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Sample records for flue gas quarterly

  1. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 8, [January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1994-03-01

    During the first quarter of 1994, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. We also began work on Task 7. In Task 2, we incorporated 4.5% O{sub 2} into our simulated flue gas stream during this quarter`s NO{sub x}-absorption experiments. We also ran experiments using Cobalt (II)-phthalocyanine as an absorbing agent We observed higher absorption capacities when using this solution with the simulated flue gas containing O{sub 2}. In Task 3, we synthesized a few EDTA polymer analogs. We also began scaled up synthesis of Co(II)-phthalocyanine for use in Task 5. In Task 4, we performed experiments for measuring distribution coefficients (m{sub i}) Of SO{sub 2} between aqueous and organic phases. This was done using the liquor regenerating apparatus described in Task 6. In Task 5, we began working with Co(II)-phthalocyanine in the 301 fiber hollow fiber contactor. We also calculated mass transfer coefficients (K{sub olm}) for these runs, and we observed that the gas side resistance dominates mass transfer. In Task 6, in the liquor regeneration apparatus, we observed 90% recovery of SO{sub 2} by DMA from water used as the scrubbing solution. We also calculated the distribution of coefficients (m{sub i}). In Task 7, we established and began implementing a methodology for completing this task.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1995-07-11

    This project is divided into four tasks. We developed our Management Plan in Task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focused on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, was designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. We began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. We completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. In our literature reviews reported in Topical Reports 1 and 2, we emphasized the roles adsorbed water can have in controlling bulk properties of powders. During the next phase of the project we analyzed a variety of fly ashes and fine powders in the laboratory. The experiments we performed were primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. We have recently completed a series of pilot-scale tests designed to determine the effects that adsorbed water has on fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation of entrained fly ash particles in actual flue gas environments. Under Task 4 we will issue our Final Report that will summarize the results of our laboratory and pilot-scale work and will also include a model of flue gas conditioning. Our efforts during this reporting quarter have been directed toward production of the Draft Final Report and the Flue Gas Conditioning Model. In addition to these efforts, we have prepared a paper for presentation at the Eleventh Annual Coal Preparation, Utilization, and Environmental Control Contractor`s Conference to be held in Pittsburgh in July, 1995.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, January 1992--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  4. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, July 1--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% S0{sub 2} and at least 75 % NO{sub x}, from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The S0{sub 2} is oxidized to S0{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The S0{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous four quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at Research Triangle Institute. Shakedown experiments were completed. The NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub 2} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCIII was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. In the present quarter, further tests of MCCI were performed for SO{sub 2} removal with NO in the feed gas, except the reactor was operated at 130{degrees}C (instead of 80{degrees}C during previous tests). Tests were also performed with MCCII for NO removal with nominally 100 ppm SO{sub 2} in the feed gas.

  5. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 10, February 17--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-15

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The demonstration is being conducted at Penelec`s Seward Station, Unit No. 15. This boiler is a 147 MWe coal-fired unit, which utilizes Pennsylvania bituminous coal (approximately 1.2 to 2.5% sulfur). One of the two flue gas ducts leading from the boiler has been retrofitted with the CZD technology. The first existing ESP installed in the station is immediately behind the air preheater. The second ESP, installed about 15 years ago, is about 80 feet away from the first ESP. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2}

  6. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  7. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  8. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup: Quarterly technical report No. 16, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Bahman, A.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble plithalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and NO{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas.

  9. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  10. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Pakala, N.; Riggs, T.; Tagg, T.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Finally, the arrangement of the absorbers is in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used.

  11. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup. Third quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Silveston, P.L.

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can be reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, the continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer system at Waterloo was completed. The SO{sub 2} removal factorial experiments were begun Waterloo with the BPL carbon at 21{degrees}C. Also, SO{sub 2} removal was tested on two catalyst at RTI at 80{degrees}C. NO{sub x} conversion was tested on a variety of catalysts at RTI. It was shown that the BPL carbon could remove over 95% SO{sub 2} at 21{degrees}C but would required several beds at space velocity in each bed of abut 1,500 scc/(cc{center_dot}h) to reduce SO{sub 2} from 2,500 ppm to 100 ppm. A modified carbon catalyst tested at RTI showed 99% SO{sub 2} removal at 80{degrees}C at 1,400 scc/(cc{center_dot}h). Also, it was possible to produce nearly 9 normal H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by periodic flushing of this catalyst. The modified carbon catalyst also demonstrated removal of more than 80% NO{sub x}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-08-05

    The method of reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel is described. The method comprises: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide slaked with an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, the sorbent being added in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium and the solubilizing agent selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas a humidifying agent selected from water and steam; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from addition of the sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 30/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion in a combustion zone of a sulfur-containing fuel, which method comprises: (a) injecting into the combustion zone a finely divided dry sorbent comprising calcium carbonate in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5:1; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas at a point where the flue gas has a temperature of between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/C. an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from drying of the droplets and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (c) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/C. and about 35/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  14. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-07-15

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of a sulfur-containing fuel. The method consists of: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt: sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the sorbent in flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids comprising sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 35/sup 0/ C. above its saturation temperature.

  15. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SITJC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC-30252). Under the agreement SIUC will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mine workings, and assess the environmental impact of such underground placements. This report discusses the technical progress achieved during the period October 1 - December 31, 1995. Rapid Aging Test columns were placed in operation during the second quarter of 1995, and some preliminary data were acquired during this quarter. These data indicate that the highly caustic pH is initially generated in the pneumatic mix, but that such pH is short lived. The initial pH rapidly declines to the range of 8 to 9. Leachates in this pH range will have little or no effect on environmental concerns. Dedicated sampling equipment was installed in the groundwater monitoring wells at the proposed placement site at the Peabody Number 10 mine. Also, the groundwater monitoring wells were {open_quotes}developed{close_quotes} during the quarter to remove the fines trapped in the sand pack and screen. A new procedure was used in this process, and proved successful. A series of tests concerning the geotechnical characteristics of the pneumatic mixes were conducted. Results show that both moisture content and curing time have a direct effect on the strength of the mixes. These are, of course, the expected general results. The Christmas holidays and the closing of the University during an extended period affected the progress of the program during the quarter. However, the program is essentially on schedule, both technically and fiscally, and any delays will be overcome during the first quarter of 1996.

  16. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1995--February 29, 1996 (Quarter {number_sign}10)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In the current quarter, research was focused on two different areas. The first part of this quarter the optimization of the feed slurry percent solids for the two inch water-only cyclone was completed. The optimization of the vortex finder, spigot diameter and inlet feed pressure was completed in the previous quarter. The second part of this quarter began the investigation of why water-only cycloning helps froth flotation performance. The hypothesis is that water-only cycloning scrubs the surface of the unreacted limestone. This scrubbing effect provides a clean calcium carbonate surface, which results in better flotation reagent adsorption. This study used the scanning electron microscope to investigate the surface of the unreacted limestone particles.

  17. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.; Ghafoori, N.; Paul, B.; Sevim, H.; Thomasson, E.

    1995-01-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative agreement entitled ``Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines`` (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. The major event during the quarter was the demonstration of the SEEC, Inc. technology for loading and transporting coal combustion residues in the SEEC developed Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC). The demonstration was held on November 17, 1994, at the Illinois Power Company Baldwin power plant, and was attended by about eighty (80) invited guest. Also during the quarter meetings were held with Peabody Coal Company officials to finalize the area in the Peabody No. 10 mine to be used for the placement of coal combustion residues. Work under the Materials Handling and Systems Economics area continued, particularly in refining the costs and systems configuration and in economic evaluation of various systems using equipment leasing rather than equipment purchases. Likewise, work progressed on residues characterization, with some preparations being made for long-term testing.

  18. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S.

    1995-07-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground residues placement. Previous quarterly Technical Progress Reports have set forth the specific objectives of the program, and a discussion of these is not repeated here. Rather, this report discusses the technical progress made during the period April 1 - June 30, 1995. A final topical report on the SEEC, Inc. demonstration of its technology for the transporting of coal combustion residues was completed during the quarter, although final printing of the report was accomplished early in July, 1995. The SEEC technology involves the use of Collapsible Intermodal Containers (CIC`s) developed by SEEC, and the transportation of such containers - filled with fly ash or other coal combustion residues - on rail coal cars or other transportation means. Copies of the final topical report, entitled {open_quotes}The Development and Testing of Collapsible Intermodal Containers for the Handling and Transport of Coal Combustion Residues{close_quotes} were furnished to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The Rapid Aging Test colums were placed in operation during the quarter. This test is to determine the long-term reaction of both the pneumatic and hydraulic mixtures to brine as a leaching material, and simulates the conditions that will be encountered in the actual underground placement of the coal combustion residues mixtures. The tests will continue for about one year.

  19. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    On September 30, 1993, the US Department of Energy - Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues in abandoned underground coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of coal combustion by-products. The two technologies for the underground placement that will be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement, using virtually dry materials, and (2) hydraulic placement, using a {open_quotes}paste{close_quotes} mixture of materials with about 70% solids. Phase II of the overall program began April 1, 1996. The principal objective of Phase II is to develop and fabricate the equipment for placing the coal combustion by-products underground, and to conduct a demonstration of the technologies on the surface. Therefore, this quarter has been largely devoted to developing specifications for equipment components, visiting fabrication plants throughout Southern Illinois to determine their capability for building the equipment components in compliance with the specifications, and delivering the components in a timely manner.

  20. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Revised quarterly technical report No. 17, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Riggs, T.; Bahman, A.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors, (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams).

  1. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, October 1992--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 4}, CaCl{sub 2}, organosiloxane, and SO{sub 3}. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.

    1993-07-13

    The experiments we have been performing are primarily designed to define the extent to which water affects key properties of ashes, powders, and mixtures of sorbents and ashes. We have included selected data from prior quarterly reports in this report for the sake of completeness, and for comparisons with newly-acquired data. In several places in this report samples are referred to by their identification (SID) numbers. Table I provides a brief description of all the samples we have used in this project along with their SID numbers. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and surface chemistry. Our recent laboratory efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the tensile and cohesive strengths of powders, the development of apparatus for SO{sub 3} and organosiloxane conditioning, and the conditioning of powders and ashes with organosiloxane.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Quarterly report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-10-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. We developed our management plan in Task 1. Task 2, evaluation of mechanisms in FGD sorbent and ash interactions, focuses on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, evaluation of mechanisms in conditioning agents and ash, is designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. We began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. We completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. Our laboratory analyses during the past quarter covered a variety of topics. We quantified increases in surface area, changes in particle morphology, and increases in cohesivity that result when sorbents are mixed with ashes. Measurements of water content illustrated the increased tendency of the mixtures to adsorb and absorb water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes provided some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. We also observed the effects that pozzolanic reactions can have on ash resistivity. Initial examinations of outputs of the SRI-EPA resistivity prediction model showed that the model could not accurately predict the resistivities we measured for leached and unleached dust cake ashes.

  4. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 7, [October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Stearns, P.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1994-02-01

    During the third quarter of 1993, we continued work on Tasks 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. In Task 2, we tested the NO{sub x} sorption capacity of Fe(II)-EDTA and five new SRI-synthesized compounds. We also made a comparison of all the tests so far and have selected two compounds as the leading candidates. In Task 3, we electrochemically converted FE(III) phthalocyanine to its Fe(II) analog and synthesized several metal phthalocyanine compounds. In Task 4, we evaluated 200-fiber HFC modules for SO{sub 2} removal with water and solutions of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. We also connected this HFC unit to the liquor regenerating HFC unit described in Task 6. We continue to observe 95--100% SO{sub 2} removal. In Task 5, we calculated the overall mass transfer coefficients of earlier Fe(II)-EDTA runs for scrubbing NO{sub x}. We also obtained a new module from Hoechst-Celanese and began its characterization. In Task 6, we demonstrated that the spent liquor from Task 4 can be regenerated using a second HFC. The spent liquor was regenerating using DMA with initial recovery of SO{sub 2} up to 52%.

  5. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Boyd, W.A.

    1980-07-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of gas turbine components by alkali metal compounds is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for removing these gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the gas turbine. A granular-bed filter, using either diatomaceous earth or activated bauxite as the bed material, is the concept currently being studied. Results are presented for the testing of diatomaceous earth for alkali vapor sorption at 800/sup 0/C and 9-atm pressure, using a simulated flue gas. Activated bauxite sorbent can be regenerated by leaching with water, and the kinetics of the leaching is under study.

  6. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  7. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1996--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem.

  8. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for achieving sufficient cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A simulated PFBC flue gas was used to characterize the NaCl-vapor sorption behavior of activated bauxite at a bed temperature of 905/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute. Although the addition of HCl to simulated PFBC flue gas tends to promote the capture of NaCl vapor by activated bauxite as NaCl rather than Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, overall, its effect on the activated bauxite's NaCl-vapor sorption behavior was found to be insignificant. Experimental results are also presented on: (1) the partial conversion to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ of the NaCl sample used as the source of NaCl vapor for the test system; and (2) the water leachability of the sodium captured on activated bauxite.

  9. SOXAL combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} flue gas control demonstration. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    AQUATECH Systems, a business unit of Allied-Signal Inc., proposes to demonstrate the technical viability and cost effectiveness of the SOXAL process a combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control process on a 3 MW equivalent flue gas slip stream from Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Dunkirk Steam Station Boiler No. 4, a coal fired boiler. The SOXAL process combines 90+% sulfur dioxide removal from the flue gas using a sodium based scrubbing solution and regeneration of the spent scrubbing liquor using AQUATECH Systems` proprietary bipolar membrane technology. This regeneration step recovers a stream of sulfur dioxide suitable for subsequent processing to salable sulfur or sulfuric acid. Additionally 90+% control of NO{sub x} gases can be achieved in combination with conventional urea/methanol injection of NO{sub 2} gas into the duct. The SOXAL process is applicable to both utility and industrial scale boilers using either high or lower sulfur coal. The SOXAL demonstration Program began September 10, 1991 and is approximately 26 months in duration. During the 6 months of scheduled operations, between January and July of 1993, data was collected from the SOXAL system to define: SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control efficiencies; Current efficiency for the regeneration unit; Sulfate oxidation in the absorber; Make-up reagent rates; Product quality including concentrations and compositions; System integration and control philosophy; and Membrane stability and performance with respect to foulants. The program is expected to be concluded in November 1993.

  10. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, [October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-01-14

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. Since most of these ESPs are collecting flyash generated from medium- and high-sulfur coal, they are not experiencing operational limitations which are common when treating high-resistivity particles and are performing at an efficiency that is as high as could be expected. However, there are indications that the collection efficiency could be improved with flue gas conditioning. Conditioning is commonly used for solving operational problems associated with high-resistivity dusts. The purpose of conditioning for low- and moderate-resistivity applications is to increase the adhesive characteristics of the dust. Flue gas conditioning that increases particle adhesion has the potential to improve collection efficiency because a large percentage of particulate emissions from a well-performing ESP is due to reentrainment. Improved ESP performance should result if particle reentrainment could be reduced by making the particles more adhesive. This could produce a significant reduction in emissions from and ESP from the Following mechanisms: reduced erosion-type reentrainment; reduced rapping emissions; reduced hopper reentrainment; increased agglomeration of fine particles.

  11. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 7, May 1, 1992--August 16, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The features that distinguish the CZD process from other similar injection processes are: (1) Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. (2) Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. (3) Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. (4) Localized dispersion of the reagent. (5) Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. The waste product is composed of magnesium and calcium sulfite and sulfate, with some excess lime. This product mixed with fly ash is self-stabilizing because of the excess lime values, and thus tends to retain heavy metals in insoluble forms within the fly ash.

  12. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-06-01

    In the application of pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) to the generation of electricity, hot corrosion of the gas turbine (downstream from the combustor) by alkali metal compounds in the combustion gas is a potential problem. The objective of this investigation is to develop a method for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the high-pressure high-temperature gas from a PFBC before the gas enters the turbine. The use of a granular-bed filter for gas cleanup, utilizing activated bauxite as the bed material, is under study. Data are reported on the removal of gaseous NaCl from hot (800/sup 0/C), pessurized (5 atm), wet (3.4% H/sub 2/O) simulated flue gas using activated bauxite. Greater than 99.9% NaCl vapor capture was achieved. The energy needed for the operation of a fixed granular-bed filter has been estimated. The energy needs and cost of using activated bauxite in the once-through and regeneration modes of operation are compared.

  13. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report {number_sign}6, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Stearns, P.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency hollow fiber contractors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The system will remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will make only marketable byproducts. The approach is to reduce the capital cost using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. New process chemistry is introduced to minimize well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Past work with the phthalocyanine compounds shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas. The arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. There will be separate liquor loops to deconvolute the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  14. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, second quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 6, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    KAwatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources, which is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  15. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  16. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  17. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-01-15

    It is concluded that the laboratory tests should be conducted at high levels of SO{sub 3} such that the resulting resistivity is in the range of 10{sup 7}--10{sup 8} ohm-cm. There are several reasons leading to this conclusion. At SO{sub 3} concentrations of 30 ppM and greater, the curves for both dew point and resistivity are relatively flat so that changes in gas phase SO{sub 3} will have minimal impact on particle characteristics. In addition, the electrostatic forces are relatively flat in this range so that changes in flue gas conditions will that result in a change in resistivity by up to two orders of magnitude will have little effect on the magnitude of reentrainment. Finally, at the very low resistivity conditions, reentrainment will be the highest. Since the purpose of the laboratory resistivity tests is to determine the relative ability of the various additives to reduce resistivity, the greater the reentrainment, the easier it will be to measure an improvement. Tests were conducted by first operating at baseline conditions with no additives and then repeating the test with additives. The data collected during each test includes the resistivity of the material, thickness of the collected dust layer, and subjective indications of the dust characteristics. The candidate additives were from the polymer group, cellulose derivatives, starches and gums, and oils. No waxes or synthetic compounds have been tested to date in the laboratory apparatus. Of the seventeen additives tested, eight appeared to have a positive impact on either the ash layer thickness or the physical appearance of the dust layer. Excessive deposits on the discharge electrode resulted during injection of some of the additives. Three of the additives resulted in significant deposits in the injection chamber. The build up on the electrode was interpreted as a positive indicator of increase particle adhesion. The initial observations and comments for the eight additives are listed in Table 1.

  18. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes: Quarterly report No. 4, April 1, 1989--June 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tischer, R. E.

    1989-06-14

    This quarter, bench-scale experiments have been conducted to measure the mass transfer and kinetic rates at simulated duct injection conditions. Section 2 summarizes the tank reactor test results. The stirred tank reactor (Task 2.1) was designed to simulate the gas/liquid interface of a slurry droplet exposed to SO/sub 2/. The measurements of the gas and liquid mass transfer coefficients were completed. Preliminary tests were run with chemically inert solids present in the solution of hydrochloric acid. Section 3 reports results from a differential reactor (Task 2.2). Mississippi hydrated lime was prehumidified for 4 min prior to contract with synthetic flue gas in a packed bed reactor. The reaction times tested ranged from 10-7,200 s. The differential apparatus and method are being modified to determine the effect of initial after content on the solids reactivity. Solids containing varying amount of moisture will be investigated. Experimental results from a Short-Time Differential Reactor (STDR) (Task 2.3) are presented in Section 4. Gas phase mass transfer and chemical reaction steps could be excluded as rate limiting, leaving the solid phase diffusion as a rate limiting step in the reaction of dry Ca(OH)/sub 2/ with SO/sub 2/. Higher relative humidity promoted conversion of the sorbent. Sorbents with high surface area will be produced and used for future solid phase diffusion experiments. The progress of slurry injection computer modeling (Task 3.1) is presented in Section 5. The computer code was transferred from the VAX to a CRAY computer to reduce the computation time. Results are presented in Section 5 to illustrate the effects of CA(OH)/sub 2/ reactivity and concentration on relative gas/liquid mass transfer resistance. Results are also presented that desceibe gas film resistance as a function of SO/sub 2/. 13 refs., 42 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third year, first quarterly technical progress report Quarter No. 9, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  20. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, fourth quarterly technical progress report, Quarter No. 8, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  1. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  2. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Quarterly technical report, October 1--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.

    1994-01-12

    The initial pilot-scale testing of two additives was completed at CONSOL`s research coal combustor. The results and conclusions from this test series and subsequent analysis of the data are presented in this report. Table 1 summarizes the conditions tested. During the tests, the research combustor was firing a medium-sulfur coal. The combustor had recently been retrofitted with low-NOx burners for a DOE Clean Coal test program. Operation of the low-NOx burners required a reduced flow rate in the combustor, resulting in lower flow and velocity in the ESP. A comprehensive baseline condition was tested, followed by initial screening runs for several additives. It was discovered that the flyash exhibited properties characteristic of a high-resistivity ash. In-situ measurements at the ESP inlet confirmed that the resistivity was in the 10{sup 10} -- 10{sup 12} ohm-cm range. In addition, the ESP plate rappers were not able to remove ash buildup on the first section during normal operation. Power off rapping was periodically required to fully clean the plates; this is a clear indication of high-resistivity conditions. Since the major benefit of ESP additives will be to reduce reentrainment at low to midrange resistivity, this operating condition was undesirable for performance testing. It was decided to continue the program with SO{sub 3} conditioning of the flue gas to reduce particle resistivity. It was also decided to operate with two rather than three electrical fields energized. By reducing the ESP collection area, it was hoped that it would be easier to measure changes in ESP performance and to see an immediate indication of the effectiveness Of SO{sub 3} conditioning. The ESP was reconfigured with two electrical sections energized and SO{sub 3} conditioning at a rate of approximately 20 ppM. An additional baseline was run, followed by extended tests with two additives referred to in this report as Additive ``C`` and Additive ``D.``

  3. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  4. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1996--August 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-09-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite, gypsum, and unreacted limestone or lime, with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather then landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product. In this quarter, the installation of a laboratory-scale flotation column was completed. In addition to the installation of the flotation column, research on the determination of the surface properties of the components of the scrubber sludge was continued. Auger electron spectroscopy was investigated as a method for determining the composition of the first few monolayers of unreacted limestone and calcium sulfite/sulfate particles.

  5. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994 (Quarter No. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1994-03-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{lg_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}0), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{lg_bullet}2H{sub 2}0), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides; silica; and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. Currently, the only market for scrubber sludge is for manufacture of gypsum products, such as wallboard and plaster, and for cement. However, the quality of the raw sludge is often not high enough or consistent enough to satisfy manufacturers, and so the material is difficult to sell. This project is developing a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather that being landfilled.

  6. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  7. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2, Field investigations. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In this quarter, activity focused on the placement of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) grout into auger holes at the Sunny Ridge Mining Co. site. As discussed in previous reports, the grout was prepared using fluidized bed combustion (FBC) by-product obtained from the Costain Coal Company. The grout was thoroughly mixed with water and transferred to a concrete pumping truck. The nozzle on the pumper truck was attached to PVC pipe through which the grout was pumped into the auger holes. The first field test involved the placement of a very high slump, flowable grout into auger holes sing a simple, earthern bulkhead. These tests were conducted to explore the flowability of the grout. The second series of test was conducted with a lower-slump, higher-viscosity material pumped at high pressure and using sandbags as a bulkhead. The goal of these tests was to examine the feasibility of pressure grouting to completely fill auger holes with a material that will exhibit high long-term strength because of this low initial water content. Although there were many problems encountered during the field demonstration, these initial tests were, overall, successful. It was shown that a high-slump grout can be pumped the length of the auger holes, and can be successfully placed in holes containing standing water. Furthermore, this can be accomplished using available concrete emplacement equipment. In contrast, the pressure grouting proved more challenging than emplacement of the flowable grout mainly because of pipe-joint failures and difficulties in working the stiff, high-viscosity grout; the amount of water added to the mix is critical when placing this type of material. Cylinders of grout for compressive strength testing were prepared during field demonstration, and cores of the in situ hardened grout will be recovered after a minimum of 30 days. Additional field demonstration will focus on improving the procedure for placement of the flowable grout.

  8. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 1 -- Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    Efforts primarily focused on Subtask 2.2, Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization and Subtask 4.3, Selection and Testing of Transport System. As part of Subtask 2.2, samples were collected from the Freeman United Crown Mine III FBC disposal facility representing a verity of ages and weathering. A laboratory scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for flue gas desulfurization material (FGDM) emplacement and to provide essential data for the mine emplacement demonstration as part of the Subtask 4.3 effort. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems and has the advantage that the material can be remotely placed without the need for forms. The test program is focusing on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. Work on Subtask 4.1, Mine Selection, also proceeded during the quarter. A new mine site, located in the south-central section of the Pikeville quadrangle, Pike County, Kentucky, was examined for the field study. The proposed fill site is in the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation Middle Amburgy coal bed, a coal previously mined by Costain elsewhere on the property. Efforts on Subtask 4.2, Hydrologic Monitoring Plan, focused primarily on theoretical issues concerning the effects of the mining and backfill activity on the ground water and surface water due to uncertainties in the location of the final field site. There are three major concerns about the effects of the mining activity: changes in the ground water flow field, changes in ground water quality, and consequential induced changes on stream flow.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, Kwan H.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  10. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  11. Novel technologies for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal from flue gas. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.; Kung, M.; Yang, B.; Spivey, J.J.; Jang, B.W.

    1994-06-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a cost-effective low temperature deNO{sub x} catalyst to be used in the Research Triangle Institute-Waterloo SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} process for boiler retrofit applications. The performance goal of the catalyst is to convert over 80% of the NO in the flue gas at a temperature as low as 150{degree}C in the presence of 4% O{sub 2} and 10% water. Based on the results obtained in the first quarter, which showed that modification of a Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst with Nd increased the conversion of NO to N{sub 2}, especially at higher partial pressures of oxygen, and that ethanol was a more effective reductant than propene in the presence of water vapor, research was conducted in this quarter to investigate the use of other modifiers and other alcohols as reductants. It was found that modification of Cu-ZrO{sub 2} by La was more effective than by Nd or Gd. It decreased the hydrocarbon combustion activity of the catalyst while increasing the NO conversion. A Cu-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was also tested. It was superior to Cu-ZrO{sub 2} at temperatures higher than 250{degree}C, but inferior at lower temperatures. On the La-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst, isobutanol was a very effective reductant for NO, being more effective than ethanol. In the presence of 4% O{sub 2}, 2% water, and with a space velocity of 3000 h{sup {minus}1}, an NO conversion to N{sub 2} of 83% was obtained using 1200 ppM isobutanol at 200{degree}C. This is believed to be the highest conversion reported to data without using NH{sub 3} as the reductant. Other catalysts not containing copper were also tested, but their performance was inferior to this La-Cu-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst.

  12. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Quarterly report, August 1--October 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Chugh, Y.P.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate two technologies for the placement of coal combustion by-products in abandoned underground coal mines, and to assess the environmental impact of these technologies for the management of CCB materials. The two technologies for the underground placement that were to be developed and demonstrated are: (1) pneumatic placement using virtually dry CCB products, and (2) hydraulic placement using a paste mixture of CCB products with about 70% solids. The period covered by this report is the second quarter of Phase 3 of the overall program. During this period over 8,000 tons of CCB mixtures was injected using the hydraulic paste technology. This amount of material virtually filled the underground opening around the injection well, and was deemed sufficient to demonstrate fully the hydraulic injection technology. By the end of this quarter about 2,000 tons of fly ash had been placed underground using the pneumatic placement technology. While the rate of injection of about 50 tons per hour met design criteria, problems were experienced in the delivery of fly ash to the pneumatic demonstration site. The source of the fly ash, the Archer Daniels Midland Company power plant at Decatur, Illinois is some distance from the demonstration site, and often sufficient tanker trucks are not available to haul enough fly ash to fully load the injection equipment. Further, on some occasions fly ash from the plant was not available. The injection well was plugged three times during the demonstration. This typically occurred due to cementation of the FBC ash in contact with water. After considerable deliberations and in consultation with the technical project officer, it was decided to stop further injection of CCB`s underground using the developed pneumatic technology.

  13. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 6, February 1, 1992--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  14. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 5, November 1, 1991--January 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO{sub 2} reduction has been achieved, but the NO{sub x} reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO{sub 2} Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel`s original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO{sub 2} removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  15. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Swift, W.M.; Lee, S.H.D.; Jonke, A.A.

    1980-07-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used for downstream gas turbines. This report presents the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from high-temperature high-pressure combustion gases. Activated bauxite, one of the sorbents found to be effective, can be reused after removal of the alkali compound by a water-leaching process. Results of testing of this leaching process are reported. An experimental appartus for testing sorbents at high pressure has been built; results of preliminary tests are reported.

  16. Novel technologies for SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} removal from flue gas. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, H.; Kung, M.; Spivey, J.J.; Jang, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this project is to develop a cost-effective low temperature deNO{sub x}, catalyst to be used in the Research Triangle Institute (RTI)-Waterloo SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} process for boiler retrofit applications. The performance goal of the catalyst is to convert over 80% of the NO in the flue gas at a temperature as low as 150{degrees}C in the presence of 4 % O{sub 2} and 10 % water. In this quarter a two prong approach was used: Northwestern University concentrated their effort to better understand the reduction of NO{sub x} with alcohol over CU-ZrO{sub 2} catalyst while RTI studied the oxidation of NO to NO,. The chief problem encountered in low temperature reduction of NO was catalyst deactivation, which occurred with all alcohols tested (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 2-butanol). This was probably due to coke formation, as regeneration of the catalyst can be achieved by heating in 4 % oxygen. Catalysts with higher Cu loadings deactivated slower. Use of NO{sub 2} instead of NO, in the hope to reduce catalyst coking, improved N{sub 2} yield temporarily but could not stop deactivation. NO oxidation to NO{sub 2} was studied over different catalysts to support the research to improve the stability of catalytic activity. In the presence of SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O at 150{degrees}C, the highest NO oxidation activity was observed over a 10 % CoO/Al{sub 2}O3 catalyst. The activity of the catalyst at first increased slowly, reaching a maximum at around 6 hours on stream, and then slowly decreased. The maximum activity as well as the activity profile with time on stream were affected by the presence of SO{sub 2}. With 0.2 % SO{sub 2}, the activity for NO oxidation to NO{sub 2} reached the maximum with 60 % conversion of NO at 3 hours on stream compared with 42 % at 6 hours when 0.1 % SO{sub 2} was used. The concentrations of O{sub 2}and H{sub 2}O also affected the NO oxidation activity.

  17. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas: activated bauxite sorbent regeneration. Quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-05-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Presented here are the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from these combustion gases in a granular-bed filter. Activated bauxite bed material can be reused after the alkali compound is removed by a water-leaching process. In experiments to study the kinetics of leaching, the effects of adsorbed NaCl loading, leaching temperature, and the leaching water to sorbent ratio on the rate of leaching are reported. Also reported are water retention in bauxite after leaching and the effect of volatile alkalis in makeup activated bauxite on the alkali level in flue gas expanded in the gas turbine.

  18. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Second year, third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1995--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1995-06-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{sm_bullet}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{sm_bullet}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH){sub 2}), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silica, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. This project is studying the characteristics of flue-gas scrubber sludges from several sources. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  19. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  20. Desulfurization of flue gas from multiple boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-07-29

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a plurality of combustion zones, which method comprises: (a) injecting into a first of the combustion zones a finely divided sorbent comprising calcium carbonate; (b) recovering from the first combustion zone a first flue gas having suspended therein particles of spent sorbent and particles of calcined sorbent; (c) separating from the first flue gas a mixture of particles comprising the spent sorbent and the calcined sorbent; (d) reacting a portion of the mixture with water to provide a finely divided dry slaked sorbent; (e) combusting a portion of the sulfur-containing fuel in a second combustion zone to produce a second flue gas containing sulfur dioxide; (f) mixing into the second flue gas at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C. slaked sorbent from step (d) to produce a suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas wherein water is added to the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas of step (f) in amount sufficient to reduce the temperature of the suspension to between about 10/sup 0/ and about 30/sup 0/C. above its dew point wherein the water comprises an aqueous solution of at least one solubilizing agent selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (g) separating solids from the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas; and (h) collecting from the separating of steps (c) and (g) flue gases of reduced sulfur dioxide content.

  1. Scale control in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, D. K.; Gatton, G. D.; Wilson, D. A.

    1984-09-04

    An improvement in a process for flue gas desulfurization in which particular phosphonomethylated derivatives of aminoethylpiperazine, employed as threshold agents, prevent calcium scale formation in the contacting section but permit precipitation of calcium compounds at a later stage.

  2. Combined removal of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from flue gas using non-thermal plasma. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dhali, S.K.

    1994-12-31

    The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was studied for concentration in the range of 333--3000 ppM (parts per million). Since the sulfur content of Illinois coal is high, the SO{sub 2} concentration in typical flue gas is in the high end of the range shown above. With high concentration of SO{sub 2} the removal efficiency decreases. However, the removal scales well with applied voltage, electrode length, and supply frequency. In this period the modeling of the process was also accomplished. The results show that a Townsend-type discharge is more efficient than a streamer type discharge in producing OH and 0 radicals. This explains why UV-irradiation helps the removal efficiency. The details are discussed in the report.

  3. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  5. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Phase 1 -- Laboratory Investigations. Quarterly report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The study of the kinetics of the mineral transformations which take place after the FGD materials are hydrated was continued this quarter (Task 2, Subtask 2.2). Based on X-ray diffraction data, the anhydrite was found to have essentially disappeared by the fifth day of the study, while gypsum was found to maximize in the first 14 days of the study. The relative abundance of ettringite increased throughout the period of observation (40 days). Ettringite was found to nucleate primarily on or near fly ash particles, while gypsum was found to be more mobile, readily filling in cracks and fractures. A second kinetic study was initiated during the period with an experimental setup which is similar to the current effort. The focus of this study will be to determine the effect of moisture conditions on the rate and types of mineralogical reactions which occur. Column leaching studies (Task 2, Subtask 2.4) on the ADM material were initiated during the quarter. Two columns were packed with fly ash and one with bottom ash. One of the columns was blanketed with CO{sub 2} (2.5%) to model the effects of soil gas on the leachate. The samples are being moisturized to model field conditions. Leachate analysis will be available during the next quarter. Work on the field site (Task 6) to establish background data for the demonstration continued. The proposed demonstration site at the Pleasant Valley mine was found to be displaying the effects of severe weathering. An alternate mine site will be explored.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  10. Method for operating a flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, R.; Weinzierl, K.

    1983-02-01

    A method of operating a flue gas desulfurization with a steam power plant heated with fossil fuels. The sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas is removed in a wash tower by means of an excess of milk of lime or limestone, and the resulting sulfite is oxidized with air at a low ph-value into calcium sulfate. The non-converted milk of lime or limestone is neutralized at least partially by an addition of acid waste waters from a complete desalination plant for the supply water, and/or by an addition of acid condensate from the flue or chimney of the steam power plant. An installation for carrying out the method of the present invention includes a wash tower having flue gas flowing therethrough, an oxidation tower having air flowing therethrough, milk of lime or limestone supply into the wash tower, and a delivery device for the wash liquid in the wash tower and in the oxidation tower, with the device having a pump for liquid drawn off from the sump of the wash tower. The sump of the wash tower is connected with a supply line for acid waste water from a complete desalination plant, and/or with a supply line for acid condensate from the chimney or flue of the steam power plant.

  11. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. First quarterly technical progress report, 1 September, 1993--30 November, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1993-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. The vast majority of the sludge is simply landfilled, but with increasing landfilling costs this can cost the plant millions of dollars per year. Producing marketable materials from the sludge is a far more promising avenue, provided that the products can meet the necessary specifications at a reasonable cost. This project is investigating the surface properties of scrubber sludge, particularly of the calcium sulfite, since the surface chemistry of this material has never been studied in detail. Knowledge of these properties is critical for the development of a process that can produce a high-quality calcium sulfite or gypsum product while keeping process costs low enough that the material produced will be competitive with that from other, more conventional sources. This purification will consist of minimal-reagent froth flotation, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified gypsum or calcium sulfite product. The separated limestone will be a useful by-product, as it can be recycled to the scrubber, thus boosting the limestone utilization and improving process efficiency. Calcium sulfite will then be oxidized to gypsum, or separated as a salable product in its own right from sludges where it is present in sufficient quantity. The main product of the process will be either gypsum or calcium sulfite, depending on the characteristics of the sludge being processed. These products will be sufficiently pure to be easily marketed, rather than being landfilled.

  12. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  13. Limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kanda, O.; Nishimura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Nozawa, S.

    1984-12-11

    A flue gas desulfurization process capable of producing a high purity gypsum and also making equipment employed as minimum as possible is provided, which process comprises the steps of cooling and dedusting flue gas containing SO /SUB x/ ; contacting the cooled gas with a slurry containing limestone to remove SO /SUB x/ by absorption and also form CaSO/sub 3/; controlling the pH of the resulting slurry and then blowing air therein to form gypsum; and separating gypsum from the resulting slurry. As a modification of the above process, the slurry of the above second absorption step is further fed to the above first cooling step where unreacted limestone and SO /SUB x/ are reacted to form CaSO/sub 3/.

  14. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.

  15. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 15, September 1, 1994--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project (NDP), with cost-shared funding support from DOE, is to design, construct, and operate a commercial-scale flue gas cleanup system utilizing the NOXSO process. The NDP consists of the NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit, designed to remove SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas and produce elemental sulfur by-product, and the liquid SO{sub 2} plant and air separation unit, designed to process the elemental sulfur into liquid SO{sub 2}. The NOXSO plant and sulfur recovery unit will be constructed at ALCOA Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant near Evansville, Indiana, and will treat all of the flue gas from the 150-MW Unit 2 boiler. The elemental sulfur produced will be shipped to the Olin Charleston Plant in Charleston, Tennessee, for conversion into liquid SO{sub 2}.

  16. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  17. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  18. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  19. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  1. Economic recovery and utilization of boiler flue gas pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.; Sackett, R.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a method of removing unwanted pollutants from flue gas streams from power plants. It comprises passing flue gas containing lime, sulphur dioxide and water in succession through at least three vertically extending beds of particulates, the particulates being disposed in a duct such that the flue gas is passed through substantially all of the particulates, reacting lime, sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form gypsum at a first bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form sulphuric acid, and collecting sulphuric acid below its condensation temperature at a second bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide in the flue gas with an alkali material to form bisulphites and bisulphates at a third bed of particulates; and removing the pollutants from the particulates of the beds.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, June 1--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  5. High-volume, high-value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines: Phase 1, Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The kinetics study which is investigating hydration reactions of the ADM by-product (Subtask 2.2) was continued this quarter. This study further aided in gaining information on mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions during hydration of the ADM materials. The information is of importance for a comprehensive understanding of the factors that control strength and long-term stability during aging of FGD materials. The decision was made by Addington, Inc., DOE, and the University of Kentucky that the originally selected mine site for the emplacement demonstration must be changed, mainly for safety reasons. Mine selection will be a priority for the next quarter (Jul--Sep, 1995). Another activity during this reporting period was related to Subtask 4.3, the selection and testing of the transport system for the FGD material. A laboratory-scale pneumatic emplacement test unit (ETU) for dry FGD materials was built at the CAER to generate data so that a final selection of the field demonstration technology can be made. A dry pneumatic system was chosen for laboratory testing because the equipment and expertise available at the CAER matched this sort of technology best. While the design of the laboratory system was based on shotcrete technology, the physical properties of the emplaced FGD material is expected to be similar for other transport techniques, either pneumatic or hydraulic. In other words, the selection of a dry pneumatic transport system for laboratory testing does not necessarily imply that a scaled-up version will be used for the field demonstration. The ETU is a convenient means of producing samples for subsequent chemical and physical testing by a representative emplacement technology. Ultimately, the field demonstration technology will be chosen based on the laboratory data and the suitability of locally available equipment.

  6. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can be reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, the continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer system at Waterloo was completed. The SO{sub 2} removal factorial experiments were begun Waterloo with the BPL carbon at 21{degrees}C. Also, SO{sub 2} removal was tested on two catalyst at RTI at 80{degrees}C. NO{sub x} conversion was tested on a variety of catalysts at RTI. It was shown that the BPL carbon could remove over 95% SO{sub 2} at 21{degrees}C but would required several beds at space velocity in each bed of abut 1,500 scc/(cc{center dot}h) to reduce SO{sub 2} from 2,500 ppm to 100 ppm. A modified carbon catalyst tested at RTI showed 99% SO{sub 2} removal at 80{degrees}C at 1,400 scc/(cc{center dot}h). Also, it was possible to produce nearly 9 normal H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by periodic flushing of this catalyst. The modified carbon catalyst also demonstrated removal of more than 80% NO{sub x}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines: Phase 2 -- Field investigations. Quarterly report, July 1--September 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    During this quarter, the majority of activity focused on grout emplacement at the Lodestar Energy Inc. (formerly Costain Coal Co.) surface mine auger holes described in the previous report. Specifically, two different types of grout pumps were investigated: a piston pump used in previous demonstrations, and a progressive cavity pump. The latter is currently utilized for grouting in underground coal mines, is relatively small and portable, and is capable of receiving dry material (e.g., fly ash) and water, mixing it to produce a grout, and pumping the grout at high pressure. It is therefore worthwhile to investigate it`s potential use in auger mine filling. Several field demonstrations were conducted using the different pumps. Numerous problems were encountered when using the progressive cavity pump, all of which were related to its inability to handle the highly reactive and heterogeneous FBC fly ash. Even relatively small ash agglomerates (<1 in. in diameter), which were not a problem for the larger piston pump, caused blockages in the progressive cavity pump which not only proved extremely difficult to clear, but also resulted in significant mechanical failures. Furthermore, mixing of dry fly ash with water within the progressive cavity pump was inconsistent and difficult to control. Consequently, the pump was unable to completely fill even a single auger hole. It was found that a large proportion of bed ash in the grout generated a large amount of heat and caused early stiffening of the material. During the experiments, cylinders of grout were prepared for compressive strength testing, and moisture contents were determined on-site. A thermocouple assembly was also constructed to record grout temperatures within an auger hole.

  8. High volume-high value usage of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by- products in underground mines. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The target for the project has been shifted from filling, highwall mine adits to filling auger holes with FGD material to provide a stable highwall for automated highwall mining. As reported previously, this shift in emphasis is economically desirable and practical, as the filling operation is safer and permits access to ``locked in`` high quality coal behind existing auger holes. As also reported previously, the fill material was shifted from dry FGD materials to a Fluidized Bed Combustion fly ash from the Archer Daniel Midland No. 6 facility in Illinois. Previous reports have summarized the characterization of this material for the project. However, due mostly to economic concerns with prehydration and transport of the Archer Daniel Midland (ADM6) material, several new desulfurization by-products stored at the Costain facility in Allen, Kentucky were considered during, this quarter. At this stage of the project, the change in fill material required rapid assessment in much the same way an applied working project would demand quick evaluation. This change thus provided an opportunity to demonstrate a rapid assessment of material suitability. The results described below were obtained in a short time frame, and with the exception of characterizing the long term swell and durability of the products, the rapid assessment was a success. No rapid assessment methodology for long term behavior has been developed at this time. The mineralogical characteristics of the two Costain materials will not be summarized in detail here. Unlike the ADM6 ash, the spray dryer and FBC materials currently under review do not include the large percentages of free lime (CaO) that was shown to cause high mixing temperatures in the nonprehydrated ADM6 product. This absence of free lime in the raw by-products is immediately evident when mixing with water, as no significant heating of the mixture is observed.

  9. High Volume - High Value Usage of Flue Dry Gas Desulfurization (FGD) By-Products in Underground Mines: Quarterly report, January 1-March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    Activities during the quarter focused on two areas: monitoring of grout strength from the field demonstration (Subtask 1.4) and construction of laboratory lysimeters to examine the leaching characteristics of the waste materials used in that demonstration (Subtask 2.4). Two of the auger holes filled in October 1996 at the demonstration site were sampled and returned to the laboratory for compressive strength, mineralogic, and chemical testing. Construction and packing of eight laboratory leaching columns (lysimeters) was also initiated. Four columns were packed with samples of grout taken from cement-mixer trucks during the emplacement (October, 1996). A fifth column was loaded with crushed material cored from borehole {number_sign}10 two months after emplacement. Samples of dry FGD material were used to prepare water/FGD waste blends that were loaded to the final three columns. Two of these latter columns were loaded with a slurry produced by blending water with the FOD waste at levels similar to those used during emplacement (approx. 38 wt%). Differing amounts of slurry was loaded to each these columns and permitted to harden prior to initiating water additions. The final column was loaded with a blend of the dry FGD waste and a lesser amount of water (27.5 wt%) to both facilitate the percolation of water through the lysimeter and to permit subsequent comparisons to previous studies of the leaching behavior of dry FOD materials.1 Weekly additions of 100 mL of distilled water have been initiated. However, due to a significant lag time between the initiation of water feed and leachate-water breakthrough, leaching data are not available for presentation at this time.

  10. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Third quarterly technical progress report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.; Shoop, K.

    1994-06-01

    Column flotation represents a significant improvement over conventional flotation for many applications. This improvement consists of increased selectivity between hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles, which allows the column to produce higher-purity products. A schematic of the column used is given in Figure 1. The basic procedure for the flotation column experiments was as follows: 500 grams of the sludge from Plant A (prepared as described in the Second Quarterly Report) was suspended at 40% solids in distilled water, to produce 1600 ml of slurry. Reagents were added, and the slurry was agitated vigorously for 1 minute. Frother was added to all of the water to be added to the column, at a rate of 0.03 grams/liter (approximately 0.4 kilograms per metric ton, Kg/mt). The frother used was Dowfroth 200 (a mixture of polypropylene glycol methyl ethers, with a mean molecular weight of 200). The column was started, all of the water flowrates were set as desired, and the drain valve was closed. As soon as the water level had reached the base of the feed inlet tube (approximately 1 minute after closing the drain valve), the 1600 ml feed slurry was added over a 15 second interval. This allowed the feed to be added to the column with a minimum of disturbance to the froth layer, and without causing either surging of the pulp level or large losses to the sinks product. Flotation was carried out for 9 minutes after closing the drain valve. Froth and sinks products were collected, filtered, dried at 45{degrees}C, weighed, and analyzed by thermogravimetic analysis. It is readily seen that, when no collector is added, the column produces a product that is markedly higher purity than that produced by conventional flotation. The addition of oleic acid collector to the column feed is not able to produce any further improvement in product quality, and only results in a loss of product recovery.

  11. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  12. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.

  13. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  14. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Pradhan, S.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The research program involves the determination of the biocatalytic characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale studies, and the feasibility study and economic analysis of the Botryococcus braunii culture systems for the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The objective of the third quarter of this research program was to determine the growth and hydrogen formation characteristics of free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale photobioreactors. Raceway and inclined surface type bioreactors were used for free cell and immobilized cell studies respectively. The free cell studies with air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% (v/v) CO{sub 2} in air] in media with and without NaHCO{sub 3} were conducted.

  15. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by- product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. The objective of the NOXSO Clean Coal Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Alcoa Generating Corporation`s (AGC) Warrick Power Plant. The NOXSO plant is being designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 75% of the NO{sub x} from the flue gas from the 150-MW equivalent, unit 2 boiler. The by-product to be generated by the project is liquid SO{sub 2}. Sufficient construction cost and operating data will be obtained during the project to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is in the Front End Engineering/Environmental Evaluation Phase. Engineering activities are approximately 20% complete and activities to update the project estimate based on completed engineering and equipment bids have been initiated. Process study activities include laboratory fluid-bed adsorber studies, regenerator computer model development and studies, fluid-flow modelling in fluid-bed vessels, and evaluations of SO{sub 2} production processes. The laboratory- scale, fluid-bed adsorber studies are being conducted to improve the accuracy of the removal efficiency predictions and study the impact of adding a third adsorber stage. The construction of the steel, multi-stage reactor is currently underway. The regenerator computer model was revised and is being used to study design options for improving the regenerator performance. Fluid-flow modelling has been conducted to study the effect of grid supports on the gas flow inside the fluid bed vessels.

  16. Ductwork: Materials of construction for flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donnell, R.J.; Khederian, J.C.; Martin, J.E.; Watson, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    This paper identifies the ductwork materials required for the various service conditions in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system (FGDS) at Indianapolis Power and Light Company`s (IPL) Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base-loaded units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output. The flue gas conditions include hot unscrubbed gas (bypass), hot unscrubbed gas mixed with cool ambient air (normal), a mixing zone of gas only/air only associated with an open bypass system (no damper), and cool, wet scrubbed gas (outlet ducts). In addition, there are upset conditions associated with the loss of an air preheater. This system is somewhat unique, in that each unit has its own separate open or undampered bypass system, including separate stack liners. While a separate bypass system eliminates the extremely severe corrosion problems associated with mixing unscrubbed gas and scrubbed gas in a common bypass flue, it does create potential problems mixing cool ambient air with hot flue gas.

  17. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  19. Automatic flue gas heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.A.

    1983-02-22

    An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

  20. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

    1996-03-20

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  3. Characteristics of pneumatically-emplaced dry flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Kentucky in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Addington, Inc. and Costain Coal is currently developing a commercial concept for the haul back of dry flue gas desulfurization materials (FGDM) into highwall mine adits. The University`s Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is investigating emplacement systems for a mine demonstration which is planned for the third quarter of 1996. A laboratory-scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for FGDM emplacement. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems in which water is mixed with cement (FGDM) in a nozzle at the end of the pneumatic pipe. Solids travel approximately 70 ft in the lab-scale system at a rate of up to 6 lb FGDM/minute prior to impingement onto a sample collector. Prehydrated FGDM from a circulating fluidized bed combustor has been successfully emplaced onto vertically positioned sample surfaces without excessive dust liberation. The test program is focussed on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. The mineralogy and strength of a pneumatically created sample are described following curing for 60 days.

  4. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

  5. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, or ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, five cycle thermogravimetric tests were conducted at the Louisiana State University (LSU) with sodium bicarbonate Grade 3 (SBC{number_sign}3) which showed that carbonation activity declined slightly over 5 cycles following severe calcination conditions of 200 C in pure CO{sub 2}. Three different sets of calcination conditions were tested. Initial carbonation activity (as measured by extent of reaction in the first 25 minutes) was greatest subsequent to calcination at 120 C in He, slightly less subsequent to calcination in 80% CO{sub 2}/20% H{sub 2}O, and lowest subsequent to calcination in pure CO{sub 2} at 200 C. Differences in the extent of reaction after 150 minutes of carbonation, subsequent to calcination under the same conditions followed the same trend but were less significant. The differences between fractional carbonation under the three calcination conditions declined with increasing cycles. A preliminary fixed bed reactor test was also conducted at LSU. Following calcination, the sorbent removed approximately 19% of the CO{sub 2} in the simulated flue gas. CO{sub 2} evolved during subsequent calcination was consistent with an extent of carbonation of approximately 49%. Following successful testing of SBC{number_sign}3 sorbent at RTI reported in the last quarter, a two cycle fluidized bed reactor test was conducted with trona as the sorbent precursor, which was calcined to sodium carbonate. In the first carbonation cycle, CO

  7. Flue gas cleaning by multiple irradiation with electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Mätzing, H.; Lindner, W.

    1995-09-01

    By electron beam treatment, NOx and SO2 can be reduced simultaneously from combustion flue gas. The efficiency of the process has been shown to improve by multiple irradiation. It appears most promising to perform the multiple irradiation with an intermediate gas scrubber. This paper reports experimental investigations on the efficiency of the intermediate filter.

  8. CO/sub 2/ can be produced from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.S.

    1982-11-22

    The monoethanolamine (MEA) process has been successfully applied to the production of CO/sub 2/ from coal-fired boiler flue gas. The CO/sub 2/ recovered as a wet gas is used in the production of soda ash by the carbonation of brine. Details of the MEA process and operational difficulties encountered are given.

  9. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  12. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  13. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  16. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  17. Intense electron beam application for flue gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Systematic work concerning electron beam flue gas treatment process upscaling has been performed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology since 1986. Laboratory unit with gas flow 400 Nm{sup 3}/h has been constructed. An industrial plant with gas flow 20,000 Nm{sup 3}/h (two accelerators 50 kW, 0.8 MeV) has been built at EPS Kaweczyn. Finally design of 270,000 Nm{sup 3}/h industrial plant (four accelerators 300 kW, 0.8 MeV) to be built at EPS Pomorzany has been prepared. Several new solutions mostly leading to power consumption reduction were introduced. The longitudinal, double gas irradiation was applied among them. The technical-economical analysis proved that process is very competitive with conventional technologies widely used for flue gas purification.

  18. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  19. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (bermudagrass)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synthetic gypsum is being produced in large quantities each year as a byproduct of SO2 removal from flue gas stream at coal-fired utility plants. This synthetic gypsum which is believed to be comparable or better than mined gypsum may enhance crop production. However, there is a paucity of informati...

  20. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  1. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  2. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  3. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  4. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  5. IHI in-line type flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, F.; Kanamori, A.; Fujino, Y.

    1995-06-01

    Desulfurization systems are indispensable for reducing air pollution caused by flue gas from power plants. It is essential that the cost for constructing and operating such systems is low. IHI has developed such a system based on its expertise gathered over the years. The test results and outline of the system are presented in this paper.

  6. Plasma-assisted cleanup of flue gas. Technical report, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dhali, S.K.

    1994-09-01

    The experimental data reported in the last quarterly report were verified by repeating the experiments. It was consistently determined that there is nearly 80% removal of SO{sub 2} in a flue gas containing 775 ppm (parts per million) of SO{sub 2} and 99% for SO{sub 2} in concentrations of 300 ppm. The reduction increases with increasing electrode length. Also during this period, the removal studies for higher concentrations of SO{sub 2} (1400 ppm) were studied. For this a variable frequency power supply was used. It was found that the removal efficiency increased with frequency (in the range 60-400 Hz).

  7. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  8. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew

    1995-06-01

    Over 1000 accelerators based on different principles have been constructed and used in the field of radiation chemistry and radiation processing. One of the radiation processes which was successfully demonstrated in many laboratories and pilot plant facilities is the reduction of SO 2 and NO x pollutants from flue gases emitted during fuel combustion in boilers for electrical power and heat production. The full scale industrial implementation of an electron beam process for flue gases treatment would require accelerator modules with a beam power of over 500 kW and electron energy in the range 1-1.5 MeV. The 500 MW power plant may require 5-8 MW of electron beam power deposited in the flue gas.

  9. EPRICON: Agentless flue gas conditioning for electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Bibbo, P.P.

    1995-09-01

    Achieving efficient particulate control in coal burning electric utility plants is becoming an increasingly difficult proposition, giver, the variety of regulatory, technical, operating and environmental pressures that exist in the US. For most powerplants, particulate control is achieved by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under optimal conditions, modern ESPs are capable of achieving particulate removal efficiencies of 99.7 %. Unfortunately, optimal conditions are not always present. ESP`s are sensitive to flue gas conditions, and those conditions may change dramatically after a fuel switch or the installation of some types of emissions control technology upstream of the ESP. Gas conditioning has been shown to be an effective means of returning flue gas to the ``optimal`` conditions required for efficient ESP operation following a fuel switch to a low, or at least, lower sulfur coal. Borrowing technology common in conventional soap-making plants around the turn of the century, sulfur-burning SO3 gas conditioning has been the solution to may difficult fuels in electrostatic precipitators. Although it has contributed most to improved ESP performance after a fuel switch, conventional gas conditioning has significant drawbacks. In an effort to develop an alternative to conventional SO{sub 3} gas conditioning, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research and development project that has produced an alternative and modem technology for flue gas conditioning, now called EPRICON, and licensed it to Research-Cottrell. This article describes the EPRICON process and its performance in pilot and demonstration plants.

  10. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W L; Johnson, M R

    2006-04-21

    We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.

  11. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  12. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the third reporting quarter, the electrostatic tensiometer for laboratory determination of flyash cohesivity was completed. Modifications were made to this method to improve repeatability. In addition, a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace was completed. Also during this quarter an agreement was reached for the initial field trial of the new additives at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  13. Direct fired absorption machine flue gas recuperator

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.; Root, Richard A.

    1985-01-01

    A recuperator which recovers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine. The recuperator includes a housing with liquid flowing therethrough, the liquid being in direct contact with the combustion gas for increasing the effectiveness of the heat transfer between the gas and the liquid.

  14. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a flue gas conditioning system was completed at PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. Performance testing was underway. Results will be detailed in the next quarterly and subsequent technical summary reports. Also in this quarter, discussions were initiated with a prospective long-term candidate plant. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning has been proposed here, but there is interest in liquid additives as a safer alternative.

  15. Assessing sorbent injection mercury control effectiveness in flue gas streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Chang, R.; Meserole, F.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.

    2000-01-01

    One promising approach for removing mercury from coal-fired, utility flue gas involves the direct injection of mercury sorbents. Although this method has been effective at removing mercury in municipal waste incinerators, tests conducted to date on utility coal-fired boilers show that mercury removal is much more difficult in utility flue gas. EPRI is conducting research to investigate mercury removal using sorbents in this application. Bench-scale, pilot-scale, and field tests have been conducted to determine the ability of different sorbents to remove mercury in simulated and actual flue gas streams. This paper focuses on recent bench-scale and field test results evaluating the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon and fly ash and the use of these results to develop a predictive mercury removal model. Field tests with activated carbon show that adsorption characteristics measured in the lab agree reasonably well with characteristics measured in the field. However, more laboratory and field data will be needed to identify other gas phase components which may impact performance. This will allow laboratory tests to better simulate field conditions and provide improved estimates of sorbent performance for specific sites. In addition to activated carbon results, bench-scale and modeling results using fly ash are presented which suggest that certain fly ashes are capable of adsorbing mercury.

  16. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  17. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was completed at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. The product was effective as a flue gas conditioner. However, ongoing problems with in-duct deposition resulting from the flue gas conditioning were not entirely resolved. Primarily these problems were the result of difficulties encountered with retrofit of an existing spray humidification system. Eventually it proved necessary to replace all of the original injection lances and to manually bypass the PLC-based air/liquid feed control. This yielded substantial improvement in spray atomization and system reliability. However, the plant opted not to install a permanent system. Also in this quarter, preparations continued for a test of the cohesivity additives at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative.

  18. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  19. Industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Romanowski, Micna; Koperski, Kazimierz

    1995-09-01

    The positive results of the tests performed on laboratory and pilot installations in Poland, Japan, USA and Germany have led to decision concerning design and construction of the industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment. The planned flue gas purification installation will treat tlue gases from a block which consists of two Benson type boilers of power 56 MWe each supplying additional steam for heating purposes up to 40 MWth each. The 270 000 Nm3 /h tlue gases (half of produced by the block) will be treated with efficiency of 90% for SO2 and 70% for NOx. This meets Polish regulations which will be imposed in 1997. The technical and economical description of the project is presented in the paper.

  20. Capture of CO2 From Recirculating Flue Gas Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The possible need for an economical method for the separation of CO2 from flue gas adds a new set of challenges to power plant design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Many of the new requirements of CO2 separation are similar in nature to those addressed by the mature chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining and industrial chemical production. Chemical engineering processes are regularly used to separate heterogeneous vapors in processes such as the fractionation of hydrocarbons or the separation of the components of air. This paper addresses the application of chemical engineering processes to the mixtures of gases and vapors found in the flue gas of recirculating boilers. Adaptation of these techniques can lead to a reduction in the energy required to capture CO2.

  1. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Engineered sorbents composed of sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were tested in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor system and found to be capable of essentially complete removal of carbon dioxide at 60 C in a short residence time. Upon breakthrough the sorbents can be thermally regenerated to recover essentially all of the absorbed carbon dioxide. An optimized supported sorbent tested in a pilot-scale entrained bed absorber retained its reactivity in multicycle tests and experienced no attrition. Removal of >90% of carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas was achieved in an entrained bed reactor.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  4. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.

    1993-01-20

    We performed a wide variety of laboratory analyses during the past quarter. As with most of the work we performed during the previous quarter, our recent efforts were primarily directed toward the determination of the effects of adsorbed water on the cohesivity and tensile strength of powders. We also continued our analyses of dust cake ashes that have had the soluble compounds leached from their particle surfaces by repeated washings with water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes continued to provide some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. As suggested by our literature review, our data indicate that water adsorption depends on particle morphology and on surface chemistry. Our measurements of tensile strength show, that for many of the samples we have analyzed a relative minimum in tensile strength exists for samples conditioned and tested at about 30% relative humidity. In our examinations of the effects of water conditioning on sample cohesivity, we determined that in the absence of absorption of water into the interior of the particles, cohesivity usually increases sharply when environments having relative humidities above 75% are used to condition and test the samples. Plans are under way to condition selected samples with (NH[sub 4])[sub 2]SO[sub 4], NH[sub 4]HSO[sub 4], CaCl[sub 2], organosiloxane, and SO[sub 3]. Pending approval, we will begin these conditioning experiments, and subsequent analyses of the conditioned samples.

  5. Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, A.

    1980-10-01

    A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

  6. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  7. Unusual chemical compounds in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems continue to have deposits formed on internal surfaces of the materials of which the FGD systems are fabricated. These compounds contribute to crevice corrosion of the alloys of which some of the FGD systems are made. In the process of performing the failure analysis of the FGD fabrication materials, new compounds were discovered. This paper discusses two corrosion failure analysis case histories and the new compounds that were discovered and the chemical environment in which they were discovered.

  8. The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Granite, Evan J; Freeman, Mark C; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Pennline, Henry W

    2007-09-01

    The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/h pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commercially-available activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas. The Thief Process was licensed to Mobotec USA, Inc. in May of 2005.

  9. Optimize Flue Gas Settings to Promote Microalgae Growth in Photobioreactors via Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-01-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions1. Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants3, but also synthesize advanced biofuels2-4. Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth5. On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient “flue gas to algae” system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations4,6 and cultivation strategies7,8 with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

  10. Valorization of Flue Gas by Combining Photocatalytic Gas Pretreatment with Microalgae Production.

    PubMed

    Eynde, Erik Van; Lenaerts, Britt; Tytgat, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Utilization of flue gas for algae cultivation seems to be a promising route because flue gas from fossil-fuel combustion processes contains the high amounts of carbon (CO2) and nitrogen (NO) that are required for algae growth. NO is a poor nitrogen source for algae cultivation because of its low reactivity and solublilty in water and its toxicity for algae at high concentrations. Here, we present a novel strategy to valorize NO from flue gas as feedstock for algae production by combining a photocatalytic gas pretreatment unit with a microalgal photobioreactor. The photocatalytic air pretreatment transforms NO gas into NO2 gas and thereby enhances the absorption of NOx in the cultivation broth. The absorbed NOx will form NO2(-) and NO3(-) that can be used as a nitrogen source by algae. The effect of photocatalytic air pretreatment on the growth and biomass productivity of the algae Thalassiosira weissflogii in a semicontinuous system aerated with a model flue gas (1% CO2 and 50 ppm of NO) is investigated during a long-term experiment. The integrated system makes it possible to produce algae with NO from flue gas as the sole nitrogen source and reduces the NOx content in the exhaust gas by 84%.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-10-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. We developed our management plan in Task 1. Task 2, evaluation of mechanisms in FGD sorbent and ash interactions, focuses on characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, evaluation of mechanisms in conditioning agents and ash, is designed to examine effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine mechanisms by which these agents alter physical properties of ash. We began Tasks 2 and 3 with an extensive literature search and assembly of existing theories. We completed this phase of the project with publication of two special Topical Reports. Our laboratory analyses during the past quarter covered a variety of topics. We quantified increases in surface area, changes in particle morphology, and increases in cohesivity that result when sorbents are mixed with ashes. Measurements of water content illustrated the increased tendency of the mixtures to adsorb and absorb water. Our analyses of leached and unleached dust cake ashes provided some interesting insights into effects that compounds adsorbed on surfaces of ash particles can have on bulk ash behavior. We also observed the effects that pozzolanic reactions can have on ash resistivity. Initial examinations of outputs of the SRI-EPA resistivity prediction model showed that the model could not accurately predict the resistivities we measured for leached and unleached dust cake ashes.

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This is the sixth quarterly report for this project and it covers work performed on Phase 3a of the project from February 1, 1992 through April 30, 1992. Extension of the parametric test period through June 1992 provides an opportunity to regain most of the schedule slippage, but only if the modifications needed for continuous operation of the CZD system are installed concurrent with the extended test period. These modifications include automation of the lime preparation and transfer system, automatic injection control, and related instrumentation and controls as necessary to integrate the operation of the CZD system with Seward Station Boiler No. 15. Early installation of these modifications would permit testing, debugging and adjustment of the automatic control system during the parametric test period. Results of current testing indicate that considerable testing and adjustment will be required to optimize operation of the CZD system after it is automated for continuous operation. Therefore, we intend to incorporate in Phase 3a(parametric testing) the system modifications needed for continuous automatic operation that were originally included in Phase 3b. Phase 3b would then be limited only to the one-year continuous demonstration.

  13. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  14. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions have begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the second reporting quarter for this project, design and development is continuing on an electrostatic tensiometer to measure cohesion of flyash layers. A dedicated test fixture to automate flyash electrical resistivity testing is also underway. Ancillary instrumentation to control gas humidification within these test fixtures is also under construction.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  17. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  18. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  19. FUNDAMENTALS OF MERCURY OXIDATION IN FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble

    2004-08-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves two experimental scales and a modeling effort. The team is comprised of University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studies include HCl, NOx, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 1 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the drop tube are just beginning and a new, speciated mercury analyzer is up and running. A preliminary assessment has been made for the drop tube experiments using the existing model of gas-phase kinetics.

  20. Method for converting noxious pollutants from flue gas into merchantable by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for removing pollutants from boiler plant flue gases comprising the steps of: (a) exchanging heat between a flue gas which contains SO[sub 2], SO[sub 3] and NO pollutants and a first fluid to cool the flue gas down to a first temperature whereat substantially all SO[sub 3] in the flue gas is combined with H[sub 2]O; (b) condensing the SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O from the flue gas as a first condensate; (c) adding a solution containing an ammoniacal substance and a detergent to said flue gas to produce soapsuds and sulfates including ammonium bisulfate; (d) collecting the soap suds and ammonium bisulfate produced after said adding step and the first condensate as a first solution; and (e) separating ammonium bisulfate from said first solution.

  1. Development of economical compact type wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Shigeru; Kaku, Hiroyuki

    1995-06-01

    In the last quarter of this century Environmental Protection has become a major global issue. For the removal of SO{sub 2} emitted from thermal power plants, the wet limestone-gypsum process has widely been adopted. However, a more noteworthly economical method has been desired for its spreading. Under these circumstances, Babcock-Hitachi has developed a new compact type Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system by improving the conventional type wet limestone-gypsum process incorporating its advantages. The compact absorber was realized by increasing its gas velocity and the flue gas duct has been minimized by adopting a horizontal flow spray tower instead of a vertical flow spray tower which is commonly adopted in the conventional type. Through this a considerable reduction in construction costs have been achieved. The design study of this compact type FGD plant shows that it can be applied not only new plants but also existing power plants, Features of this compact type FGD, pilot plant test results and examples of the design study are introduced in this paper.

  2. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  3. UV light source adaptive sensing technology for flue gas measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The UV absorption spectrometry technique DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) has been widely used in continuous monitoring of flue gas, and has achieved good results. DOAS method is based on the basic law of light absorption--Lambert-Beer law. SO2, NOX are the principal component of the flue gas. These components are considered by DOAS method at the same time. And certain mathematical methods are used for concentrations measuring. The Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) based on the principle of DOAS mainly has two probe-styles present: in-situ probe-style and extractive probe-style. For the in-situ probe-style CEMS based on DOAS method, prolonged use for the UV light source, contaminated lens caused by floating oil and complex environment of the flue will all bring attenuation of the spectral intensity, it will affect the accuracy of measurement. In this article, an in-situ continuous monitoring system based on DOAS method is described, and a component adaptive sensing technology is proposed. By using this adaptive sensing technology, CEMS can adjust the integral time of the spectrometer according to the non-measuring attenuation of the light source intensity and automatically compensate the loss of spectral intensity. Under the laboratory conditions, the experiments for SO2, NO standard gas measurement using adaptive sensing technology is made. Many different levels of light intensity attenuation are considered in the experiments. The results show that the adaptive sensing technology can well compensate the non-measuring loss of spectral intensity. In the field measurement, this technology can well reduce the measurement error brought by attenuation of light intensity, compared with the handheld gas analyzer, the average error of concentration measurement is less than 2% FS(Full Scale).

  4. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  5. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-11-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  7. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-09-30

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  8. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2006-07-31

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 3 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments have been completed on the effects of chlorine. However, the experiments with sulfur dioxide and NO, in the presence of water, suggest that the wet-chemistry analysis system, namely the impingers, is possibly giving erroneous results. Future work will investigate this further and determine the role of reactions in the impingers on the oxidation results. The solid-phase experiments have not been completed and it is anticipated that only preliminary work will be accomplished during this study.

  9. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    JoAnn S. Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2005-08-01

    The objective of this project is to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involves both experimental and modeling efforts. The team is comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective is to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters to be studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. This report summarizes Year 2 results for the experimental and modeling tasks. Experiments in the mercury reactor are underway and interesting results suggested that a more comprehensive look at catalyzed surface reactions was needed. Therefore, much of the work has focused on the heterogeneous reactions. In addition, various chemical kinetic models have been explored in an attempt to explain some discrepancies between this modeling effort and others.

  10. Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, W.; Angelo, F.; Clemens, M.

    1995-06-01

    With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO{sub x} emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ``greenhouse gas`` contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition.

  11. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  12. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  13. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

  14. Cost effective materials for flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Brady, B.

    1996-10-01

    Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) is an effective way to remove sulfur dioxide from coal combustion processes and reduce the potential for acid rain. However, wet FGD processes often require highly corrosion resistant construction materials such as high alloys for adequate service life. An excellent material for wet FGD applications at about one half the cost of high alloys is fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) based on epoxy vinyl ester resin. This paper discusses the background and improvements that have led to the use of some of the world`s largest composite structures in FGD service.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

  16. Fundamentals of Mercury Oxidation in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    JoAnn Lighty; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Joseph Helble; Balaji Krishnakumar

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project was to understand the importance of and the contribution of gas-phase and solid-phase coal constituents in the mercury oxidation reactions. The project involved both experimental and modeling efforts. The team was comprised of the University of Utah, Reaction Engineering International, and the University of Connecticut. The objective was to determine the experimental parameters of importance in the homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation reactions; validate models; and, improve existing models. Parameters studied include HCl, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} concentrations, ash constituents, and temperature. The results suggested that homogeneous mercury oxidation is below 10% which is not consistent with previous data of others and work which was completed early in this research program. Previous data showed oxidation above 10% and up to 100%. However, the previous data are suspect due to apparent oxidation occurring within the sampling system where hypochlorite ion forms in the KCl impinger, which in turn oxidized mercury. Initial tests with entrained iron oxide particles injected into a flame reactor suggest that iron present on fly ash particle surfaces can promote heterogeneous oxidation of mercury in the presence of HCl under entrained flow conditions. Using the data generated above, with homogeneous reactions accounting for less than 10% of the oxidation, comparisons were made to pilot- and full-scale data. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions, as with the case of iron oxide, and adsorption on solid carbon must be taking place in the full-scale system. Modeling of mercury oxidation using parameters from the literature was conducted to further study the contribution of homogeneous pathways to Hg oxidation in coal combustion systems. Calculations from the literature used rate parameters developed in different studies, in some cases using transition state theory with a range of approaches and basis sets, and in other cases

  17. CO2 , NOx and SOx removal from flue gas via microalgae cultivation: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Flue gas refers to the gas emitting from the combustion processes, and it contains CO2 , NOx , SOx and other potentially hazardous compounds. Due to the increasing concerns of CO2 emissions and environmental pollution, the cleaning process of flue gas has attracted much attention. Using microalgae to clean up flue gas via photosynthesis is considered a promising CO2 mitigation process for flue gas. However, the impurities in the flue gas may inhibit microalgal growth, leading to a lower microalgae-based CO2 fixation rate. The inhibition effects of SOx that contribute to the low pH could be alleviated by maintaining a stable pH level, while NOx can be utilized as a nitrogen source to promote microalgae growth when it dissolves and is oxidized in the culture medium. The yielded microalgal biomass from fixing flue gas CO2 and utilizing NOx and SOx as nutrients would become suitable feedstock to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In addition to the removal of SOx , NOx and CO2 , using microalgae to remove heavy metals from flue gas is also quite attractive. In conclusion, the use of microalgae for simultaneous removal of CO2 , SOx and NOx from flue gas is an environmentally benign process and represents an ideal platform for CO2 reutilization.

  18. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  19. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  20. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue...

  1. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  2. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  3. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  4. Process and apparatus for drying and preheating coking coal by means of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1981-12-29

    Flue gas discharged from a recuperator or regenerator of a coke oven battery has the steam thereof removed by means of a direct or indirect cooling and condensation operation. After the steam is removed from the flue gas it is then passed through a coke dry cooling plant in direct contact with hot coke therein to form dry cooled coke while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the flue gas. The flue gas is then passed through a coal preheating plant to directly contact and dry and preheat moist coking coal contained therein. The entire system is open, such that a given quantity of the flue gas passes only once through the system. When the temperature of the flue gas as received from a coke oven battery is extremely high, then the flue gas may be subjected to a partial cooling operation prior to the cooling and condensation operation. Further, a portion of the heat of the flue gas, after the discharge thereof from the coke dry cooling plant and prior to the introduction thereof into the coal preheating plant, may be used to generate steam and/or electricity.

  5. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se, and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile elements, such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg), which could lead to serious environmental health risks. The capture of these toxic elements in the scrubber with a flue gas desulphurization (FGD...

  6. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se, and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile elements, such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg), which could lead to serious environmental health risks. The capture of these toxic elements in the scrubber with a flue gas desulphurization (FGD...

  7. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue...

  8. Flue gas conditioning for fabric filter performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S. J.

    1989-12-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a particulate control technology that can reliably remove particulate matter, with particle diameters from 0.01 to 10 micrometers ({mu}m), from a flue gas stream, with a removal efficiency of at least 99.9% for all particle sizes, independent of coal type. The method involved injection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) as conditioning agents into the flue gas, upstream of a baghouse to increase particle collection efficiency and simultaneously reduce baghouse pressure drop. Work included the design and construction of a single-bag, reverse-air baghouse that was installed on the existing EERC particulate test combustor. Effort consisted of four, one-day tests with the shaker baghouse to verify conditioning agent concentrations determined in previous bench-scale research at EERC, and four, one-day shakedown tests with the reverse-air baghouse. Four tests were conducted, including a baseline and conditioning test with the reverse-air baghouse using Pittsburgh {number sign}8 seam bituminous and Monticello Texas lignite. Longer-term verification of the effectiveness of conditioning with a reverse-air-cleaned baghouse consisted of 500-hour baseline and conditioning tests with, the Monticello lignite. 30 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-01-14

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. Since most of these ESPs are collecting flyash generated from medium- and high-sulfur coal, they are not experiencing operational limitations which are common when treating high-resistivity particles and are performing at an efficiency that is as high as could be expected. However, there are indications that the collection efficiency could be improved with flue gas conditioning. Conditioning is commonly used for solving operational problems associated with high-resistivity dusts. The purpose of conditioning for low- and moderate-resistivity applications is to increase the adhesive characteristics of the dust. Flue gas conditioning that increases particle adhesion has the potential to improve collection efficiency because a large percentage of particulate emissions from a well-performing ESP is due to reentrainment. Improved ESP performance should result if particle reentrainment could be reduced by making the particles more adhesive. This could produce a significant reduction in emissions from and ESP from the Following mechanisms: reduced erosion-type reentrainment; reduced rapping emissions; reduced hopper reentrainment; increased agglomeration of fine particles.

  10. Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas.

    PubMed

    Presto, Albert A; Granite, Evan J

    2006-09-15

    Methods for removing mercury from flue gas have received increased attention because of recent limitations placed on mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various states. A promising method for mercury removal is catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to oxidized mercury (Hg2+), followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). FGD cannot remove Hg0, but easily removes Hg2+ because of its solubility in water. To date, research has focused on three broad catalyst areas: selective catalytic reduction catalysts, carbon-based materials, and metals and metal oxides. We review published results for each type of catalyst and also present a discussion on the possible reaction mechanisms in each case. One of the major sources of uncertainty in understanding catalytic mercury oxidation is a lack of knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Thus, we propose that future research in this area should focus on two major aspects: determining the reaction mechanism and kinetics and searching for more cost-effective catalyst and support materials.

  11. Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Albert A. Presto; Evan J. Granite

    2006-09-15

    Methods for removing mercury from flue gas have received increased attention because of recent limitations placed on mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various states. A promising method for mercury removal is catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}), followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). FGD cannot remove Hg{sup 0}, but easily removes Hg{sup 2+} because of its solubility in water. To date, research has focused on three broad catalyst areas: selective catalytic reduction catalysts, carbon-based materials, and metals and metal oxides. We review published results for each type of catalyst and also present a discussion on the possible reaction mechanisms in each case. One of the major sources of uncertainty in understanding catalytic mercury oxidation is a lack of knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Thus, we propose that future research in this area should focus on two major aspects: determining the reaction mechanism and kinetics and searching for more cost-effective catalyst and support materials. 91 refs.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  13. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  14. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  15. Volatile metal species in coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Pavageau, Marie-Pierre; Pécheyran, Christophe; Krupp, Eva M; Morin, Anne; Donard, Olivier F X

    2002-04-01

    Metals are released in effluents of most of combustion processes and are under intensive regulations. To improve our knowledge of combustion process and their resulting emission of metal to the atmosphere, we have developed an approach allowing usto distinguish between gaseous and particulate state of the elements emitted. This study was conducted on the emission of volatile metallic species emitted from a coal combustion plant where low/medium volatile coal (high-grade ash) was burnt. The occurrence of volatile metal species emission was investigated by cryofocusing sampling procedure and detection using low-temperature packed-column gas chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as multielement detector (LT-GC/ICP-MS). Samples were collected in the stack through the routine heated sampling line of the plant downstream from the electrostatic precipitator. The gaseous samples were trapped with a cryogenic device and analyzed by LT-GC/ICP-MS. During the combustion process, seven volatile metal species were detected: three for Se, one for Sn, two for Hg, and one for Cu. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental metal species spiking experiments suggest that the following volatile metal species are present in the flue gas during the combustion process: COSe, CSSe, CSe2, SeCl2, Hg0, HgCl2, CuO-CuSO4 or CuSO4 x H2O, and SnO2 or SnCl2. The quantification of volatile species was compared to results traditionally obtained by standardized impinger-based sampling and analysis techniques recommended for flue gas combustion characterization. Results showed that concentrations obtained with the standard impinger approach are at least 10 times higher than obtained with cryogenic sampling, suggesting the trapping microaerosols in the traditional methods. Total metal concentrations in particles are also reported and discussed.

  16. SNOX flue gas cleaning demonstration project: A DOE assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with a suite of advanced, cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally responsible coal-utilization technologies through cooperatively implementing a series of demonstration projects with industry stake holders. These projects seek to establish at scale the commercial viability of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as DOE's post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2, SNOX{trademark} Flue Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project. DOE's participation in this project through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC89655 is consistent with Public Law 100-202 as amended by Public Law 100-446. The SNOX process is a combination of catalytic processes that remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and residual particulate matter (PM) from flue gas that has been pre-cleaned with particulate removal. The process generates salable sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) meeting an industry wide standard (US Government Specification O-S-801E) from the SO{sub 2} and converts the NO{sub x} to harmless nitrogen and water vapor. The integrated design of the process enables high-pollutant-removal efficiencies, no significant waste production (only very low quantities of flue gas ash and catalyst degradation fines), and significant heat recovery potential that can be used in the commercial application of the technology to attain increased thermal efficiency of the system. The host site chosen for this CCT demonstration project was Ohio Edison's Niles Station located along the Mahoning River in Niles, Ohio, just northwest of Youngstown. There are two cyclone coal-fired, steam electricity-generating units at the plant. The performance objectives of this project were as follows: to demonstrate SO{sub 2}-removal efficiency greater than 95%; to

  17. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  19. Transport and transformation of mercury during wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous metal smelting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhilou; Wang, Dongli; Peng, Bing; Chai, Liyuan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Shu; Yang, Bentao; Xiang, Kaisong; Liu, Cao

    2017-08-12

    Reducing mercury emission is hot topic for international society. The first step for controlling mercury in fuel gas is to investigate mercury distribution and during the flue gas treatment process. The mercury transport and transformation in wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous smelting industry was studied in the paper with critical important parameters, such as the solution temperature, Hg(0) concentration, SO2 concentration, and Hg(2+) concentration at the laboratory scale. The mass ratio of the mercury distribution in the solution, flue gas, sludge, and acid fog from the simulated flue gas containing Hg(2+) and Hg(0) was 49.12~65.54, 18.34~35.42, 11.89~14.47, and 1.74~3.54%, respectively. The primary mercury species in the flue gas and acid fog were gaseous Hg(0) and dissolved Hg(2+). The mercury species in the cleaning solution were dissolved Hg(2+) and colloidal mercury, which accounted for 56.56 and 7.34% of the total mercury, respectively. Various mercury compounds, including Hg2Cl2, HgS, HgCl2, HgSO4, and HgO, existed in the sludge. These results for mercury distribution and speciation are highly useful in understanding mercury transport and transformation during the wet flue gas cleaning process. This research is conducive for controlling mercury emissions from nonferrous smelting flue gas and by-products.

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. This quarterly report summarizes project activity for the period April-June, 2003. In this period there was limited activity and no active field trials. Results of ash analysis from the AEP Conesville demonstration were received. In addition, a site visit was made to We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant and a proposal extended for a flue gas conditioning trial with the ADA-51 cohesivity additive. It is expected that this will be the final full-scale evaluation on the project.

  1. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  3. Flue-gas desulfurization inspection and performance evaluation. Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The intent of this manual is to provide inspectors from Federal and state environmental agencies with information regarding the problems that plague lime/limestone slurry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that will aid them in their inspections and performance evaluations of these systems with respect to compliance with the emission standards that have evolved since the passage of the 1970 Clean Air Act. A unique feature of the manual is its structure as a tool, or working document, which will accompany the inspector on each plant inspection. Thus, the document is presented in user friendly fashion and tailored to provide practical information for its intended use--to assist in the systematic inspection of an FGD system to determine present and future compliance status. The approach entails the use of nomographs, checklists, matrices, simplified diagrams, cross-referencing, and indexing of textual information, and the presentation of important guidelines and recommendations in a readily discernible fashion.

  4. The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

  5. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Research on flue gas clean-up continued. We have examined the dehydration behavior of the two particular aluminas which we have chosen to use as standard'' materials, a 99.995% pure {gamma}-alumina from Goodfellow with a surface area of 110--150 m{sup 2}/g and a commercial'' alumina from Alcoa, containing significant amounts of Boehmite, with a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Figures 1 through 4 are the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results from the two different materials. Figures 1 and 2 show the present weight losses as a function of temperature for the Goodfellow and Alcoa aluminas, respectively. The Goodfellow alumina loses approximately 7% of its total weight on heating to 800{degree}C, while the Alcoa alumina loses 18.75%. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  6. New techniques will take the sting out of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-08

    A discussion covers some new techniques for reducing NO/sub x/ and/or sulfur dioxide emissions from stack gases, including the installation by Champlin Petroleum Co. of Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s catalyst-free DeNox system, which relies on ammonia addition, at its Wilmington, California, refinery; UOP Inc.'s demonstration of the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization (and NO/sub x/ removal) process at a Tampa, Florida, coal-fired unit owned by Tampa Electric Co.; and Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.'s and Mitsui and Co. Ltd.'s plans to use Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H. technology, which removes both NO/sub x/ and sulfur dioxide.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-07-01

    Fossil fuels used for power generation, transportation, and by industry are the primary source of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Much of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction effort will focus on large point sources, with fossil fuel fired power plants being a prime target. The CO{sub 2} content of power plant flue gas varies from 4% to 9% (vol), depending on the type of fossil fuel used and on operating conditions. Although new power generation concepts that may result in CO{sub 2} control with minimal economic penalty are under development, these concepts are not generally applicable to the large number of existing power plants.

  8. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  10. High volume--high value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines. Phase 1: Laboratory Investigations. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1997-01-01

    The principal focus of the project during the quarter was the location of a suitable mine site for the field demonstration. The Ivy Creek Mine operated by the Costain Coal Co. was chosen for the study. The mine, located in Floyd County, Kentucky has an extensive body of environmentally relevant background information. Most importantly, it also has suitable strata of previously augered coal, as well as a mine plane which will allow access to emplaced FGD fill at a later date. A finite element analysis of the fill scenario for highwall mine adits, was also conducted to analyze the variation of stresses and displacements for this system due to backfilling of FGD materials. The engineering properties of the rock and the optimum mix proportioning of the FGD material (12% prehydrated FGD mix with 31 % water) were obtained from laboratory tests. The supporting effects of backfilled FGD mixtures appear after FGD mixtures get some stiffness, and the surrounding rocks deform sufficiently and squeeze into the backfilled highwall mine adits. The analyses show that for the case in question, after removal of the coal web, the displacement increases from 2.86 cm before backfilling to 3.31 cm. This slight increase in the roof displacement is within a reasonable range. According to the maximal principal failure criteria, the safety level of backfilled FGD mixture is evaluated by comparing the strength of FGD mixtures with the maximum compressive stress. The factor of safety calculated is much greater than 1.0 and it is concluded that, after backfilling, the coal pillar could be removed. Although original design guidance suggested 1000 psi unconfined compressive strength was required for the FGD material, it appears that much lower strength is acceptable. However, significant deformations are found to occur, and it would appear that material stiffness is the important parameter.

  11. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  12. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  13. Gas-phase mercury reduction to measure total mercury in the flue gas of a coal-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Meischen, Sandra J; Van Pelt, Vincent J; Zarate, Eugene A; Stephens, Edward A

    2004-01-01

    Gaseous elemental and total (elemental + oxidized) mercury (Hg) in the flue gas from a coal-fired boiler was measured by a modified ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. Challenges to Hg measurement were the spectral interferences from other flue gas components and that UV measures only elemental Hg. To eliminate interference from flue gas components, a cartridge filled with gold-coated sand removed elemental Hg from a flue gas sample. The Hg-free flue gas was the reference gas, eliminating the spectral interferences. To measure total Hg by UV, oxidized Hg underwent a gas-phase, thermal-reduction in a quartz cell heated to 750 degrees C. Simultaneously, hydrogen was added to flash react with the oxygen present forming water vapor and preventing Hg re-oxidation as it exits the cell. Hg concentration results are in parts per billion by volume Hg at the flue gas oxygen concentration. The modified Hg analyzer and the Ontario Hydro method concurrently measured Hg at a field test site. Measurements were made at a 700-MW steam turbine plant with scrubber units and selective catalytic reduction. The flue gas sampled downstream of the selective catalytic reduction contained 2100 ppm SO2 and 75 ppm NOx. Total Hg measured by the Hg analyzer was within 20% of the Ontario Hydro results.

  14. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  15. Composition of matter useful in flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, D.

    1983-05-03

    Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (Molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered. The filtrate is aqueous sodium aluminate sodium hydroxide solution which is recycled to the scrubbing tower.

  16. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  17. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  18. Pilot plant experience in electron-beam treatment of iron-ore sintering flue gas and its application to coal boiler flue gas cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Shui, V. H.

    The peresent development status of the electron-beam flue gas treatment process, which is a dry process capable of removing SOx and NOx simultaneously, is described. The most advanced demonstration of this process was accomplished with a pilot plant in Japan where the maximum gas flow rate of 10,000 Nm 3/h of an iron-ore sintering machine flue gas was successfully treated. The byproduct produced in this process is collected as a dry powder which is a mixture of ammonia sulfate and ammonium nitrate and is salable as a fertilizer or a fertilizer component. A preliminary economic projection showed that this process costs less than the lime scrubber which removes SOx but does not remove NOx. Tests using simulated coal combustion gases suggest that this process will be applicable to coal-fired boiler flue gas treatment as well. However, test on actual coal-fired flue gases are still required for commercial application decisions. A process development unit program consisting of the design, construction and testing of actual coal-fired power station flue gases is underway in the U.S.A. The design and engineering of the test plant is far advanced and the construction phase will be launched in the very near future.

  19. [Adaptability of oleaginous microalgae Chlorococcum alkaliphilus MC-1 cultivated with flue gas].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Xiang, Wenzhou; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Hualian; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei

    2013-03-01

    In order to lower the cost of lipid production of microalgae and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, microalgae Chlorococcum alkaliphilus MC-1 with the characteristics of rapid pH drift and high pH adaptability, was cultivated with bubbling of flue gas. The experiment was first performed in the photobioreactor (15 L) in three groups (control group, CO2 group and flue gas group), then, in the open raceway pond (24 m2). The adaptability of microalgae MC-1 to the cultivation with flue gas was studied. The results showed that the maximum biomass concentration, growth rate, total lipid content and CO2 fixation rate were (1.02+/-0.07) g/L, (0.12+/-0.02) g/(L.d), (37.84+/-0.58)% and (0.20+/-0.02) g/(L.d) in the photobioreactor treated with flue gas, 36%, 33.33%, 15.34% and 33.33% higher than those of the CO2 group, respectively. In the open raceway pond with aeration of flue gas, the maximum biomass concentration, growth rate, total lipid content and CO2 fixation rate were 147.40 g/m2, 14.73 g/(m2.d), 35.72% and 24.01 g/(m2.d), respectively, which were similar to the cultivation with pure CO2. The toxic heavy metal contents (Pb, As, Cd and Cr) in the biomass of MC-1 treated with flue gas were all below the legal limits. Additionally, the absorptive effect of CO2, NO and SO2 were determined. In the photobioreactor and open raceway pond, the average absorption ratios of these gases were all higher than previous studies. Therefore, our study showed that MC-1 can adapt to the cultivation with flue gas, and it is feasible to enlarge the outdoor cultivation of MC-1 for lipid production coupling with emissions reduction of flue gas.

  20. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  1. SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION INCREASE IN FLUE GAS ACROSS A WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental data from a laboratory scale wet scrubber simulator confirmed that oxidized mercury can be reduced by aqueous speciesand results in elemental mercury emissions under typical flue gas desulfurization conditions.

  2. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of fly ash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory fly ash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.

  3. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs.

    PubMed

    Douskova, I; Doucha, J; Livansky, K; Machat, J; Novak, P; Umysova, D; Zachleder, V; Vitova, M

    2009-02-01

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO(2) for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO(2) simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% (v/v) CO(2) and 8-10% (v/v) O(2) for the photobioreactor agitation and CO(2) supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO(2) and air (11% (v/v) CO(2)). Correspondingly, the CO(2) fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO(2) l(-1) 24 h(-1)) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO(2) l(-1) 24 h(-1)). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements.

  4. Analysis and collection of PAHs in the flue gas of energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Klakwarf, D.R.; Veverka, C.

    1983-10-01

    Sampling and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in flue gas from oil shale retorts and fossil-fuel power plants were performed in this study. The sampling train used to collect PAHs in the flue gas worked well, especially when long sampling periods were needed. This system was able to discriminate between PAHs in the vapor phase and those condensed on particles. The analytical results from the oil shale retort suggest that the diversity of PAHs in the flue gas originate from the oxidizer/combustion unit rather than the retort itself. However, since the testing was not done simultaneously, no firm conclusion can be made. The analytical results from the three coal fired power plants demonstrate the large variability in individual PAH concentrations one can encounter in the flue gas of these plants. These tests also confirm the presence of 1-nitropyrene in the flue gas of these plants and that most of the PAHs in the flue gas are in the gas phase. 9 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  6. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1997 (April through June).

  7. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  8. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  9. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  10. Investigation on mercury removal method from flue gas in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Wang, Wenhua; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-30

    A new integrated process was developed for the removal and reclamation of mercury from the flue gas in the presence of SO2, typically derived from nonferrous metal smelting. The new process contains a pre-desulfurization unit (Stage I) and a co-absorption unit (Stage II). In Stage I, 90% of the SO2 from flue gas can be efficiently absorbed by ferric sulfate and reclaimed sulfuric acid. Meanwhile, the proportion of Hg(2+) and Hg(0) in the flue gas can be redistributed in this stage. Then, over 95% of the Hg(0) and the residual SO2 can be removed simultaneously with a composite absorption solution from the flue gas in Stage II, which is much more efficient for the Hg(0) reclaiming than the traditional method. The composite absorption solution in Stage II, which is composed of 0.1g/L HgSO4, 1.0% H2O2 and H2SO4, could effectively remove and reclaim Hg(0) overcoming the negative effect of SO2 on Hg(0) absorption. Moreover, the concentrations of HgSO4 and H2O2 were adjusted with the changes in of the concentrations of Hg(0) and SO2 in the flue gas. It is a potential and promising technology for the mercury removal and reclaim from the flue gas in the presence of SO2.

  11. Shawnee flue gas desulfurization computer model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, F.A.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    In conjunction with the US Enviromental Protection Agency sponsored Shawnee test program, Bechtel National, Inc., and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly developed a computer model capable of projecting preliminary design and economics for lime- and limestone-scrubbing flue gas desulfurization systems. The model is capable of projecting relative economics for spray tower, turbulent contact absorber, and venturi-spray tower scrubbing options. It may be used to project the effect on system design and economics of variations in required SO/sub 2/ removal, scrubber operating parameters (gas velocity, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ration, alkali stoichiometry, liquor hold time in slurry recirculation tanks), reheat temperature, and scrubber bypass. It may also be used to evaluate alternative waste disposal methods or additives (MgO or adipic acid) on costs for the selected process. Although the model is not intended to project the economics of an individual system to a high degree of accuracy, it allows prospective users to quickly project comparative design and costs for limestone and lime case variations on a common design and cost basis. The users manual provides a general descripton of the Shawnee FGD computer model and detailed instructions for its use. It describes and explains the user-supplied input data which are required such as boiler size, coal characteristics, and SO/sub 2/ removal requirments. Output includes a material balance, equipment list, and detailed capital investment and annual revenue requirements. The users manual provides information concerning the use of the overall model as well as sample runs to serve as a guide to prospective users in identifying applications. The FORTRAN-based model is maintained by TVA, from whom copies or individual runs are available. 25 refs., 3 figs., 36 tabs.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  13. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  15. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  16. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  17. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  18. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  19. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  20. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-10-01

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2005, and September 30, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 10% sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was obtained and characterized. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) testing confirmed that the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} sorbent reacted with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) at temperatures between 40 and 160 C. Although the rate of reaction was more rapid at lower temperatures, these data suggest that SO{sub 2} will not be released from the sorbent under expected sorbent-regeneration conditions. Preliminary work has been conducted to establish the design specifications for a laboratory screw-conveyor sorbent regeneration/cooling apparatus. A plan for a scheduled pilot-scale test of a heated hollow-screw conveyor was developed. This test will be conducted at facilities of the screw conveyor fabricator. This test will confirm the extent of sorbent regeneration and will provide data to evaluate multi-cycle sorbent attrition rates associated with this type of processing.

  1. Natural gas imports and exports: First quarter report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This quarter`s focus is market penetration of gas imports into New England. Attachments show the following: % takes to maximum firm contract levels and weighted average per unit price for the long-term importers, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters, volumes and prices for gas imported on short-term or spot market basis, and gas exported short-term to Canada and Mexico.

  2. [Removal of CO2 from simulated flue gas of power plants by membrane-based gas absorption processes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Fen; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Feng; Wang, Shu-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Luo, Zhong-Yang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2005-07-01

    Three typical absorbents such as aqueous of aminoacetic acid potassium (AAAP), monoethanolamine (MEA) and methyldiethanolamine(MDEA) are selected to investigate the performance of CO2 separation from flue gas via membrane contactors made of hydrophobic hollow fiber polypropylene porous membrane. Impacts of absorbents, concentrations and flow rates of feeding gas and absorbent solution, cyclic loading of CO2 on the removal rate and the mass transfer velocity of CO2 are discussed. The results demonstrate that the mass transfer velocity was 7.1 mol x (m2 x s)(-1) for 1 mol x L(-1) MEA with flow rate of 0.1 m x s(-1) and flue gas with that of 0.211 m x s(-1). For 1 mol L(-1) AAAP with flow rate of 0.05 m x s(-1) and flue gas of 0.211 m x s(-1), CO2 removal rate (eta) was 93.2 % and eta was 98% for 4 mol x L(-1) AAAP under the same conditions. AAAP being absorbent, eta was higher than 90% in a wider range of concentrations of CO2. It indicates that membrane-based absorption process is a widely-applied and promising way of CO2 removal from flue gas of power plants, which not only appropriates for CO2 removal of flue gas of widely-used PF and NGCC, but also for that of flue gas of IGCC can be utilized widely in future.

  3. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-01-15

    It is concluded that the laboratory tests should be conducted at high levels of SO[sub 3] such that the resulting resistivity is in the range of 10[sup 7]--10[sup 8] ohm-cm. There are several reasons leading to this conclusion. At SO[sub 3] concentrations of 30 ppM and greater, the curves for both dew point and resistivity are relatively flat so that changes in gas phase SO[sub 3] will have minimal impact on particle characteristics. In addition, the electrostatic forces are relatively flat in this range so that changes in flue gas conditions will that result in a change in resistivity by up to two orders of magnitude will have little effect on the magnitude of reentrainment. Finally, at the very low resistivity conditions, reentrainment will be the highest. Since the purpose of the laboratory resistivity tests is to determine the relative ability of the various additives to reduce resistivity, the greater the reentrainment, the easier it will be to measure an improvement. Tests were conducted by first operating at baseline conditions with no additives and then repeating the test with additives. The data collected during each test includes the resistivity of the material, thickness of the collected dust layer, and subjective indications of the dust characteristics. The candidate additives were from the polymer group, cellulose derivatives, starches and gums, and oils. No waxes or synthetic compounds have been tested to date in the laboratory apparatus. Of the seventeen additives tested, eight appeared to have a positive impact on either the ash layer thickness or the physical appearance of the dust layer. Excessive deposits on the discharge electrode resulted during injection of some of the additives. Three of the additives resulted in significant deposits in the injection chamber. The build up on the electrode was interpreted as a positive indicator of increase particle adhesion. The initial observations and comments for the eight additives are listed in Table 1.

  4. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  5. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener; Y. Jeffery Yang

    2009-06-15

    This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO{sub 2} stream separated from a CO{sub 2} control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO{sub 2} and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO{sub 2} could be included in the separated CO{sub 2} stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO{sub 2} of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO{sub 2} concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO{sub 2} stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO{sub 2} streams. In addition to SO{sub 2}, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO{sub 2} streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning, engineering, and management. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  6. Investigation and optimization of the depth of flue gas heat recovery in surface heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. V.; Bespalov, V. I.; Melnikov, D. V.

    2017-09-01

    Economic issues associated with designing deep flue gas heat recovery units for natural gas-fired boilers are examined. The governing parameter affecting the performance and cost of surface-type condensing heat recovery heat exchangers is the heat transfer surface area. When firing natural gas, the heat recovery depth depends on the flue gas temperature at the condenser outlet and determines the amount of condensed water vapor. The effect of the outlet flue gas temperature in a heat recovery heat exchanger on the additionally recovered heat power is studied. A correlation has been derived enabling one to determine the best heat recovery depth (or the final cooling temperature) maximizing the anticipated reduced annual profit of a power enterprise from implementation of energy-saving measures. Results of optimization are presented for a surface-type condensing gas-air plate heat recovery heat exchanger for the climatic conditions and the economic situation in Tomsk. The predictions demonstrate that it is economically feasible to design similar heat recovery heat exchangers for a flue gas outlet temperature of 10°C. In this case, the payback period for the investment in the heat recovery heat exchanger will be 1.5 years. The effect of various factors on the optimal outlet flue gas temperature was analyzed. Most climatic, economical, or technological factors have a minor effect on the best outlet temperature, which remains between 5 and 20°C when varying the affecting factors. The derived correlation enables us to preliminary estimate the outlet (final) flue gas temperature that should be used in designing the heat transfer surface of a heat recovery heat exchanger for a gas-fired boiler as applied to the specific climatic conditions.

  7. Flue gas adsorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hermida, M. I.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Morales-Flórez, V.; Esquivias, L.

    2016-08-01

    Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N2, CO2, and O2, emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter. Narrow SWCNTs with diameter around 7 Å show high CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, but they decrease abruptly as the SWCNT diameter is increased. For wide SWCNT, CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, much smaller in value than for the narrow case, decrease mildly with the SWCNT diameter. In the intermediate range of SWCNT diameters, the CO2 adsorption properties may show a peculiar behavior, which depend strongly on the bulk flue gas conditions. Thus, for high bulk CO2 concentrations and low temperatures, the CO2 adsorption capacity remains high in a wide range of SWCNT diameters, although the corresponding selectivity is moderate. We correlate these findings with the microscopic structure of the adsorbed gas inside the SWCNTs.

  8. Flue gas dry scrubbing using pulsed electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1996-02-20

    Electron beam dry scrubbing is a technique for removing in a single step both nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the off-gas generated by utilities burning high sulfur coal. The use of pulsed electron beams may provide the most cost-effective solution to the implementation of this technique. This paper presents the results of plasma chemistry calculations to study the effect of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate on pulsed electron beam processing of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue gases. The main objective is to determine if the proposed combinations of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate would have any deleterious effect on the utilization of radicals for pollutant removal. For a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second and a pulse length of 30 nanoseconds, the average dose per pulse is sufficiently low to prevent any deleterious effect on process efficiency because of radical-radical recombination reactions. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the oxidation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in a timescale of around 200 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 5 kilohertz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. The main conclusion is that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second, pulse length of 30 ns and pulse repetition rate of up to around 5 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency as an electron beam reactor operating with a very low dose rate in continuous mode.

  9. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  10. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  11. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  12. Effects of flue gas compositions on nitrosamine and nitramine formation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2014-07-01

    Amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture. However, concerns have arisen over the health impacts of amine-based CO2 capture associated with the release of nitrosamines and nitramines, which are byproducts from the reactions between flue gas NOx and solvent amines. In this study, flue gas compositions were systematically varied to evaluate their effects on the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines in a lab-scale CO2 capture reactor with morpholine as a model solvent amine. The accumulation of N-nitrosomorpholine in both the absorber and washwater increased linearly with both NO and NO2 for concentrations up to ∼20 ppmv. These correlations could be extrapolated to estimate N-nitrosomorpholine accumulation at extremely low NOx levels (0.3 ppmv NO2 and 1.5 ppmv NO). NO played a particularly important role in driving N-nitrosomorpholine formation in the washwater, likely following partial oxidation to NO2 by O2. The accumulation of N-nitromorpholine in both the absorber and washwater positively correlated with flue gas NO2 concentration, but not with NO concentration. Both N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitromorpholine accumulated fastest in the absence of CO2. Flue gas humidity did not affect nitrosamine accumulation in either the absorber or the washwater unit. These results provide a basis for estimating the effects of flue gas composition on nitrosamine and nitramine accumulation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

  13. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  14. Measurement of mercury in flue gas based on an aluminum matrix sorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7% recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg(0) on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg(0) was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field.

  15. Measurement of Mercury in Flue Gas Based on an Aluminum Matrix Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7% recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg0 on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg0 was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field. PMID:22235178

  16. The double window for electron beam injection into the flue gas process vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Zimek, Z.; Panta, P.; Drabik, W.

    1995-06-01

    The double window configuration for electron beam injection into the flue gas treatment process vessel applied in Polish Pilot Plant was described. The effectiveness of such a system was discussed and flue gas dosimetry results were presented. Approximately 64% of total beam power with initial electron energy 0.7 MeV was delivered into the gas phase due to the losses in double window (two 50 μm titanium foils and 70 mm air gap between them) and process vessel definite diameter 1.6 m.

  17. Pulsed electron beams for flue-gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, Gennady A.; Novoselov, Yuri N.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    1995-03-01

    The development of industrial society creates serious threats to the safe existence of the biosphere, including man. Cleaning air from toxic exhausts becomes therefore one of the challenges. The global problem of air cleaning can be solved in a number of ways. We restrict our attention to one of the possible methods, the use of pulsed electron beams to clean sulfur oxides from the flue gases of power plants. Irradiation of flue gases by the increased density of pulsed electron beams permits a charges, excited particle concentration that is optical for the removal of specific toxic impurities. We present the most important results of these experiments.

  18. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  19. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.

  20. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, were evaluated in a full-scale trial at the American Electric Power Conesville plant. Ammonia conditioning was also evaluated for comparison. ADA-51 and ammonia conditioning significantly reduced rapping and non-rapped particulate re-entrainment based on stack opacity monitor data. Based on the successful tests to date, ADA-51 will be evaluated in a long-term test.

  1. Flue gas compounds and microalgae: (bio-)chemical interactions leading to biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Flue gases are a resource yet to be fully utilised in microalgal biotechnology, not only to moderate the anthropogenic effects on our climate, but also to steer microalgal resource management towards innovative applications of microalgal biomass compounds. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. To better steer and engineer flue gas-fed microalgal cultures, all these compounds need to be considered. Therefore, here, we review (i) the chemical composition and treatment technologies of flue gas, (ii) the uptake pathways and removal of the different compounds in microalgae reactors, and (iii) the tolerance and effects on microalgae of all flue gas compounds. By emphasising the interactions between microalgae and flue gas compounds, we envisage new pathways for microalgal biomass valorisation such as enzyme production for environmental technology, novel biogas production and biosequestration of minerals. Furthermore, we highlight fundamental and applied research niches that merit further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [The influence factors of SO2 removal in flue gas with a pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wu, Y; Wang, N; Li, G; Zhang, Y

    2001-09-01

    The influence of the operation parameters on SO2 removal rate with a pulsed corona discharge was studied in this paper, in order to promote the industrial applications of this technology. The flow rate of the flue gas was 1000-3000 m3/h. The SO2 removal rate reached 80%. The range of SO2 concentration in flue gas was 1000-2000 ml/m3. The flue gas temperature was 60 degrees C-80 degrees C. The molecule ratio of NH3 to SO2 was 2. The energy consumption was 3-5 W.h/Nm3. The wire-plane electrode structure and a positive high voltage pulse power supply were used in the experiment.

  3. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  4. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  5. Natural gas imports and exports, fourth quarter report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  6. Natural gas imports and exports, first quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  7. Natural gas imports and exports, third quarter report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports showing natural gas import and export activity. Companies are required to file quarterly reports. Attachments show the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent quarters, volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months, volume and price data for gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis, and the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Jozewicz, W

    2001-12-01

    Coal-fired electricity-generating plants may use SO2 scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of Hg and other emissions from combustion sources. It is timely, therefore, to examine the current status of SO2 scrubbing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies for coal-fired boilers. Data on worldwide FGD applications reveal that wet FGD technologies, and specifically wet limestone FGD, have been predominantly selected over other FGD technologies. However, lime spray drying (LSD) is being used at the majority of the plants employing dry FGD technologies. Additional review of the U.S. FGD technology applications that began operation in 1991 through 1995 reveals that FGD processes of choice recently in the United States have been wet limestone FGD, magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), and LSD. Further, of the wet limestone processes, limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) has been used most often in recent applications. The SO2 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and LSD installations appear to be capable of approximately 90% SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95%. Costs associated with state-of-the-art applications of LSFO, MEL, and LSD technologies have been analyzed with appropriate cost models. Analyses indicate that the capital cost of an LSD system is lower than those of same capacity LSFO and MEL systems, reflective of the relatively less complex hardware used in LSD. Analyses also reflect that, based on total annualized cost and SO2 removal requirements: (1) plants up to approximately 250 MWe in size and firing low- to medium-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur content of 2% or lower) may use LSD; and (2) plants larger than 250 MWe and firing medium- to high-sulfur coals (i

  9. Flue Gas Desulfurization: The State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Jozewicz, W

    2001-12-01

    Coal-fired electricity-generating plants may use SO2 scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of Hg and other emissions from combustion sources. It is timely, therefore, to examine the current status of SO2 scrubbing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies for coal-fired boilers. Data on worldwide FGD applications reveal that wet FGD technologies, and specifically wet limestone FGD, have been predominantly selected over other FGD technologies. However, lime spray drying (LSD) is being used at the majority of the plants employing dry FGD technologies. Additional review of the U.S. FGD technology applications that began operation in 1991 through 1995 reveals that FGD processes of choice recently in the United States have been wet limestone FGD, magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), and LSD. Further, of the wet limestone processes, limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) has been used most often in recent applications. The SO2 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and LSD installations appear to be capable of ~90% SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95%. Costs associated with state-of-the-art applications of LSFO, MEL, and LSD technologies have been analyzed with appropriate cost models. Analyses indicate that the capital cost of an LSD system is lower than those of same capacity LSFO and MEL systems, reflective of the relatively less complex hardware used in LSD. Analyses also reflect that, based on total annualized cost and SO2 removal requirements: (1) plants up to ~250 MWe in size and firing low- to medium-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur content of 2% or lower) may use LSD; and (2) plants larger than 250 MWe and firing medium- to high-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur

  10. Critical review of mercury chemistry in flue gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M. H.; Livengood, C. D.

    2006-11-27

    Mercury (Hg) and its compounds have long been recognized as potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. Many man-made sources of mercury have been reduced in recent years through process changes and control measures. However, emissions of mercury from coal-fired power plants, while exceedingly dilute by the usual pollution standards, still constitute a major source when considered in the aggregate. Concerns over those emissions and the prospect of impending emissions regulations have led to a wide range of research projects dealing with the measurement and control of mercury in flue gas. This work has made considerable progress in improving the understanding of mercury emissions and their behavior, but inconsistencies and unexpected results have also shown that a better understanding of mercury chemistry is needed. To develop a more complete understanding of where additional research on mercury chemistry is needed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct a critical review of the available information as reported in the technical literature. The objectives were to summarize the current state of the art of chemistry knowledge, identify significant knowledge gaps, and recommend future research to resolve those gaps. An initial evaluation of potential review topics indicated that the scope of the review would need to be limited and focused on the most important topics relative to mercury control. To aid in this process, Argonne developed a brief survey that was circulated to researchers in the field who could help identify and prioritize the many aspects of the problem. The results of the survey were then used to design and guide a highly focused literature search that identified key papers for analysis. Each paper was reviewed, summarized, and evaluated for the relevance and quality of the information presented. The results of that work provided the basis for conclusions regarding the state of knowledge

  11. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-04-20

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Three tasks were active during this quarter, Task (1) Development of 10 Cubic Feet/Min High Surface Area Electrochemical Reactors, Task (2) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System and Task (3) Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. Task (3) is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide gas mixtures. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  12. Simultaneous particulates NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-03-17

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Two tasks were active during this quarter, Task (1) Development of 10 Cubic Feet/Min High Surface Area Electrochemical Reactors and Task (2) Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. Task (2) is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide gas mixtures. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  13. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  14. State-of-the-art review of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anada, H.R.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a review of technical publications and patents in the field of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The physical and chemical characteristics of nitrogen and flue gas are provided with some comparisons with CO/sub 2/ related to EOR operations. Experimental research and field based activities using nitrogen and flue gas are briefly summarized. Cost data for generation of nitrogen and flue gases are provided. Nitrogen and flue gas costs are approximately one third to one half that of CO/sub 2/. The low cost of production and its non-corrosive nature are advantages of using nitrogen, whereas the higher miscibility pressure requirement is a disadvantage. Nitrogen flooding does not work well with low API gravity crudes. Miscible displacement with nitrogen seems promising for oils containing solution gas. Flue gas flooding can be applied to low API gravity crude reservoirs. However, flue gas flooding creates operating problems due to its corrosive nature. The report provides a discussion on process and reservoir parameters that affect nitrogen and/or flue gas flooding in EOR. A bibliography of related literature is provided in the appendices.

  15. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro

    1995-06-01

    Construction of a pilot plant of the treatment capacity of 12,000 m{sup 3}N/h flue gas was completed in November, 1992 in the Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Station, Nagoya for electron beam purification of flue-gas from coal combustion boiler and the operation had been continued during one year. The results obtained In the tests shows that the target removal efficiency for SO{sub 2} (94 %) and for NO{sub x} (80 %) was achieved with appropriate operation conditions (electron beam dose, temperature, amount of ammonia etc.). The effective collection of powdery by-products was performed by an electrostatic precipitator.

  16. Hydrophobic Pillared Square Grids for Selective Removal of CO2 from Simulated Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Mohamed, Mona; Schaef, Todd; Kumar, Amrit; Lusi, Matteo; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine; Space, Brian; Xu, Wenqian; Halder, Gregory J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Zaworotko, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from flue gas is considered to be a feasible approach to mitigate the effects of anthropogenic emission of CO2. Herein we report that an isostructural family of metal organic materials (MOMs) of general formula [M(linker)2(pillar)], linker = pyrazine, pillar = hexaflourosilicate and M = Zn, Cu, Ni and Co exhibits highly selective removal of CO2 from dry and wet simulated flue gas. Two members of the family, M = Ni and Co, SIFSIX-3-Ni and SIFSIX-3-Co, respectively, are reported for the first time and compared with the previously reported Zn and Cu analogs.

  17. [Progress in biofixation of CO2 from combustion flue gas by microalgae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixin; Zhao, Bingtao; Xiong, Kaibin; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Hao, Xiaohong; Liu, Tao

    2011-02-01

    Global warming caused by the increasing CO2 concentration in atmosphere is a serious problem in the international political, economic, scientific and environmental fields in recent years. Intensive carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been developed for a feasible system to remove CO2 from industrial exhaust gases especially for combustion flue gas. In these technologies, the biofixation of CO2 by microalgae has the potential to diminish CO2 and produce the biomass. In this review, the current status focusing on biofixation of CO2 from combustion flue gases by microalgae including the selection of microalgal species and effect of flue gas conditions, the development of high efficient photobioreactor and the application of microalgae and its biomass product were reviewed and summarized. Finally, the perspectives of the technology were also discussed.

  18. Semi-wet flue gas desulfurization with a multi-solid fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Z.; Wu, C.; Xu, B.; Chen, Y.; Liu, B.

    1997-12-31

    In this study, the authors put forward a new flue gas desulfurization process with a Multi-Solid Fluidized Bed. The principle of the method is as follows. The flue gas is supplied to the bottom of the fluidized bed and lime/limestone slurry is dropped from the top to a bed of the coarse particles. The slurry is uniformly dispersed in the bed by the fluidizing coarse particles, so that the slurry can make contact with the flue gas sufficiently. Dried fine particles of desulfurization product are entrained to the gas-solid separator. In this system, the drying process of the slurry is a key point. During the primary work, they investigated the drying mechanism of the limestone slurry containing fine particles in the coarse particle bed. The desulfurization performance of a simulated flue gas has been carried out. It is concluded that: (1) the drying process of the slurry is mainly one of the water involved; (2) the slurry drying process can be separated into two steps with constant and decreasing velocity, respectively; and (3) using this apparatus, more than 95% SO{sub 2} removal can be obtained when Ca/S equals 2.

  19. Carbon dioxide absorber and regeneration assemblies useful for power plant flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, Wan Wang

    2012-11-06

    Disclosed are apparatus and method to treat large amounts of flue gas from a pulverized coal combustion power plant. The flue gas is contacted with solid sorbents to selectively absorb CO.sub.2, which is then released as a nearly pure CO.sub.2 gas stream upon regeneration at higher temperature. The method is capable of handling the necessary sorbent circulation rates of tens of millions of lbs/hr to separate CO.sub.2 from a power plant's flue gas stream. Because pressurizing large amounts of flue gas is cost prohibitive, the method of this invention minimizes the overall pressure drop in the absorption section to less than 25 inches of water column. The internal circulation of sorbent within the absorber assembly in the proposed method not only minimizes temperature increases in the absorber to less than 25.degree. F., but also increases the CO.sub.2 concentration in the sorbent to near saturation levels. Saturating the sorbent with CO.sub.2 in the absorber section minimizes the heat energy needed for sorbent regeneration. The commercial embodiments of the proposed method can be optimized for sorbents with slower or faster absorption kinetics, low or high heat release rates, low or high saturation capacities and slower or faster regeneration kinetics.

  20. Natural gas conversion process. Sixth quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    The experimental apparatus was dismantled and transferred to a laboratory space provided by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is already equipped with a high-ventilation fume hood. This will enable us to make tests at higher gas flow rates in a safe environment. Three papers presented at the ACS meeting in San Francisco (Symposium on Natural Gas Upgrading II) April 5--10, 1992 show that the goal of direct catalytic conversion of Methane into heavier Hydrocarbons in a reducing atmosphere is actively pursued in three other different laboratories. There are similarities in their general concept with our own approach, but the temperature range of the experiments reported in these recent papers is much lower and this leads to uneconomic conversion rates. This illustrates the advantages of Methane activation by a Hydrogen plasma to reach commercial conversion rates. A preliminary process flow diagram was established for the Integrated Process, which was outlined in the previous Quarterly Report. The flow diagram also includes all the required auxiliary facilities for product separation and recycle of the unconverted feed as well as for the preparation and compression of the Syngas by-product.

  1. A novel carbon-based process for flue-gas cleanup. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K.; Howe, G.B.; McMichael, W.J.; Spivey, J.J.

    1993-10-01

    A low-temperature process employing activated carbon-based catalysts and operating downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) was evaluated jointly by Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). The RTI-Waterloo process was projected to be capable of removing more than 95% SO{sub 2} and 75% NO{sub x }from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, the flue gas leaving the ESP is first cooled to approximately 100{degree}C. The SO{sub 2} is then catalytically oxidized to SO{sub 3} which is removed as medium-strength sulfuric acid in a series of periodically flushed trickle-bed reactors containing an activated carbon-based catalyst. The SO{sub 2}-free gas is then reheated to approximately 150{degree}C and NH{sub 3} is injected into the gas stream. It is then passed over a fixed bed of another activated carbon-based catalyst to reduce the NO{sub x} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The clean flue gas is then vented to the stack. The feasibility of the process has been demonstrated in laboratory-scale experiments using simulated flue gas. Catalysts have been identified that gave the required performance for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal with <25 ppM NH{sub 3} slip. Potential for producing up to 10 N sulfuric acid by periodically flushing the SO{sub 2} removal reactor and further concentration to industrial strength 93.17% sulfuric acid was also demonstrated. Using the results of the experimental work, an engineering evaluation was conducted. Cost for the RTI-Waterloo process was competitive with conventional selective catalytic reduction (SCR) -- flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process and other emerging combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal processes.

  2. Flue gas carbon dioxide sequestration during water softening with ion-exchange fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Greenleaf, J.E.; SenGupta, A.K.

    2009-06-15

    This study examines the use of ion-exchange fibers (IX fibers) to permanently sequester carbon dioxide present in flue gas into an aqueous phase as calcium or magnesium alkalinity while concurrently softening hard water. The only process inputs besides carbon dioxide (or flue gas) are snowmelt (or rainwater); no other chemicals are required for the regeneration of the IX fibers. Importantly, the process is not energy intensive and carbon dioxide does not need to be compressed to excessive pressures (>150 psi) for efficient use. Sources of carbon dioxide do not require concentration and, therefore, the use of raw flue gas (similar to 17% CO{sub 2}) is feasible with the rate of sequestration governed only by the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. While valid for flue gas obtained from any combustion process (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, etc.), emissions from oil or gas combustion may be more appropriate for use in the described process due to the absence of mercury and particulates. It should also be noted that the presence of sulfur dioxide in flue gas would not adversely affect the process and may even enhance regeneration efficiency. The only product of the proposed process is an environmentally benign regenerant stream containing calcium and/or magnesium alkalinity. The unique property of IX fibers that makes the proposed process both environmentally sustainable and economically feasible is amenability to efficient regeneration with carbon dioxide and harvested snowmelt. Low intraparticle diffusional resistance is the underlying reason why IX fibers are amenable to efficient regeneration using snowmelt sparged with carbon dioxide; 95% calcium recovery was attained at a CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 6.8 atm. The energy balance for a typical electric utility shows that up to 1% of carbon dioxide emitted during combustion would be sequestered in the softening process.

  3. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G.; Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W.; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  4. The disposal of flue gas desulphurisation waste: sulphur gas emissions and their control.

    PubMed

    Raiswell, R; Bottrell, S H

    1991-06-01

    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) equipment to be fitted to UK coal-fired power stations will produce more than 0.8 Mtonnes of calcium sulphate, as gypsum. Most gypsum should be of commercial quality, but any low grade material disposed as waste has the potential to generate a range of sulphur gases, including H2S, COS, CS2, DMS and DMDS. Literature data from the USA indicates that well-oxidised waste with a high proportion of calcium sulphate (the main UK product of FGD) has relatively low emissions of sulphur gases, which are comparable to background levels from inland soils. However, sulphur gas fluxes are greatly enhanced where reducing conditions become established within the waste, hence disposal strategies should be formulated to prevent the sub-surface consumption of oxygen.

  5. Field studies on the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a product of precipitation of sulfur from stack gases from coal-fired electric power plants. This material is produced in increasingly large quantities by electric power companies to meet clean air standards. We have evaluated this material for beneficial us...

  6. ASSESSING AS, HG AND SE SPECIATION AND TRANSPORT IN FLUE GAS DESULPHURIZATION MATERIAL AND DRYWALL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk associated with the reuse of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) material in drywall manufacture is largely determined by the distribution or mineralogical fractionation of mercury(Hg), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). During coal combustion, FGD material is enriched in volat...

  7. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  8. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  9. A pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulfurization with pyrolusite.

    PubMed

    Su, Shi-jun; Zhu, Xiao-fan; Liu, Yong-jun; Jiang, Wen-ju; Jin, Yan

    2005-01-01

    MnO2 in pyrolusite can react with SO2 in flue gas and obtain by-product MnSO4 x H2O. A pilot scale jet bubbling reactor was applied in this work. Different factors affecting both SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate have been investigated, these factors include temperature of inlet gas flue, ration of liquid/solid mass flow rate (L/S), pyrolusite grade, and SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas. In the meantime, the procedure of purification of absorption liquid was also discussed. Experiment results indicated that the increase of temperature from 30 to 70 K caused the increase of SO2 absorption efficiency from 81.4% to 91.2%. And when SO2 concentration in the inlet flue gas increased from 500 to 3000 ppm, SO2 absorption efficiency and Mn2+ extraction rate decreased from 98.1% to 82.2% and from 82.8% to 61.7%, respectively. The content of MnO2 in pyrolusite had a neglectable effect on SO2 absorption efficiency. Low L/S was good for both removal of SO2 and Mn2+ extraction. The absorption liquid was filtrated and purified to remove Si, Mg, Ca, Fe, Al and heavy metals, last product MnSO4 x H2O was obtained which quality could reach China GB1622-86, the industry grade standards.

  10. Novel Application of Carbonate Fuel Cell for Capturing Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, Stephen; Ghezel-Ayagh, Hossein; Willman, Carl; Patel, Dilip; DiNitto, M.; Marina, Olga A.; Pederson, Larry R.; Steen, William A.

    2015-09-30

    To address concerns about climate change resulting from emission of CO2 by coal-fueled power plants, FuelCell Energy, Inc. has developed the Combined Electric Power and Carbon-dioxide Separation (CEPACS) system concept. The CEPACS system utilizes Electrochemical Membrane (ECM) technology derived from the Company’s Direct FuelCell® products. The system separates the CO2 from the flue gas of other plants and produces electric power using a supplementary fuel. FCE is currently evaluating the use of ECM to cost effectively separate CO2 from the flue gas of Pulverized Coal (PC) power plants under a U.S. Department of Energy contract. The overarching objective of the project is to verify that the ECM can achieve at least 90% CO2 capture from the flue gas with no more than 35% increase in the cost of electricity. The project activities include: 1) laboratory scale operational and performance tests of a membrane assembly, 2) performance tests of the membrane to evaluate the effects of impurities present in the coal plant flue gas, in collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 3) techno-economic analysis for an ECM-based CO2 capture system applied to a 550 MW existing PC plant, in partnership with URS Corporation, and 4) bench scale (11.7 m2 area) testing of an ECM-based CO2 separation and purification system.

  11. Flue gas conditioning for enhanced collection of fine particles in ESPs

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Durham, M.D.; Martin, C.E.

    1997-12-31

    Extensive studies on the emission and control of air toxics by the Electric Power Research Institute shows that most of the solid phase particulate air toxics can be controlled by the existing particulate collectors, such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and baghouses. However, there are still many particulate control devices that are not performing at optimum levels because of design flaws or changes in the type of coal fired. One area that has a long history of emission problems are ESPs that operate above 400 F. At these high temperatures, conventional flue gas conditioning is inefficiency or ineffective. With Department of Energy funding, a new flue gas conditioning technology was developed by ADA Technologies, Inc. that is effective at high temperatures. This technology is especially important for hot-side ESPs and cold-side ESPs that operate above 375 F. For hot-side ESPs, ADA`s flue gas conditioning agent reduces the surface resistivity of the particulate layer on the collection plates. This overcomes the detrimental effects of sodium depletion and permits the ESP to operate at designed power levels. For high temperature cold-side ESPs, conditioning reduces resistivity of particles in the flue gas which increases the efficiency of their collection. Results from several full-scale demonstrations lasting two weeks to six weeks will be presented. These will include ESPs collecting flyash from Powder River Basin, low sulfur eastern, and a blend of coals. It is anticipated that results from testing at oil refineries will also be available.

  12. Comparison of soil applied flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and agricultural gypsum on soil physical properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gypsum can come from different sources. Agricultural gypsum is typically mined and used to supply calcium to crops. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of coal power plants. Although their chemical formulas are the same, different trace elements and materials are present in them....

  13. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  14. An inverse method for flue gas shielded metal surface temperature measurement based on infrared radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Xu, C. L.; Wang, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The infrared temperature measurement technique has been applied in various fields, such as thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, and remote temperature sensing. In the problem of infrared measurement of the metal surface temperature of superheater surfaces, the outer wall of the metal pipe is covered by radiative participating flue gas. This means that the traditional infrared measurement technique will lead to intolerable measurement errors due to the absorption and scattering of the flue gas. In this paper, an infrared measurement method for a metal surface in flue gas is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The spectral emissivity of the metal surface, and the spectral absorption and scattering coefficients of the radiative participating flue gas are retrieved simultaneously using an inverse method called quantum particle swarm optimization. Meanwhile, the detected radiation energy simulated using a forward simulation method (named the source multi-flux method) is set as the input of the retrieval. Then, the temperature of the metal surface detected by an infrared CCD camera is modified using the source multi-flux method in combination with these retrieved physical properties. Finally, an infrared measurement system for metal surface temperature is built to assess the proposed method. Experimental results show that the modified temperature is closer to the true value than that of the direct measured temperature.

  15. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  16. Production of activated char from Illinois coal for flue gas cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lizzio, A.A.; DeBarr, J.A.; Kruse, C.W.

    1997-01-01

    Activated chars were produced from Illinois coal and tested in several flue gas cleanup applications. High-activity chars that showed excellent potential for both SO2 and NOx removal were prepared from an Illinois No. 2 bituminous coal. The SO2 (120 ??C) and NOx (25 ??C) removal performance of one char compared favorably with that of a commercial activated carbon (Calgon Centaur). The NOx removal performance of the same char at 120 ??C exceeded that of the Centaur carbon by more than 1 order of magnitude. Novel char preparation methods were developed including oxidation/thermal desorption and hydrogen treatments, which increased and preserved, respectively, the active sites for SO2 and NOx adsorption. The results of combined SO2/NOx removal tests, however, suggest that SO2 and NOx compete for similar adsorption sites and SO2 seems to be more strongly adsorbed than NO. A low-activity, low-cost char was also developed for cleanup of incinerator flue gas. A three-step method involving coal preoxidation, pyrolysis, and CO2 activation was used to produce the char from Illinois coal. Five hundred pounds of the char was tested on a slipstream of flue gas from a commercial incinerator in Germany. The char was effective in removing >97% of the dioxins and furans present in the flue gas; mercury levels were below detectable limits.

  17. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  18. Use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic as an absorber in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haibo

    2008-10-01

    The choice of materials for the spraying and oxidation of pipes directly affect the operation in limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). There is reason to consider using glass fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) instead of expensive high nickel alloy for the spraying and oxidation of pipes.

  19. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  20. Fate of selenium in coal combustion: volatilization and speciation in the flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yan, R; Gauthier, D; Flamant, G; Peraudeau, G; Lu, J; Zheng, C

    2001-04-01

    In light of Title I of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, selenium will most probably be considered for regulation in the electric power industry. This has generated interest for removing this element from fossil-fired flue gas. This study deals with coal combustion: selenium volatilization and its speciation in the cooled flue gas were investigated to better understand its chemical behavior to validate the thermodynamic approach to such complex systems and to begin developing emission control strategies. Se volatility is influenced by several factors such as temperature, residence time, fuel type, particle size, and Se speciation of the fuels, as well as the forms of the Se inthe spiked coal/coke. Spiked coke and coal samples were burned in a thermobalance, and atomic Se and its dioxide were identified in the cooled combustion flue gas by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). A thermodynamic calculation was applied to a complex system including 54 elements and 3,200 species that describes the coal combustion. Several theoretical predictions concerning Se behavior, such as its speciation in flue gas, agreed well with experiments, which supports using thermodynamics for predicting trace element chemistry in combustion systems.

  1. Environmental evaluation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a BMP for erosion control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced from pollution control systems reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from thermo-electric coal-fired power plants. Natural gypsum and FGDG both have been shown to be useful in control of soil erosion. However, concerns have been raised recently by envir...

  2. ASSESSING AS, HG AND SE SPECIATION AND TRANSPORT IN FLUE GAS DESULPHURIZATION MATERIAL AND DRYWALL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The risk associated with the reuse of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) material in drywall manufacture is largely determined by the distribution or mineralogical fractionation of mercury(Hg), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se). During coal combustion, FGD material is enriched in volat...

  3. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  4. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  5. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepared quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the second quarter of 1998 (April through June). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  6. Natural gas imports and exports: Third quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the third quarter of 1998 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  7. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the first quarter of 1998 (January through March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  8. Natural gas imports and exports. Fourth quarter report, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1998 (October through December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  9. Possibilities of mercury removal in the dry flue gas cleaning lines of solid waste incineration units.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Karel; Hartman, Miloslav; Šyc, Michal; Pohořelý, Michael; Kameníková, Petra; Jeremiáš, Michal; Durda, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    Dry methods of the flue gas cleaning (for HCl and SO2 removal) are useful particularly in smaller solid waste incineration units. The amount and forms of mercury emissions depend on waste (fuel) composition, content of mercury and chlorine and on the entire process of the flue gas cleaning. In the case of high HCl/total Hg molar ratio in the flue gas, the majority (usually 70-90%) of mercury is present in the form of HgCl2 and a smaller amount in the form of mercury vapors at higher temperatures. Removal of both main forms of mercury from the flue gas is dependent on chemical reactions and sorption processes at the temperatures below approx. 340 °C. Significant part of HgCl2 and a small part of elemental Hg vapors can be adsorbed on fly ash and solid particle in the air pollution control (APC) processes, which are removed in dust filters. Injection of non-impregnated active carbon (AC) or activated lignite coke particles is able to remove mainly the oxidized Hg(2+) compounds. Vapors of metallic Hg(o) are adsorbed relatively weakly. Much better chemisorption of Hg(o) together with higher sorbent capacity is achieved by AC-based sorbents impregnated with sulfur, alkali poly-sulfides, ferric chloride, etc. Inorganic sorbents with the same or similar chemical impregnation are also applicable for deeper Hg(o) removal (over 85%). SCR catalysts convert part of Hg(o) into oxidized compounds (HgO, HgCl2, etc.) contributing to more efficient Hg removal, but excess of NH3 has a negative effect. Both forms, elemental Hg(o) and HgCl2, can be converted into HgS particles by reacting with droplets/aerosol of poly-sulfides solutions/solids in flue gas. Mercury captured in the form of water insoluble HgS is more advantageous in the disposal of solid waste from APC processes. Four selected options of the dry flue gas cleaning with mercury removal are analyzed, assessed and compared (in terms of efficiency of Hg-emission reduction and costs) with wet methods and retrofits for more

  10. A component prediction method for flue gas of natural gas combustion based on nonlinear partial least squares method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hui; Yan, Xingyu; Li, Yaojiang; Wang, Yanxia; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Sanchun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis for the flue gas of natural gas-fired generator is significant for energy conservation and emission reduction. The traditional partial least squares method may not deal with the nonlinear problems effectively. In the paper, a nonlinear partial least squares method with extended input based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used for components prediction of flue gas. For the proposed method, the original independent input matrix is the input of RBFNN and the outputs of hidden layer nodes of RBFNN are the extension term of the original independent input matrix. Then, the partial least squares regression is performed on the extended input matrix and the output matrix to establish the components prediction model of flue gas. A near-infrared spectral dataset of flue gas of natural gas combustion is used for estimating the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with PLS. The experiments results show that the root-mean-square errors of prediction values of the proposed method for methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are, respectively, reduced by 4.74%, 21.76%, and 5.32% compared to those of PLS. Hence, the proposed method has higher predictive capabilities and better robustness.

  11. A Component Prediction Method for Flue Gas of Natural Gas Combustion Based on Nonlinear Partial Least Squares Method

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Hui; Yan, Xingyu; Li, Yaojiang; Wang, Yanxia; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Sanchun

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative analysis for the flue gas of natural gas-fired generator is significant for energy conservation and emission reduction. The traditional partial least squares method may not deal with the nonlinear problems effectively. In the paper, a nonlinear partial least squares method with extended input based on radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) is used for components prediction of flue gas. For the proposed method, the original independent input matrix is the input of RBFNN and the outputs of hidden layer nodes of RBFNN are the extension term of the original independent input matrix. Then, the partial least squares regression is performed on the extended input matrix and the output matrix to establish the components prediction model of flue gas. A near-infrared spectral dataset of flue gas of natural gas combustion is used for estimating the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with PLS. The experiments results show that the root-mean-square errors of prediction values of the proposed method for methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide are, respectively, reduced by 4.74%, 21.76%, and 5.32% compared to those of PLS. Hence, the proposed method has higher predictive capabilities and better robustness. PMID:24772020

  12. Natural gas: Imports and exports third quarter report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies with authorizations to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the third quarter of 1993 (July--September). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months (October 1992--September 1993). Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico.

  13. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from a municipal waste incinerator with slaked-lime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Koichi; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Miyata, Teijiro; Sato, Shoichi; Osada, You; Sudo, Masahiro; Doi, Takeshi; Shibuya, Eiichi; Baba, Shigekazu; Hatomi, Toshinori; Komiya, Mikihisa; Miyajima, Kiyonori

    1995-09-01

    The flue gas treatment by electron beam irradiation with the blowing of slaked-lime powder was tested in the pilot plant built at a municipal waste incinerator. The flue gas containing NOx, SO2 and HCl was irradiated by electron beam with slaked-lime powder(Ca(OH)2). Approximately 70 % ofNOx, and 100 % of SO2 and HCl in the flue gas were removed by the irradiation at a dose of 10 kGy at 150°C with two stoichiometric amount of slaked-lime powder. Lower irradiation temperature and increased amounts of the powder resulted in higher removal rates of NOX.

  14. Reaction behavior of SO2 in the sintering process with flue gas recirculation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xu-Ling; Chen, Qiang; Huang, Yun-Song

    2016-07-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to reveal the reaction behavior of SO2 in the sinter zone, combustion zone, drying-preheating zone, and over-wet zone during flue gas recirculation (FGR) technique. The results showed that SO2 retention in the sinter zone was associated with free-CaO in the form of CaSO3/CaSO4, and the SO2 adsorption reached a maximum under 900ºC. SO2 in the flue gas came almost from the combustion zone. One reaction behavior was the oxidation of sulfur in the sintering mix when the temperature was between 800 and 1000ºC; the other behavior was the decomposition of sulfite/sulfate when the temperature was over 1000ºC. However, the SO2 adsorption in the sintering bed mainly occurred in the drying-preheating zone, adsorbed by CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, and CaO. When the SO2 adsorption reaction in the drying-preheating zone reached equilibrium, the excess SO2 gas continued to migrate to the over-wet zone and was then absorbed by Ca(OH)2 and H2O. The emission rising point of SO2 moved forward in combustion zone, and the concentration of SO2 emissions significantly increased in the case of flue gas recirculation (FGR) technique. Aiming for the reuse of the sensible heat and a reduction in exhaust gas emission, the FGR technique is proposed in the iron ore sintering process. When using the FGR technique, SO2 emission in exhaust gas gets changed. In practice, the application of the FGR technique in a sinter plant should be cooperative with the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technique. Thus, it is necessary to study the influence of the FGR technique on SO2 emissions because it will directly influence the demand and design of the FGD system.

  15. Hg⁰ removal from flue gas by ionic liquid/H₂O₂.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Guangwen; Bai, Bofeng; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Ming

    2014-09-15

    1-Alkyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquids ([Cnmim] Cl, n=4, 6, 8) were prepared. The ionic liquid was then mixed with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form an absorbent. The Hg(0) removal performance of the absorbent was investigated in a gas/liquid scrubber using simulated flue gas. It was found that the ionic liquid/H2O2 mixture was an excellent absorbent and could be used to remove Hg(0) from flue gas. When the mass ratio of H2O2 to ionic liquid was 0.5, the absorbent showed high Hg(0) removal efficiency (up to 98%). The Hg(0) removal efficiency usually increased with the absorption temperature, while decreased with the increase of alkyl chain length in ionic liquid molecule. The Hg(0) removal mechanism involved with Hg(0) oxidation by H2O2 and Hg(2+) transfer from aqueous phase to ionic liquid phase.

  16. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  17. MEMBRANE PROCESS TO SEQUESTER CO2 FROM POWER PLANT FLUE GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Merkel; Karl Amo; Richard Baker; Ramin Daniels; Bilgen Friat; Zhenjie He; Haiqing Lin; Adrian Serbanescu

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of using a membrane process to capture CO2 from coal-fired power plant flue gas. During this program, MTR developed a novel membrane (Polaris™) with a CO2 permeance tenfold higher than commercial CO2-selective membranes used in natural gas treatment. The Polaris™ membrane, combined with a process design that uses a portion of combustion air as a sweep stream to generate driving force for CO2 permeation, meets DOE post-combustion CO2 capture targets. Initial studies indicate a CO2 separation and liquefaction cost of $20 - $30/ton CO2 using about 15% of the plant energy at 90% CO2 capture from a coal-fired power plant. Production of the Polaris™ CO2 capture membrane was scaled up with MTR’s commercial casting and coating equipment. Parametric tests of cross-flow and countercurrent/sweep modules prepared from this membrane confirm their near-ideal performance under expected flue gas operating conditions. Commercial-scale, 8-inch diameter modules also show stable performance in field tests treating raw natural gas. These findings suggest that membranes are a viable option for flue gas CO2 capture. The next step will be to conduct a field demonstration treating a realworld power plant flue gas stream. The first such MTR field test will capture 1 ton CO2/day at Arizona Public Service’s Cholla coal-fired power plant, as part of a new DOE NETL funded program.

  18. The importance of the location of sodium chlorite application in a multipollutant flue gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Krzyzynska, Renata; Hutson, Nick D

    2012-06-01

    In this study, removing sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury (Hg) from simulated flue gas was investigated in two laboratory-sized bubbling reactors that simulated an oxidizing reactor (where the NO and Hg(0) oxidation reactions are expected to occur) and a wet limestone scrubber, respectively. A sodium chlorite solution was used as the oxidizing agent. The sodium chlorite solution was an effective additive that enhanced the NO(x), Hg, and SO2 capture from the flue gas. Furthermore, it was discovered that the location of the sodium chlorite application (before, in, or after the wet scrubber) greatly influences which pollutants are removed and the amount removed. This effect is related to the chemical conditions (pH, absence/presence of particular gases) that are present at different positions throughout the flue gas cleaning system profile. The research results indicated that there is a potential to achieve nearly zero SO2, NO(x), and Hg emissions (complete SO2, NO, and Hg removals and -90% of NO(x) absorption from initial values of 1500 ppmv of SO2, 200 ppmv of NO(x), and 206 microg/m3 of Hg(0)) from the flue gas when sodium chlorite was applied before the wet limestone scrubber. However applying the oxidizer after the wet limestone scrubber was the most effective configuration for Hg and NO(x) control for extremely low chlorite concentrations (below 0.002 M) and therefore appears to be the best configuration for Hg control or as an additional step in NO(x) recleaning (after other NO(x) control facilities). The multipollutant scrubber, into which the chlorite was injected simultaneously with the calcium carbonate slurry, appeared to be the least expensive solution (when consider only capital cost), but exhibited the lowest NO(x) absorption at -50%. The bench-scale test results presented can be used to develop performance predictions for a full- or pilot-scale multipollutant flue gas cleaning system equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization

  19. Influence of carbonation under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas on the leachability of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ni, Peng; Xiong, Zhuo; Tian, Chong; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang

    2017-09-01

    Due to the high cost of pure CO2, carbonation of MSWI fly ash has not been fully developed. It is essential to select a kind of reaction gas with rich CO2 instead of pure CO2. The CO2 uptake and leaching toxicity of heavy metals in three typical types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash were investigated with simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas under different reaction temperatures, which was compared with both pure CO2 and simulated air combustion flue gas. The CO2 uptake under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas were similar to that of pure CO2. The leaching concentration of heavy metals in all MSWI fly ash samples, especially in ash from Changzhou, China (CZ), decreased after carbonation. Specifically, the leached Pb concentration of the CZ MSWI fly ash decreased 92% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, 95% under pure CO2 atmosphere and 84% under the air combustion flue gas. After carbonation, the leaching concentration of Pb was below the Chinese legal limit. The leaching concentration of Zn from CZ sample decreased 69% under oxy-fuel combustion flue gas, which of Cu, As, Cr and Hg decreased 25%, 33%, 11% and 21%, respectively. In the other two samples of Xuzhou, China (XZ) and Wuhan, China (WH), the leaching characteristics of heavy metals were similar to the CZ sample. The speciation of heavy metals was largely changed from the exchangeable to carbonated fraction because of the carbonation reaction under simulated oxy-fuel combustion flue gas. After carbonation reaction, most of heavy metals bound in carbonates became more stable and leached less. Therefore, oxy-fuel combustion flue gas could be a low-cost source for carbonation of MSWI fly ash. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  1. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  2. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    SciTech Connect

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  3. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA as well as flue gas from coal combustion. This topical report covers Phase 2b, which is the construction phase of pilot demonstration subsystems that make up the integrated plant. The subsystems included are the mineralization subsystem, the Alkalinity Based on Low Energy (ABLE) subsystem, the waste calcium oxide processing subsystem, and the fiber cement board production subsystem. The fully integrated plant is now capable of capturing CO2 from various sources (gas and coal) and mineralizing into a reactive calcium carbonate binder and subsequently producing commercial size (4ftx8ft) fiber cement boards. The topical report provides a description of the “as built” design of these subsystems and the results of the commissioning activities that have taken place to confirm operability. At the end of Phase 2b, the CCMP pilot demonstration is fully ready for testing.

  4. Simulation of the flue gas cleaning system of an RDF incineration power plant.

    PubMed

    Jannelli, E; Minutillo, M

    2007-01-01

    Because of the stringent pollutant emission standards introduced with the European Union guidelines for waste incineration, it is very important to optimize the flue gas cleaning systems which are able to result in a low environmental impact according to the emission limits. In this paper a thermochemical model has been proposed for the simulation of the flue gas cleaning system of an RDF incineration plant. The model simulates the operation of the flue-gas treatment section and the combustion section by using a simplified approach. The combustion includes the grate incinerator and the post-combustion chamber, while the cleaning section includes the NO(x) reduction process (urea injection) and the scrubbing of SO(2) and HCl (Ca(OH)(2) as sorbent). The modelling has been conducted by means of ASPEN PLUS code. The simulation results have been validated with the operating data. The model proposed by the authors can be a useful tool in both evaluating the efficiency of the gas cleaning system by verifying the environmental pollution of an incinerator power plant in nominal operating conditions and in forecasting the efficiency of the cleaning system in off-design operating conditions.

  5. Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, B.R.; Senapati, S.

    2009-04-15

    Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO{sub 2}. On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to -2 solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

  6. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.

  7. Environmental performance of air staged combustor with flue gas recirculation to burn coal/biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Anuar, S.H.; Keener, H.M.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental and thermal performance of a 1.07 m diameter, 440 kW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor operated at 700{degrees}C-920{degrees}C and burning coal was studied. Flue gas recirculation was incorporated to enhance the thermal performance and air staging was used to control emissions of SO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O. Studies focused on the effect of excess air, firing rate, and use of sorbent on system performance. The recirculation-staging mode with limestone had the highest thermal efficiency (0.67) using the firing equation. Emission data showed that flue gas recirculation (ratio of 0.7) significantly reduced NO{sub x} emissions; and that use of limestone sorbent at a Ca/S ratio of 3 reduced SO{sub 2} emissions by 64% to approximately 0.310 g/MJ.

  8. Proof of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the potential for application of the NOXSO Flue Gas Treatment (FGT) technology to coal-fired utility boilers in the 1990s. To accomplish this, the NOXSO team will design, construct, operate, and test a proof-of-concept scale NOXSO test facility at Ohio Edison's Toronto Station. The goal of the proof-of-concept test is to obtain the engineering data required to prepare a cost-effective design of a commercial scale NOXSO process module at an acceptable level of technical risk. A secondary goal of the test program is to optimize process performance, i.e., achieve 90% removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas at the lowest possible cost, while maintaining the high level of system reliability dictated by the utility market. Progress is reported. 5 figs.

  9. Adjustment of the flue gas path in small combustion appliances with regard to particulate matter reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulovcová, Katarína; Jandačka, Jozef; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-08-01

    Concentration of solid particles in ambient atmosphere is increasing in many countries nowadays. Particulate matter pollution in higher concentration has harmful impact on human and animal health. Source of particulate matter are not only industry and traffic. Small heat sources with biomass combustion, especially during winter heating season, are also significant producer of particulate matter emission. There is a huge importance to decrease quantities of solid particles which are getting into the atmosphere in every region of their production in order to decrease environmental pollution and improve air quality. The ability of flue gas emission elimination can influence future using of biomass combustion. Therefore effective and affordable solutions are searching for. The paper deals with the reduction of particulate matter in small heat source with biomass combustion by modification of geometric parameters in flue gas path.

  10. Assessing sorbents for mercury control in coal-combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Sjostrom, Sharon; Ebner, Tim; Ley, Trevor; Slye, Richard; Richardson, Carl; Machalek, Tom; Richardson, Mandi; Chang, Ramsay

    2002-08-01

    Sorbent injection for Hg control is one of the most promising technologies for reducing Hg emissions from power-generation facilities, particularly units that do not require wet scrubbers for SO2 control. Since 1992, EPRI has been assessing the performance of Hg sorbents in pilot-scale systems installed at full-scale facilities. The initial tests were conducted on a 5,000-acfm (142-m3/min) pilot baghouse. Screening potential sorbents at this scale required substantial resources for installation and operation and did not provide an opportunity to characterize sorbents over a wide temperature range. Data collected in the laboratory and in field tests indicate that sorbents are affected by flue gas composition and temperature. Tests carried out in actual flue gas at a number of power plants also have shown that sorbent performance can be site-specific. In addition, data collected at a field site often are different from data collected

  11. Microalgae Production from Power Plant Flue Gas: Environmental Implications on a Life Cycle Basis

    SciTech Connect

    Kadam, K. L.

    2001-06-22

    Power-plant flue gas can serve as a source of CO{sub 2} for microalgae cultivation, and the algae can be cofired with coal. This life cycle assessment (LCA) compared the environmental impacts of electricity production via coal firing versus coal/algae cofiring. The LCA results demonstrated lower net values for the algae cofiring scenario for the following using the direct injection process (in which the flue gas is directly transported to the algae ponds): SOx, NOx, particulates, carbon dioxide, methane, and fossil energy consumption. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons emissions were statistically unchanged. Lower values for the algae cofiring scenario, when compared to the burning scenario, were observed for greenhouse potential and air acidification potential. However, impact assessment for depletion of natural resources and eutrophication potential showed much higher values. This LCA gives us an overall picture of impacts across different environmental boundaries, and hence, can help in the decision-making process for implementation of the algae scenario.

  12. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A.

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  13. Transport—Reaction process in the reaction of flue gas desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yan; Peng, Xiaofeng; Lee, Duu Jong

    2000-12-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to study the transport-reaction process in the spray-drying flue gas desulfurization. A transport-reaction model of single particle was proposed, which considered the water evaporation from the surface of droplet and the reaction at the same time. Based on this model, the reaction rate and the absorbent utilization can be calculated. The most appropriate particle radius and the initial absorbent concentration can be deduced through comparing the wet lifetime with the residence time, the result shows in the case that the partial pressure of vapor in the bulk flue gas is 2000Pa, the optimum initial radius and absorbent concentration are 210 310 µ m and 23% respectively. The model can supply the optimum parameters for semi-dry FGD system designed.

  14. Hydrophobic pillared square grids for selective removal of CO 2 from simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Elsaidi, Sameh K.; Mohamed, Mona H.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Kumar, Amrit; Lusi, Matteo; Pham, Tony; Forrest, Katherine A.; Space, Brian; Xu, Wenqian; Halder, Gregory J.; Liu, Jun; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Thallapally, Praveen K.

    2015-01-01

    Capture of CO2 from flue gas or air is considered as feasible way to reduce the anthropogenic emission of CO2. Herein we reported the impact of metal substitution on tuning the physicochemical properties in isostructural family of metal organic materials (MOMs) based on pyrazine as organic linker, hexaflouro silicate as anionic pillar and Zn, Cu, Ni and Co as metal centres. Two new isostructural square grid networks namely SIFSIX-3-Ni and SIFSIX-Co are fully characterized and compared with the parent Zn(II) and Cu(II). Interestingly the new Ni(II) and Co (II) analogues higher loading capacity for CO2 at 0.15 bar and higher CO2/N2 selectivity at condition relevant to flue gas separation. Our data show that a small change in the structure could lead to dramatic enhancement in the physicochemical properties of MOMs.

  15. Clean coal demonstration program: Advanced flue gas desulfurization process. Volume 1 - public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-03-01

    The single 100 percent absorber is a co-current grid packed tower with an integrated reaction tank at the bottom. It is designed to accomplish several process steps (quenching, absorption of SO{sub 2}, reaction with limestone, oxidation to gypsum) in a single vessel, resulting in a simple configuration of the plant. The co-current absorber is designed for higher flue gas velocities than conventional countercurrent towers, which results in a compact absorber size. The flue gas enters the top of the absorber where it contacts recirculating slurry. Quenching and absorption of SO{sub 2} occur simultaneously. This {open_quotes}wet/dry{close_quotes} interface is washed intermittently with fresh water to prevent the formation and growth of any deposits.

  16. Sequestration of flue gas CO₂ by direct gas-solid carbonation of air pollution control system residues.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sicong; Jiang, Jianguo

    2012-12-18

    Direct gas-solid carbonation reactions of residues from an air pollution control system (APCr) were conducted using different combinations of simulated flue gas to study the impact on CO₂ sequestration. X-ray diffraction analysis of APCr determined the existence of CaClOH, whose maximum theoretical CO₂ sequestration potential of 58.13 g CO₂/kg APCr was calculated by the reference intensity ratio method. The reaction mechanism obeyed a model of a fast kinetics-controlled process followed by a slow product layer diffusion-controlled process. Temperature is the key factor in direct gas-solid carbonation and had a notable influence on both the carbonation conversion and the CO₂ sequestration rate. The optimal CO₂ sequestrating temperature of 395 °C was easily obtained for APCr using a continuous heating experiment. CO₂ content in the flue gas had a definite influence on the CO₂ sequestration rate of the kinetics-controlled process, but almost no influence on the final carbonation conversion. Typical concentrations of SO₂ in the flue gas could not only accelerate the carbonation reaction rate of the product layer diffusion-controlled process, but also could improve the final carbonation conversion. Maximum carbonation conversions of between 68.6% and 77.1% were achieved in a typical flue gas. Features of rapid CO₂ sequestration rate, strong impurities resistance, and high capture conversion for direct gas-solid carbonation were proved in this study, which presents a theoretical foundation for the applied use of this encouraging technology on carbon capture and storage.

  17. Thermal preparation effects on the x-ray diffractograms of compounds produced during flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wertz, D.L.; Burns, K.H.; Keeton, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    The diffractograms of syn-gypsum and of flue gas desulfurization products indicate that CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O is converted to other phase(s) when heated to 100{degrees}C. Syn-hannebachite CaSO{sub 3}{center_dot}0.5H{sub 2}O is unaffected by similar thermal treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Method of removing entrained particles from flue gas and composition of matter

    SciTech Connect

    Radway, J.E.; Bennett, R.P.

    1988-04-19

    A composition of matter to treat particles entrained in flue gas, is described comprising: a caustic liquid used to adjust resistivity of the entrained particles; and inert particulate matter supporting the caustic liquid for inhibiting chemical action of the caustic liquid until used to adjust the resistivity of the entrained particles, the inert particulate matter supporting sufficient caustic liquid to adjust the resistivity of the entrained particles.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization and by-product treatment at Tisov power plant (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Valbert, G.; Schneider, G.

    1998-07-01

    The FGD plant Tisovain the Czech republic is a retrofit downstream of a 100 MW lignite fired power plant. It was designed and built by L. and C. STEINMUELLER GmbH. Despite a narrow time schedule, the project was finished on time in December 1997. The major objectives of the applied limestone/gypsum process are: Minimum investment and operating costs; production and environmentally neutral disposal of a stabilized product containing the by-products fly ash, slag, gypsum and effluent. The first objective is achieved by the following new process arrangement: The flue gas is taken over from the boiler and fed directly into a wet scrubber for absorptive removal of the acid gases SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF. The cleaned flue gas is vented into the atmosphere without reheating by means of a wet stack which is arranged on top of the scrubber. By the described arrangement, a heat exchanger for cooling/heating of the flue gas is not required. No ductwork for connecting scrubber and stack is needed. Furthermore, the pressure drop across the FGD plant is minimized and allows the use of the already existing flue gas fans. Based on Steinmueller's experience with various limestone qualities, the powdered limestone supplied to the plant is milled once more on site. Thereby the reactivity of the limestone is enhanced resulting in low power consumption for the required plant performance. The second objective is achieved as follows: A part of the scrubbing liquid is continuously bled off as the underflow of a hydrocyclone station in order to remove the gypsum produced in the scrubber. A further dewatering of the gypsum does not take place. Instead, the effluent is mixed with fly ash and slag. As an additive, lime slaked with slag slurry is added. The resulting mixture is disposed of and compacted in the nearby opencast mine workings. It hardens in cement-like setting reactions to an environmentally safe stabilized product.

  20. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of {similar_to}2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO{sub x} mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process.

  1. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas.

  2. Recyclable Naturally Derived Magnetic Pyrrhotite for Elemental Mercury Recovery from Flue Gas.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Chen, Dong; Zou, Sijie; Xiong, Shangchao; Xiao, Xin; Dang, Hao; Chen, Tianhu; Yang, Shijian

    2016-10-04

    Magnetic pyrrhotite, derived from the thermal treatment of natural pyrite, was developed as a recyclable sorbent to recover elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from the flue gas as a cobenefit of wet electrostatic precipitators (WESP). The performance of naturally derived pyrrhotite for Hg(0) capture from the flue gas was much better than those of other reported magnetic sorbents, for example Mn-Fe spinel and Mn-Fe-Ti spinel. The rate of pyrrhotite for gaseous Hg(0) capture at 60 °C was 0.28 μg g min(-1) and its capacity was 0.22 mg g(-1) with the breakthrough threshold of 4%. After the magnetic separation from the mixture collected by the WESP, the spent pyrrhotite can be thermally regenerated for recycle. The experiment of 5 cycles of Hg(0) capture and regeneration demonstrated that both the adsorption efficiency and the magnetization were not notably degraded. Meanwhile, the ultralow concentration of gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas was concentrated to high concentrations of gaseous Hg(0) and Hg(2+) during the regeneration process, which facilitated the centralized control of mercury pollution. Therefore, the control of Hg(0) emission from coal-fired plants by the recyclable pyrrhotite was cost-effective and did not have secondary pollution.

  3. Mercury capture from flue gas using palladium nanoparticle-decorated substrates as injected sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Quentin J. Lineberry; Yan Cao; Yi Lin; Sayata Ghose; John W. Connell; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-03-15

    Although the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was recently vacated by the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, efficient mercury (Hg) capture is still an important topic for the coal-fired power plant industry. Several states have Hg emission regulations that are even more stringent than CAMR guidelines. All coals contain Hg, which is released during combustion. Significant research efforts have been made to capture this toxic element before it is released to the atmosphere where it can stay suspended and travel for great distances. A variety of approaches have been examined, among which the injection of sorbent materials such as powdered activated carbon (PAC) is the current method of choice. The work presented here examined the mercury capture capability of various carbon substrates decorated with metal nanoparticles when injected as sorbents. Sorbent injections were carried out in a Hg in air mixture for laboratory-scale screening and in a real flue gas at a coal-fired power plant. It was found that palladium-decorated carbon substrates showed excellent mercury capture capabilities, with total efficiencies greater than 90% in laboratory-scale tests. In the real flue gas, the total efficiency was on the order of 60%, comparable to the benchmark commercial sorbent Darco Hg-LH, a brominated PAC, although the tested adsorbents had much lower surface areas. The results of this study are presented herein. Novel mercury capture from a coal-fired flue gas was achieved using carbon substrates decorated with palladium nanoparticles. 15 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Investigation on mercury reemission from limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulfurization slurry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanmin; Liu, Songtao; Gao, Yang; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg(2+) to Hg(0) and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg(0) reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl(-) concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg(0) reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg(0) reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl(-) concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl(-) concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems.

  5. Investigation on Mercury Reemission from Limestone-Gypsum Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Songtao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg2+ to Hg0 and lead to a damping of the cobenefit mercury removal efficiency by WFGD systems. The experiment on Hg0 reemission from limestone-gypsum WFGD slurry was carried out by changing the operating conditions such as the pH, temperature, Cl− concentrations, and oxygen concentrations. The partitioning behavior of mercury in the solid and liquid byproducts was also discussed. The experimental results indicated that the Hg0 reemission rate from WFGD slurry increased as the operational temperatures and pH values increased. The Hg0 reemission rates decreased as the O2 concentration of flue gas and Cl− concentration of WFGD slurry increased. The concentrations of O2 in flue gas have an evident effect on the mercury retention in the solid byproducts. The temperature and Cl− concentration have a slight effect on the mercury partitioning in the byproducts. No evident relation was found between mercury retention in the solid byproducts and the pH. The present findings could be valuable for industrial application of characterizing and optimizing mercury control in wet FGD systems. PMID:24737981

  6. Analysis of CO2 Separation from Flue Gas, Pipeline Transportation, and Sequestration in Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2007-09-01

    This report was written to satisfy a milestone of the Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration task of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration project. The report begins to assess the costs associated with separating the CO2 from flue gas and then injecting it into an unminable coal seam. The technical challenges and costs associated with CO2 separation from flue gas and transportation of the separated CO2 from the point source to an appropriate sequestration target was analyzed. The report includes the selection of a specific coal-fired power plant for the application of CO2 separation technology. An appropriate CO2 separation technology was identified from existing commercial technologies. The report also includes a process design for the chosen technology tailored to the selected power plant that used to obtain accurate costs of separating the CO2 from the flue gas. In addition, an analysis of the costs for compression and transportation of the CO2 from the point-source to an appropriate coal bed sequestration site was included in the report.

  7. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Office of Fuels Programs Prepares quarterly reports Summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the first quarter of 1994 (January--March). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past twelve months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During the first three months of 1994, data indicates that gas imports grew by about 14 percent over the level of the first quarter of 1993 (668 vs. 586 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 12 and 53 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 15 percent (41 vs. 48 Bcf). Exports to Canada increased by 10 percent from the 1993 level (22 vs. 20 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 64 percent (5 vs. 14 Bcf).

  8. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Henry, R.F.; Smith, S.D.; Teats, F.G.; Wilson, W.I.; Myles, K.M.

    1985-08-01

    Under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, this work supports a program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of alkali corrodents from the flue gas produced by pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that the cleaned hot gas is able to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. This effort for FY 1984 involved two parts. In the first part, a laboratory-scale pressurized test unit was used to measure the rate of alkali (Na + K) evolution from beds of activated bauxite and Emathlite at a bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute in a gas stream closely simulating the actual PFBC flue gas. The evaluation of the measured rates showed that (1) a spent activated bauxite bed, regenerated by water leaching and replenished with a small amount of fresh activated bauxite, contributes significantly less alkali vapor to the flue gas than the currently accepted alkali tolerance (0.024 ppM) of an industrial gas turbine and (2) the Emathlite bed contributes more alkali vapor than the turbine tolerance limit if the bed is exposed to a flue gas for a space time greater than 0.5 seconds. In the second part, a laboratory-scale demonstration of a fixed granular-bed sorber for the control of alkali vapor from PFBC flue gas was initiated. A detailed engineering design of this sorber system is described, and initial test results are presented and discussed. 26 refs., 16 figs.; 14 tabs.

  9. Biodesulfurization of flue gases using synthesis gas delivered as microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Bredwell, M.D.; Little, M.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1997-03-01

    In this study, the authors have focused research on utilizing a gas mixture containing 36% H{sub 2}, 47% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, 5% CH{sub 4} and a balance of N{sub 2} as a model coal synthesis gas as a low-cost feedstock for sulfate-reducing bacteria cultures. Coal synthesis gas will be readily available in power plants and the biological utilization of syn-gas as a carbon and energy source produces no organic end product that has to be processed prior to its disposal. Coal synthesis gas is, however, sparingly soluble in aqueous phase. This process utilizing SRB with syn-gas feedstock may be mass transfer limited and methods to enhance the mass transport have been investigated. A CSTR with cell recycle and a trickle bed reactor with cells immobilized in BIO-SEP{trademark} polymeric beads were operated with syn-gas feedstock to obtain maximum productivity for SO{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}S. The CSTR reactor was then fed with syn-gas as microbubbles in an effort to improve the mass transfer properties. With syn-gas fed as microbubbles, productivity in the CSTR increased from 1.2 to 2.1 mmol/h {center_dot} L in 33 h. This has been observed at the same biomass concentration of 5 g/L. This shows the mass transport limitation in the above process. In the trickle bed reactor, maximum productivity of 8.8 mmol/h {center_dot} L was achieved with less carbon and energy requirements (1 mol H{sub 2} and 1.2 mol CO per mol of SO{sub 2}) indicating better surface to volume ratio with cells immobilized in the pores of polymeric beads.

  10. On problems of reducing energy consumption for irradiation of flue gas in the electron beam gas treatment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainchtein, O. L.; Sagaidak, M. V.; Morgunov, V. V.

    2002-11-01

    The electron beam (EB) flue gas treatment technology is presented as a combination of radiation chemical transformations and phase transitions. Some theoretical and experimental evidence is presented which suggests that there are two mechanisms to substantially reduce the energy consumption for gas irradiation: droplet mechanism and a mechanism related to specific EB current density (current-mechanism). Both the mechanisms are based on chain reactions of oxidation. The 100,000 m 3/h Slavyanskaya Electron Beam Industrial Plant (developed by our Institute "Energostal", being built in Ukraine) is described. The plant design is aimed at solving the two main problems of the EB scrubbing technology: reduction of energy consumption for irradiation (using a droplet mechanism) and more reliable collection of salt particles (using wet particles collectors). The paper is devoted to EB flue gas treatment technology to remove SO 2 and NO x from flue gas, its present status and the prospects of its further development and optimization, special attention being paid to reduction of energy consumption.

  11. Effects of temperature on the carbonation of flue gas desulphurization gypsum using a CO2/N2 gas mixture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Gyu; Ryu, Kyung Won; Chae, Soo Chun; Jang, Young Nam

    2015-01-01

    The carbonation of flue gas desulphurization (FGD) gypsum using a CO2/N2 gas mixture was investigated to study the feasibility of using the flue gas directly in the gypsum carbonation. The effect of the reaction temperature on the carbonation reaction and the carbonation conversion efficiency of the samples were considered. In this study, the carbonation conversion efficiency was calculated using a new method for decreasing the error range from a sample containing unreacted gypsum. The carbonation reaction at 40°C was nearly twice as fast as the reaction at room temperature. In addition, the carbonation conversion efficiency at 40°C (96%) was nearly the same as that at room temperature. However, the efficiency decreased significantly with temperature, especially above 60°C. It can, therefore, be concluded that the direct use of flue gas in gypsum carbonation is most feasible at 40°C. The temperature of carbonation strongly affected the CaCO3 polymorphs and the morphological characteristics. Calcite with various shapes was the dominant (40-90%) phase at all temperatures. At temperatures below 40°C, spherical-shaped vaterite was pronounced, while needle-flower-shaped aragonite was dominant at temperatures above 80°C.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Hu

    2006-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer (transportation layer phase) is used for the increase of absorption rate. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the liquid mass transfer

  13. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gas by Phase Enhanced Absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Tim Fout

    2007-06-30

    A new process, phase enhanced absorption, was invented. The method is carried out in an absorber, where a liquid carrier (aqueous solution), an organic mixture (or organic compound), and a gas mixture containing a gas to be absorbed are introduced from an inlet. Since the organic mixture is immiscible or at least partially immiscible with the liquid carrier, the organic mixture forms a layer or small parcels between the liquid carrier and the gas mixture. The organic mixture in the absorber improves mass transfer efficiency of the system and increases the absorption rate of the gas. The organic mixture serves as a transportation media. The gas is finally accumulated in the liquid carrier as in a conventional gas-liquid absorption system. The presence of the organic layer does not hinder the regeneration of the liquid carrier or recovery of the gas because the organic layer is removed by a settler after the absorption process is completed. In another aspect, the system exhibited increased gas-liquid separation efficiency, thereby reducing the costs of operation and maintenance. Our study focused on the search of the organic layer or transportation layer to enhance the absorption rate of carbon dioxide. The following systems were studied, (1) CO{sub 2}-water system and CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer system; (2) CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution system and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate aqueous solution-organic layer system. CO{sub 2}-water and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate systems are the traditional gas-liquid absorption processes. The CO{sub 2}-water-organic layer and CO{sub 2}-Potassium Carbonate-organic layer systems are the novel absorption processes, phase enhanced absorption. As we mentioned early, organic layer is used for the increase of absorption rate, and plays the role of transportation of CO{sub 2}. Our study showed that the absorption rate can be increased by adding the organic layer. However, the enhanced factor is highly depended on the

  14. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P.Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that higher temperature calcination of trona leds to reduced carbonation activity in subsequent cycles, but that calcination in dry carbon dioxide did not result in decreased activity relative to calcination in helium. Following higher temperature calcination, sodium bicarbonate (SBC) No.3 has greater activity than either coarse or fine grades of trona. Fixed bed testing of calcined SBC No.3 at 70 C confirmed that high rates of carbon dioxide absorption are possible and that the resulting product is a mixture of Wegscheider's salt and sodium carbonate. In fluidized bed testing of supported potassium carbonate, very rapid carbonation rates were observed. Activity of the support material complicated the data analysis. A milled, spherical grade of SBC appeared to be similar in attrition and abrasion characteristics to an unmilled, less regularly shaped SBC. The calcination behavior, at 107 C, for the milled and unmilled materials was also similar.

  15. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  16. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  17. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-26

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  18. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  19. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  20. Carbon dioxide capture by functionalized solid amine sorbents with simulated flue gas conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yamin; Ye, Qing; Shen, Mei; Shi, Jingjin; Chen, Jie; Pan, Hua; Shi, Yao

    2011-07-01

    A novel solid amine sorbent was prepared using KIT-6-type mesoporous silica modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). Its adsorption behavior toward CO(2) from simulated flue gases is investigated using an adsorption column. The adsorption capacities at temperatures of 303, 313, 333, 343, and 353 K are 2.10, 2.29, 2.58, 2.85, and 2.71 mmol g(-1), respectively. Experimental adsorption isotherms were obtained, and the average isosteric heat of adsorption was 43.8 kJ/mol. The adsorption capacity increases to 3.2 mmol g(-1) when the relative humidity (RH) of the simulated flue gas reaches 37%. The adsorption capacity is inhibited slightly by the presence of SO(2) at concentrations lower than 300 ppm but is not significantly influenced by NO at concentrations up to 400 ppm. The adsorbent is completely regenerated in 10 min at 393 K and a pressure of 5 KPa, with expected consumption energy of about 1.41 MJ kg(-1) CO(2). The adsorption capacity remains almost the same after 10 cycles of adsorption/regeneration with adsorption conditions of 10 vol % CO(2), 100 ppm SO(2), 200 ppm NO, 100% relative humidity, and a temperature of 393 K. The solid amine sorbent, KIT-6(TEPA), performs excellently for CO(2) capture and its separation from flue gas.

  1. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  2. Development of dry control technology for emissions of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann S.; Wu, Jiann M.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-06-01

    In flue gases from coal-combustion systems, mercury in either the elemental state or its chloride form (HgCl{sub 2}) can be predominant among all the possible mercury species present; this predominance largely depends on the chlorine-to-mercury ratio in the coal feeds. Conventional flue-gas cleanup technologies are moderately effective in controlling HgCl{sub 2} but are very poor at controlling elemental mercury. Experiments were conducted on the removal of elemental mercury vapor by means of a number of different types of sorbents, using a fixed-bed adsorption system. Of the four commercial activated carbons evaluated, the sulfur-treated carbon sample gives the best removal performance, with good mercury-sorption capacities. Promising removal results also have been obtained with low-cost minerals after chemical treatments. These inorganic sorbents could potentially be developed into a cost-effective alternative to activated carbons for mercury removal.

  3. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    1989-08-21

    Mass transfer investigation experiments were performed to determine the controlling physical and chemical processes that limit Ca(OH){sub 2} sorbent utilization in flue gas desulfurization. A computer model has been established to estimate the relative contribution of gas- and liquid-phase mass transfer and inherent sorbent reactivity. Currently, the mass transfer investigation tests are on schedule and will be continued next year. More pilot-plant tests are planned to support field tests and mass transfer enhancement evaluations. 48 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Hot waste-to-energy flue gas treatment using an integrated fluidised bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes an innovative process to increase superheated steam temperatures in waste-to-energy (WTE) plants. This solution is mainly characterised by a fluidised bed reactor in which hot flue gas is treated both chemically and mechanically. This approach, together with gas recirculation, increases the energy conversion efficiency, and raises the superheated steam temperature without decreasing the useful life of the superheater. This paper presents new experimental data obtained from the test facility installed at the Hera S.p.A. WTE plant in Forlì, Italy; discusses changes that can be implemented to increase the duration of experimental testing; offers suggestions for the design of an industrial solution.

  5. Sodium-limestone double alkali flue gas desulfurization process with improved limestone utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Biolchini, R.J.; Boward, W.L. Jr.; Wang, K.H.

    1987-08-18

    This patent describes a sodium-limestone double alkali process for the continuous desulfurization of flue gas, having the steps of absorbing sulfur dioxide from an SO/sub 2/-containing gas stream in an absorber with an aqueous solution of sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite, diverting at least a portion of the absorber effluent solution for regeneration with limestone, introducing limestone into the diverted absorber effluent solution to convert bisulfite to sulfite, separating by-product solids from the limestone-treated solution, and returning regenerated solution to the absorber, the improvement for increasing the utilization of the limestone used during the regeneration operation.

  6. Pilot plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Licki, Janusz

    Double stage gas irradiation (2 electron accelerators, {50 kW}/{700 keV} each) is the main technological principle employed in the Polish pilot plant (20,000 Nm 3/h) constructed at EPS Kawȩczyn (low/medium sulphur coal). The pilot plant design is described in the paper.

  7. Using Flue Gas Huff 'n Puff Technology and Surfactants to Increase Oil Production from the Antelope Shale Formation of the Railroad Gap Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, Michael

    2001-12-18

    This project was designed to test cyclic injection of exhaust flue gas from compressors located in the field to stimulate production from Antelope Shale zone producers. Approximately 17,000 m{sup 3} ({+-}600 MCF) of flue gas was to be injected into each of three wells over a three-week period, followed by close monitoring of production for response. Flue gas injection on one of the wells would be supplemented with a surfactant.

  8. Investigation of mercury transformation by HBr addition in a slipstream facility with real flue gas atmospheres of bituminous coal and Powder River Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Quanhai Wang; Chien-wei Chen; Bobby Chen; Martin Cohron; Yi-chuan Tseng; Cheng-chung Chiu; Paul Chu; Wei-Ping Pan

    2007-09-15

    An investigation of speciated mercury transformation with the addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) at elevated temperatures was conducted in a slipstream reactor with real flue gas atmospheres. Test results indicated that adding HBr into the flue gas at several parts per million strongly impacted the mercury oxidation and adsorption, which were dependent upon temperature ranges. Higher temperatures (in the range of 300-350 C) promoted mercury oxidation by HBr addition but did not promote mercury adsorption. Lower temperatures (in a range of 150-200 C) enhanced mercury adsorption on the fly ash by adding HBr. Test results also verified effects of flue gas atmospheres on the mercury oxidation by the addition of HBr, which included concentrations of chlorine and sulfur in the flue gas. Chlorine species seemed to be involved in the competition with bromine species in the mercury oxidation process. With the addition of HBr at 3 ppm at a temperature of about 330 C, the additional mercury oxidation could be reached by about 55% in a flue gas atmosphere by burning PRB coal in the flue gas and by about 20% in a flue gas by burning bituminous coal. These are both greater than the maximum gaseous HgBr2 percentage in the flue gas (35% for PRB coal and 5% for bituminous coal) by thermodynamic equilibrium analysis predictions under the same conditions. This disagreement may indicate a greater complexity of mercury oxidation mechanisms by the addition of HBr. It is possible that bromine species promote activated chlorine species generation in the flue gas, where the kinetics of elemental mercury oxidation were enhanced. However, SO{sub 2} in the flue gas may involve the consumption of the available activated chlorine species. Thus, the higher mercury oxidation rate by adding bromine under the flue gas by burning PRB coal may be associated with its lower SO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas. 39 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Natural gas imports and exports. First quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Natural gas imports and exports. Third quarter report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This quarterly report, prepared by The Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Import and Export Activities, summarizes the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Numerical data are presented in four attachments, each of which is comprised of a series of tables. Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the five most recent calendar quarters. Volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past year are given in Attachment B. Attachment C shows volume and price information pertaining to gas imported on a short-term or spot market basis. Attachment D lists gas exported on a short-term or spot market basis to Canada and Mexico. Highlights of the report are very briefly summarized.

  11. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  12. Production of sulfur from sulfur dioxide obtained from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a regenerable process for recovery of elemental sulfur from a gas containing sulfur dioxide comprising the steps of: contacting the gas with an aqueous, alkaline reaction medium containing sodium sulfite in concentration sufficient so that a slurry containing solid sodium sulfide is formed to react sulfur dioxide with sodium sulfite to form a solution containing dissolved sodium pyrosulfite and sodium sulfite; separating sulfur dioxide from the solution produced to leave a residual mixture containing water, sodium sulfite and a sodium pyrosulfite, the amount of sulfur dioxide separated being equal to about one-third the amount of sulfur dioxide which reacted with sodium sulfite; adding, in substantial absence of air, sufficient water and sodium bicarbonate to the residual mixture to react with the dissolved sodium pyrsulfide and form a slurry of solid sodium sulfite suspended in the resulting aqueous, alkaline reaction medium and gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the gaseous carbon dioxide; separating the solid sodium sulfite from the aqueous alkaline reaction medium and recycling the separated reaction medium; reducing the separated sodium sulfite to sodium sulfide; adding the sodium sulfide to an aqueous reaction medium containing sodium bicarbonate and, in the substantial absence of air, carbonating the resulting mixture with the gaseous carbon dioxide to form a slurry of solid particles of sodium bicarbonate dispersed in an aqueous reactor medium containing sodium bicarbonate, along with a gas composed primarily of hydrogen sulfide.

  13. Effect of oxy-combustion flue gas on mercury oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-06-17

    This study evaluates the effect of the gases present in a typical oxy-coal combustion atmosphere on mercury speciation and compares it with the mercury speciation produced in conventional air combustion atmospheres. The work was performed at laboratory scale at 150 °C. It was found that the minor constituents (SO2, NOx, and HCl) significantly modify the percentages of Hg(2+) in the gas. The influence of these species on mercury oxidation was demostrated when they were tested individually and also when they were blended in different gas compositions, although the effect was different to the sum of their individual effects. Of the minor constituents, NOx were the main species involved in oxidation of mercury. Moreover, it was found that a large concentration of H2O vapor also plays an important role in mercury oxidation. Around 50% of the total mercury was oxidized in atmospheres with H2O vapor concentrations typical of oxy-combustion conditions. When the atmospheres have similar concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2, HCl, and H2O, the proportion of Hg(0)/Hg(2+) is similar regardless of whether CO2 (oxy-fuel combustion) or N2 (air combustion) are the main components of the gas.

  14. Simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO separation from flue gas in a contained liquid membrane permeator

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Sengupta, A.; Cha, J.S.; Sirkar, K.K. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1994-03-01

    Separation Of SO[sub 2] and NO from a simulated gas mixture using the hollow fiber contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been explored. Separation Of SO[sub 2] from a gas mixture containing SO[sub 2], CO[sub 2], O[sub 2], and N[sub 2] has been studied with pure water and aqueous 1 N NaHSO[sub 3] solution. Combined separation Of SO[sub 2] and NO from a simulated flue gas mixture of SO[sub 2], NO, CO[sub 2], O[sub 2], and N[sub 2] has been achieved utilizing aqueous Fe[sup 2+]EDTA or Fe[sup 3+]EDTA solutions. In both cases, sweep and vacuum modes of operation have been investigated. The HFCLM technique has been applied successfully for flue gas cleanup at 24 C; it was also found to be quite effective at 70 C. A simplified multicomponent gas permeation model based on solution diffusion through the liquid membrane appears to describe the SO[sub 2] separation as well as CO[sub 2] separation through the water membrane satisfactorily for the sweep mode of permeator operation.

  15. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  16. NO x Reduction in the Iron Ore Sintering Process with Flue Gas Recirculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Fan, Xiaohui; Gan, Min; Chen, Xuling; Lv, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Flue gas recirculation (FGR) has been implemented for exhaust gas emissions reduction in iron ore sintering. However, the mechanism of NO x reduction through FGR is still unclear. In this paper, the laboratory pot-grate sintering test showed a 30% reduction in gas flow and 15.51% reduction in NO x emissions achieved with a 30% FGR ratio, and the sinter indexes almost matched those of the conventional process. In the sinter zone, NO-CO catalytic reduction occurs in the range of 500-900°C. When the sinter temperature is 700°C, the highest nitrogen reduction ratio (NRR) achieved is 8%; however, the NO x reduction is inhibited as the post-combustion of CO starts when the temperature increases beyond 700°C. NO x in the flue gas is mainly a product of the fuel combustion in the combustion zone, as the nitrogen conversion rate reaches 50-60%, because the N-containing intermediates exist during the fuel combustion. The existence of NO in the FGR gas inhibits the NO x generation from the fuel combustion, and the NO elimination—through the NO-carbon reaction—is significant in the combustion zone. The NRR in the combustion zone reaches a range of 18-20%.

  17. Natural gas imports and exports; Fourth quarterly report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The Office of Fuels Programs prepares quarterly reports summarizing the data provided by companies authorized to import or export natural gas. Companies are required, as a condition of their authorizations, to file quarterly reports with the OFP. This report is for the fourth quarter of 1993 (October--December). Attachment A shows the percentage of takes to maximum firm contract levels and the weighted average per unit price for each of the long-term importers during the 5 most recent reporting quarters. Attachment B shows volumes and prices of gas purchased by long-term importers and exporters during the past 12 months. Attachment C shows volume and price information for gas imported on a short-term basis. Attachment D shows the gas exported on a short-term basis to Canada and Mexico. During 1993, data indicates gas imports grew by about 10 percent over the 1992 level (2328 vs. 2122 Bcf), with Canadian and Algerian imports increasing by 8 and 82 percent, respectively. During the same time period, exports declined by 41 percent (144 vs. 243 Bcf). Exports to Canada decreased 47 percent from the 1992 level (50 vs. 95 Bcf) and exports to Mexico decreased by 60 percent (38 vs. 95 Bcf).

  18. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  19. Correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners in the flue gas of an iron ore sinter plant.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Jeng-How; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2012-03-30

    This study was aimed at developing an approach for correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners for samples collected from the flue gas of an iron ore sinter plant. An iron ore sinter plant equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (EP) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) was selected. Flue gas samples were collected at EP inlet, EP outlet and SCR outlet. Both particle- and gas-phase PCDD/Fs were analyzed for each collected sample. PCDD/F contents in EP ashes (EP(ash)) were also analyzed and used to correct the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners of the collected flue gas samples. Results show that PCDD/Fs in the flue gas were dominated by the gas-phase. Before correction, the removal efficiencies for the gas- and particle-phase PCDD/Fs for EP were -58.1% and 64.3%, respectively, and SCR were 39.4% and 83.9%, respectively. The above results were conflict with the expected results for both EP and SCR indicating the need for correcting the gas and particle partitioning of PCDD/F congeners for all collected flue gas samples. After correction, the removal efficiencies become more reasonable for EP (=4.22% and 97.7%, respectively), and SCR (=54.7% and 62.0%, respectively). The above results confirm the effectiveness of the approach developed by this study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  1. Removing nitric oxide from flue gas using iron(II) citrate chelate absorption with microbial regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xinhua; Chang, Shih Ger

    2007-04-01

    The addition of metal chelates such as Fe(II)EDTA or Fe(II)Cit to wet flue gas desulfurization systems has been shown to increase the amount of NO(x) absorption from gas streams containing SO(2). This paper attempts to demonstrate the advantage of not only using Fe(II)Cit chelate to absorb nitrogen oxides from flue gas but also the advantage gained from adding microorganisms to the system. Two distinct classes of microorganisms are needed: denitrifying and iron-reducing bacteria. The presence of oxygen in flue gas will affect the absorption efficiency of NO by Fe(II)Cit chelate. The oxidation of Fe(II) can be slowed with the help of bacteria in two ways: bacteria can serve to directly reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) or they can serve to keep levels of dissolved oxygen in the solution low. As a result, after NO absorption, Fe(II)(Cit)NO will be reduced by denitrifying bacteria to Fe(II)Cit while Fe(III) is reduced by anaerobic bacteria back to Fe(II). Our experiments have shown that the implementation of our protocol allowed for an NO reduction rate constant increase from standard levels of 0.0222-0.100 m Mh(-1) with inlet NO changed from 250 to 1000 ppm. We have also found that total Fe concentration tends to decrease after prolonged periods of operation due to the loss of some Fe to the formation of Fe(OH)(3) that settles together with the sludge at the bottom of bioreactor tank.

  2. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    1999-07-01

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons, as well as novel sorbents, were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  3. Novel sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Hargis, R.A.

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory-scale packed-bed reactor system is used to screen sorbents for their capability to remove elemental mercury from various carrier gases. When the carrier gas is argon, an on-line atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), used in a continuous mode, monitors the elemental mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the inlet and outlet streams of the packed-bed reactor. The mercury concentration in the reactor inlet gas and the reactor temperature are held constant during a test. For more complex carrier gases, the capacity is determined off-line by analyzing the spent sorbent with either a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) or an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer (ICP-AES). The capacities and breakthrough times of several commercially available activated carbons as well as novel sorbents were determined as a function of various parameters. The mechanisms of mercury removal by the sorbents are suggested by combining the results of the packed-bed testing with various analytical results.

  4. Use of adipic acid to enhance flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroff, N.; Laslo, D.

    1984-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, FGD is an acid-base neutralization reaction where the overall rate is balanced by the dissolution of (limestone) alkali, and the absorption of sulfur dioxide. The former occurs at a solid/liquid interface, and the latter occurs at a liquid/gas interface. The rate of each of these processes is determined by local conditions, notably, pH. The introduction of a buffering agent lowers the pH at the solid-liquid interface, thereby increasing the rate of limestone dissolution, and simultaneously, raises the pH at the liquid/gas interface, thereby increasing the rate of absorption. Studies performed during the past several years have established that adipic acid is the best available choice for application because of its unique combination of physical and chemical properties, and its price and availability. This paper discusses the theory of adipic acid enhancement and the mathematics used to describe these phenomena trace its history from the laboratory through full scale trials.

  5. [Reactivity of the limestone in wet flue gas desulfurization].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian-le; Li, Yao; Ling, Xuan; Liu, Hong-ju; Xu, Feng-gang; Liu, Han-qiang

    2005-11-01

    On the basis of the analysis of chemical components of the natural limestones from different deposits in China, the pore structures of the typical limestones, with the different CaCO3 content, were examined. The reactivity of the limestones was investigated by sulfuric acid titration and gas-liquid absorption methods. The research results showed that the specific surface area of the natural limestones studied in this work was about 1.8 m2/g. It was seen that the pH of the limestone slurry rapidly decreased and then back up when the sulfuric acid was added. The higher the CaCO3 content was, or the smaller the particle size was, the larger the pH back-up rate was, and similarly the faster the SO2 concentration of the reactor outlet increased. The Reactivity of the limestone obtained by the sulfuric acid titration had the same features as that obtained by the gas liquid absorption. Compared with the specific surface area, the CaCO3 content had more effect on the reactivity of the limestones. The particle size of the limestones had a significant effect on the reactivity when the particle size was relatively large, that is less than 300-360 mesh, vice versa.

  6. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemcial technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1989-05-22

    The IGR Process emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Tasks this quarter include: (1) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System; (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} Spiked Gas Streams; and (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control test apparatus has been completely installed and flyash tests have begun. During the tests a voltage is applied across the solid electrolyte and the current is monitored while flyash passes through the cell. In Task (1) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using four electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1989-04-14

    The IGR emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Three tasks were active during this quarter: Task (1), Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System, Tasks, (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub X} Spiked Gas Streams, and Task (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control apparatus has been completely installed and its operation is being examined with respect to filtration materials and solid electrolyte. In Task (2) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using a series of electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Experimental evidence of nitrous acid formation in the electron beam treatment of flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mätzing, H.; Namba, H.; Tokunaga, O.

    1994-03-01

    In the Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing (EBDS) process, flue gas from fossil fuel burning power plants is irradiated with accelerated (300-800 keV) electrons. Thereby, nitrogen oxide (NO x) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) traces are transformed into nitric and sulfuric acids, respectively, which are converted into particulate ammonium nitrate and sulfate upon the addition of ammonia. The powdery can be filtered from the main gas stream and can be sold as agricultural fertilizer. A lot of experimental investigations have been performed on the EBDS process and computer models have been developed to interpret the experimental results and to predict economic improvements. According to the model calculations, substantial amounts of intermediate nitrous acid (HNO 2) are formed in the electron beam treatment of flue gas. However, no corresponding experimental information is available so far. Therefore, we have undertaken the first experimental investigation about the formation of nitrous acid in an irradiated mixture of NO in synthetic air. Under these conditions, aerosol formation is avoided. UV spectra of the irradiated gas were recorded in the wavelength range λ = 345-375 nm. Both NO 2 and HNO 2 have characteristic absorption bands in this wavelength range. Calibration spectra of NO 2 were subtracted from the sample spectra. The remaining absorption bands can clearly be assigned to nitrous acid. The concentration of nitrous acid was determined by differential optical absorption. It was found lower than the model prediction. The importance of nitrous acid formation in the EBDS process needs to be clarified.

  9. Dry injection flue gas desulfurization process using absorptive soda ash sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Cyran, M.J.; Copenhafer, W.C.

    1986-05-13

    A dry injection flue gas desulfurization process is described which comprises injecting a dry soda ash sorbent, which is a particulate solid derived from calcination under non-sintering conditions of a NaHCO/sub 3/-containing compound, into a SO/sub 2/-contaminated flue gas stream that contains moisture in an amount of 0.5-10 wt% H/sub 2/O and is at a temperature of 100/sup 0/-175/sup 0/C; providing an amount of injected sorbent and sufficient gas-sorbent contact time such that a substantial portion, at least 40%, of the sorbent sodium content is utilized at NSR=1, in reducing the concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the gas stream, collecting the sorbent in a solids-collection device which is a fabric filter baghouse or an electrostatic precipitator; discharging collected sorbent from the solids-collection device; the dry soda ash sorbent being a porous calcine obtained from calcination of sodium sesquicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, Wegscheider's salt or mixtures of these, and further characterized by having a minimum surface area of at least 2 m/sup 2//g and a residual bicarbonate content of less than 10 wt% NaHCO/sub 3/.

  10. Operational experience of the industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Licki, Janusz; Pawelec, Andrzej; Tymiński, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. The process, which has been developed in Japan, the United States, Germany and Poland allows simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x with high efficiency and by-product generated can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial installations using this technology have been constructed in the world, one in China and the second in Poland. Other plants are constructed in Japan and China. Chinese installation is mostly SO 2 removal oriented (since the NO x emission limits in China are not imposed up to now), so Polish plant one is as a matter of fact the first installation for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases. The plant located in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin treats the flue gases emitted from two Benson boilers of 65 MW e and 100 MW th each. The flue gases of maximum flow of 270 000 N m 3/h are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. Description of the plant and the results obtained have been presented in this paper. The plant has been in operation for more than 2500 h (5500 h including one accelerator set operation). Removal efficiencies up to 95% for SO 2 and up to 70% for NO x were achieved. Several thousand tons of the by-product was sold in the form of NPK fertilizer. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones.

  11. Ebara electron-beam flue gas treatment process: Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstration unit: Final report: Volume 2, Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The volume contains the appendicies for Volume I of the final report. The appendicies listed herein correspond to the sections in the text from which they were referenced: AVCO computer code; description of baghouses and electrostatic precipitators; methods for determination of sulfur oxides in flue gas; methods for determination of ammonia in exhaust gas; determination of nitrous oxide emissions; determination of particle size; methods of measuring dust content in flue gas; electron beam power loss in irradiation of process vessel gases; log data tables.

  12. Adipic gets the acid test as flue gas scrubber additive

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.R.

    1980-02-11

    The first full-scale demonstration of adipic acid for such use, to be conducted early in the summer of 1980 in a 200 MW power plant burning high-sulfur coal, is designed to clarify the costs and show how to reduce losses of adipic acid via degradation. Adipic acid improves SO/sub 2/ removal by acting as a buffer to limit the pH drop normally occurring at the gas-liquid interface so that the higher SO/sub 2/ concentration in the surface film improves liquid-phase mass transfer; it also promotes higher limestone utilization. Prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority, a preliminary economic analysis for a 500 MW plant burning 4% sulfur coal indicates that the addition of 1500 ppM of adipic acid (limestone at $7/ton and the acid at $840/ton) would raise SO/sub 2/ removal from 90 to 95%, reduce the total capital investment from $41.5 to $39.5 million, and have a first year revenue requirement of $19.9 million vs. $20.9 million without the acid. The large-scale trial will also help clarify concern over unpleasant odors that have been reported at test sites of the limestone/adipic system; valeric acid has been identified as the cause.

  13. Operating condition influences on PCDD/Fs emissions from sinter pot tests with hot flue gas recycling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongmei; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Xianwei; He, Xiaolei

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to clarify the influence of operating conditions on the formation and emissions of polychlorinated-p-dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a sintering process with hot flue gas recycling. A pilot scale sinter pot with simulated flue gas recycling was developed, and four key operational parameters, including temperature, oxygen content of the simulated waste flue gas, the coke rate of the sintering mixture, and the quicklime quality, were selected for exploring PCDD/Fs formation. The results showed that the temperature of the recycled flue gas had a major affect on PCDD/Fs formation, and a high temperature could significantly increase their formation during sintering. A clear linear correlation between the temperature of recycling flue gas and PCDD/Fs emission (r = 0.93) was found. PCDD/Fs could be reduced to a certain extent by decreasing the level of oxygen in the recycled flue gas, while sintering quality was unchanged. The coke rate had no significant influence on the formation of PCDD/Fs, but the quality of quicklime used in the sintering mixture could affect not only the amount of PCDD/Fs emissions but also the sintering productivity. Compared with a benchmark sinter pot test, PCDD/Fs emissions markedly decreased with improvements to quicklime quality. However, the reduction in PCDD/Fs emissions realized by using high-quality quicklime was limited by the temperature of the inlet gas. The highest reduction achieved was 51% compared with conventional quicklime when the temperature of the inlet gas was 150 degrees C.

  14. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rey, José R; López-Vilariño, José M; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase.

  15. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  16. Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duong Ngoc Chau; Weidemann, Eva; Lundin, Lisa; Marklund, Stellan; Jansson, Stina

    2012-08-01

    In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700°C and 400°C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700°C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400°C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700°C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe. Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  18. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  19. Reactive carbon from life support wastes for incinerator flue gas cleanup-System Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Moran, Mark J.; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Xu, X.H.; Shi, Yao; Chang, Shih-Ger

    2002-05-14

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO{sub x} to nitrogen has also been observed.

  20. Pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam -start up and two stage irradiation tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Licki, Janusz; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Dobrowolski, Andrzej

    1993-10-01

    The pilot plant for flue gas treatment with electron beam has been built at Power Plant Kaweczyn, near Warsaw. The irradiation part of the pilot plant has been put in operation in 1991 whereas the complete installation including bag filter started to work in spring 1992. The starting tests consisted of studying the components reliability and influence of the two-stage irradiation process on efficiency of NO x removal. The results have shown that the two- stage irradiation leads to remarkable energy savings and retains high NO x removal. The mathematical models of the double and triple irradiation process are discussed.

  1. Cleaning Flue Gas from Sewage Sludge Incinerators Using an Electrostatic Precipitator and Polystage Chemical Scrubber.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Lu; Meier, Dave

    1999-02-01

    A study of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and chemical scrubber for flue gas cleaning was conducted on the multiple hearth sewage sludge incinerator at the New England Treatment Company (NETCO) facility in Woonsocket, RI. The ESP achieved the highest removal rate for heavy metals and particulate matter to a submicron range, while the two-stage chemical scrubber was able to oxidize and dissolve the incoming NOx in the scrubbing solutions. This paper describes the details of sewage sludge incineration systems, NOx emissions from a multiple-hearth sludge incinerator, and the current regulatory status; it also presents the results obtained from the commercial-scale ESP and the portable scrubber.

  2. Reactive Carbon from Life Support Wastes for Incinerator Flue Gas Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M. J.; Wignarajah, K.; Shi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO(sub x) to nitrogen has also been observed.

  3. Adipic acid-enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system commercial demonstration. [Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Colley, J.D.; Mobley, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    A full-scale demonstration carried out at Springfield, Mo City Utilities Southwest Power Plant in 1980-1981 on adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization system is reported. The major process findings during the demonstration are discussed. It is found that adipic acid is a viable means for improving SO/sub 2/ removal in scrubbers which are limited from a dissolved alkalinity standpoint. Dibasic acid (a mixture of glutaric, adipic, and succinic acids) is a technically viable alternative to adipic acid. 6 refs.

  4. Reactive Carbon from Life Support Wastes for Incinerator Flue Gas Cleanup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. W.; Pisharody, S.; Moran, M. J.; Wignarajah, K.; Shi, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a joint research initiative between NASA Ames Research Center and Lawrence Berkeley National lab. The objective of the research is to produce activated carbon from life support wastes and to use the activated carbon to adsorb and chemically reduce the NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) contained in incinerator flue gas. Inedible biomass waste from food production is the primary waste considered for conversion to activated carbon. Results to date show adsorption of both NO(sub x) and SO(sub 2) in activated carbon made from biomass. Conversion of adsorbed NO(sub x) to nitrogen has also been observed.

  5. Photochemical transformation of flue gas from a coal-fired power plant: a smog chamber study

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyna, K.J.; Luria, M.; Meagher, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    In this study, the relationship between the formation of sulfate aerosols and other secondary products and various environmental parameters is reported. Actual flue gas is used in these experiments which were conducted in smog chambers. Smog chamber techniques and instrumentation have progressed recently and are being utilized for the purposes of this study to simulate urban smog with emphasis on the photochemistry of sulfur dioxide. The purpose for examining the oxidation process of SO/sub 2/ to sulfate aerosols is because of the implication of sulfates in health effects, visibility degradation, and acidic precipitation.

  6. GE`s worldwide experience with IFO based gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, A.

    1994-12-31

    The In-Situ Forced Oxidation (IFO) process to produce gypsum in a commercial scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was first demonstrated by GE Environmental Systems in 1980 at the Monticello Generating Station of Texas Utilities. Since then, the IFO technology developed and demonstrated by GE has become the industry standard and is used extensively on a world-wide basis to produce both commercial and disposable-grade gypsum. The paper gives an overview of the development, demonstration, commercial design and current status of the IFO technology.

  7. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  8. Effects of salts on limestone dissolution rate in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ukawa, Naohiko; Takashina, Toru; Oshima, Michio; Oishi, Tsuyoshi )

    1993-11-01

    To understand how the dissolution rate of limestone used for absorbent in a wet flue gas desulfurization plant is affected by the soluble salts formed from hydrogen chloride gas in flue gas as well as from the impurities contained in the used raw material limestone itself, various limestone slurries each supplemented with a single salt of CaCl[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], NaCl, Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and MgSO[sub 4] were titrated with sulfuric acid. From the titration results the dissolution rate was found to vary greatly with the kind and the concentration of the salts with a general tendency to decrease in chloride solution but to increase in sulfate solutions. Based on this finding, the authors proposed a semi-empirical simplified model. The evaluated results using this model closely agreed with the measured values of the limestone dissolution rate both in single-salt solutions and mixed salt solutions. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): Regeneration Conditions and Influence of Flue Gas Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-01-01

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm3/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture. PMID:24107974

  10. Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): Regeneration Conditions and Influence of Flue Gas Contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-01

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm3/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  11. Absorption of sulfur dioxide from simulated flue gas by polyethyleneimine-phosphoric acid solution.

    PubMed

    Bo, Wen; Li, Hongxia; Zhang, Junjie; Song, Xiangjia; Hu, Jinshan; Liu, Ce

    2016-12-01

    Clean fuel technologies have been widely developed in current society because fuel combustion can directly bring about the emission of hazardous gasses such as SO2. Flue gas desulfurization by polyethyleneimine (PEI)-phosphoric acid solution is an efficient desulfurization method. In this research, the PEI and the additive H3PO4 were used as absorption solution. SO2 was absorbed by the system and desorbed from the loaded solution. The cycle operation was also analyzed. Some technology conditions such as the concentration of PEI, the temperature, the gas flow rate, the concentration of SO2 and the pH value were experimentally researched. With the optimized process, the absorption efficiency of this system could reach 98% and the desorption efficiency was over 60%, showing good absorption/desorption capability. With this efficient approach, the present study may open a new window for developing high-performance absorbents which can make SO2 be well desorbed from the loaded solution and better reused in the flue gas desulfurization.

  12. Adsorption of carbon dioxide by MIL-101(Cr): regeneration conditions and influence of flue gas contaminants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Ning, Liqi; Zheng, Shudong; Tao, Mengna; Shi, Yao; He, Yi

    2013-10-10

    MIL-101(Cr) has drawn much attention due to its high stability compared with other metal-organic frameworks. In this study, three trace flue gas contaminants (H2O, NO, SO2) were each added to a 10 vol% CO2/N2 feed flow and found to have a minimal impact on the adsorption capacity of CO2. In dynamic CO2 regeneration experiments, complete regeneration occurred in 10 min at 328 K for temperature swing adsorption-N2-stripping under a 50 cm(3)/min N2 flow and at 348 K for vacuum-temperature swing adsorption at 20 KPa. Almost 99% of the pre-regeneration adsorption capacity was preserved after 5 cycles of adsorption/desorption under a gas flow of 10 vol% CO2, 100 ppm SO2, 100 ppm NO, and 10% RH, respectively. Strong resistance to flue gas contaminants, mild recovery conditions, and excellent recycling efficiency make MIL-101(Cr) an attractive adsorbent support for CO2 capture.

  13. Vanadium As a Potential Membrane Material for Carbon Capture: Effects of Minor Flue Gas Species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Mengyao; Liguori, Simona; Lee, Kyoungjin; Van Campen, Douglas G; Toney, Michael F; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2017-10-03

    Vanadium and its surface oxides were studied as a potential nitrogen-selective membrane material for indirect carbon capture from coal or natural gas power plants. The effects of minor flue gas components (SO2, NO, NO2, H2O, and O2) on vanadium at 500-600 °C were investigated by thermochemical exposure in combination with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that SO2, NO, and NO2 are unlikely to have adsorbed on the surface vanadium oxides at 600 °C after exposure for up to 10 h, although NO and NO2 may have exhibited oxidizing effects (e.g., exposure to 250 ppmv NO/N2 resulted in an 2.4 times increase in surface V2O5 compared to exposure to just N2). We hypothesize that decomposition of surface vanadium oxides and diffusion of surface oxygen into the metal bulk are both important mechanisms affecting the composition and morphology of the vanadium membrane. The results and hypothesis suggest that the carbon capture performance of the vanadium membrane can potentially be strengthened by material and process improvements such as alloying, operating temperature reduction, and flue gas treatment.

  14. Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Liqiang, Qi; Yajuan, Zhang

    2013-07-15

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter from flue gas. SO2 removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO3(-) to SO4(2-). Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioflocculation of microalgae and bacteria combined with flue gas to improve sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Desmet, Sem; Boon, Nico

    2011-12-15

    Although microalgae are promising for a cradle-to-cradle design approach of sewage treatment, their application is hampered by high harvesting costs and low C:N ratios of sewage. Therefore, the potential of microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-flocs) was investigated for the secondary treatment of sewage supplemented with different flue gas flow rates (FGFRs) from a coal power plant. Effluent (N, P, turbidity and pH) and off gas discharge levels (NO(x), SO(x)) met the European discharge limits with a hydraulic retention time of only 0.67 days and an FGFR of 0.6Lh(-1) (0.0025 vvm). This FGFR provided sufficient carbon and resulted in removal efficiencies of 48 ± 7% CO(2), 87 ± 5% NO(x) and 99 ± 1% SO(2). MaB-flocs settled fast reaching up to a density of 19 g VSSL(-1). High biomass productivities (0.18 gL(-1)day(-1)) were obtained under a low light intensity. This successful reactor performance indicates the large potential for the industrial application of MaB-flocs for flue gas sparged sewage treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma injection for elemental mercury oxidation in a simulated flue gas.

    PubMed

    An, Jiutao; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Jiang, Yuze; Wang, Tiecheng; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2014-03-15

    The use of non-thermal plasma (NTP) injection approach to oxidize elemental mercury (Hg(0)) in simulated flue gas at 110°C was studied, where a surface discharge plasma reactor (SDPR) inserted in the simulated flue duct was used to generate and inject active species into the flue gas. Approximately 81% of the Hg(0) was oxidized and 20.5μgkJ(-1) of energy yield was obtained at a rate of 3.9JL(-1). A maximal Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was found with a change in the NTP injection air flow rate. A high Hg(0) oxidation efficiency was observed in the mixed flue gas that included O2, H2O, SO2, NO and HCl. Chemical and physical processes (e.g., ozone, N2 metastable states and UV-light) were found to contribute to Hg(0) oxidation, with ozone playing a dominant role. The deposited mercury species on the internal surface of the flue duct was analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic probe microanalysis (EPMA), and the deposit was identified as HgO. The mercury species is thought to primarily exist in the form of HgO(s) by adhering to the suspended aerosols in the gas-phase.

  17. Natural Gas Imports and Exports. Third Quarter Report 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    The second quarter 1997 Quarterly Report of Natural Gas Imports and Exports featured a Quarterly Focus report on cross-border natural gas trade between the United States and Mexico. This Quarterly Focus article is a follow-up to the 1997 report. This report revisits and updates the status of some of the pipeline projects discussed in 1997, and examines a number of other planned cross-border pipeline facilities which were proposed subsequent to our 1997 report. A few of the existing and proposed pipelines are bidirectional and thus have the capability of serving either Mexico, or the United States, depending on market conditions and gas supply availability. These new projects, if completed, would greatly enhance the pipeline infrastructure on the U.S.-Mexico border and would increase gas pipeline throughput capacity for cross-border trade by more than 1 billion cubic feet (Bcf) per day. The Quarterly Focus is comprised of five sections. Section I includes the introduction as well as a brief historic overview of U.S./Mexican natural gas trade; a discussion of Mexico's energy regulatory structure; and a review of trade agreements and a 1992 legislative change which allows for her cross-border gas trade in North America. Section II looks at initiatives that have been taken by the Mexican Government since 1995to open its energy markets to greater competition and privatization. Section III reviews Mexican gas demand forecasts and looks at future opportunities for U.S. gas producers to supplement Mexico's indigenous supplies in order to meet the anticipated rapid growth in demand. Section IV examines the U.S.-Mexico natural gas trade in recent years. It also looks specifically at monthly import and export volumes and prices and identifies short-term trends in this trade. Finally, Section V reviews the existing and planned cross-border gas pipeline infrastructure. The section also specifically describes six planned pipelines intended to expand this pipeline network and

  18. Empirical models for NO x and SO 2 removal in a double stage flue gas irradiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Tymiński, B.; Dobrowolski, A.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    2000-03-01

    A multidimensional regression method has been applied to construct empirical model equations of NO x and SO 2 removal efficiency in e-b process for a two-stage irradiation system based on results achieved for the EPS Kaw ȩczyn pilot plant. The influence of different parameters such as dose, temperature, gas humidity and ammonia stoichiometry have been studied. Model equations describe with satisfactory accuracy experimental results. Therefore obtained models equations can be used for prediction of NO x and SO 2 removal efficiency in e-b process during two-stage irradiation of flue gases, particularly in the case of scale-up. The results will be implemented in the industrial electron beam flue gas treatment installation being constructed at EPS Pomorzany, Dolna Odra PS Group SA, Poland (flue gas flow 270,000 N m 3/h, total beam power of applied accelerators 1.2 MW).

  19. Field applications of a bio-trickling filter for the removal of nitrogen oxides from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ran; Huang, Shaobin; Yang, Jun; Deng, Kang; Liu, Zhenghui

    2009-07-01

    A bio-trickling filter (BTF) packed with polyhedral spheres was used to remove nitrogen oxides (NOx) from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant. The BTF system consistently removed 64-95% of the NOx after start-up and acclimation under dynamic conditions (e.g., 120-240 m(3)/h flue gas flow rate and inlet 300-900 mg NOx/m(3)). Scanning electron microscopy of the biofilms that were formed showed a shift in the predominating bacteria. Analyses by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the naturally-selected mixed cultures in the biofilm under a flue gas environment were mainly Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp.

  20. Calcium bisulfite oxidation rate in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lancia, A.; Musmarra, D.

    1999-06-01

    In this paper oxidation of calcium bisulfite in aqueous solutions was studied, in connection with the limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process. Experimental measurements of the oxidation rate were carried out in a laboratory scale stirred reactor with continuous feeding of both gas and liquid phase. A calcium bisulfite clear solution was used as liquid phase, and pure oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen were used as gas phase. Experiments were carried out at T = 45 C varying the composition of the liquid phase and the oxygen partial pressure. Manganous sulfate was used as catalyst. The analysis of the experimental results showed that the kinetics of bisulfite oxidation in the presence of MnSO{sub 4} follow a parallel reaction mechanism, in which the overall reaction rate can be calculated as the sum between the uncatalyzed rate (3/2 order in bisulfite ion) and the catalyzed reaction rate (first order in manganous ion).

  1. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Removal from Flue Gas Using Microporous Metal Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, David A

    2010-06-30

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, in collaboration with Professor Douglas LeVan at Vanderbilt University (VU), Professor Adam Matzger at the University of Michigan (UM), Professor Randall Snurr at Northwestern University (NU), and Professor Stefano Brandani at the University of Edinburgh (UE), supported by Honeywell's Specialty Materials business unit and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), have completed a three-year project to develop novel microporous metal organic frameworks (MOFs) and an associated vacuum-pressure swing adsorption (vPSA) process for the removal of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas. The project leveraged the team's complementary capabilities: UOP's experience in materials development and manufacturing, adsorption process design and process commercialization; LeVan and Brandani's expertise in high-quality adsorption measurements; Matzger's experience in syntheis of MOFs and the organic components associated with MOFs; Snurr's expertise in molecular and other modeling; Honeywell's expertise in the manufacture of organic chemicals; and, EPRI's knowledge of power-generation technology and markets. The project was successful in that a selective CO{sub 2} adsorbent with good thermal stability and reasonable contaminant tolerance was discovered, and a low cost process for flue gas CO{sub 2} capture process ready to be evaluated further at the pilot scale was proposed. The team made significant progress toward the current DOE post-combustion research targets, as defined in a recent FOA issued by NETL: 90% CO{sub 2} removal with no more than a 35% increase in COE. The team discovered that favorable CO{sub 2} adsorption at more realistic flue gas conditions is dominated by one particular MOF structure type, M/DOBDC, where M designates Zn, Co, Ni, or Mg and DOBDC refers to the form of the organic linker in the resultant MOF structure, dioxybenzenedicarboxylate. The structure of the M/DOBDC MOFs consists of infinite-rod secondary

  3. Numerical simulations of flue gas flow in a first stage filter with top inlet - Modifications of the inlet chamber inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Martin; Matas, Richard; Sedláček, Jan

    2017-09-01

    This paper is focused on flue gas flow simulations in a first stage filter with top inlet that is used in a cogeneration power plant. CFD simulations were done with emphasize on the influence of inlet chamber on the flue gas distribution and filtering process. The flow has to be turned at right direction in a quite small space. To achieve this change, distribution walls with flaps and duct inserts are used in the inlet chamber. The results showed that the main influence on the velocity distribution inside the filter have the inserts in the chamber.

  4. Reduction of VOCs in flue gas from coal combustion by electron beam treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Ostapczuk, A.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Kubica, K.

    2002-03-01

    Coal combustion is one of the biggest sources of VOCs, which are emitted with various concentrations, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are known as the most dangerous, and among them, e.g. benzo(a)pyrene C 20H 12, benzo(g,h,I)perylene C 22H 12 or dibenzo(a,h)anthracene C 22H 14 are the most toxic according to EPA. Recent years have brought new regulations concerning PAH emission, and European countries have signed an international treaty, covering PAH emission. Tests at the pilot plant constructed at a coal-fired power station were performed with the purpose of estimating the influence of electron beam on VOCs present in flue gas, during SO 2 and NO x removal. The influence of electron beam on the global toxicity factor of flue gas has been analysed. In the presence of ammonia, the concentrations of some PAHs were lower than that without ammonia. The removal efficiencies have been ranged from 40% up to 98%.

  5. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  6. Torrefaction of cedarwood in a pilot scale rotary kiln and the influence of industrial flue gas.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yanyang; Liu, Rujie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping; Shao, Jingai; Draper, Christopher; Zhang, Shihong; Chen, Hanping

    2015-02-01

    Torrefaction of cedarwood was performed in a pilot-scale rotary kiln at various temperatures (200, 230, 260 and 290°C). The torrefaction properties, the influence on the grindability and hydroscopicity of the torrefied biomass were investigated in detail as well as the combustion performance. It turned out that, compared with raw biomass, the grindability and the hydrophobicity of the torrefied biomass were significantly improved, and the increasing torrefaction temperature resulted in a decrease in grinding energy consumption and an increase in the proportion of smaller-sized particles. The use of industrial flue gas had a significant influence on the behavior of cedarwood during torrefaction and the properties of the resultant solid products. To optimize the energy density and energy yield, the temperature of torrefaction using flue gas should be controlled within 260°C. Additionally, the combustion of torrefied samples was mainly the combustion of chars, with similar combustion characteristics to lignite. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An optimized concept for flue gas cleaning downstream of MWCs using sodium tetrasulfide for mercury removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schuettenhelm, W.; Hartenstein, H.U.; Licata, A.

    1998-07-01

    In Germany and other central European countries, new emission standards for refuse incineration plants became effective in 1989/90. In recent years the operators of incinerating plants in Germany demanded higher removal emission efficiency than required by law in order to obtain local permits. In the course of the procurement process, complex flue gas cleaning systems were approved and built. As a result, the costs for air pollution control systems exceeded the costs of the refuse combustion system (stoker plus boiler) which has been reflected in the constantly climbing disposal costs. Not all of the increased disposal costs have been able to be passed along to the market. Economic pressure has led to a search for simple solutions and low-cost flue gas cleaning systems which correspond to the legal and contractual limits. A new processes was developed by L. and C. Steinmueller GmbH (Steinmueller) using sodium tetrasulfide (Na{sub 2}S{sub 4}) as a additive for the emission control of mercury. This paper will present an overview of the general application of this new technology in the waste-to-energy field. The efficiency of the reduction of mercury, and serviceability and the simple handling of this new technology will be shown by results of plants which are in operating. For a conclusion, an outlook is provided into future applications of this technology over the waste-to-energy field.

  8. Iron blast furnace slag/hydrated lime sorbents for flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chiung-Fang; Shih, Shin-Min

    2004-08-15

    Sorbents prepared from iron blast furnace slag (BFS) and hydrated lime (HL) through the hydration process have been studied with the aim to evaluate their reactivities toward SO2 under the conditions prevailing in dry or semidry flue gas desulfurization processes. The BFS/HL sorbents, having large surface areas and pore volumes due to the formation of products of hydration, were highly reactive toward SO2, as compared with hydrated lime alone (0.24 in Ca utilization). The sorbent reactivity increased as the slurrying temperature and time increased and as the particle size of BFS decreased; the effects of the liquid/solid ratio and the sorbent drying conditions were negligible. The structural properties and the reactivity of sorbent were markedly affected by the BFS/HL ratio; the sorbent with 30/70 ratio had the highest 1 h utilization of Ca, 0.70, and SO2 capture, 0.45 g SO2/g sorbent. The reactivity of a sorbent was related to its initial specific surface area (Sg0) and molar content of Ca (M(-1)); the 1 h utilization of Ca increased almost linearly with increasing Sg0/M. The results of this study are useful to the preparation of BFS/HL sorbents with high reactivity for use in the dry and semidry processes to remove SO2 from the flue gas.

  9. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  10. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over mesoporous alumina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Ning, Ping; Huang, Bin; Wang, Fang; Yuan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous alumina (MA) with a higher ability to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was prepared by the evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The adsorption capacities of MA are 1.79 and 0.702 mmol/g for SO2 and NO, respectively. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method was used to characterize the adsorbent. Simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO from flue gas over MA in different operating conditions had been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The effects of temperature, oxygen concentration and water vapour were investigated. The experimental results showed that the optimum temperature for MA to simultaneously remove SO2 and NO was 90°C. The simultaneous adsorption capacities of SO2 and NO could be enhanced by increasing O2 when its concentration was below 5%. The changes of simultaneous adsorption capacities were not obvious when O2 concentration was above 5%. The increase in relative humidity results in an increase after dropping of SO2 adsorption capacity, whereas the adsorption capacity of NO showed an opposite trend. The results suggest that MA is a great adsorbent for simultaneous removal of SO2 and NO from flue gas.

  11. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components. PMID:24453875

  12. Study on a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization with multifluid alkaline spray generator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y.G.; Zhang, M.C.; Wang, D.F.; Wang, L.

    2005-11-09

    The advantages and disadvantages of the typical semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes are analyzed, and a novel semidry FGD process with multifluid alkaline spray generator is first proposed to improve the colliding contact efficiency between sorbent particles and spray water droplets, and to form a large amount of aqueous lime slurry. The experimental results show that the colliding contact efficiency between lime particles and water droplets in the prefix alkaline spray generator may reach about 70%, which is significantly higher than the colliding contact efficiency of 25% in duct sorbent injection. The SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can reach 64.5% when the Ca/S molar ratio is 1.5, the approach to the saturation temperature is 10.3{sup o}C, and the flue gas residence time is 2.25 s. It is higher than that of in-duct sorbent injection under similar conditions, and the sorbent utilization is improved to 43%. Therefore, the FGD process with a prefix alkaline spray generator can greatly improve SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and sorbent utilization and it will be a new, simple and efficient semidry FGD process for industrial application in the future.

  13. Carbon Mineralization by Aqueous Precipitation for Beneficial Use of CO2 from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Devenney, Martin; Gilliam, Ryan; Seeker, Randy

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate an innovative process to mineralize CO2 from flue gas directly to reactive carbonates and maximize the value and versatility of its beneficial use products. The program scope includes the design, construction, and testing of a CO2 Conversion to Material Products (CCMP) Pilot Demonstration Plant utilizing CO2 from the flue gas of a power production facility in Moss Landing, CA. This topical report covers Subphase 2a which is the design phase of pilot demonstration subsystems. Materials of construction have been selected and proven in both lab scale and prototype testing to be acceptable for the reagent conditions of interest. The target application for the reactive carbonate material has been selected based upon small-scale feasibility studies and the design of a continuous fiber board production line has been completed. The electrochemical cell architecture and components have been selected based upon both lab scale and prototype testing. The appropriate quality control and diagnostic techniques have been developed and tested along with the required instrumentation and controls. Finally the demonstrate site infrastructure, NEPA categorical exclusion, and permitting is all ready for the construction and installation of the new units and upgrades.

  14. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  15. State-of-the-art review of materials-related problems in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Maiya, P. S.

    1980-10-01

    This report characterizes the chemical and mechanical environments to which the structural components used in flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) are exposed. It summarizes the necessary background information pertinent to various FGD processes currently in use, with particular emphasis on lime/limestone scrubbing technology, so that the materials problems and processing variables encountered in FGD systems can be better defined and appreciated. The report also describes the materials currently used and their performance to date in existing wet scrubbers. There is little doubt that with more extensive use of coal and flue-gas scrubbers by utilities and other segments of private industry, a better understanding of the material failure mechanisms, performance limitations, and potential problem areas is required for the design of more reliable and cost-effective FGD systems. To meet the above objectives, a materials evaluation program is proposed. The important experimental variables and the number of tests required to evaluate a given material are discussed. 55 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Flue gas cleaning with ammonia reduces SO{sub 2} emission

    SciTech Connect

    Emish, G.J.; Schulte, W.; Ellison, W.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the technical and commercial development and basis for application in North America for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) of the AMASOX{reg_sign} (i.e. Ammonia Absorbs Sulfur Oxides) Process of Krupp Uhde (Germany) employing ammonia reagent. This process technology has been emerging slowly and stepwise over a twenty-year period in reaching the present stage of commercial applicability. The discussion herein considers the need for accommodating to and advantageously addressing the increasing number of applications with high and ultra-high flue-gas concentrations of SO{sub 2} at the boiler outlet accompanied by significant levels of other pollutants. Key measures in accomplishing this include use of important process innovations. This, as well, calls for the effective use, when applicable, of wet electrostatic precipitator mist-elimination means to gain low/minimum-opacity stack plume trailoff in wet scrubber use together with reduction of air toxics to low concentrations. With cost-effectiveness in electric utility service, detailed herein, superior to FGD processes commonly used to date in high-sulfur service, utilization of this technology is expanding. Important, potentially trend-setting types of powerplant applications of ammonia FGD are reviewed to identify foreseen market sectors and procurement trends that will at the same time serve to substantially broaden lowest-cost coal utilization.

  17. Recovery and recycling of limestone in LEC flue gas desulfurization. Final report, third year

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.C.; Boo, J.Y.

    1993-12-20

    A potentially attractive flue gas desulfurization method called Limestone Emission Control (LEC) is currently being investigated by Prudich at Ohio University. In this process, beds of 1/8 inch limestone gravel particles absorb sulfur dioxide from flue gas. This forms sulfite and sulfate salts which coat limestone, blinding the surface and limiting utilization to 20%. Favorable economics can be generating when the unreacted portion of the limestone is recovered by mechanical grinding. This project is a wet method for grinding and recovering the spent limestone from the LEC process, utilizing an impeller fluidizer, a new type of slurry processor. It consists of a cylindrical vessel with an impeller at one end. The impeller generates sufficient pressure head to serve as a slurry pump. It combines the operation of wet grinding, washing, and transporting the spent and recovered limestone as an aqueous slurry. The objectives of the first two years were to operate fluidizer in a batch mode to carry grinding experiments, and to determine the removal of the sulfur coatings from the limestone when operating the fluidizer in a continuous mode. The main thrusts of the third year were to complete the grinding data and coordinate the data with reactivity determinations of the recovered limestone. Direct measurement of power requirements, operation of single impeller fluidizer, grinding of surface deposits and other methods of removing surface deposits have also been investigated along with sorption characteristics of recovered limestone, microscopic examination of the limestone surface, and limestone attrition.

  18. Removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gas using the sludge sodium humate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Hu, Guoxin

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m(3)/h). The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g(-1) SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components.

  19. The study of electron beam flue gas treatment for coal-fired thermal plant in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Aoki, Shinji; Suzuki, Ryoji

    1993-10-01

    The fundamental research work with simulated coal-fired flue gas was performed in JAERI to get basic data for electron beam treatment of flue gas from thermal power plants in Japan. The standard condition of the experiments was set to be the same as that of next large scale pilot test in Nagoya. The concentrations of NO x and SO x were 225 ppm and 800 ppm, respectively. The temperature of the system was 65°C. The effect of multiple irradiation was observed for NO x removal. The target SO x and NO x removals (94% and 80%, respectively) with low NH 3 leakage (less than 10 ppm) were achieved at 9 kGy irradiation with 0.9 NH 3 stoichiometry during 7 hours continuous operation. The facility for the pilot plant (12,000 Nm 3/hr) has just built at the site of Shin-Nagoya power plant of Chubu Electric Power Company and will be started in full operation in November 1992.

  20. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J.

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  1. Process analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas using carbonation/calcination cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.S.; Cai, N.S.; Croiset, E.

    2008-07-15

    Process analysis of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas using Ca-based carbonation/calcination cycles is presented here. A carbonation/calcination system is composed essentially of two reactors (an absorber and a regenerator) with Ca-based sorbent circulating between the two reactors (assumed here as fluidized beds). CO{sub 2} is, therefore, transferred from the absorber to the regenerator. Because of the endothermicity of the calcination reaction, a certain amount of coal is burned with pure oxygen in the regenerator. Detailed mass balance, heat balance and cost of electricity and CO{sub 2} mitigation for the carbonation/calcination cycles with three Ca-based sorbents in dual fluidized beds were calculated and analyzed to study the effect of the Ca-based sorbent activity decay on CO{sub 2} capture from flue gas. The three sorbents considered were: limestone, dolomite and CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 33} (75/25 wt %) sorbent. All results, including the amount of coal and oxygen required, are presented with respect to the difference in calcium oxide conversion between the absorber and the regenerator, which is an important design parameter. Finally, costs of electricity and CO{sub 2} mitigation costs using carbonation/calcination cycles for the three sorbents were estimated. The results indicate that the economics of the carbonation/calcination process compare favorably with competing technologies for capturing CO{sub 2}.

  2. Magnesia spray absorption for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, L.K.; Egan, B.Z.

    1982-01-01

    Regenerable methods of flue gas desulfurization, which recycle the absorbent and diminish the waste disposal problem, have been developed. One method which substitutes a magnesia (MgO) slurry for the lime/limestone slurry has been under development for several years and commercial systems have been operated. The basic chemical reactions occurring in a magnesia scrubber are known. The magnesia is hydrated in the slurry and the SO/sub 2/ in the flue gas reacts to form magnesium sulfite. The magnesium sulfite formed can be dried and subsequently decomposed at higher temperature to yield MgO for recycle to the scrubber, and more concentrated SO/sub 2/ for sulfuric acid or sulfur production. Thus, the magnesia FGD system both reduces scrubber sludge disposal and provides for a saleable by-product. Significant advantages could be realized by combining spray absorption technology with the regenerable magnesia flue gas desulfurization system as shown on a simplified flow chart. The reduction in equipment, operation, and maintenance requirements, combined with a saleable by-product could result in significant savings in both capital and operating costs. Bench-scale experiments indicate that it is technically feasible to combine spray absorption with magnesia scrubbing to remove greater than 90% of the SO/sub 2/ from gas streams containing 0.1 to 1.0% SO/sub 2/ under controlled conditions. The resulting product will probably be a mixture of MgSO/sub 3/.3H/sub 2/O and MgSO/sub 3/.6H/sub 2/O, with the trihydrate predominating at higher temperatures and lower humidity, while the hexahydrate would be favored at lower temperatures and higher humidity. As previously demonstrated and verified by thermogravimetric analysis, the magnesium sulfite hydrates can be dehydrated and subsequently decomposed thermally to give MgO for recycle to the scrubber and a concentrated SO/sub 2/ gas stream which can be used for sulfuric acid or sulfur production.

  3. Carbon dioxide fixation by microalgae photosynthesis using actual flue gas discharged from a boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Hiroyo; Shioji, Norio; Hamasaki, Akihiro

    1995-12-31

    To mitigate CO{sub 2} discharged from thermal power plants, studies on CO{sub 2} fixation by the photosynthesis of microalgae using actual exhaust gas have been carried out. The results are as follows: (1) A method is proposed for evaluating the maximum photosynthesis rate in the raceway cultivator using only the algal physical properties; (2) Outdoor cultivation tests taking actual flue gas were performed with no trouble or break throughout 1 yr using the strain collected in the test; (3) The produced microalgae is effective as solid fuel; and (4) The feasibility studies of this system were performed. The system required large land area, but the area is smaller than that required for other biomass systems, such as tree farms.

  4. [Treatment of Flue Gas from Sludge Drying Process by A Thermophilic Biofilter].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Ding, Wen-iie; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-01-15

    A thermophilic biofilter was employed to treat the flue gas generated from sludge drying process, and the performance in both the start period and the stationary phase was studied under the gas flow rate of 2 700-3 100 m3 x h(-1) and retention time of 21.88-25.10 s. The results showed that the thermophilic biofilter could effectively treat gases containing sulfur dioxide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The removal efficiencies could reach 100%, 93.61% and 87.01%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated that most of the population belonged to thermophilic bacteria. Paenibacillus sp., Chelatococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium thermosuccinogenes, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. and Geobacillus debilis which were abundant in the thermophilic biofilter, had the abilities of denitrification, desulfurization and degradation of volatile organic compounds.

  5. Carbonation of gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization process: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenyi; Zhang, Zixin; Li, Hongyi; Li, Youxu; Shen, Zewen

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, waste gypsum from wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) mixed with NH3·H2O was applied for CO2 absorption in the solid-liquid-gas phase system. The effects of operation temperature, CO2 flow rates, and ammonia-to-gypsum ratio on carbonation process were discussed. Meanwhile, a model for CO2 absorption in the suspension of WFGD gypsum and ammonia was established. The results indicate that higher temperature favors the reaction, and WFGD gypsum conversion can be achieved above 90% even at lower ammonia-to-gypsum ratio, while CO2 conversion reaches 90% and ammonia utilization is up to 83.69%. The model fits well with the experimental results at various CO2 flow rates and predicts the concentration distribution of the main species, including CO2 absorbed, NH2COO(-), and HCO3(-).

  6. Experimental investigation and modeling of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kiil, S.; Michelsen, M.L.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    1998-07-01

    A detailed model for a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) pilot plant, based on the packed tower concept, has been developed. All important rate-determining steps, absorption of SO{sub 2}, oxidation of HSO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, dissolution of limestone, and crystallization of gypsum were included. Population balance equations, governing the description of particle size distributions of limestone in the plant, were derived. Model predictions were compared to experimental data such as gas-phase concentration profiles of SO{sub 2}, slurry pH profiles, solids content of the slurry, liquid-phase concentrations, and residual limestone in the gypsum. Simulations were found to match experimental data for the two limestone types investigated. A parameter study of the model was conducted with the purpose of validating assumptions and extracting information on wet FGD systems. The modeling tools developed may be applicable to other wet FGD plants.

  7. Flue gas cleanup using the Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, Henry W; Hoffman, James S

    2013-10-01

    The use of copper oxide on a support had been envisioned as a gas cleanup technique to remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitric oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation. In general, dry, regenerable flue gas cleanup techniques that use a sorbent can have various advantages, such as simultaneous removal of pollutants, production of a salable by-product, and low costs when compared to commercially available wet scrubbing technology. Due to the temperature of reaction, the placement of the process into an advanced power system could actually increase the thermal efficiency of the plant. The Moving-Bed Copper Oxide Process is capable of simultaneously removing sulfur oxides and nitric oxides within the reactor system. In this regenerable sorbent technique, the use of the copper oxide sorbent was originally in a fluidized bed, but the more recent effort developed the use of the sorbent in a moving-bed reactor design. A pilot facility or life-cycle test system was constructed so that an integrated testing of the sorbent over absorption/regeneration cycles could be conducted. A parametric study of the total process was then performed where all process steps, including absorption and regeneration, were continuously operated and experimentally evaluated. The parametric effects, including absorption temperature, sorbent and gas residence times, inlet SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} concentration, and flyash loadings, on removal efficiencies and overall operational performance were determined. Although some of the research results have not been previously published because of previous collaborative restrictions, a summary of these past findings is presented in this communication. Additionally, the potential use of the process for criteria pollutant removal in oxy-firing of fossil fuel for carbon sequestration purposes is discussed.

  8. Natural gas imports and exports. Second quarter report 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This quarter`s feature report focuses on natural gas exports to Mexico. OFP invites ideas from the public on future topics dealing with North American natural gas import/export trade. Such suggestions should be left on OFP`s electronic bulletin board. Natural Gas exports to Mexico continued to grow and reached an historic high for the month of June (7.8 Bcf). Two new long-term contracts were activated; Pennsylvania Gas & Water Company began importing 14.7 MMcf per day from TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., and Renaissance Energy (U.S.) Inc. began importing 2.8 MMcf per day from Renaissance Energy Ltd. for resale to Delmarva Power & Light Company. Algerian LNG imports remained stagnant with only one tanker being imported by Pan National Gas Sales, Inc. (Pan National). During the first six months of 1995, data indicates gas imports increased by about 10 percent over the 1994 level (1,418 vs. 1,285 Bcf), with Canadian imports increasing by 14 percent and Algerian imports decreasing by 81 percent. During the same time period, exports increased by 18 percent (83 vs. 70.1 Bcf).

  9. Comprehensive report to Congress: Clean Coal Technology program: Confined zone dispersion low-NO sub x flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report describes a project selected for funding under the US Clean Coal Technology Program. This project will demonstrate the removal of SO{sub 2} from the flue gas of a utility coal-fired boiler retrofitted with the confined zone dispersion-flue gas desulfurization (CZD-FGD) process. In the CZD-FGD process, a finely atomized slurry of a highly reactive pressure hydrated dolomitic lime is sprayed into the flue gas stream between the boiler air heater(s) and the particulate collection equipment. The lime slurry is injected into the center of the duct and the type and position of the spray nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves nozzles are designed to produce a cone of fine spray. As the cone of spray moves downstream and expands, the gas within the cone cools and the SO{sub 2} is rapidly absorbed by the liquid droplets. This fast drying time precludes wet particle build-up in the duct and allows carry-over of the dry reaction products and the unreacted lime in the flue gas, which will be removed by the particulate collection equipment. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1984-06-01

    Under the auspices of US Department of Energy, this work supports the program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that these cleaned hot gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A laboratory-scale pressurized test unit was used to continue the alkali-vapor characterization of activated bauxite and Emathlite at a bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute in a simulated PFBC flue gas stream containing <10 ppMV NaCl vapor. Under the test conditions, preliminary results show a comparable NaCl-vapor capture capability for both activated bauxite and Emathlite. Emathlite was found to capture NaCl vapor essentially by chemical reactions with the vapor to form water-insoluble compounds, probably sodium aluminosilicates, whereas activated bauxite captures the vapor mainly by physical adsorption as sodium sulfate. The test unit was modified and tested to improve the control of NaCl vaporization in the unit required for the source of alkali vapor in the simulated flue gas. Experimental results are also presented on (1) water leachability of both metallic and nonmetallic ions present in activated bauxite when it is cyclically heat-treated in a simulated PFBC flue gas environment and then leached with distilled water, and (2) the effect of heat-treatment of Emathlite in the simulated PFBC flue gas on the changes of its physical and chemical properties.

  11. Removal of elemental Mercury from flue gas using wheat straw chars modified by K2FeO4 reagent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianfei; Liu, Yangxian; Pan, Jianfeng

    2017-02-17

    In this article, wheat straw (WS) char, a common agricultural waste and renewable biomass, was pyrolyzed and then modified by K2FeO4 reagent to develop an efficient sorbent for removal of Hg(0) from flue gas. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, scanning electron microscopy with energy spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to characterize the sorbents. The effects of K2FeO4 loading, reaction temperature, Hg(0) inlet concentration and concentrations of gas mixtures O2, NO and SO2 in flue gas on Hg(0) removal were investigated in a fixed-bed reactor. The results show that K2FeO4-impregnation can improve pore structure of WS char and produce new active sites, which significantly enhance Hg(0) removal. Increasing Hg(0) inlet concentration significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency. O2 in flue gas promotes Hg(0) oxidation by replenishing the oxygen groups on the surface of modified chars. The presence of NO obviously promotes Hg(0) removal since it can oxidize Hg(0) to Hg(NO3)2. SO2 in flue gas significantly decreases Hg(0) removal efficiency due to the competition adsorption between SO2 and Hg(0). The increase in reaction temperature has a dual impact on Hg(0) removal.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Dick, W A; Nelson, S

    2001-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha(-1). Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  13. Study on removal of elemental mercury from simulated flue gas over activated coke treated by acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jinfeng; Li, Caiting; Zhao, Lingkui; Zhang, Jie; Song, Jingke; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Xunan; Xie, Yine

    2015-02-01

    This work addressed the investigation of activated coke (AC) treated by acids. Effects of AC samples, modified by ether different acids (H2SO4, HNO3 and HClO4) or HClO4 of varied concentrations, on Hg0 removal were studied under simulated flue gas conditions. In addition, effects of reaction temperature and individual flue gas components including O2, NO, SO2 and H2O were discussed. In the experiments, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were applied to explore the surface properties of sorbents and possible mechanism of Hg0 oxidation. Results showed that AC sample treated by HClO4 of 4.5 mol/L exhibited maximum promotion of efficiency on Hg0 removal at 160 °C. NO was proved to be positive in the removal of Hg0. And SO2 displayed varied impact in capturing Hg0 due to the integrated reactions between SO2 and modified AC. The addition of O2 could improve the advancement further to some extent. Besides, the Hg0 removal capacity had a slight declination when H2O was added in gas flow. Based on the analysis of XPS and FTIR, the selected sample absorbed Hg0 mostly in chemical way. The reaction mechanism, deduced from results of characterization and performance of AC samples, indicated that Hg0 could firstly be absorbed on sorbent and then react with oxygen-containing (Csbnd O) or chlorine-containing groups (Csbnd Cl) on the surface of sorbent. And the products were mainly in forms of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and mercuric oxide (HgO).

  14. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Babcock and Wilcox`s (B and W) SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} process effectively removes SOx, NOx and particulate (Rox) from flue gas generated from coal-fired boilers in a single unit operation, a high temperature baghouse. The SNRB technology utilizes dry sorbent injection upstream of the baghouse for removal of SOx and ammonia injection upstream of a zeolitic selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst incorporated in the baghouse to reduce NOx emissions. Because the SOx and NOx removal processes require operation at elevated gas temperatures (800--900 F) for high removal efficiency, high-temperature fabric filter bags are used in the baghouse. The SNRB technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B and W tested the SNRB pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R.E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B and W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB process. The SNRB facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993. About 2,300 hours of high-temperature operation were achieved. The main emissions control performance goals of: greater than 70% SO{sub 2} removal using a calcium-based sorbent; greater than 90% NOx removal with minimal ammonia slip; and particulate emissions in compliance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) of 0.03 lb/million Btu were exceeded simultaneously in the demonstration program when the facility was operated at optimal conditions. Testing also showed significant reductions in emissions of some hazardous air pollutants.

  15. Adsorption and Catalytic Oxidation of Gaseous Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas over MnOx/Alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, S.H.; Chen, J.; Li, J.F.; Qu, Z.; Liu, P.; Yan, N.Q.; Jia, J.Q.

    2009-04-15

    MnOx/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts (i.e., impregnating manganese oxide on alumina) were employed to remove elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) from flue gas. MnOx/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was found to have significant adsorption performance on capturing Hg{sup 0} in the absence of hydrogen chloride (HCl), and its favorable adsorption temperature was about 600 K. However, the catalytic oxidation of Hg{sup 0} became dominant when HCl or chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) was present in flue gas, and the removal efficiency of Hg{sup 0} was up to 90% with 20 ppm of HCl or 2 ppm of Cl{sub 2}. In addition, the catalysts with adsorbed mercury could be chemically regenerated by rinsing with HCl gas to strip off the adsorbed mercury in the form of HgCl{sub 2}. Sulfur dioxide displayed inhibition to the adsorption of Hg{sup 0} on the catalysts, but the inhibition was less to the catalytic oxidation of Hg{sup 0}, especially in the presence of Cl{sub 2}. The analysis results of XPS and pyrolysis-AAS indicated that the adsorbed mercury was mainly in the forms of mercuric oxide (Hg{sup 0}) and the weakly bonded speciation, and the ratio of them varied with the adsorption amount and manganese content on catalysts. The multifunctional performances of MnOx/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the removal of Hg{sup 0} appeared to the promising in the industrial applications.

  16. Measurement of slurry droplets in coal-fired flue gas after WFGD.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Cheng; Zhao, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Zheng, Cheng-Hang; Gao, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    China owns the world's largest capacity of coal-fired power units. By the end of 2012, the capacity of installed national thermal power has been 819.68 million kilowatts. The latest standard requires that newly built power plants emit SO2 in no more than 100 mg/m(3) and the emission of old ones be lower than 200 mg/m(3) while in some key areas the emission should be controlled under 50 mg/m(3). So by the end of 2012, 90% of the active coal-fired units have been equipped with flue gas desulfurization devices. Among the desulfurization methods adopted, limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulphurization accounts for 92%, causing the problem of fine droplets in the exhaust gas after defogger, which may even form "gypsum rain." At present, sampling methods are widely used at home and abroad, such as magnesium ion tracer method, modified magnesium ion tracer method and chemical analysis. In addition, some scholars use aerodynamic methods, such as ELPI, to measure the diameter distribution and concentration. The methods mentioned above all have their own demerits, such as the inability to on-line, continuous measurements and the need of prolonged measuring time. Thus, in this paper some potential optical on-line methods are presented, such as Fraunhofer diffraction pattern analysis and wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction. Also brought up are their measuring scope and merits. These methods have already been utilized to measure small liquid droplets and their demonstrations and evaluations are as well stated. Finally, a 3D imaging method based on digital holographic microscope is proposed for in-line measurement of size and concentration of slurry droplets. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by preliminary experimental investigation.

  17. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in early 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in more commercially viable forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Site 3 results are not yet available, but should be available late in the year 2000. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the

  18. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS--SITE 2 RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; S. Miller; C. Richardson; K. Searcy

    2000-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI are co-funding this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project is investigating catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests are being conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit is being used to test the activity of four different catalysts for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, was completed in December 1998. Testing at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, was completed in the fall of 1999, and testing at the third site, which fires a high-sulfur bituminous coal, will begin in 2000. This technical note reports results from Site 2; results from Site 1 were reported in a previous technical note. At Site 2, catalysts were tested in several forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in commercial forms such as extruded beads and coated honeycomb structures. This technical note presents results from Site 2 for both the sand bed reactors and commercial catalyst forms. Field testing is being supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and to investigate methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 2 field effort are also included and discussed in this technical note. Preliminary economics, based

  19. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  20. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Implication for runoff and nutrient losses associated with broiler litter use on pastures on Ultisols

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In two controlled rainfall simulation experiments (June 2009 & May 2011), runoff, nutrient (N, P, Ca, Mg) losses, and total suspended solids in runoff were compared among six treatments consisting of four rates of flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) (0, 2.2, 4.5, 9.0 Mg ha-1) with 13.5 Mg ha-1 ea...

  1. A growth inhibitory model with SOx influenced effective growth rate for estimation of algal biomass concentration under flue gas atmosphere

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A theoretical model for the prediction of biomass concentration under real flue gas emission has been developed. The model considers the CO2 mass transfer rate, the critical SOx concentration and its role on pH based inter-conversion of bicarbonate in model building. The calibration and subsequent v...

  2. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  3. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  4. Simultaneous microalgal biomass production and CO2 fixation by cultivating Chlorella sp. GD with aquaculture wastewater and boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chiu-Mei; Jian, Jhong-Fu; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Yu-Bin; Wan, Xin-Hua; Lai, Jinn-Tsyy; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    A microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. GD, cultivated in aquaculture wastewater (AW) aerated with boiler flue gas, was investigated. When AW from a grouper fish farm was supplemented with additional nutrients, the microalgal biomass productivity after 7days of culture was 0.794gL(-1)d(-1). CO2 fixation efficiencies of the microalgal strains aerated with 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3vvm of boiler flue gas (containing approximately 8% CO2) were 53, 51, 38, and 30%, respectively. When the microalgal strain was cultured with boiler flue gas in nutrient-added AW, biomass productivity increased to 0.892gL(-1)d(-1). In semi-continuous cultures, average biomass productivities of the microalgal strain in 2-day, 3-day, and 4-day replacement cultures were 1.296, 0.985, and 0.944gL(-1)d(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of using Chlorella sp. GD cultivations in AW aerated with boiler flue gas for reusing water resources, reducing CO2 emission, and producing microalgal biomass.

  5. Mercury speciation in the flue gas of a small-scale coal-fired boiler in Guiyang, PR China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, S.; Feng, X.; Shang, L.; Yan, H.; Hou, Y.

    2003-05-01

    Chemical speciation of mercury in the flue gas of a boiler with wet flue gas precipitator and desulfurization (WFGPD) system were studied by using Ontario Hydro Mercury Speciation Method. The average concentrations of Hg^p, Hg^{2+}, Hg0, and Hg^t in flue gas before the WFGPD system, were 0.29 μg/m^3, 0.64 μg/m^3, 0.79 μg/m^3 and 1.71 μg/m^3, respectively, and the percentage of Hg^p, Hg^{2+} and Hg^0 were 22.8%, 32.8% and 44.4% with regard to Hg^t, respectively. However, in the flue gas after thé WFGPD system, the average concentrations of Hg^p, Hg^2+, Hg^0, and Hg^t were only 0. 07 μg/m^3, 0.04 μg/m^3, 0.58 μg/m^3 and 0.69 μg/m^3, respectively, and the percentage of Hg^p, Hg^2+ and Hg^0 with regard to Hg^t were 14.3%, 8.8% and 76.9%, respectively. The mean removal percentage of Hg^2+ and Hg^p by the WFGPD system, conceming Hg^t, was 93.8% and 74.2%. However, Hg^0 removal efficiency was only 25.8%. In the aggregate, the Hg removal efficiency was 57.2%.

  6. Three annual flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications on macronutrient and micronutrient losses in runoff from bermudagrass fertilized with poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considerable amounts of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum are being produced as a by-product of generating electricity. As a result, beneficial reuse of this by-product is being sought to reduce landfilling and its associated cost. The use of this byproduct as a low-cost soil amendment for suppl...

  7. Use of animal waste and flue gas desulfurized gypsum to improve forage production on reclaimed mine soil in Mississippi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reclaimed mine soils amended with flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum may tolerate higher levels of animal manure, and would therefore be more productive in the long-term. Studies were conducted in respread soil during the first year of land reclamation at Red Hills Mine, a surface lignite mine in no...

  8. Measurement of alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas and its control by a fixed granular bed of activated bauxite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    A fixed granular-bed sorber, with regenerable activated bauxite as the sorbent, for the control of the alkali vapor in the flue gas produced during pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is being developed. In a gas stream closely simulating the actual PFBC flue gas, activated bauxite is shown to capture NaCl vapor by (1) chemical fixation of the vapor with the intrinsic clay minerals, probably to form thermally stable, water-insoluble sodium aluminosilicates and (2) chemical conversion of NaCl vapor into a condensed-phase sodium sulfate, which has a much lower vapor pressure than does NaCl. The latter predominates the capture process, and the captured sodium sulfate can be easily removed by simple water-leaching to restore the porosity of activated bauxite for reuse. A high-temperature (less than or equal to 900/sup 0/C) and high-pressure (less than or equal to 10 atm) laboratory-scale, fixed, granular-bed alkali sorber has been operated with the Argonne National Laboratory PFBC combustor to (1) measure the alkali vapor concentration in the PFBC flue gas on a real-time, on-line basis, and (2) demonstrate the alkali sorber for the control of alkali vapor from an actual PFBC flue gas. The alkali (Na + K) vapor concentration in particulate filtered hot flue gas was measured to be <10 ppbW with the Ames analyzer. The same measurement with the APST was higher between 90 to 170 ppbW. Therefore, the possibility of sink for sodium vapor in the PFBC/alkali sorber system must be considered. 32 refs.

  9. Absorption and reaction kinetics of amines and ammonia solutions with carbon dioxide in flue gas.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia Hao; Chu, Hsin; Cho, Chorng Ming

    2003-02-01

    The removal system for the absorption of CO2 with amines and NH3 is an advanced air pollution control device to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Absorption of CO2 by amines and NH3 solutions was performed in this study to derive the reaction kinetics. The absorption of CO2 as encountered in flue gases into aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and NH3 was carried out using a stirred vessel with a plane gas-liquid interface at 50 degrees C. Various operating parameters were tested to determine the effect of these variables on the absorption kinetics of the reactants in both gas and liquid phases and the effect of competitions between various reactants on the mass-transfer rate. The observed absorption rate increases with increasing gas-liquid concentration, solvent concentration, temperature, and gas flow rate, but changes with the O2 concentration and pH value. The absorption efficiency of MEA is better than that of NH3 and DEA, but the absorption capacity of NH3 is the best. The active energies of the MEA and NH3 with CO2 are 33.19 and 40.09 kJ/mol, respectively.

  10. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Identification and determination of selenosulfate and selenocyanate in flue gas desulfurization waters.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Panayot K; Charters, Jeffrey W; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2012-02-07

    In this work, 13 selenium species in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waters from coal-fired power plants were separated and quantified using anion-exchange chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the first time, we identified both selenosulfate (SeSO(3)(2-)) and selenocyanate (SeCN(-)) in such waters, using retention time matching and confirmation by electrospray mass spectrometry. Besides selenite and selenate, selenosulfate was the most frequently occurring selenium species. It occurred in most samples and constituted a major fraction (up to 63%) of the total selenium concentration in waters obtained from plants employing inhibited oxidation scrubbers. Selenocyanate occurred in about half of the tested samples, but was only a minor species (up to 6% of the total selenium concentration). Nine additional Se-containing compounds were found in FGD waters, but they remain unidentified at this point.

  12. Pilot-scale test for electron beam purification of flue gas from coal-combustion boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namba, Hideki; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Hashimoto, Shoji; Tanaka, Tadashi; Ogura, Yoshimi; Doi, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Shinji; Izutsu, Masahiro

    1995-09-01

    A pilot-scale test for electron beam treatment of flue gas (12,000m3N/hr) from coal-fired boiler was conducted by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Chubu Electric Power Company and Ebara Corporation, in the site of Shin-Nagoya Thermal Power Plant in Nagoya, Japan. During 14 months operation, it was proved that the method is possible to remove SO2 and NOX simultaneously in wide concentration range of SO2 (250-2,000ppm) and NOX (140-240ppm) with higher efficiency than the conventional methods, with appropriate operation conditions (dose, temperature etc.). The pilot plant was easily operated with well controllability and durability, and was operated for long period of time without serious problems. The byproduct, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate, produced by the treatment was proved to be a nitrogenous fertilizer with excellent quality.

  13. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment—From laboratory to the practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-08-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications.

  14. Flue gas treatability studies: a tool for techno-economic control of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rao, B Padma S; Rao, B Shrinivas; Manthapurwar, N S; Hasan, M Z

    2003-02-01

    Air pollution problems in developing countries have gained larger fraction in the last decade especially due to non functioning and non implementation of effective air pollution control devices in industries. In industrial wastewater management, adequate treatability studies are conducted to arrive at a techno-economic treatment option. However no such studies were done for reducing air pollution or emission from industries until now in India. Little information was available about such studies in other countries. This article provides information about a novel technique known as flue gas treatability studies and to undertake such studies, a pilot scale system is installed in Air Pollution Control Division of M/s National Environmental Engineering research Institute, NEERI, Nagpur-20, India. This study is a tool for techno-economic selection of air pollution control systems specially for small/medium scale industrial emissions.

  15. Study of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates in simulated flue gas desulfurization liquors. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Etherton, D.

    1981-06-01

    The kinetics of gypsum crystal nucleation and growth rates were measured in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber liquors. Variables studied were parent seed crystal size and mass; the organic additives citric acid, adipic acid, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and Calgon CL246 polyacrylic acid formulation; and pH. Citric acid produced gypsum crystals with a more favorable columnar structure. Lower pH resulted in increased nucleation rates. Stable secondary nucleation was observed in the presence of retained parent gypsum seed crystals of size >150 ..mu..m. Growth and nucleation rates were correlated using reaction kinetic models. These kinetics were then used in rigorous computer simulations to predict crystal-size distribution (CSD) with different scrubber configurations. Scrubber process configurations employing classified product removal were calculated to produce a gypsum sludge having a mean particle size up to twice as large as the particle size with unclassified operation.

  16. Controllability analysis and decentralized control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Ollero, P.; Gil, F.M.

    2008-12-15

    Presently, decentralized feedback control is the only control strategy used in wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) plants. Proper tuning of this control strategy is becoming an important issue in WLFGD plants because more stringent SO{sub 2} regulations have come into force recently. Controllability analysis is a highly valuable tool for proper design of control systems, but it has not been applied to WLFGD plants so far. In this paper a decentralized control strategy is designed and applied to a WLFGD pilot plant taking into account the conclusions of a controllability analysis. The results reveal that good SO{sub 2} control in WLFGD plants can be achieved mainly because the main disturbance of the process is well-aligned with the plant and interactions between control loops are beneficial to SO{sub 2} control.

  17. Methanation of recovered oxyfuel-CO2 from Ketzin and of flue gas emitted by conventional power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Klaus; Beinlich, Niklas; Rachow, Fabian; Israel, Johannes; Schwiertz, Carola; Charlafti, Evgenia; Schmeißer, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 with H2 into CH4 is possible by the Sabatier reaction CO2 + 4H2 -> CH4 + 2H2O. Using excess energy from renewable electricity generation, this reaction offers an opportunity for recycling of CO2 as synthetic natural gas, for example. In result, CO2 emissions caused by fossil natural gas are reduced by the amount of this reintegrated and recycled CO2. In laboratory scale, we study the Sabatier reaction in the context of carbon capture and storage. We use used real processed oxy-fuel CO2 before and after injection at the pilot plant in Ketzin/Brandenburg. Here, one important aspect is the stability of the performance of catalysts for Sabatiers reaction against contaminations like SOx or NOx. We find a stable conversion before and after storage in the Ketzin aquifer. In addition, we report on the performance of the Sabatier reaction as direct methanation of flue gas, emitted by conventional power plants. We use an upscaled system, with a maximum input flow rate of 50Nm3/h Gas (or 5Nm3/h CO2, 25Nm3/h flue gas, 20Nm3/h H2, according to the flue gas composition). The performance is characterized in a simulated composition of flue gas and under real conditions at a power plant in Schwarze Pumpe, Brandenburg, Germany. In all cases, we find a conversion near 90%, with ~100% selectivity. In an upscaled system with high input flows of educt gas, the reaction is also autoorganized. At a certain limit of gas flow, a steady state equilibrium of exothermic heat production and thermal flow is reached and the reaction needs no further external annealing.

  18. Speciation, characterization, and mobility of As, Se, and Hg in flue gas desulphurization residues

    SciTech Connect

    Souhail R. Al-Abed; Gautham Jegadeesan; Kirk G. Scheckel; Thabet Tolaymat

    2008-03-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue. With increasing reuse of the FGD residues in beneficial applications, it is important to determine metal speciation and mobility to understand the environmental impact of its reuse. In this paper, we report the solid phase speciation of As, Se, and Hg in FGD residues using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and sequential chemical extraction (SCE) techniques. The SCE results combined with XRF data indicated a strong possibility of As association with iron oxides, whereas Se was distributed among all geochemical phases. Hg appeared to be mainly distributed in the strong-complexed phase. XRF images also suggested a strong association of Hg with Fe oxide materials within FGD residues. XAS analysis indicated that As existed in its oxidized state (As(V)), whereas Se and Hg was observed in primarily reduced states as selenite (Se(IV)) and Hg(I), respectively. The results from the SCE and variable pH leaching tests indicated that the labile fractions of As, Se, and Hg were fairly low and thus suggestive of their stability in the FGD residues. However, the presence of a fine fraction enriched in metal content in the FGD residue suggested that size fractionation is important in assessing the environmental risks associated with their reuse. 34 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Speciation, characterization, and mobility of As, Se, and Hg in flue gas desulphurization residues.

    PubMed

    Al-Abed, Souhail R; Jegadeesan, Gautham; Scheckel, Kirk G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2008-03-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue. With increasing reuse of the FGD residues in beneficial applications, it is important to determine metal speciation and mobilityto understand the environmental impact of its reuse. In this paper, we report the solid phase speciation of As, Se, and Hg in FGD residues using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and sequential chemical extraction (SCE) techniques. The SCE results combined with XRF data indicated a strong possibility of As association with iron oxides, whereas Se was distributed among all geochemical phases. Hg appeared to be mainly distributed in the strong-complexed phase. XRF images also suggested a strong association of Hg with Fe oxide materials within FGD residues. XAS analysis indicated that As existed in its oxidized state (As(V)), whereas Se and Hg was observed in primarily reduced states as selenite (Se(IV)) and Hg(I), respectively. The results from the SCE and variable pH leaching tests indicated that the labile fractions of As, Se, and Hg were fairly low and thus suggestive of their stability in the FGD residues. However, the presence of a fine fraction enriched in metal content in the FGD residue suggested that size fractionation is important in assessing the environmental risks associated with their reuse.

  20. Speciation, Characterization and Mobility of As, Se and Hg in Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Abed, S.R.; Jegadeesan, G.; Scheckel, K.G.; Tolaymat, T.

    2008-06-23

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se), and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue. With increasing reuse of the FGD residues in beneficial applications, it is important to determine metal speciation and mobility to understand the environmental impact of its reuse. In this paper, we report the solid phase speciation of As, Se, and Hg in FGD residues using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and sequential chemical extraction (SCE) techniques. The SCE results combined with XRF data indicated a strong possibility of As association with iron oxides, whereas Se was distributed among all geochemical phases. Hg appeared to be mainly distributed in the strong-complexed phase. XRF images also suggested a strong association of Hg with Fe oxide materials within FGD residues. XAS analysis indicated that As existed in its oxidized state (As(V)), whereas Se and Hg was observed in primarily reduced states as selenite (Se(IV)) and Hg(I), respectively. The results from the SCE and variable pH leaching tests indicated that the labile fractions of As, Se, and Hg were fairly low and thus suggestive of their stability in the FGD residues. However, the presence of a fine fraction enriched in metal content in the FGD residue suggested that size fractionation is important in assessing the environmental risks associated with their reuse.

  1. The desulfurization of flue gas at the Mae Moh Power Plant Units 12 and 13

    SciTech Connect

    Haemapun, C.

    1993-12-31

    As pollution of air, water and ground increasingly raises worldwide concern, the responsible national and international authorities establish and issue stringent regulations in order to maintain an acceptable air quality in the environment. In Thailand, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) takes full responsibility in environmental protection matters as well as in generating the electricity needed to supply the country`s very rapid power demand growth. Due to the rapidly increasing electricity demand of the country, EGAT had decided to install two further lignite-fired units of 300 MW each (Units 12 and 13) at the Mae Moh power generation station and they are now under construction. The arrangement and the capacity of all the power plant units are as shown. In 1989, EGAT started the work on the flue gas desulfurization system of Mae Moh power plant units 12 and 13 as planned. A study has been conducted to select the most suitable and most economical process for flue gas desulfurization. The wet scrubbing limestone process was finally selected for the two new units. Local limestone will be utilized in the process, producing a by-product of gypsum. Unfortunately, natural gypsum is found in abundance in Thailand, so the produced gypsum will be treated as landfill by mixing it with ash from the boilers of the power plants and then carrying it to the ash dumping area. The water from the waste ash water lake is utilized in the process as much as possible to minimize the requirement of service water, which is a limited resource. The Mae Moh power generation station is situated in the northern region of Thailand, 600 km north of Bangkok and about 30 km east of the town of Lampang, close to the Mae Moh lignite mine. Three lignite-fired units (Units 1-3) of 75 MW each, four units (Units 4-7) of 150 MW each and four units (Units 8-11) of 300 MW each are in operation.

  2. Electrospun metal oxide-TiO2 nanofibers for elemental mercury removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhao, Yongchun; Li, Hailong; Li, Yang; Gao, Xiang; Zheng, Chuguang; Zhang, Junying

    2012-08-15

    Nanofibers prepared by an electrospinning method were used to remove elemental mercury (Hg(0)) from simulated coal combustion flue gas. The nanofibers composed of different metal oxides (MO(x)) including CuO, In(2)O(3), V(2)O(5), WO(3) and Ag(2)O supported on TiO(2) have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersing X-ray (EDX) and UV-vis spectra. The average diameters of these nanofibers were about 200nm. Compared to pure TiO(2), the UV-vis absorption intensity for MO(x)-TiO(2) increased significantly and the absorption bandwidth also expanded, especially for Ag(2)O-TiO(2) and V(2)O(5)-TiO(2). Hg(0) oxidation efficiencies over the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were tested under dark, visible light (vis) irradiation and UV irradiation, respectively. The results showed that WO(3) doped TiO(2) exhibited the highest Hg(0) removal efficiency of 100% under UV irradiation. Doping V(2)O(5) into TiO(2) enhanced Hg(0) removal efficiency greatly from 6% to 63% under visible light irradiation. Ag(2)O doped TiO(2) showed a steady Hg(0) removal efficiency of around 95% without any light due to the formation of silver amalgam. An extended experiment with 8 Hg(0) removal cycles showed that the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were stable for removing Hg(0) from flue gas. Factors responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activities of the MO(x)-TiO(2) nanofibers were also discussed.

  3. Preparation of sodium humate/{alpha}-aluminum oxide adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.G.; Gao, H.Y.; Hu, G.X.; Li, Y.H.

    2009-06-15

    A new composite adsorbent of sodium humate (HNa)=alpha-aluminium oxide ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) was prepared using the impregnation method. Both the adsorbent of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HNa={alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Desulfurization activity of the adsorbent impregnated with ammonia (NH{sub 4}OH) was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. Experimental results indicate that HNa, which coats the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers impregnated with HNa solution, improved the property of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support for FGD. On the other hand, the HNa-coating on the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} impregnated with NH{sub 4}OH played an important role in enhancing the desulfurization property of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Due to the strong adsorption capability of HNa, more NH{sub 4}OH was adsorbed in the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} the longer a high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) conversation rate was maintained. In addition, because the desulfurization product was a compound fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), ammonium humate (HNH{sub 4}), and HNa, the recycling use of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also easily achieved. Thus, this study can provide a new cost-effective way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas.

  4. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  5. FMC limestone double-alkali flue gas desulfurization process: Pilot plant testing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Troupe, J.S.; Shepley, D.C.

    1987-07-01

    This report documents pilot plant testing of a 3 MW (9500 acfm equivalent flue gas flow) FMC limestone double alkali FGD process operating on a slipstream of a commercial 420 MW boiler burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The report discusses the rationale behind EPRI's decision to participate in the testing aspects of this project, the history of the development of limestone double alkali technology, and the chemistry involved in this technology's operation. The largest part of the report is devoted to the results obtained from tests conducted during 65 days of pilot plant operation. All of the major raw and reduced operating and analytical data taken during testing are reproduced in the appendices to the report, along with quality assurance information to support the validity of the data obtained. The report discusses the test results in detail and presents technical observations regarding their implications. The FMC limestone double alkali FGD process (1) can consistently remove 92 to 93% of SO/sub 2/ from high-sulfur coal flue gas, (2) can achieve high limestone utilization and low soda ash losses, (3) produces a manageable waste filter cake, (4) is highly tolerant of upsets in limestone feed, soda ash makeup, and regeneration residence time, and (5) presents no unusual safety or environmental problems. The process, like conventional limestone scrubbing, shows some adverse effects of increasing soluble magnesium concentration on solids quality and requires a finely ground limestone feed material to achieve high limestone utilization. However, neither limestone grind nor magnesium concentration appears to affect SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency. The report suggests specific lines of future developmental work and future demonstration testing to enhance the attractiveness of this process to the electric utility industry. A bibliography of limestone double alkali literature is included. 3 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. SOx-NOx-Rox Box{trademark} flue gas clean-up demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The SNRB{trademark} Flue Gas Cleanup Demonstration Project was cooperatively funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B&W, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Ohio Edison, Norton Chemical Process Products Company and the 3M Company. The SNRB{trademark} technology evolved from the bench and laboratory pilot scale to be successfully demonstrated at the 5-MWe field scale. Development of the SNRB{trademark} process at B&W began with pilot testing of high-temperature dry sorbent injection for SO{sub 2} removal in the 1960`s. Integration of NO{sub x} reduction was evaluated in the 1970`s. Pilot work in the 1980`s focused on evaluation of various NO{sub x} reduction catalysts, SO{sub 2} sorbents and integration of the catalyst with the baghouse. This early development work led to the issuance of two US process patents to B&W - No. 4,309,386 and No. 4,793,981. An additional patent application for improvements to the process is pending. The OCDO was instrumental in working with B&W to develop the process to the point where a larger scale demonstration of the technology was feasible. This report represents the completion of Milestone M14 as specified in the Work Plan. B&W tested the SNRB{trademark} pollution control system at a 5-MWe demonstration facility at Ohio Edison`s R. E. Burger Plant located near Shadyside, Ohio. The design and operation were influenced by the results from laboratory pilot testing at B&W`s Alliance Research Center. The intent was to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of the SNRB{trademark} process. The SNRB{trademark} facility treated a 30,000 ACFM flue gas slipstream from Boiler No. 8. Operation of the facility began in May 1992 and was completed in May 1993.

  7. Pilot-plant technical assessment of wet flue gas desulfurization using limestone

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, F.J.G.; Vidal, F.; Ollero, P.; Salvador, L.; Cortes, V.; Gimenez, A.

    2006-02-15

    An experimental study was performed on a countercurrent pilot-scale packed scrubber for wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The flow rate of the treated flue gas was around 300 Nm{sup 3}/h, so the pilot-plant capacity is one of the largest with respect to other published studies on a pilot-plant wet FGD. The tests were carried out at an SO{sub 2} inlet concentration of 2000 ppm by changing the recycle slurry pH to around 4.8 and the L/G ratio to between 7.5 and 15. Three types of limestone were tested, obtaining desulfurization efficiencies from 59 to 99%. We show the importance of choosing an appropriate limestone in order to get a better performance from the FGD plant. Thus, it is important to know the reactivity (on a laboratory scale) and the sorbent utilization (on a pilot-plant scale) in order to identify if a limestone is reactive enough and to compare it with another type. In addition, by using the transfer-unit concept, a function has been obtained for the desulfurization efficiency, using the L/G ratio and the recycle slurry pH as independent variables. The Ca/S molar ratio is related to these and to the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency. This function, together with a simplified function of the operation variable cost, allows us to determine the pair (L/G ratio and pH) to achieve the desired SO{sub 2} removal with the minimum operation cost. Finally, the variable operation costs between packed towers and spray scrubbers have been compared, using as a basis the pilot packed tower and the industrial spray column at the Compostilla Power Station's FGD plant (in Leon, Spain).

  8. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flue gas desulfurization gypsum.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M B; Schomberg, H H; Endale, D M; Franklin, D H; Fisher, D S

    2014-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. Its application to agricultural fields may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. It may also reduce fecal bacterial contamination of surface waters. We tested the hypothesis that FGD gypsum applications would decrease the load of and the fecal indicator bacterium from poultry litter applications. Two rainfall simulation experiments were undertaken: one in spring 2009 and one in spring 2011. Six treatments consisted of four rates of FGD gypsum (0, 2.2, 4.5, and 9.0 Mg ha) with poultry litter (13.5 Mg ha and two controls) in a randomized, complete-block design with three replications. Each replicate 4- × 6-m plot contained a single 1- × 2-m subplot that was delineated by metal plates and a flume that captured total overland flow or runoff. Rainfall was applied at ∼64 mm h. Volume of overland runoff was measured and subsampled for analysis every 10 min for 1 h. Flow-weighted concentrations, total loads, and soil concentrations of were determined. was not detected in runoff. No significant differences between treatments were observed for the 2009 rainfall simulation. However, after 3 yr of FGD gypsum applications, the highest rate of FGD gypsum resulted in decreased flow-weighted concentrations and total loads of . Flue gas desulfurization gypsum applications may be a management practice that reduces microbial contamination of surface waters from manure applied to agricultural fields in the southeastern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  9. Influence of flue gas sparging on the performance of high rate algae ponds treating agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    de Godos, Ignacio; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro A; Becares, Eloy; Muñoz, Raúl

    2010-07-15

    The influence of flue gas sparging (7% CO(2)) on the performance of two 465 L High-Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating diluted swine manure at 10 days of hydraulic retention time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions (Castilla y León, Spain). COD, NH(4)(+), and PO(4)(3-) removal efficiencies were not significantly affected by flue gas input (at 2.2 and 5.5 L min(-1)), which suggests that CO(2) sparging does not compromise wastewater treatment in HRAPs. In this particular study, COD and NH(4)(+) removal efficiencies of 56+/-31% (near to maximum swine manure biodegradability) and 98+/-1%, respectively, were consistently maintained, regardless of the environmental and operational conditions. CO(2) sparging resulted however in lower pH values (approximately 2 units lower) and an enhanced NH(4)(+) nitrification (higher NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-) concentrations) compared to the system operated in the absence of flue gas supply. Biomass concentration was only higher (approximately 30% than in the control HRAP) when flue gases were supplied at 5.5 L min(-1), probably due to the fact that the higher irradiances and temperatures prevailing within this experimental period resulted in an inorganic carbon-limited scenario in the control HRAP. Therefore, it can be concluded that CO(2) assimilation would be ultimately dependent on the occurrence of inorganic carbon limitation and will never occur in light, COD or nutrients-limited scenarios. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Han; Xia, Yinfeng; Liu, Nan; Lu, Bi-Hong; Li, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas.

  11. Theoretical approach for enhanced mass transfer effects in-duct flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W. . Environmental Systems Div.); Rochelle, G.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-29

    Removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal- burning power plants can be achieved by duct spray drying using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH){sub 2}) slurries. A primary objective of this research was to discover the aspects of mass transfer into Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries which limit SO{sub 2} absorption. A bench- scale stirred tank reactor with a flat gas/liquid interface was used to simulate SO{sub 2} absorption in a slurry droplet. The absorption rate of SO{sub 2} from gas concentrations of 500 to 5000 ppm was measured at 55{degrees}C in clear solutions and slurries of Ca(OH){sub 2} up to 1.0 M (7 wt percent). Results are reported in terms of the enhancement factor, {O}. This research will allow prediction of conditions where the absorption of SO{sub 2} in Ca(OH){sub 2} slurries can be enhanced by changes to liquid phase constituents (under which SO{sub 2} absorption is controlled by liquid film mass transfer). Experiments in the stirred tank have shown that SO{sub 2} absorption in a 1.0 M Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry was completely dominated by gas film mass transfer with a large excess of Ca(OH){sub 2} but becomes controlled by liquid film resistance at greater than 50 percent Ca(OH){sub 2} utilization. (VC)

  12. Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Richardson; Katherine Dombrowski; Douglas Orr

    2006-12-31

    This project Final Report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41987, 'Sorbent Injection for Small ESP Mercury Control in Low Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Coal Flue Gas.' Sorbent injection technology is targeted as the primary mercury control process on plants burning low/medium sulfur bituminous coals equipped with ESP and ESP/FGD systems. About 70% of the ESPs used in the utility industry have SCAs less than 300 ft2/1000 acfm. Prior to this test program, previous sorbent injection tests had focused on large-SCA ESPs. This DOE-NETL program was designed to generate data to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of sorbent injection for mercury control at power plants that fire bituminous coal and are configured with small-sized electrostatic precipitators and/or an ESP-flue gas desulfurization (FGD) configuration. EPRI and Southern Company were co-funders for the test program. Southern Company and Reliant Energy provided host sites for testing and technical input to the project. URS Group was the prime contractor to NETL. ADA-ES and Apogee Scientific Inc. were sub-contractors to URS and was responsible for all aspects of the sorbent injection systems design, installation and operation at the different host sites. Full-scale sorbent injection for mercury control was evaluated at three sites: Georgia Power's Plant Yates Units 1 and 2 [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of the Southern Company] and Reliant Energy's Shawville Unit 3. Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 has an existing small-SCA cold-side ESP followed by a Chiyoda CT-121 wet scrubber. Yates Unit 2 is also equipped with a small-SCA ESP and a dual flue gas conditioning system. Unit 2 has no SO2 control system. Shawville Unit 3 is equipped with two small-SCA cold-side ESPs operated in series. All ESP systems tested in this program had SCAs less than 250 ft2/1000 acfm. Short-term parametric tests were conducted on Yates Units 1 and 2 to evaluate

  13. Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W

    2009-10-21

    If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is

  14. Measurement of alkali vapors in PFBC flue gas and their removal with a fixed granular-bed sorber, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Alkali-metal compounds, such as chlorides and sulfates of sodium and potassium, present in the flue gas of coal combustion could cause hot corrosion of a gas turbine. The current industrial gas-turbine specification limit for alkali-metal compounds in the combustion gas entering a turbine is equivalent to 0.024 ppmW. Spacil and Luthra predict that the quantity of alkali vapor in the flue gas from PFBC could be up to two orders of magnitude greater than this allowable level. In contrast, the recent calculations by Scandrett and Clift suggest that, if the aerosol alkali particulate could be removed, the residual alkali vapor in the flue gas would be less than the limit. Measurements of the alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas have been made by several institutions. The measured alkali vapor concentration in the flue gas is in the order of 0.1 to 10 ppmW. Normally, a conventional batch-type extraction of the flue gas, followed by the analysis of the condensate, has been used in these measurements. It was not until recently that a real-time, on-line alkali analyzer was developed and tested in the gas stream of both coal gasification and combustion. A fixed granular-bed sorber is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the control of the alkali vapor in PFBC flue gas. After an extensive screening study, activated bauxite was found to be the most effective sorbent in capturing the NaCl, KCl, and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors that were doped into a simulated PFBC flue gas. Activated bauxite was also demonstrated to be easily and effectively regenerated for reuse by a simple water-leaching process. A capture efficiency of greater than 99.8% CaCl vapor has been achieved. The effectiveness of activated bauxite for alkali-vapor capture has been confirmed by others. 21 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Sulfite oxidation catalyzed by cobalt ions in flue gas desulfurization processes.

    PubMed

    Karatza, Despina; Prisciandaro, Marina; Lancia, Amedeo; Musmarra, Dino

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of calcium bisulfite oxidation, a key step in the wet limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process, in the presence of catalysts (e.g., cobalt ions and a mixture of ferrous and cobalt ions). A fundamental approach is followed, by reproducing a simplified synthetic FGD liquor in which both catalyst ions, alone or mixed together, are present. A laboratory-scale apparatus is used, in which sulfurous solution is contacted with a gas phase at a fixed oxygen partial pressure (21.3 kPa) and at different temperature levels (25, 45, and 55 degrees C). The experimental results are analyzed using the theory of gas-liquid mass transfer with chemical reaction, showing that the slow reaction regime is explored and the transition from the kinetic to the diffusional subregime is identified. The experimental results are compared with those obtained in the presence of other catalytic species (manganese and ferrous ions), showing that cobalt is effective in catalyzing the oxidation of calcium bisulfite to sulfate, but to a minor extent with respect to iron and manganese.

  16. Evaluating ceramic filter media on a slipstream of hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, P.V.; Pontius, D.H.; Dorchak, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    The need for more efficient systems for generating electric power from coal has led to a number of new technological developments, including such processes as pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. To achieve maximum efficiency, a common and critical requirement for these technologies is a method for removing suspended particulate matter from the gas stream at high temperatures (above 1000 F) and high pressures (greater than 10 bar). The US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is pursuing the development of such hot gas cleanup methods through an extensive program of fundamental and pilot studies in cooperation with utilities, supporting industries, and other research organizations. As a part of this program, Southern Research Institute (SRI) is carrying out a series of studies using a high-temperature sidestream device for performing long-duration tests on small specimens (patches) of filter materials on a process gas stream from an atmospheric-pressure fluidized-bed combuster. SRI developed an apparatus and a test plan to accomplish three of METC`s objectives: (1) to determine the effects on ceramic filters of long-term filtration of particle-laden flue gases at high temperatures, (2) to compare the filtration performance of several kinds of filters, and (3) to simulate the Plant Tidd ash loading on filters so that results from these tests could be used to help select filters for use at the Tidd 10 MW pilot-scale facility. Preliminary results are discussed.

  17. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO m