HSCT or chemotherapy alone. We first compared the 4 conventional molecular subgroups, and then created another 4 subgroups based on WT1 expression: isolated NPM1mut, NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD-neg with low WT1 or high WT1, and FLT3-ITD-pos CN AML. We finally evaluated 89 patients who were treated with allo HSCT and achieved complete remission after standard chemotherapy. FLT3-ITD CN AML showed the worst outcome irrespective of NPM1mut, and isolated NPM1mut CN AML showed no significant differences compared with NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD-neg CN AML. In contrast, two newly stratified low-risk subgroups (NPM1wt/FLT3-ITD-neg with low WT1 and isolated NPM1mut CN AML) showed higher remission rates with superior overall survival (OS) compared with the other two high-risk subgroups, which showed a higher relapse rate even after allo HSCT. Further analysis showed that higher pre-HSCT expression of WT1 resulted in a higher relapse rate and poorer OS after allo HSCT. For CN AML, a risk-adapted approach using allo HSCT with novel agents should be evaluated with stratification specified by WT1. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Double CEBPA mutations are prognostically favorable in non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia patients with wild-type NPM1 and FLT3-ITD.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiang-Mei; Lin, Jiang; Yang, Jing; Yao, Dong-Ming; Deng, Zhao-Qun; Tang, Chun-Yan; Xiao, Gao-Fei; Yang, Lei; Ma, Ji-Chun; Hu, Jia-Bo; Qian, Wei; Qian, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the pattern of CEBPA mutations and its clinical significance in Chinese non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. The entire coding region of CEBPA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced in samples from 233 non-M3 AML patients. Fifty mutations were identified in 37 (15.8%) patients with eleven (4.7%) double mutated CEBPA (dmCEBPA) and twenty-six (11.1%) single mutated CEBPA (smCEBPA). dmCEBPA was exclusively observed in M1 and M2 subtypes of FAB classification (P = 0.008), whereas smCEBPA occurred in almost all subtypes (P = 0.401). Patients with dmCEBPA had significantly younger age and higher WBC counts than those with wtCEBPA (P = 0.016 and 0.043, respectively). Both dmCEBPA and smCEBPA were mainly present in cytogenetically normal patients. Patients with dmCEBPA achieved higher rate of complete (CR) than wtCEBPA patients (88% vs. 51%, P = 0.037), whereas smCEBPA and wtCEBPA groups are similar (47% vs. 51%, P = 0.810). Patients with dmCEBPA had a superior overall survival (OS) compared with patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.033), whereas patients with smCEBPA had a similar OS as patients with wtCEBPA (P = 0.976). dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA was also associated with favorable outcome in patients with wild-type NPM1 and FLT3-ITD (NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) ). Our data confirm that dmCEBPA but not smCEBPA is prognostically favorable in NPM1(wt)FLT3-ITD(wt) AML, and suggest that the entity AML with mutated CEBPA should be definitely designated as AML with dmCEBPA in WHO classification and smCEBPA should be excluded from the favorable risk of molecular abnormalities.

  20. Single-cell mass cytometry reveals intracellular survival/proliferative signaling in FLT3-ITD-mutated AML stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Lina; Qiu, Peng; Zeng, Zhihong; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Mak, Duncan H; Burks, Jared K; Schober, Wendy; McQueen, Teresa J; Cortes, Jorge; Tanner, Scott D; Roboz, Gail J; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Kornblau, Steven M; Guzman, Monica L; Andreeff, Michael; Konopleva, Marina

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the unique phenotypes and complex signaling pathways of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) will provide insights and druggable targets that can be used to eradicate acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Current work on AML LSCs is limited by the number of parameters that conventional flow cytometry (FCM) can analyze because of cell autofluorescence and fluorescent dye spectral overlap. Single-cell mass cytometry (CyTOF) substitutes rare earth elements for fluorophores to label antibodies, which allows measurements of up to 120 parameters in single cells without correction for spectral overlap. The aim of this study was the evaluation of intracellular signaling in antigen-defined stem/progenitor cell subsets in primary AML. CyTOF and conventional FCM yielded comparable results on LSC phenotypes defined by CD45, CD34, CD38, CD123, and CD99. Intracellular phosphoprotein responses to ex vivo cell signaling inhibitors and cytokine stimulation were assessed in myeloid leukemia cell lines and one primary AML sample. CyTOF and conventional FCM results were confirmed by western blotting. In the primary AML sample, we investigated the cell responses to ex vivo stimulation with stem cell factor and BEZ235-induced inhibition of PI3K and identified activation patterns in multiple PI3K downstream signaling pathways including p-4EBP1, p-AKT, and p-S6, particularly in CD34(+) subsets. We evaluated multiple signaling pathways in antigen-defined subpopulations in primary AML cells with FLT3-ITD mutations. The data demonstrated the heterogeneity of cell phenotype distribution and distinct patterns of signaling activation across AML samples and between AML and normal samples. The mTOR targets p-4EBP1 and p-S6 were exclusively found in FLT3-ITD stem/progenitor cells, but not in their normal counterparts, suggesting both as novel targets in FLT3 mutated AML. Our data suggest that CyTOF can identify functional signaling pathways in antigen-defined subpopulations in primary AML, which may

  1. Support for 5-HT2C receptor functional selectivity in vivo utilizing structurally diverse, selective 5-HT2C receptor ligands and the 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine elicited head-twitch response model.

    PubMed

    Canal, Clinton E; Booth, Raymond G; Morgan, Drake

    2013-07-01

    There are seemingly conflicting data in the literature regarding the role of serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C receptors in the mouse head-twitch response (HTR) elicited by the hallucinogenic 5-HT2A/2B/2C receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI). Namely, both 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists, regarding 5-HT2C receptor-mediated Gq-phospholipase C (PLC) signaling, reportedly attenuate the HTR response. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that both classes of 5-HT2C receptor compounds could attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in a single strain of mice, C57Bl/6J. The expected results were considered in accordance with ligand functional selectivity. Commercially-available 5-HT2C agonists (CP 809101, Ro 60-0175, WAY 161503, mCPP, and 1-methylpsilocin), novel 4-phenyl-2-N,N-dimethyl-aminotetralin (PAT)-type 5-HT2C agonists (with 5-HT2A/2B antagonist activity), and antagonists selective for 5-HT2A (M100907), 5-HT2C (SB-242084), and 5-HT2B/2C (SB-206553) receptors attenuated the DOI-elicited-HTR. In contrast, there were differential effects on locomotion across classes of compounds. The 5-HT2C agonists and M100907 decreased locomotion, SB-242084 increased locomotion, SB-206553 resulted in dose-dependent biphasic effects on locomotion, and the PATs did not alter locomotion. In vitro molecular pharmacology studies showed that 5-HT2C agonists potent for attenuating the DOI-elicited-HTR also reduced the efficacy of DOI to activate mouse 5-HT2C receptor-mediated PLC signaling in HEK cells. Although there were differences in affinities of a few compounds at mouse compared to human 5-HT2A or 5-HT2C receptors, all compounds tested retained their selectivity for either receptor, regardless of receptor species. Results indicate that 5-HT2C receptor agonists and antagonists attenuate the DOI-elicited-HTR in C57Bl/6J mice, and suggest that structurally diverse 5-HT2C ligands result in different 5-HT2C receptor signaling outcomes compared to DOI.

  2. Successful treatment of post-transplant relapsed acute myeloid leukemia with FLT3 internal tandem duplication using the combination of induction chemotherapy, donor lymphocyte infusion, sorafenib and azacitidine. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Campregher, Paulo Vidal; Mattos, Vinicius Renan Pinto de; Salvino, Marco Aurélio; Santos, Fabio Pires de Souza; Hamerschlak, Nelson

    2017-07-24

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a hematopoietic stem cell neoplastic disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. The presence of FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations leads to high rates of relapse and decreased overall survival. Patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication are normally treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission. Nevertheless, the incidence of post-transplant relapse is considerable in this group of patients, and the management of this clinical condition is challenging. The report describes the outcomes of patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication positive acute myeloid leukemia who relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were treated with the combination of re-induction chemotherapy, donor lymphocyte infusion, sorafenib and azacitidine. Three cases are described and all patients achieved prolonged complete remission with the combined therapy. The combination of induction chemotherapy followed by donor lymphocyte infusion, and the maintenance with azacitidine and sorafenib can be effective approaches in the treatment of post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant and relapsed FLT3 internal tandem duplication positive acute myeloid leukemia patients. This strategy should be further explored in the context of clinical trials. RESUMO A leucemia mieloide aguda é uma doença neoplásica de células-tronco hematopoiéticas com alta morbimortalidade. A presença de mutações de duplicação em tandem de FLT3 leva a altas taxas de recorrência e a menor sobrevida global. Os pacientes com duplicação em tandem de FLT3 são normalmente tratados com transplante de células-tronco hematopoiéticas na primeira remissão completa. No entanto, a incidência de recidiva pós-transplante é considerável neste grupo de pacientes, e a conduta, nestes casos, é um desafio. O relato descreve os resultados do tratamento de pacientes com leucemia mieloide aguda positiva e duplicação em

  3. Exogenous fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand overrides brain immune privilege and facilitates recognition of a neo-antigen without causing autoimmune neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Larocque, Daniel; Sanderson, Nicholas S. R.; Bergeron, Josée; Curtin, James F.; Girton, Joe; Wibowo, Mia; Bondale, Niyati; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Yang, Jieping; Lacayo, Liliana M.; Reyes, Kevin C.; Farrokhi, Catherine; Pechnick, Robert N.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2010-01-01

    Soluble antigens diffuse out of the brain and can thus stimulate a systemic immune response, whereas particulate antigens (from infectious agents or tumor cells) remain within brain tissue, thus failing to stimulate a systemic immune response. Immune privilege describes how the immune system responds to particulate antigens localized selectively within the brain parenchyma. We believe this immune privilege is caused by the absence of antigen presenting dendritic cells from the brain. We tested the prediction that expression of fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Flt3L) in the brain will recruit dendritic cells and induce a systemic immune response against exogenous influenza hemagglutinin in BALB/c mice. Coexpression of Flt3L with HA in the brain parenchyma induced a robust systemic anti-HA immune response, and a small response against myelin basic protein and proteolipid protein epitopes. Depletion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) enhanced both responses. To investigate the autoimmune impact of these immune responses, we characterized the neuropathological and behavioral consequences of intraparenchymal injections of Flt3L and HA in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. T cell infiltration in the forebrain was time and strain dependent, and increased in animals treated with Flt3L and depleted of Tregs; however, we failed to detect widespread defects in myelination throughout the forebrain or spinal cord. Results of behavioral tests were all normal. These results demonstrate that Flt3L overcomes the brain's immune privilege, and supports the clinical development of Flt3L as an adjuvant to stimulate clinically effective immune responses against brain neo-antigens, for example, those associated with brain tumors. PMID:20660723

  4. Meis1 programs transcription of FLT3 and cancer stem cell character, using a mechanism that requires interaction with Pbx and a novel function of the Meis1 C-terminus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang G; Pasillas, Martina P; Kamps, Mark P

    2005-07-01

    Meis1 is a homeodomain transcription factor coexpressed with Hoxa9 in most human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs). In mouse models of leukemia produced by Hoxa9, Meis1 accelerates leukemogenesis. Because Hoxa9 immortalizes myeloid progenitors in the absence of Meis1 expression, the contribution of Meis1 toward leukemia remains unclear. Here, we describe a cultured progenitor model in which Meis1 programs leukemogenicity. Progenitors immortalized by Hoxa9 in culture are myeloid-lineage restricted and only infrequently caused leukemia after more than 250 days. Coexpressed Meis1 programmed rapid AML-initiating character, maintained multipotent progenitor potential, and induced expression of genes associated with short-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), such as FLT3 and CD34, whose expression also characterizes the leukemia-initiating stem cells of human AML. Meis1 leukemogenesis functions required binding to Pbx, binding to DNA, and a conserved function of its C-terminal tail. We hypothesize that Meis1 is required for the homing and survival of leukemic progenitors within their hematopoietic niches, functions mediated by HSC-specific genes such as CD34 and Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), respectively. This is the first example of a transcription factor oncoprotein (Meis1) that establishes expression of a tyrosine kinase oncoprotein (FLT3), and explains their coexpression in human leukemia. This cultured progenitor model will be useful to define the genetic basis of leukemogenesis involving Hoxa9 and Meis1.

  5. Detection of minor clones with internal tandem duplication mutations of FLT3 gene in acute myeloid leukemia using delta-PCR.

    PubMed

    Beierl, Katie; Tseng, Li-Hui; Beierl, Russell; Haley, Lisa; Gocke, Christopher D; Eshleman, James R; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2013-03-01

    Internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations of the FLT3 gene have been associated with inferior prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia. Detection of minor clones or minimal residual clones with ITD mutations is desirable, but is challenging when the mutant signal determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and capillary electrophoresis is weak. In this study, we applied delta-PCR, which is a triple-primer strategy, to ensure PCR specificity and improve the sensitivity to 0.1% leukemic cells with ITD mutation. We also applied a reference peak to calculate ITD allelic burdens of <2% threshold of technical limitation for evaluating the relative ratio of 2 signals by capillary electrophoresis. Delta-PCR was able to detect single or multiple ITD mutations with an allelic burden (peak height ratio of mutant allele and wild-type allele) ranging from 0.4% to >100% among all 31 cases with previous documented ITD mutations. In one of the 3 cases with previously reported negative ITD mutation in the initial diagnostic specimen and ITD-positive results in the follow-up specimens, an ITD of 0.04% allele burden was retrospectively detected in the initial diagnosis specimen using delta-PCR. We also demonstrated that minor ITD mutant clones with an allelic burden of <1% present at diagnosis may become a dominant clone at the later refractory status, suggesting that detection of leukemic clones with allelic burdens of <1% may be clinically significant. Delta-PCR can detect ITD mutations with improved sensitivity and specificity and may be useful for the detection of minimal residual leukemia.

  6. Stable curcumin-loaded polymeric micellar formulation for enhancing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity to FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Tima, Singkome; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Berkland, Cory; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to develop a stable polymeric micellar formulation of curcumin (CM) with improved solubility and stability, and that is suitable for clinical applications in leukemia patients. CM-loaded polymeric micelles (CM-micelles) were prepared using poloxamers. The chemical structure of the polymers influenced micellar properties. The best formulation of CM-micelles, namely CM-P407, was obtained from poloxamer 407 at drug to polymer ratio of 1:30 and rehydrated with phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. CM-P407 exhibited the smallest size of 30.3±1.3nm and highest entrapment efficiency of 88.4±4.1%. When stored at -80°C for 60days, CM-P407 retained high protection of CM and had no significant size change. In comparison with CM solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (CM-DMSO), CM kinetic degradation in both formulations followed a pseudo-first-order reaction, but the half-life of CM in CM-P407 was approx. 200 times longer than in CM-DMSO. Regarding the activity against FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells, CM-P407 showed higher cytotoxicity than CM-DMSO. Moreover, intracellular uptake to leukemic cells of CM-P407 was 2-3 times greater than that of CM-DMSO. These promising results for CM-P407 will be further investigated in rodents and in clinical studies for leukemia treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  8. PU.1 is essential for CD11c expression in CD8(+)/CD8(-) lymphoid and monocyte-derived dendritic cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-induced differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Jun; Yang, Zhong-Fa; Chen, Yaoyu; Wang, Junling; Rosmarin, Alan G

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8(+) lymphoid-derived DCs or B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8(+) lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220(+) plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required for lineage

  9. PU.1 Is Essential for CD11c Expression in CD8+/CD8− Lymphoid and Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells during GM-CSF or FLT3L-Induced Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaoyu; Wang, Junling; Rosmarin, Alan G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) regulate innate and acquired immunity through their roles as antigen-presenting cells. Specific subsets of mature DCs, including monocyte-derived and lymphoid-derived DCs, can be distinguished based on distinct immunophenotypes and functional properties. The leukocyte integrin, CD11c, is considered a specific marker for DCs and it is expressed by all DC subsets. We created a strain of mice in which DCs and their progenitors could be lineage traced based on activity of the CD11c proximal promoter. Surprisingly, we observed levels of CD11c promoter activity that were similar in DCs and in other mature leukocytes, including monocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. We sought to identify DNA elements and transcription factors that regulate DC-associated expression of CD11c. The ets transcription factor, PU.1, is a key regulator of DC development, and expression of PU.1 varies in different DC subsets. GM-CSF increased monocyte-derived DCs in mice and from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro, but it did not increase CD8+ lymphoid-derived DCs or B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. FLT3L increased both monocyte-derived DCs and lymphoid-derived DCs from mouse bone marrow cultured in vitro. GM-CSF increased the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter activity in monocyte-derived DCs and CD8+ lymphoid-derived DCs, but not in B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. In contrast, FLT3L increased the CD11c proximal promoter activity in both monocyte-derived DCs and B220+ plasmacytoid DCs. We used shRNA gene knockdown and chromatin immunoprecipitation to demonstrate that PU.1 is required for the effects of GM-CSF or FLT3L on monocyte-derived DCs. We conclude that both GM-CSF and FLT3L act through PU.1 to activate the 5.3 Kb CD11c proximal promoter in DCs and to induce differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs. We also confirm that the CD11c proximal promoter is not sufficient to direct lineage specificity of CD11c expression, and that additional DNA elements are required for lineage-specific CD11c

  10. Transplant outcomes of the triple-negative NPM1/FLT3-ITD/CEBPA mutation subgroup are equivalent to those of the favourable ELN risk group, but significantly better than the intermediate-I risk group after allogeneic transplant in normal-karyotype AML.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Nan Young; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hee Je; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Won, Jong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2016-03-01

    The prognostic significance of molecular mutations (FLT3-ITD, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations) was examined in patients with normal-karyotype acute myeloid leukaemia (NK-AML) after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In total, 115 patients received allogeneic HCT for NK-AML and were evaluated for FLT3-ITD, NPM1, and CEBPA mutations in diagnostic samples and for long-term outcomes following HCT, retrospectively. The prevalences of FLT3-ITD(pos), NPM1 (mut), and CEBPA (dm) (double mutations) were 32.2, 43.5, and 24.6 %, respectively. The triple-negative group (NPM1 (wild)/FLT3-ITD(neg)/non-CEBPA (dm)) showed a similar transplant outcome to those in the favourable European LeukemiaNet (ELN) risk group for overall survival (OS) (60.9 vs. 63.7 %; p = 0.810), but a more favourable OS than others in the intermediate-I risk group (40.0 %; p = 0.034). Also, the triple-negative group showed a similar relapse rate at 5 years compared with those in the favourable risk group (9.7 vs. 15.5 %; p = 0.499), but a lower rate of relapse than the others in the intermediate-I risk group (15.5 vs. 48.6 %; p = 0.004). The 5-year relapse incidences were 4.0 % (NPM1 (mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg)), 14.7 % (CEBPA (dm)), 15.5 % (NPM1 (wild)/FLT3-ITD(neg)/non-CEBPA (dm)), 39.1 % (NPM1 (mut)/FLT3-ITD(pos)/non-CEBPA (dm)), and 66.7 % (NPM1 (wild)/FLT3-ITD(pos)/non-CEBPA (dm)). Thus, the triple-negative (NPM1 (wild)/FLT3-ITD(neg)/non-CEBPA (dm)) group showed favourable long-term outcomes after allogeneic HCT in NK-AML, similar to those of the favourable risk group by the ELN risk classification.

  11. STK-1, the human homolog of Flk-2/Flt-3, is selectively expressed in CD34+ human bone marrow cells and is involved in the proliferation of early progenitor/stem cells.

    PubMed Central

    Small, D; Levenstein, M; Kim, E; Carow, C; Amin, S; Rockwell, P; Witte, L; Burrow, C; Ratajczak, M Z; Gewirtz, A M

    1994-01-01

    We cloned the cDNA for stem cell tyrosine kinase 1 (STK-1), the human homolog of murine Flk-2/Flt-3, from a CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-enriched library and investigated its expression in subsets of normal human bone marrow. The cDNA encodes a protein of 993 aa with 85% identity and 92% similarity to Flk-2/Flt-3. STK-1 is a member of the type III receptor tyrosine kinase family that includes KIT (steel factor receptor), FMS (colony-stimulating factor 1R), and platelet-derived growth factor receptor. STK-1 expression in human blood and marrow is restricted to CD34+ cells, a population greatly enriched for stem/progenitor cells. Anti-STK-1 antiserum recognizes polypeptides of 160 and 130 kDa in several STK-1-expressing cell lines and in 3T3 cells transfected with a STK-1 expression vector. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against STK-1 sequences inhibited hematopoietic colony formation, most strongly in long-term bone marrow cultures. These data suggest that STK-1 may function as a growth factor receptor on hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7507245

  12. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand is required for thymic dendritic cell generation from bone marrow-derived CD117⁺ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunyun; Jiang, Dong; Hu, Yizhou; Li, Yiping; Zhang, Xueguang; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong

    2015-11-01

    Thymic dendritic cells (TDCs) are a type of dendritic cell (DC) in the thymus, which can enhance the proliferation of thymic T lymphocytes, regulate negative selection and induce central tolerance through autoantigen presentation. However, further investigations using TDCs has been restricted due to insufficient numbers. Therefore, an effective expansion method for TDCs in vitro is urgently required to further examine their biological characteristics. In the present study, a novel system was established using fetal thymus organ culture (FTOC) and a hanging drop culture system in the presence of fms‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L), termed the Flt3L/FTOC system. TDCs were successfully generated and expanded from CD117+ bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Conventional DCs (cDCs; CD11c+B220‑ DCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs; CD11c+B220+ DCs) were found in the TDCs generated using the Flt3L/FTOC system. These cells exhibited the specific morphological features of DCs, which were confirmed using Giemsa staining. Furthermore, the cytokine and surface marker profiles were also analyzed. Higher expression levels of interferon‑α and interleukin‑12 were observed in the pDCs, compared with the cDCs, and higher expression levels of toll‑like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR9 were found in the pDCs than in the cDCs. In addition, the Flt3L/FTOC‑derived TDCs also exhibited the ability to stimulate the allogenic T cell response. In conclusion, a novel in vitro culture system of thymic cDCs and pDCs using Flt3L was established, and this may provide a methodological basis for understanding the properties of TDCs.

  13. Synergistic effect of sorafenib and cGvHD in patients with high-risk FLT3-ITD+AML allows long-term disease control after allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tschan-Plessl, A; Halter, J P; Heim, D; Medinger, M; Passweg, J R; Gerull, S

    2015-11-01

    The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has shown a strong anti-leukemic effect in FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3)-mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, remission is often transient. To better understand the role of sorafenib, we performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who received sorafenib in combination with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at our center. Seventeen patients with FLT3-ITD positive AML were treated with sorafenib in combination with allogeneic HSCT. Seven patients received sorafenib therapy pre- and posttransplant, and 10 patients were given sorafenib only posttransplant. Median duration of sorafenib treatment was 13 months (range 1-42); median dose was 600 mg (range 100-1200). Fourteen patients (82 %) achieved a complete remission (CR), while 5 patients (29 %) eventually developed progressive disease. Developing chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) had a strong protective influence on the risk of sorafenib resistance (p = 0.028, HR 0.08, 95 % CI 0.01-0.76). In a total of 8 patients, sorafenib had to be stopped, paused or dose-reduced due to toxicity. In 5 patients with pronounced toxicity, we switched to an alternating dosing schedule with 1 month on/1 month off sorafenib. These patients subsequently remained in sustained complete molecular remission, with a median follow-up of 20 months. Our data indicate that sorafenib can achieve high rates of sustained remission in high-risk patients treated in combination with HSCT.

  14. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  15. Ludic Elicitation: Using Games for Knowledge Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation from human beings is important for many fields, such as decision support systems, risk communication, and customer preference studying. Traditional approaches include observations, questionnaires, structured and semi-structured interviews, and group discussions. Many publications have been studying different techniques for a…

  16. Next generation sequencing analysis of platinum refractory advanced germ cell tumor sensitive to Sunitinib (Sutent®) a VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor in a phase II trial.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Mills, Gordon B; Shaw, Kenna R Mills; Bailey, Ann Marie; Rao, Priya; Ward, John F; Pagliaro, Lance C

    2014-08-01

    Germ cell tumors (GCT) are the most common solid tumors in adolescent and young adult males (age 15 and 35 years) and remain one of the most curable of all solid malignancies. However a subset of patients will have tumors that are refractory to standard chemotherapy agents. The management of this refractory population remains challenging and approximately 400 patients continue to die every year of this refractory disease in the United States. Given the preclinical evidence implicating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in the biology of germ cell tumors, we hypothesized that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor sunitinib (Sutent) may possess important clinical activity in the treatment of this refractory disease. We proposed a Phase II efficacy study of sunitinib in seminomatous and non-seminomatous metastatic GCT's refractory to first line chemotherapy treatment (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912912). Next generation targeted exome sequencing using HiSeq 2000 (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) was performed on the tumor sample of the unusual responder. Five patients are enrolled into this Phase II study. Among them we report here the clinical course of a patient (Patient # 5) who had an exceptional response to sunitinib. Next generation sequencing to understand this patient's response to sunitinib revealed RET amplification, EGFR and KRAS amplification as relevant aberrations. Oncoscan MIP array were employed to validate the copy number analysis that confirmed RET gene amplification. Sunitinib conferred clinical benefit to this heavily pre-treated patient. Next generation sequencing of this 'exceptional responder' identified the first reported case of a RET amplification as a potential basis of sensitivity to sunitinib (VEGFR2/PDGFRβ/c-kit/ FLT3/RET/CSF1R inhibitor) in a patient with refractory germ cell tumor. Further characterization of GCT patients using biomarkers for clinical response and patient

  17. Retracted: FLT3: beyond good and evil.

    PubMed

    Lagunas-Rangel, Francisco Alejandro; Cortes-Penagos, Carlos; Viveros-Sandoval, Martha Eva

    2016-07-29

    The above article, published online on 29 July 2016 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the Journal Editor in Chief, Journal Production Manager, and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to 48% similar significant between this article and an article published in Nature Reviews Cancer journal.

  18. Eliciting Sound Memories.

    PubMed

    Harris, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Sensory experiences are often considered triggers of memory, most famously a little French cake dipped in lime blossom tea. Sense memory can also be evoked in public history research through techniques of elicitation. In this article I reflect on different social science methods for eliciting sound memories such as the use of sonic prompts, emplaced interviewing, and sound walks. I include examples from my research on medical listening. The article considers the relevance of this work for the conduct of oral histories, arguing that such methods "break the frame," allowing room for collaborative research connections and insights into the otherwise unarticulatable.

  19. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  20. Opinion Elicitation in Second Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, Marijn; Neviarouskaya, Alena; Prendinger, Helmut

    The paper describes a novel method for opinion elicitation, which is based on the popular 3D online world of “Second Life”. Here people, as avatars, are put into a somewhat realistic context related to the topic for which opinions are sought. We hypothesize that this kind of concrete, interactive context supports the evocation of opinions better than non-context methods, e.g. only showing related images. To confirm our hypothesis, we conducted a small pilot study, which compares the influence of static and interactive context methods on the opinions expressed by subjects. The opinion elicitation scenario in Second Life is supported by the automatic retrieval of opinions from the web. The results of a study indicate that subjects show more reasoned opinions in the interactive condition. A demo illustrating the content of this paper is available.

  1. Requirements Elicitation Using Paper Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Jaya; Raju, G.

    Requirements engineering is both the hardest and critical part of software development since errors at this beginning stage propagate through the development process and are the hardest to repair later. This paper proposes an improved approach for requirements elicitation using paper prototype. The paper progresses through an assessment of the new approach using student projects developed for various organizations. The scope of implementation of paper prototype and its advantages are unveiled.

  2. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Sekine, Shinichi; Kataoka, Kosuke; Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko; Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato; Gilbert, Rebekah S.; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  3. Rhizobacterial exopolysaccharides elicit induced resistance on cucumber.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyungseok; Kloepper, Joseph W; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2008-06-01

    The role of exopolysaccharides (EPSs) from a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium, Burkholderia gladioli IN26, on elicitation of induced systemic resistance was investigated. A purified EPS induced expression of PR- 1a::GUS on tobacco and elicited induced resistance against Colletotrichum orbiculare on cucumber. The maximum level of disease protection was noted when seeds were soaked in 200 ppm of the EPS. Our results indicate that EPS from specific rhizobacteria can elicit induced resistance and suggest that bacterial EPS might be a useful elicitor of resistance under field conditions.

  4. A Knowledge Elicitation Study of Military Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    66027-0347 Ba. NAME OF FUNDING/SPONSORING 8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORPANIZATION U.S. Army Research (If...Method (CDM) has been developed as a knowledge elicitation tool for probing proficient decision making. This report describes the use of CDM during...knowledge elicitation can be used in Army Command and Control (Ce) exercises as a means of understanding decision-making dynamics. Such a tool could

  5. CD40 ligand immunotherapy in cancer: an efficient approach.

    PubMed

    Kuwashima, N; Kageyama, S; Eto, Y; Urashima, M

    2001-01-01

    Cancer cells do not elicit a clinically sufficient anti-tumor immune response that results in tumor rejection. Recently, many investigators have been trying to enhance anti-tumor immunity and encouraging results have been reported. This review will discuss current anti-cancer immunotherapy; interleukin-2 therapy, tumor vaccine secreting Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, dendritic cells fused with tumor cells, and CD40 ligand immunotherapy. Moreover, we introduce our two kinds of CD40 ligand immuno-genetherapy; (1) oral CD40 ligand gene therapy against lymphoma using attenuated Salmonella typhimurium (published in BLOOD 2000), (2) cancer vaccine transfected with CD40 ligand ex vivo for neuroblastoma (unpublished). Both approaches resulted in a high degree of protection against the tumor progression and they are simple and safe in the murine system.

  6. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants’ gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15–65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  7. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    PubMed

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions.

  8. Rational elicitation of cold-sensitive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Chetana; Majhi, Sandipan; Mondal, Kajari; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Varadarajan, Raghavan

    2016-01-01

    Cold-sensitive phenotypes have helped us understand macromolecular assembly and biological phenomena, yet few attempts have been made to understand the basis of cold sensitivity or to elicit it by design. We report a method for rational design of cold-sensitive phenotypes. The method involves generation of partial loss-of-function mutants, at either buried or functional sites, coupled with selective overexpression strategies. The only essential input is amino acid sequence, although available structural information can be used as well. The method has been used to elicit cold-sensitive mutants of a variety of proteins, both monomeric and dimeric, and in multiple organisms, namely Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Drosophila melanogaster. This simple, yet effective technique of inducing cold sensitivity eliminates the need for complex mutations and provides a plausible molecular mechanism for eliciting cold-sensitive phenotypes. PMID:27091994

  9. Films for eliciting emotional states in children.

    PubMed

    von Leupoldt, Andreas; Rohde, Jenny; Beregova, Anna; Thordsen-Sörensen, Imke; zur Nieden, Janine; Dahme, Bernhard

    2007-08-01

    Standardized sets of films have been shown to be effective for eliciting emotional states in adults, but no comparable validated stimuli are available for children. We therefore examined the effects of three pre-selected film clips each of 3-min duration in eliciting a pleasant, neutral and unpleasant emotional state in 297 children aged between 6 and 12 years. After the films were presented on a video projector, affective ratings were obtained with the Self-Assessment-Manikin on the emotional dimensions of valence and arousal. Increasing pleasure ratings were observed from the unpleasant to the neutral to the pleasant film. Associated arousal ratings were stronger for the unpleasant and pleasant films compared to the neutral film. Overall, results showed successful elicitation of targeted emotional states only marginally influenced by age, gender or prior experience with the films. The use of these films is therefore suggested for future studies on emotions in children.

  10. Safety profile, efficacy, and biodistribution of a bicistronic high-capacity adenovirus vector encoding a combined immunostimulation and cytotoxic gene therapy as a prelude to a phase I clinical trial for glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Puntel, Mariana; Ghulam, Muhammad A.K.M.; Farrokhi, Catherine; VanderVeen, Nathan; Paran, Christopher; Appelhans, Ashley; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Salem, Alireza; Lacayo, Liliana; Pechnick, Robert N.; Kelson, Kyle R.; Kaur, Sukhpreet; Kennedy, Sean; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; and others

    2013-05-01

    Adenoviral vectors (Ads) are promising gene delivery vehicles due to their high transduction efficiency; however, their clinical usefulness has been hampered by their immunogenicity and the presence of anti-Ad immunity in humans. We reported the efficacy of a gene therapy approach for glioma consisting of intratumoral injection of Ads encoding conditionally cytotoxic herpes simplex type 1 thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) and the immunostimulatory cytokine fms-like tyrosine kinase ligand 3 (Ad-Flt3L). Herein, we report the biodistribution, efficacy, and neurological and systemic effects of a bicistronic high-capacity Ad, i.e., HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L. HC-Ads elicit sustained transgene expression, even in the presence of anti-Ad immunity, and can encode large therapeutic cassettes, including regulatory elements to enable turning gene expression “on” or “off” according to clinical need. The inclusion of two therapeutic transgenes within a single vector enables a reduction of the total vector load without adversely impacting efficacy. Because clinically the vectors will be delivered into the surgical cavity, normal regions of the brain parenchyma are likely to be transduced. Thus, we assessed any potential toxicities elicited by escalating doses of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L (1 × 10{sup 8}, 1 × 10{sup 9}, or 1 × 10{sup 10} viral particles [vp]) delivered into the rat brain parenchyma. We assessed neuropathology, biodistribution, transgene expression, systemic toxicity, and behavioral impact at acute and chronic time points. The results indicate that doses up to 1 × 10{sup 9} vp of HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L can be safely delivered into the normal rat brain and underpin further developments for its implementation in a phase I clinical trial for glioma. - Highlights: ► High capacity Ad vectors elicit sustained therapeutic gene expression in the brain. ► HC-Ad-TK/TetOn-Flt3L encodes two therapeutic genes and a transcriptional switch. ► We performed a dose escalation study at

  11. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  12. Video Elicitation of the Semiotic Self.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the power of video recording to elicit the thinking of teachers as they reflect on their teaching practices. Draws on the work of Wiley (1994), which identified the internal conversation as a critical feature of the semiotic self. (Author/VWL)

  13. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  14. Methods of Eliciting Information from Experts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    Itzhak Perlman) or a concertmeister in an orchestra, or simply one of its violinists . Differences in amount of expertise may supply different...would lead to becoming a world class violinist . Underlying Assumptions In attempting to elicit information from experts, one makes a number of

  15. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki

    2010-01-01

    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  16. Realistic Real World Contexts: Model Eliciting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doruk, Bekir Kürsat

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have proposed a variety of methods to make a connection between real life and mathematics so that it can be learned in a practical way and enable people to utilise mathematics in their daily lives. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs) were developed to fulfil this need and are very capable of serving this purpose. The reason MEAs are so…

  17. Ligand modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.P.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used in the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams. Organic ligands with metal ion specificity are critical components in the development of solvent extraction and ion exchange processes that are highly selective for targeted radionuclides. The traditional approach to the development of such ligands involves lengthy programs of organic synthesis and testing, which in the absence of reliable methods for screening compounds before synthesis, results in wasted research effort. The author`s approach breaks down and simplifies this costly process with the aid of computer-based molecular modeling techniques. Commercial software for organic molecular modeling is being configured to examine the interactions between organic ligands and metal ions, yielding an inexpensive, commercially or readily available computational tool that can be used to predict the structures and energies of ligand-metal complexes. Users will be able to correlate the large body of existing experimental data on structure, solution binding affinity, and metal ion selectivity to develop structural design criteria. These criteria will provide a basis for selecting ligands that can be implemented in separations technologies through collaboration with other DOE national laboratories and private industry. The initial focus will be to select ether-based ligands that can be applied to the recovery and concentration of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions including cesium, strontium, and radium.

  18. [Endorphines--the endogenous ligands of opiate receptors (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Teschemacher, H

    1978-01-01

    The demonstration of opiate receptors in the nervous tissue of vertebrates in 1973 was the starting point of an intensive search for the endogenous ligands of these receptors. During the following years, several of such "edogenous opiates", called "endorphines", were isolated from various tissues of the mammalian organism. These are peptides which are able to elicit the same effects as do opiates. Possibly, they play a role in the reaction of the organism to stress.

  19. Programming of donor T cells using allogeneic δ-like ligand 4-positive dendritic cells to reduce GVHD in mice.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Kazuhiro; Meng, Lijun; Mochizuki, Izumi; Tong, Qing; He, Shan; Liu, Yongnian; Purushe, Janaki; Fung, Henry; Zaidi, M Raza; Zhang, Yanyun; Reshef, Ran; Blazar, Bruce R; Yagita, Hideo; Mineishi, Shin; Zhang, Yi

    2016-06-23

    Alloreactive T cells play a critical role in eliminating hematopoietic malignant cells but are also the mediators of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a major complication that subverts the success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, induction of alloreactive T cells does not necessarily lead to GVHD. Here we report the development of a cellular programming approach to render alloreactive T cells incapable of causing severe GVHD in both major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched and MHC-identical but minor histocompatibility antigen-mismatched mouse models. We established a novel platform that produced δ-like ligand 4-positive dendritic cells (Dll4(hi)DCs) from murine bone marrow using Flt3 ligand and Toll-like receptor agonists. Upon allogeneic Dll4(hi)DC stimulation, CD4(+) naïve T cells underwent effector differentiation and produced high levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 in vitro, depending on Dll4 activation of Notch signaling. Following transfer, allogeneic Dll4(hi)DC-induced T cells were unable to mediate severe GVHD but preserved antileukemic activity, significantly improving the survival of leukemic mice undergoing allogeneic HSCT. This effect of Dll4(hi)DC-induced T cells was associated with their impaired expansion in GVHD target tissues. IFN-γ was important for Dll4(hi)DC programming to reduce GVHD toxicities of alloreactive T cells. Absence of T-cell IFN-γ led to improved survival and expansion of Dll4(hi)DC-induced CD4(+) T cells in transplant recipients and caused lethal GVHD. Our findings demonstrate that Dll4(hi)DC programming can overcome GVHD toxicity of donor T cells and produce leukemia-reactive T cells for effective immunotherapy.

  20. Ligand modeling and design

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, B.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop and implement a molecular design basis for selecting organic ligands that would be used tin applications for the cost-effective removal of specific radionuclides from nuclear waste streams.

  1. Learning from Expert Elicitation in Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1990's the author has been involved in the design and execution of six detailed expert elicitations that, among other things, have obtained subjective judgments from experts that reflect their best judgment in the form of subjective probability density functions, about the value of key climate variables, climate impacts and a technology for mitigation (Morgan and Keith, 1995; Morgan Pitelka and Shevliakova, 2001; Morgan, Adams and Keith, 2006; Zickfeld et al, 2007; Curtright, Morgan and Keith, 2008; Zickfeld, Morgan Keith and Frame, in review). This paper builds on that experience to draw insights about the design and use of expert elicitation in the assessment and analysis of climate change and its impacts. Several trends in responses will be noted. Methodological pitfalls will be discussed. Comparisons will be drawn with the consensus-based methods employed by IPCC, which appear to have produced tighter uncertainty bounds than individual elicitation. The paper will close with thoughts on the possible use of expert elicitation in future IPCC assessments. Support for this work is from the Climate Decision Making Center through a cooperative agreement between the National Science Foundation (SES-0345798) and Carnegie Mellon University. References: M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Subjective Judgments by Climate Experts," Environmental Science & Technology, 29(10), 468A-476A, October 1995. M. Granger Morgan, Louis F. Pitelka and Elena Shevliakova, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Climate Change Impacts on Forest Ecosystems," Climatic Change, 49, 279-307, 2001. M. Granger Morgan, Peter Adams, and David W. Keith, "Elicitation of Expert Judgments of Aerosol Forcing," Climatic Change, 75, 195-214, 2006. Kirsten Zickfeld, Anders Levermann, Till Kuhlbrodt. Stefan Rahmstorf, M. Granger Morgan and David Keith, "Expert Judgements on the Response on the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to Climate Change," Climatic Change, 82, 235-265, 2007

  2. Rod-shaped nanocrystals elicit neuronal activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Malvindi, Maria Ada; Carbone, Luigi; Quarta, Alessandra; Tino, Angela; Manna, Liberato; Pellegrino, Teresa; Tortiglione, Claudia

    2008-10-01

    The development of novel nanomaterials has raised great interest in efforts to evaluate their effect on biological systems, ranging from single cells to whole animals. In particular, there exists an open question regarding whether nanoparticles per se can elicit biological responses, which could interfere with the phenomena they are intended to measure. Here it is reported that challenging the small cnidaria Hydra vulgaris in vivo with rod-shaped semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum rods (QRs), results in an unexpected tentacle-writhing behavior, which is Ca(2+) dependent and relies on the presence of tentacle neurons. Due to the absence of surface functionalization of the QRs with specific ligands, and considering that spherical nanoparticles with same composition as the QRs fail to induce any in vivo behavior on the same experimental model, it is suggested that unique shape-tunable electrical properties of the QRs may account for the neuronal stimulation. This model system may represent a widely applicable tool for screening neuronal response to nanoparticles in vivo.

  3. TLR9 Ligand CpG-ODN Applied to the Injured Mouse Cornea Elicits Retinal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chinnery, Holly R.; McLenachan, Samuel; Binz, Nicolette; Sun, Yan; Forrester, John V.; Degli-Esposti, Mariapia A.; Pearlman, Eric; McMenamin, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    During bacterial and viral infections, unmethylated CpG-DNA released by proliferating and dying microbes is recognized by toll-like receptor (TLR) 9 in host cells, initiating innate immune responses. Many corneal infections occur secondary to epithelial breaches and represent a major cause of vision impairment and blindness globally. To mimic this clinical situation, we investigated mechanisms of TLR9 ligand–induced corneal inflammation in mice after epithelial debridement. Application of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) resulted in neutrophil and macrophage infiltration to the cornea and loss of transparency. By 6 hours after CpG-ODN administration, TLR9 mRNA was increased in the cornea and retina. In vivo clinical examination at 24 hours revealed inflammatory infiltrates in the vitreous and retina, which were confirmed ex vivo to be neutrophils and macrophages, along with activated resident microglia. CpG-ODN–induced intraocular inflammation was abrogated in TLR9−/− and macrophage-depleted mice. Bone marrow reconstitution of irradiated TLR9−/− mice with TLR9+/+ bone marrow led to restored corneal inflammatory responses to CpG-ODN. Fluorescein isothiocyanate–CpG-ODN rapidly penetrated the cornea and ocular media to reach the retina, where it was present within CD68+ retinal macrophages and microglia. These data show that topically applied CpG-ODN induces intraocular inflammation owing to TLR9 activation of monocyte-lineage cells. These novel findings indicate that microbial CpG-DNA released during bacterial and/or viral keratitis can cause widespread inflammation within the eye, including the retina. PMID:22085974

  4. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    PubMed

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  5. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-11-01

    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.

  6. Voltage transients elicited by brief chilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    Chilling auxin-depleted, etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. to 4 degrees C for 60 s enhanced the production of previously described voltage transients 20-fold. It is postulated that plasmalemmal permeability to Ca2+ is increased at low temperature, permitting influx of the ion from the apoplast to the cytosol and thereby promoting production of transients. Heating to 40 degrees C or 45 degrees C elicits no increase in transients, and heating to 50 degrees C leads to loss of turgor.

  7. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.

    2012-10-01

    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  8. Eliciting principles of hazard identification from experts.

    PubMed

    Jelovsek, F R; Mattison, D R; Young, J F

    1990-11-01

    National experts in the field of developmental toxicology were interviewed in order to elicit the principles, or rules-of-thumb, they use in determining if a compound or agent is likely to be a developmental hazard during pregnancy. Several levels of individual and cumulative consensus activity were carried out that resulted in consensus in 71 rules and partial consensus in an additional 24 rules of 145 rules initially elicited. Rules could be divided generically into those affecting the expert's confidence in a piece of scientific evidence and those determining the weight of importance of that evidence in deciding about hazard identification. Topically, the rules also divided into those about the general nature or characteristics of a compound, animal studies testing for an effect of the compound, and human reports about the presence of absence of developmental effects associated with the compound. Several conclusions about the methodology include the following: 1) expert systems must be based on the knowledge of more than one expert; 2) considerable human effort is expended in evaluating the certainty of scientific evidence before combining the evidence for problem solving; 3) how experts use evidence of different degrees of uncertainty in their decisions is a major area that is yet to be determined and that may greatly affect subsequent efforts in artificial intelligence; and 4) knowledge elicitation by interview has limitations but is a workable methodology for medical decision making.

  9. Structure-activity relationship of nuclear receptor-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Greschik, Holger; Moras, Dino

    2003-01-01

    Small molecules such as retinoids, steroid hormones, fatty acids, cholesterol metabolites, or xenobiotics are involved in the regulation of numerous physiological and patho-physiological processes by binding to and controlling the activity of members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of transcription factors. In addition to natural ligands, synthetic agonists or antagonists have been identified that in some cases specifically target NR isotypes, or elicit tissue-, signaling pathway-, or promoter-selective transcriptional responses. For these ligands the term "selective NR modulators" (SNRMs) has been introduced. Structure determination of apo- and holo-NR ligand-binding domains (LBDs)--some of them complexed to small coactivator or corepressor fragments--revealed the major principles of ligand-dependent NR action and determinants of (isotype-) selective ligand binding. These studies also stimulated the interpretation of tissue-specific effects of SNRMs on wild-type or mutant receptors. In contrast to the increasing knowledge on the structure-activity relationship of NRs with known SNRMs, rather basic questions remain about the regulation of orphan NRs (for which no ligands are known) or "adopted" orphan NRs (for which only recently ligands were identified). Several crystal structures of orphan NR LBDs uncovered unexpected properties, contributed to the understanding of orphan NR function, and may in the future permit the identification or design of ligands. This review will (i) focus on the current understanding of the structure-activity relationship of NR-ligand interactions, (ii) discuss recent advances in the field of "orphan" NR crystallography, and (iii) outline future challenges in NR structural biology.

  10. GPCR biased ligands as novel heart failure therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Soergel, David G; Boerrigter, Guido; Burnett, John C; Lark, Michael W

    2013-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors have been successfully targeted by numerous therapeutics including drugs that have transformed the management of cardiovascular disease. However, many GPCRs, when activated or blocked by drugs, elicit both beneficial and adverse pharmacology. Recent work has demonstrated that in some cases, the salutary and deleterious signals linked to a specific GPCR can be selectively targeted by "biased ligands" that entrain subsets of a receptor's normal pharmacology. This review briefly summarizes the advances and current state of the biased ligand field, focusing on an example: biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor. These compounds exhibit unique pharmacology, distinct from classic agonists or antagonists, and one such molecule is now in clinical development for the treatment of acute heart failure.

  11. Cell mechanosensory recognizes ligand compliance at biomaterial interface.

    PubMed

    Cosenza, Chiara; Lettera, Vincenzo; Causa, Filippo; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cells activate signalling through ligand-receptor bonds by sensing the mechanical properties of the surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). Ligands, indeed, have to withstand the pulling force elicited by cell receptors through focal adhesions (FAs). On this basis, we developed functional ligands to be simply adsorbed on surfaces and constituted by a two-domain peptide: one derived from ECM proteins and available to receptors to offer biochemical cues, and another adsorbed on material to withstand the tension upon receptor engagement. Tuneable compliance of the anchoring domain of the peptide ligand was verified by single peptide analysis through molecular dynamics and adsorption measurements. We showed that the highest adsorbed peptides combined with integrin cell-binding motifs allow for the cell recognition and polarization with larger mature FA areas. On the contrary, the lowest adsorbed sequences did not provide mechanical resistance to the integrin pulling action, leading to more rounded cells with smaller FA areas. This evidence demonstrates that cell mechanosensory can discriminate ligands on surfaces and should be considered as a criterion in ligand design for material bioactivation.

  12. Ligand binding analysis and screening by chemical denaturation shift.

    PubMed

    Schön, Arne; Brown, Richard K; Hutchins, Burleigh M; Freire, Ernesto

    2013-12-01

    The identification of small molecule ligands is an important first step in drug development, especially drugs that target proteins with no intrinsic activity. Toward this goal, it is important to have access to technologies that are able to measure binding affinities for a large number of potential ligands in a fast and accurate way. Because ligand binding stabilizes the protein structure in a manner dependent on concentration and binding affinity, the magnitude of the protein stabilization effect elicited by binding can be used to identify and characterize ligands. For example, the shift in protein denaturation temperature (Tm shift) has become a popular approach to identify potential ligands. However, Tm shifts cannot be readily transformed into binding affinities, and the ligand rank order obtained at denaturation temperatures (≥60°C) does not necessarily coincide with the rank order at physiological temperature. An alternative approach is the use of chemical denaturation, which can be implemented at any temperature. Chemical denaturation shifts allow accurate determination of binding affinities with a surprisingly wide dynamic range (high micromolar to sub nanomolar) and in situations where binding changes the cooperativity of the unfolding transition. In this article, we develop the basic analytical equations and provide several experimental examples.

  13. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, K. J.

    1997-05-30

    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca Mountain site.

  14. Antagonist-Elicited Cannabis Withdrawal in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gorelick, David A.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M.; Darwin, William D.; Kelly, Deanna L.; McMahon, Robert P.; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40–120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0–8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses. PMID:21869692

  15. Antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal in humans.

    PubMed

    Gorelick, David A; Goodwin, Robert S; Schwilke, Eugene; Schwope, David M; Darwin, William D; Kelly, Deanna L; McMahon, Robert P; Liu, Fang; Ortemann-Renon, Catherine; Bonnet, Denis; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2011-10-01

    Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists have potential therapeutic benefits, but antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal has not been reported in humans. Ten male daily cannabis smokers received 8 days of increasingly frequent 20-mg oral Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) dosages (40-120 mg/d) around-the-clock to standardize cannabis dependence while residing on a closed research unit. On the ninth day, double-blind placebo or 20- (suggested therapeutic dose) or 40-mg oral rimonabant, a CB1-cannabinoid receptor antagonist, was administered. Cannabis withdrawal signs and symptoms were assessed before and for 23.5 hours after rimonabant. Rimonabant, THC, and 11-hydroxy-THC plasma concentrations were quantified by mass spectrometry. The first 6 subjects received 20-mg rimonabant (1 placebo); the remaining 4 subjects received 40-mg rimonabant (1 placebo). Fourteen subjects enrolled; 10 completed before premature termination because of withdrawal of rimonabant from clinical development. Three of 5 subjects in the 20-mg group, 1 of 3 in the 40-mg group, and none of 2 in the placebo group met the prespecified withdrawal criterion of 150% increase or higher in at least 3 visual analog scales for cannabis withdrawal symptoms within 3 hours of rimonabant dosing. There were no significant associations between visual analog scale, heart rate, or blood pressure changes and peak rimonabant plasma concentration, area-under-the-rimonabant-concentration-by-time curve (0-8 hours), or peak rimonabant/THC or rimonabant/(THC + 11-hydroxy-THC) plasma concentration ratios. In summary, prespecified criteria for antagonist-elicited cannabis withdrawal were not observed at the 20- or 40-mg rimonabant doses. These data do not preclude antagonist-elicited withdrawal at higher rimonabant doses.

  16. Gene therapy-mediated reprogramming tumor infiltrating T cells using IL-2 and inhibiting NF-κB signaling improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in a brain cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mineharu, Yohei; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M; Xiong, Weidong; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Levy, Eva; Lugo, Claudia; Kocharian, Adrina; Allison, James P; Curran, Michael A; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2012-10-01

    Immune-mediated gene therapy using adenovirus expressing Flt3 ligand and thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir administration (Flt3/TK) effectively elicits tumor regression in preclinical glioma models. Herein, we assessed new strategies to optimize Flt3L/TK therapeutic efficacy in a refractory RG2 orthotopic glioblastoma model. Specifically, we aimed to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of Flt3L/TK treatment in the RG2 model by overexpressing the following genes within the brain tumor microenvironment: 1) a TK mutant with enhanced cytotoxicity (SR39 mutant TK), 2) Flt3L-IgG fusion protein that has a longer half-life, 3) CD40L to stimulate DC maturation, 4) T helper cell type 1 polarizing dendritic cell cytokines interleukin-12 or C-X-C motif ligand 10 chemokine (CXCL)-10, 5) C-C motif ligand 2 chemokine (CCL2) or C-C motif ligand 3 chemokine (CCL3) to enhance dendritic cell recruitment into the tumor microenvironment, 6) T helper cell type 1 cytokines interferon-γ or interleukin-2 to enhance effector T-cell functions, and 7) IκBα or p65RHD (nuclear factor kappa-B [NF-κB] inhibitors) to suppress the function of Foxp3+ Tregs and enhanced effector T-cell functions. Anti-tumor immunity and tumor specific effector T-cell functions were assessed by cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay and intracellular IFN-γ staining. Our data showed that overexpression of interferon-γ or interleukin-2, or inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B within the tumor microenvironment, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses and successfully extended the median survival of rats bearing intracranial RG2 when combined with Flt3L/TK. These findings indicate that enhancement of T-cell functions constitutes a critical therapeutic target to overcome immune evasion and enhance therapeutic efficacy for brain cancer. In addition, our study provides novel targets to be used in combination with immune-therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, which are currently being tested in the

  17. Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lin, Jianyan; Qian, Miao K; Lee, Kang

    2015-11-01

    Widespread cheating can undermine rules that are necessary for maintaining social order. Preventing cheating can be a challenge, especially with regard to children, who as a result of their limited executive function skills may have particular difficulty with resisting temptation to cheat. We examined one approach designed to help children resist this temptation: eliciting a verbal commitment to not cheat. We tested 4- to 7-year-olds (total N = 330) and found that starting at 5 years of age, a verbal commitment to not cheat led to a substantial reduction in cheating. The results suggest that verbal commitments can be used to help children overcome temptations and comply with rules.

  18. TGF-α ligands can substitute for the neuregulin Vein in Drosophila development.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christina L; Manivannan, Sathiya N; Simcox, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    ErbB receptors, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (Egfr), are activated by EGF ligands to govern cell proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation. The different EGF-induced cell responses in development are regulated by deployment of multiple ligands. These inputs, however, engage only a limited number of intracellular pathways and are thought to elicit specific responses by regulating the amplitude or duration of the intracellular signal. The single Drosophila Egfr has four ligands: three of the TGF-α-type and a single neuregulin-like called vein (vn). Here, we used mutant combinations and gene replacement to determine the constraints of ligand specificity in development. Mutant analysis revealed extensive ligand redundancy in embryogenesis and wing development. Surprisingly, we found that the essential role of vn in development could be largely replaced by expression of any TGF-α ligand, including spitz (spi), in the endogenous vn pattern. vn mutants die as white undifferentiated pupae, but the rescued individuals showed global differentiation of adult body parts. Spi is more potent than Vn, and the best morphological rescue occurred when Spi expression was reduced to achieve an intracellular signaling level comparable to that produced by Vn. Our results show that the developmental repertoire of a strong ligand like Spi is flexible and at the appropriate level can emulate the activity of a weak ligand like Vn. These findings align with a model whereby cells respond similarly to an equivalent quantitative level of an intracellular signal generated by two distinct ligands regardless of ligand identity.

  19. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  20. Multiple faces elicit augmented neural activity

    PubMed Central

    Puce, Aina; McNeely, Marie E.; Berrebi, Michael E.; Thompson, James C.; Hardee, Jillian; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie

    2013-01-01

    How do our brains respond when we are being watched by a group of people?Despite the large volume of literature devoted to face processing, this question has received very little attention. Here we measured the effects on the face-sensitive N170 and other ERPs to viewing displays of one, two and three faces in two experiments. In Experiment 1, overall image brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, whereas in Experiment 2 local contrast and brightness of individual faces were not manipulated. A robust positive-negative-positive (P100-N170-P250) ERP complex and an additional late positive ERP, the P400, were elicited to all stimulus types. As the number of faces in the display increased, N170 amplitude increased for both stimulus sets, and latency increased in Experiment 2. P100 latency and P250 amplitude were affected by changes in overall brightness and contrast, but not by the number of faces in the display per se. In Experiment 1 when overall brightness and contrast were adjusted to be constant, later ERP (P250 and P400) latencies showed differences as a function of hemisphere. Hence, our data indicate that N170 increases its magnitude when multiple faces are seen, apparently impervious to basic low-level stimulus features including stimulus size. Outstanding questions remain regarding category-sensitive neural activity that is elicited to viewing multiple items of stimulus categories other than faces. PMID:23785327

  1. Fluorescent Approaches for Understanding Interactions of Ligands with G Protein Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Rajashri; Zuber, Jeffrey; Connelly, Sara M.; Mathew, Elizabeth; Dumont, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for a wide variety of signaling responses in diverse cell types. Despite major advances in the determination of structures of this class of receptors, the underlying mechanisms by which binding of different types of ligands specifically elicits particular signaling responses remains unclear. The use of fluorescence spectroscopy can provide important information about the process of ligand binding and ligand dependent conformational changes in receptors, especially kinetic aspects of these processes, that can be difficult to extract from x-ray structures. We present an overview of the extensive array of fluorescent ligands that have been used in studies of GPCRs and describe spectroscopic approaches for assaying binding and probing the environment of receptor-bound ligands with particular attention to examples involving yeast pheromone receptors. In addition, we discuss the use of fluorescence spectroscopy for detecting and characterizing conformational changes in receptors induced by the binding of ligands. Such studies have provided strong evidence for diversity of receptor conformations elicited by different ligands, consistent with the idea that GPCRs are not simple on and off switches. This diversity of states constitutes an underlying mechanistic basis for biased agonism, the observation that different stimuli can produce different responses from a single receptor. It is likely that continued technical advances will allow fluorescence spectroscopy to play an important role in continued probing of structural transitions in GPCRs. PMID:24055822

  2. Ligand fitting with CCP4

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Crystal structures of protein–ligand complexes are often used to infer biology and inform structure-based drug discovery. Hence, it is important to build accurate, reliable models of ligands that give confidence in the interpretation of the respective protein–ligand complex. This paper discusses key stages in the ligand-fitting process, including ligand binding-site identification, ligand description and conformer generation, ligand fitting, refinement and subsequent validation. The CCP4 suite contains a number of software tools that facilitate this task: AceDRG for the creation of ligand descriptions and conformers, Lidia and JLigand for two-dimensional and three-dimensional ligand editing and visual analysis, Coot for density interpretation, ligand fitting, analysis and validation, and REFMAC5 for macromolecular refinement. In addition to recent advancements in automatic carbohydrate building in Coot (LO/Carb) and ligand-validation tools (FLEV), the release of the CCP4i2 GUI provides an integrated solution that streamlines the ligand-fitting workflow, seamlessly passing results from one program to the next. The ligand-fitting process is illustrated using instructive practical examples, including problematic cases such as post-translational modifications, highlighting the need for careful analysis and rigorous validation. PMID:28177312

  3. Taste substance binding elicits conformational change of taste receptor T1r heterodimer extracellular domains.

    PubMed

    Nango, Eriko; Akiyama, Shuji; Maki-Yonekura, Saori; Ashikawa, Yuji; Kusakabe, Yuko; Krayukhina, Elena; Maruno, Takahiro; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nuemket, Nipawan; Yonekura, Koji; Shimizu, Madoka; Atsumi, Nanako; Yasui, Norihisa; Hikima, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Masaki; Kobayashi, Yuji; Yamashita, Atsuko

    2016-05-10

    Sweet and umami tastes are perceived by T1r taste receptors in oral cavity. T1rs are class C G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and the extracellular ligand binding domains (LBDs) of T1r1/T1r3 and T1r2/T1r3 heterodimers are responsible for binding of chemical substances eliciting umami or sweet taste. However, molecular analyses of T1r have been hampered due to the difficulties in recombinant expression and protein purification, and thus little is known about mechanisms for taste perception. Here we show the first molecular view of reception of a taste substance by a taste receptor, where the binding of the taste substance elicits a different conformational state of T1r2/T1r3 LBD heterodimer. Electron microscopy has showed a characteristic dimeric structure. Förster resonance energy transfer and X-ray solution scattering have revealed the transition of the dimerization manner of the ligand binding domains, from a widely spread to compactly organized state upon taste substance binding, which may correspond to distinct receptor functional states.

  4. Ligand efficiency metrics considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Peter W.; Leitão, Andrei; Montanari, Carlos A.

    2014-07-01

    Ligand efficiency metrics are used in drug discovery to normalize biological activity or affinity with respect to physicochemical properties such as lipophilicity and molecular size. This Perspective provides an overview of ligand efficiency metrics and summarizes thermodynamics of protein-ligand binding. Different classes of ligand efficiency metric are critically examined and the study concludes with suggestions for alternative ways to account for physicochemical properties when prioritizing and optimizing leads.

  5. Assessing pragmatic skills in elicited production.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Peter

    2004-02-01

    In developing a test of pragmatic skills for children ages 4 to 9 years, we focused on a number of functional language skills that are important for children's success in early schooling and for the development of fluent reading and writing. They included (1) wh-question asking, (2) communicative role taking, (3) linking events in a cohesive narrative, and (4) articulating the mental states of the characters in a story. All of the proposed items provide specific referential support and pragmatic motivation for the forms and content to be produced by the child. The pictured materials and elicitation prompts constrain the range of appropriate utterances, so the children's productions are more easily scored than an open-ended spontaneous speech sample. All tasks described show a clear developmental trend, a clear separation between the performance of typically developing and language-impaired children, and no performance differences between African American English- and Mainstream American English-speaking children.

  6. Reinforcing concomitants of electrically elicited vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Jürgens, U

    1976-09-24

    In 38 squirrel monkeys 251 vocalization-producing electrode positions were tested for their positive and negative reinforcing properties. Two groups of vocalization-producing brain areas could be distinguished: One group in which the electrically elicited vocalization was independent of the accompanying reinforcement effect, and a second group in which vocalization and reinforcement effect were correlated. The first group included the anterior cingulate gyrus, the adjacent supplementary motor area, gyrus rectus, ventromedial edge of the capsula interna, caudal periaqueductal gray and adjacent parabrachial region. The second group consited of the caudatum, septum, substantia innominata, amygdala, inferior thalamic peduncle, stria terminalis, midline thalamus, ventral and periventricular hypothalamus, substantia nigra, rostral periaqueductal gray, dorsolateral midbrain tegmentum and lateral medulla. It is hypothesized that the first group contains predominantly or exclusively "primary" vocalization substrates; the second group is thought to be composed mainly of structures whose stimulation yields vocalization secondarily due to stimulus induced motivational changes.

  7. Bayesian markets to elicit private information

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Financial markets reveal what investors think about the future, and prediction markets are used to forecast election results. Could markets also encourage people to reveal private information, such as subjective judgments (e.g., “Are you satisfied with your life?”) or unverifiable facts? This paper shows how to design such markets, called Bayesian markets. People trade an asset whose value represents the proportion of affirmative answers to a question. Their trading position then reveals their own answer to the question. The results of this paper are based on a Bayesian setup in which people use their private information (their “type”) as a signal. Hence, beliefs about others’ types are correlated with one’s own type. Bayesian markets transform this correlation into a mechanism that rewards truth telling. These markets avoid two complications of alternative methods: they need no knowledge of prior information and no elicitation of metabeliefs regarding others’ signals. PMID:28696293

  8. Cellular requirements for cutaneous sensitivity elicitation.

    PubMed

    Aoki, I

    1985-01-01

    The role of glass-adherent cells in cutaneous sensitivity (CS) elicitation has been analyzed in this study. CS responses have been revealed to be mediated by at least two distinct subsets of genetically restricted T cells: I-restricted 'DTH-like' T cells and K/D-restricted 'CTL-like' T cells. Both T-cell responses require I-A-positive glass-adherent cell populations, which lack T-cell markers, to manifest their activities. The role of the adherent cells is different in the 'DTH-like' responses and the 'CTL-like' responses. The disparities between the present results and previous contentions are discussed in this paper.

  9. LigandRNA: computational predictor of RNA-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Philips, Anna; Milanowska, Kaja; Lach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2013-12-01

    RNA molecules have recently become attractive as potential drug targets due to the increased awareness of their importance in key biological processes. The increase of the number of experimentally determined RNA 3D structures enabled structure-based searches for small molecules that can specifically bind to defined sites in RNA molecules, thereby blocking or otherwise modulating their function. However, as of yet, computational methods for structure-based docking of small molecule ligands to RNA molecules are not as well established as analogous methods for protein-ligand docking. This motivated us to create LigandRNA, a scoring function for the prediction of RNA-small molecule interactions. Our method employs a grid-based algorithm and a knowledge-based potential derived from ligand-binding sites in the experimentally solved RNA-ligand complexes. As an input, LigandRNA takes an RNA receptor file and a file with ligand poses. As an output, it returns a ranking of the poses according to their score. The predictive power of LigandRNA favorably compares to five other publicly available methods. We found that the combination of LigandRNA and Dock6 into a "meta-predictor" leads to further improvement in the identification of near-native ligand poses. The LigandRNA program is available free of charge as a web server at http://ligandrna.genesilico.pl.

  10. Analysis of macromolecules, ligands and macromolecule-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Von Dreele, Robert B [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-12-23

    A method for determining atomic level structures of macromolecule-ligand complexes through high-resolution powder diffraction analysis and a method for providing suitable microcrystalline powder for diffraction analysis are provided. In one embodiment, powder diffraction data is collected from samples of polycrystalline macromolecule and macromolecule-ligand complex and the refined structure of the macromolecule is used as an approximate model for a combined Rietveld and stereochemical restraint refinement of the macromolecule-ligand complex. A difference Fourier map is calculated and the ligand position and points of interaction between the atoms of the macromolecule and the atoms of the ligand can be deduced and visualized. A suitable polycrystalline sample of macromolecule-ligand complex can be produced by physically agitating a mixture of lyophilized macromolecule, ligand and a solvent.

  11. EGF receptor ligands: recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bhuminder; Carpenter, Graham; Coffey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven ligands bind to and activate the mammalian epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR/ERBB1/HER1): EGF, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF), betacellulin (BTC), amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and epigen (EPGN). Of these, EGF, TGFA, HBEGF, and BTC are thought to be high-affinity ligands, whereas AREG, EREG, and EPGN constitute low-affinity ligands. This focused review is meant to highlight recent studies related to actions of the individual EGFR ligands, the interesting biology that has been uncovered, and relevant advances related to ligand interactions with the EGFR. PMID:27635238

  12. Expert Elicitation of Population-Level Effects of Disturbance.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C; Schick, Robert S; Kraus, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  13. Web-based tool for expert elicitation of the variogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Phuong N.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Gosling, John Paul

    2013-02-01

    The variogram is the keystone of geostatistics. Estimation of the variogram is deficient and difficult when there are no or too few observations available due to budget constraints or physical and temporal obstacles. In such cases, expert knowledge can be an important source of information. Expert knowledge can also fulfil the increasing demand for an a priori variogram in Bayesian geostatistics and spatial sampling optimization. Formal expert elicitation provides a sound scientific basis to reliably and consistently extract knowledge from experts. In this study, we aimed at applying existing statistical expert elicitation techniques to extract the variogram of a regionalized variable that is assumed to have either a multivariate normal or lognormal spatial probability distribution from expert knowledge. To achieve this, we developed an elicitation protocol and implemented it as a web-based tool to facilitate the elicitation of beliefs from multiple experts. Our protocol has two main rounds: elicitation of the marginal probability distribution and elicitation of the variogram. The web-based tool has three main components: a web interface for expert elicitation and feedback; a component for statistical computation and mathematical pooling of multiple experts' knowledge; and a database management component. Results from a test case study show that the protocol is adequate and that the online elicitation tool functions satisfactorily. The web-based tool is free to use and supports scientists to conveniently elicit the variogram of spatial random variables from experts. The source code is available from the journal FTP site under the GNU General Public License.

  14. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  15. Basic emotions elicited by odors and pictures.

    PubMed

    Croy, Ilona; Olgun, Selda; Joraschky, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The sense of olfaction is often reported to have a special relationship with emotional processing. Memories triggered by olfactory cues often have a very emotional load. On the other hand, basic negative or positive emotional states should be sufficient to cover the most significant functions of the olfactory system including ingestion, hazard avoidance, and social communication. Thus, we investigated whether different basic emotions can be evoked in healthy people through the sense of olfaction. We asked 119 participants which odor evokes one of the six basic emotions (happiness, disgust, anger, anxiety, sadness, and surprise); another 97 participants were asked about pictures evoking those emotions. The results showed that almost every participant could name an olfactory elicitor for happiness or disgust. Olfactory elicitors of anxiety were reported less frequently, but they were still reported by three-quarters of the participants. However, for sadness and anger only about half of the participants reported an olfactory elicitor, whereas significantly more named a visual cue. Olfactory emotion elicitors were mainly related to the classes of culture, plants, and food, and visual emotion elicitors were largely related to humans. This data supports the hypothesis that in the vast majority of people, few differentiated emotions can be elicited through the olfactory channel. These emotions are happiness, disgust, and anxiety. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Eliciting and using expert knowledge in metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    The expression of uncertainty has hitherto been seen as an add-on—first an estimate is obtained and then uncertainty in that estimate is evaluated. We argue that quantification of uncertainty should be an intrinsic part of measurement and that the measurement result should be a probability distribution for the measurand. Full quantification of uncertainties in measurement, recognizing and quantifying all sources of uncertainty, is rarely simple. Many potential sources of uncertainty can effectively only be quantified by the application of expert judgement. Scepticism about the validity or reliability of expert judgement has meant that these sources of uncertainty have often been overlooked, ignored or treated in a qualitative, narrative way. But the consequence of this is that reported expressions of uncertainty regularly understate the true degree of uncertainty in measurements. This article first discusses the concept of quantifying uncertainty in measurement, and then considers some of the areas where expert judgement is needed in order to quantify fully the uncertainties in measurement. The remainder of the article is devoted to describing methodology for eliciting expert knowledge.

  17. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  18. Bexarotene ligand pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Hurst, R E

    2000-12-01

    Bexarotene (LGD-1069), from Ligand, was the first retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective, antitumor retinoid to enter clinical trials. The company launched the drug for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), as Targretin capsules, in the US in January 2000 [359023]. The company filed an NDA for Targretin capsules in June 1999, and for topical gel in December 1999 [329011], [349982] specifically for once-daily oral administration for the treatment of patients with early-stage CTCL who have not tolerated other therapies, patients with refractory or persistent early stage CTCL and patients with refractory advanced stage CTCL. The FDA approved Targretin capsules at the end of December 1999 for once-daily oral treatment of all stages of CTCL in patients refractory to at least one prior systemic therapy, at an initial dose of 300 mg/m2/day. After an NDA was submitted in December 1999 for Targretin gel, the drug received Priority Review status for use as a treatment of cutaneous lesions in patients with stage IA, IB or IIA CTCL [354836]. The FDA issued an approvable letter in June 2000, and granted marketing clearance for CTCL in the same month [370687], [372768], [372769], [373279]. Ligand had received Orphan Drug designation for this indication [329011]. At the request of the FDA, Ligand agreed to carry out certain post-approval phase IV and pharmacokinetic studies [351604]. The company filed an MAA with the EMEA for Targretin Capsules to treat lymphoma in November 1999 [348944]. The NDA for Targretin gel is based on a multicenter phase III trial that was conducted in the US, Canada, Europe and Australia involving 50 patients and a multicenter phase I/II clinical program involving 67 patients. Targretin gel was evaluated for the treatment of patients with early stage CTCL (IA-IIA) who were refractory to, intolerant to, or reached a response plateau for at least 6 months on at least two prior therapies. Efficacy results exceeded the protocol-defined response

  19. Estrogen Receptor Ligands: A Review (2013–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Farzaneh, Shabnam; Zarghi, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptors (ERs) are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from tissue growth maintenance to reproduction. Their action is mediated through ER nuclear receptors. Two subtypes of the estrogen receptor, ERα and ERβ, exist and exhibit distinct cellular and tissue distribution patterns. In humans, both receptor subtypes are expressed in many cells and tissues, and they control key physiological functions in various organ systems. Estrogens attract great attention due to their wide applications in female reproductive functions and treatment of some estrogen-dependent cancers and osteoporosis. This paper provides a general review of ER ligands published in international journals patented between 2013 and 2015. The broad physiological profile of estrogens has attracted the attention of many researchers to develop new estrogen ligands as therapeutic molecules for various clinical purposes. After the discovery of the ERβ receptor, subtype-selective ligands could be used to elicit beneficial estrogen-like activities and reduce adverse side effects, based on the different distributions and relative levels of the two ER subtypes in different estrogen target tissues. Therefore, recent literature has focused on selective estrogen ligands as highly promising agents for the treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative diseases. Estrogen receptors are nuclear transcription factors that are involved in the regulation of many complex physiological functions in humans. Selective estrogen ligands are highly promising targets for treatment of some types of cancer, as well as for cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies of ER ligands based on small molecules indicate that many different structural scaffolds may provide high

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING AND EVALUATING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHEWSON, ROBERT H.; ORTON, JOHN W.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO (1) PRODUCE AN INSTRUMENT FOR ELICITING VOCATIONAL IMAGERY FOR USE IN THE EDUCATIONAL-VOCATIONAL ORIENTATION AND COUNSELING OF HIGH SCHOOL YOUTH, AND (2) DEVELOP A SCALE FOR EVALUATING THE MATURITY OF THE VOCATIONAL IMAGERY ELICITED BY THE INSTRUMENT. A PREVIOUSLY DESIGNED INSTRUMENT "WHAT I THINK OF MYSELF"…

  1. Eliciting Spontaneous Speech in Bilingual Students: Methods & Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornejo, Ricardo J.; And Others

    Intended to provide practical information pertaining to methods and techniques for speech elicitation and production, the monograph offers specific methods and techniques to elicit spontaneous speech in bilingual students. Chapter 1, "Traditional Methodologies for Language Production and Recording," presents an overview of studies using…

  2. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  3. Pedagogical use of ELICIT for Leadership Training: Survey and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    classroom training as part of leadership development programs. ELICIT is particularly helpful in teaching the strengths and weakness of various...organizational structures (edge organization vs. traditional command and control hierarchy.) This paper reviews some of the pedagogical uses of the classroom ...training to date, and provides recommendations for the use of ELICIT in various classroom settings. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  4. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  5. Examining of Model Eliciting Activities Developed by Mathematics Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Ayse Tekin; Hidiroglu, Çaglar Naci; Güzel, Esra Bukova

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the model eliciting activities developed by the mathematics student teachers in the context of the principles of the model eliciting activities. The participants of the study conducted as a case study design were twenty one mathematics student teachers working on seven groups. The data collection tools were…

  6. Freeze or Flee? Negative Stimuli Elicit Selective Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Zachary; Verges, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    Humans preferentially attend to negative stimuli. A consequence of this automatic vigilance for negative valence is that negative words elicit slower responses than neutral or positive words on a host of cognitive tasks. Some researchers have speculated that negative stimuli elicit a general suppression of motor activity, akin to the freezing…

  7. Science Teachers' Elicitation Practices: Insights for Formative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ateh, Comfort M.

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating teachers' instructional decisions during instruction, it is clear that the nature of their elicitation is crucial for student learning. When instructional decisions are informed by information about students' conceptual understanding, significant learning is possible. This article examined the elicitation practices of two high school…

  8. Introducing Forum Theatre to Elicit and Advocate Children's Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Eliciting and advocating the voice of the child remains at the heart of international political agenda and also remains a central role for educational psychologists (EPs). Previous research indicates that EPs tend to use language-based methods for eliciting and advocating views of children. However, these approaches are often limited. Taking a…

  9. TCR reserve: a novel principle of CD4 T cell activation by weak ligands.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Lisa K; Evavold, Brian D

    2003-02-01

    Some ligand-receptor systems have a receptor reserve where a maximal response can be achieved by occupation of a fraction of available receptors. An implication of a receptor reserve is the expansion of the number of ligands for response. To determine whether T cells follow receptor reserve, we have characterized the effect of reducing TCR levels on CD4 T cell responses elicited by altered peptide ligands that vary in potency. Agonist peptide is unaffected by a 90% reduction in TCR level while proliferation to weak agonists is significantly inhibited when TCR expression is reduced by 40%. Thymocyte-negative selection similarly demonstrates a differential requirement of TCR for response to agonist, weak agonist, and partial agonist. Therefore, our data demonstrate receptor reserve as a novel principle of T cell activation in which excess TCRs expand the antigenic repertoire to include less potent ligands.

  10. Combined biophysical and cell-based approaches for the assessment of ligand binding to PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Zorrilla, Silvia; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family are ligand-activated receptors that play key roles in lipid metabolism and inflammation. The γ isoform (PPARγ) is involved in adipocyte differentiation, insulin sensitization, and vascular pathophysiology, including inflammation and atherosclerosis, for which it is considered an important drug target. PPARγ ligands display varied structures and include fatty acids, electrophilic lipids, and certain drugs. These agonists promote conformational changes allowing interaction of PPARγ with coactivators and hence transcriptional regulation. Here we present a panoply of methods to study PPARγ interactions with ligands and activation in vitro and in cells. The first method is based on the competition of the fluorescent dye 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonic acid (ANS) with PPARγ ligands for the ligand binding pocket, allowing detection and quantification of ligand binding to PPARγ. This method is specific for PPARγ while ANS displays negligible interaction with other nuclear receptors such as PPARα and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα). The ANS competition assay has been validated through comparison of the affinities determined for well-known PPARγ ligands by this method with those reported in the literature. We also describe here gel-based competition assays that show limited performance with non-covalently bound ligands. In addition, we present a fluorescence anisotropy assay to analyze PPARγ activation by ligands in vitro through their capacity of eliciting PPARγ interaction with a fluorescently labeled peptide derived from one of its coactivators (SRC-1). Finally, we show cell-based assays to investigate PPARγ activation by interaction with its ligands. We believe that combined approaches using ANS, fluorescent coactivator peptides, and in-cell assays to monitor PPARγ binding and interactions may provide valuable strategies for the identification and characterization of PPAR

  11. Somatic and axonal LIGHT signaling elicit degenerative and regenerative responses in motoneurons, respectively

    PubMed Central

    Otsmane, Belkacem; Moumen, Anice; Aebischer, Julianne; Coque, Emmanuelle; Sar, Chamroeun; Sunyach, Claire; Salsac, Céline; Valmier, Jean; Salinas, Sara; Bowerman, Melissa; Raoul, Cédric

    2014-01-01

    A receptor–ligand interaction can evoke a broad range of biological activities in different cell types depending on receptor identity and cell type-specific post-receptor signaling intermediates. Here, we show that the TNF family member LIGHT, known to act as a death-triggering factor in motoneurons through LT-βR, can also promote axon outgrowth and branching in motoneurons through the same receptor. LIGHT-induced axonal elongation and branching require ERK and caspase-9 pathways. This distinct response involves a compartment-specific activation of LIGHT signals, with somatic activation-inducing death, while axonal stimulation promotes axon elongation and branching in motoneurons. Following peripheral nerve damage, LIGHT increases at the lesion site through expression by invading B lymphocytes, and genetic deletion of Light significantly delays functional recovery. We propose that a central and peripheral activation of the LIGHT pathway elicits different functional responses in motoneurons. PMID:24668263

  12. Melatonin: functions and ligands.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mahaveer; Jadhav, Hemant R

    2014-09-01

    Melatonin is a chronobiotic substance that acts as synchronizer by stabilizing bodily rhythms. Its synthesis occurs in various locations throughout the body, including the pineal gland, skin, lymphocytes and gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Its synthesis and secretion is controlled by light and dark conditions, whereby light decreases and darkness increases its production. Thus, melatonin is also known as the 'hormone of darkness'. Melatonin and analogs that bind to the melatonin receptors are important because of their role in the management of depression, insomnia, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease (AD), diabetes, obesity, alopecia, migraine, cancer, and immune and cardiac disorders. In this review, we discuss the mechanism of action of melatonin in these disorders, which could aid in the design of novel melatonin receptor ligands.

  13. Differentiating a Ligand's Chemical Requirements for Allosteric Interactions from Those for Protein Binding. Phenylalanine Inhibition of Pyruvate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Williams,R.; Holyoak, T.; McDonald, G.; Gui, C.; Fenton, A.

    2006-01-01

    The isoform of pyruvate kinase from brain and muscle of mammals (M1-PYK) is allosterically inhibited by phenylalanine. Initial observations in this model allosteric system indicate that Ala binds competitively with Phe, but elicits a minimal allosteric response. Thus, the allosteric ligand of this system must have requirements for eliciting an allosteric response in addition to the requirements for binding. Phe analogues have been used to dissect what chemical properties of Phe are responsible for eliciting the allosteric response. We first demonstrate that the L-2-aminopropanaldehyde substructure of the amino acid ligand is primarily responsible for binding to M1-PYK. Since the allosteric response to Ala is minimal and linear addition of methyl groups beyond the -carbon increase the magnitude of the allosteric response, we conclude that moieties beyond the -carbon are primarily responsible for allostery. Instead of an all-or-none mechanism of allostery, these findings support the idea that the bulk of the hydrophobic side chain, but not the aromatic nature, is the primary determinant of the magnitude of the observed allosteric inhibition. The use of these results to direct structural studies has resulted in a 1.65 Angstroms structure of M1-PYK with Ala bound. The coordination of Ala in the allosteric amino acid binding site confirms the binding role of the L-2-aminopropanaldehyde substructure of the ligand. Collectively, this study confirms that a ligand can have chemical regions specific for eliciting the allosteric signal in addition to the chemical regions necessary for binding.

  14. Bifunctional DTPA-type ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Gansow, O.A.; Brechbiel, M.W.

    1990-03-26

    The subject matter of the invention relates to bifunctional cyclohexyl DTPA ligands and methods of using these compounds. Specifically, such ligands are useful for radiolabeling proteins with radioactive metals, and can consequently be utilized with respect to radioimmunoimaging and/or radioimmunotherapy.

  15. Al(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sodupe, M.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structure and determine the binding energies of Al(+) to a series of ligands. For Al(+)-CN, the bonding was found to have a large covalent component. For the remaining ligands, the bonding is shown to be electrostatic in origin. The results obtained for Al(+) are compared with those previously reported for Mg(+).

  16. Weaker Ligands Can Dominate an Odor Blend due to Syntopic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Most odors in natural environments are mixtures of several compounds. Perceptually, these can blend into a new “perfume,” or some components may dominate as elements of the mixture. In order to understand such mixture interactions, it is necessary to study the events at the olfactory periphery, down to the level of single-odorant receptor cells. Does a strong ligand present at a low concentration outweigh the effect of weak ligands present at high concentrations? We used the fruit fly receptor dOr22a and a banana-like odor mixture as a model system. We show that an intermediate ligand at an intermediate concentration alone elicits the neuron’s blend response, despite the presence of both weaker ligands at higher concentration, and of better ligands at lower concentration in the mixture. Because all of these components, when given alone, elicited significant responses, this reveals specific mixture processing already at the periphery. By measuring complete dose–response curves we show that these mixture effects can be fully explained by a model of syntopic interaction at a single-receptor binding site. Our data have important implications for how odor mixtures are processed in general, and what preprocessing occurs before the information reaches the brain. PMID:23315042

  17. Similar Odorants Elicit Different Behavioral and Physiological Responses, Some Supersustained

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Shelby A.; Mathew, Dennis; Carlson, John R.

    2011-01-01

    An intriguing question in the field of olfaction is how animals distinguish among structurally similar odorants. We systematically analyzed olfactory responses elicited by a panel of 25 pyrazines. We found that structurally similar pyrazines elicit a wide range of behavioral responses from Drosophila larvae. Each pyrazine was tested against all functional receptors of the larval Odor receptor (Or) repertoire, yielding 525 odorant–receptor combinations. Different pyrazines vary markedly in the responses they elicit from the Or repertoire, with most strong responses deriving from two receptors, Or33b and Or59a. Surprisingly, 2-ethylpyrazine and 2-methylpyrazine, which elicit strikingly similar physiological responses across the receptor repertoire, elicit dramatically different behavioral responses. A small fraction of odorant-receptor combinations elicit remarkably long responses. These responses, which we term “supersustained” responses, are receptor specific and odorant specific, and can last for minutes. Such supersustained responses may prevent olfactory neurons from reporting contemporaneous information about the local odor environment. Odors that elicit such responses could provide a novel means of controlling insect pests and vectors of human disease by impairing the location of human hosts, food sources, and mates. PMID:21613503

  18. Conformational Nature of the Borrelia burgdorferi Decorin Binding Protein A Epitopes That Elicit Protective Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ulbrandt, Nancy D.; Cassatt, David R.; Patel, Nita K.; Roberts, William C.; Bachy, Christine M.; Fazenbaker, Christine A.; Hanson, Mark S.

    2001-01-01

    Decorin binding protein A (DbpA) has been shown by several laboratories to be a protective antigen for the prevention of experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection in the mouse model of Lyme borreliosis. However, different recombinant forms of the antigen having either lipidated amino termini, approximating the natural secretion and posttranslational processing, or nonprocessed cytosolic forms have elicited disparate levels of protection in the mouse model. We have now used the unique functional properties of this molecule to investigate the structural requirements needed to elicit a protective immune response. Genetic and physicochemical alterations to DbpA showed that the ability to bind to the ligand decorin is indicative of a potent immunogen but is not conclusive. By mutating the two carboxy-terminal nonconserved cysteines of DbpA from B. burgdorferi strain N40, we have determined that the stability afforded by the putative disulfide bond is essential for the generation of protective antibodies. This mutated protein was more sensitive to thermal denaturation and proteolysis, suggesting that it is in a less ordered state. Immunization with DbpA that was thermally denatured and functionally inactivated stimulated an immune response that was not protective and lacked bactericidal antibodies. Antibodies against conformationally altered forms of DbpA also failed to kill heterologous B. garinii and B. afzelii strains. Additionally, nonsecreted recombinant forms of DbpAN40 were found to be inferior to secreted lipoprotein DbpAN40 in terms of functional activity and antigenic potency. These data suggest that elicitation of a bactericidal and protective immune response to DbpA requires a properly folded conformation for the production of functional antibodies. PMID:11447153

  19. Murine germinal center B cells require functional Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 signaling for IgG1 class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Mattias N D; Andersson, Karin M E; Wasén, Caroline; Erlandsson, Malin C; Nurkkala-Karlsson, Merja; Jonsson, Ing-Marie; Brisslert, Mikael; Bemark, Mats; Bokarewa, Maria I

    2015-12-01

    Switched antibody classes are important for efficient immune responses. Aberrant antibody production to otherwise harmless antigens may result in autoimmunity. The protein kinase fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 receptor (Flt3) has an important role during early B-cell development, but the role of Flt3 in peripheral B cells has not been assessed before. Herein we describe a previously unappreciated role for Flt3 in IgG1 class-switch recombination (CSR) and production. We show that Flt3 is reexpressed on B-cell lymphoma 6(+) germinal center B cells in vivo and following LPS activation of peripheral B cells in vitro. Absence of Flt3 signaling in Flt3 ligand-deficient mice results in impaired IgG1 CSR and accumulation of IgM-secreting plasma cells. On activated B cells, Flt3 is coexpressed and functions in synergy with the common-gamma chain receptor family. B cells from Flt3 ligand-deficient mice have impaired IL-4R signaling, with reduced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 6, and demonstrate a failure to initiate CSR to IgG1 with low expression of γ1 germ-line transcripts, resulting in impaired IgG1 production. Thus, functional synergy between Flt3 and IL-4R signaling is critical for Stat-mediated regulation of sterile γ1 germ-line transcripts and CSR to IgG1.

  20. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.

    2012-10-01

    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  1. Eliciting knee jerk--a new method of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Sainju, R K; Adhikari, P; Thapa, R

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to detect the sensitivity of different methods of eliciting knee jerks and to compare the conventional methods with the newly purposed maneuver. Knee jerk (a deep tendon reflex) was elicited in 123 apparently normal population (77 males and 46 females) with three different methods (1) without applying reinforcement, (2) applying Jendrassik maneuver (strong voluntary contraction of upper limbs) and (3) using the new method of reinforcement--that is by dorsiflexion of ankle joint of the same foot voluntarily as strong as possible on which the jerk would be elicitated. The sensitivity of the method without reinforcement was found to be is 87.8%; that with Jendrassik maneuver was 93.5%, whereas the sensitivity of newly proposed maneuver was 99.2%. Results of the present study have served to demonstrate that elicitation of knee jerk with newly proposed reinforcement maneuver is the best among all three methods.

  2. Picturing Masculinities: Using Photo-elicitation in Men's Health Research.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Genevieve M; Brussoni, Mariana; Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina

    2015-10-18

    This article explores the use of photo-elicitation methods in two men's health studies. Discussed are the ways that photo-elicitation can facilitate conversation about health issues that might be otherwise challenging to access. In the first study, researchers explored 35 young men's experiences of grief following the accidental death of a male peer. In the second study, researchers describe 64 fathers' perceptions about their roles and identity with respect to child safety and risk. Photographs and accompanying narratives were analyzed and results were theorized using a masculinities framework. Discussed are the benefits of photo-elicitation, which include facilitating conversation about emotions, garnering insight into the structures and identities of masculinity in the context of men's health. Considered also are some methodological challenges amid recommendations for ensuring reflexive practices. Based on the findings it is concluded that photo-elicitation can innovatively advance qualitative research in men's health.

  3. Knowledge Elicitation: Phase 1 Final Report. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    artificial intelligence has been focused on methods for eliciting and representing expert knowledge (e.g., Newell and Simon, 1972; Schank and Abelson...methods. These issues have not yet been dealt with in a satisfactory way, either in the artificial intelligence community or by cognitive psychologists...ELICITATION 2.1 The Myth of "Mining for Nugets" of Knowledge The central question in the field of artificial intelligence, whether computers can be

  4. Paradoxical reactions elicited by diazepam in children with classic autism.

    PubMed

    Marrosu, F; Marrosu, G; Rachel, M G; Biggio, G

    1987-01-01

    Administration of diazepam (10 mg i.m.) to seven children (two girls and five boys) affected by infantile autism elicited paradoxical behavioural responses. Mainly, anxiogenic effect, unsocialized aggressive behaviour and explosive aggression were dramatically increased in comparison with the same symptoms present before and after treatment. The results show for the first time that benzodiazepines may elicit paradoxical behavioural response in autistic children. The possible involvement of an altered function at the level of GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex is discussed.

  5. Elicitation of natural language representations of uncertainty using computer technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Goeltz, R.; Travis, C.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Knowledge elicitation is an important aspect of risk analysis. Knowledge about risks must be accurately elicited from experts for use in risk assessments. Knowledge and perceptions of risks must also be accurately elicited from the public in order to intelligently perform policy analysis and develop and implement programs. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing computer technology to effectively and efficiently elicit knowledge from experts and the public. This paper discusses software developed to elicit natural language representations of uncertainty. The software is written in Common Lisp and resides on VAX Computers System and Symbolics Lisp machines. The software has three goals, to determine preferences for using natural language terms for representing uncertainty; likelihood rankings of the terms; and how likelihood estimates are combined to form new terms. The first two goals relate to providing useful results for those interested in risk communication. The third relates to providing cognitive data to further our understanding of people's decision making under uncertainty. The software is used to elicit natural language terms used to express the likelihood of various agents causing cancer in humans and cancer resulting in various maladies, and the likelihood of everyday events. 6 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Expert elicitation and the problem of detecting undeclared activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Sylvester, K. B.; Stanbro, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    Measures applicable to the detection of undeclared activities are not well established, and their effectiveness is uncertain. To detect clandestine paths, the IAEA is still developing processes and procedures. As the Agency gains experience with new measures and with integrated safeguards, dealing with such problems may become more experience-based and perhaps more closely parallel the process with current safeguards where detection probabilities for the measures to be utilized on declared paths are well characterized. Whether or not this point will be reached for undeclared and mixed paths, the only tool that appears suitable at present for the purpose of generating a reasonable detection probability that can over time be tested against reality and, if necessary, adjusted is formal expert judgment, or expert elicitation. Formal expert elicitation is a structured process that makes use of people knowledgeable in certain areas to make assessments. To provide a 'proof of principle' of this methodology for presentation to the Agency, experts in nuclear technology, nonproliferation, safeguards and open source information, as well as in formal expert elicitation processes, engaged in three illustrative expert elicitations on assessing information analysis as a means to detect undeclared activities. These elicitations were successful. This paper will discuss the process of and issues raised by the elicitations.

  7. Transforming Growth Factor-β Family Ligands Can Function as Antagonists by Competing for Type II Receptor Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Aykul, Senem; Martinez-Hackert, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family ligands are pleiotropic cytokines. Their physiological activities are not determined by a simple coupling of stimulus and response, but depend critically on context, i.e. the interplay of receptors, ligands, and regulators that form the TGF-β signal transduction system of a cell or tissue. How these different components combine to regulate signaling activities remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a ligand-mediated mechanism of signaling regulation. Based on the observation that the type II TGF-β family receptors ActRIIA, ActRIIB, and BMPRII interact with a large group of overlapping ligands at overlapping epitopes, we hypothesized high affinity ligands compete with low affinity ligands for receptor binding and signaling. We show activin A and other high affinity ligands directly inhibited signaling by the low affinity ligands BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-9. We demonstrate activin A functions as a competitive inhibitor that blocks the ligand binding epitope on type II receptors. We propose binding competition and signaling antagonism are integral functions of the TGF-β signal transduction system. These functions could help explain how activin A modulates physiological signaling during extraordinary cellular responses, such as injury and wound healing, and how activin A could elicit disease phenotypes such as cancer-related muscle wasting and fibrosis. PMID:26961869

  8. Transforming Growth Factor-β Family Ligands Can Function as Antagonists by Competing for Type II Receptor Binding.

    PubMed

    Aykul, Senem; Martinez-Hackert, Erik

    2016-05-13

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family ligands are pleiotropic cytokines. Their physiological activities are not determined by a simple coupling of stimulus and response, but depend critically on context, i.e. the interplay of receptors, ligands, and regulators that form the TGF-β signal transduction system of a cell or tissue. How these different components combine to regulate signaling activities remains poorly understood. Here, we describe a ligand-mediated mechanism of signaling regulation. Based on the observation that the type II TGF-β family receptors ActRIIA, ActRIIB, and BMPRII interact with a large group of overlapping ligands at overlapping epitopes, we hypothesized high affinity ligands compete with low affinity ligands for receptor binding and signaling. We show activin A and other high affinity ligands directly inhibited signaling by the low affinity ligands BMP-2, BMP-7, and BMP-9. We demonstrate activin A functions as a competitive inhibitor that blocks the ligand binding epitope on type II receptors. We propose binding competition and signaling antagonism are integral functions of the TGF-β signal transduction system. These functions could help explain how activin A modulates physiological signaling during extraordinary cellular responses, such as injury and wound healing, and how activin A could elicit disease phenotypes such as cancer-related muscle wasting and fibrosis. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Beta-arrestin-biased ligands at seven-transmembrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Violin, Jonathan D; Lefkowitz, Robert J

    2007-08-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs), the most common molecular targets of modern drug therapy, are critically regulated by beta-arrestins, which both inhibit classic G-protein signaling and initiate distinct beta-arrestin signaling. The interplay of G-protein and beta-arrestin signals largely determines the cellular consequences of 7TMR-targeted drugs. Until recently, a drug's efficacy for beta-arrestin recruitment was believed to be proportional to its efficacy for G-protein activities. This paradigm restricts 7TMR drug effects to a linear spectrum of responses, ranging from inhibition of all responses to stimulation of all responses. However, it is now clear that 'biased ligands' can selectively activate G-protein or beta-arrestin functions and thus elicit novel biological effects from even well-studied 7TMRs. Here, we discuss the current state of beta-arrestin-biased ligand research and the prospects for beta-arrestin bias as a therapeutic target. Consideration of ligand bias might have profound influences on the way scientists approach 7TMR-targeted drug discovery.

  10. Pseudo-Mannosylated DC-SIGN Ligands as Immunomodulants

    PubMed Central

    Berzi, Angela; Ordanini, Stefania; Joosten, Ben; Trabattoni, Daria; Cambi, Alessandra; Bernardi, Anna; Clerici, Mario

    2016-01-01

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed by DCs, mediates antigen uptake and can induce specific immune responses, depending on the ligand involved. Owing to these properties, DC-SIGN is an attracting target for approaches aimed at tailoring the immune response towards specific immunologic outcomes. A multivalent DC-SIGN ligand (Polyman26), containing at its core a fluorescent “rod-like” spacer and able to inhibit DC-SIGN mediated HIV infection in nanomolar concentration, has been recently developed by our group. We investigated the internalization pattern and the ability of Polyman26 to elicit innate immune responses. Results obtained by confocal microscopy indicate that Polyman26 is internalized by DCs via receptor- mediated endocytosis and is then routed to endolysosomal compartments, thus being presented together with MHC class II molecules, with important implications for the development of vaccines. Moreover, Polyman26 up-regulated the production of β-chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα) as well as the expression of TLR9 and CD40L. These results indicate that glycomimetic DC-SIGN ligands should be further investigated and suggest that these compounds could be used to differentially stimulate immune responses. PMID:27734954

  11. Pseudo-Mannosylated DC-SIGN Ligands as Immunomodulants.

    PubMed

    Berzi, Angela; Ordanini, Stefania; Joosten, Ben; Trabattoni, Daria; Cambi, Alessandra; Bernardi, Anna; Clerici, Mario

    2016-10-13

    DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin mainly expressed by DCs, mediates antigen uptake and can induce specific immune responses, depending on the ligand involved. Owing to these properties, DC-SIGN is an attracting target for approaches aimed at tailoring the immune response towards specific immunologic outcomes. A multivalent DC-SIGN ligand (Polyman26), containing at its core a fluorescent "rod-like" spacer and able to inhibit DC-SIGN mediated HIV infection in nanomolar concentration, has been recently developed by our group. We investigated the internalization pattern and the ability of Polyman26 to elicit innate immune responses. Results obtained by confocal microscopy indicate that Polyman26 is internalized by DCs via receptor- mediated endocytosis and is then routed to endolysosomal compartments, thus being presented together with MHC class II molecules, with important implications for the development of vaccines. Moreover, Polyman26 up-regulated the production of β-chemokines and pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and TNFα) as well as the expression of TLR9 and CD40L. These results indicate that glycomimetic DC-SIGN ligands should be further investigated and suggest that these compounds could be used to differentially stimulate immune responses.

  12. Protein ligand interaction database (PLID).

    PubMed

    Reddy, A Srinivas; Amarnath, H S Durga; Bapi, Raju S; Sastry, G Madhavi; Sastry, G Narahari

    2008-10-01

    A comprehensive database named, protein ligand interaction database (PLID), is created with 6295 ligands bound to proteins extracted from the protein data bank (PDB). This is by far the most comprehensive database of physico-chemical properties, quantum mechanical descriptors and the residues present in the active site of proteins. It is a publicly available web-based database (via the Internet) at http://203.199.182.73/gnsmmg/databases/plid/.

  13. Validity of ligand efficiency metrics.

    PubMed

    Murray, Christopher W; Erlanson, Daniel A; Hopkins, Andrew L; Keserü, György M; Leeson, Paul D; Rees, David C; Reynolds, Charles H; Richmond, Nicola J

    2014-06-12

    A recent viewpoint article (Improving the plausibility of success with inefficient metrics. ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2014, 5, 2-5) argued that the standard definition of ligand efficiency (LE) is mathematically invalid. In this viewpoint, we address this criticism and show categorically that the definition of LE is mathematically valid. LE and other metrics such as lipophilic ligand efficiency (LLE) can be useful during the multiparameter optimization challenge faced by medicinal chemists.

  14. Bioprocess optimization of furanocoumarin elicitation by medium renewal and re-elicitation: a perfusion-based approach.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Renuka; Malpathak, Nutan

    2011-03-01

    Effect of various abiotic (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid) and biotic (yeast extract, Aspergillus niger) elicitors on furanocoumarin production and in situ product removal was studied using shoot cultures of Ruta graveolens L. Elicitation by yeast extract (1% w/v) on day 15 was most effective. It led to 7.8-fold higher furanocoumarin production that was attained 24 h after elicitation and 43% of the product was released into the medium. Changes in the relative concentration of furanocoumarins produced depend on the elicitor used. Molar ratio of bergapten increased to 93% in response to yeast extract. With the perspective of developing a commercially feasible process, an approach for preserving viability of biomass and its reuse needs to be developed. For this, medium renewal strategy was investigated. Removal of the spent medium 48 h after elicitation allowed in situ product removal and proved effective in revival of cultures, allowing reuse of biomass. A week after medium renewal, the revived biomass was re-elicited and a second furanocoumarin production peak was obtained. A perfusion-based bioprocess optimization approach, employing elicitation coupled with medium renewal with subsequent re-elicitation, as a new strategy for improved furanocoumarin production, has been suggested.

  15. Temporal Changes in FLT3 ITD Regulation of Stem Cell Self Renewal and Leukemogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    known to regulate HSC self-renewal, including 413   Lin28b, Esr1, Hmga2 and Egr1 (Fig. 8C, D). Principal component analysis and 414   Euclidean ...650   Euclidean distance comparisons (by permutation testing) were performed with 651   the R software environment. Microarray data sets have been...Nguyen, H.B., Greenberg , K., Takamiya, K., Racke, F., Huso, 786   D., and Small, D. (2008). Knock-in of an internal tandem duplication mutation into

  16. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  17. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M

    2011-06-27

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects, and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions, and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well-known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms.

  18. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Ofek, Gilad; Guenaga, F. Javier; Schief, William R.; Skinner, Jeff; Baker, David; Wyatt, Richard; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-01-01

    Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transplant the 2F5 epitope into select acceptor scaffolds. The resultant “2F5-epitope scaffolds” possessed nanomolar affinity for antibody 2F5 and a range of epitope flexibilities and antigenic specificities. Crystallographic characterization of the epitope scaffold with highest affinity and antigenic discrimination confirmed good to near perfect attainment of the target conformation for the gp41 molecular graft in free and 2F5-bound states, respectively. Animals immunized with 2F5-epitope scaffolds showed levels of graft-specific immune responses that correlated with graft flexibility (p < 0.04), while antibody responses against the graft—as dissected residue-by-residue with alanine substitutions—resembled more closely those of 2F5 than sera elicited with flexible or cyclized peptides, a resemblance heightened by heterologous prime-boost. Lastly, crystal structures of a gp41 peptide in complex with monoclonal antibodies elicited by the 2F5-epitope scaffolds revealed that the elicited antibodies induce gp41 to assume its 2F5-recognized shape. Epitope scaffolds thus provide a means to elicit antibodies that recognize a predetermined target shape and sequence, even if that shape is transient in nature, and a means by which to dissect factors influencing such elicitation. PMID:20876137

  19. The Appearance of Phosphenes Elicited Using a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Nicholas C; Shivdasani, Mohit N; Perera, Thushara; Gillespie, Lisa N; McDermott, Hugh J; Ayton, Lauren N; Blamey, Peter J

    2016-09-01

    Phosphenes are the fundamental building blocks for presenting meaningful visual information to the visually impaired using a bionic eye device. The aim of this study was to characterize the size, shape, and location of phosphenes elicited using a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis. Three patients with profound vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa were implanted with a suprachoroidal electrode array, which was used to deliver charge-balanced biphasic constant-current pulses at various rates, amplitudes, and durations to produce phosphenes. Tasks assessing phosphene appearance, location, overlap, and the patients' ability to recognize phosphenes were performed using a custom psychophysics setup. Phosphenes were reliably elicited in all three patients, with marked differences in the reported appearances between patients and between electrodes. Phosphene shapes ranged from simple blobs to complex forms with multiple components in both space and time. Phosphene locations within the visual field generally corresponded to the retinotopic position of the stimulating electrodes. Overlap between phosphenes elicited from adjacent electrodes was observed with one patient, which reduced with increasing electrode separation. In a randomized recognition task, two patients correctly identified the electrode being stimulated for 57.2% and 23% of trials, respectively. Phosphenes of varying complexity were successfully elicited in all three patients, indicating that the suprachoroidal space is an efficacious site for electrically stimulating the retina. The recognition scores obtained with two patients suggest that a suprachoroidal implant can elicit phosphenes containing unique information. This information may be useful when combining phosphenes into more complex and meaningful images that provide functional vision.

  20. Cortical activity elicited by isolated vowels and diphthongs.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, A M; Alku, P; May, P J C; Mäkinen, V; Tiitinen, H

    2004-11-30

    Cortical activity underlying speech perception has been studied mostly by using isolated vowels with constant formant frequencies. Speech, however, is characterized by formant transitions whereby formant frequencies change as a function of time. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate cortical activity elicited by isolated vowels and diphthongs containing formant transitions. Ten subjects were presented with two isolated vowels /a/ and /u/ and diphthongs /au/ and /ua/. Stimulus duration was 200 ms, and the diphthongs started and ended with a 50-ms constant-formant period and included a 100-ms linear transition period. Apart from studying the auditory N100m response, we examined subsequent brain activity in a 500-ms poststimulus time window, as the transitions were expected to elicit activity also in later stages of cognitive processing. All the stimuli elicited prominent N100m responses. Thereafter, both the isolated vowels and diphthongs elicited sustained brain activity lasting up to 500 ms. The present observations indicate that identification of the speech sounds as well as changes in their identity are reflected in the auditory N100m. Notably, the stimuli appeared to elicit left-hemispheric activity resembling the N400, typically obtained by using more complicated speech stimuli such as words and sentences.

  1. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles.

    PubMed

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto

    2009-10-01

    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.05) and in the lateral gastrocnemius than in the medial gastrocnemius (5 vs. 20 out of 22 trials each; P < 0.0001). We show that leg and foot muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  2. Elicitation of distinct populations of monoclonal antibodies specific for the variable domains of monoclonal anti-fluorescein antibody 4-4-20.

    PubMed

    Weidner, K M; Denzin, L K; Kim, M L; Mallender, W D; Miklasz, S D; Voss, E W

    1993-08-01

    Armenian hamsters were immunized with non-liganded, partially liganded or affinity-labeled anti-fluorescein Mab 4-4-20. Seventeen hybridoma producing monoclonal anti-4-4-20 antibodies were characterized from chemically-mediated fusions of immune hamster lymphocytes with murine Sp2/O-Ag14 myeloma cells. Distinct populations of anti-4-4-20 monoclonal antibodies were isolated from hamsters receiving immunizations with partially liganded Mab 4-4-20 relative to those receiving affinity-labeled 4-4-20. Two of the three monoclonal antibodies produced in response to partially liganded 4-4-20 were inhibited in their interaction with 4-4-20 by fluorescyl ligand. These two clones, 1F4 and 1B7, recognized unique epitopes on the 4-4-20 molecules, as demonstrated by non-reactivity with members of the 4-4-20 idiotype family. Additionally, 1F4 and 1B7 demonstrated the ability to delay the association of fluorescein with Mab 4-4-20. The 14 characterized non-ligand-inhibitable Mabs elicited to affinity-labeled 4-4-20 were classified into four separate groups based on various binding properties with members of the 4-4-20 idiotype family and binding to resolved H- and L-chains in a western blot. Members of three of the four groups showed strong reactivity with both 04-01 Ig and 04-01 SCA, which utilizes the same L-chain as Mab 4-4-20. Six non-ligand-inhibitable Mabs, 4A6, P1E11, 3A5-1, 2C3, 2C4, and 1A4, delayed the dissociation rate of ligand from Mab 4-4-20 and mutant 4-4-20 SCA L32phe.

  3. Biologically inspired robots elicit a robust fear response in zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladu, Fabrizio; Bartolini, Tiziana; Panitz, Sarah G.; Butail, Sachit; Macrı, Simone; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the behavioral response of zebrafish to three fear-evoking stimuli. In a binary choice test, zebrafish are exposed to a live allopatric predator, a biologically-inspired robot, and a computer-animated image of the live predator. A target tracking algorithm is developed to score zebrafish behavior. Unlike computer-animated images, the robotic and live predator elicit a robust avoidance response. Importantly, the robotic stimulus elicits more consistent inter-individual responses than the live predator. Results from this effort are expected to aid in hypothesis-driven studies on zebrafish fear response, by offering a valuable approach to maximize data-throughput and minimize animal subjects.

  4. Towards Effective Elicitation of NIN-AND Tree Causal Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yang; Li, Yu; Zhu, Zoe Jingyu

    To specify a Bayes net (BN), a conditional probability table (CPT), often of an effect conditioned on its n causes, needs assessed for each node. It generally has the complexity exponential on n. Noisy-OR reduces the complexity to linear, but can only represent reinforcing causal interactions. The non-impeding noisy-AND (NIN-AND) tree is the first causal model that explicitly expresses reinforcement, undermining, and their mixture. It has linear complexity, but requires elicitation of a tree topology for types of causal interactions. We study their topology space and develop two novel techniques for more effective elicitation.

  5. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Riccardi, Demian M; Guo, Hao-Bo; Gu, Baohua; Parks, Jerry M; Summers, Anne; Miller, S; Liang, Liyuan; Smith, Jeremy C

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

  6. What are Nuclear Receptor Ligands?

    PubMed Central

    Sladek, Frances M.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a family of highly conserved transcription factors that regulate transcription in response to small lipophilic compounds. They play a role in every aspect of development, physiology and disease in humans. They are also ubiquitous in and unique to the animal kingdom suggesting that they may have played an important role in their evolution. In contrast to the classical endocrine receptors that originally defined the family, recent studies suggest that the first NRs might have been sensors of their environment, binding ligands that were external to the host organism. The purpose of this review is to provide a broad perspective on NR ligands and address the issue of exactly what constitutes a NR ligand from historical, biological and evolutionary perspectives. This discussion will lay the foundation for subsequent reviews in this issue as well as pose new questions for future investigation. PMID:20615454

  7. Molecular Recognition and Ligand Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Riccardo; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We review recent developments in our understanding of molecular recognition and ligand association, focusing on two major viewpoints: (a) studies that highlight new physical insight into the molecular recognition process and the driving forces determining thermodynamic signatures of binding and (b) recent methodological advances in applications to protein-ligand binding. In particular, we highlight the challenges posed by compensating enthalpic and entropic terms, competing solute and solvent contributions, and the relevance of complex configurational ensembles comprising multiple protein, ligand, and solvent intermediate states. As more complete physics is taken into account, computational approaches increase their ability to complement experimental measurements, by providing a microscopic, dynamic view of ensemble-averaged experimental observables. Physics-based approaches are increasingly expanding their power in pharmacology applications.

  8. Catalytic and mechanistic studies into the epoxidation of styrenes using manganese complexes of structurally similar polyamine ligands.

    PubMed

    Ilyashenko, Gennadiy; De Faveri, Giorgio; Follier, Thomas; Al-Safadi, Rawan; Motevalli, Majid; Watkinson, Michael

    2014-02-21

    Two structurally similar polyamine ligands (7 and 8) have been prepared, which differ only by the presence of either a secondary or tertiary nitrogen donor within their N5 donor set. The ligands, in combination with iron and manganese salts, have been screened for their efficacy as catalysts for the epoxidation of styrene, using both hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid as oxidants. Clear differences in activity between the two systems were observed, with 7 proving most effective in the presence of MnSO4 with H2O2, whereas ligand 8 proved to be effective with Mn(OTf)2, MnCl2 and Mn(ClO4)2 using peracetic acid as the oxidant. A Hammett analysis of the initial rate kinetics of the optimal systems, combined with analysis by UV-vis spectroscopy, indicates that the small structural differences in the ligands elicit profound changes in the nature of the active species formed.

  9. Ligand-induced Epitope Masking

    PubMed Central

    Mould, A. Paul; Askari, Janet A.; Byron, Adam; Takada, Yoshikazu; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing ligand-mimetic inhibitors of integrins are unable to dissociate pre-formed integrin-fibronectin complexes (IFCs). These observations suggested that amino acid residues involved in integrin-fibronectin binding become obscured in the ligand-occupied state. Because the epitopes of some function-blocking anti-integrin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) lie near the ligand-binding pocket, it follows that the epitopes of these mAbs may become shielded in the ligand-occupied state. Here, we tested whether function-blocking mAbs directed against α5β1 can interact with the integrin after it forms a complex with an RGD-containing fragment of fibronectin. We showed that the anti-α5 subunit mAbs JBS5, SNAKA52, 16, and P1D6 failed to disrupt IFCs and hence appeared unable to bind to the ligand-occupied state. In contrast, the allosteric anti-β1 subunit mAbs 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 could dissociate IFCs and therefore were able to interact with the ligand-bound state. However, another class of function-blocking anti-β1 mAbs, exemplified by Lia1/2, could not disrupt IFCs. This second class of mAbs was also distinguished from 13, 4B4, and AIIB2 by their ability to induce homotypic cell aggregation. Although the epitope of Lia1/2 was closely overlapping with those of 13, 4B4, and AIIB2, it appeared to lie closer to the ligand-binding pocket. A new model of the α5β1-fibronectin complex supports our hypothesis that the epitopes of mAbs that fail to bind to the ligand-occupied state lie within, or very close to, the integrin-fibronectin interface. Importantly, our findings imply that the efficacy of some therapeutic anti-integrin mAbs could be limited by epitope masking. PMID:27484800

  10. Multifunctional Ligands in Transition Metal Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    Sophisticated ligands are now being designed that do far more than just fulfil their traditional spectator roles by binding to the metal and providing a sterically-defined binding pocket for the substrate in homogeneous transition metal catalysis. This Focus review emphasizes selected cases in which ligands carry additional functional groups that change the properties of the ligand as a result of an external stimulus or undergo catalytically-relevant ligand-based reactivity. These include proton responsive ligands capable of gaining or losing one or more protons, ligands having a hydrogen bonding function, electroresponsive ligands capable of gaining or losing one or more electrons, and photoresponsive ligands capable of undergoing a useful change of properties upon irradiation. Molecular recognition ligands and proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) are briefly discussed.

  11. Novel photoaffinity ligands for the GA-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F.; Tanaka, F.S. )

    1990-05-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) exhibit GA-like activity in a range of specific bioassays and that bioactive NSPs compete with ({sup 3}H)-GA{sub 4} for soluble binding sites in cucumber homogenates. As such, these compounds may prove useful in the purification and characterization of GA receptor proteins. To this end, five azido-NSPs have been synthesized and are currently being screened for biological activity and photochemical stability. Three azido-NSPs elicit {alpha}-amylase production in barley half-seeds and stimulate tissue elongation in d{sub 5} maize, lettuce, sunflower, and soybean. Further evaluations are in progress and these data as well as the utility of these compounds as photo-affinity ligands will be discussed.

  12. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  13. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  14. NEURAL RESPONSES ELICITED BY ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF THE RETINA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shih-Jen; Mahadevappa, Manjunatha; Roizenblatt, Roberto; Weiland, James; Humayun, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Purpose To study electrically elicited responses (EERs) that are produced by epiretinal stimulation of normal and degenerated retina. Methods Three biological models of retinal degeneration are compared: normal and rd1 mouse, normal and RCD1 dog, and human with retinitis pigmentosa. In mouse, epiretinal stimulation was accomplished by means of a wire inserted in the vitreous cavity, and single-unit activity was recorded in visual cortex. In dog and human, an implantable retinal stimulator was used to stimulate the retina, and evoked potentials were recorded from the cortical surface (dog) or scalp (human). Results Analysis of EERs revealed distinct early (less than 10 ms) and late (greater than 50 ms) responses. Synaptic blockers abolished the late response but not the early response. For eliciting the early response in normal and rd mice, a square pulse stimulus was more efficient than the sine wave or pulse train. In normal and degenerate canine retina, electrically elicited responses also exhibited early and late phases. EERs in a retinal prosthesis test subject (with retinitis pigmentosa) showed latency similar to the canine, but no evidence of an early response, possibly due to the lack of sensitivity in scalp (human) vs cortical surface (canine) electrode placement. Conclusion EERs could be elicited from both normal and degenerated retina. Mouse, dog, and human EERs showed common characteristics. PMID:17471346

  15. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  16. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Karen

    2011-01-01

    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  17. Clinicians as Communication Partners: Developing a Mediated Discourse Elicitation Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hengst, Julie A.; Duff, Melissa C.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the development and piloting of a mediated discourse elicitation protocol. Grounded in situated theories of communication and informed by mediated discourse analysis, this protocol selectively samples familiar discourse types in a manner designed to preserve interactional aspects of communication. Critically, the mediated…

  18. Eliciting Design Patterns for E-Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through…

  19. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  20. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  1. Using Automatic Speech Recognition Technology with Elicited Oral Response Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Troy L.; Davies, Randall S.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the use of automatic speech recognition (ASR) scored elicited oral response (EOR) tests to assess the speaking ability of English language learners. It also examined the relationship between ASR-scored EOR and other language proficiency measures and the ability of the ASR to rate speakers without bias to gender or native…

  2. Preparing Beginning Teachers to Elicit and Interpret Students' Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleep, Laurie; Boerst, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how teacher education assignments can be designed to support beginning teachers in learning to do the work of teaching. We examined beginners' formative assessment practices--in particular, their eliciting and interpreting of students' mathematical thinking--in the context of an elementary mathematics methods assignment,…

  3. Modification of commercially available simulators to elicit decision making behavior.

    PubMed

    Salud, Jonathan; Ononye, Chiagozie; Salud, Lawrence; Pugh, Carla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, simulation training has emerged as an innovative method for decreasing error and teaching complex procedures. Simulation has also been a valuable tool for evaluating investigatory and analytic thinking. By adding a specific, clinically oriented modification to a commercially available simulator, we were able to elicit first-year emergency medicine resident perceptions, actions, and decisions.

  4. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  5. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  6. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  7. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao

    2007-10-01

    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  8. Bacterial elicitation and evasion of plant innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Abramovitch, Robert B.; Anderson, Jeffrey C.; Martin, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on plant responses to bacterial attack has identified extracellular and intracellular host receptors that recognize conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and more specialized virulence proteins, respectively. These findings have shed light on our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which bacteria elicit host defences and how pathogens have evolved to evade or suppress these defences. PMID:16936700

  9. Elicited Production of Relative Clauses in Children with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zukowski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Relative clauses have been implicated alternately as a strength and a weakness in the language of people with Williams Syndrome (WS). To clarify the facts, an elicited production test was administered to 10 people with WS (age 10-16 years), 10 typically developing children (age 4-7 years), and 12 typically developing adults. Nearly every WS…

  10. Intermediary's Information Seeking, Inquiring Minds, and Elicitation Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Mei-Mei; Liu, Ying-Hsang

    2003-01-01

    Explores how intermediaries seek information from patrons by analyzing intermediaries' elicitation utterances through three dimensions: linguistic forms, utterance purposes, and communicative functions. Reports on results of questionnaires given to patrons and intermediaries in academic and research libraries in Taiwan and investigates…

  11. Web-Based Elicitation Tasks in SLA Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoun, Dalila

    2000-01-01

    Studied second language acquisition (SLA) designed with Web-based elicitation tasks to obtain greater internal and external validity. Tested the acquisition of the properties subsumed under the verb movement parameter and the null subject parameter by English native speakers enrolled in college French. (Author/VWL)

  12. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  13. Photo-Elicitation Method Gives Voice and Reactions of Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Zoe; Woodward, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a research assignment (called "photo-elicitation") in a graduate course on the role of photography in society in which students interview people similar to the subjects in the photographs to discover how the photographs affect them. Includes material from one research project interviewing three recovering drug addicts responding to Larry…

  14. Transfer of Aversive Respondent Elicitation in Accordance with Equivalence Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valverde, Miguel Rodriguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the…

  15. A Study of the Affective Responses Elicited by Occupational Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoon, Craig G.

    1976-01-01

    The semantic differential was used to assess the properties of affect elicited by occupational stimuli. Vocationally committed men studying medicine, business, and engineering responded to a semantic differential containing occupational concepts. Results show a semantic space for all three groups composed of three orthogonal dimensions of affect…

  16. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  17. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Minoda, Haruka

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account. PMID:25197652

  18. Pattern visual evoked potentials elicited by organic electroluminescence screen.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Celso Soiti; Shinoda, Kei; Matsumoto, Harue; Funada, Hideaki; Sasaki, Kakeru; Minoda, Haruka; Iwata, Takeshi; Mizota, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED) screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs). Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA) screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan) screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years). The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT) screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  19. The Role of Elicited Verbal Imitation in Toddlers' Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Rosemary; Munro, Natalie; Baker, Elise; McGregor, Karla; Docking, Kimberley; Arciuli, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This study is about the role of elicited verbal imitation in toddler word learning. Forty-eight toddlers were taught eight nonwords linked to referents. During training, they were asked to imitate the nonwords. Naming of the referents was tested at three intervals (one minute later [uncued], five minutes, and 1-7 days later [cued]) and recognition…

  20. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  1. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  2. Photo-Elicitation Method Gives Voice and Reactions of Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, C. Zoe; Woodward, Anne-Marie

    1999-01-01

    Describes a research assignment (called "photo-elicitation") in a graduate course on the role of photography in society in which students interview people similar to the subjects in the photographs to discover how the photographs affect them. Includes material from one research project interviewing three recovering drug addicts responding to Larry…

  3. Elicitation Support Requirements of Multi-Expertise Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter-Rijpkema, Marlies; Martens, Rob; Jochems, Wim

    2005-01-01

    Tools to support knowledge elicitation are used more and more in situations where employees or students collaborate using the computer. Studies indicate that differences exist between experts and novices regarding their methods of work and reasoning. However, the commonly preferred approach tends to deal with team members as a single system with…

  4. Photo-Elicitation: Reflexivity on Method, Analysis, and Graphic Portraits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Veronica M.; Lahman, Maria K. E.

    2015-01-01

    In this methodological discussion, the authors detail and reflect on the processes of using photo-elicitation interviewing as a way to align with positive qualitative methodologies, to gain access to participant beliefs and values, and to highlight participant voices through their choices of words and visuals. A review of the literature and an…

  5. Engaging Young Children in Research through Photo Elicitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyle, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Embracing the new sociology of childhood, this paper describes a participatory research method built on a belief in the competency of young children. The paper begins with a critical review of the photo elicitation literature exploring the varied levels of children's participation. Drawing on the strengths of the previous research, a multi-step…

  6. Eliciting Students' Beliefs about Who Is Good at Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morge, Shelby P.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights a series of activities designed to elicit students' mathematics-related beliefs, particularly those related to gender. As a result of the activities, females in upper-level classes rated themselves as having less confidence than males, and viewing a movie clip was sufficient for some students to modify their descriptions of…

  7. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  8. Eliciting Student Views Using an Interview-About-Instances Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John K.; And Others

    An exposition is made of a method to elicit students' comprehension of the meaning of words commonly used in science, which may be influential in determining what they learn. The method's aim is to elucidate features in students' understanding of childrens' science (that found before formal teaching of science), student science (that found after…

  9. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  10. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong

    2014-01-01

    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  11. Kinetics of ligand binding to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Arakelyan, V B; Babayan, S Y; Tairyan, V I; Arakelyan, A V; Parsadanyan, M A; Vardevanyan, P O

    2006-02-01

    Ligand binding to nucleic acids (NA) is considered as a stationary Markov process. It is shown that the probabilistic description of ligand-NA binding allows one to describe not only the kinetics of the change of number of bound ligands at arbitrary fillings but also to calculate stationary values of the number of bound ligands and its dispersion. The general analysis of absorption isotherms and kinetics of ligand binding to NA make it possible to determine of rate constants of ligand-NA complex formation and dissociation.

  12. Multicoordinate ligands for actinide/lanthanide separations.

    PubMed

    Dam, Henk H; Reinhoudt, David N; Verboom, Willem

    2007-02-01

    In nuclear waste treatment processes there is a need for improved ligands for the separation of actinides (An(III)) and lanthanides (Ln(III)). Several research groups are involved in the design and synthesis of new An(III) ligands and in the confinement of these and existing An(III) ligands onto molecular platforms giving multicoordinate ligands. The preorganization of ligands considerably improves the An(III) extraction properties, which are largely dependent on the solubility and rigidity of the platform. This tutorial review summarizes the most important An(III) ligands with emphasis on the preorganization strategy using (macrocyclic) platforms.

  13. Single channel currents at six microsecond resolution elicited by acetylcholine in mouse myoballs

    PubMed Central

    Parzefall, Franz; Wilhelm, Robert; Heckmann, Manfred; Dudel, Josef

    1998-01-01

    A patch-clamp set-up was optimized for low noise and high time resolution. An Axoclamp 200B amplifier was modified to incorporate a Teflon connector to the electrode. An electrode puller was equipped with a hydrogen-oxygen burner to produce quartz-glass pipettes with optimally 0.2μm openings and 20 MΩ resistance.The r.m.s. (root mean square) noise of sealed pipettes in the bath ranged from 3.6 fA with 100 Hz filter cut-off to 1.5 pA with 61 kHz filter cut-off. At these extremes currents of 17 fA and more than 3 ms, or 9 pA and more than 6μs could be resolved with a negligible error rate.The system was tested on mouse myoballs, recording 9–10 pA single channel currents on-cell at −200 mV polarization which were elicited by 0.1–5000μm acetylcholine (ACh).Distributions of open and closed times and of correlations of open times to the preceding closed time defined several open states: single openings with mean durations of 1.2 and 25μs, from single-liganded receptors, and bursts of 10 ms mean duration containing on average 800μs openings and 16μs closings, from double liganded receptors. Above 0.1 mm ACh these openings are interrupted increasingly by on average 18μs and 72μs channel blocks by ACh. PMID:9729627

  14. Ligand-Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Srinivasarao, Madduri; Low, Philip S

    2017-09-12

    Safety and efficacy constitute the major criteria governing regulatory approval of any new drug. The best method to maximize safety and efficacy is to deliver a proven therapeutic agent with a targeting ligand that exhibits little affinity for healthy cells but high affinity for pathologic cells. The probability of regulatory approval can conceivably be further enhanced by exploiting the same targeting ligand, conjugated to an imaging agent, to select patients whose diseased tissues display sufficient targeted receptors for therapeutic efficacy. The focus of this Review is to summarize criteria that must be met during design of ligand-targeted drugs (LTDs) to achieve the required therapeutic potency with minimal toxicity. Because most LTDs are composed of a targeting ligand (e.g., organic molecule, aptamer, protein scaffold, or antibody), spacer, cleavable linker, and therapeutic warhead, criteria for successful design of each component will be described. Moreover, because obstacles to successful drug design can differ among human pathologies, limitations to drug delivery imposed by the unique characteristics of different diseases will be considered. With the explosion of genomic and transcriptomic data providing an ever-expanding selection of disease-specific targets, and with tools for high-throughput chemistry offering an escalating diversity of warheads, opportunities for innovating safe and effective LTDs has never been greater.

  15. An alternate binding site for PPARγ ligands

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis S.; Giri, Pankaj Kumar; de Vera, Ian Mitchelle S.; Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Shin, Youseung; Blayo, Anne-Laure; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Burris, Thomas P.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Kojetin, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    PPARγ is a target for insulin sensitizing drugs such as glitazones, which improve plasma glucose maintenance in patients with diabetes. Synthetic ligands have been designed to mimic endogenous ligand binding to a canonical ligand-binding pocket to hyperactivate PPARγ. Here we reveal that synthetic PPARγ ligands also bind to an alternate site, leading to unique receptor conformational changes that impact coregulator binding, transactivation and target gene expression. Using structure-function studies we show that alternate site binding occurs at pharmacologically relevant ligand concentrations, and is neither blocked by covalently bound synthetic antagonists nor by endogenous ligands indicating non-overlapping binding with the canonical pocket. Alternate site binding likely contributes to PPARγ hyperactivation in vivo, perhaps explaining why PPARγ full and partial or weak agonists display similar adverse effects. These findings expand our understanding of PPARγ activation by ligands and suggest that allosteric modulators could be designed to fine tune PPARγ activity without competing with endogenous ligands. PMID:24705063

  16. Nonlinear Analyses of Elicited Modal, Raised, and Pressed Rabbit Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Awan, Shaheen N.; Novaleski, Carolyn K.; Rousseau, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to use nonlinear dynamic analysis methods such as phase space portraits and correlation dimension (D2) as well as descriptive spectrographic analyses to characterize acoustic signals produced during evoked rabbit phonation. Methods Seventeen New Zealand white breeder rabbits were used to perform the study. A Grass S-88 stimulator (SA Instrumentation, Encinitas, CA) and constant current isolation unit (Grass Telefactor, model PSIU6; West Warwick, RI) were used to provide electrical stimulation to laryngeal musculature, and transglottal airflow rate and stimulation current (mA) were manipulated to elicit modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations. Central 1 second portions of the most stable portion of the acoustic waveform for modal, raised intensity, and pressed phonations were edited, and then analyzed via phase space portraits, Poincaré sections, and the estimation of the correlation dimension (D2). In an attempt to limit the effects of the highly variable and nonstationary characteristics of some of the signals being analyzed, D2 analysis was also performed on the most stable central 200 ms portion of the acoustic waveform. Descriptive analysis of each phonation was also conducted using sound spectrograms. Results Results showed that the complexity of phonation and the subsequent acoustic waveform is increased as transglottal airflow rate and degree of glottal adduction is manipulated in the evoked rabbit phonation model. In particular, phonatory complexity, as quantified via correlation dimension analyses and demonstrated via spectrographic characteristics, increases from “modal” (i.e., phonation elicited at just above the phonation threshold pressure) to raised intensity (phonation elicited by increasing transglottal airflow rate) to pressed (phonation elicited by increasing the stimulation current delivered to the larynx). Variations in a single dynamic dimension (airflow rate or adductory force

  17. Glyconanomaterials: Synthesis, Characterization, and Ligand Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Glyconanomaterials, nanomaterials carrying surface-tethered carbohydrate ligands, have emerged and demonstrated increasing potential in biomedical imaging, therapeutics, and diagnostics. These materials combine the unique properties of nanometer-scale objects with the ability to present multiple copies of carbohydrate ligands, greatly enhancing the weak affinity of individual ligands to their binding partners. Critical to the performance of glyconanomaterials is the proper display of carbohydrate ligands, taking into consideration of the coupling chemistry, the type and length of the spacer linkage, and the ligand density. This article provides an overview of the coupling chemistry for attaching carbohydrate ligands to nanomaterials, and discusses the need for thorough characterization of glyconanomaterials, especially quantitative analyses of the ligand density and binding affinities. Using glyconanoparticles synthesized by a versatile photocoupling chemistry, methods for determining the ligand density by colorimetry and the binding affinity with lectins by a fluorescence competition assay are determined. The results show that the multivalent presentation of carbohydrate ligands significantly enhances the binding affinity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the free ligands in solution. The effect is sizeable even at low surface ligand density. The type and length of the spacer linkage also affect the binding affinity, with the longer linkage promoting the association of bound ligands with the corresponding lectins. PMID:20301131

  18. Glyconanomaterials: synthesis, characterization, and ligand presentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-05-04

    Glyconanomaterials, nanomaterials carrying surface-tethered carbohydrate ligands, have emerged and demonstrated increasing potential in biomedical imaging, therapeutics, and diagnostics. These materials combine the unique properties of nanometer-scale objects with the ability to present multiple copies of carbohydrate ligands, greatly enhancing the weak affinity of individual ligands to their binding partners. Critical to the performance of glyconanomaterials is the proper display of carbohydrate ligands, taking into consideration of the coupling chemistry, the type and length of the spacer linkage, and the ligand density. This article provides an overview of the coupling chemistry for attaching carbohydrate ligands to nanomaterials, and discusses the need for thorough characterization of glyconanomaterials, especially quantitative analyses of the ligand density and binding affinities. Using glyconanoparticles synthesized by a versatile photocoupling chemistry, methods for determining the ligand density by colorimetry and the binding affinity with lectins by a fluorescence competition assay are determined. The results show that the multivalent presentation of carbohydrate ligands significantly enhances the binding affinity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the free ligands in solution. The effect is sizeable even at low surface ligand density. The type and length of the spacer linkage also affect the binding affinity, with the longer linkage promoting the association of bound ligands with the corresponding lectins.

  19. Identification of the potent phytoestrogen glycinol in elicited soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Tilghman, Syreeta L; Elliott, Steven; Zimmerman, M Carla; Williams, K Y; Payton-Stewart, Florastina; Miraflor, Allen P; Howell, Melanie H; Shih, Betty Y; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Segar, Chris; Beckman, Barbara S; Wiese, Thomas E; Cleveland, Thomas E; McLachlan, John A; Burow, Matthew E

    2009-05-01

    The primary induced isoflavones in soybean, the glyceollins, have been shown to be potent estrogen antagonists in vitro and in vivo. The discovery of the glyceollins' ability to inhibit cancer cell proliferation has led to the analysis of estrogenic activities of other induced isoflavones. In this study, we investigated a novel isoflavone, glycinol, a precursor to glyceollin that is produced in elicited soy. Sensitive and specific in vitro bioassays were used to determine that glycinol exhibits potent estrogenic activity. Estrogen-based reporter assays were performed, and glycinol displayed a marked estrogenic effect on estrogen receptor (ER) signaling between 1 and 10 microM, which correlated with comparable colony formation of MCF-7 cells at 10 microM. Glycinol also induced the expression of estrogen-responsive genes (progesterone receptor and stromal-cell-derived factor-1). Competitive binding assays revealed a high affinity of glycinol for both ER alpha (IC(50) = 13.8 nM) and ER beta (IC(50) = 9.1 nM). In addition, ligand receptor modeling (docking) studies were performed and glycinol was shown to bind similarly to both ER alpha and ER beta. Taken together, these results suggest for the first time that glycinol is estrogenic and may represent an important component of the health effects of soy-based foods.

  20. Eliciting hyperacute xenograft response to treat human cancer: alpha(1,3) galactosyltransferase gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Link, C J; Seregina, T; Atchison, R; Hall, A; Muldoon, R; Levy, J P

    1998-01-01

    Xenograft hyperacute rejection in humans occurs as a secondary response to a cellular glycosylation incompatibility with most non-human mammalian species. A key component of hyperacute rejection, alpha(1,3)galactosyl (agal) epitopes present on the surface of most non-human mammal cells, is bound by host anti-agal IgG antibodies leading to the activation of complement and, cellular lysis (1). The enzyme causing specific glycosylation patterns, alpha(1,3)galactosyltransferase [alpha(1,3)GT], directs the addition of agal to N-acetyl glucosamine residues in the trans Golgi apparatus in most mammalian species including Mus musculus, but not old world primates, apes or humans. In this report, we cloned both a truncated and full length murine alpha(1,3)GT gene into a retroviral vector backbone in order to transfer alpha(1,3)galactosyl epitopes into human A375 melanoma cells. Expression of agal epitopes on A375 cells after alpha(1,3)GT gene transfer was demonstrated using FITC-labeled ligand and FACS analysis. These cells were exposed to human serum for 30 minutes and > 90% of the agal expressing cells were killed by this treatment. These pretreated cells failed to establish tumors after implantation into athymic nude mice. This is the first report of retroviral vector transfer of the alpha(1,3)GT gene into human tumor cells in an attempt to elicit hyperacute rejection as a novel anti-cancer gene therapy strategy.

  1. The Membrane-anchoring Domain of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Dictates Their Ability to Operate in Juxtacrine Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jianying; Opresko, Lee; Chrisler, William B.; Orr, Galya; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Wiley, H S.

    2005-06-01

    All ligands of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors. Previous work has suggested that some ligands, such as EGF, must be proteolytically released to be active, whereas others, such as heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) can function while still anchored to the membrane (i.e., juxtacrine signaling). To explore the structural basis for these differences in ligand activity, we engineered a series of membrane-anchored ligands in which the core, receptor-binding domain of EGF was combined with different domains of both EGF and HB-EGF. We found that ligands having the N-terminal extension of EGF could not bind to the EGFR, even when released from the membrane. Ligands lacking an N-terminal extension, but possessing the membrane-anchoring domain of EGF still required proteolytic release for activity, whereas ligands with the membrane anchoring domain of HB-EGF could elicit full biological activity while still membrane anchored. Ligands containing the HB-EGF membrane anchor, but lacking an N-terminal extension, activated EGFR during their transit through the Golgi apparatus . However, cell-mixing experiments and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies showed that juxtacrine signaling typically occurred in trans at the cell surface, at points of cell-cell contact. Our data suggest that the membrane-anchoring domain of ligands selectively controls their ability to participate in juxtacrine signaling and thus, only a subclass of EGFR ligands can act in a juxtacrine mode.

  2. Local and global ligand-induced changes in the structure of the GABA(A) receptor.

    PubMed

    Muroi, Yukiko; Czajkowski, Cynthia; Jackson, Meyer B

    2006-06-13

    Ligand-gated channels mediate synaptic transmission through conformational transitions triggered by the binding of neurotransmitters. These transitions are well-defined in terms of ion conductance, but their structural basis is poorly understood. To probe these changes in structure, GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and labeled at selected sites with environment-sensitive fluorophores. With labels at two different residues in the alpha1 subunit in loop E of the GABA-binding pocket, GABA elicited fluorescence changes opposite in sign. This pattern of fluorescence changes is consistent with a closure of the GABA-binding cavity at the subunit interface. The competitive antagonist SR-95531 inverted this pattern of fluorescence change, but the noncompetitive antagonist picrotoxin failed to elicit optical signals. In response to GABA (but not SR-95531), labels at the homologous residues in the beta2 subunit showed the same pattern of fluorescence change as the alpha1-subunit labels, indicating a global transition with comparable movements in homologous regions of different subunits. Incorporation of the gamma2 subunit altered the fluorescence changes of alpha1-subunit labels and eliminated them in beta2-subunit labels. Thus, the ligand-induced structural changes in the GABA(A) receptor can extend over considerable distances or remain highly localized, depending upon subunit composition and ligand.

  3. Emotional scenes and facial expressions elicit different psychophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Georg W; Adolph, Dirk; Pauli, Paul

    2011-06-01

    We examined if emotional faces elicit physiological responses similar to pictures of emotional scenes. Forty one students viewed emotional scenes (negative, neutral, and positive) and emotional faces (angry, neutral, and happy). Heart rate, orbicularis oculi and electrodermal activity were measured continuously, and the startle reflex was elicited. Although the patterns of valence and arousal ratings were comparable, physiological response patterns differed. For scenes we replicated the valence-specific modulation of the startle response, heart rate deceleration, and the arousal-related modulation of the electrodermal response. In contrast, for faces we found valence-specific modulation only for the electrodermal response, but the startle and heart rate deceleration were modulated by arousal. Although arousal differences may account for some differences in physiological responding this shows that not all emotional material that is decoded similarly leads to the same psychophysiological output. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simplified Expert Elicitation Procedure for Risk Assessment of Operating Events

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; David Gertman; Jeffrey Joe; Julie Marble; William Galyean; Larry Blackwood; Harold Blackman

    2005-06-01

    This report describes a simplified, tractable, and usable procedure within the US Nuclear Regulator Commission (NRC) for seeking expert opinion and judgment. The NRC has increased efforts to document the reliability and risk of nuclear power plants (NPPs) through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) models. The Significance Determination Process (SDP) and Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) programs at the NRC utilize expert judgment on the probability of failure, human error, and the operability of equipment in cases where otherwise insufficient operational data exist to make meaningful estimates. In the past, the SDP and ASP programs informally sought the opinion of experts inside and outside the NRC. This document represents a formal, documented procedure to take the place of informal expert elicitation. The procedures outlined in this report follow existing formal expert elicitation methodologies, but are streamlined as appropriate to the degree of accuracy required and the schedule for producing SDP and ASP analyses.

  5. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  6. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency.

    PubMed

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Van den Bergh, Omer; Beckers, Tom

    2008-10-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. This automatic approach tendency, moreover, seemed to be sensitive to manipulations of extinction and renewal in the Pavlovian conditioning procedure. These findings corroborate and extend previous reports of automatic approach tendencies elicited by substance-relevant cues in addiction, while controlling for alternative accounts for such observations. Moreover, our data lend support to and extend learning models of cue-induced craving and addiction. Finally, we argue that the procedure we present here provides an ecologically valid behavioural tool that allows studying processes involved in cue-induced craving, addiction and relapse without relying on verbal report.

  7. Voltage transients elicited by sudden step-up of auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    It is hypothesized (i) that the molecular mechanism for the reception of friction and flexure and the mechanism by which auxin enhances ethylene production have in common a release of free calcium into the cytosol, (ii) that elevated cytosolic calcium initiates vesicle exocytosis, and (iii) that the vesicles release a factor or set of factors which depolarizes the plasmalemma and promotes ethylene synthesis. One consequence of such exocytosis should be small, extracellularly observable voltage transients. Transients, ranging in size up to 600 microvolts and possessing risetimes (10-90%) of approximately 200 ms, are known to be elicited in etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. by friction and are here shown to be elicited by sudden increase of auxin concentration and also by a Ca2+ ionophore.

  8. Elicitation of specific syntactic structures in primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Deleon, Jessica; Gesierich, Benno; Besbris, Max; Ogar, Jennifer; Henry, Maya L; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Wilson, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    Many patients with primary progressive aphasia (PPA) are impaired in syntactic production. Because most previous studies of expressive syntax in PPA have relied on quantitative analysis of connected speech samples, which is a relatively unconstrained task, it is not well understood which specific syntactic structures are most challenging for these patients. We used an elicited syntactic production task to identify which syntactic structures pose difficulties for 31 patients with three variants of PPA: non-fluent/agrammatic, semantic and logopenic. Neurodegenerative and healthy age-matched participants were included as controls. As expected, non-fluent/agrammatic patients made the most syntactic errors. The structures that resulted in the most errors were constructions involving third person singular present agreement, and constructions involving embedded clauses. Deficits on this elicited production task were associated with atrophy of the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus.

  9. Eliciting probabilistic expectations: Collaborations between psychologists and economists

    PubMed Central

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi

    2017-01-01

    We describe two collaborations in which psychologists and economists provided essential support on foundational projects in major research programs. One project involved eliciting adolescents’ expectations regarding significant future life events affecting their psychological and economic development. The second project involved eliciting consumers’ expectations regarding inflation, a potentially vital input to their investment, saving, and purchasing decisions. In each project, we sought questions with the precision needed for economic modeling and the simplicity needed for lay respondents. We identify four conditions that, we believe, promoted our ability to sustain these transdisciplinary collaborations and coproduce the research: (i) having a shared research goal, which neither discipline could achieve on its own; (ii) finding common ground in shared methodology, which met each discipline’s essential evidentiary conditions, but without insisting on its culturally acquired tastes; (iii) sharing the effort throughout, with common language and sense of ownership; and (iv) gaining mutual benefit from both the research process and its products. PMID:28270610

  10. Modified repetition in poems elicited from young children.

    PubMed

    Dowker, A D

    1991-10-01

    Attempts were made to elicit poems from 133 children between the ages of 2;3 and 6;11. Seventy-eight of the children produced 606 poems between them. Forty-five per cent of the poems contained the syntactic device of modified repetition: a substitution exercise where a grammatical frame is repeated and the substitution occurs in part of the grammatical frame. This was so despite the fact that modified repetition was not present in the examples that were used to elicit poems from the children. The frequency and types of modified repetition used by the children did not vary much with age. The question of whether children's use of modified repetition in their rhythmical poems has the function of helping them to practise grammatical forms, or whether it is simply one reflection of a general human tendency towards the use of pattern in language, is discussed.

  11. Elicitation of Diacetylenic Compounds in Suspension Cultured Cells of Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Imoto, Setsuko; Ohta, Yoshimoto

    1988-01-01

    Induction of stress metabolites in the suspension cultured cells of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) was examined. When autoclaved RNase A or nigeran, both of which are nonspecific phytoalexin elicitors in bean cells, were added to the cell culture of eggplant, greatly enhanced levels of three compounds were observed. One of them was cis-pentadeca-6-ene-1,3-diyne-5,15-diol, a novel diacetylenic compound. This compound has considerable fungitoxic activity. Also identified was falcarindiol, another fungitoxic diacetylenic compound previously reported as one of the phytoalexins in infected tomato fruits and leaves. Elicited compounds preferentially accumulated in the culture medium rather than in the cells and decreased to original levels during prolonged culturing. The elicitation of these compounds was closely correlated with cellular damage in terms of the decrease of growth rate and was inhibited by 10 micromolar cycloheximide. PMID:16665862

  12. The Frame Constraint on Experimentally Elicited Speech Errors in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Akie; Inoue, Tomoyoshi

    2017-06-01

    The so-called syllable position effect in speech errors has been interpreted as reflecting constraints posed by the frame structure of a given language, which is separately operating from linguistic content during speech production. The effect refers to the phenomenon that when a speech error occurs, replaced and replacing sounds tend to be in the same position within a syllable or word. Most of the evidence for the effect comes from analyses of naturally occurring speech errors in Indo-European languages, and there are few studies examining the effect in experimentally elicited speech errors and in other languages. This study examined whether experimentally elicited sound errors in Japanese exhibits the syllable position effect. In Japanese, the sub-syllabic unit known as "mora" is considered to be a basic sound unit in production. Results showed that the syllable position effect occurred in mora errors, suggesting that the frame constrains the ordering of sounds during speech production.

  13. AMORE; The Advanced Multimedia Organizer for Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    forth. Because large-scale systems may contain many thousands of requirements, it is necessary to provide some type of structural principles for...AMORE, it provides the tools necessary to: •Capture and preserve knowledge about the requirements elicitation process. • Teach useful skills that the...Tutor was based upon the principles of traditional instructional design and the orga- nization of lessons with prerequisite skills and objectives. A

  14. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Marc W.

    2013-01-01

    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  15. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  16. Ligand chain length conveys thermochromism.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mainak; Panigrahi, Sudipa; Chandrakumar, K R S; Sasmal, Anup Kumar; Pal, Anjali; Pal, Tarasankar

    2014-08-14

    Thermochromic properties of a series of non-ionic copper compounds have been reported. Herein, we demonstrate that Cu(II) ion with straight-chain primary amine (A) and alpha-linolenic (fatty acid, AL) co-jointly exhibit thermochromic properties. In the current case, we determined that thermochromism becomes ligand chain length-dependent and at least one of the ligands (A or AL) must be long chain. Thermochromism is attributed to a balanced competition between the fatty acids and amines for the copper(II) centre. The structure-property relationship of the non-ionic copper compounds Cu(AL)2(A)2 has been substantiated by various physical measurements along with detailed theoretical studies based on time-dependent density functional theory. It is presumed from our results that the compound would be a useful material for temperature-sensor applications.

  17. Shared bimanual tasks elicit bimanual reflexes during movement.

    PubMed

    Mutha, Pratik K; Sainburg, Robert L

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested distinct predictive and reactive control mechanisms for bimanual movements compared with unimanual motion. Recent studies have extended these findings by demonstrating that movement corrections during bimanual movements might differ depending on whether or not the task is shared between the arms. We hypothesized that corrective responses during shared bimanual tasks recruit bilateral rapid feedback mechanisms such as reflexes. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing one arm as subjects performed uni- and bimanual movements. Movements were made in a virtual-reality environment in which hand position was displayed as a cursor on a screen. During bimanual motion, we provided cursor feedback either independently for each arm (independent-cursor) or such that one cursor was placed at the average location between the arms (shared-cursor). On random trials, we applied a 40 N force pulse to the right arm 100 ms after movement onset. Our results show that while reflex responses were rapidly elicited in the perturbed arm, electromyographic activity remained close to baseline levels in the unperturbed arm during the independent-cursor trials. In contrast, when the cursor was shared between the arms, reflex responses were reduced in the perturbed arm and were rapidly elicited in the unperturbed arm. Our results thus suggest that when both arms contribute to achieving the task goal, reflex responses are bilaterally elicited in response to unilateral perturbations. These results agree with and extend recent suggestions that bimanual feedback control might be modified depending on task context.

  18. Elicited versus emitted behavior: Time to abandon the distinction.

    PubMed

    Domjan, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The concept of emitted behavior was formulated as a part of the original argument for the validity of a new kind of learning called operant conditioning. The rationale for operant conditioning contrasted it with Pavlovian or classical conditioning, which was (and remains) fundamentally based on responses to conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. Classical conditioned responses were said to be elicited. In contrast, operant behavior was viewed as emitted and controlled primarily by response consequences rather than antecedents. I argue that the distinction between emitted and elicited behavior is no longer warranted for three major reasons. First, the distinction was based on a view of Pavlovian conditioning that is no longer viable. Second, the distinction is incompatible with both empirical data and contemporary conceptualizations of operant behavior. Third, the only way to overcome these problems is to define emitted and elicited in terms of the type of conditioning (operant and classical) that produces these behaviors, but that approach makes the definitions circular and does not avoid implications of the terms that are misleading and counterproductive in light of contemporary research and thinking.

  19. Conditioned cues for smoking elicit preparatory responses in healthy smokers

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Markus H.; Weyers, Peter; Mucha, Ronald F.; Stippekohl, Bastian; Stark, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Smoking cues are theorized to be conditioned stimuli (CSs) formed by repeated pairing with drug. Smoking paraphernalia can elicit subjective and physiological responses in smokers, indicative of positive affect and motivation to consume. Although these responses are probably the result of conditioning, direct evidence from human conditioning studies with physiological measures of motivational valence is rare. Objective The present study investigated the motivational properties of experimentally conditioned cues for smoking. Methods Thirty-nine smokers completed a differential conditioning protocol. Abstract pictures were used as CSs and single puffs on a cigarette as unconditioned stimulus (US). Skin conductance responses and facial electromyography of the zygomatic, corrugator, and orbicularis oris muscles were measured during conditioning. Results The conditioned cue for smoking (CS+) elicited stronger skin conductance responses and more activity of the zygomatic and orbicularis oris muscles than the CS−. Conclusions These results support the notion that through pairing with smoking, neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit preparatory physiological responses, which are assumed to play an important role in the maintenance of addiction and relapse in the natural environment. PMID:20953588

  20. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors. PMID:28232801

  1. Elicitation of andrographolide in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Suryakala; Rao, Kiranmayee; Chodisetti, Bhuvaneswari; Giri, Archana

    2012-12-01

    Andrographis paniculata belonging to the family Acanthaceae produces a group of diterpene lactones, one of which is the pharmaceutically important-andrographolide. It is known to possess various important biological properties like anticancer, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, etc. This is the first report on the production of andrographolide in the cell suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata by 'elicitation'. Elicitation was attempted to enhance the andrographolide content in the suspension cultures of Andrographis paniculata and also to ascertain its stimulation under stress conditions or in response to pathogen attack. The maximum andrographolide production was found to be 1.53 mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) at the end of stationary phase during the growth curve. The biotic elicitors (yeast, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium rhizogenes 532 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens C 58) were more effective in eliciting the response when compared to the abiotic elicitors (CdCl(2), AgNO(3), CuCl(2) and HgCl(2)). Yeast has shown to stimulate maximum accumulation of 13.5 mg/g DCW andrographolide, which was found to be 8.82-fold higher than the untreated cultures.

  2. Physiological responses induced by emotion-eliciting films.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Cristina; Pascual, Juan C; Soler, Joaquim; Elices, Matilde; Portella, Maria J; Fernández-Abascal, Enrique

    2012-06-01

    Emotion-eliciting films are commonly used to evoke subjective emotional responses in experimental settings. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether a set of film clips with discrete emotions were capable to elicit measurable objective physiological responses. The convergence between subjective and objective measures was evaluated. Finally, the effect of gender on emotional responses was investigated. A sample of 123 subjects participated in the study. Individuals were asked to view a set of emotional film clips capable to induce seven emotions: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, amusement, tenderness and neutral state. Skin conductance level (SCL), heart rate (HR) and subjective emotional responses were measured for each film clip. In comparison with neutral films, SCL was significantly increased after viewing fear films, and HR was also significantly incremented for anger and fear films. Physiological variations were associated with arousal measures indicating a convergence between subjective and objective reactions. Women appeared to display significantly greater SCL and HR responses for films inducing sadness. The findings suggest that physiological activation would be more easily induced by emotion-eliciting films that tap into emotions with higher subjective arousal such as anger and fear.

  3. Elicitation of macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of channel catfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, J.A.; Klesius, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four chemicals were evaluated for elicitation of macrophages in peritoneal cavities of 250-300g healthy channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Cellular exudates were collected at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 d following intraperitoneal injections with squalene, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), goat serum, thioglycollate, or as a control, phosphate-buffered saline. Injection with either squalene or FIA induced significantly greater (P ??? 0.0001) macrophage recruitment than the other chemicals. The effectiveness of squalene and FIA was compared further by macrophage collection daily for 7 d. Squalene and FIA elicited similarly high macrophage responses (P ??? 0.0450), the highest being 3.43 x 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 2.4 x l06) at 99% purity at day 2 and 2.1 X 106 macrophages/mL (SE, 0.7 x 106) at day 14 at 80% purity, respectively. In both experiments, the time after injection was not statistically significant, nor was there an interaction between time and chemicals. The occurrence of cells other than macrophages decreased with time to yield macrophage recoveries of 47-99% for squalene and 30-80% for FIA. Two subsets of macrophages were observed by means of flow cytometry. As demonstrated by chemiluminescence, the squalene-elicited cells produced high-energy oxygen compounds important to the phagocytic process.

  4. Presentation of Ligands on Hydroxylapatite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Barbara C. F.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1997-01-01

    Conjugates of biotin with the decamer of glutamic acid (glu(sub 10)) and the trimer of D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (I) have been synthesized, and it has been shown that they mediate the binding of avidin to hydroxylapatite. In a similar way a conjugate of methotrexate with glu(sub 10) mediates the binding of dihydrofolate reductase to the mineral. The presentation of ligands on the hydroxylapatite component of bone may find applications in clinical medicine.

  5. Mg(+)-ligand binding energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to optimize the structures and determine the binding energies of Mg(+) to a series of ligands. Mg(+) bonds electrostatically with benzene, acetone, H2, CO, and NH3 and a self-consistent-field treatment gives a good description of the bonding. The bonding in MgCN(+) and MgCH3(+) is largely covalent and a correlated treatment is required.

  6. Bifunctional crosslinking ligands for transthyretin

    PubMed Central

    Mangione, P. Patrizia; Deroo, Stéphanie; Ellmerich, Stephan; Bellotti, Vittorio; Kolstoe, Simon; Wood, Stephen P.; Robinson, Carol V.; Smith, Martin D.; Tennent, Glenys A.; Broadbridge, Robert J.; Council, Claire E.; Thurston, Joanne R.; Steadman, Victoria A.; Vong, Antonio K.; Swain, Christopher J.; Pepys, Mark B.; Taylor, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    Wild-type and variant forms of transthyretin (TTR), a normal plasma protein, are amyloidogenic and can be deposited in the tissues as amyloid fibrils causing acquired and hereditary systemic TTR amyloidosis, a debilitating and usually fatal disease. Reduction in the abundance of amyloid fibril precursor proteins arrests amyloid deposition and halts disease progression in all forms of amyloidosis including TTR type. Our previous demonstration that circulating serum amyloid P component (SAP) is efficiently depleted by administration of a specific small molecule ligand compound, that non-covalently crosslinks pairs of SAP molecules, suggested that TTR may be also amenable to this approach. We first confirmed that chemically crosslinked human TTR is rapidly cleared from the circulation in mice. In order to crosslink pairs of TTR molecules, promote their accelerated clearance and thus therapeutically deplete plasma TTR, we prepared a range of bivalent specific ligands for the thyroxine binding sites of TTR. Non-covalently bound human TTR–ligand complexes were formed that were stable in vitro and in vivo, but they were not cleared from the plasma of mice in vivo more rapidly than native uncomplexed TTR. Therapeutic depletion of circulating TTR will require additional mechanisms. PMID:26400472

  7. Tumor Targeting via Integrin Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Marelli, Udaya Kiran; Rechenmacher, Florian; Sobahi, Tariq Rashad Ali; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Kessler, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Selective and targeted delivery of drugs to tumors is a major challenge for an effective cancer therapy and also to overcome the side-effects associated with current treatments. Overexpression of various receptors on tumor cells is a characteristic structural and biochemical aspect of tumors and distinguishes them from physiologically normal cells. This abnormal feature is therefore suitable for selectively directing anticancer molecules to tumors by using ligands that can preferentially recognize such receptors. Several subtypes of integrin receptors that are crucial for cell adhesion, cell signaling, cell viability, and motility have been shown to have an upregulated expression on cancer cells. Thus, ligands that recognize specific integrin subtypes represent excellent candidates to be conjugated to drugs or drug carrier systems and be targeted to tumors. In this regard, integrins recognizing the RGD cell adhesive sequence have been extensively targeted for tumor-specific drug delivery. Here we review key recent examples on the presentation of RGD-based integrin ligands by means of distinct drug-delivery systems, and discuss the prospects of such therapies to specifically target tumor cells. PMID:24010121

  8. Tools for ligand validation in Coot

    PubMed Central

    Emsley, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Coot is a molecular-graphics program primarily aimed at model building using X-ray data. Recently, tools for the manipulation and representation of ligands have been introduced. Here, these new tools for ligand validation and comparison are described. Ligands in the wwPDB have been scored by density-fit, distortion and atom-clash metrics. The distributions of these scores can be used to assess the relative merits of the particular ligand in the protein–ligand complex of interest by means of ‘sliders’ akin to those now available for each accession code on the wwPDB websites. PMID:28291755

  9. Ligand identification using electron-density mapcorrelations

    SciTech Connect

    Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Adams, Paul D.; Moriarty, Nigel W.; Cohn,Judith D.

    2006-12-01

    A procedure for the identification of ligands bound incrystal structuresof macromolecules is described. Two characteristics ofthe density corresponding to a ligand are used in the identificationprocedure. One is the correlation of the ligand density with each of aset of test ligands after optimization of the fit of that ligand to thedensity. The other is the correlation of a fingerprint of the densitywith the fingerprint of model density for each possible ligand. Thefingerprints consist of an ordered list of correlations of each the testligands with the density. The two characteristics are scored using aZ-score approach in which the correlations are normalized to the mean andstandard deviation of correlations found for a variety of mismatchedligand-density pairs, so that the Z scores are related to the probabilityof observing a particular value of the correlation by chance. Theprocedure was tested with a set of 200 of the most commonly found ligandsin the Protein Data Bank, collectively representing 57 percent of allligands in the Protein Data Bank. Using a combination of these twocharacteristics of ligand density, ranked lists of ligand identificationswere made for representative (F-o-F-c) exp(i phi(c)) difference densityfrom entries in the Protein Data Bank. In 48 percent of the 200 cases,the correct ligand was at the top of the ranked list of ligands. Thisapproach may be useful in identification of unknown ligands in newmacromolecular structures as well as in the identification of whichligands in a mixture have bound to a macromolecule.

  10. Molecular recognition of agonist ligands by RXRs.

    PubMed

    Egea, Pascal F; Mitschler, André; Moras, Dino

    2002-05-01

    The nuclear receptor RXR is an obligate partner in many signal transduction pathways. We report the high-resolution structures of two complexes of the human RXRalpha ligand-binding domain specifically bound to two different and chemically unrelated agonist compounds: docosa hexaenoic acid, a natural derivative of eicosanoic acid, present in mammalian cells and recently identified as a potential endogenous RXR ligand in the mouse brain, and the synthetic ligand BMS 649. In both structures the RXR-ligand-binding domain forms homodimers and exhibits the active conformation previously observed with 9-cis-RA. Analysis of the differences in ligand-protein contacts (predominantly van der Waals forces) and binding cavity geometries and volumes for the several agonist-bound RXR structures clarifies the structural features important for ligand recognition. The L-shaped ligand-binding pocket adapts to the diverse ligands, especially at the level of residue N306, which might thus constitute a new target for drug-design. Despite its highest affinity 9-cis-RA displays the lowest number of ligand-protein contacts. These structural results support the idea that docosa hexaenoic acid and related fatty acids could be natural agonists of RXRs and question the real nature of the endogenous ligand(s) in mammalian cells.

  11. NKG2D ligands as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Paul; Wu, Ming-Ru; Sentman, Marie-Louise; Sentman, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    The Natural Killer Group 2D (NKG2D) receptor plays an important role in protecting the host from infections and cancer. By recognizing ligands induced on infected or tumor cells, NKG2D modulates lymphocyte activation and promotes immunity to eliminate ligand-expressing cells. Because these ligands are not widely expressed on healthy adult tissue, NKG2D ligands may present a useful target for immunotherapeutic approaches in cancer. Novel therapies targeting NKG2D ligands for the treatment of cancer have shown preclinical success and are poised to enter into clinical trials. In this review, the NKG2D receptor and its ligands are discussed in the context of cancer, infection, and autoimmunity. In addition, therapies targeting NKG2D ligands in cancer are also reviewed. PMID:23833565

  12. Using 3 TLR ligands as a combination adjuvant induces qualitative changes in T cell responses needed for antiviral protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qing; Egelston, Colt; Gagnon, Susan; Sui, Yongjun; Belyakov, Igor M.; Klinman, Dennis M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2010-01-01

    TLR ligands are promising candidates for the development of novel vaccine adjuvants that can elicit protective immunity against emerging infectious diseases. Adjuvants have been used most frequently to increase the quantity of an immune response. However, the quality of a T cell response can be more important than its quantity. Stimulating certain pairs of TLRs induces a synergistic response in terms of activating dendritic cells and eliciting/enhancing T cell responses through clonal expansion, which increases the number of responding T cells. Here, we have found that utilizing ligands for 3 TLRs (TLR2/6, TLR3, and TLR9) greatly increased the protective efficacy of vaccination with an HIV envelope peptide in mice when compared with using ligands for only any 2 of these TLRs; surprisingly, increased protection was induced without a marked increase in the number of peptide-specific T cells. Rather, the combination of these 3 TLR ligands augmented the quality of the T cell responses primarily by amplifying their functional avidity for the antigen, which was necessary for clearance of virus. The triple combination increased production of DC IL-15 along with its receptor, IL-15Rα, which contributed to high avidity, and decreased expression of programmed death–ligand 1 and induction of Tregs. Therefore, selective TLR ligand combinations can increase protective efficacy by increasing the quality rather than the quantity of T cell responses. PMID:20101095

  13. Antibody networks and imaging: elicitation of anti-fluorescein antibodies in response to the metatypic state of fluorescein-specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, A M; Miklasz, S D; Voss, E W

    1996-01-01

    Studies are described regarding generation of anti-hapten antibodies starting with a monoclonal Ig immunogen in the ligand-induced conformation or metatypic state. Liganded monoclonal Ab1 antibodies represent the unique feature of the study since previous reports investigating internal imaging in the original Idiotype Network Hypothesis [Jerne, 1974 (Ann. Immun. 125C, 373-389)] were based on the non-liganded or idiotypic state [as reviewed in: Rodkey, 1980 (Microbiol. Rev. 44, 631-659); Kohler et al., 1979 (In: Methods in Enzymology: Antibodies, Antigens and Molecular Mimicry, pp. 3-35); Greenspan and Bona, 1993 (FASEB J. 7,437-444)]. Affinity-labeled liganded murine monoclonal anti-fluorescein antibodies served as immunogens administered both in the syngenic and xenogenic modes to determine if the metatypic state elicited anti-hapten antibodies through imaging-like mechanisms. Polyclonal and monoclonal anti-Ab1 reagents in various hosts were assayed for anti-fluorescein and/or anti-metatype specificity. Significant anti-fluorescein responses were measured indicating that the metatypic state directly or indirectly stimulates an anti-hapten antibody population.

  14. Novel Ligands for a Purine Riboswitch Discovered by RNA-Ligand Docking

    PubMed Central

    Daldrop, Peter; Reyes, Francis E.; Robinson, David A.; Hammond, Colin M.; Lilley, David M.; Batey, Robert T.; Brenk, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Summary The increasing number of RNA crystal structures enables a structure-based approach to the discovery of new RNA-binding ligands. To develop the poorly explored area of RNA-ligand docking, we have conducted a virtual screening exercise for a purine riboswitch to probe the strengths and weaknesses of RNA-ligand docking. Using a standard protein-ligand docking program with only minor modifications, four new ligands with binding affinities in the micromolar range were identified, including two compounds based on molecular scaffolds not resembling known ligands. RNA-ligand docking performed comparably to protein-ligand docking indicating that this approach is a promising option to explore the wealth of RNA structures for structure-based ligand design. PMID:21439477

  15. Prediction of Protein Pairs Sharing Common Active Ligands Using Protein Sequence, Structure, and Ligand Similarity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chen; Tolbert, Robert; Aronov, Alex M; McGaughey, Georgia; Walters, W Patrick; Meireles, Lidio

    2016-09-26

    We benchmarked the ability of comparative computational approaches to correctly discriminate protein pairs sharing a common active ligand (positive protein pairs) from protein pairs with no common active ligands (negative protein pairs). Since the target and the off-targets of a drug share at least a common ligand, i.e., the drug itself, the prediction of positive protein pairs may help identify off-targets. We evaluated representative protein-centric and ligand-centric approaches, including (1) 2D and 3D ligand similarity, (2) several measures of protein sequence similarity in conjunction with different sequence sources (e.g., full protein sequence versus binding site residues), and (3) a newly described pocket shape similarity and alignment program called SiteHopper. While the sequence-based alignment of pocket residues achieved the best overall performance, SiteHopper outperformed sequence-based approaches for unrelated proteins with only 20-30% pocket residue identity. Analogously, among ligand-centric approaches, path-based fingerprints achieved the best overall performance, but ROCS-based ligand shape similarity outperformed path-based fingerprints for structurally dissimilar ligands (Tanimoto 25%-40%). A significant drop in recognition performance was observed for ligand-centric approaches when PDB ligands were used instead of ChEMBL ligands. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between pocket shape and ligand shape in our data set and found that similar ligands tend to bind to similar pockets while similar pockets may accept a range of different-shaped ligands.

  16. Sustained Hypoxia Elicits Competing Spinal Mechanisms of Phrenic Motor Facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Devinney, Michael J.; Nichols, Nicole L.

    2016-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal motor plasticity. Competing mechanisms give rise to phrenic motor facilitation (pMF; a general term including pLTF) depending on the severity of hypoxia within episodes. In contrast, moderate acute sustained hypoxia (mASH) does not elicit pMF. By varying the severity of ASH and targeting competing mechanisms of pMF, we sought to illustrate why moderate AIH (mAIH) elicits pMF but mASH does not. Although mAIH elicits serotonin-dependent pLTF, mASH does not; thus, mAIH-induced pLTF is pattern sensitive. In contrast, severe AIH (sAIH) elicits pLTF through adenosine-dependent mechanisms, likely from greater extracellular adenosine accumulation. Because serotonin- and adenosine-dependent pMF interact via cross talk inhibition, we hypothesized that pMF is obscured because the competing mechanisms of pMF are balanced and offsetting during mASH. Here, we demonstrate the following: (1) blocking spinal A2A receptors with MSX-3 reveals mASH-induced pMF; and (2) sASH elicits A2A-dependent pMF. In anesthetized rats pretreated with intrathecal A2A receptor antagonist injections before mASH (PaO2 = 40–54 mmHg) or sASH (PaO2 = 25–36 mmHg), (1) mASH induced a serotonin-dependent pMF and (2) sASH induced an adenosine-dependent pMF, which was enhanced by spinal serotonin receptor inhibition. Thus, competing adenosine- and serotonin-dependent mechanisms contribute differentially to pMF depending on the pattern/severity of hypoxia. Understanding interactions between these mechanisms has clinical relevance as we develop therapies to treat severe neuromuscular disorders that compromise somatic motor behaviors, including breathing. Moreover, these results demonstrate how competing mechanisms of plasticity can give rise to pattern sensitivity in pLTF. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Intermittent hypoxia elicits pattern-sensitive spinal plasticity and improves motor function after spinal injury or

  17. Canonical and non-canonical Notch ligands

    PubMed Central

    D’SOUZA, BRENDAN; MELOTY-KAPELLA, LAURENCE; WEINMASTER, GERRY

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling induced by canonical Notch ligands is critical for normal embryonic development and tissue homeostasis through the regulation of a variety of cell fate decisions and cellular processes. Activation of Notch signaling is normally tightly controlled by direct interactions with ligand-expressing cells and dysregulated Notch signaling is associated with developmental abnormalities and cancer. While canonical Notch ligands are responsible for the majority of Notch signaling, a diverse group of structurally unrelated non-canonical ligands has also been identified that activate Notch and likely contribute to the pleiotropic effects of Notch signaling. Soluble forms of both canonical and non-canonical ligands have been isolated, some of which block Notch signaling and could serve as natural inhibitors of this pathway. Ligand activity can also be indirectly regulated by other signaling pathways at the level of ligand expression, serving to spatio-temporally compartmentalize Notch signaling activity and integrate Notch signaling into a molecular network that orchestrates developmental events. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the dual role of Notch ligands as activators and inhibitors of Notch signaling. Additionally, evidence that Notch ligands function independent of Notch are presented. We also discuss how ligand post-translational modification, endocytosis, proteolysis and spatio-temporal expression regulate their signaling activity. PMID:20816393

  18. Ligand placement based on prior structures: the guided ligand-replacement method

    SciTech Connect

    Klei, Herbert E.; Moriarty, Nigel W. Echols, Nathaniel; Terwilliger, Thomas C.; Baldwin, Eric T.; Pokross, Matt; Posy, Shana; Adams, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), has been developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein-ligand complexes are available. The process of iterative structure-based drug design involves the X-ray crystal structure determination of upwards of 100 ligands with the same general scaffold (i.e. chemotype) complexed with very similar, if not identical, protein targets. In conjunction with insights from computational models and assays, this collection of crystal structures is analyzed to improve potency, to achieve better selectivity and to reduce liabilities such as absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicology. Current methods for modeling ligands into electron-density maps typically do not utilize information on how similar ligands bound in related structures. Even if the electron density is of sufficient quality and resolution to allow de novo placement, the process can take considerable time as the size, complexity and torsional degrees of freedom of the ligands increase. A new module, Guided Ligand Replacement (GLR), was developed in Phenix to increase the ease and success rate of ligand placement when prior protein–ligand complexes are available. At the heart of GLR is an algorithm based on graph theory that associates atoms in the target ligand with analogous atoms in the reference ligand. Based on this correspondence, a set of coordinates is generated for the target ligand. GLR is especially useful in two situations: (i) modeling a series of large, flexible, complicated or macrocyclic ligands in successive structures and (ii) modeling ligands as part of a refinement pipeline that can automatically select a reference structure. Even in those cases for which no reference structure is available, if there are multiple copies of the bound ligand per asymmetric unit GLR offers an efficient way to complete the model after the first ligand has been placed. In all of these applications, GLR

  19. Elicitation of neurological knowledge with argument-based machine learning.

    PubMed

    Groznik, Vida; Guid, Matej; Sadikov, Aleksander; Možina, Martin; Georgiev, Dejan; Kragelj, Veronika; Ribarič, Samo; Pirtošek, Zvezdan; Bratko, Ivan

    2013-02-01

    The paper describes the use of expert's knowledge in practice and the efficiency of a recently developed technique called argument-based machine learning (ABML) in the knowledge elicitation process. We are developing a neurological decision support system to help the neurologists differentiate between three types of tremors: Parkinsonian, essential, and mixed tremor (comorbidity). The system is intended to act as a second opinion for the neurologists, and most importantly to help them reduce the number of patients in the "gray area" that require a very costly further examination (DaTSCAN). We strive to elicit comprehensible and medically meaningful knowledge in such a way that it does not come at the cost of diagnostic accuracy. To alleviate the difficult problem of knowledge elicitation from data and domain experts, we used ABML. ABML guides the expert to explain critical special cases which cannot be handled automatically by machine learning. This very efficiently reduces the expert's workload, and combines expert's knowledge with learning data. 122 patients were enrolled into the study. The classification accuracy of the final model was 91%. Equally important, the initial and the final models were also evaluated for their comprehensibility by the neurologists. All 13 rules of the final model were deemed as appropriate to be able to support its decisions with good explanations. The paper demonstrates ABML's advantage in combining machine learning and expert knowledge. The accuracy of the system is very high with respect to the current state-of-the-art in clinical practice, and the system's knowledge base is assessed to be very consistent from a medical point of view. This opens up the possibility to use the system also as a teaching tool. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nicotine elicits prolonged calcium signaling along ventral hippocampal axons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chongbo; Talmage, David A; Role, Lorna W

    2013-01-01

    Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have long been implicated in the modulation of CNS circuits. We previously reported that brief exposure to low concentrations of nicotine induced sustained potentiation of glutamatergic transmission at ventral hippocampal (vHipp)-striatal synapses. Here, we exploited nAChR subtype-selective antagonists and agonists and α7*nAChR knockout mutant mice (α7-/-) to elucidate the signaling mechanisms underlying nAChR-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission. Using a combination of micro-slices culture from WT and α7-/-mice, calcium imaging, and immuno-histochemical techniques, we found that nicotine elicits localized and oscillatory increases in intracellular Ca(2+) along vHipp axons that persists for up to 30 minutes. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response was blocked by α-BgTx but not by DHβE and was mimicked by α7*nAChR agonists but not by non-α7*nAChR agonists. In vHipp slices from α7-/- mice, nicotine elicited only transient increases of axonal Ca(2+) signals and did not activate CaMKII. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response required localized activation of CaMKII, phospholipase C, and IP3 receptor mediated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). In conclusion, activation of presynaptic nAChRs by nicotine elicits Ca(2+) influx into the presynaptic axons, the sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response requires that axonal α7*nAChR activate a downstream signaling network in the vHipp axons.

  1. Estimating unknown parameters in haemophilia using expert judgement elicitation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Lewandowski, D; Janssen, M P

    2013-09-01

    The increasing attention to healthcare costs and treatment efficiency has led to an increasing demand for quantitative data concerning patient and treatment characteristics in haemophilia. However, most of these data are difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to use expert judgement elicitation (EJE) to estimate currently unavailable key parameters for treatment models in severe haemophilia A. Using a formal expert elicitation procedure, 19 international experts provided information on (i) natural bleeding frequency according to age and onset of bleeding, (ii) treatment of bleeds, (iii) time needed to control bleeding after starting secondary prophylaxis, (iv) dose requirements for secondary prophylaxis according to onset of bleeding, and (v) life-expectancy. For each parameter experts provided their quantitative estimates (median, P10, P90), which were combined using a graphical method. In addition, information was obtained concerning key decision parameters of haemophilia treatment. There was most agreement between experts regarding bleeding frequencies for patients treated on demand with an average onset of joint bleeding (1.7 years): median 12 joint bleeds per year (95% confidence interval 0.9-36) for patients ≤ 18, and 11 (0.8-61) for adult patients. Less agreement was observed concerning estimated effective dose for secondary prophylaxis in adults: median 2000 IU every other day The majority (63%) of experts expected that a single minor joint bleed could cause irreversible damage, and would accept up to three minor joint bleeds or one trauma related joint bleed annually on prophylaxis. Expert judgement elicitation allowed structured capturing of quantitative expert estimates. It generated novel data to be used in computer modelling, clinical care, and trial design.

  2. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  3. Developing Socio-Cultural Scaffolding Model to Elicit Learners's Speech Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englishtina, Inti

    2015-01-01

    This study is concerned with developing scaffolding model to elicit bilingual kindergarten children's English speech production. It is aimed at describing what the teachers need in eliciting their students' speech production; how a scaffolding model should be developed to elicit the children's speech production; and how effective is the…

  4. Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Asta

    2013-01-01

    Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

  5. Sample Size for Measuring Grammaticality in Preschool Children from Picture-Elicited Language Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Sarita L.; Guo, Ling-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a shorter language sample elicited with fewer pictures (i.e., 7) would yield a percent grammatical utterances (PGU) score similar to that computed from a longer language sample elicited with 15 pictures for 3-year-old children. Method: Language samples were elicited by asking forty…

  6. Simplifying Probability Elicitation and Uncertainty Modeling in Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Patrick R; Carroll, Thomas E; Sivaraman, Chitra; Neorr, Peter A; Unwin, Stephen D; Hossain, Shamina S

    2011-04-16

    In this paper we contribute two methods that simplify the demands of knowledge elicitation for particular types of Bayesian networks. The first method simplify the task of providing probabilities when the states that a random variable takes can be described by a new, fully ordered state set in which a state implies all the preceding states. The second method leverages Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to provide a way for the expert to express the degree of ignorance that they feel about the estimates being provided.

  7. Electronic health records: eliciting behavioral health providers' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Shank, Nancy; Willborn, Elizabeth; Pytlikzillig, Lisa; Noel, Harmonijoie

    2012-04-01

    Interviews with 32 community behavioral health providers elicited perceived benefits and barriers of using electronic health records. Themes identified were (a) quality of care, (b) privacy and security, and (c) delivery of services. Benefits to quality of care were mentioned by 100% of the providers, and barriers by 59% of providers. Barriers involving privacy and security concerns were mentioned by 100% of providers, and benefits by 22%. Barriers to delivery of services were mentioned by 97% of providers, and benefits by 66%. Most providers (81%) expressed overall positive support for electronic behavioral health records.

  8. Quantifying catchment water balances and their uncertainties by expert elicitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebok, Eva; Refsgaard, Jens Christian; Warmink, Jord J.; Stisen, Simon; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    2017-04-01

    The increasing demand on water resources necessitates a more responsible and sustainable water management requiring a thorough understanding of hydrological processes both on small scale and on catchment scale. On catchment scale, the characterization of hydrological processes is often carried out by calculating a water balance based on the principle of mass conservation in hydrological fluxes. Assuming a perfect water balance closure and estimating one of these fluxes as a residual of the water balance is a common practice although this estimate will contain uncertainties related to uncertainties in the other components. Water balance closure on the catchment scale is also an issue in Denmark, thus, it was one of the research objectives of the HOBE hydrological observatory, that has been collecting data in the Skjern river catchment since 2008. Water balance components in the 1050 km2 Ahlergaarde catchment and the nested 120 km2 Holtum catchment, located in the glacial outwash plan of the Skjern catchment, were estimated using a multitude of methods. As the collected data enables the complex assessment of uncertainty of both the individual water balance components and catchment-scale water balances, the expert elicitation approach was chosen to integrate the results of the hydrological observatory. This approach relies on the subjective opinion of experts whose available knowledge and experience about the subject allows to integrate complex information from multiple sources. In this study 35 experts were involved in a multi-step elicitation process with the aim of (1) eliciting average annual values of water balance components for two nested catchments and quantifying the contribution of different sources of uncertainties to the total uncertainty in these average annual estimates; (2) calculating water balances for two catchments by reaching consensus among experts interacting in form of group discussions. To address the complex problem of water balance closure

  9. Understanding, eliciting and negotiating clients' multicultural health beliefs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, L E

    1993-04-01

    People of many cultures explain and treat illness in ways that are different from and that may conflict with the biomedical beliefs and practices on which the American health care system is based. Eliciting clients' health beliefs and negotiating treatment plans with them can help avoid problems caused by discrepancies in belief systems. This article presents three major categories of belief systems commonly found in the United States as well as other countries. Questions designed to discover clients' health beliefs are included, along with guidelines for arriving at plans of care that accommodate those beliefs. Case studies are provided that illustrate this process of negotiation.

  10. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory syn-aptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  11. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors. PMID:19184587

  12. A universal rule for organic ligand exchange.

    PubMed

    You, Hongjun; Wang, Wenjin; Yang, Shengchun

    2014-11-12

    Most synthetic routes to high-quality nanocrystals with tunable morphologies predominantly employ long hydro-carbon molecules as ligands, which are detrimental for electronic and catalytic applications. Here, a rule is found that the adsorption energy of an organic ligand is related to its carbon-chain length. Using the density functional theory method, the adsorption energies of some commonly used ligand molecules with different carbon-chain lengths are calculated, including carboxylate, hydroxyl, and amine molecules adsorbed on metal or metal oxide crystal surface. The results indicate that the adsorption energy of the ligand molecule with a long carbon chain is weaker than that of a smaller molecule with same functional group. This rule provides a theoretical support for a new kind of ligand exchange method in which large organic ligand molecules can be exchanged by small molecules with same functional group to improve the catalytic properties.

  13. Insights into an original pocket-ligand pair classification: a promising tool for ligand profile prediction.

    PubMed

    Pérot, Stéphanie; Regad, Leslie; Reynès, Christelle; Spérandio, Olivier; Miteva, Maria A; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Pockets are today at the cornerstones of modern drug discovery projects and at the crossroad of several research fields, from structural biology to mathematical modeling. Being able to predict if a small molecule could bind to one or more protein targets or if a protein could bind to some given ligands is very useful for drug discovery endeavors, anticipation of binding to off- and anti-targets. To date, several studies explore such questions from chemogenomic approach to reverse docking methods. Most of these studies have been performed either from the viewpoint of ligands or targets. However it seems valuable to use information from both ligands and target binding pockets. Hence, we present a multivariate approach relating ligand properties with protein pocket properties from the analysis of known ligand-protein interactions. We explored and optimized the pocket-ligand pair space by combining pocket and ligand descriptors using Principal Component Analysis and developed a classification engine on this paired space, revealing five main clusters of pocket-ligand pairs sharing specific and similar structural or physico-chemical properties. These pocket-ligand pair clusters highlight correspondences between pocket and ligand topological and physico-chemical properties and capture relevant information with respect to protein-ligand interactions. Based on these pocket-ligand correspondences, a protocol of prediction of clusters sharing similarity in terms of recognition characteristics is developed for a given pocket-ligand complex and gives high performances. It is then extended to cluster prediction for a given pocket in order to acquire knowledge about its expected ligand profile or to cluster prediction for a given ligand in order to acquire knowledge about its expected pocket profile. This prediction approach shows promising results and could contribute to predict some ligand properties critical for binding to a given pocket, and conversely, some key pocket

  14. CB receptor ligands from plants.

    PubMed

    Woelkart, Karin; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Bauer, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Advances in understanding the physiology and pharmacology of the endogenous cannabinoid system have potentiated the interest of cannabinoid receptors as potential therapeutic targets. Cannabinoids have been shown to modulate a variety of immune cell functions and have therapeutic implications on central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis, and may be therapeutically useful in treating autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis. Many of these drug effects occur through cannabinoid receptor signalling mechanisms and the modulation of cytokines and other gene products. Further, endocannabinoids have been found to have many physiological and patho-physiological functions, including mood alteration and analgesia, control of energy balance, gut motility, motor and co-ordination activities, as well as alleviation of neurological, psychiatric and eating disorders. Plants offer a wide range of chemical diversity and have been a growing domain in the search for effective cannabinoid ligands. Cannabis sativa L. with the known plant cannabinoid, Delta(9-)tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Echinacea species with the cannabinoid (CB) receptor-binding lipophilic alkamides are the best known herbal cannabimimetics. This review focuses on the state of the art in CB ligands from plants, as well their possible therapeutic and immunomodulatory effects.

  15. Measurement of protein-ligand complex formation.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Peter N; Vaughan, Cara K; Daviter, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Experimental approaches to detect, measure, and quantify protein-ligand binding, along with their theoretical bases, are described. A range of methods for detection of protein-ligand interactions is summarized. Specific protocols are provided for a nonequilibrium procedure pull-down assay, for an equilibrium direct binding method and its modification into a competition-based measurement and for steady-state measurements based on the effects of ligands on enzyme catalysis.

  16. Bee Threat Elicits Alarm Call in African Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive “rumble” vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees. PMID:20436682

  17. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  18. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  19. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films

    PubMed Central

    Uhrig, Meike K.; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed. PMID:26925007

  20. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts.

    PubMed

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M

    2016-06-01

    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria.

  1. Cognitive constraints on constituent order: Evidence from elicited pantomime

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Mayberry, Rachel I.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2014-01-01

    To what extent does human cognition influence the structure of human language? Recent experiments using elicited pantomime suggest that the prevalence of Subject-Object-Verb (SOV) order across the world's languages may arise in part because SOV order is most compatible with how we conceptually represent transitive events (Goldin-Meadow, So, Özyürek, & Mylander, 2008). However, this raises the question as to why non-SOV orders exist. Two recent studies (Meir, Lifshitz, Ilkbasaran, & Padden, 2010; Gibson et al., 2013) suggest that SOV might be suboptimal for describing events in which both the agent and patient are plausible agents (e.g. a woman pushing a boy); we call these “reversible” events. We replicate these findings using elicited pantomime and offer a new interpretation. Meir et al.'s (2010) account is framed largely in terms of constraints on comprehension, while Gibson et al.'s (2013) account involves minimizing the risk of information loss or memory degradation. We offer an alternative hypothesis that is grounded in constraints on production. We consider the implications of these findings for the distribution of constituent order in the world's spoken languages and for the structure of emerging sign languages. PMID:23792806

  2. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria

    2015-06-01

    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions.

  3. Concert hall acoustics assessment with individually elicited attributes.

    PubMed

    Lokki, Tapio; Patynen, Jukka; Kuusinen, Antti; Vertanen, Heikki; Tervo, Sakari

    2011-08-01

    Concert hall acoustics was evaluated with a descriptive sensory analysis method by employing an individual vocabulary development technique. The goal was to obtain sensory profiles of three concert halls by eliciting perceptual attributes for evaluation and comparison of the halls. The stimuli were gathered by playing back anechoic symphony music from 34 loudspeakers on stage in each concert hall and recording the sound field with a microphone array. Four musical programs were processed for multichannel 3D sound reproduction in the actual listening test. Twenty screened assessors developed their individual set of attributes and performed a comparative evaluation of nine seats, three in each hall. The results contain the distinctive groups of elicited attributes and show good agreement within assessors, even though they applied individual attributes when rating the samples. It was also found that loudness and distance gave the strongest perceptual direction to the principal component basis. In addition, the study revealed that the perception of reverberance is related to the size of the space or to the enveloping reverberance, depending on the assessor.

  4. Experimental elicitation with hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde-containing deodorants.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Pia Haslund; Jensen, Charlotte Devantier; Rastogi, Suresh; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-03-01

    Hydroxyisohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) known as Lyral is a frequent allergen. It is used in more than 50% of marketed deodorants. The aim of the present study was to determine elicitation thresholds for HICC under simulated conditions of deodorant use. 15 patients with previously diagnosed contact allergy to HICC were patch tested with 5 solutions of HICC-scented and HICC-unscented deodorants. Patients and 10 healthy controls performed a use test in the axillae using deodorants scented with HICC in increasing concentrations and unscented deodorants as control. The concentration of HICC was increased every second week (200, 600, and 1800 p.p.m.) until either a reaction developed or for 6 weeks. 14 patients completed the study, and all developed unilateral eczema from the HICC-containing deodorant, while controls were all negative (P= 0.004). In 9/14 patients, a positive use test developed during the first 2 weeks to the deodorant containing 200 p.p.m. HICC. Positive correlations were found between the day of positive use and patch test threshold concentration of the HICC solutions (r= 0.71, P= 0.01) as well as the patch test thresholds of the HICC-scented deodorants (r= 0.74, P= 0.007). In conclusion, HICC elicits allergic contact dermatitis in a high proportion of sensitized individuals at common usage concentrations in deodorants.

  5. Epigenetic mechanisms elicited by nutrition in early life.

    PubMed

    Canani, Roberto Berni; Costanzo, Margherita Di; Leone, Ludovica; Bedogni, Giorgio; Brambilla, Paolo; Cianfarani, Stefano; Nobili, Valerio; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Agostoni, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    A growing number of studies focusing on the developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis have identified links among early nutrition, epigenetic processes and diseases also in later life. Different epigenetic mechanisms are elicited by dietary factors in early critical developmental ages that are able to affect the susceptibility to several diseases in adulthood. The studies here reviewed suggest that maternal and neonatal diet may have long-lasting effects in the development of non-communicable chronic adulthood diseases, in particular the components of the so-called metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, and CVD. Both maternal under- and over-nutrition may regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Early postnatal nutrition may also represent a vital determinant of adult health by making an impact on the development and function of gut microbiota. An inadequate gut microbiota composition and function in early life seems to account for the deviant programming of later immunity and overall health status. In this regard probiotics, which have the potential to restore the intestinal microbiota balance, may be effective in preventing the development of chronic immune-mediated diseases. More recently, the epigenetic mechanisms elicited by probiotics through the production of SCFA are hypothesised to be the key to understand how they mediate their numerous health-promoting effects from the gut to the peripheral tissues.

  6. TRANSFER OF AVERSIVE RESPONDENT ELICITATION IN ACCORDANCE WITH EQUIVALENCE RELATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Miguel RodrÍguez; Luciano, Carmen; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the transfer of aversively conditioned respondent elicitation through equivalence classes, using skin conductance as the measure of conditioning. The first experiment is an attempt to replicate Experiment 1 in Dougher, Augustson, Markham, Greenway, and Wulfert (1994), with different temporal parameters in the aversive conditioning procedure employed. Match-to-sample procedures were used to teach 17 participants two 4-member equivalence classes. Then, one member of one class was paired with electric shock and one member of the other class was presented without shock. The remaining stimuli from each class were presented in transfer tests. Unlike the findings in the original study, transfer of conditioning was not achieved. In Experiment 2, similar procedures were used with 30 participants, although several modifications were introduced (formation of five-member classes, direct conditioning with several elements of each class, random sequences of stimulus presentation in transfer tests, reversal in aversive conditioning contingencies). More than 80% of participants who had shown differential conditioning also showed the transfer of function effect. Moreover, this effect was replicated within subjects for 3 participants. This is the first demonstration of the transfer of aversive respondent elicitation through stimulus equivalence classes with the presentation of transfer test trials in random order. The latter prevents the possibility that transfer effects are an artefact of transfer test presentation order. PMID:20119523

  7. Eliciting spatial statistics from geological experts using genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A new method to obtain the statistics of a geostatistical model is introduced. The method elicits the statistical information from a geological expert directly, by iteratively updating a population of vectors of statistics, based on the expert's subjective opinion of the corresponding geological simulations. Thus, it does not require the expert to have knowledge of the mathematical and statistical details of the model. The process uses a genetic algorithm to generate new vectors. We demonstrate the methodology for a particular geostatistical model used to model rock pore-space, which simulates the spatial distribution of matrix and pores over a 2-D grid, using multipoint statistics specified by conditional probabilities. Experts were asked to use the algorithm to estimate the statistics of a given target pore-space image with known statistics; thus, their numerical rates of convergence could be calculated. Convergence was measured for all experts, showing that the algorithm can be used to find appropriate probabilities given the expert's subjective input. However, considerable and apparently irreducible residual misfit was found between the true statistics and the estimates of statistics obtained by the experts, with the root-mean-square error on the conditional probabilities typically >0.1. This is interpreted as the limit of the experts' abilities to distinguish between realizations of different spatial statistics using the algorithm. More accurate discrimination is therefore likely to require complementary elicitation techniques or sources of information independent of expert opinion.

  8. Emotion Elicitation: A Comparison of Pictures and Films.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, Meike K; Trautmann, Nadine; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Henrich, Florian; Hiller, Wolfgang; Marschall, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Pictures and film clips are widely used and accepted stimuli to elicit emotions. Based on theoretical arguments it is often assumed that the emotional effects of films exceed those of pictures, but to date this assumption has not been investigated directly. The aim of the present study was to compare pictures and films in terms of their capacity to induce emotions verified by means of explicit measures. Stimuli were (a) single pictures presented for 6 s, (b) a set of three consecutive pictures with emotionally congruent contents presented for 2 s each, (c) short film clips with a duration of 6 s. A total of 144 participants rated their emotion and arousal states following stimulus presentation. Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that the film clips and 3-picture version were as effective as the classical 1-picture method to elicit positive emotions, however, modulation toward positive valence was little. Modulation toward negative valence was more effective in general. Film clips were less effective than pictorial stimuli in producing the corresponding emotion states (all p < 0.001) and were less arousing (all p ≤ 0.02). Possible reasons for these unexpected results are discussed.

  9. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants.

    PubMed

    King, Lucy E; Soltis, Joseph; Douglas-Hamilton, Iain; Savage, Anne; Vollrath, Fritz

    2010-04-26

    Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.

  10. Ligand-Based Peptide Design and Combinatorial Peptide Libraries to Target G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Christian W.; Muttenthaler, Markus; Freissmuth, Michael

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are considered to represent the most promising drug targets; it has been repeatedly said that a large fraction of the currently marketed drugs elicit their actions by binding to GPCRs (with cited numbers varying from 30–50%). Closer scrutiny, however, shows that only a modest fraction of (~60) GPCRs are, in fact, exploited as drug targets, only ~20 of which are peptide-binding receptors. The vast majority of receptors in the humane genome have not yet been explored as sites of action for drugs. Given the drugability of this receptor class, it appears that opportunities for drug discovery abound. In addition, GPCRs provide for binding sites other than the ligand binding sites (referred to as the “orthosteric site”). These additional sites include (i) binding sites for ligands (referred to as “allosteric ligands”) that modulate the affinity and efficacy of orthosteric ligands, (ii) the interaction surface that recruits G proteins and arrestins, (iii) the interaction sites of additional proteins (GIPs, GPCR interacting proteins that regulate G protein signaling or give rise to G protein-independent signals). These sites can also be targeted by peptides. Combinatorial and natural peptide libraries are therefore likely to play a major role in identifying new GPCR ligands at each of these sites. In particular the diverse natural peptide libraries such as the venom peptides from marine cone-snails and plant cyclotides have been established as a rich source of drug leads. High-throughput screening and combinatorial chemistry approaches allow for progressing from these starting points to potential drug candidates. This will be illustrated by focusing on the ligand-based drug design of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) receptor ligands using natural peptide leads as starting points. PMID:20687879

  11. A structure-function approach to optimizing TLR4 ligands for human vaccines.

    PubMed

    Carter, Darrick; Fox, Christopher B; Day, Tracey A; Guderian, Jeffrey A; Liang, Hong; Rolf, Tom; Vergara, Julie; Sagawa, Zachary K; Ireton, Greg; Orr, Mark T; Desbien, Anthony; Duthie, Malcolm S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-11-01

    Adjuvants are combined with vaccine antigens to enhance and modify immune responses, and have historically been primarily crude, undefined entities. Introducing toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands has led to a new generation of adjuvants, with TLR4 ligands being the most extensively used in human vaccines. The TLR4 crystal structures demonstrate extensive contact with their ligands and provide clues as to how they discriminate a broad array of molecules and activate or attenuate innate, as well as adaptive, responses resulting from these interactions. Leveraging this discerning ability, we made subtle chemical alterations to the structure of a synthetic monophosphoryl lipid-A molecule to produce SLA, a designer TLR4 ligand that had a number of desirable adjuvant effects. The SLA molecule stimulated human TLR4 and induced Th1 biasing cytokines and chemokines. On human cells, the activity of SLA plateaued at lower concentrations than the lipid A comparator, and induced cytokine profiles distinct from other known TLR4 agonists, indicating the potential for superior adjuvant performance. SLA was formulated in an oil-in-water emulsion, producing an adjuvant that elicited potent Th1-biased adaptive responses. This was verified using a recombinant Leishmania vaccine antigen, first in mice, then in a clinical study in which the antigen-specific Th1-biased responses observed in mice were recapitulated in humans. These results demonstrated that using structure-based approaches one can predictably design and produce modern adjuvant formulations for safe and effective human vaccines.

  12. A structure-function approach to optimizing TLR4 ligands for human vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Darrick; Fox, Christopher B; Day, Tracey A; Guderian, Jeffrey A; Liang, Hong; Rolf, Tom; Vergara, Julie; Sagawa, Zachary K; Ireton, Greg; Orr, Mark T; Desbien, Anthony; Duthie, Malcolm S; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Adjuvants are combined with vaccine antigens to enhance and modify immune responses, and have historically been primarily crude, undefined entities. Introducing toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands has led to a new generation of adjuvants, with TLR4 ligands being the most extensively used in human vaccines. The TLR4 crystal structures demonstrate extensive contact with their ligands and provide clues as to how they discriminate a broad array of molecules and activate or attenuate innate, as well as adaptive, responses resulting from these interactions. Leveraging this discerning ability, we made subtle chemical alterations to the structure of a synthetic monophosphoryl lipid-A molecule to produce SLA, a designer TLR4 ligand that had a number of desirable adjuvant effects. The SLA molecule stimulated human TLR4 and induced Th1 biasing cytokines and chemokines. On human cells, the activity of SLA plateaued at lower concentrations than the lipid A comparator, and induced cytokine profiles distinct from other known TLR4 agonists, indicating the potential for superior adjuvant performance. SLA was formulated in an oil-in-water emulsion, producing an adjuvant that elicited potent Th1-biased adaptive responses. This was verified using a recombinant Leishmania vaccine antigen, first in mice, then in a clinical study in which the antigen-specific Th1-biased responses observed in mice were recapitulated in humans. These results demonstrated that using structure-based approaches one can predictably design and produce modern adjuvant formulations for safe and effective human vaccines. PMID:27990284

  13. Characterization of host responses induced by Toll-like receptor ligands in chicken cecal tonsil cells.

    PubMed

    Taha-Abdelaziz, Khaled; Alkie, Tamiru Negash; Hodgins, Douglas C; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan

    2016-06-01

    The innate responses of cecal tonsils against invading microorganisms are mediated by conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs expressed by mammalian and avian immune system cells have the capability to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Although, the role of TLR ligands in innate and adaptive responses in chickens has been characterized in spleen and bursa of Fabricius, considerably less is known about responses in cecal tonsils. The aim of the current study was to assess responses of mononuclear cells from cecal tonsils to treatment with the TLR2, TLR4 and TLR21 ligands, Pam3CSK4, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), respectively. All three ligands induced significant up-regulation of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2/IL-8, whereas no significant changes were observed in expression of IL-13 or the antimicrobial peptides, avian β-defensin (AvBD) 1, AvBD2 and cathelicidin 3 (CATHL-3). In general, CpG ODN elicited the highest cytokine responses by cecal tonsil mononuclear cells, inducing significantly higher expression compared to LPS and Pam3CSK4, for IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-6 and CxCLi2 at various time points. These findings suggest the potential use of TLR21 ligands as mucosal vaccine adjuvants, especially in the context of pathogens of the intestinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Asymmetric catalysis with chiral ferrocene ligands.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li-Xin; Tu, Tao; You, Shu-Li; Deng, Wei-Ping; Hou, Xue-Long

    2003-09-01

    Chiral ferrocene ligands have been widely used in asymmetric catalysis. The advantages of using ferrocene as a scaffold for chiral ligands are described, particularly those regarding planar chirality, rigid bulkiness, and ease of derivatization. The role of planar chirality in 1,2- and 1,1'-disubstituted ferrocene systems is discussed. By using a bulky ferrocene fragment, novel ferrocene ligands were designed, and high enantioselectivity and regioselectivity were achieved in the allylic substitution reaction of monosubstituted allyl substrates. Using the tunable electronic properties of a diphosphine-oxazoline ferrocenyl ligand, the regioselectivity of the intermolecular asymmetric Heck reaction was also examined.

  15. Autoreactivity and Exceptional CDR Plasticity (but Not Unusual Polyspecificity) Hinder Elicitation of the Anti-HIV Antibody 4E10

    PubMed Central

    Finton, Kathryn A. K.; Larimore, Kevin; Larman, H. Benjamin; Friend, Della; Correnti, Colin; Rupert, Peter B.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Strong, Roland K.

    2013-01-01

    The broadly-neutralizing anti-HIV antibody 4E10 recognizes an epitope in the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV envelope protein gp41. Previous attempts to elicit 4E10 by vaccination with envelope-derived or reverse-engineered immunogens have failed. It was presumed that the ontogeny of 4E10-equivalent responses was blocked by inherent autoreactivity and exceptional polyreactivity. We generated 4E10 heavy-chain knock-in mice, which displayed significant B cell dysregulation, consistent with recognition of autoantigen/s by 4E10 and the presumption that tolerance mechanisms may hinder the elicitation of 4E10 or 4E10-equivalent responses. Previously proposed candidate 4E10 autoantigens include the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin and a nuclear splicing factor, 3B3. However, using carefully-controlled assays, 4E10 bound only weakly to cardiolipin-containing liposomes, but also bound negatively-charged, non-cardiolipin-containing liposomes comparably poorly. 4E10/liposome binding was predominantly mediated by electrostatic interactions rather than presumed hydrophobic interactions. The crystal structure of 4E10 free of bound ligands showed a dramatic restructuring of the combining site, occluding the HIV epitope binding site and revealing profound flexibility, but creating an electropositive pocket consistent with non-specific binding of phospholipid headgroups. These results strongly suggested that antigens other than cardiolipin mediate 4E10 autoreactivity. Using a synthetic peptide library spanning the human proteome, we determined that 4E10 displays limited and focused, but unexceptional, polyspecificity. We also identified a novel autoepitope shared by three ER-resident inositol trisphosphate receptors, validated through binding studies and immunohistochemistry. Tissue staining with 4E10 demonstrated reactivity consistent with the type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptor as the most likely candidate autoantigen, but is inconsistent with splicing factor 3B3

  16. Integrated ligand based pharmacophore model derived from diverse FAAH covalent ligand classes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lingling; Huang, Hongwei; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Fisher, Luke S

    2012-12-01

    3D pharmacophore modeling is an important computational methodology for ligand-enzyme binding interactions in drug discovery. More specifically, a consensus pharmacophore model derived from diverse ligands is a key determinant upon which the prediction power of computational models is based for designing novel ligands. In this work, by merging the important pharmacophore features based on four classes of covalent FAAH ligands, and then integrating the exclusion volume spheres derived from the crystal structure, we created for the first time an integrated FAAH pharmacophore model to describe the ligand-enzyme binding interactions. This new integrated FAAH pharmacophore model can correctly predict the covalent ligand binding mode, which correlates with the SAR data. The study is expected to provide insights into novel covalent ligand-FAAH binding interactions, and facilitate the design of covalent ligands against FAAH.

  17. Targeting Ligand-Dependent and Ligand-Independent Androgen Receptor Signaling in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    sub 10nM range efficacy. Our primary objective was to establish a series of compounds blocking the AR ligand-dependent and ligand-independent gene ...of AR driven genes to be more comprehensive and more in line with what is currently known about AR-driven signaling in prostate cancer. We have...developed a robust panel of genes for AR signaling that is reflective of the clinical findings in both ligand dependent and ligand-independent androgen

  18. Cis-interactions between Notch and its ligands block ligand-independent Notch activity

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, William Hunt; Jia, Dongyu; Deng, Wu-Min

    2014-01-01

    The Notch pathway is integrated into numerous developmental processes and therefore is fine-tuned on many levels, including receptor production, endocytosis, and degradation. Notch is further characterized by a twofold relationship with its Delta-Serrate (DSL) ligands, as ligands from opposing cells (trans-ligands) activate Notch, whereas ligands expressed in the same cell (cis-ligands) inhibit signaling. We show that cells without both cis- and trans-ligands can mediate Notch-dependent developmental events during Drosophila oogenesis, indicating ligand-independent Notch activity occurs when the receptor is free of cis- and trans-ligands. Furthermore, cis-ligands can reduce Notch activity in endogenous and genetically induced situations of elevated trans-ligand-independent Notch signaling. We conclude that cis-expressed ligands exert their repressive effect on Notch signaling in cases of trans-ligand-independent activation, and propose a new function of cis-inhibition which buffers cells against accidental Notch activity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04415.001 PMID:25486593

  19. Voice Pitch Elicited Frequency Following Response in Chinese Elderlies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuo; Hu, Jiong; Dong, Ruijuan; Liu, Dongxin; Chen, Jing; Musacchia, Gabriella; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background. Method: Mandarin speaking younger (n = 12) and older (n = 12) adults were recruited for this study. All participants had normal audiometric test results and normal suprathreshold click-evoked ABR. To record frequency following responses (FFRs) elicited by Mandarin lexical tones, two Mandarin Chinese syllables with different fundamental frequency pitch contours (Flat Tone and Falling Tone) were presented at 70 dB SPL. Fundamental frequencies (f0) of both the stimulus and the responses were extracted and compared to individual brainstem responses. Two indices were used to examine different aspects of pitch processing ability at the brainstem level: Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation. Results: Lexical tone elicited FFR were overall weaker in the older adult group compared to their younger adult counterpart. Measured by Pitch Strength and Pitch Correlation, statistically significant group differences were only found when the tone with a falling f0 (Falling Tone) were used as the stimulus. Conclusion: Results of this study demonstrated that in a tonal language speaking population, pitch processing ability at the brainstem level of older adults are not as strong and robust as their younger counterparts. Findings of this study are consistent with previous reports on brainstem responses of older adults whose native language is English. On the other hand, lexical tone elicited

  20. Natural ligands of hamster aphrodisin.

    PubMed

    Briand, Loïc; Blon, Florence; Trotier, Didier; Pernollet, Jean-Claude

    2004-06-01

    The chemical nature of vertebrate pheromones remains largely to be deciphered. Hamster aphrodisin is a rare instance of mammal proteinaceous sexual pheromone. This protein, found in vaginal secretions, facilitates the mounting behaviour of males via activation of a specialized sensory structure named the vomeronasal organ, which activates the accessory olfactory bulb. Since it might carry small pheromonal ligands due to its lipocalin structure, we analysed organic extracts from natural aphrodisin. We identified five predominant compounds specifically bound onto natural aphrodisin as 1-hexadecanol (44.7%), 1-octadecanol (19.5%), Z-9-octadecen-1-ol (18.2%), E-9-octadecen-1-ol (15.4%) and hexadecanoic acid (2.2%). Interestingly, these compounds are also described as part of insect pheromone blends, disclosing the continuing story of amazing coincidences of chemical communication shared by mammals and insects.