Science.gov

Sample records for flue gases

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Enhances Removal of NOx from Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Pilot scale experiments have demonstrated a method of reducing the amounts of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted by industrial boilers and powerplant combustors that involves (1) injection of H2O2 into flue gases and (2) treatment of the flue gases by caustic wet scrubbing like that commonly used to remove SO2 from combustion flue gases. Heretofore, the method most commonly used for removing NOx from flue gases has been selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which the costs of both installation and operation are very high. After further development, the present method may prove to be an economically attractive alternative to SCR.

  2. Apparatus for the desulfurization of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Leimkuhler, J.

    1985-08-06

    A rotary heat exchanger surmounts a scrubbing tower provided with two scrubbing columns through which the flue gas of fossil fuel combustion is passed in succession so that the rotary heat storage mass of the regenerative heat exchanger is heated by the incoming flue gas and the flue gas cooled in the scrubbing columns is reheated by the rotary heat storage mass as it leaves the tower.

  3. Hydrophobic Catalysts For Removal Of NOx From Flue Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Hickey, Gregory S.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    Improved catalysts for removal of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) from combustion flue gases formulated as composites of vanadium pentoxide in carbon molecular sieves. Promotes highly efficient selective catalytic reduction of NOx at relatively low temperatures while not being adversely affected by presence of water vapor and sulfur oxide gases in flue gas. Apparatus utilizing catalyst of this type easily integrated into exhaust stream of power plant to remove nitrogen oxides, generated in combustion of fossil fuels and contribute to formation of acid rain and photochemical smog.

  4. CLEANING OF FLUE GASES FROM WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper addresses flue gas cleaning processes currently used commercially in waste combustion facilities. It also discusses the operating concepts of dry, semi-dry, and wet processes and their effectiveness in controlling various pollutants. Air pollutants from the combustion o...

  5. CLEANING OF FLUE GASES FROM WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper addresses flue gas cleaning processes currently used commercially in waste combustion facilities. It also discusses the operating concepts of dry, semi-dry, and wet processes and their effectiveness in controlling various pollutants. Air pollutants from the combustion o...

  6. Process for the desulfurization of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, D.

    1980-05-13

    Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (Molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered. The filtrate is aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide solution which is recycled to the scrubbing tower.

  7. Measurement of biocarbon in flue gases using 14C

    SciTech Connect

    Haemaelaeinen, K.M.; Jungner, H.; Antson, O.; Rasanen, J.; Tormonen, K.; Roine, J.

    2007-07-01

    A preliminary investigation of the biocarbon fraction in carbon dioxide emissions of power plants using both fossil- and biobased fuels is presented. Calculation of the biocarbon fraction is based on radiocarbon content measured in power plant flue gases. Samples were collected directly from the chimneys into plastic sampling bags. The C-14 content in CO{sub 2} was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Flue gases from power plants that use natural gas, coal, wood chips, bark, plywood residue, sludge from the pulp factory, peat, and recovered fuel were measured. Among the selected plants, there was one that used only fossil fuel and one that used only biofuel; the other investigated plants burned mixtures of fuels. The results show that C-14 measurement provides the possibility to determine the ratio of bio and fossil fuel burned in power plants.

  8. NOx Removal from Flue Gases Using Non-Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Koichi

    Air pollution caused by gas emission of pollutants produced from a wide range of sources including coal, oil and gas burning power plants, diesel engines, paper mills, steel and chemical production plants must be reduced drastically and urgently, as mandated by recent worldwide nation legislation which recently are being reinforced increasingly by international agreements. Non-thermal plasma in which the mean energy of electrons is substantially higher than that of the gas offer advantages in reducing energy required to remove the pollutants. The electrical energy supplied into the discharge is used preferentially to create energetic electrons which are then used to produce radicals by dissociation and ionization of the carrier gas in which the pollutants are present. These radicals are used to decompose the pollutants. There are two technologically promising techniques for generating non-thermal plasmas in atmospheric gas pressure containing the pollutants, namely electron beam irradiation and electrical discharge techniques. Both techniques are undergoing intensive and continuous development worldwide. This is done to reduce the energy requirement for pollutant removal, and therefore the associated cost, as well as to obtain a better understanding of the physical and chemical processes involved in reducing the pollutants. In the present paper only electrical discharge techniques for NOx removal from flue gases and exhaust emissions are reviewed. This paper summarizes the chemical reactions responsible for the removal of the major polluting constituents of NO and NO2 encountered in the flue gases.

  9. THE REMOVAL OF SULFUR DIOXIDE FROM FLUE GASES.

    PubMed

    KETTNER, H

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated.Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory.Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature.Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation.A wet catalysis process has recently been developed.Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost.

  10. The removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases

    PubMed Central

    Kettner, Helmut

    1965-01-01

    The growth of industrialization makes it imperative to reduce the amounts of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. This article describes various processes for cleaning flue gases, and gives details of new methods being investigated. Wet scrubbing with water, though widely practised, has many disadvantages. Scrubbing with zinc oxide, feasible in zinc works, is more satisfactory. Dry methods use a solid absorbent; they have the advantage of a high emission temperature. Other methods are based on the addition to the fuel or the flue gases of substances such as activated metal oxides, which react with the sulfur to form compounds less harmful than sulfur dioxide. Also being investigated are a two-stage combustion system, in which the sulfur dioxide is removed in the first stage, and the injection of activated powdered dolomite into burning fuel; the resulting sulfates being removed by electrostatic precipitation. A wet catalysis process has recently been developed. Most of the cleaning processes are not yet technically mature, but first results show good efficiency and relatively low cost. PMID:14315714

  11. Development of the Aqueous Processes for Removing NOx from Flue Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Gilford A.

    A screening study was conducted to evaluate the capability of aqueous solutions to scrub NOx from the flue gases emitted by stationary power plants fired with fossil fuels. The report summarizes the findings of this laboratory program. The experimental program studied the following media for absorption of NOx from flue gases containing no NOx:…

  12. Development of the Aqueous Processes for Removing NOx from Flue Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Gilford A.

    A screening study was conducted to evaluate the capability of aqueous solutions to scrub NOx from the flue gases emitted by stationary power plants fired with fossil fuels. The report summarizes the findings of this laboratory program. The experimental program studied the following media for absorption of NOx from flue gases containing no NOx:…

  13. Device for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P. K.

    1980-02-05

    A device is disclosed for recovering chemicals from flue gases and green liquor obtained from burning the waste liquor of sodium-based pulping processes. The device comprises a precarbonation reactor, a H/sub 2/S-stripping column, a carbonation reactor, a washing tower for flue gases and a cooling tower for washed flue gases. The carbonation reactor, the cooling tower and the washing tower are arranged on top of each other in the same column which is provided with trays so that means for feeding flue gases from the washing tower into the cooling tower and further into the carbonation reactor are openings made in the trays to allow the washed flue gases to rise from the washing tower into the cooling tower above it and further into the carbonation reactor above the cooling tower. A common blower means is provided for feeding flue gases into the washing tower for blowing flue gases through the washing tower, the cooling tower, the carbonation reactor and the precarbonation reactor and means for discharging a solution containing sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripping column being connected with means for feeding this solution directly into the carbonation reactor and the washing tower.

  14. MERCURY SPECIATION IN COMBUSTION SYSTEMS: STUDIES WITH SIMULATED FLUE GASES AND MODEL FLY ASHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a bench-scale study of the effects of flue gas and fly ash parameters on the oxidation of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases containing hydrogen chloride (HCl), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and water vapor (H2O...

  15. Testing of heat exchanger systems for reheating flue gases from wet scrubbing desulfurization plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Than, K.

    1982-09-01

    Two heat exchanger systems: the cyclic process of GEA and, the plate heat exchanger of Kablitz/Thyssen, for reheating flue gases, which have been cooled to about 50 to 55 C due to wet scrubbing, to the required temperature at the outlet of the stack by extracting the sensible heat of the hot flue gases were tested. The problem of building materials and on keeping clean the heat exchanger surface are emphasized.

  16. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  17. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  18. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  19. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  20. Simultaneous Waste Heat and Water Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gases for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dexin

    2016-12-31

    This final report presents the results of a two-year technology development project carried out by a team of participants sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE). The objective of this project is to develop a membrane-based technology to recover both water and low grade heat from power plant flue gases. Part of the recovered high-purity water and energy can be used directly to replace plant boiler makeup water as well as improving its efficiency, and the remaining part of the recovered water can be used for Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD), cooling tower water makeup or other plant uses. This advanced version Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) with lower capital and operating costs can be applied to existing plants economically and can maximize waste heat and water recovery from future Advanced Energy System flue gases with CO2 capture in consideration, which will have higher moisture content that favors the TMC to achieve higher efficiency.

  1. SO(2) Removal from Flue Gases Using Uutility Synthesized Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Grutzeck, M.

    1997-03-31

    Historically, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions were unregulated. As the environmental consequences of such emissions began to surface, increasingly stringent, federal and state government mandated pollution control requirements were imposed on the electric power generating industry. Coal burning utilities were forced to make one of two dioices. They could install flue gas scrubbing equipment or start to burn lower sulfur containing coal. The proposed research is directed at those utilities that have made the second choice, or utilities desiring to undertake new plant construction.

  2. A three-stage system to remove mercury and dioxins in flue gases.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Sollenberg, Hans; Westas, Håkan

    2003-03-20

    Mercury (Hg) from combustion of fossil fuels and waste is the dominant source of anthropogenic Hg emissions, globally amounting to more than 1500 t Hgyear(-1). These emissions must decrease substantially in order to counteract increasing environmental levels of Hg and reduce future toxic effects. Uppsala Energi AB, nowadays (May, 2002) Vattenfall Värme Uppsala AB, an energy company in Uppsala, Sweden, has invested in equipments for air and water pollution control of their three waste fired steam boilers. The flue gases are cleaned in three stages in series to meet the strict Swedish regulation. Electrostatic precipitators remove most dust in the first stage, wet scrubbers remove most water-soluble gases, and in the last stage a Filsorption unit removes most remaining impurities in particulate as well as gaseous form. The Filsorption process includes additives injection, sorption, and chemical reaction in a reactor and filtration with a fabric filter. The aim with this article is to evaluate the efficiency of the system to recover Hg in flue gases from boilers in routine operation. Flue gases, ashes, and water were sampled yearly for 21 years and analysed for Hg, dioxin, and other potential contaminants received at waste incineration. The results clearly demonstrate the decreasing use of Hg in society the last two decades as influenced by governmental policy regarding Hg. The results also indicate that the equipment efficiently removed Hg and dioxins from the flue gases to a final concentration of approximately 3.5 microg Hgm(-3) n and 0.01 ng dioxinsm(-3) n, corresponding to more than 97 and 99.9% reduction of Hg and dioxins, respectively, by cleaning in three stages. The electrostatic precipitators and Filsorption stages alone, with the scrubber in bypass, removed 90% of Hg in flue gases. Using the scrubber is motivated to remove acid components and additional Hg, but call for water separated after the condensers to be neutralised and cleaned, so that less than 5

  3. Washing tower for the desulfurization of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Stehning, W.

    1985-05-07

    A scrubber is provided with a grate in its sump through which oxygen is introduced to separate the oxidation zone above this grate from a reaction zone below the grate, a calcium containing additive being introduced into this reaction zone. Flue gas to be desulfurized is passed through a washing zone above the sump and there contacted with normally circulating scrubbing liquid containing the additive to absorb sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide. The sulfur dioxide is oxidized to sulfur trioxide and the additive induces precipitation of calcium sulfate in the sump. After a prolonged standstill, settled solids in the sump are induced into movement by drawing a portion of the sump liquid from an upper part thereof and injecting it into a lower part of the sump.

  4. Kinetic Energy Recovery from the Chimney Flue Gases Using Ducted Turbine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Harjeet S.; Singh, Pradeep K.

    2017-03-01

    An innovative idea of extracting kinetic energy from man-made wind resources using ducted turbine system for on-site power generation is introduced in this paper. A horizontal axis ducted turbine is attached to the top of the chimney to harness the kinetic energy of flue gases for producing electricity. The turbine system is positioned beyond the chimney outlet, to avoid any negative impact on the chimney performance. The convergent-divergent duct causes increase in the flue gas velocity and hence enhances the performance of the turbine. It also acts as a safety cover to the energy recovery system. The results from the CFD based simulation analysis indicate that significant power 34 kW can be harnessed from the chimney exhaust. The effect of airfoils NACA4412 and NACA4416 and the diffuser angle on the power extraction by the energy recovery system using a 6-bladed ducted turbine has been studied with the CFD simulation. It is observed that the average flue gas velocity in the duct section at the throat is approximately twice that of the inlet velocity, whereas maximum velocity achieved is 2.6 times the inlet velocity. The simulated results show that about power may be extracted from the chimney flue gases of 660 MW power plant. The system can be retrofitted to existing chimneys of thermal power plants, refineries and other industries.

  5. Kinetic Energy Recovery from the Chimney Flue Gases Using Ducted Turbine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Harjeet S.; Singh, Pradeep K.

    2017-03-01

    An innovative idea of extracting kinetic energy from man-made wind resources using ducted turbine system for on-site power generation is introduced in this paper. A horizontal axis ducted turbine is attached to the top of the chimney to harness the kinetic energy of flue gases for producing electricity. The turbine system is positioned beyond the chimney outlet, to avoid any negative impact on the chimney performance. The convergent-divergent duct causes increase in the flue gas velocity and hence enhances the performance of the turbine. It also acts as a safety cover to the energy recovery system. The results from the CFD based simulation analysis indicate that significant power 34 kW can be harnessed from the chimney exhaust. The effect of airfoils NACA4412 and NACA4416 and the diffuser angle on the power extraction by the energy recovery system using a 6-bladed ducted turbine has been studied with the CFD simulation. It is observed that the average flue gas velocity in the duct section at the throat is approximately twice that of the inlet velocity, whereas maximum velocity achieved is 2.6 times the inlet velocity. The simulated results show that about power may be extracted from the chimney flue gases of 660 MW power plant. The system can be retrofitted to existing chimneys of thermal power plants, refineries and other industries.

  6. Status and perspectives for the electron beam technology for flue gases treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Norman W.

    The electron-beam process is one of the most effective methods of removing SO 2 and NO x from industrial flue gases. This flue gas treatment consists of adding a small amount of ammonia to the flue gas and irradiating the gas by means of an electron beam, thereby causing reactions which convert the SO 2 and NO x to ammonium sulfate and ammonium sulfate-nitrate. These salts may the be collected from the flue gas by means of such conventional collectors as an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This process has numerous advantages over currently-used conventional processes as follows: (1) the process simultaneously removes SO 2 and NO x from flue gas at high efficiency levels; (2) it is a dry process which is easily controlled and has excellent load-following capability; (3) stack-gas reheat is not required; (4) the pollutants are converted into a saleable agricultural fertilizer; (5) the process has low capital and operating cost requirements. The history of the process is shown with a summary of the work that is presently underway. All of the current work is for the purpose of fine tuning the process for commercial usage. It is believed that with current testing and improvements, the process will be very competitive with existing processes and it will find its place in an environmental conscious world.

  7. Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Kelly, David J A; Yang, Hongqun; Lin, Christopher C H; Kuznicki, Steve M; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-08-15

    A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250 degrees C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400 degrees C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC.

  8. A critical review on the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanshan; Zhang, Zhang; Wu, Jingwen; Duan, Linhai; Umar, Ahmad; Sun, Luyi; Guo, Zhanhu; Wang, Qiang

    2013-10-01

    Nowadays, an increasing attention has been paid to the technologies for removing mercury from flue gases. Up to date, no optimal technology that can be broadly applied exists, but the heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of mercury is considered as a promising approach. Based on a brief introduction of the pros and cons of traditional existing technologies, a critical review on the recent advances in heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury is provided. In this contribution, four types of Hg oxidation catalysts including noble metals, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts, transition metals, and fly ash have been summarized. Both the advantages and disadvantages of these catalysts are described in detail. The influence of various acidic gases including SO2, SO3, NH3, NOx, HCl, Cl2, etc. have been discussed as well. We expect this work will shed light on the development of heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury technology in flue gases, particularly the synthesis of novel and highly efficient Hg(0) oxidation catalysts.

  9. Predicting extents of mercury oxidation in coal-derived flue gases.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    The proposed mercury (Hg) oxidation mechanism consists of a 168-step gas phase mechanism that accounts for interaction among all important flue gas species and a heterogeneous oxidation mechanism on unburned carbon (UBC) particles, similar to established chemistry for dioxin production under comparable conditions. The mechanism was incorporated into a gas cleaning system simulator to predict the proportions of elemental and oxidized Hg species in the flue gases, given relevant coal properties (C/H/O/N/S/Cl/Hg), flue gas composition (O2, H2O, HCl), emissions (NO(X), SO(X), CO), the recovery of fly ash, fly ash loss-on-ignition (LOI), and a thermal history. Predictions are validated without parameter adjustments against datasets from lab-scale and from pilot-scale coal furnaces at 1 and 29 MWt. Collectively, the evaluations cover 16 coals representing ranks from sub-bituminous through high-volatile bituminous, including cases with Cl2 and CaCl2 injection. The predictions are, therefore, validated over virtually the entire domain of Cl-species concentrations and UBC levels of commercial interest. Additional predictions identify the most important operating conditions in the furnace and gas cleaning system, including stoichiometric ratio, NO(X), LOI, and residence time, as well as the most important coal properties, including coal-Cl.

  10. Integrated system for the treatment of oxides of nitrogen from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Barman; Ligy Philip

    2006-02-01

    A novel and effective system was developed for the complete treatment of NOx from flue gases. The system consisted of photocatalytic or ozone oxidation of NOx, followed by scrubbing and biological denitrification. Maximum photocatalytic oxidation of NOx was achieved while using powdered TiO{sub 2} at a catalytic loading rate of 10 g/h, relative humidity of 50%, and a space time of 10 s. The used catalyst was regenerated and reused. A total of 72% of oxidized NO was recovered as HNO{sub 3}/HNO{sub 2} in the regeneration process. Stoichiometrically, 10% excess ozone was able to affect 100% oxidation of NO to NO{sub 2}. Presence of SO{sub 2} adversely influenced the oxidation of NO by ozone. The scrubbing of NO was effective with distilled water. Heterotrophic denitrifiers were able to denitrify the leachate with an efficiency of 90%, using sewage (COD 450 mg/L) as electron donor. The new integrated treatment system seems to be a promising alternative for complete treatment of NOx from flue gases. 29 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. JV Task 125-Mercury Measurement in Combustion Flue Gases Short Course

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Laudal

    2008-09-30

    The short course, designed to train personnel who have an interest in measuring mercury in combustion flue gases, was held twice at the Drury Inn in Marion, Illinois. The short course helped to provide attendees with the knowledge necessary to avoid the many pitfalls that can and do occur when measuring mercury in combustion flue gases. The first short course, May 5-8, 2008, included both a classroom-type session and hands-on demonstration of mercury-sampling equipment. The hands-on demonstration of equipment was staged at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative. Not including the Illinois Clean Coal Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy project managers, there were 12 attendees. The second short course was conducted September 16-17, 2008, but only included the classroom portion of the course; 14 people attended. In both cases, lectures were provided on the various mercury measurement methods, and interaction between attendees and EERC research personnel to discuss specific mercury measurement problems was promoted. Overall, the response to the course was excellent.

  12. Studying the influence of operation parameters on heavy and alkali metals partitioning in flue gases.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; He, Xuanming; Wang, Guanghui; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2010-02-01

    In order to study the distribution and partitioning of heavy and alkali metals in the flue gases of a sewage sludge incinerator, an experiment was carried out in a pilot scale combustor. The results indicated that it was feasible to separate part of metals from flue gases by collecting fly ash at different temperatures. On the basis of their separation temperature, heavy and alkali metals could be divided into three groups: group A included Zn, K and P, which converted from gaseous phase to liquid or solid when temperature was above 600 degrees C. Pb and Cu were the metals of group B, with optimum transformation temperature of 400 degrees C. Na and As belonged to group C, with conversion temperatures of 300 degrees C. Moreover, the effect of temperature gradient on heavy and alkali metal gas-solid transformation was also experimentally investigated. It was observed that the temperature gradient could promote the gas-solid conversion of heavy and alkali metals. However, too high a temperature gradient would suppress the formation of fine particles. The peak of conversion rate for K, Pb and Na occurred at 434 degrees C s(-1), while that of P and Cu was 487 degrees C s(-1).

  13. Mercury removal from flue gases by novel regenerable magnetic nanocomposite sorbents.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jie; Xu, Zhenghe; Kuznicki, Steven M

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic zeolite composites with supported silver nanoparicles are a new class of multifunctional materials with potential applications as recyclable catalysts, disinfectants, and sorbents. This study evaluated the suitability of the magnetic composites as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury vapor from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The sorbents were found to completely capture mercury at temperatures up to 200 degrees C, and the mercury capacity of the sorbents was found to be affected by the state, content, and size of the silver particles in the composite. Cumulative or extended thermal treatments at 400 degrees C were found to improve the mercury capture capacity, allowing the sorbent to be regenerated and recycled multiple times without performance degradation. The magnetic sorbent was readily separated from fly ash by magnetic separation, leaving the fly ash essentially free of sorbent contamination. In initial in-plant tests, the sorbents were able to capture mercury from the flue gases of an operational, full-scale, coal-fired power plant The combination of mercury capacity, ease of separation and regeneration, and recyclability makes these multifunctional magnetic composites excellent candidate sorbentsforthe control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants.

  14. Thermochemical recovery of heat contained in flue gases by means of bioethanol conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashchenko, D. I.

    2013-06-01

    In the present paper consideration is being given to the use of bioethanol in the schemes of thermochemical recovery of heat contained in exit flue gases. Schematic diagrams illustrate the realization of thermochemical heat recovery by implementing ethanol steam conversion and conversion of ethanol by means of products of its complete combustion. The feasibility of attaining a high degree of recovery of heat contained in flue gases at the moderate temperature (up to 450°C) of combustion components is demonstrated in the example of the energy balance of the system for thermochemical heat recovery. The simplified thermodynamic analysis of the process of ethanol steam conversion was carried out in order to determine possible ranges of variation of process variables (temperature, pressure, composition) of a reaction mixture providing the efficient heat utilization. It was found that at the temperature above 600 K the degree of ethanol conversion is near unity. The equilibrium composition of products of reaction of ethanol steam conversion has been identified for different temperatures at which the process occurs at the ratio H2O/EtOH = 1 and at the pressure of 0.1 MPa. The obtained results of calculation agree well with the experimental data.

  15. Mercury removal from flue gases by novel regenerable magnetic nanocomposite sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Dong; Zhenghe Xu; Steven M. Kuznicki

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic zeolite composites with supported silver nanoparticles are a new class of multifunctional materials with potential applications as recyclable catalysts, disinfectants, and sorbents. This study evaluated the suitability of the magnetic composites as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury vapor from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. The sorbents were found to completely capture mercury at temperatures up to 200{sup o}C, and the mercury capacity of the sorbents was found to be affected by the state, content, and size of the silver particles in the composite. Cumulative or extended thermal treatments at 400{sup o}C were found to improve the mercury capture capacity, allowing the sorbent to be regenerated and recycled multiple times without performance degradation. The magnetic sorbent was readily separated from fly ash by magnetic separation, leaving the fly ash essentially free of sorbent contamination. In initial in-plant tests, the sorbents were able to capture mercury from the flue gases of an operational, full-scale, coal-fired power plant. The combination of mercury capacity, ease of separation and regeneration, and recyclability makes these multifunctional magnetic composites excellent candidate sorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? 62.15270 Section 62.15270 Protection... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control...

  17. Performance parameters and numerical model of thermoelectric generator dedicated for energy harvesting from flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcuch, M.; Musiał, M.; Gumuła, S.; Wojciechowski, K. T.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of preliminary studies of thermoelectric generator (TEG) dedicated for waste heat harvesting from flue gases. Investigation includes numerical analysis for estimating power losses due to pressure drop in the installation with the TEG and experimental tests for obtaining electrical parameters and operation conditions, such as casing temperatures and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet. Proposed prototype has been equipped with the pin fins for increase the heat transfer. Results indicates that power losses are negligible in comparison with generated electrical power. The heat exchanger's interior demands to be modified to enhance the efficiency by increasing temperatures on the external surfaces of the hot-side heat exchanger (HHX). Further research will focus on numerical analysis of the influence of geometry modifications on the thermal and flow parameters of the TEG resulting in the increase of generated power and efficiency.

  18. Flue gases treatment by simultaneous use of electron beam and streams of microwave energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimek, Z.; Chmielewski, A. G.; Bulka, S.; Lysov, G. W.; Artukh, I. G.; Frank, N. W.

    1995-09-01

    The experimental set up for investigation of SO2 and NOX removal from flue gases has been built on the base of electron accelerator and two independent microwave generators in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. That allows to investigate a combined removal concept based on the simultaneous use the electron beam and streams of microwave energy to produce free radicals in reaction vessel. The preliminary experiment shows that is possible to find such condition with NH3 presence, where the efficiencies of the removal processes caused separately by electron beam and microwave energy are similar in described configuration of the experimental set up. The result of experiment where electron beam and microwave energy were used simultaneously indicates that total efficiency of the combined process is higher to compare with separate ones in certain experimental conditions.

  19. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each...

  1. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each...

  4. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15270 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of....15270 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control... temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each particulate matter control device. ...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1325 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... June 6, 2001 Other Monitoring Requirements § 60.1325 How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at... a device to continuously measure the temperature of the flue gas stream at the inlet of each...

  8. CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Dilmore, Robert; Allen, Douglas; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2010-11-30

    Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

  9. Theoretically predicted rate constants for mercury oxidation by hydrogen chloride in coal combustion flue gases.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jennifer; Robles, Joe; Marsden, David C J; Blowers, Paul

    2003-09-15

    In this work, theoretical rate constants are estimated for mercury oxidation reactions by hydrogen chloride that may occur in the flue gases of coal combustion. Rate constants are calculated using transition state theory at the quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) level of theory with single and double excitations, and are compared to results obtained from density functional theory, both including high level pseudopotentials for mercury. Thermodynamic and kinetic data from the literature are used to assess the accuracy of the theoretical calculations when possible. Validation of the chosen methods and basis sets is based upon previous and current research on mercury reactions involving chlorine. The present research shows that the QCISD method with the 1992 Stevens et al. basis set leads to the most accurate kinetic and thermodynamic results for the oxidation of mercury via chlorine containing molecules. Also, a comparison of the heats of reaction data for a series of mercury oxidation reactions reveals that the density functional method, B3LYP, with the 1997 Stuttgart basis set provides reasonably accurate results for these large systems.

  10. Confounding effects of aqueous-phase impinger chemistry on apparent oxidation of mercury in flue gases.

    PubMed

    Cauch, Brydger; Silcox, Geoffrey D; Lighty, JoAnn S; Wendt, Jost O L; Fry, Andrew; Senior, Constance L

    2008-04-01

    Gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and chlorine are a possible pathway to producing oxidized mercury species such as mercuric chloride in combustion systems. This study examines the effect of the chemistry of a commonly used sample conditioning system on apparent and actual levels of mercury oxidation in a methane-fired, 0.3 kW, quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, Cl2, NOx, SO2) and quench rate were varied. The sample conditioning system included two impingers in parallel: one containing an aqueous solution of KCl to trap HgCl2, and one containing an aqueous solution of SnCl2 to reduce HgCl2 to elemental mercury (Hg0). Gas-phase concentrations of Cl2 as low as 1.5 ppmv were sufficient to oxidize a significant fraction of the elemental mercury in the KCl impinger via the hypochlorite ion. Furthermore, these low, but interfering levels of Cl2 appeared to persist in flue gases from several doped rapidly mixed flames with varied post flame temperature quench rates. The addition of 0.5 wt% sodium thiosulfate to the KCl solution completely prevented the oxidation from occurring in the impinger. The addition of thiosulfate did not inhibit the KCl impinger's ability to capture HgCl2. The effectiveness of the thiosulfate was unchanged by NO or SO2. These results bring into question laboratory scale experimental data on mercury oxidation where wet chemistry was used to partition metallic and oxidized mercury without the presence of sufficient levels of SO2.

  11. Confounding effects of aqueous-phase impinger chemistry on apparent oxidation of mercury in flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Brydger Cauch; Geoffrey D. Silcox; Joann S. Lighty; Jost O.L. Wendt; Andrew Fry; Constance L. Senior

    2008-04-01

    Gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and chlorine are a possible pathway to producing oxidized mercury species such as mercuric chloride in combustion systems. This study examines the effect of the chemistry of a commonly used sample conditioning system on apparent and actual levels of mercury oxidation in a methane-fired, 0.3 kW, quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, Cl{sub 2}, NOx, SO{sub 2}) and quench rate were varied. The sample conditioning system included two impingers in parallel: one containing an aqueous solution of KCl to trap HgCl{sub 2}, and one containing an aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} to reduce HgCl{sub 2} to elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}). Gas-phase concentrations of Cl{sub 2} as low as 1.5 ppmv were sufficient to oxidize a significant fraction of the elemental mercury in the KCl impinger via the hypochlorite ion. Furthermore, these low, but interfering levels of Cl{sub 2} appeared to persist in flue gases from several doped rapidly mixed flames with varied post flame temperature quench rates. The addition of 0.5 wt% sodium thiosulfate to the KCl solution completely prevented the oxidation from occurring in the impinger. The addition of thiosulfate did not inhibit the KCl impinger's ability to capture HgCl{sub 2}. The effectiveness of the thiosulfate was unchanged by NO or SO{sub 2}. These results bring into question laboratory scale experimental data on mercury oxidation where wet chemistry was used to partition metallic and oxidized mercury without the presence of sufficient levels of SO{sub 2}. 23 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Interferences with measurements of CO, CO/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ in woodstove flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Morren, W.E.

    1985-02-01

    Concentrations of CO, CO/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ in woodstove flue gases are some of the measured inputs required by algorithms used to calculate woodstove efficiency by the stack loss method. Since these algorithms have been shown to be very sensitive to small errors in thes input values, it was necessary to determine whether measurements of these compounds are subject to interference. Concentrations of CO, CO/sub 2/, and O/sub 2/ in a series of flue gas samples were measured using a variety of independent measurement techniques for each compound. The concentrations indicated by each of the measurement techniques for each compound and sample were compared to check for agreement. Disagreement among the measurement techniques for a given compound could indicate interference if some trend could be established. Tests were conducted on four samples taken randomly during each of three stove firings.

  13. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae using industrial flue gases for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Pooja; Desi, Sreekanth; Vurimindi, Himabindu

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to grow microalgae Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris and Botryococcus braunii in mixotropic cultivation mode using two different substrates, i.e. sewage and glucose as organic carbon sources along with flue gas inputs as inorganic carbon source. The experiments were carried out in 500 ml flasks with sewage and glucose-enriched media along with flue gas inputs. The composition of the flue gas was 7 % CO2, 210 ppm of NO x and 120 ppm of SO x . The results showed that S. quadricauda grown in glucose-enriched medium yielded higher biomass, lipid and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) (biodiesel) yields of 2.6, 0.63 and 0.3 g/L, respectively. Whereas with sewage, the biomass, lipid and FAME yields of S. quadricauda were 1.9, 0.46, and 0.21 g/L, respectively. The other two species showed closer results as well. The glucose utilization was measured in terms of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction, which was up to 93.75 % by S. quadricauda in the glucose-flue gas medium. In the sewage-flue gas medium, the COD removal was achieved up to 92 % by S. quadricauda. The other nutrients and pollutants from the sewage were removed up to 75 % on an average by the same. Concerning the flue gas treatment studies, S. quadricauda could remove CO2 up to 85 % from the flue gas when grown in glucose medium and 81 % when grown in sewage. The SO x and NO x concentrations were reduced up to 50 and 62 %, respectively, by S. quadricauda in glucose-flue gas medium. Whereas, in the sewage-flue gas medium, the SO x and NO x concentrations were reduced up to 45 and 50 %, respectively, by the same. The other two species were equally efficient however with little less significant yields and removal percentages. This study laid emphasis on comparing the feasibility in utilization of readily available carbon sources like glucose and inexpensive leftover carbon sources like sewage by microalgae to generate energy coupled with economical

  14. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T.

    2011-06-15

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275 deg. C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 {mu}g I-TEQ kg{sup -1} in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  15. Removal potential of toxic 2378-substituted PCDD/F from incinerator flue gases by waste-derived activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Hajizadeh, Yaghoub; Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T

    2011-06-01

    The application of activated carbons has become a commonly used emission control protocol for the removal or adsorption of persistent organic pollutants from the flue gas streams of waste incinerators. In this study, the 2378-substituted PCDD/F removal efficiency of three types of activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of refuse derived fuel, textile waste and scrap tyre was investigated and compared with that of a commercial carbon. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor under a simulated flue gas at 275°C with a reaction period of four days. The PCDD/F in the solid matrices and exhaust gas, were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. In the absence of activated carbon adsorbent, there was a significant increase in the concentration of toxic PCDD/F produced in the reacted flyash, reaching up to 6.6 times higher than in the raw flyash. In addition, there was a substantial release of PCDD/F into the gas phase, which was found in the flue gas trapping system. By application of the different commercial, refuse derived fuel, textile and tyre activated carbons the total PCDD/F toxic equivalent removal efficiencies in the exhaust gas stream were 58%, 57%, 64% and 52%, respectively. In general, the removal of the PCDDs was much higher with an average of 85% compared to PCDFs at 41%. Analysis of the reacted activated carbons showed that there was some formation of PCDD/F, for instance, a total of 60.6 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) toxic PCDD/F was formed in the refuse derived fuel activated carbon compared to 34 μg I-TEQ kg(-1) in the commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons derived from the pyrolysis of waste, therefore, showed good potential as a control material for PCDD/F emissions in waste incinerator flue gases.

  16. E-Beam SO2 and NOx removal from flue gases in the presence of fine water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calinescu, Ioan; Martin, Diana; Chmielewski, Andrezj; Ighigeanu, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Electron Beam Flue Gas Treatment (EBFGT) has been proposed as an efficient method for removal of SO2 and NOx many years ago. However, the industrial application of this procedure is limited to just a few installations. This article analyses the possibility of using medium-power EB accelerators for off-gases purification. By increasing electron energy from 0.7 MeV to 1-2 MeV it is possible to reduce the energy losses in the windows and in the air gap between them (transformer accelerators can be applied as well in the process). In order to use these mid-energy accelerators it is necessary to reduce their penetration depth through gas and this can be achieved by increasing the density of the reaction medium by means of dispersing a sufficient amount of fine water droplets (FWD). The presence of FWD has a favorable effect on the overall process by increasing the level of liquid phase reactions. A special reactor was designed and built to test the effect of FWD on the treatment of flue gases with a high concentration of SO2 and NOx using high-energy EBs (9 MeV). By determining the energy efficiency of the process the favorable effect of using FWD and high-energy EB was demonstrated.

  17. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM FOR REMOVING AND RECOVERING ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM FLUE-STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    the impending EPA regulations on the control of mercury emissions from the flue stacks of coal-burning electric utilities has resulted in heightened interest in the development of advanced mercury control technologies such as sorbent injection and in-situ mercury oxidation. Altho...

  18. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM FOR REMOVING AND RECOVERING ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM FLUE-STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    the impending EPA regulations on the control of mercury emissions from the flue stacks of coal-burning electric utilities has resulted in heightened interest in the development of advanced mercury control technologies such as sorbent injection and in-situ mercury oxidation. Altho...

  19. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of the...

  20. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1815 - How do I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I monitor the temperature of... I monitor the temperature of flue gases at the inlet of my particulate matter control device? You must install, calibrate, maintain, and operate a device to continuously measure the temperature of the...

  4. The acclimation of Chlorella to high-level nitrite for potential application in biological NOx removal from industrial flue gases.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianpei; Xu, Gang; Rong, Junfeng; Chen, Hui; He, Chenliu; Giordano, Mario; Wang, Qiang

    2016-05-20

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the components of fossil flue gas that give rise to the greatest environmental concerns. This study evaluated the ability of the green algae Chlorella to acclimate to high level of NOx and the potential utilization of Chlorella strains in biological NOx removal (DeNOx) from industrial flue gases. Fifteen Chlorella strains were subject to high-level of nitrite (HN, 176.5 mmolL(-1) nitrite) to simulate exposure to high NOx. These strains were subsequently divided into four groups with respect to their ability to tolerate nitrite (excellent, good, fair, and poor). One strain from each group was selected to evaluate their photosynthetic response to HN condition, and the nitrite adaptability of the four Chlorella strains were further identified by using chlorophyll fluorescence. The outcome of our experiments shows that, although high concentrations of nitrite overall negatively affect growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella strains, the degree of nitrite tolerance is a strain-specific feature. Some Chlorella strains have an appreciably higher ability to acclimate to high-level of nitrite. Acclimation is achieved through a three-step process of restrict, acclimate, and thriving. Notably, Chlorella sp. C2 was found to have a high tolerance and to rapidly acclimate to high concentrations of nitrite; it is therefore a promising candidate for microalgae-based biological NOx removal.

  5. Hydroquinone and Quinone-Grafted Porous Carbons for Highly Selective CO2 Capture from Flue Gases and Natural Gas Upgrading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Krishna, Rajamani; Yang, Jiangfeng; Deng, Shuguang

    2015-08-04

    Hydroquinone and quinone functional groups were grafted onto a hierarchical porous carbon framework via the Friedel-Crafts reaction to develop more efficient adsorbents for the selective capture and removal of carbon dioxide from flue gases and natural gas. The oxygen-doped porous carbons were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. CO2, CH4, and N2 adsorption isotherms were measured and correlated with the Langmuir model. An ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) selectivity for the CO2/N2 separation of 26.5 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the hydroquinone-grafted carbon, which is 58.7% higher than that of the pristine porous carbon, and a CO2/CH4 selectivity value of 4.6 (298 K, 1 atm) was obtained on the quinone-grafted carbon (OAC-2), which represents a 28.4% improvement over the pristine porous carbon. The highest CO2 adsorption capacity on the oxygen-doped carbon adsorbents is 3.46 mmol g(-1) at 298 K and 1 atm. In addition, transient breakthrough simulations for CO2/CH4/N2 mixture separation were conducted to demonstrate the good separation performance of the oxygen-doped carbons in fixed bed adsorbers. Combining excellent adsorption separation properties and low heats of adsorption, the oxygen-doped carbons developed in this work appear to be very promising for flue gas treatment and natural gas upgrading.

  6. Stable isotope composition of mercury forms in flue gases from a typical coal-fired power plant, Inner Mongolia, northern China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Chaohui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhu, Jianming; Sun, Ruoyu; Fan, Huipeng; Wang, Lina; Li, Ruiyang; Mao, Tonghua; Zhou, Ting

    2017-04-15

    Mercury forms emitted from coal combustion via air pollution control devices are speculated to carry different Hg isotope signatures. Yet, their Hg isotope composition is still not reported. Here, we present the first onsite Hg isotope data for gaseous elemental Hg (GEM) and gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM) of flue gases from a typical lignite-fired power plant (CFPP). Significant mass dependent fractionation (MDF) and insignificant mass independent fractionation (MIF) are observed between feed coal and coal combustion products. As compared to feed coal (δ(202)Hg=-2.04±0.25‰), bottom ash, GEM and GOM in flue gases before and after wet flue gas desulfurization system significantly enrich heavy Hg isotopes by 0.7-2.6‰ in δ(202)Hg, while fly ash, desulfurization gypsum and waste water show slight but insignificant enrichment of light Hg isotopes. GEM is significantly enriched heavy Hg isotopes compared to GOM and Hg in fly ash. Our observations verify the previous speculation on Hg isotope fractionation mechanism in CFPPs, and suggest a kinetically-controlled mass dependent Hg isotope fractionation during transformation of Hg forms in flue gases. Finally, our data are compared to Hg isotope compositions of atmospheric Hg pools, suggesting that coal combustion Hg emission is likely an important atmospheric Hg contributor.

  7. Evaluation of carbon dioxide mass transfer in raceway reactors for microalgae culture using flue gases.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Mendoza, J L; Acién, F G; Molina, E; Banks, C J; Heaven, S; Rogalla, F

    2014-02-01

    Mass transfer of CO2 from flue gas was quantified in a 100m(2) raceway. The carbonation sump was operated with and without a baffle at different liquid/gas ratios, with the latter having the greatest influence on CO2 recovery from the flue gas. A rate of mass transfer sufficient to meet the demands of an actively growing algal culture was best achieved by maintaining pH at ∼8. Full optimisation of the process required both pH control and selection of the best liquid/gas flow ratio. A carbon transfer rate of 10gCmin(-1) supporting an algal productivity of 17gm(-2)day(-1) was achieved with only 4% direct loss of CO2 in the sump. 66% of the carbon was incorporated into biomass, while 6% was lost by outgassing and the remainder as dissolved carbon in the liquid phase. Use of a sump baffle required additional power without significantly improving carbon mass transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ranking low cost sorbents for mercury capture from simulated flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    H. Revata Seneviratne; Cedric Charpenteau; Anthe George; Marcos Millan; Denis R. Dugwell; Rafael Kandiyoti

    2007-12-15

    Coal fired utility boilers are the largest anthropogenic source of mercury release to the atmosphere, and mercury abatement legislation is already in place in the USA. The present study aimed to rank low cost mercury sorbents (char and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber and two coal fly ashes from UK power plants) against Norit Darco HgTM for mercury retention by using a novel bench-scale reactor. In this scheme, a fixed sorbent bed was tested for mercury capture efficiency from a simulated flue gas stream. Experiments with a gas stream of only mercury and nitrogen showed that while the coal ashes were the most effective in mercury capture, char from the pyrolysis of scrap tire rubber was as effective as the commercial sorbent Norit Darco HgTM. Tests conducted at 150{sup o}C, with a simulated flue gas mix that included N{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and HCl, showed that all the sorbents captured approximately 100% of the mercury in the gas stream. The introduction of NO and NO{sub 2} was found to significantly improve the mercury capture, possibly by reactions between NOx and the mercury. Since the sorbents' efficiency decreased with increasing test temperature, physical sorption could be the initial step in the mercury capture process. As the sorbents were only exposed to 64 ng of mercury in the gas stream, the mercury loadings on the samples were significantly less than their equilibrium capacities. The larger capacities of the activated carbons due to their more microporous structure were therefore not utilized. Although the sorbents have been characterized by BET surface area analysis and XRD analysis, further analysis is needed in order to obtain a more conclusive correlation of how the characteristics of the different sorbents correlate with the observed variations in mercury capture ability. 34 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Adsorption and reaction mechanism of arsenic vapors over γ-Al2O3 in the simulated flue gas containing acid gases.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongyun; Chen, Dunkui; Liu, Huan; Yang, Yuhan; Cai, Hexun; Shen, Junhao; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic emission from fuel combustion and metal smelting flue gas causes serious pollution. Addition of sorbents is a promising way for the arsenic capture from high temperature flue gas. However, it is difficult to remove arsenic from SO2/HCl-rich flue gas due to the competitive reaction of the sorbents with arsenic and these acid gases. To solve this problem, arsenic adsorption over γ-Al2O3 was studied in this work to evaluate its adsorption mechanism, resistance to acid gases as well as regeneration behavior. The results show that γ-Al2O3 had good resistance to acid gases and the arsenic adsorption by γ-Al2O3 could be effectively carried out at a wide temperature range between 573 and 1023 K. Nevertheless, adsorption at higher-temperature (like 1173 K) leaded to the decrease of surface area and the rearrangement of crystal structure of γ-Al2O3, reducing the active sites for arsenic adsorption. The adsorption of arsenic was confirmed to occur at different active sites in γ-Al2O3 by forming various adsorbed species. Increasing temperature facilitated arsenic transformation into more stable chemisorbed As(3+) and As(5+) which were difficult to remove through thermal treatment regeneration. Fortunately, the regeneration of spent γ-Al2O3 could be well performed using NaOH solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Partitioning and removal of dioxin-like congeners in flue gases treated with activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chi, Kai Hsien; Chang, Shu Hao; Huang, Chia Hua; Huang, Hung Chi; Chang, Moo Been

    2006-08-01

    Activated carbon adsorption is commonly used to control dioxin-like congener (PCDD/Fs and PCBs) emissions. Partitioning of PCDD/Fs and PCBs between vapor and solid phases and their removal efficiencies achieved with existing air pollution control devices (APCDs) at a large-scale municipal waste incinerator (MWI) and an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) are evaluated via intensive stack sampling and analysis. Those two facilities investigated are equipped with activated carbon injection (ACI) with bag filter (BF) and fixed activated carbon bed (FACB) as major PCDD/F control devices, respectively. Average PCDD/F and PCB concentrations of stack gas with ACI+BF as APCDs are 0.031 and 0.006ng-TEQ/Nm(3), and that achieved with FACB are 1.74 and 0.19ng-TEQ/Nm(3) in MWI and IWI, respectively. The results show that FACB could reduce vapor-phase PCDD/Fs and PCBs concentrations in flue gas, while the ACI+BF can effectively adsorb the vapor-phase dioxin-like congener and collect the solid-phase PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the meantime. Additionally, the results of the pilot-scale adsorption system (PAS) experimentation indicate that each gram activated carbon adsorbs 105-115ng-PCDD/Fs and each surface area (m(2)) of activated carbon adsorbs 10-25ng-PCDD/Fs. Based on the results of PAS experimentation, this study confirms that the surface area of mesopore+macropore (20-200A) of the activated carbon is a critical factor affecting PCDD/F adsorption capacity.

  11. Atmospheric oxidation of flue gases from coal-fired power plants—A comparison between conventional and scrubbed plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meagher, J. F.; Stockburger, L.; Bonanno, R. J.; Bailey, E. M.; Luria, M.

    A series of plume samples was taken by instrumented aircraft to determine atmospheric oxidation rates of flue gases from coal-fired power plants. This study was carried out at two of TVA's large power plants: Colbert Steam Plant, located in Pride, Alabama, a conventional power plant that burns high (3.7%) sulfur coal; and Widows Creek Steam Plant, located at Stevenson, Alabama, which generates 29% of its electrical power from a boiler that burns high (3.9%) sulfur coal but that is equipped with a wet limestone SO 2 scrubber. The average atmospheric oxidation rates at both sites were almost identical, indicating that the atmospheric oxidation rate is not significantly affected by the presence of a scrubber. The average morning rates for SO 4= and NO 3- formation for both the scrubbed and unscrubbed plumes were found to be 0.012 and 0.029 h -1 respectively. Rates larger by a factor of two were found for the afternoon measurements. For both parts of this study, the average rate for NO conversion to NO 2 was found to be 0.51 h -1, and the rate for NO x removal was estimated to be 0.12 h -1. On one day during the second part of this study (August 23, 1978), net O 3 production in the plume was observed. Net production of O 3 was attributed to the mixing of the power plant plume with a polluted airmass transported from Chattanooga, Tennessee.

  12. Effective utilization of flue gases in raceway reactor with event-based pH control for microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, A; Mendoza, J L; Guzmán, J L; Berenguel, M; Acién, F G; Dormido, S

    2014-10-01

    This work addresses effective utilization of flue gases through the proper pH control in raceway reactors. The pH control problem has been addressed with an event-based control approach using a Generalized Predictive Controller (GPC) with actuator deadband. Applying this control strategy it is possible to reduce the control effort, and at the same time saving control resources. In the pH process case, the event-based controller with actuator deadband can be tuned to supply only necessary amount of CO2 to keep the pH close to its optimal value. On the other hand, the evaluated control algorithm significantly improves the pH control accuracy, what has a direct influence on biomass production. In order to test the performance of the event-based GPC controller, several experiments have been performed on a real raceway reactor. Additionally, several control performance indexes have been used to compare the analyzed technique with commonly used on/off controller.

  13. Removal of SO2 from simulated flue gases using non-thermal plasma-based microgap discharge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindong; Bai, Mindi; Bai, Xiyao; Pan, Qiaoyuan

    2006-06-01

    The removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2) from simulated flue gases streams (N2/O2/H2O/SO2) was experimentally investigated using microgap discharge. In the experiment, the thinner dielectric layers of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) were used to form the microgap discharge. With this physical method, a high concentration of hydroxyl (OH*) radicals were produced using the ionization of O2 and H2O to further the conversion of SO2 into sulfuric acid (H2SO4) at 120 degrees C in the absence of any catalysts and absorbents, which were captured with the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). As a result, the increase of discharge power and concentrations of O2 and H2O increased the production of OH. radicals resulting in enhanced removal of SO2 from gas streams. With the test and analysis, a number of H2SO4 droplets were produced in experiment. Therefore, a new method for removal of SO2 in semidry method without ammonia (NH3) additive was found.

  14. Carbon dioxide separation from flue gases: a technological review emphasizing reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Separation from Flue Gases: A Technological Review Emphasizing Reduction in Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Songolzadeh, Mohammad; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Takht Ravanchi, Maryam; Songolzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO2 in the atmosphere is a global warming. Human activities are a major cause of increased CO2 concentration in atmosphere, as in recent decade, two-third of greenhouse effect was caused by human activities. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a major strategy that can be used to reduce GHGs emission. There are three methods for CCS: pre-combustion capture, oxy-fuel process, and post-combustion capture. Among them, post-combustion capture is the most important one because it offers flexibility and it can be easily added to the operational units. Various technologies are used for CO2 capture, some of them include: absorption, adsorption, cryogenic distillation, and membrane separation. In this paper, various technologies for post-combustion are compared and the best condition for using each technology is identified. PMID:24696663

  16. Process for injection of fluid EG slurry in EG flue gases and a nozzle device for the accomplishment of the process

    SciTech Connect

    Glindsjo, P.

    1984-11-20

    This invention relates to a process for injection of fluid e.g. slurry into e.g. flue gases, and a nozzle device for the accomplishment of the process. The process according to the invention is characterized in that a thin stream of fluid e.g. slurry is injected into a wider stream of gas to form disintegrated drops, at which the fluid stream is peeled off on its way into the gas stream, the fluid stream is made to turn 180/sup 0/ and accelerate against a solid body, where another disintegration of the drops occurs very rapid and the nozzle device according to the invention is characterized in that it is arranged with two intakes coming into the nozzle opposite to each other, perpendicular to the passage of the flue gas through a flue gas pipe at which slurry is injected through the intake, which is formed as a wider pipe, which ends in a wearing part, in which a finer pipe is arranged and at which compressed air or steam is injected through the intake arranged as a pipe, besides which the finer pipe for slurry is centered in relation to the pipe so that a thin stream of slurry is arranged to be injected at a high speed into a wider stream of compressed air or steam to form fine slurry drops, which are arranged to be spread by the flue gas through the nozzle device.

  17. Evaluation of an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sp. C2 for biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Weixian; Qiao, Yaqin; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-02

    NOx, a significant portion of fossil fuel flue gases, are among the most serious environmental issues in the world and must be removed in an additional costly gas treatment step. This study evaluated the growth of the green alga Chlorella sp. C2 under a nitrite-simulated NOx environment and the removal rates of actual flue gas fixed salts (FGFSs) from Sinopec's Shijiazhuang refinery along with lipid production. The results showed that nitrite levels lower than 176.5 mM had no significant adverse effects on the cell growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella sp. C2, demonstrating that this green alga could utilize nitrite and NOx as a nitrogen source. High concentrations of nitrite (88.25-176.5 mM) also resulted in the accumulation of neutral lipids. A 60% nitrite removal efficiency was obtained together with the production of 33% algae lipids when cultured with FGFS. Notably, the presence of nitrate in the FGFS medium significantly enhanced the nitrite removal capability, biomass and lipid production. Thus, this study may provide a new insight into the economically viable application of microalgae in the synergistic combination of biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases and biodiesel production.

  18. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.

    2009-08-05

    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  19. A case study for removal of sulphur-di-oxide from exhaust flue gases at thermal power plant, Rajasthan (India).

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rashmi; Acharya, Shveta; Sharma, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reduce the percent SO2 in environment and to produce a byproduct with SO2, to control air pollution. The present work envisages a situation that compares the efficiency of three different reagents, viz. sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide and waste product of water treatment plant containing CaO in removal of SO2 that would be generated in this situation. Various parameters were also observed with variation involving percent concentration of reactants, pH of the solution, time for reaction , temperature of solution and flow of flue gas in impingers. Pet coke with lime stone is being used for power generation in power plant during the experiment, the pet coke having 6% sulphur resulting in emission of SO2. Hence experiments have been conducted to trap these gases to produce sulphates. Waste product of water treatment plant, calcium hydroxide, and sodium hydroxide in various permutation and combination have been used with control flow by SO2 monitoring kit for preparation of calcium sulphate and sodium sulphate. Thus sodium hydroxide turned out to be better as compared to calcium hydroxide and sludge. It is also concluded that pH of the solution should be alkaline for good absorption of SO2 and maximum absorption of SO2 found in direct passing of SO2 in impinger as compared to indirect passing of SO2 in impingers. Good absorption of SO2 found at temperature range between 20-25 degrees C and it seems to be optimum. Maximum recovery of SO2 was obtained when the reaction took place for long time period.

  20. Final report to US Department of Energy: Cyclotron autoresonance accelerator for electron beam dry scrubbing of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.

    2001-05-25

    Several designs have been built and operated of microwave cyclotron autoresonance accelerators (CARA's) with electron beam parameters suitable for remediation of pollutants in flue gas emissions from coal-burning power plants. CARA designs have also been developed with a TW-level 10.6 micron laser driver for electron acceleration from 50 to 100 MeV, and with UHF drivers for proton acceleration to over 500 MeV. Dose requirements for reducing SO2, NOx, and particulates in flue gas emissions to acceptable levels have been surveyed, and used to optimize the design of an electron beam source to deliver this dose.

  1. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  2. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Pradhan, S.

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The research program involves the determination of the biocatalytic characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale studies, and the feasibility study and economic analysis of the Botryococcus braunii culture systems for the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. The objective of the third quarter of this research program was to determine the growth and hydrogen formation characteristics of free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii in bench-scale photobioreactors. Raceway and inclined surface type bioreactors were used for free cell and immobilized cell studies respectively. The free cell studies with air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% (v/v) CO{sub 2} in air] in media with and without NaHCO{sub 3} were conducted.

  3. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Patel, S.; Conrad, J.; Benemann, J.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this research program is to determine the feasibility of the alga Botryococcus braunii as a biocatalyst for the photosynthetic conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons. Free and immobilized cells of Botryococcus braunii were grown in aqueous medium supplemented with nitrogen, phosphorus and mineral nutrients. Air and CO{sub 2} enriched air [10% to 15% (V/V) CO{sub 2}] in the gas phase and 0.2% to 2% NaHCO{sub 3} in the liquid medium served as the carbon source. Growth and hydrocarbon formation characteristics of free and immobilized cultures of Botryococcus braunii were determined in bench-scale photobioreactors. Technical and economic feasibility of the conversion of flue gas CO{sub 2} to hydrocarbons by Botryococcus braunii culture systems was evaluated. In free cell systems, the hexane extractable oil productivity was about 15 to 37 grams of oil per 100 grams of cell dry weight. In immobilized cell systems, the oil production ranged between 5% and 47% at different immobilization systems and immobilized surface locations, with an average of 19% of cell biomass dry weight. The feasibility and economic evaluation estimated the cost of oil produced from flue gas CO{sub 2} by algae to range between $45 and $75 per barrel assuming that a hydrocarbon yield of about 50% of the biomass weight is achievable and a credit of $60 per ton of carbon removed is available. A future research program leading to development of a multistage process, consisting of closed systems for heavy inoculum buildup followed by lower cost open systems for oil production is recommended.

  4. Removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases by algae. Technical report, December 1, 1992--February 28, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Akin, C.; Maka, A.; Pradhan, S.; Banerjee, D.

    1993-05-01

    The studies reported here confirmed our preliminary observations that Botryococcus braunii can tolerate and grow well in flue gas CO{sub 2} concentrations of 10 to 15%, and produce oil. The highest extracted oil was observed in 10% CO{sub 2} enriched air. Initial pH of the medium at or near 10 pH is favorable to cell growth probably by stimulating the CO{sub 2} solubilization in the medium. This is also indicated in Botryococcus braunii growth and oil formation in NaHCO{sub 3} added medium. The lack of growth in Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} containing media was probably due to high pH. The CaCO{sub 3} precipitation from the CA{sup ++} gelled alginate beads indicate the need for alternative immobilization systems. But the attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors may eliminate the need for gel entrapment systems as the immobilization matrices. Attachment of the Botryococcus braunii cells to the bottom inner surfaces of the photobioreactors, rather than remaining in the suspension, reduces the significance of self shadowing and related liquid height (thickness) effect. The capability of Botryococcus braunii to grow in NaHCO{sub 3} solutions is very encouraging toward development of an alkaline scrubbing system for the flue gas followed by removal of the CO{sub 2} from the alkaline solution. In such a system the pH 10 is the currently observed upper limit.

  5. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  6. A generic analysis of energy use and solvent selection for CO2 separation from post-combustion flue gases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Y.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    A thermodynamic calculation was performed to determine the theoretical minimum energy used to separate CO2 from a coal combustion flue gas in a typical adsorption-desorption system. Under ideal conditions, the minimum energy required to separate CO2 from post-combustion flue gas and produce pure CO2 at 1 atmospheric pressure was only about 1183 kJ/kg CO2. This amount could double with the addition of the driving forces of mass and heat transfer and the adverse impacts of absorption heat release on adsorption capacity. Thermodynamic analyses were also performed for the aqueous amine-based absorption process. Two CO2 reaction mechanisms, the carbamate formation reaction with primary/secondary amines and the CO2 hydration reaction with tertiary amines, were included in the absorption reaction. The reaction heat, sensible heat, and stripping heat were all important to the total heat requirement. The heat use of an ideal tertiary amine amounted to 2786 kJ/kg, compared to 3211 kJ/kg for an ideal primary amine. The heat usage of an ideal amine was about 20% lower than that of commercially available amines. Optimizing the absorption process configuration could further reduce energy use. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2008 AIChE Spring National Meeting (New Orleans, LA 4/6-10/2008).

  7. System of treating flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Ziegler, D.L.

    1975-12-01

    A system is described for treating or cleaning incinerator flue gas containing acid gases and radioactive and fissionable contaminants. Flue gas and a quench solution are fed into a venturi and then tangentially into the lower portion of a receptacle for restricting volumetric content of the solution. The upper portion of the receptacle contains a scrub bed to further treat or clean the flue gas.

  8. On-line detection of metal pollutant spikes in MSW incinerator flue gases prior to clean-up

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, D. Sharifi, V.; Swithenbank, J.; Argent, B.; Ardelt, D.

    2007-07-01

    SUWIC's unique mobile metals emissions monitoring laboratory has been used to measure metal pollutant spikes in the flue gas from a municipal solid waste incinerator, prior to gas clean-up. The laboratory has a heated sampling probe that extends into the plant, allowing the simultaneous on-line measurement of the concentrations of more than 30 metals by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). As little is known about temporal variation in metal concentrations, this capability is seen as a major advance. The graphs of continuous measurements show that the elemental loading is far from uniform, and that concentrations fluctuate far more than may have been conventionally expected. There are occasional significant spikes in the emission profiles for cadmium and mercury, which are believed to be due to specific items in the waste feed material. Continuous monitoring measurements are of significant value for those seeking to model metal behaviour in combustion and in pollution control devices.

  9. Cyclic carbonation calcination studies of limestone and dolomite for CO{sub 2} separation from combustion flue gases - article no. 011801

    SciTech Connect

    Senthoorselvan, S.; Gleis, S.; Hartmut, S.; Yrjas, P.; Hupa, M.

    2009-01-15

    Naturally occurring limestone and dolomite samples, originating from different geographical locations, were tested as potential sorbents for carbonation/calcination based CO{sub 2} capture from combustion flue gases. Samples have been studied in a thermogravimetric analyzer under simulated flue gas conditions at three calcination temperatures, viz., 750{sup o}C, 875{sup o}C, and 930{sup o}C for four carbonation calcination reaction (CCR) cycles. The dolomite sample exhibited the highest rate of carbonation than the tested limestones. At the third cycle, its CO{sub 2} capture capacity per kilogram of the sample was nearly equal to that of Gotland, the highest reacting limestone tested. At the fourth cycle it surpassed Gotland, despite the fact that the CaCO{sub 3} content of the Sibbo dolomite was only 2/3 of that of the Gotland. Decay coefficients were calculated by a curve fitting exercise and its value is lowest for the Sibbo dolomite. That means, most probably its capture capacity per kilogram of the sample would remain higher well beyond the fourth cycle. There was a strong correlation between the calcination temperature, the specific surface area of the calcined samples, and the degree of carbonation. It was observed that the higher the calcination temperature, the lower the sorbent reactivity. For a given limestone/dolomite sample, sorbents CO{sub 2} capture capacity depended on the number of CCR cycles and the calcination temperature. According to the equilibrium thermodynamics, the CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the calciner should be lowered to lower the calcination temperature. This can be achieved by additional steam supply into the calciner. Steam could then be condensed in an external condenser to single out the CO{sub 2} stream from the exit gas mixture of the calciner. A calciner design based on this concept is illustrated.

  10. Development of a Novel Gas Pressurized Stripping Process-Based Technology for CO₂ Capture from Post-Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shiaoguo

    2015-09-30

    A novel Gas Pressurized Stripping (GPS) post-combustion carbon capture (PCC) process has been developed by Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC, CONSOL Energy Inc., Nexant Inc., and Western Kentucky University in this bench-scale project. The GPS-based process presents a unique approach that uses a gas pressurized technology for CO₂ stripping at an elevated pressure to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over the MEA process. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental work, process simulation, and technical and economic analysis studies were applied. The project conducted individual unit lab-scale tests for major process components, including a first absorption column, a GPS column, a second absorption column, and a flasher. Computer simulations were carried out to study the GPS column behavior under different operating conditions, to optimize the column design and operation, and to optimize the GPS process for an existing and a new power plant. The vapor-liquid equilibrium data under high loading and high temperature for the selected amines were also measured. The thermal and oxidative stability of the selected solvents were also tested experimentally and presented. A bench-scale column-based unit capable of achieving at least 90% CO₂ capture from a nominal 500 SLPM coal-derived flue gas slipstream was designed and built. This integrated, continuous, skid-mounted GPS system was tested using real flue gas from a coal-fired boiler at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The technical challenges of the GPS technology in stability, corrosion, and foaming of selected solvents, and environmental, health and

  11. Research and Education of CO{sub 2} Separation from Coal Combustion Flue Gases with Regenerable Magnesium Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Youp

    2013-09-30

    A novel method using environment-friendly chemical magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}) solution to capture carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants flue gas has been studied under this project in the post-combustion control area. The project utilizes the chemistry underlying the CO{sub 2}-Mg(OH){sub 2} system and proven and well-studied mass transfer devices for high levels of CO{sub 2} removal. The major goals of this research were to select and design an appropriate absorber which can absorb greater than 90% CO{sub 2} gas with low energy costs, and to find and optimize the operating conditions for the regeneration step. During the project period, we studied the physical and chemical characteristics of the scrubbing agent, the reaction taking place in the system, development and evaluation of CO{sub 2} gas absorber, desorption mechanism, and operation and optimization of continuous operation. Both batch and continuous operations were performed to examine the effects of various parameters including liquid-to-gas ratio, residence time, lean solvent concentration, pressure drop, bed height, CO{sub 2} partial pressure, bubble size, pH, and temperature on the absorption. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles, formation of magnesium carbonate (MgCO{sub 3}), and vapor-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLSE) of the system were also studied. The dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} particles and the steady release of magnesium ions into the solution was a crucial step to maintain a level of alkalinity in the CO{sub 2} absorption process. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model, and the dissolution reaction between proton ions and Mg(OH){sub 2} particles was found to be a rate-controlling step. The intrinsic surface reaction kinetics was found to be a strong function of temperature, and its kinetic expression was obtained. The kinetics of MgCO{sub 3} formation was also studied in terms of different pH values and temperatures, and was enhanced under high p

  12. Efficient recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases of coal-fired power plants by cyclic fixed-bed operations over K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Hiromu; Taniuchi, Jun; Furuyashiki, Nobuyoshi; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Hirano, Shinichi; Shigemoto, Naoya; Nonaka, Takazumi

    1998-01-01

    An efficient chemical absorption method capable of cyclic fixed-bed operations under moist conditions for the recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gases has been proposed employing K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon. Carbon dioxide was chemically absorbed by the reaction K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_equilibrium} 2KHCO{sub 3} to form potassium hydrogen carbonate. Moisture, usually contained as high as 8--17% in flue gases, badly affects the capacity of conventional adsorbents such as zeolites, but the present technology has no concern with moisture; water is rather necessary in principle as shown in the equation above. Deliquescent potassium carbonate should be supported on an appropriate porous material to adapt for fixed-bed operations. After breakthrough of carbon dioxide, the entrapped carbon dioxide was released by the decomposition of hydrogen carbonate to shift the reaction in reverse on flushing with steam, which could be condensed by cooling to afford carbon dioxide in high purity. Among various preparations of alkaline-earth carbonates (X{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, X = Li, Na, K) on porous materials, K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-activated carbon revealed excellent properties for the present purpose. Preparation and characterization of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-on-carbon and illustrative fixed-bed operations under flue gas conditions in laboratory columns and a bench-scale plant are described.

  13. Experiment and modeling of CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases at high temperature in a fluidized bed reactor with Ca-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Fang; Zhen-Shan Li; Ning-Sheng Cai

    2009-01-15

    The cyclic CO{sub 2} capture and CaCO{sub 3} regeneration characteristics in a small fluidized bed reactor were experimentally investigated with limestone and dolomite sorbents. Kinetic rate constants for carbonation and calcination were determined using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. Mathematical models developed to model the Ca-based sorbent multiple cycles of CO{sub 2} capture and calcination in the bubbling fluidized bed reactor agreed with the experimental data. The experimental and simulated results showed that the CO{sub 2} in flue gases could be absorbed efficiently by limestone and dolomite. The time for high-efficiency CO{sub 2} capture decreased with an increasing number of cycles because of the loss of sorbent activity, and the final CO{sub 2} capture efficiency remained nearly constant as the sorbent reached its final residual capture capacity. In a continuous carbonation and calcination system, corresponding to the sorbent activity loss, the carbonation kinetic rates of sorbent undergoing various cycles are different, and the carbonation kinetic rates of sorbent circulating N times in the carbonation/calcination cycles are also different because of the different residence time of sorbent in the carbonator. Therefore, the average carbonation rate was given based on the mass balance and exit age distribution for sorbent in the carbonator. The CO{sub 2} capture characteristics in a continuous carbonation/calcination system were predicted, taking into consideration the mass balance, sorbent circulation rate, sorbent activity loss, and average carbonation kinetic rate, to give useful information for the reactor design and operation of multiple carbonation/calcination reaction cycles. 27 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Natural outlet of flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adámek, Karel; Kolář, Jan; Peukert, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    Many incidents of poisoning all the time became due to bad natural exhaust of burnt product from heating devices. The aim of this article is to simulate some reasons of it, therefore the content is focused on some influences, only - the vertical and horizontal shape of the outlet channel, the design of the chimney cap, situation of the surrounding walls, combined with the wind influence etc. It does not solve the possible bad maintaining of both chimney and device, bad supply of the combustion air etc. As main results of simulation there is presented an optimum cap shape of the chimney and an unsuitable influence of the unsteady starting of the flow just after the burner ignition.

  15. The experimental facility and results of removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gases by the electron beam process at SINR Academia Sinica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gen-Li, Li; Yougan, Wang; Busheng, Li; Mingjuan, Xu; Lanping, Yang; Fugen, Bao; Qi, Zhang; Zhongqun, Sheng; Xingsheng, Ma; Yibo, Huang; Zhoulei, Mei; Yunlong, Qian

    An experimental facility for electron beam treatment of simulating flue gas has been constructed at SINR Academia Sinica. The process for removal of SO 2 and NO x in flue gas was investigated. In particular, several important parameters, such as the irradiating dose absorbed, temperature of reaction and stoichiometry of ammonia, were studied. A by-product, a compound of ammonium sulphate and ammonium sulphate-nitrate, that can be used as agricultural fertilizer was checked and measured. The removals of SO 2 and NO x were 92 and 77.5%, respectively, with an absorbed irradiating dose of 17 kGy.

  16. Equilibrium studies on hydrolysis of urea in a semi-batch reactor for production of ammonia to reduce hazardous pollutants from flue gases.

    PubMed

    Sahu, J N; Mahalik, K K; Patwardhan, A V; Meikap, B C

    2009-05-30

    The increasing environmental awareness and the mandate of the pollution control agencies in various part of country for lowering emission of air pollutants such as CO(2), NO(x), SO(2) and fly ash emissions, has increased the urgency for reviewing options and alternatives to accomplish the above objective. The addition of ammonia into the flue gas stream as a conditioning agent is found to be used in recent years for the reduction of air pollutants. Flue gas conditioning requires in situ generation of ammonia as the transportation and storage of anhydrous ammonia is hazardous in nature. The equilibrium study on hydrolysis of urea was done in a semi-batch glass reactor to investigate the effect of reaction temperature, initial feed concentration and stirring speed on ammonia production. Few experiments were carried out in a semi-batch reactor at atmospheric pressure by using different concentration of urea solution from 10 to 40 wt% of urea to water and equilibrium study has been done. The study reveals that conversion increases exponentially with an increase in temperature but the conversion decreases with increase in the inlet feed concentration of urea solution. Furthermore, the effect of stirring speed on conversion has also been studied and it found that conversion increases with increase in stirring speed.

  17. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Vann Bush, P.

    1995-11-01

    The overall goal of this research project has been to formulate a model describing effects of flue gas conditioning on particulate properties. By flue gas conditioning we mean any process by which solids, gases, or liquids are added to the combustor and/or the exhaust stream to the extent that flue gas and particulate properties may be altered. Our modeling efforts, which are included in our Final Report, are based on an understanding of how ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Flue gas conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of forces acting on the fly ash particles, and can take place through many different methods. Modification of particulate properties can alter ash resistivity or ash cohesivity and result in improved or degraded control device performance. Changes to the flue gas, addition or particulate matter such as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sorbents, or the addition of reactive gases or liquids can modify these properties. If we can better understand how conditioning agents react with fly ash particles, application of appropriate conditioning agents or processes may result in significantly improved fine particle collection at low capital and operating costs.

  18. Desulfurization of flue gas from multiple boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-07-29

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a plurality of combustion zones, which method comprises: (a) injecting into a first of the combustion zones a finely divided sorbent comprising calcium carbonate; (b) recovering from the first combustion zone a first flue gas having suspended therein particles of spent sorbent and particles of calcined sorbent; (c) separating from the first flue gas a mixture of particles comprising the spent sorbent and the calcined sorbent; (d) reacting a portion of the mixture with water to provide a finely divided dry slaked sorbent; (e) combusting a portion of the sulfur-containing fuel in a second combustion zone to produce a second flue gas containing sulfur dioxide; (f) mixing into the second flue gas at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C. slaked sorbent from step (d) to produce a suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas wherein water is added to the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas of step (f) in amount sufficient to reduce the temperature of the suspension to between about 10/sup 0/ and about 30/sup 0/C. above its dew point wherein the water comprises an aqueous solution of at least one solubilizing agent selected from the group consisting of sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (g) separating solids from the suspension of slaked sorbent in flue gas; and (h) collecting from the separating of steps (c) and (g) flue gases of reduced sulfur dioxide content.

  19. Removal of sulphur dioxide from flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    1999-08-01

    Mixtures of Ca(OH){sub 2} and different siliceous materials such as fly ash, bentonite, silica fume, and diatomite were hydrated to produce reactive SO{sub 2} sorbents. It was observed that these sorbents showed a better reactivity toward SO{sub 2} than the Ca(OH){sub 2} itself. This behavior is closely related to the pozzolanic nature of the hydrated sorbents and to the greater surface area. The reactivity of the sorbents was strongly influenced by the source of siliceous material and the hydration conditions. The total sulphation capacities of the sorbents were determined at 338 K with a synthetic gaseous mixture containing 5,000 ppm SO{sub 2} and 55% relative humidity. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the sorbents, the SO{sub 2} captures ranged from 1.20 to 5.58 mmol SO{sub 2}/g sorbent. The amount of SO{sub 2} capture increased with the increasing surface area of the sorbent. The utilization of Ca(OH){sub 2} with SO{sub 2} improved significantly when Ca(OH){sub 2} was hydrated with siliceous materials first and later exposed to SO{sub 2}.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.

    1986-08-05

    The method of reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of sulfur-containing fuel is described. The method comprises: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide slaked with an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, the sorbent being added in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium and the solubilizing agent selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas a humidifying agent selected from water and steam; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from addition of the sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 30/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  3. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-09-23

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion in a combustion zone of a sulfur-containing fuel, which method comprises: (a) injecting into the combustion zone a finely divided dry sorbent comprising calcium carbonate in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt:sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5:1; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas at a point where the flue gas has a temperature of between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/C. an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids resulting from drying of the droplets and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (c) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/C. and about 35/sup 0/C. above its saturation temperature.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, H.; Statnick, R.M.

    1986-07-15

    The method is described for reducing sulfur dioxide content of a flue gas resulting from combustion of a sulfur-containing fuel. The method consists of: (a) mixing into the flue gas, at a point where its temperature is between about 120/sup 0/ and about 230/sup 0/ C., a finely divided dry sorbent comprising alkaline earth metal oxide or hydroxide in amount sufficient to provide a metal salt: sulfur ratio of at least about 0.5, the alkaline earth metal being selected from calcium and magnesium; (b) spraying into the resulting suspension of sorbent in flue gas an aqueous solution of solubilizing agent, such agent being selected from sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, calcium chloride, adipic acid and glycerol; (c) providing a contact time between the sorbent in flue gas and droplets resulting from the spraying of at least about 1 second; (d) subsequently separating from the flue gas solids comprising sorbent and solids resulting from combustion of the fuel; (e) discharging from the separating a flue gas of substantially diminished sulfur dioxide content; and (f) regulating the rate of the spraying relative to the rate of the flue gas such that the temperature of the flue gas at the point of the separating is between about 10/sup 0/ C. and about 35/sup 0/ C. above its saturation temperature.

  5. Pulsed electron beams for flue-gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesyats, Gennady A.; Novoselov, Yuri N.; Kuznetsov, D. L.

    1995-03-01

    The development of industrial society creates serious threats to the safe existence of the biosphere, including man. Cleaning air from toxic exhausts becomes therefore one of the challenges. The global problem of air cleaning can be solved in a number of ways. We restrict our attention to one of the possible methods, the use of pulsed electron beams to clean sulfur oxides from the flue gases of power plants. Irradiation of flue gases by the increased density of pulsed electron beams permits a charges, excited particle concentration that is optical for the removal of specific toxic impurities. We present the most important results of these experiments.

  6. Continuous controlled process for removing sulphur oxides gases from stack gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P.W.

    1986-07-15

    A process is described for effecting the continuous efficient desulphurization of gases containing sulphur oxides, comprising the steps of: passing a flow of flue gas containing sulphur oxides gases through heat exchanging means to change the temperature thereof, transmitting the heated flue gas through preheating means in order to further increase the temperature thereof, passing the further heated flue gas through catalytic converter means in order to convert the sulphur dioxide therein to sulphur trioxide and resulting in a sulphur trioxide rich flue gas, communicating the sulphur trioxide rich flue gas to the heat exchanging means in order to heat the incoming flue gas and cool the sulphur trioxide rich flue gas, transmitting the sulphur trioxide rich flue gas to a reactor and providing a calcium containing reactant to the reactor, withdrawing the reaction product of the reactant and sulphur oxides, quenching the reaction product to effect a porous core of unreacted reactant in an outer shell of cracked calcium sulphate, resupplying the quenched reaction product to the reactor for additional reaction with sulphur oxides within the core region of the reaction product, continuously emitting a desulphurized exit gas from the reactor to the heat exchanging means in order to effect the change in temperature of the incoming flue gas, and transmitting the desulphurized exit gas to an exit.

  7. High power electron accelerators for flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimek, Zbigniew

    1995-06-01

    Over 1000 accelerators based on different principles have been constructed and used in the field of radiation chemistry and radiation processing. One of the radiation processes which was successfully demonstrated in many laboratories and pilot plant facilities is the reduction of SO 2 and NO x pollutants from flue gases emitted during fuel combustion in boilers for electrical power and heat production. The full scale industrial implementation of an electron beam process for flue gases treatment would require accelerator modules with a beam power of over 500 kW and electron energy in the range 1-1.5 MeV. The 500 MW power plant may require 5-8 MW of electron beam power deposited in the flue gas.

  8. Method for converting noxious pollutants from flue gas into merchantable by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.

    1993-07-27

    A method is described for removing pollutants from boiler plant flue gases comprising the steps of: (a) exchanging heat between a flue gas which contains SO[sub 2], SO[sub 3] and NO pollutants and a first fluid to cool the flue gas down to a first temperature whereat substantially all SO[sub 3] in the flue gas is combined with H[sub 2]O; (b) condensing the SO[sub 3] and H[sub 2]O from the flue gas as a first condensate; (c) adding a solution containing an ammoniacal substance and a detergent to said flue gas to produce soapsuds and sulfates including ammonium bisulfate; (d) collecting the soap suds and ammonium bisulfate produced after said adding step and the first condensate as a first solution; and (e) separating ammonium bisulfate from said first solution.

  9. Process for separating carbon dioxide from flue gas using sweep-based membrane separation and absorption steps

    DOEpatents

    Wijmans, Johannes G.; Baker, Richard W.; Merkel, Timothy C.

    2012-08-21

    A gas separation process for treating flue gases from combustion processes, and combustion processes including such gas separation. The invention involves routing a first portion of the flue gas stream to be treated to an absorption-based carbon dioxide capture step, while simultaneously flowing a second portion of the flue gas across the feed side of a membrane, flowing a sweep gas stream, usually air, across the permeate side, then passing the permeate/sweep gas to the combustor.

  10. Transport Membrane Condenser for Water and Energy Recovery from Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dexin Wang

    2012-03-31

    The new waste heat and water recovery technology based on a nanoporous ceramic membrane vapor separation mechanism has been developed for power plant flue gas application. The recovered water vapor and its latent heat from the flue gas can increase the power plant boiler efficiency and reduce water consumption. This report describes the development of the Transport Membrane Condenser (TMC) technology in details for power plant flue gas application. The two-stage TMC design can achieve maximum heat and water recovery based on practical power plant flue gas and cooling water stream conditions. And the report includes: Two-stage TMC water and heat recovery system design based on potential host power plant coal fired flue gas conditions; Membrane performance optimization process based on the flue gas conditions, heat sink conditions, and water and heat transport rate requirement; Pilot-Scale Unit design, fabrication and performance validation test results. Laboratory test results showed the TMC system can exact significant amount of vapor and heat from the flue gases. The recovered water has been tested and proved of good quality, and the impact of SO{sub 2} in the flue gas on the membrane has been evaluated. The TMC pilot-scale system has been field tested with a slip stream of flue gas in a power plant to prove its long term real world operation performance. A TMC scale-up design approach has been investigated and an economic analysis of applying the technology has been performed.

  11. Optimize Flue Gas Settings to Promote Microalgae Growth in Photobioreactors via Computer Simulations

    PubMed Central

    He, Lian; Chen, Amelia B; Yu, Yi; Kucera, Leah; Tang, Yinjie

    2013-01-01

    Flue gas from power plants can promote algal cultivation and reduce greenhouse gas emissions1. Microalgae not only capture solar energy more efficiently than plants3, but also synthesize advanced biofuels2-4. Generally, atmospheric CO2 is not a sufficient source for supporting maximal algal growth5. On the other hand, the high concentrations of CO2 in industrial exhaust gases have adverse effects on algal physiology. Consequently, both cultivation conditions (such as nutrients and light) and the control of the flue gas flow into the photo-bioreactors are important to develop an efficient “flue gas to algae” system. Researchers have proposed different photobioreactor configurations4,6 and cultivation strategies7,8 with flue gas. Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates how to use models to predict the microalgal growth in response to flue gas settings. We perform both experimental illustration and model simulations to determine the favorable conditions for algal growth with flue gas. We develop a Monod-based model coupled with mass transfer and light intensity equations to simulate the microalgal growth in a homogenous photo-bioreactor. The model simulation compares algal growth and flue gas consumptions under different flue-gas settings. The model illustrates: 1) how algal growth is influenced by different volumetric mass transfer coefficients of CO2; 2) how we can find optimal CO2 concentration for algal growth via the dynamic optimization approach (DOA); 3) how we can design a rectangular on-off flue gas pulse to promote algal biomass growth and to reduce the usage of flue gas. On the experimental side, we present a protocol for growing Chlorella under the flue gas (generated by natural gas combustion). The experimental results qualitatively validate the model predictions that the high frequency flue gas pulses can significantly improve algal cultivation. PMID:24121788

  12. 49 CFR 230.58 - Flue plugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.58 Flue plugs. (a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than...

  13. 49 CFR 230.58 - Flue plugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.58 Flue plugs. (a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than...

  14. 49 CFR 230.58 - Flue plugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.58 Flue plugs. (a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than...

  15. 49 CFR 230.58 - Flue plugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.58 Flue plugs. (a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than...

  16. 49 CFR 230.58 - Flue plugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.58 Flue plugs. (a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than...

  17. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future ... greenhouse effect that results in global warming and climate change. Many gases exhibit these greenhouse properties. Some ...

  18. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Bush, P.V.; Dahlin, R.S.

    1996-03-20

    The US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC) initiated this project as part of a program to study the control of fine particles from coal combustion. Our project focus was flue gas conditioning. Various conditioning processes have lowered operating costs and increased collection efficiency at utility particulate control devices. By improving fine particle collection, flue gas conditioning also helps to control the emission of toxic metals, which are concentrated in the fine particle fraction. By combining a review of pertinent literature, laboratory characterization of a variety of fine powders and ashes, pilot-scale studies of conditioning mechanisms, and field experiences, Southern Research Institute has been able to describe many of the key processes that account for the effects that conditioning can have on fine-particle collection. The overall goal of this research project was to explain the mechanisms by which various flue gas conditioning processes alter the performance of particulate control devices. Conditioning involves the modification of one or more of the parameters that determine the magnitude of the forces acting on the fly ash particles. Resistivity, chemistry, cohesivity, size distribution, and particle morphology are among the basic properties of fly ash that significantly influence fine particle collection. Modifications of particulate properties can result in improved or degraded control device performance. These modifications can be caused by (1) changes to the process design or operation that affect properties of the flue gas, (2) addition of particulate matter such as flue-gas desulfurization sorbents to the process effluent stream, (3) injection of reactive gases or liquids into the flue gas. We recommend that humidification be seriously considered as a flue gas conditioning option. 80 refs., 69 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Construction and testing of a flue-gas corrosion probe

    SciTech Connect

    Federer, J.I.; McEvers, J.A.

    1990-08-01

    The selection of suitable materials for industrial, waste-heat- recovery systems requires assessment of corrosion of materials in various flue-gas environments. Such assessments involve exposing candidate materials to high-temperature flue gases and analyzing the effects of the exposure conditions. Because corrosion is related to flue-gas chemical composition and temperature, variations in temperature complicate the determination of corrosion rates and corrosion mechanisms. Conversely, a relatively constant temperature allows a more accurate determination of the effects of exposure conditions. For this reason, controlled-temperature flue-gas corrosion probes were constructed and tested for exposure tests of materials. A prototype probe consisted of a silicon carbide tube specimen, supporting hardware, and instrumentation for controlling temperature by internal heating and cooling. An advanced probe included other tubular specimens. Testing of the probes in an industrial-type furnace at a nominal flue-gas temperature of 1200{degree}C revealed that temperature control was inadequate. The cooling mode imposed a substantial axial-temperature gradient on the specimens; while the heating mode imposed a smaller gradient, the heating capacity was very limited. 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Iller, Edward; Zimek, Zbigniew; Romanowski, Micna; Koperski, Kazimierz

    1995-09-01

    The positive results of the tests performed on laboratory and pilot installations in Poland, Japan, USA and Germany have led to decision concerning design and construction of the industrial demonstration plant for electron beam flue gas treatment. The planned flue gas purification installation will treat tlue gases from a block which consists of two Benson type boilers of power 56 MWe each supplying additional steam for heating purposes up to 40 MWth each. The 270 000 Nm3 /h tlue gases (half of produced by the block) will be treated with efficiency of 90% for SO2 and 70% for NOx. This meets Polish regulations which will be imposed in 1997. The technical and economical description of the project is presented in the paper.

  1. Pilot plant experience in electron-beam treatment of iron-ore sintering flue gas and its application to coal boiler flue gas cleanup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Shui, V. H.

    The peresent development status of the electron-beam flue gas treatment process, which is a dry process capable of removing SOx and NOx simultaneously, is described. The most advanced demonstration of this process was accomplished with a pilot plant in Japan where the maximum gas flow rate of 10,000 Nm 3/h of an iron-ore sintering machine flue gas was successfully treated. The byproduct produced in this process is collected as a dry powder which is a mixture of ammonia sulfate and ammonium nitrate and is salable as a fertilizer or a fertilizer component. A preliminary economic projection showed that this process costs less than the lime scrubber which removes SOx but does not remove NOx. Tests using simulated coal combustion gases suggest that this process will be applicable to coal-fired boiler flue gas treatment as well. However, test on actual coal-fired flue gases are still required for commercial application decisions. A process development unit program consisting of the design, construction and testing of actual coal-fired power station flue gases is underway in the U.S.A. The design and engineering of the test plant is far advanced and the construction phase will be launched in the very near future.

  2. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  3. BUILDING MATERIALS MADE FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael W. Grutzeck; Maria DiCola; Paul Brenner

    2006-03-30

    Flue gas desulphurization (FGD) materials are produced in abundant quantities by coal burning utilities. Due to environmental restrains, flue gases must be ''cleaned'' prior to release to the atmosphere. They are two general methods to ''scrub'' flue gas: wet and dry. The choice of scrubbing material is often defined by the type of coal being burned, i.e. its composition. Scrubbing is traditionally carried out using a slurry of calcium containing material (slaked lime or calcium carbonate) that is made to contact exiting flue gas as either a spay injected into the gas or in a bubble tower. The calcium combined with the SO{sub 2} in the gas to form insoluble precipitates. Some plants have been using dry injection of these same materials or their own Class C fly ash to scrub. In either case the end product contains primarily hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}O) with smaller amounts of gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). These materials have little commercial use. Experiments were carried out that were meant to explore the feasibility of using blends of hannebachite and fly ash mixed with concentrated sodium hydroxide to make masonry products. The results suggest that some of these mixtures could be used in place of conventional Portland cement based products such as retaining wall bricks and pavers.

  4. [Progress in biofixation of CO2 from combustion flue gas by microalgae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yixin; Zhao, Bingtao; Xiong, Kaibin; Zhang, Zhongxiao; Hao, Xiaohong; Liu, Tao

    2011-02-01

    Global warming caused by the increasing CO2 concentration in atmosphere is a serious problem in the international political, economic, scientific and environmental fields in recent years. Intensive carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been developed for a feasible system to remove CO2 from industrial exhaust gases especially for combustion flue gas. In these technologies, the biofixation of CO2 by microalgae has the potential to diminish CO2 and produce the biomass. In this review, the current status focusing on biofixation of CO2 from combustion flue gases by microalgae including the selection of microalgal species and effect of flue gas conditions, the development of high efficient photobioreactor and the application of microalgae and its biomass product were reviewed and summarized. Finally, the perspectives of the technology were also discussed.

  5. Improved Recovery from Gulf of Mexico Reservoirs, Volume 4, Comparison of Methane, Nitrogen and Flue Gas for Attic Oil. February 14, 1995 - October 13, 1996. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolcott, Joanne; Shayegi, Sara

    1997-01-13

    Gas injection for attic oil recovery was modeled in vertical sandpacks to compare the process performance characteristics of three gases, namely methane, nitrogen and flue gas. All of the gases tested recovered the same amount of oil over two cycles of gas injection. Nitrogen and flue gas recovered oil more rapidly than methane because a large portion of the methane slug dissolved in the oil phase and less free gas was available for oil displacement. The total gas utilization for two cycles of gas injection was somewhat better for nitrogen as compared to methane and flue gas. The lower nitrogen utilization was ascribed to the lower compressibility of nitrogen.

  6. Field studies on the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in agriculture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a product of precipitation of sulfur from stack gases from coal-fired electric power plants. This material is produced in increasingly large quantities by electric power companies to meet clean air standards. We have evaluated this material for beneficial us...

  7. Buffered flue gas scrubbing system using adipic acid by-product stream

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.H. Jr.; Danly, D.E.

    1983-12-27

    A by-product stream from the production of adipic acid from cyclohexane, containing glutaric acid, succinic acid and adipic acid, is employed as a buffer in lime or limestone flue gas scrubbing for the removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion gases.

  8. Capture of CO2 From Recirculating Flue Gas Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    The possible need for an economical method for the separation of CO2 from flue gas adds a new set of challenges to power plant design, construction, operation, and maintenance. Many of the new requirements of CO2 separation are similar in nature to those addressed by the mature chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refining and industrial chemical production. Chemical engineering processes are regularly used to separate heterogeneous vapors in processes such as the fractionation of hydrocarbons or the separation of the components of air. This paper addresses the application of chemical engineering processes to the mixtures of gases and vapors found in the flue gas of recirculating boilers. Adaptation of these techniques can lead to a reduction in the energy required to capture CO2.

  9. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Keener, Tim C; Yang, Y Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    For geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO2 stream separated from a CO2 control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO2 and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO2 could be included in the separated CO2 stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO2 of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO2 concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO2 stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO2 streams. In addition to SO2, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO2 streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning

  10. Flue gas conditioning today

    SciTech Connect

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  11. Electronegative gases

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined.

  12. Non-thermal Plasma for VOC Treatment in Flue Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikaunieks, Janis; Mezmale, Liga; Zandeckis, Aivars; Pubule, Jelena; Blumberga, Andra; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses non-thermal plasmas, their generation and characteristics, formation mechanisms of ozone and the treatment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the experimental part, undecane (C11H24 as model VOCs) was treated with assistance of low temperature plasma at an atmospheric pressure which was generated in the so-called stack reactor. The gas composition was 13% of oxygen in nitrogen with impurities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and undecane. The formation of by-products, as well as the removal efficiency, were investigated.

  13. Biodesulfurization of flue gases using synthesis gas delivered as microbubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Selvaraj, P.T.; Bredwell, M.D.; Little, M.H.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1997-03-01

    In this study, the authors have focused research on utilizing a gas mixture containing 36% H{sub 2}, 47% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, 5% CH{sub 4} and a balance of N{sub 2} as a model coal synthesis gas as a low-cost feedstock for sulfate-reducing bacteria cultures. Coal synthesis gas will be readily available in power plants and the biological utilization of syn-gas as a carbon and energy source produces no organic end product that has to be processed prior to its disposal. Coal synthesis gas is, however, sparingly soluble in aqueous phase. This process utilizing SRB with syn-gas feedstock may be mass transfer limited and methods to enhance the mass transport have been investigated. A CSTR with cell recycle and a trickle bed reactor with cells immobilized in BIO-SEP{trademark} polymeric beads were operated with syn-gas feedstock to obtain maximum productivity for SO{sub 2} reduction to H{sub 2}S. The CSTR reactor was then fed with syn-gas as microbubbles in an effort to improve the mass transfer properties. With syn-gas fed as microbubbles, productivity in the CSTR increased from 1.2 to 2.1 mmol/h {center_dot} L in 33 h. This has been observed at the same biomass concentration of 5 g/L. This shows the mass transport limitation in the above process. In the trickle bed reactor, maximum productivity of 8.8 mmol/h {center_dot} L was achieved with less carbon and energy requirements (1 mol H{sub 2} and 1.2 mol CO per mol of SO{sub 2}) indicating better surface to volume ratio with cells immobilized in the pores of polymeric beads.

  14. Mercury sorbent delivery system for flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Klunder,; Edgar, B [Bethel Park, PA

    2009-02-24

    The invention presents a device for the removal of elemental mercury from flue gas streams utilizing a layer of activated carbon particles contained within the filter fabric of a filter bag for use in a flue gas scrubbing system.

  15. State-of-the-art review of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in enhanced oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anada, H.R.

    1980-12-01

    This report provides a review of technical publications and patents in the field of nitrogen and flue gas flooding in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The physical and chemical characteristics of nitrogen and flue gas are provided with some comparisons with CO/sub 2/ related to EOR operations. Experimental research and field based activities using nitrogen and flue gas are briefly summarized. Cost data for generation of nitrogen and flue gases are provided. Nitrogen and flue gas costs are approximately one third to one half that of CO/sub 2/. The low cost of production and its non-corrosive nature are advantages of using nitrogen, whereas the higher miscibility pressure requirement is a disadvantage. Nitrogen flooding does not work well with low API gravity crudes. Miscible displacement with nitrogen seems promising for oils containing solution gas. Flue gas flooding can be applied to low API gravity crude reservoirs. However, flue gas flooding creates operating problems due to its corrosive nature. The report provides a discussion on process and reservoir parameters that affect nitrogen and/or flue gas flooding in EOR. A bibliography of related literature is provided in the appendices.

  16. Flue gas compounds and microalgae: (bio-)chemical interactions leading to biotechnological opportunities.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Flue gases are a resource yet to be fully utilised in microalgal biotechnology, not only to moderate the anthropogenic effects on our climate, but also to steer microalgal resource management towards innovative applications of microalgal biomass compounds. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. To better steer and engineer flue gas-fed microalgal cultures, all these compounds need to be considered. Therefore, here, we review (i) the chemical composition and treatment technologies of flue gas, (ii) the uptake pathways and removal of the different compounds in microalgae reactors, and (iii) the tolerance and effects on microalgae of all flue gas compounds. By emphasising the interactions between microalgae and flue gas compounds, we envisage new pathways for microalgal biomass valorisation such as enzyme production for environmental technology, novel biogas production and biosequestration of minerals. Furthermore, we highlight fundamental and applied research niches that merit further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Adaptability of oleaginous microalgae Chlorococcum alkaliphilus MC-1 cultivated with flue gas].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Xiang, Wenzhou; Zhang, Feng; Wu, Hualian; He, Hui; Fan, Jiewei

    2013-03-01

    In order to lower the cost of lipid production of microalgae and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, microalgae Chlorococcum alkaliphilus MC-1 with the characteristics of rapid pH drift and high pH adaptability, was cultivated with bubbling of flue gas. The experiment was first performed in the photobioreactor (15 L) in three groups (control group, CO2 group and flue gas group), then, in the open raceway pond (24 m2). The adaptability of microalgae MC-1 to the cultivation with flue gas was studied. The results showed that the maximum biomass concentration, growth rate, total lipid content and CO2 fixation rate were (1.02+/-0.07) g/L, (0.12+/-0.02) g/(L.d), (37.84+/-0.58)% and (0.20+/-0.02) g/(L.d) in the photobioreactor treated with flue gas, 36%, 33.33%, 15.34% and 33.33% higher than those of the CO2 group, respectively. In the open raceway pond with aeration of flue gas, the maximum biomass concentration, growth rate, total lipid content and CO2 fixation rate were 147.40 g/m2, 14.73 g/(m2.d), 35.72% and 24.01 g/(m2.d), respectively, which were similar to the cultivation with pure CO2. The toxic heavy metal contents (Pb, As, Cd and Cr) in the biomass of MC-1 treated with flue gas were all below the legal limits. Additionally, the absorptive effect of CO2, NO and SO2 were determined. In the photobioreactor and open raceway pond, the average absorption ratios of these gases were all higher than previous studies. Therefore, our study showed that MC-1 can adapt to the cultivation with flue gas, and it is feasible to enlarge the outdoor cultivation of MC-1 for lipid production coupling with emissions reduction of flue gas.

  18. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  19. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  20. Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas Using Ion Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W L; Johnson, M R

    2006-04-21

    We are developing a new way of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas based on ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, which can be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a nearly pure gas. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas. The slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is impervious to trace acid gases that destroy existing solvents, and no pre-separation is necessary. The simple, robust nature of the process lends itself to small separation plants. Although the energy cost of the ion pump is significant, we anticipate that it will be compete favorably with the current 35% energy penalty of chemical stripping systems in use at power plants. There is the distinct possibility that this simple method could be significantly more efficient than existing processes.

  1. Current Techniques of Growing Algae Using Flue Gas from Exhaust Gas Industry: a Review.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanhua; Chen, Feng; Kuang, Yali; He, Huan; Qin, An

    2016-03-01

    The soaring increase of flue gas emission had caused global warming, environmental pollution as well as climate change. Widespread concern on reduction of flue gas released from industrial plants had considered the microalgae as excellent biological materials for recycling the carbon dioxide directly emitted from exhaust industries. Microalgae also have the potential to be the valuable feedback for renewable energy production due to their high growth rate and abilities to sequester inorganic carbon through photosynthetic process. In this review article, we will illustrate important relative mechanisms in the metabolic processes of biofixation by microalgae and their recent experimental researches and advances of sequestration of carbon dioxide by microalgae on actual industrial and stimulate flue gases, novel photobioreactor cultivation systems as well as the perspectives and limitations of microalgal cultivation in further development.

  2. Potential flue gas impurities in carbon dioxide streams separated from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Joo-Youp Lee; Tim C. Keener; Y. Jeffery Yang

    2009-06-15

    This study estimated the flue gas impurities to be included in the CO{sub 2} stream separated from a CO{sub 2} control unit for a different combination of air pollution control devices and different flue gas compositions. Specifically, the levels of acid gases and mercury vapor were estimated for the monoethanolamine (MEA)-based absorption process on the basis of published performance parameters of existing systems. Among the flue gas constituents considered, sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) is known to have the most adverse impact on MEA absorption. When a flue gas contains 3000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) SO{sub 2} and a wet flue gas desulfurization system achieves its 95% removal, approximately 2400 parts per million by weight (ppmw) SO{sub 2} could be included in the separated CO{sub 2} stream. In addition, the estimated concentration level was reduced to as low as 135 ppmw for the SO{sub 2} of less than 10 ppmv in the flue gas entering the MEA unit. Furthermore, heat-stable salt formation could further reduce the SO{sub 2} concentration below 40 ppmw in the separated CO{sub 2} stream. In this study, it is realized that the formation rates of heat-stable salts in MEA solution are not readily available in the literature and are critical to estimating the levels and compositions of flue gas impurities in sequestered CO{sub 2} streams. In addition to SO{sub 2}, mercury, and other impurities in separated CO{sub 2} streams could vary depending on pollutant removal at the power plants and impose potential impacts on groundwater. Such a variation and related process control in the upstream management of carbon separation have implications for groundwater protection at carbon sequestration sites and warrant necessary considerations in overall sequestration planning, engineering, and management. 63 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Flue gas adsorption by single-wall carbon nanotubes: A Monte Carlo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Hermida, M. I.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Morales-Flórez, V.; Esquivias, L.

    2016-08-01

    Adsorption of flue gases by single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) has been studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The flue gas is modeled as a ternary mixture of N2, CO2, and O2, emulating realistic compositions of the emissions from power plants. The adsorbed flue gas is in equilibrium with a bulk gas characterized by temperature T, pressure p, and mixture composition. We have considered different SWCNTs with different chiralities and diameters in a range between 7 and 20 Å. Our results show that the CO2 adsorption properties depend mainly on the bulk flue gas thermodynamic conditions and the SWCNT diameter. Narrow SWCNTs with diameter around 7 Å show high CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, but they decrease abruptly as the SWCNT diameter is increased. For wide SWCNT, CO2 adsorption capacity and selectivity, much smaller in value than for the narrow case, decrease mildly with the SWCNT diameter. In the intermediate range of SWCNT diameters, the CO2 adsorption properties may show a peculiar behavior, which depend strongly on the bulk flue gas conditions. Thus, for high bulk CO2 concentrations and low temperatures, the CO2 adsorption capacity remains high in a wide range of SWCNT diameters, although the corresponding selectivity is moderate. We correlate these findings with the microscopic structure of the adsorbed gas inside the SWCNTs.

  4. Flue gas treatment by simultaneous application of electron beam and microwave discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Zimek, Z.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Bulka, S.; Nichipor, H.

    1997-12-31

    The experimental set up for investigation of gaseous pollutants removal from flue gases under influence of electron beam and microwave energy discharge has been built. That allows one to investigate a combined removal concept based on simultaneous use of the electron beam and microwave energy. The energy consumption of the removal process was estimated under such conditions. The simultaneous use of the electron beam and microwave energy may create conditions where the total efficiency of removal process is higher compared with separate ones.

  5. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  6. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  7. Ebara electron-beam flue gas treatment process: Indianapolis, Indiana, demonstration unit: Final report: Volume 2, Appendix

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    The volume contains the appendicies for Volume I of the final report. The appendicies listed herein correspond to the sections in the text from which they were referenced: AVCO computer code; description of baghouses and electrostatic precipitators; methods for determination of sulfur oxides in flue gas; methods for determination of ammonia in exhaust gas; determination of nitrous oxide emissions; determination of particle size; methods of measuring dust content in flue gas; electron beam power loss in irradiation of process vessel gases; log data tables.

  8. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2004 and March 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. RTI has produced laboratory scale batches (approximately 300 grams) of supported sorbents (composed of 20 to 40% sodium carbonate) with high surface area and acceptable activity. Initial rates of weight gain of the supported sorbents when exposed to a simulated flue gas exceeded that of 100% calcined sodium bicarbonate. One of these sorbents was tested through six cycles of carbonation/calcination by thermogravimetric analysis and found to have consistent carbonation activity. Kinetic modeling of the regeneration cycle on the basis of diffusion resistance at the particle surface is impractical, because the evolving gases have an identical composition to those assumed for the bulk fluidization gas. A kinetic model of the reaction has been developed on the basis of bulk motion of water and carbon dioxide at the particle surface (as opposed to control by gas diffusion). The model will be used to define the operating conditions in future laboratory- and pilot-scale testing.

  9. New techniques will take the sting out of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-08

    A discussion covers some new techniques for reducing NO/sub x/ and/or sulfur dioxide emissions from stack gases, including the installation by Champlin Petroleum Co. of Exxon Research and Engineering Co.'s catalyst-free DeNox system, which relies on ammonia addition, at its Wilmington, California, refinery; UOP Inc.'s demonstration of the Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization (and NO/sub x/ removal) process at a Tampa, Florida, coal-fired unit owned by Tampa Electric Co.; and Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd.'s and Mitsui and Co. Ltd.'s plans to use Bergbau-Forschung G.m.b.H. technology, which removes both NO/sub x/ and sulfur dioxide.

  10. Operational experience of the industrial plant for electron beam flue gas treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Licki, Janusz; Pawelec, Andrzej; Tymiński, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation processes for air pollution control. The process, which has been developed in Japan, the United States, Germany and Poland allows simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x with high efficiency and by-product generated can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial installations using this technology have been constructed in the world, one in China and the second in Poland. Other plants are constructed in Japan and China. Chinese installation is mostly SO 2 removal oriented (since the NO x emission limits in China are not imposed up to now), so Polish plant one is as a matter of fact the first installation for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gases. The plant located in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin treats the flue gases emitted from two Benson boilers of 65 MW e and 100 MW th each. The flue gases of maximum flow of 270 000 N m 3/h are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. Description of the plant and the results obtained have been presented in this paper. The plant has been in operation for more than 2500 h (5500 h including one accelerator set operation). Removal efficiencies up to 95% for SO 2 and up to 70% for NO x were achieved. Several thousand tons of the by-product was sold in the form of NPK fertilizer. Economically, the technology is competitive with the conventional ones.

  11. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  12. Scale control in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Crump, D. K.; Gatton, G. D.; Wilson, D. A.

    1984-09-04

    An improvement in a process for flue gas desulfurization in which particular phosphonomethylated derivatives of aminoethylpiperazine, employed as threshold agents, prevent calcium scale formation in the contacting section but permit precipitation of calcium compounds at a later stage.

  13. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Revised quarterly technical report No. 17, April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Riggs, T.; Bahman, A.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors, (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams).

  14. Empirical models for NO x and SO 2 removal in a double stage flue gas irradiation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Tymiński, B.; Dobrowolski, A.; Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.

    2000-03-01

    A multidimensional regression method has been applied to construct empirical model equations of NO x and SO 2 removal efficiency in e-b process for a two-stage irradiation system based on results achieved for the EPS Kaw ȩczyn pilot plant. The influence of different parameters such as dose, temperature, gas humidity and ammonia stoichiometry have been studied. Model equations describe with satisfactory accuracy experimental results. Therefore obtained models equations can be used for prediction of NO x and SO 2 removal efficiency in e-b process during two-stage irradiation of flue gases, particularly in the case of scale-up. The results will be implemented in the industrial electron beam flue gas treatment installation being constructed at EPS Pomorzany, Dolna Odra PS Group SA, Poland (flue gas flow 270,000 N m 3/h, total beam power of applied accelerators 1.2 MW).

  15. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-11-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  16. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson; Santosh Gangwal; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Margaret Williams; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-09-30

    Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate dry, regenerable, alkali carbonate-based sorbents for the capture of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas. Electrobalance, fixed-bed and fluid-bed reactors were used to examine both the CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration phases of the process. Sodium carbonate-based sorbents (calcined sodium bicarbonate and calcined trona) were the primary focus of the testing. Supported sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate sorbents were also tested. Sodium carbonate reacts with CO{sub 2} and water vapor contained in flue gas at temperatures between 60 and 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate, or an intermediate salt (Wegscheider's salt). Thermal regeneration of this sorbent produces an off-gas containing equal molar quantities of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The low temperature range in which the carbonation reaction takes place is suited to treatment of coal-derived flue gases following wet flue gas desulfurization processes, but limits the concentration of water vapor which is an essential reactant in the carbonation reaction. Sorbent regeneration in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and water vapor can be carried out at a temperature of 160 C or higher. Pure CO{sub 2} suitable for use or sequestration is available after condensation of the H{sub 2}O. Flue gas contaminants such as SO{sub 2} react irreversibly with the sorbent so that upstream desulfurization will be required when sulfur-containing fossil fuels are used. Approximately 90% CO{sub 2} capture from a simulated flue gas was achieved during the early stages of fixed-bed reactor tests using a nominal carbonation temperature of 60 C. Effectively complete sorbent carbonation is possible when the fixed-bed test is carried out to completion. No decrease in sorbent activity was noted in a 15-cycle test using the above carbonation conditions coupled with regeneration in pure CO{sub 2} at 160 C. Fluidized-bed reactor tests of up to five cycles were conducted. Carbonation of sodium

  17. Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

    2011-02-01

    This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

  18. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  19. Biosequestration of atmospheric CO2 and flue gas-containing CO2 by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Wai Yan; Show, Pau Loke; Chang, Jo-Shu; Ling, Tau Chuan; Juan, Joon Ching

    2015-05-01

    The unceasing rise of greenhouse gas emission has led to global warming and climate change. Global concern on this phenomenon has put forward the microalgal-based CO2 sequestration aiming to sequester carbon back to the biosphere, ultimately reducing greenhouse effects. Microalgae have recently gained enormous attention worldwide, to be the valuable feedstock for renewable energy production, due to their high growth rates, high lipid productivities and the ability to sequester carbon. The photosynthetic process of microalgae uses atmospheric CO2 and CO2 from flue gases, to synthesize nutrients for their growth. In this review article, we will primarily discuss the efficiency of CO2 biosequestration by microalgae species, factors influencing microalgal biomass productions, microalgal cultivation systems, the potential and limitations of using flue gas for microalgal cultivation as well as the bio-refinery approach of microalgal biomass.

  20. Development of dry control technology for emissions of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann S.; Wu, Jiann M.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-06-01

    In flue gases from coal-combustion systems, mercury in either the elemental state or its chloride form (HgCl{sub 2}) can be predominant among all the possible mercury species present; this predominance largely depends on the chlorine-to-mercury ratio in the coal feeds. Conventional flue-gas cleanup technologies are moderately effective in controlling HgCl{sub 2} but are very poor at controlling elemental mercury. Experiments were conducted on the removal of elemental mercury vapor by means of a number of different types of sorbents, using a fixed-bed adsorption system. Of the four commercial activated carbons evaluated, the sulfur-treated carbon sample gives the best removal performance, with good mercury-sorption capacities. Promising removal results also have been obtained with low-cost minerals after chemical treatments. These inorganic sorbents could potentially be developed into a cost-effective alternative to activated carbons for mercury removal.

  1. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1984-06-01

    Under the auspices of US Department of Energy, this work supports the program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that these cleaned hot gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A laboratory-scale pressurized test unit was used to continue the alkali-vapor characterization of activated bauxite and Emathlite at a bed temperature of 850/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute in a simulated PFBC flue gas stream containing <10 ppMV NaCl vapor. Under the test conditions, preliminary results show a comparable NaCl-vapor capture capability for both activated bauxite and Emathlite. Emathlite was found to capture NaCl vapor essentially by chemical reactions with the vapor to form water-insoluble compounds, probably sodium aluminosilicates, whereas activated bauxite captures the vapor mainly by physical adsorption as sodium sulfate. The test unit was modified and tested to improve the control of NaCl vaporization in the unit required for the source of alkali vapor in the simulated flue gas. Experimental results are also presented on (1) water leachability of both metallic and nonmetallic ions present in activated bauxite when it is cyclically heat-treated in a simulated PFBC flue gas environment and then leached with distilled water, and (2) the effect of heat-treatment of Emathlite in the simulated PFBC flue gas on the changes of its physical and chemical properties.

  2. Method for operating a flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Karger, R.; Weinzierl, K.

    1983-02-01

    A method of operating a flue gas desulfurization with a steam power plant heated with fossil fuels. The sulfur dioxide contained in the flue gas is removed in a wash tower by means of an excess of milk of lime or limestone, and the resulting sulfite is oxidized with air at a low ph-value into calcium sulfate. The non-converted milk of lime or limestone is neutralized at least partially by an addition of acid waste waters from a complete desalination plant for the supply water, and/or by an addition of acid condensate from the flue or chimney of the steam power plant. An installation for carrying out the method of the present invention includes a wash tower having flue gas flowing therethrough, an oxidation tower having air flowing therethrough, milk of lime or limestone supply into the wash tower, and a delivery device for the wash liquid in the wash tower and in the oxidation tower, with the device having a pump for liquid drawn off from the sump of the wash tower. The sump of the wash tower is connected with a supply line for acid waste water from a complete desalination plant, and/or with a supply line for acid condensate from the chimney or flue of the steam power plant.

  3. Development of a real-time monitor of mercury in combustor flues based on Active Nitrogen Energy Transfer (ANET)

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports preliminary results from a development program to design and field test a prototype instrument for real-time mercury detection in combustor flue gases. This system has sub parts-per-billion sensitivity for Hg detection, can differentiate elemental mercury from mercuric chloride, and has a high tolerance toward particulates. The five major systems (sampling, discharge, detection, calibration, and data acquisition and control) which comprise the instrument are described, and design and preliminary test results are outlined.

  4. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  6. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  8. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Ventura, S.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will generate only marketable by-products. Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water-soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI as well as polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. The final novelty of our approach is the arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices, as indicated by our preliminary laboratory data. This arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. Because we have separate scrubbers, we will have separate liquor loops and simplify the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  9. Simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from incineration flue gas using activated carbon fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen-Shu; Li, Wen-Kai; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2014-09-01

    Incineration flue gas contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The effects of SO2 concentration (0, 350, 750, and 1000 ppm), reaction temperature (160, 200, and 280 degrees C), and the type of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) on the removal of SO2 and PAHs by ACFs were examined in this study. A fluidized bed incinerator was used to simulate practical incineration flue gas. It was found that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas could drastically decrease removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. The effect of rise in the reaction temperature from 160 to 280 degrees C on removal of PAHs was greater than that on SO2 removal at an SO2 concentration of 750 ppm. Among the three ACFs studied, ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and the tightest structure, was the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs when these gases coexisted in the incineration flue gas. Implications: Simultaneous adsorption of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from incineration flue gas onto activated carbon fibers (ACFs) meant to devise a new technique showed that the presence of SO2 in the incineration flue gas leads to a drastic decrease in removal of PAHs because of competitive adsorption. Reaction temperature had a greater influence on PAHs removal than on SO2 removal. ACF-B, with the highest microporous volume, highest O content, and tightest structure among the three studied ACFs, was found to be the best adsorbent for removing SO2 and PAHs.

  10. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. Progress report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-12-31

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  11. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-01

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  12. Industrial Plant for Flue Gas Treatment with High Power Electron Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Tyminski, Bogdan; Zimek, Zbigniew; Pawelec, Andrzej; Licki, Janusz

    2003-08-26

    Fossil fuel combustion leads to acidic pollutants, like SO2, NOx, HCl emission. Different control technologies are proposed however, the most popular method is combination of wet FGD (flue gas desulfurization) and SCR (selective catalytic reduction). First, using lime or limestone slurry leads to SO2 capture, and gypsum is a product. The second process where ammonia is used as reagent and nitrogen oxides are reduced over catalyst surface to gaseous nitrogen removes NOx. New advanced method using electron accelerators for simultaneous SO2 and NOx removal has been developed in Japan, the USA, Germany and Poland. Both pollutants are removed with high efficiency and byproduct can be applied as fertilizer. Two industrial plants have been already constructed. One in China and second in Poland, third one is under construction in Japan. Information on the Polish plant is presented in the paper. Plant has been constructed at Power Station Pomorzany, Szczecin (Dolna Odra Electropower Stations Group) and treats flue gases from two Benson boilers 60 MWe and 100 MWth each. Flow rate of the flue gas stream is equal to 270 000 Nm3/h. Four transformer accelerators, 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each were applied. With its 1.05 MW total beam power installed it is a biggest radiation facility over the world, nowadays. Description of the plant and results obtained has been presented in the paper.

  13. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Final report, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Pakala, N.; Tagg, T.; Riggs, T.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this work by SRI International was to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regenerating spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency, hollow fiber contactors (HFCs) were proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system would be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub 2} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process would generate only marketable by-products, if any (no waste streams are anticipated). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, the approach was to reduce the capital cost by using high-efficiency, hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The authors also introduced new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The process and progress in its development are described.

  14. Removal of mercury (II), elemental mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas by ammonium sulphide.

    PubMed

    Ning, Ping; Guo, Xiaolong; Wang, Xueqian; Wang, Ping; Ma, Yixing; Lan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    A tubular resistance furnace was used as a reactor to simulate mercury and arsenic in smelter flue gases by heating mercury and arsenic compounds. The flue gas containing Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As was treated with ammonium sulphide. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of varying the concentration of ammonium sulphide, the pH value of ammonium sulphide, the temperature of ammonium sulphide, the presence of SO2 and the presence of sulphite ion on removal efficiency. The prepared adsorption products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the optimal concentration of ammonium sulphide was 0.8 mol/L. The optimal pH value of ammonium sulphide was 10, and the optimal temperature of ammonium sulphide was 20°C.Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of Hg(2+), Hg(0) and As could reach 99%, 88.8%, 98%, respectively. In addition, SO2 and sulphite ion could reduce the removal efficiency of mercury and arsenic from simulated flue gas.

  15. Carbon dioxide capture by functionalized solid amine sorbents with simulated flue gas conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yamin; Ye, Qing; Shen, Mei; Shi, Jingjin; Chen, Jie; Pan, Hua; Shi, Yao

    2011-07-01

    A novel solid amine sorbent was prepared using KIT-6-type mesoporous silica modified with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA). Its adsorption behavior toward CO(2) from simulated flue gases is investigated using an adsorption column. The adsorption capacities at temperatures of 303, 313, 333, 343, and 353 K are 2.10, 2.29, 2.58, 2.85, and 2.71 mmol g(-1), respectively. Experimental adsorption isotherms were obtained, and the average isosteric heat of adsorption was 43.8 kJ/mol. The adsorption capacity increases to 3.2 mmol g(-1) when the relative humidity (RH) of the simulated flue gas reaches 37%. The adsorption capacity is inhibited slightly by the presence of SO(2) at concentrations lower than 300 ppm but is not significantly influenced by NO at concentrations up to 400 ppm. The adsorbent is completely regenerated in 10 min at 393 K and a pressure of 5 KPa, with expected consumption energy of about 1.41 MJ kg(-1) CO(2). The adsorption capacity remains almost the same after 10 cycles of adsorption/regeneration with adsorption conditions of 10 vol % CO(2), 100 ppm SO(2), 200 ppm NO, 100% relative humidity, and a temperature of 393 K. The solid amine sorbent, KIT-6(TEPA), performs excellently for CO(2) capture and its separation from flue gas.

  16. Simultaneous removal of multi-pollutants from flue gas by a vaporized composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Hao, Runlong; Xue, Fangming; Feng, Yanan

    2017-01-05

    An economical process that was used to remove SO2, NO and Hg(0) simultaneously was developed, based on the pre-oxidations of Hg(0) and NO by a vaporized Fenton-based complex oxidant (FO) consisted of Fenton and NaClO. The effects of concentrations of FeSO4 and NaClO in the oxidant, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutant, the oxidant solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants, the flue gas flow and the concentrations of coexistence gases in flue gas on the simultaneous removals were investigated experimentally. The results showed that the removals of NO and Hg(0) were significantly depended on FeSO4 and NaClO concentrations, the molar ratio of vaporized oxidant to multi-pollutants, the FO solution pH, the reaction temperature, the gas flow ratio of vaporized FO to multi-pollutants and flue gas flow. And higher concentration of SO2 and an appropriate concentration of NO had the promotion for Hg(0) removal. The average simultaneous removal efficiencies of 100% for SO2, 81% for NO and 91% for Hg(0) were obtained under the optimal reaction conditions. According to the characterization of the reaction removal products by SEM, EDS, XRD and AFS, the reaction mechanism was speculated.

  17. Effect of flue gas recirculation on heat transfer in a supercritical circulating fluidized bed combustor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błaszczuk, Artur

    2015-09-01

    This paper focuses on assessment of the effect of flue gas recirculation (FGR) on heat transfer behavior in 1296t/h supercritical coal-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustor. The performance test in supercritical CFB combustor with capacity 966 MWth was performed with the low level of flue gas recirculation rate 6.9% into furnace chamber, for 80% unit load at the bed pressure of 7.7 kPa and the ratio of secondary air to the primary air SA/PA = 0.33. Heat transfer behavior in a supercritical CFB furnace between the active heat transfer surfaces (membrane wall and superheater) and bed material has been analyzed for Geldart B particle with Sauter mean diameters of 0.219 and 0.246 mm. Bed material used in the heat transfer experiments had particle density of 2700 kg/m3. A mechanistic heat transfer model based on cluster renewal approach was used in this work. A heat transfer analysis of CFB combustion system with detailed consideration of bed-to-wall heat transfer coefficient distributions along furnace height is investigated. Heat transfer data for FGR test were compared with the data obtained for representative conditions without recycled flue gases back to the furnace through star-up burners.

  18. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup: Quarterly technical report No. 16, January 1996--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Bahman, A.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (a) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (b) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). The major cost item in existing technology is capital investment. Therefore, our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble plithalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media described in the open literature. Our past work with the phthalocyanine compounds, used as sensors for NO and NO{sub 2} in flue gases, shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas.

  19. The importance of the location of sodium chlorite application in a multipollutant flue gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Krzyzynska, Renata; Hutson, Nick D

    2012-06-01

    In this study, removing sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), and mercury (Hg) from simulated flue gas was investigated in two laboratory-sized bubbling reactors that simulated an oxidizing reactor (where the NO and Hg(0) oxidation reactions are expected to occur) and a wet limestone scrubber, respectively. A sodium chlorite solution was used as the oxidizing agent. The sodium chlorite solution was an effective additive that enhanced the NO(x), Hg, and SO2 capture from the flue gas. Furthermore, it was discovered that the location of the sodium chlorite application (before, in, or after the wet scrubber) greatly influences which pollutants are removed and the amount removed. This effect is related to the chemical conditions (pH, absence/presence of particular gases) that are present at different positions throughout the flue gas cleaning system profile. The research results indicated that there is a potential to achieve nearly zero SO2, NO(x), and Hg emissions (complete SO2, NO, and Hg removals and -90% of NO(x) absorption from initial values of 1500 ppmv of SO2, 200 ppmv of NO(x), and 206 microg/m3 of Hg(0)) from the flue gas when sodium chlorite was applied before the wet limestone scrubber. However applying the oxidizer after the wet limestone scrubber was the most effective configuration for Hg and NO(x) control for extremely low chlorite concentrations (below 0.002 M) and therefore appears to be the best configuration for Hg control or as an additional step in NO(x) recleaning (after other NO(x) control facilities). The multipollutant scrubber, into which the chlorite was injected simultaneously with the calcium carbonate slurry, appeared to be the least expensive solution (when consider only capital cost), but exhibited the lowest NO(x) absorption at -50%. The bench-scale test results presented can be used to develop performance predictions for a full- or pilot-scale multipollutant flue gas cleaning system equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization

  20. The disposal of flue gas desulphurisation waste: sulphur gas emissions and their control.

    PubMed

    Raiswell, R; Bottrell, S H

    1991-06-01

    Flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) equipment to be fitted to UK coal-fired power stations will produce more than 0.8 Mtonnes of calcium sulphate, as gypsum. Most gypsum should be of commercial quality, but any low grade material disposed as waste has the potential to generate a range of sulphur gases, including H2S, COS, CS2, DMS and DMDS. Literature data from the USA indicates that well-oxidised waste with a high proportion of calcium sulphate (the main UK product of FGD) has relatively low emissions of sulphur gases, which are comparable to background levels from inland soils. However, sulphur gas fluxes are greatly enhanced where reducing conditions become established within the waste, hence disposal strategies should be formulated to prevent the sub-surface consumption of oxygen.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization and by-product treatment at Tisov power plant (Czech Republic)

    SciTech Connect

    Valbert, G.; Schneider, G.

    1998-07-01

    The FGD plant Tisovain the Czech republic is a retrofit downstream of a 100 MW lignite fired power plant. It was designed and built by L. and C. STEINMUELLER GmbH. Despite a narrow time schedule, the project was finished on time in December 1997. The major objectives of the applied limestone/gypsum process are: Minimum investment and operating costs; production and environmentally neutral disposal of a stabilized product containing the by-products fly ash, slag, gypsum and effluent. The first objective is achieved by the following new process arrangement: The flue gas is taken over from the boiler and fed directly into a wet scrubber for absorptive removal of the acid gases SO{sub 2}, HCl and HF. The cleaned flue gas is vented into the atmosphere without reheating by means of a wet stack which is arranged on top of the scrubber. By the described arrangement, a heat exchanger for cooling/heating of the flue gas is not required. No ductwork for connecting scrubber and stack is needed. Furthermore, the pressure drop across the FGD plant is minimized and allows the use of the already existing flue gas fans. Based on Steinmueller's experience with various limestone qualities, the powdered limestone supplied to the plant is milled once more on site. Thereby the reactivity of the limestone is enhanced resulting in low power consumption for the required plant performance. The second objective is achieved as follows: A part of the scrubbing liquid is continuously bled off as the underflow of a hydrocyclone station in order to remove the gypsum produced in the scrubber. A further dewatering of the gypsum does not take place. Instead, the effluent is mixed with fly ash and slag. As an additive, lime slaked with slag slurry is added. The resulting mixture is disposed of and compacted in the nearby opencast mine workings. It hardens in cement-like setting reactions to an environmentally safe stabilized product.

  2. Influence of flue gas sparging on the performance of high rate algae ponds treating agro-industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    de Godos, Ignacio; Blanco, Saúl; García-Encina, Pedro A; Becares, Eloy; Muñoz, Raúl

    2010-07-15

    The influence of flue gas sparging (7% CO(2)) on the performance of two 465 L High-Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs) treating diluted swine manure at 10 days of hydraulic retention time was evaluated under continental climatic conditions (Castilla y León, Spain). COD, NH(4)(+), and PO(4)(3-) removal efficiencies were not significantly affected by flue gas input (at 2.2 and 5.5 L min(-1)), which suggests that CO(2) sparging does not compromise wastewater treatment in HRAPs. In this particular study, COD and NH(4)(+) removal efficiencies of 56+/-31% (near to maximum swine manure biodegradability) and 98+/-1%, respectively, were consistently maintained, regardless of the environmental and operational conditions. CO(2) sparging resulted however in lower pH values (approximately 2 units lower) and an enhanced NH(4)(+) nitrification (higher NO(3)(-) and NO(2)(-) concentrations) compared to the system operated in the absence of flue gas supply. Biomass concentration was only higher (approximately 30% than in the control HRAP) when flue gases were supplied at 5.5 L min(-1), probably due to the fact that the higher irradiances and temperatures prevailing within this experimental period resulted in an inorganic carbon-limited scenario in the control HRAP. Therefore, it can be concluded that CO(2) assimilation would be ultimately dependent on the occurrence of inorganic carbon limitation and will never occur in light, COD or nutrients-limited scenarios. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  4. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  5. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  7. Elaboration of new formulations to remove micropollutants in MSWI flue gas.

    PubMed

    Brasseur, A; Gambin, A; Laudet, A; Marien, J; Pirard, J-P

    2004-08-01

    This study consists in identifying and testing potential inorganic substitutes to carbon based materials commonly used as adsorbents for the removal of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans released from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWI). Although carbon materials enable to reach the current regulation in terms of dioxins and furans emissions, they exhibit a potential auto ignition risk when present in hot flue gases. Here, the adsorption potential of carbon based products is compared to the one of some inorganic materials. Chlorobenzene was chosen as a reference molecule to compare the removal performance of the different adsorbents. This comparison was based on the determination of the adsorption energies derived from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments. In the first part of this study, five inorganic materials were selected according to their chlorobenzene adsorption performance compared to those of carbon based products currently used to remove micropollutants from MSWI flue gases. In the second part of the study, the influence of the inlet concentration of adsorbate on the adsorption potential of sorbents is investigated. Actually, the organic compound concentration was decreased in order to be closer to those met in MSWI. Furthermore, the adsorption experiments were performed with other adsorbates whose molecular mass or chlorine content are higher. Thanks to these adsorption results a new organic free formulation has been proposed for the removal of micropollutants. Tests carried out on an industrial scale, demonstrated that this product enables to reach the current norm concerning dioxins and furans emissions.

  8. Explaining the differential solubility of flue gas components in ionic liquids from first-principle calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Prasad, B.R.; Senapati, S.

    2009-04-15

    Flue gas is greatly responsible for acid rain formation and global warming. New generation ionic liquids (ILs) have potential in controlling the flue gas emissions, as they acquire high absorptivity for the component gases SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, etc. The association of the IL-gas interactions to the absorptivity of gas molecules in ILs is, however, poorly understood. In this paper, we present a molecular level description of the interactions of ILs with SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} and show its implications to the differential gas solubility. Our results indicate that the IL anion-gas interactions play a key role in deciding the gas solubility in ILs, particularly for polar gases such as SO{sub 2}. On the other hand, regular solution assumption applies to -2 solubility. In accordance with the previous theoretical and experimental findings, our results also imply that the IL anions dominate the interactions with gas molecules while the cations play a secondary role and the underlying fluid structures of the ILs remain unperturbed by the addition of gas molecules.

  9. Characterization of flue gas cleaning residues from European solid waste incinerators: assessment of various Ca-based sorbent processes.

    PubMed

    Bodénan, F; Deniard, Ph

    2003-05-01

    For the first time, a set of samples of European flue gas cleaning residues, mainly from the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW), has undergone a mineralogical study. The residues are the result of the neutralization of acid flue gases by lime, the predominant method adopted in Europe, using dry and semi-dry washing processes. The study protocol combines physico-chemical analytical techniques (XRD, FTIR, DSC/TGA) and global chemical analysis enabling identification of the chemical composition of the main constituents, particularly chlorinated Ca-based phases, as well as establishment of modal distributions of the represented phases, both crystalline and amorphous. The samples are slightly hydrated and values vary for trapped Cl, S and even CO(2). The main crystalline phases are NaCl, KCl, CaSO(4), CaCO(3), Ca(OH)(2) and calcium hydroxychloride CaOHCl. CaOHCl is the main chlorine phase, regardless of the treatment process, filtration mode, and specific surface of the Ca-based sorbent. This phase develops during neutralization of HCl by excess lime present according to the reaction Ca(OH)(2)+HCl-->CaOHCl+H(2)O, to the detriment of a complete yield involving the two lime OH groups with formation of CaCl(2).2H(2)O. In addition, it seems that gas temperatures above 150 degrees C increase competition between lime-based neutralization of HCl, SO(2) acid flue gases and CO(2) trapping, thus reducing washing efficiency.

  10. Fundamental mechanisms in flue-gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlin, R.S.; Vann Bush, P.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ash properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  11. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, P.V.; Snyder, T.R.

    1992-01-09

    The overall goal of this research project is to formulate a mathematical model of flue gas conditioning. This model will be based on an understanding of why ask properties, such as cohesivity and resistivity, are changed by conditioning. Such a model could serve as a component of the performance models of particulate control devices where flue gas conditioning is used. There are two specific objectives of this research project, which divide the planned research into two main parts. One part of the project is designed to determine how ash particles are modified by interactions with sorbent injection processes and to describe the mechanisms by which these interactions affect fine particle collection. The objective of the other part of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which conditioning agents, including chemically active compounds, modify the key properties of fine fly ash particles.

  12. Limestone-gypsum flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Kuroda, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Kanda, O.; Nishimura, M.; Nishimura, T.; Nozawa, S.

    1984-12-11

    A flue gas desulfurization process capable of producing a high purity gypsum and also making equipment employed as minimum as possible is provided, which process comprises the steps of cooling and dedusting flue gas containing SO /SUB x/ ; contacting the cooled gas with a slurry containing limestone to remove SO /SUB x/ by absorption and also form CaSO/sub 3/; controlling the pH of the resulting slurry and then blowing air therein to form gypsum; and separating gypsum from the resulting slurry. As a modification of the above process, the slurry of the above second absorption step is further fed to the above first cooling step where unreacted limestone and SO /SUB x/ are reacted to form CaSO/sub 3/.

  13. Economic recovery and utilization of boiler flue gas pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.F.; Sackett, R.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a method of removing unwanted pollutants from flue gas streams from power plants. It comprises passing flue gas containing lime, sulphur dioxide and water in succession through at least three vertically extending beds of particulates, the particulates being disposed in a duct such that the flue gas is passed through substantially all of the particulates, reacting lime, sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form gypsum at a first bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide and water in the flue gas to form sulphuric acid, and collecting sulphuric acid below its condensation temperature at a second bed of particulates; reacting sulphur dioxide in the flue gas with an alkali material to form bisulphites and bisulphates at a third bed of particulates; and removing the pollutants from the particulates of the beds.

  14. Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-11-30

    The Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project was a technical success and demonstrated the following: CKD can be used successfully as the sole reagent for removing SO2 from cement kiln flue gas, with removal efficiencies of 90 percent or greater; Removal efficiencies for HCl and VOCs were approximately 98 percent and 70 percent, respectively; Particulate emissions were low, in the range of 0.005 to 0.007 grains/standard cubic foot; The treated CKD sorbent can be recycled to the kiln after its potassium content has been reduced in the scrubber, thereby avoiding the need for landfilling; The process can yield fertilizer-grade K2SO4, a saleable by-product; and Waste heat in the flue gas can provide the energy required for evaporation and crystallization in the by-product recovery operation. The demonstration program established the feasibility of using the Recovery Scrubber{trademark} for desulfurization of flue gas from cement kilns, with generally favorable economics, assuming tipping fees are available for disposal of ash from biomass combustion. The process appears to be suitable for commercial use on any type of cement kiln. EPA has ruled that CKD is a nonhazardous waste, provided the facility meets Performance Standards for the Management of CKD (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1999d). Therefore, regulatory drivers for the technology focus more on reduction of air pollutants and pollution prevention, rather than on treating CKD as a hazardous waste. Application of the Recovery Scrubbe{trademark} concept to other waste-disposal operations, where pollution and waste reductions are needed, appears promising.

  15. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk.

  16. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the author's work on microbial reduction of flue gases is provided. The work begins with a discussion of efforts preceding the current project, then reviews the progress made in earlier periods of the project and concludes with a report of progress made in the current reporting period, September 11, 1991 to December 11, 1992.

  17. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1991--December 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    A review of the author`s work on microbial reduction of flue gases is provided. The work begins with a discussion of efforts preceding the current project, then reviews the progress made in earlier periods of the project and concludes with a report of progress made in the current reporting period, September 11, 1991 to December 11, 1992.

  18. Trends in source gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehhalt, D. H.; Fraser, P. J.; Albritton, D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Khalil, M. A. K.; Legrand, M.; Makide, Y.; Rowland, F. S.; Steele, L. P.; Zander, R.

    1989-01-01

    Source gases are defined as those gases that, by their breakdown, introduce into the stratosphere halogen, hydrogen, and nitrogen compounds that are important in stratospheric ozone destruction. Given here is an update of the existing concentration time series for chlorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and methane. Also reviewed is information on halogen containing species and the use of these data for establishing trends. Also reviewed is evidence on trends in trace gases that influence tropospheric chemistry and thus the tropospheric lifetimes of source gases, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or nitrogen oxides. Much of the information is given in tabular form.

  19. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  20. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall remove all flues of steam... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive...

  1. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall remove all flues of steam... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive...

  2. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances... service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall remove all flues of steam... inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive...

  3. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  4. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Biomimetic Membrane for CO2 Capture from Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Michael C. Trachtenberg

    2007-05-31

    These Phase III experiments successfully addressed several issues needed to characterize a permeator system for application to a pulverized coal (PC) burning furnace/boiler assuming typical post-combustion cleanup devices in place. We completed key laboratory stage optimization and modeling efforts needed to move towards larger scale testing. The SOPO addressed six areas. Task 1--Post-Combustion Particle Cleanup--The first object was to determine if the Carbozyme permeator performance was likely to be reduced by particles (materials) in the flue gas stream that would either obstruct the mouth of the hollow fibers (HF) or stick to the HF bore wall surface. The second, based on the Acceptance Standards (see below), was to determine whether it would be preferable to clean the inlet gas stream (removing acid gases and particulates) or to develop methods to clean the Carbozyme permeator if performance declined due to HF block. We concluded that condensation of particle and particulate emissions, in the heat exchanger, could result in the formation of very sticky sulfate aerosols with a strong likelihood of obtruding the HF. These must be managed carefully and minimized to near-zero status before entering the permeator inlet stream. More extensive post-combustion cleanup is expected to be a necessary expense, independent of CO{sub 2} capture technology This finding is in agreement with views now emerging in the literature for a variety of CO{sub 2} capture methods. Task 2--Water Condensation--The key goal was to monitor and control temperature distributions within the permeator and between the permeator and its surroundings to determine whether water condensation in the pores or the HF bore would block flow, decreasing performance. A heat transfer fluid and delivery system were developed and employed. The result was near isothermal performance that avoided all instances of flow block. Direct thermocouple measurements provided the basis for developing a heat transfer

  6. Flue gas dry scrubbing using pulsed electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.

    1996-02-20

    Electron beam dry scrubbing is a technique for removing in a single step both nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from the off-gas generated by utilities burning high sulfur coal. The use of pulsed electron beams may provide the most cost-effective solution to the implementation of this technique. This paper presents the results of plasma chemistry calculations to study the effect of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate on pulsed electron beam processing of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in flue gases. The main objective is to determine if the proposed combinations of dose rate, pulse length and pulse repetition rate would have any deleterious effect on the utilization of radicals for pollutant removal. For a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second and a pulse length of 30 nanoseconds, the average dose per pulse is sufficiently low to prevent any deleterious effect on process efficiency because of radical-radical recombination reactions. During each post-pulse period, the radicals are utilized in the oxidation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} in a timescale of around 200 microseconds; thus, with pulse frequencies of around 5 kilohertz or less, the radical concentrations remain sufficiently low to prevent any significant competition between radical-pollutant and radical-radical reactions. The main conclusion is that a pulsed electron beam reactor, operating with a dose rate of 2x10{sup 5} megarads per second, pulse length of 30 ns and pulse repetition rate of up to around 5 kHz, will have the same plasma chemistry efficiency as an electron beam reactor operating with a very low dose rate in continuous mode.

  7. Accurate sampling of PCDD/F in high temperature flue-gas using cooled sampling probes.

    PubMed

    Phan, Duong Ngoc Chau; Weidemann, Eva; Lundin, Lisa; Marklund, Stellan; Jansson, Stina

    2012-08-01

    In a laboratory-scale combustion reactor, flue-gas samples were collected at two temperatures in the post-combustion zone, 700°C and 400°C, using two different water-cooled sampling probes. The probes were the cooled probe described in the European Standard method EN-1948:1, referred to as the original probe, and a modified probe that contained a salt/ice mixture to assist the cooling, referred to as the sub-zero probe. To determine the efficiency of the cooling probes, internal temperature measurements were recorded at 5cm intervals inside the probes. Flue-gas samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Samples collected at 700°C using the original cooling probe showed higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs compared to samples collected using the sub-zero probe. No significant differences were observed between samples collected at 400°C. The results indicated that artifact formation of PCDD/Fs readily occurs during flue-gas sampling at high temperatures if the cooling within the probe is insufficient, as found for the original probe at 700°C. It was also shown that this problem could be alleviated by using probes with an enhanced cooling capacity, such as the sub-zero probe. Although this may not affect samples collected for regulatory purposes in exit gases, it is of great importance for research conducted in the high-temperature region of the post-combustion zone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization by-products additions to acid soil: alfalfa productivity and environmental quality.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Dick, W A; Nelson, S

    2001-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are created when coal is burned and SO2 is removed from the flue gases. These FGD by-products are often alkaline and contain many plant nutrients. Land application of FGD by-products is encouraged but little information is available related to plant responses and environmental impacts concerning such use. Agricultural lime (ag-lime) and several new types of FGD by-products which contain either vermiculite or perlite were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the soil's lime requirement (LR) rate to an acidic soil (Wooster silt loam). The highest FGD by-products application rate was equivalent to 75.2 Mg ha(-1). Growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) was significantly increased compared to the untreated control in the second year after treatment with yields for the 1 x LR rate of FGD approximately 7-8 times greater compared to the untreated control and 30% greater than for the commercial ag-lime. Concentrations of Mo in alfalfa were significantly increased by FGD by-products application, compared to the untreated control, while compared to the ag-lime treatment, concentrations of B increased and Ba decreased. No soil contamination problems were observed, even at the 2xLR rate, indicating these materials can be safely applied to agricultural soils.

  9. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  10. Development of a sorbent-based technology for control of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiann M.; Huang, Hann S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents results of research being, conducted at Argonne National Laboratory on the capture of elemental mercury in simulated flue gases by using dry sorbents. Experimental results from investigation of various sorbents and chemical additives for mercury control are reported. Of the sorbents investigated thus far, an activited-carbon-based sorbent impregnated with about 15% (by weight) of sulfur compound provided the best results. The key parameters affecting mercury control efficiency in a fixed-bed reactor, such as reactor loading, reactor temperature, sorbent size distribution, etc., were also studied, and the results ire presented. In addition to activated-carbon-based sorbents, a non-carbon-based sorbent that uses an inactive substrate treated with active chemicals is being developed. Preliminary, experimental results for mercury removal by this newly developed sorbent are presented.

  11. [Treatment of Flue Gas from Sludge Drying Process by A Thermophilic Biofilter].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Ding, Wen-iie; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-01-15

    A thermophilic biofilter was employed to treat the flue gas generated from sludge drying process, and the performance in both the start period and the stationary phase was studied under the gas flow rate of 2 700-3 100 m3 x h(-1) and retention time of 21.88-25.10 s. The results showed that the thermophilic biofilter could effectively treat gases containing sulfur dioxide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The removal efficiencies could reach 100%, 93.61% and 87.01%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated that most of the population belonged to thermophilic bacteria. Paenibacillus sp., Chelatococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium thermosuccinogenes, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. and Geobacillus debilis which were abundant in the thermophilic biofilter, had the abilities of denitrification, desulfurization and degradation of volatile organic compounds.

  12. Design of a low-cost, compact SRF accelerator for flue gas and wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-04-01

    Funding is being requested pursuant to a proposal that was submitted and reviewed through the Portfolio Analysis and Management System (PAMS). PAMS Proposal ID: 222439. The proposed project consists of the design of a novel superconducting continuous-wave accelerator capable of providing a beam current of ~1 A at an energy of 1-2 MeV for the treatment of flue gases and wastewater streams. The novel approach consists on studying the feasibility of using a single-cell Nb cavity coated with a thin Nb3Sn layer of the inner surface and conductively cooled by to 4.2 K by cryocoolers inside a compact cryomodule. The proposed study will include beam transport simulations, thermal and mechanical engineering analysis of the cryomodule and a cost analysis for both the fabrications costs and the operational and maintenance costs of such accelerator. The outcome of the project will be a report summarizing the analysis and results from the design study.

  13. 7 CFR 30.36 - Class 1; flue-cured types and groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class 1; flue-cured types and groups. 30.36 Section 30... Grades § 30.36 Class 1; flue-cured types and groups. All flue-cured tobacco is graded under the same set... type of flue-cured tobacco commonly known as Middle Belt Flue-cured, produced principally in a section...

  14. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE-BASED ESTIMATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION IN COMBUSTION FLUE GASES. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Experimental evaluation of sorbents for the capture of mercury in flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Wu, J.M.

    1994-06-01

    The results and conclusions to date from the Argonne research program on air toxics (mercury) control can be summarized as follows: (1) Mercury emissions from coal-fired combustors are generally in the range of 10--70 {mu}g/m{sup 3} and are highly variable. (2) Existing FGC technologies are only partially effective in controlling mercury emissions. (3) Lime hydrates, either regular or high-surface-area, are not effective in removing mercury. (4) Mercury removals are enhanced by the addition of activated carbon. (5) Mercury removals with activated carbon decrease with increasing temperature, larger particle size, and decreasing mercury concentration in the gas. (6) Chemical pretreatment (with sulfur or CaCl{sub 2}) can greatly increase the removal capacity of activated carbon.

  16. Capture of carbon dioxide from flue gases by amine-functionalized TiO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Fujiao; Zhao, Yunxia; Cao, Yan; Ding, Jie; Bu, Yunfei; Zhong, Qin

    2013-03-01

    The novel carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbents with high capture efficiency were prepared through impregnating TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT) with four kinds of amines, namely monoethanolamine (MEA), ethylenediamine (EDA), triethylenetetramine (TETA) and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), respectively. The samples were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, low temperature N2 adsorption and transmission electron microscopy. CO2 capture was investigated in a dynamic packed column. The TEPA-loaded sample showed a better adsorption capacity due to its higher amino-groups content. In condition, TiNT-TEPA-69 shows the highest CO2 adsorption capacity among the four TEPA-loaded samples, approximately 4.37 mmol/g at 60 °C. The adsorption capacity was enhanced to 5.24 mmol/g under moisture conditions. TiNT-TEPA-69 was selected as adsorbent to study the adsorption/desorption behavior in the absence of moisture and in the presence of moisture. While the former is fairly stable after 5 adsorption/desorption cycles, the latter decreases dramatically.

  17. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE ENHANCED OXIDATION AND REMOVAL OF NITROGEN OXIDES FROM FLUE GASES. (R828598C807)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Carbon dioxide removal from flue gases by absorption/ desorption in aqueous diethanolamine solutions.

    PubMed

    Kierzkowska-Pawlak, Hanna; Chacuk, Andrzej

    2010-08-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) desorption rate from CO2- loaded aqueous diethanolamine (DEA) solutions was measured using a stirred cell with a flat gas-liquid interface. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 293.15-313.15 K and an amine concentration range of 10-20% mass DEA. Measurements were based on a semibatch isothermal absorption of the gas until the equilibrium state was reached, followed by desorption, which was initiated by the pressure release in the system. A simplified mass transfer model based on the film theory coupled with CO2, mass balance was developed to interpret the experimental data. On the basis of the proposed model, the initial mass transfer rates were calculated from the experimental results. The calculated initial desorption rates enabled estimation of the enhancement factor for CO2 mass transfer from aqueous DEA solutions. Analysis of the experimental data showed that desorption took place in the diffusive mass transfer regime.

  19. Supported, Alkali-Promoted Cobalt Oxide Catalysts for NOx Removal from Coal Combustion Flue Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Morris D. Argyle

    2005-12-31

    A series of cobalt oxide catalysts supported on alumina ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were synthesized with varying contents of cobalt and of added alkali metals, including lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. Unsupported cobalt oxide catalysts and several cobalt oxide catalysts supported ceria (CeO{sub 2}) with varying contents of cobalt with added potassium were also prepared. The catalysts were characterized with UV-visible spectroscopy and were examined for NO{sub x} decomposition activity. The CoO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and particularly the CoO{sub x}/CeO{sub 2} catalysts show N{sub 2}O decomposition activity, but none of the catalysts (unsupported Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} or those supported on ceria or alumina) displayed significant, sustained NO decomposition activity. For the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported catalysts, N{sub 2}O decomposition activity was observed over a range of reaction temperatures beginning about 723 K, but significant (>50%) conversions of N{sub 2}O were observed only for reaction temperatures >900 K, which are too high for practical commercial use. However, the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts display N{sub 2}O decomposition rates similar to the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported catalysts at much lower reaction temperatures, with activity beginning at {approx}573 K. Conversions of >90% were achieved at 773 K for the best catalysts. Catalytic rates per cobalt atom increased with decreasing cobalt content, which corresponds to increasing edge energies obtained from the UV-visible spectra. The decrease in edge energies suggests that the size and dimensionality of the cobalt oxide surface domains increase with increasing cobalt oxide content. The rate data normalized per mass of catalyst that shows the activity of the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts increases with increasing cobalt oxide content. The combination of these data suggest that supported cobalt oxide species similar to bulk Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are inherently more active than more dispersed cobalt oxide species, but this effect was only observed with the CeO{sub 2}-supported catalysts.

  20. Dry additives-reduction catalysts for flue waste gases originating from the combustion of solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Hard coal is the basic energy generating raw material in Poland. In 1990, 60% of electricity and thermal energy was totally obtained from it. It means that 100 million tons of coal were burned. The second position is held by lignite - generating 38% of electricity and heat (67.3 million tons). It is to be underlined that coal combustion is particularly noxious to the environment. The coal composition appreciably influences the volume of pollution emitted in the air. The contents of incombustible mineral parts - ashes - oscillates from 2 to 30%; only 0.02 comes from plants that had once originated coal and cannot be separated in any way. All the rest, viz. the so-called external mineral substance enters the fuel while being won. The most indesirable hard coal ingredient is sulfur whose level depends on coal sorts and its origin. The worse the fuel quality, the more sulfur it contains. In the utilization process of this fuel, its combustible part is burnt: therefore, sulfur dioxide is produced. At the present coal consumption, the SO{sub 2} emission reaches the level of 3.2 million per year. The intensifies the pressure on working out new coal utilization technologies, improving old and developing of pollution limiting methods. Research is also directed towards such an adaptation of technologies in order that individual users may also make use thereof (household furnaces) as their share in the pollution emission is considerable.

  1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE-BASED ESTIMATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION IN COMBUSTION FLUE GASES. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  3. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  4. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... owner and/or operator shall enter the boiler to remove scale from the interior and thoroughly clean and... superheater flues, and it can be shown through appropriate NDE testing methods that they are safe and...

  5. 49 CFR 230.31 - Flues to be removed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... owner and/or operator shall enter the boiler to remove scale from the interior and thoroughly clean and... superheater flues, and it can be shown through appropriate NDE testing methods that they are safe and...

  6. 5. Detail view of masonry foundations and flue openings for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Detail view of masonry foundations and flue openings for Jamaican Train. - Hacienda Azucarera El Coto, Sugar Mill Ruins, .5 Mi. SW of Rt. 347 Bridge Over Guanajibo River, San German, San German Municipio, PR

  7. PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF DRAFT REGULATORS AND FLUES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLENUM INTERIOR, SHOWING ARRANGEMENT OF DRAFT REGULATORS AND FLUES. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Superior Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  8. 10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Locomotive smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof with gable end of Machine Shop in background. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  9. 9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. Central of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Smoke flue coming through Roundhouse roof. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Roundhouse, Site Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  10. Analysis of Halogen-Mercury Reactions in Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Paula Buitrago; Geoffrey Silcox; Constance Senior; Brydger Van Otten

    2010-01-01

    Oxidized mercury species may be formed in combustion systems through gas-phase reactions between elemental mercury and halogens, such as chorine or bromine. This study examines how bromine species affect mercury oxidation in the gas phase and examines the effects of mixtures of bromine and chlorine on extents of oxidation. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale, laminar flow, methane-fired (300 W), quartz-lined reactor in which gas composition (HCl, HBr, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}) and temperature profile were varied. In the experiments, the post-combustion gases were quenched from flame temperatures to about 350 C, and then speciated mercury was measured using a wet conditioning system and continuous emissions monitor (CEM). Supporting kinetic calculations were performed and compared with measured levels of oxidation. A significant portion of this report is devoted to sample conditioning as part of the mercury analysis system. In combustion systems with significant amounts of Br{sub 2} in the flue gas, the impinger solutions used to speciate mercury may be biased and care must be taken in interpreting mercury oxidation results. The stannous chloride solution used in the CEM conditioning system to convert all mercury to total mercury did not provide complete conversion of oxidized mercury to elemental, when bromine was added to the combustion system, resulting in a low bias for the total mercury measurement. The use of a hydroxylamine hydrochloride and sodium hydroxide solution instead of stannous chloride showed a significant improvement in the measurement of total mercury. Bromine was shown to be much more effective in the post-flame, homogeneous oxidation of mercury than chlorine, on an equivalent molar basis. Addition of NO to the flame (up to 400 ppmv) had no impact on mercury oxidation by chlorine or bromine. Addition of SO{sub 2} had no effect on mercury oxidation by chlorine at SO{sub 2} concentrations below about 400 ppmv; some increase in mercury oxidation

  11. Alkali-metal-vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed-combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1981-September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1983-03-01

    This work supports the program to develop sorbents for the cleanup of gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion (PFBC) so that the cleaned hot gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A simulated PFBC flue gas containing NaCl vapor was used to characterize activated bauxite and diatomaceous earth at a bed temperature of 905/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute. The NaCl vapor was found to be captured by activated bauxite essentially as sodium sulfate, with a small fraction captured as sodium chloride. In contrast, diatomaceous earth captured NaCl vapor by a combined result of (1) a chemical reaction that converts the vapor into condensed sodium sulfate and (2) chemical reactions that transform the captured sodium into water-insoluble silicate compounds. In NaCl-vapor sorption efficiency studies, a 12.7-cm-long activated bauxite bed was tested for 12 h in a gas stream containing 4 to 8 ppmV NaCl-vapor concentration, and >99.8% NaCl-vapor sorption efficiency was achieved. This efficiency compared with 99.1 and 95.3% obtained by a diatomaceous earth bed of the same length tested for 8 h in gas streams containing 28 and 2 ppmV NaCl-vapor concentration, respectively. The addition of HCl to the simulated flue gas had an insignificant effect on the NaCl-vapor sorption behavior and efficiency of activated bauxite. Experimental results are also presented on (1) the water leachability of the sodium captured on activated bauxite, (2) the partial conversion to sodium sulfate of the NaCl sample used as the vapor source for the sorption tests, and (3) the changes in the chemical and physical properties of both sorbents as a result of exposure to the simulated flue gas.

  12. Alkali-metal-vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Annual report, October 1980-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1982-01-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of high-temperature, high-pressure combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Data are presented in this report on the use of activated bauxite in a granular bed filter for the removal of gaseous NaCl from hot (800/sup 0/C), pressurized (less than or equal to 8 atm), wet simulated PFBC flue gas. Also, the sorption mechanisms are discussed. Greater than 99.9% NaCl vapor capture was achieved. Also reported are (1) the effects of several operating variables on the rate of leaching of NaCl that had been adsorbed on activated bauxite and (2) the volatility of alkali metal compounds present as impurities in activated bauxite. Finally, the preliminary estimate of the cost of using activated bauxite as a filter medium for the control of alkali vapors from PFBC flue gas was updated; a conceptual design of a fixed granular-bed filter was presented; and the energy needs and their costs for operating the filter in (a) the once-through and (b) the sorbent-regeneration modes were compared.

  13. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas. Quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.D.; Myles, K.M.; Jonke, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for achieving sufficient cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors (PFBC) so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines without causing corrosion. A simulated PFBC flue gas was used to characterize the NaCl-vapor sorption behavior of activated bauxite at a bed temperature of 905/sup 0/C and a system pressure of 10 atm absolute. Although the addition of HCl to simulated PFBC flue gas tends to promote the capture of NaCl vapor by activated bauxite as NaCl rather than Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, overall, its effect on the activated bauxite's NaCl-vapor sorption behavior was found to be insignificant. Experimental results are also presented on: (1) the partial conversion to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ of the NaCl sample used as the source of NaCl vapor for the test system; and (2) the water leachability of the sodium captured on activated bauxite.

  14. Flue Gas Cleanup at Temperatures about 1400 C for a Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant: State and Perspectives in the Pressurized Pulverized Coal Combustion (PPCC) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Foerster, M.E.C.; Oeking, K.; Hannes, K.

    2002-09-18

    The PPCC technology, a combined cycle, requires comprehensive cleaning of the flue gases because coal contains a large variety of minerals and other substances. This would lead to fast destruction of the gas turbine blades due to erosion and corrosion. The present specifications of the turbine manufacturers for the required flue gas quality are at a maximum particulate content of 5 mg/m3 s.t.p., diameter of < 5 {micro}m, and a maximum alkali content < 0.01 mg/m3 s.t.p. The PPCC project is aimed at cleaning the flue gases of pressurized coal combustion. This method will be applied at temperature ranges where the ash is in a liquid state and which will be thus cleaned from coarse particulate material by agglomeration and inertial force separators. Appropriate separating methods are also being investigated and developed for the hazardous gaseous contents, e.g. alkali compounds, which are released during the coal combustion process. The following companies are working on the development within the scope of a collaborative project to find a feasible technical solution: Babcock-Borsig-Power Env. GmbH (BBP Env.), E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, SaarEnergie GmbH, Siemens AG, and Steag AG.

  15. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  16. Method and apparatus for forming flues on tubular stock

    DOEpatents

    Beck, D.E.; Carson, C.

    1979-12-21

    The present invention is directed to a die mechanism utilized for forming flues on long, relatively narrow tubular stock. These flues are formed by displacing a die from within the tubular stock through perforations previously drilled through the tubular stock at selected locations. The drawing of the die upsets the material to form the flue of the desired configuration. The die is provided with a lubricating system which enables the lubricant to be dispensed uniformly about the entire periphery of the die in contact with the material being upset so as to assure the formation of the flues. Further, the lubricant is dispensed from within the die onto the peripheral surface of the latter at pressures in the range of about 2000 to 10,000 psi so as to assure the adequate lubrication of the die during the drawing operation. By injecting the lubricant at such high pressures, low viscosity liquid, such as water and/or alcohol, may be efficiently used as a lubricant and also provides a mechanism by which the lubricant may be evaporated from the surface of the flues at ambient conditions so as to negate the cleansing operations previously required prior to joining the flues to other conduit mechanisms by fusion welding and the like.

  17. Alkali metal vapor removal from pressurized fluidized-bed combustor flue gas: activated bauxite sorbent regeneration. Quarterly report, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Lee, S.H.D.

    1981-05-01

    This work supports the program to develop methods for the cleanup of combustion gases from pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustors so that the cleaned gases can be used to power downstream gas turbines. Presented here are the results of studies to develop granular sorbents for removing gaseous alkali metal compounds from these combustion gases in a granular-bed filter. Activated bauxite bed material can be reused after the alkali compound is removed by a water-leaching process. In experiments to study the kinetics of leaching, the effects of adsorbed NaCl loading, leaching temperature, and the leaching water to sorbent ratio on the rate of leaching are reported. Also reported are water retention in bauxite after leaching and the effect of volatile alkalis in makeup activated bauxite on the alkali level in flue gas expanded in the gas turbine.

  18. Improved biomass and lipid production in a mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KR-1 with addition of coal-fired flue-gas.

    PubMed

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Kim, Bohwa; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Kyubock; Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2014-11-01

    Industrial CO2-rich flue-gases, owing to their eco-toxicity, have yet to be practically exploited for microalgal biomass and lipid production. In this study, various autotrophic and mixotrophic culture modes for an oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1 were compared for the use in actual coal-fired flue-gas. Among the mixotrophic conditions tested, the fed-batch feedings of glucose and the supply of air in dark cycles showed the highest biomass (561 mg/L d) and fatty-acid methyl-ester (168 mg/L d) productivities. This growth condition also resulted in the maximal population of microalgae and the minimal population and types of KR-1-associated-bacterial species as confirmed by particle-volume-distribution and denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. Furthermore, microalgal lipid produced was assessed, based on its fatty acid profile, to meet key biodiesel standards such as saponification, iodine, and cetane numbers.

  19. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to elemental sulfur and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1 generates 115 MW of electricity and 275,000 scfm of flue gas while burning 3.5% sulfur coal. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. This phase was included in the project to allow completion of process studies and preliminary activities which could be conducted in parallel with NOXSO`s pilot plant project being conducted at Ohio Edison`s Toronto Power Plant.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  1. Automatic flue gas heat recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.A.

    1983-02-22

    An automatic flue gas heat recovery system for supplementing or replacing a conventional, separate hot water system. In the example described, the heat recovery system is applied to a pizza restaurant where large quantities of heat energy are normally wasted up an oven chimney stack, and large quantities of hot water also are required for restaurant operations. An electric motor driven pump circulates water in a closed loop between a storage tank and a heat exchanger tube located in the oven chimney stack. A thermostat control automatically starts the pump when the oven heats the chimney stack to an effective water heating temperature. When temperature in the storage tank reaches a predetermined maximum, the thermostat control stops the pump, opens a drain valve, and dumps water quickly and completely from the heat exchanger tube. Three different embodiments are shown and described illustrating systems with one or more storage tanks and one or more pumps. In the plural storage tank embodiments, an existing hot water heating tank may be converted for use to augment a main tank supplied with the present system.

  2. Fundamental mechanisms in flue gas conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.R.; Robinson, M.S.; Bush, P.V.

    1992-04-27

    This project is divided into four tasks. The Management Plan was developed in task 1. Task 2, Evaluation of Mechanisms in FGD Sorbent and Ash Interactions, focuses on the characteristics of binary mixtures of these distinct powders. Task 3, Evaluation of Mechanisms in Conditioning Agents and Ash, is designed to examine the effects of various conditioning agents on fine ash particles to determine the mechanisms by which these agents alter the physical properties of the ash. Tasks 2 and 3 began with an extensive literature search and the assembly of existing theories. This phase of the project is now complete. During the past quarter, initial preparations of laboratory equipment for laboratory testing have been made. A plan for initial laboratory tests has been submitted to the Project Manager for review. Laboratory testing will commence once these laboratory plans have been formally approved. The results of the work performed under task 2 and 3 will be included in a Flue Gas Conditioning Model that will be issued under task 4. The Final Report for the project will also be prepared under task 4.

  3. Regenerable sorbents for mercury capture in simulated coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Jorge; López-Antón, M Antonia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; García, Roberto; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-09-15

    This work demonstrates that regenerable sorbents containing nano-particles of gold dispersed on an activated carbon are efficient and long-life materials for capturing mercury species from coal combustion flue gases. These sorbents can be used in such a way that the high investment entailed in their preparation will be compensated for by the recovery of all valuable materials. The characteristics of the support and dispersion of gold in the carbon surface influence the efficiency and lifetime of the sorbents. The main factor that determines the retention of mercury and the regeneration of the sorbent is the presence of reactive gases that enhance mercury retention capacity. The capture of mercury is a consequence of two mechanisms: (i) the retention of elemental mercury by amalgamation with gold and (ii) the retention of oxidized mercury on the activated carbon support. These sorbents were specifically designed for retaining the mercury remaining in gas phase after the desulfurization units in coal power plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed.

  5. Decarb/Desal: Separation of Carbon Dioxide from Flue Gas with Simultaneous Fresh Water Production

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R; Bourcier, W

    2009-10-21

    If fossil fuels continue to be a major part of the world's energy supply, effective means must be developed to deal with the carbon emissions. Geologic sequestration of supercritical CO{sub 2} is expected to play a major role in mitigating this problem. Separating carbon dioxide from other gases is the most costly aspect of schemes for geologic sequestration. That cost is driven by the complexity and energy intensity of current chemical-stripping methods for separating carbon dioxide. Our experience in water treatment technology indicated that an entirely new approach could be developed, taking advantage of water's propensity to separate gases that ionize in water (like CO{sub 2}) from those that do not (like N{sub 2}). Even though water-based systems might not have the extreme selectivity of chemicals like substituted amines used in industrial systems today, they have the potential to tolerate NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates while also producing clean drinking water as a valuable byproduct. Lower capital cost, broader range of applicability, environmental friendliness, and revenue from a second product stream give this approach the potential to significantly expand the worldwide application of carbon separation for geologic sequestration. Here we report results for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gas by two methods that simultaneously separate carbon dioxide and fresh water: ionic pumping of carbonate ions dissolved in water, and thermal distillation. The ion pumping method dramatically increases dissolved carbonate ion in solution and hence the overlying vapor pressure of CO{sub 2} gas, allowing its removal as a pure gas. We have used two common water treatment methods to drive the ion pumping approach, reverse osmosis and electrodialysis to produce pure CO{sub 2}. This novel approach to increasing the concentration of the extracted gas permits new approaches to treating flue gas, because the slightly basic water used as the extraction medium is

  6. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Ductwork: Materials of construction for flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donnell, R.J.; Khederian, J.C.; Martin, J.E.; Watson, W.K.

    1995-09-01

    This paper identifies the ductwork materials required for the various service conditions in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system (FGDS) at Indianapolis Power and Light Company`s (IPL) Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base-loaded units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output. The flue gas conditions include hot unscrubbed gas (bypass), hot unscrubbed gas mixed with cool ambient air (normal), a mixing zone of gas only/air only associated with an open bypass system (no damper), and cool, wet scrubbed gas (outlet ducts). In addition, there are upset conditions associated with the loss of an air preheater. This system is somewhat unique, in that each unit has its own separate open or undampered bypass system, including separate stack liners. While a separate bypass system eliminates the extremely severe corrosion problems associated with mixing unscrubbed gas and scrubbed gas in a common bypass flue, it does create potential problems mixing cool ambient air with hot flue gas.

  8. Sudden releases of gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaloupecká, Hana; Jaňour, Zbyněk; Jurčáková, Klára; Kukačka, Libor; Nosek, Štěpán

    2014-03-01

    Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  9. Toxic gases from fires.

    PubMed

    Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F

    1978-06-23

    The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol.

  10. Kinetic Theory of Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The theory, developed in the nineteenth century, notably by Rudolf Clausius (1822-88) and James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79), that the properties of a gas (temperature, pressure, etc) could be described in terms of the motions (and kinetic energy) of the molecules comprising the gases. The theory has wide implications in astrophysics. In particular, the perfect gas law, which relates the pressure, vol...

  11. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  12. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  13. New "wet type" electron beam flue gas treatment pilot plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Erdal; Ünal, Suat; Doğan, Alişan; Letournel, Eric; Pellizzari, Fabien

    2016-02-01

    We describe a new pilot plant for flue gas cleaning by a high energy electron beam. The special feature of this pilot plant is a uniquely designed reactor called VGS® (VIVIRAD Gas Scrubber, patent pending), that allows oxidation/reduction treating flue gas in a single step. The VGS® process combines a scrubber and an advanced oxidation/reduction process with the objective of optimizing efficiency and treatment costs of flue gas purification by electron accelerators. Promising treatment efficiency was achieved for SOx and NOx removal in early tests (99.2% and 80.9% respectively). The effects of various operational parameters on treatment performance and by-product content were investigated during this study.

  14. A metal chelate process for removal of nitric oxide from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Littlejohn, D.; Pham, E.K.; Chang, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    Control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in flue gases has been achieved by utilization of its high solubility in aqueous solutions. Unlike sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide (NO) has low solubility in aqueous solutions. Consequently, achieving simultaneous control of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in flue gas has been difficult to achieve. Nitric oxide can be oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), which is more soluble. However, many oxidants are expensive and some of the oxidant material may consumed by the oxidation of dissolved sulfur dioxide. Much of the effort of research for the control of nitric oxide has focused on the development of additives that enhance the solubility of nitric oxide in aqueous solutions. Of the additives investigated, the most promising compounds appear to be metal chelates which are capable of reacting with nitric oxide to form nitrosyl complexes. In recent years, we have investigated thiol-based ligands complexed with ferrous ions that have superior oxidation resistance and NO absorbing capacity. We report here the results of our study of a new thiol-based iron complex using 2,3-dimercapto-1-propane sulfonate (DMPS). It is superior to Fe{sup +2}(EDTA) chelate in three aspects: (1) the ability to reduce Fe{sup +3} to Fe{sup +2}, (2) the absence of nitrogen-sulfur byproducts, and (3) the ease of regeneration using electrochemical reduction. We present here results of the NO removal chemistry of Fe{sup +2}(DMPS){sub 2} and the electro-chemical regeneration of Fe{sup +2}(DMPS){sub 2}. Also presented are results of NO thermal desorption studies, which is an alternative regeneration method.

  15. Enhanced Elemental Mercury Removal from Coal-fired Flue Gas by Sulfur-chlorine Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Yan, Nai-Qiang; Qu, Zan; Chi, Yao; Qiao, Shao-Hua; Dod, Ray; Chang, Shih-Ger; Miller, Charles

    2008-07-02

    Oxidation of Hg0 with any oxidant or converting it to a particle-bound form can facilitate its removal. Two sulfur-chlorine compounds, sulfur dichloride (SCl2) and sulfur monochloride (S2Cl2), were investigated as oxidants for Hg0 by gas phase reaction and by surface-involved reactions in the presence of flyash or activated carbon. The gas phase reaction rate constants between Hg0 and the sulfur/chlorine compounds were determined, and the effects of temperature and the main components in flue gases were studied. The gas phase reaction between Hg0 and SCl2 is shown to be more rapid than the gas phase reaction with chlorine, and the second order rate constant was 9.1(+-0.5) x 10-18 mL-molecules-1cdots-1 at 373oK. Nitric oxide (NO) inhibited the gas phase reaction of Hg0 with sulfur-chlorine compounds. The presence of flyash or powdered activated carbon in flue gas can substantially accelerate the reaction. The predicted Hg0 removal is about 90percent with 5 ppm SCl2 or S2Cl2 and 40 g/m3 of flyash in flue gas. The combination of activated carbon and sulfur-chlorine compounds is an effective alternative. We estimate that co-injection of 3-5 ppm of SCl2 (or S2Cl2) with 2-3 Lb/MMacf of untreated Darco-KB is comparable in efficiency to the injection of 2-3 Lb/MMacf Darco-Hg-LH. Extrapolation of kinetic results also indicates that 90percent of Hg0 can be removed if 3 Lb/MMacf of Darco-KB pretreated with 3percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 is used. Unlike gas phase reactions, NO exhibited little effect on Hg0 reactions with SCl2 or S2Cl2 on flyash or activated carbon. Mercuric sulfide was identified as one of the principal products of the Hg0/SCl2 or Hg0/S2Cl2 reactions. Additionally, about 8percent of SCl2 or S2Cl2 in aqueous solutions is converted to sulfide ions, which would precipitate mercuric ion from FGD solution.

  16. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report No. 15

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Pakala, N.; Riggs, T.; Tagg, T.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on (1) a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and (2) novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. In addition, high efficiency hollow fiber contactors (HFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from the flue gas. The system will be designed to remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost that is at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. In addition, the process will make only marketable byproducts, if any (no waste streams). Our approach is to reduce the capital cost by using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. We will also introduce new process chemistry to minimize traditionally well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. For example, we will extract the SO{sub 2} from the aqueous scrubbing liquor into an oligomer of dimethylaniline to avoid the problem of organic liquid losses in the regeneration of the organic liquid. Our novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and also of polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Finally, the arrangement of the absorbers is in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used.

  17. Flue gas injection control of silica in cooling towers.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Anderson, Howard L., Jr.; Altman, Susan Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    Injection of CO{sub 2}-laden flue gas can decrease the potential for silica and calcite scale formation in cooling tower blowdown by lowering solution pH to decrease equilibrium calcite solubility and kinetic rates of silica polymerization. Flue gas injection might best inhibit scale formation in power plant cooling towers that use impaired makeup waters - for example, groundwaters that contain relatively high levels of calcium, alkalinity, and silica. Groundwaters brought to the surface for cooling will degas CO{sub 2} and increase their pH by 1-2 units, possibly precipitating calcite in the process. Recarbonation with flue gas can lower the pHs of these fluids back to roughly their initial pH. Flue gas carbonation probably cannot lower pHs to much below pH 6 because the pHs of impaired waters, once outgassed at the surface, are likely to be relatively alkaline. Silica polymerization to form scale occurs most rapidly at pH {approx} 8.3 at 25 C; polymerization is slower at higher and lower pH. pH 7 fluids containing {approx}220 ppm SiO{sub 2} require > 180 hours equilibration to begin forming scale whereas at pH 8.3 scale formation is complete within 36 hours. Flue gas injection that lowers pHs to {approx} 7 should allow substantially higher concentration factors. Periodic cycling to lower recoveries - hence lower silica concentrations - might be required though. Higher concentration factors enabled by flue gas injection should decrease concentrate volumes and disposal costs by roughly half.

  18. Enhanced effect of in-situ generated ammonium salts aerosols on the removal of NOx from simulated flue gas.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C H; Keener, T C; Lee, J Y; Khang, S J

    2001-08-01

    The combined removal of sulfur dioxide (SO2, up to 3,000 ppm) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, up to 1,200 ppm) has been investigated in a bench-scale pulsed-corona enhanced wet electrostatic precipitator (wESP) with the optional injection of ammonia and/or ozone. The reaction of ammonia with SO2 produces submicron aerosols under certain conditions. Experiments have shown the feasibility of combined SO2 and NOx removal from simulated flue gases by the action of these in-situ generated aerosols. The mechanisms for NOx removal include oxidation of NO to NO2 and subsequent absorption of NO2 into the water wall of the wESP. The results have shown that injecting NH3 (NH3/NOx molar ratio 1) resulted in NOx removal of approximately 13% in a simulated combustion flue gas. Injecting 200 ppm ozone (no ammonia) increased NO conversion to 35% by oxidation, but total NOx removal increased to only 17%. Without the formation of ammonium salts aerosols (e.g., without SO2 in the gas), co-injection of ammonia and ozone increased NO conversion to 60% and NOx removal to 40%. However, high NOx removals were measured in simulated flue gas that contained NH3, SO2, and ozone. The total NOx removal efficiency was 79% when the ammonium salts aerosols were formed in the presence of 2400 ppm SO2, 312 ppm O3, and 2,900 ppm NH3. The energy efficiency of collection improved by approximately 250% for SO2 removal and more than 4700% for NOx removal under these conditions. It was determined that the ammonium salts aerosols produced from the reaction of ammonia and sulfur dioxide substantially enhanced total NOx removal.

  19. Sampling and analysis of hydrocarbons in combustion gases. Annual report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Siczek, A.A.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of these studies is to develop a method for the chemical analysis of ultratrace levels of polycyclic organic compounds in the flue gases from fluidized-bed combustors. Methods which have the potential for real time analysis have been studied. Two methods, double mass spectrometry and laser ionization mass spectrometry, appear to be promising. A brief review of current analytical methods has been made. A brief examination of fly ash from fluidized-bed combustion revealed no carcinogenic species although samples collected during fluidized-bed combustor startup were found to be mutagenic.

  20. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).

  1. Nanoparticles trapping from flue gas using dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neculae, Adrian; Strambeanu, Nicolae; Lungu, Antoanetta; Bunoiu, Madalin; Lungu, Mihai

    2015-12-01

    The paper first presents a mathematical model which describes the effect of dielectrophoretic forces on the nanoparticles suspended in gaseous environment, together with a set of numerical results obtained in the frame of this model. Next, an experimental microfluidic device with interdigitated bar electrodes for retaining of nanometric particles from combustion gases under dielectrophoresis is described. The particles deposited on the electrodes of the experimental device are analysed using a reflection metallographic microscope with CCD camera together with a data analysis system. The experimental results are analysed in terms of a new trapping parameter, named as Filtration. Finally, a comparison between the theoretical results provided by numerical simulations and the experimental results on the deposition of nanoparticles on electrodes is given. The comparison demonstrates a good agreement between the two types of results.

  2. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemcial technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1989-05-22

    The IGR Process emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Tasks this quarter include: (1) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System; (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} Spiked Gas Streams; and (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control test apparatus has been completely installed and flyash tests have begun. During the tests a voltage is applied across the solid electrolyte and the current is monitored while flyash passes through the cell. In Task (1) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using four electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1989-04-14

    The IGR emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Three tasks were active during this quarter: Task (1), Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System, Tasks, (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub X} Spiked Gas Streams, and Task (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control apparatus has been completely installed and its operation is being examined with respect to filtration materials and solid electrolyte. In Task (2) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using a series of electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. ); Helfritch, D.J. . Environmental Services and Technologies Div.)

    1990-04-17

    The process control SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which converts NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Sulfur is condensed downstream at a lower temperature. Particulates are removed with a filter or electrostatic precipitator. The process utilizes no other material input (flue gas is the only fluid), has no moving parts, and produces no sludge(s). The reactor consists of an electrochemical cell where the electrolyte is a solid oxygen ion conducting ceramic such as stabilized ceria or zirconia and the electrodes are electronically conductive material(s). Porous metal such as silver or gold were used as electrodes in the experimental work. Acceptable reduction rates and electric power requirements for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal were obtained in up to 1% oxygen with ruthenium and strontium ruthenate electrocatalysts. Electrocatalytic improvements are needed for higher oxygen concentrations, with the NO reduction rates and efficiencies being most sensitive to oxygen concentration. The best electrocatalysts were ruthenium and the perovskite strontium ruthenate. 37 refs., 23 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Air-lift bioreactors for algal growth on flue gas: Mathematical modeling and pilot-plant studies

    SciTech Connect

    Vunjak-Novakovic, G.; Kim, Y.; Wu, X.X.; Berzin, I.; Merchuk, J.C.

    2005-08-03

    Air-lift reactors (ALRs) have great potential for industrial bioprocesses, because of the low level and homogeneous distribution of hydrodynamic shear. One growing field of application is the flue-gas treatment using algae for the absorption of CO{sub 2}, In this paper, we discuss the requirements for photosynthetic biomass growth in an ALR. The effects of the operating variables are analyzed using a mathematical model that accounts for the effects of ALR geometry, fluid flow, and illumination on the biomass growth. On the basis of the ALR principles and the specific requirements of photosynthetic processes, we developed a 'triangular' ALR configuration that is particularly suitable for algal growth. We describe the design and operation of this novel bioreactor and present the first series of experimental data obtained for two different algal species in a pilot-scale unit supplied with flue gases from a small power plant. The measured removal efficiency of CO{sub 2} was significant (82.3 12.5% on sunny days and 50.1 6.5% on cloudy days) and consistent with the increase in the algal biomass.

  6. Mercury vapor pressure of flue gas desulfurization scrubber suspensions: effects of pH level, gypsum, and iron.

    PubMed

    Schuetze, Jan; Kunth, Daniel; Weissbach, Sven; Koeser, Heinz

    2012-03-06

    Calcium-based scrubbers designed to absorb HCl and SO(2) from flue gases can also remove oxidized mercury. Dissolved mercury halides may have an appreciable partial vapor pressure. Chemical reduction of the dissolved mercury may increase the Hg emission, thereby limiting the coremoval of mercury in the wet scrubbing process. In this paper we evaluate the effects of the pH level, different gypsum qualities, and iron in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber suspensions. The impact of these parameters on mercury vapor pressure was studied under controlled laboratory conditions in model scrubber suspensions. A major influence is exerted by pH values above 7, considerably amplifying the mercury concentration in the vapor phase above the FGD scrubber suspension. Gypsum also increases the mercury re-emission. Fe(III) decreases and Fe(II) increases the vapor pressure significantly. The consequences of the findings for a reliable coremoval of mercury in FGD scrubbers are discussed. It is shown that there is an increased risk of poor mercury capture in lime-based FGD scrubbers in comparison to limestone FGD scrubbers.

  7. SOXAL combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} flue gas control demonstration. Quarterly report, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    AQUATECH Systems, a business unit of Allied-Signal Inc., proposes to demonstrate the technical viability and cost effectiveness of the SOXAL process a combined SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control process on a 3 MW equivalent flue gas slip stream from Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation Dunkirk Steam Station Boiler No. 4, a coal fired boiler. The SOXAL process combines 90+% sulfur dioxide removal from the flue gas using a sodium based scrubbing solution and regeneration of the spent scrubbing liquor using AQUATECH Systems` proprietary bipolar membrane technology. This regeneration step recovers a stream of sulfur dioxide suitable for subsequent processing to salable sulfur or sulfuric acid. Additionally 90+% control of NO{sub x} gases can be achieved in combination with conventional urea/methanol injection of NO{sub 2} gas into the duct. The SOXAL process is applicable to both utility and industrial scale boilers using either high or lower sulfur coal. The SOXAL demonstration Program began September 10, 1991 and is approximately 26 months in duration. During the 6 months of scheduled operations, between January and July of 1993, data was collected from the SOXAL system to define: SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control efficiencies; Current efficiency for the regeneration unit; Sulfate oxidation in the absorber; Make-up reagent rates; Product quality including concentrations and compositions; System integration and control philosophy; and Membrane stability and performance with respect to foulants. The program is expected to be concluded in November 1993.

  8. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  9. 7 CFR 29.1019 - Flue-cured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1019 Flue-cured. Tobacco cured under artificial atmospheric conditions by a process of regulating the heat and ventilation without allowing smoke or fumes from the fuel to come in contact with the tobacco; or tobacco cured by some other process which accomplishes the same results. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25...

  10. 7 CFR 30.11 - Flue-cure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flue-cure. 30.11 Section 30.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by a process of regulating the heat and...

  11. Flue gas cleaning by multiple irradiation with electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paur, H.-R.; Baumann, W.; Mätzing, H.; Lindner, W.

    1995-09-01

    By electron beam treatment, NOx and SO2 can be reduced simultaneously from combustion flue gas. The efficiency of the process has been shown to improve by multiple irradiation. It appears most promising to perform the multiple irradiation with an intermediate gas scrubber. This paper reports experimental investigations on the efficiency of the intermediate filter.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (bermudagrass)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synthetic gypsum is being produced in large quantities each year as a byproduct of SO2 removal from flue gas stream at coal-fired utility plants. This synthetic gypsum which is believed to be comparable or better than mined gypsum may enhance crop production. However, there is a paucity of informati...

  13. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  14. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  15. CO/sub 2/ can be produced from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D.S.

    1982-11-22

    The monoethanolamine (MEA) process has been successfully applied to the production of CO/sub 2/ from coal-fired boiler flue gas. The CO/sub 2/ recovered as a wet gas is used in the production of soda ash by the carbonation of brine. Details of the MEA process and operational difficulties encountered are given.

  16. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  17. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  18. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  19. IHI in-line type flue gas desulfurization system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, F.; Kanamori, A.; Fujino, Y.

    1995-06-01

    Desulfurization systems are indispensable for reducing air pollution caused by flue gas from power plants. It is essential that the cost for constructing and operating such systems is low. IHI has developed such a system based on its expertise gathered over the years. The test results and outline of the system are presented in this paper.

  20. Carbon dioxide capture strategies from flue gas using microalgae: a review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Daniya M; Mechery, Jerry; Paulose, Sylas V

    2016-09-01

    Global warming and pollution are the twin crises experienced globally. Biological offset of these crises are gaining importance because of its zero waste production and the ability of the organisms to thrive under extreme or polluted condition. In this context, this review highlights the recent developments in carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from flue gas using microalgae and finding the best microalgal remediation strategy through contrast and comparison of different strategies. Different flue gas microalgal remediation strategies discussed are as follows: (i) Flue gas to CO2 gas segregation using adsorbents for microalgal mitigation, (ii) CO2 separation from flue gas using absorbents and later regeneration for microalgal mitigation, (iii) Flue gas to liquid conversion for direct microalgal mitigation, and (iv) direct flue gas mitigation using microalgae. This work also studies the economic feasibility of microalgal production. The study discloses that the direct convening of flue gas with high carbon dioxide content, into microalgal system is cost-effective.

  1. Jet flows of reacting gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, Farkhadzhan; Zhumaev, Zair Sh.

    The book presents fundamentals of the aerodynamic theory and calculation of straight gas jets. The discussion focuses on the flow structure and turbulent combustion of unmixed gases and thermal characteristics of the jet. The following three types of problems are considered: motion of unmixed chemically active gases; gas motion under conditions of chemical equilibrium; and motion of gases under conditions of finite-rate chemical reactions.

  2. Trapped noble gases in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.

    1988-01-01

    The trapped noble gases in meteorites come in two main varieties, usually referred to as solar and planetary. The solar noble gases are implanted solar-wind or solar-flare materials, and thus their relative elemental abundances provide a good estimate of those of the sun. The planetary noble gases have relative elemental abundances similar to those in the terrestrial atmosphere, but there are also important distinctions. At least one other elemental pattern (subsolar) and several isotopic patterns have also been identified.

  3. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-02-18

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen cell. The cell electrolyte is a solid-electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Tasks this quarter include: Project Work Plan and Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Tests will be conducted with ceramic disks one inch in diameter. The reactor for disk testing has been built and the disks have been aquired. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-04-20

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Three tasks were active during this quarter, Task (1) Development of 10 Cubic Feet/Min High Surface Area Electrochemical Reactors, Task (2) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System and Task (3) Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. Task (3) is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide gas mixtures. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M.

    1989-11-09

    The objective is to develop an all solid-state electrochemical technology to control SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Work was performed in the area of electrocatalyst preparation and testing. Transition metal oxides (Ru, Cr, V, W, Co, Mo), mixtures of transition metal oxides and transition metal oxide perovskites were tested as electrocatalysts. The electrocatalyst along with gold electrodes were coated and fired on a yittria stabilized ceria solid electrolyte disk. The reduction of NO and SO{sub 2} in gas mixtures containing 0 to 4% oxygen was measured while a voltage was applied to the disk. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Simultaneous particulates NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-03-17

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Two tasks were active during this quarter, Task (1) Development of 10 Cubic Feet/Min High Surface Area Electrochemical Reactors and Task (2) Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. Task (2) is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide gas mixtures. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Weijiong Li; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2005 and June 30, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas from coal combustion and synthesis gas from coal gasification. Supported sodium carbonate sorbents removed up to 76% of the carbon dioxide from simulated flue gas in a downflow cocurrent flow reactor system, with an approximate 15 second gas-solid contact time. This reaction proceeds at temperatures as low as 25 C. Lithium silicate sorbents remove carbon dioxide from high temperature simulated flue gas and simulated synthesis gas. Both sorbent types can be thermally regenerated and reused. The lithium silicate sorbent was tested in a thermogravimetric analyzer and in a 1-in quartz reactor at atmospheric pressure; tests were also conducted at elevated pressure in a 2-in diameter high temperature high pressure reactor system. The lithium sorbent reacts rapidly with carbon dioxide in flue gas at 350-500 C to absorb about 10% of the sorbent weight, then continues to react at a lower rate. The sorbent can be essentially completely regenerated at temperatures above 600 C and reused. In atmospheric pressure tests with synthesis gas of 10% initial carbon dioxide content, the sorbent removed over 90% of the carbon dioxide. An economic analysis of a downflow absorption process for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas with a supported sodium carbonate sorbent suggests that a 90% efficient carbon dioxide capture system installed at a 500 MW{sub e} generating plant would have an incremental capital cost of $35 million ($91/kWe, assuming 20 percent for contingencies) and an operating cost of $0.0046/kWh. Assuming capital costs of $1,000/kW for a 500 MWe plant the capital cost of the down flow absorption process represents a less than 10% increase, thus meeting DOE goals as set forth in its Carbon Sequestration Technology Roadmap and Program Plan.

  8. Homogeneous Atomic Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth B.; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the creation of homogeneous Fermi gases of ultracold atoms in a uniform potential. In the momentum distribution of a spin-polarized gas, we observe the emergence of the Fermi surface and the saturated occupation of one particle per momentum state: the striking consequence of Pauli blocking in momentum space for a degenerate gas. Cooling a spin-balanced Fermi gas at unitarity, we create homogeneous superfluids and observe spatially uniform pair condensates. For thermodynamic measurements, we introduce a hybrid potential that is harmonic in one dimension and uniform in the other two. The spatially resolved compressibility reveals the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced Fermi gas, saturation in a fully polarized Fermi gas, and strong attraction in the polaronic regime of a partially polarized Fermi gas.

  9. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 10, June 1--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product (elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, or liquid SO{sub 2}) and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process at Ohio Edison`s Niles Plant Unit {number_sign}1. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought.

  10. SO x /NO x Removal from Flue Gas Streams by Solid Adsorbents: A Review of Current Challenges and Future Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaei, Fateme; Rownaghi, Ali A.; Monjezi, Saman; Lively, Ryan P.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2015-09-17

    One of the main challenges in the power and chemical industries is to remove generated toxic or environmentally harmful gases before atmospheric emission. To comply with stringent environmental and pollutant emissions control regulations, coal-fired power plants must be equipped with new technologies that are efficient and less energy-intensive than status quo technologies for flue gas cleanup. While conventional sulfur oxide (SOx) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal technologies benefit from their large-scale implementation and maturity, they are quite energy-intensive. In view of this, the development of lower-cost, less energy-intensive technologies could offer an advantage. Significant energy and cost savings can potentially be realized by using advanced adsorbent materials. One of the major barriers to the development of such technologies remains the development of materials that are efficient and productive in removing flue gas contaminants. In this review, adsorption-based removal of SOx/NOx impurities from flue gas is discussed, with a focus on important attributes of the solid adsorbent materials as well as implementation of the materials in conventional and emerging acid gas removal technologies. The requirements for effective adsorbents are noted with respect to their performance, key limitations, and suggested future research directions. The final section includes some key areas for future research and provides a possible roadmap for the development of technologies for the removal of flue gas impurities that are more efficient and cost-effective than status quo approaches.

  11. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological

  12. Simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO separation from flue gas using HFCLM. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmel, K.

    1995-02-01

    Abatement technologies for oxides of sulfur and nitrogen present in flue and stack gases from coal fired boilers are becoming increasingly important. Scrubbing the gases with an aqueous limestone slurry to remove SO{sub 2} is a widely used treatment process. These scrubbing solutions are, however, not very effective in removing NO. In addition, the process is expensive and produces large volumes of sludge. The liquid membrane from a 0.01 M aqueous solution of Fe{sup 2+}EDTA has been found to have a very high selectivity for NO over N{sub 2}. Thus, SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} can be removed simultaneously using an aqueous Fe 3{sup 3+}EDTA solution in a hollow fiber contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) permeator with hydrophobic fibers. The HFCLM configuration has addressed previous concerns about liquid membrane stability for an application such as this. In this project, a flow apparatus was constructed that will allow simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO removal and recovery using two hollow fiber modules in series. Flowing the liquid membrane on the shell-side of the modules it is hypothesized will enhance the performance over that of HFCLMs without loss of stability. From the work completed in this exploratory project, it was concluded that to move the current state-of-the-art for this promising technology toward commercialization will require progress in the following areas: (1) sensitivity of the performance of the system to temperature changes, (2) validation of a mass transfer model to be used in scale-up calculations, (3) data on alternative flow schemes, and (4) overall process economics calculations.

  13. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Load calculation on the nozzle in a flue gas desulphurization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Róbert, Olšiak; Zoltán, Fuszko; Zoltán, Csuka

    2017-09-01

    The desulphurization system is used to remove sulfur oxides from exhaust, so-called flue gases through absorbing them via the sprayed suspension. The suspension delivered from the pump system to the atmospheric bi-directional double hollow cone nozzle has the prescribed working pressure. The unknown mechanical load on the solid body of the nozzle is present through the change of moment due to the flow of the suspension through the bi-directional outflow areas [1], [4]. The calculation of the acting forces and torques in the 3 directions was carried out with the methods of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in the software ANSYS Fluent. The geometric model of the flow areas of the nozzle were created with the methods of reverse engineering. The computational mesh required by the CFD solver was created, and its quality verified with the standard criteria. The used boundary conditions were defined by the hydraulic parameters of the pump system, the properties of the suspension present in the hydraulic system were specified by sample analysis. The post-processed and analyzed results of the CFD calculation, the pressure-field and the velocity magnitudes in particular directions were further used as input parameters at the mechanical analysis of the load on the bi-directional nozzle.

  15. A new flue gas treatment system based on electron beam process

    SciTech Connect

    Huovilainen, R.T.

    1996-12-31

    When using conventional SOx reduction systems a large quantity of residue is formed--mostly in the form of gypsum. Gypsum can be used as a raw material (e.g., wall-boards) if the gypsum residue is clean enough. Normally the gypsum content should be over 95%; there are upper limits given for many constituents in the gypsum residue for wall-board raw material, which in some cases restrict the use of the residue. All NOx reduction processes are clean processes--even when using ammonia as an additive for NOx reduction the reaction products are pure--only water vapor and molecular nitrogen. The problem in NOx reduction is beside the technical ones a so called ammonia slip, i.e., concentration of ammonia in flue gases leaving the stack. To avoid ammonia slip theoretical stoichiometry or understoichiometry is used. In the new process described later the end product of SOx and NOx removal has market value, because it is in the form of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate mixture, which can be utilized as a fertilizer. In this process there is no waste water or other residue problems. Economical calculations performed show that the process is economically very feasible compared to conventional systems.

  16. Absorption and reaction kinetics of amines and ammonia solutions with carbon dioxide in flue gas.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia Hao; Chu, Hsin; Cho, Chorng Ming

    2003-02-01

    The removal system for the absorption of CO2 with amines and NH3 is an advanced air pollution control device to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Absorption of CO2 by amines and NH3 solutions was performed in this study to derive the reaction kinetics. The absorption of CO2 as encountered in flue gases into aqueous solutions of monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), and NH3 was carried out using a stirred vessel with a plane gas-liquid interface at 50 degrees C. Various operating parameters were tested to determine the effect of these variables on the absorption kinetics of the reactants in both gas and liquid phases and the effect of competitions between various reactants on the mass-transfer rate. The observed absorption rate increases with increasing gas-liquid concentration, solvent concentration, temperature, and gas flow rate, but changes with the O2 concentration and pH value. The absorption efficiency of MEA is better than that of NH3 and DEA, but the absorption capacity of NH3 is the best. The active energies of the MEA and NH3 with CO2 are 33.19 and 40.09 kJ/mol, respectively.

  17. Evaluating ceramic filter media on a slipstream of hot flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, P.V.; Pontius, D.H.; Dorchak, T.P.

    1994-06-01

    The need for more efficient systems for generating electric power from coal has led to a number of new technological developments, including such processes as pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems. To achieve maximum efficiency, a common and critical requirement for these technologies is a method for removing suspended particulate matter from the gas stream at high temperatures (above 1000 F) and high pressures (greater than 10 bar). The US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is pursuing the development of such hot gas cleanup methods through an extensive program of fundamental and pilot studies in cooperation with utilities, supporting industries, and other research organizations. As a part of this program, Southern Research Institute (SRI) is carrying out a series of studies using a high-temperature sidestream device for performing long-duration tests on small specimens (patches) of filter materials on a process gas stream from an atmospheric-pressure fluidized-bed combuster. SRI developed an apparatus and a test plan to accomplish three of METC`s objectives: (1) to determine the effects on ceramic filters of long-term filtration of particle-laden flue gases at high temperatures, (2) to compare the filtration performance of several kinds of filters, and (3) to simulate the Plant Tidd ash loading on filters so that results from these tests could be used to help select filters for use at the Tidd 10 MW pilot-scale facility. Preliminary results are discussed.

  18. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-04-27

    The purpose of this research program is to identify and evaluate a variety of additives capable of increasing particle cohesion which could be used for improving collection efficiency in an ESP. A three-phase screening process will be used to provide the, evaluation of many additives in a logical and cost-effective manner. The three step approach involves the following experimental setups: 1. Provide a preliminary screening in the laboratory by measuring the effects of various conditioning agents on reentrainment of flyash particles in an electric field operating at simulated flue gas conditions. 2. Evaluate the successful additives using a 100 acfm bench-scale ESP operating on actual flue gas. 3. Obtain the data required for scaling up the technology by testing the two or three most promising conditioning agents at the pilot scale.

  19. Intense electron beam application for flue gas treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Zimek, Z.; Iller, E.; Tyminski, B.; Licki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Systematic work concerning electron beam flue gas treatment process upscaling has been performed at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology since 1986. Laboratory unit with gas flow 400 Nm{sup 3}/h has been constructed. An industrial plant with gas flow 20,000 Nm{sup 3}/h (two accelerators 50 kW, 0.8 MeV) has been built at EPS Kaweczyn. Finally design of 270,000 Nm{sup 3}/h industrial plant (four accelerators 300 kW, 0.8 MeV) to be built at EPS Pomorzany has been prepared. Several new solutions mostly leading to power consumption reduction were introduced. The longitudinal, double gas irradiation was applied among them. The technical-economical analysis proved that process is very competitive with conventional technologies widely used for flue gas purification.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-04-01

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2005 and March 31, 2005 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Engineered sorbents composed of sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were tested in a laboratory fluidized bed reactor system and found to be capable of essentially complete removal of carbon dioxide at 60 C in a short residence time. Upon breakthrough the sorbents can be thermally regenerated to recover essentially all of the absorbed carbon dioxide. An optimized supported sorbent tested in a pilot-scale entrained bed absorber retained its reactivity in multicycle tests and experienced no attrition. Removal of >90% of carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas was achieved in an entrained bed reactor.

  1. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-09-30

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2006 and September 30, 2006 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. Modifications to the integrated absorber/ sorbent regenerator/ sorbent cooler system were made to improve sorbent flow consistency and measurement reliability. Operation of the screw conveyor regenerator to achieve a sorbent temperature of at least 120 C at the regenerator outlet is necessary for satisfactory carbon dioxide capture efficiencies in succeeding absorption cycles. Carbon dioxide capture economics in new power plants can be improved by incorporating increased capacity boilers, efficient flue gas desulfurization systems and provisions for withdrawal of sorbent regeneration steam in the design.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Thomas Nelson; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2004 and December 31, 2004 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Two supported sorbents were tested in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor system. The sorbents were prepared by impregnation of sodium carbonate on to an inert support at a commercial catalyst manufacturing facility. One sorbent, tested through five cycles of carbon dioxide sorption in an atmosphere of 3% water vapor and 0.8 to 3% carbon dioxide showed consistent reactivity with sodium carbonate utilization of 7 to 14%. A second, similarly prepared material, showed comparable reactivity in one cycle of testing. Batches of 5 other materials were prepared in laboratory scale quantities (primarily by spray drying). These materials generally have significantly greater surface areas than calcined sodium bicarbonate. Small scale testing showed no significant adsorption of mercury on representative carbon dioxide sorbent materials under expected flue gas conditions.

  3. Online elemental analysis of process gases with ICP-OES: A case study on waste wood combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Wellinger, Marco; Wochele, Joerg; Biollaz, Serge M.A.; Ludwig, Christian

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simultaneous measurements of 23 elements in process gases of a waste wood combustor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mobile ICP spectrometer allows measurements of high quality at industrial plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Continuous online measurements with high temporal resolution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Linear correlations among element concentrations in the raw flue gas were detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel sampling and calibration methods for ICP-OES analysis of process gases. - Abstract: A mobile sampling and measurement system for the analysis of gaseous and liquid samples in the field was developed. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), which is built into a van, was used as detector. The analytical system was calibrated with liquid and/or gaseous standards. It was shown that identical mass flows of either gaseous or liquid standards resulted in identical ICP-OES signal intensities. In a field measurement campaign trace and minor elements in the raw flue gas of a waste wood combustor were monitored. Sampling was performed with a highly transport efficient liquid quench system, which allowed to observe temporal variations in the elemental process gas composition. After a change in feedstock an immediate change of the element concentrations in the flue gas was detected. A comparison of the average element concentrations during the combustion of the two feedstocks showed a high reproducibility for matrix elements that are expected to be present in similar concentrations. On the other hand elements that showed strong differences in their concentration in the feedstock were also represented by a higher concentration in the flue gas. Following the temporal variations of different elements revealed strong correlations between a number of elements, such as chlorine with sodium, potassium and zinc, as well as arsenic with lead, and calcium with strontium.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  5. Unusual chemical compounds in flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems continue to have deposits formed on internal surfaces of the materials of which the FGD systems are fabricated. These compounds contribute to crevice corrosion of the alloys of which some of the FGD systems are made. In the process of performing the failure analysis of the FGD fabrication materials, new compounds were discovered. This paper discusses two corrosion failure analysis case histories and the new compounds that were discovered and the chemical environment in which they were discovered.

  6. Noble gases in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

  7. Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment.

  8. Assessing sorbent injection mercury control effectiveness in flue gas streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carey, T.R.; Richardson, C.F.; Chang, R.; Meserole, F.B.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.

    2000-01-01

    One promising approach for removing mercury from coal-fired, utility flue gas involves the direct injection of mercury sorbents. Although this method has been effective at removing mercury in municipal waste incinerators, tests conducted to date on utility coal-fired boilers show that mercury removal is much more difficult in utility flue gas. EPRI is conducting research to investigate mercury removal using sorbents in this application. Bench-scale, pilot-scale, and field tests have been conducted to determine the ability of different sorbents to remove mercury in simulated and actual flue gas streams. This paper focuses on recent bench-scale and field test results evaluating the adsorption characteristics of activated carbon and fly ash and the use of these results to develop a predictive mercury removal model. Field tests with activated carbon show that adsorption characteristics measured in the lab agree reasonably well with characteristics measured in the field. However, more laboratory and field data will be needed to identify other gas phase components which may impact performance. This will allow laboratory tests to better simulate field conditions and provide improved estimates of sorbent performance for specific sites. In addition to activated carbon results, bench-scale and modeling results using fly ash are presented which suggest that certain fly ashes are capable of adsorbing mercury.

  9. Condensation heat transfer of actual flue gas on horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Itoh, Tugue; Yagi, Kiyoyuki

    1999-07-01

    In order to improve the boiler efficiency, latent heat recovery from an exhaust flue gas is a very important concept. Condensation heat transfer on horizontal stainless steel tubes was investigated experimentally using an actual flue gas from a natural gas boiler. The experiment was conducted at different air ratios and steam mass concentrations of the flue gas, and in a wide range of tube wall temperature. The condensation pattern was similar to the dropwise condensation near the dew point. As the wall temperature was decreased, the wall region covered with a thin liquid film increased. The heat and mass transfer behavior were well predicted with the simple analogy correlation in the high wall temperature region. But in the low wall temperature region, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. At a high steam mass concentration artificially generated with steam injection, the total heat transfer rate was higher than that predicted by the simple analogy correlation. The analogy correlation using the modified Sherwood number taking account of the mass absorption effect was proposed. The modified correlation gave a good prediction of the heat flux at the high steam mass concentration.

  10. EPRICON: Agentless flue gas conditioning for electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Bibbo, P.P.

    1995-09-01

    Achieving efficient particulate control in coal burning electric utility plants is becoming an increasingly difficult proposition, giver, the variety of regulatory, technical, operating and environmental pressures that exist in the US. For most powerplants, particulate control is achieved by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Under optimal conditions, modern ESPs are capable of achieving particulate removal efficiencies of 99.7 %. Unfortunately, optimal conditions are not always present. ESP`s are sensitive to flue gas conditions, and those conditions may change dramatically after a fuel switch or the installation of some types of emissions control technology upstream of the ESP. Gas conditioning has been shown to be an effective means of returning flue gas to the ``optimal`` conditions required for efficient ESP operation following a fuel switch to a low, or at least, lower sulfur coal. Borrowing technology common in conventional soap-making plants around the turn of the century, sulfur-burning SO3 gas conditioning has been the solution to may difficult fuels in electrostatic precipitators. Although it has contributed most to improved ESP performance after a fuel switch, conventional gas conditioning has significant drawbacks. In an effort to develop an alternative to conventional SO{sub 3} gas conditioning, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) initiated a research and development project that has produced an alternative and modem technology for flue gas conditioning, now called EPRICON, and licensed it to Research-Cottrell. This article describes the EPRICON process and its performance in pilot and demonstration plants.

  11. The thief process for mercury removal from flue gas.

    PubMed

    Granite, Evan J; Freeman, Mark C; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Pennline, Henry W

    2007-09-01

    The Thief Process is a cost-effective variation to activated carbon injection (ACI) for removal of mercury from flue gas. In this scheme, partially combusted coal from the furnace of a pulverized coal power generation plant is extracted by a lance and then re-injected into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater. Recent results on a 500-lb/h pilot-scale combustion facility show similar removals of mercury for both the Thief Process and ACI. The tests conducted to date at laboratory, bench, and pilot-scales demonstrate that the Thief sorbents exhibit capacities for mercury from flue gas streams that are comparable to those exhibited by commercially available activated carbons. A patent for the process was issued in February 2003. The Thief sorbents are cheaper than commercially-available activated carbons; exhibit excellent capacities for mercury; and the overall process holds great potential for reducing the cost of mercury removal from flue gas. The Thief Process was licensed to Mobotec USA, Inc. in May of 2005.

  12. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  13. PH adjustment of power plant cooling water with flue gas/fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2015-09-22

    A system including a vessel including a heat source and a flue; a turbine; a condenser; a fluid conduit circuit disposed between the vessel, the turbine and the condenser; and a diverter coupled to the flue to direct a portion of an exhaust from the flue to contact with a cooling medium for the condenser water. A method including diverting a portion of exhaust from a flue of a vessel; modifying the pH of a cooling medium for a condenser with the portion of exhaust; and condensing heated fluid from the vessel with the pH modified cooling medium.

  14. Degenerate Quantum Gases of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian; Killian, Thomas C.

    2014-03-01

    Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a nonmagnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr2 molecules.

  15. NMR Hyperpolarization Techniques of Gases.

    PubMed

    Barskiy, Danila A; Coffey, Aaron M; Nikolaou, Panayiotis; Mikhaylov, Dmitry M; Goodson, Boyd M; Branca, Rosa T; Lu, George J; Shapiro, Mikhail G; Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Zhivonitko, Vladimir V; Koptyug, Igor V; Salnikov, Oleg G; Kovtunov, Kirill V; Bukhtiyarov, Valerii I; Rosen, Matthew S; Barlow, Michael J; Safavi, Shahideh; Hall, Ian P; Schröder, Leif; Chekmenev, Eduard Y

    2017-01-18

    Nuclear spin polarization can be significantly increased through the process of hyperpolarization, leading to an increase in the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments by 4-8 orders of magnitude. Hyperpolarized gases, unlike liquids and solids, can often be readily separated and purified from the compounds used to mediate the hyperpolarization processes. These pure hyperpolarized gases enabled many novel MRI applications including the visualization of void spaces, imaging of lung function, and remote detection. Additionally, hyperpolarized gases can be dissolved in liquids and can be used as sensitive molecular probes and reporters. This Minireview covers the fundamentals of the preparation of hyperpolarized gases and focuses on selected applications of interest to biomedicine and materials science. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Carbon dioxide capture from power or process plant gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bearden, Mark D; Humble, Paul H

    2014-06-10

    The present invention are methods for removing preselected substances from a mixed flue gas stream characterized by cooling said mixed flue gas by direct contact with a quench liquid to condense at least one preselected substance and form a cooled flue gas without substantial ice formation on a heat exchanger. After cooling additional process methods utilizing a cryogenic approach and physical concentration and separation or pressurization and sorbent capture may be utilized to selectively remove these materials from the mixed flue gas resulting in a clean flue gas.

  17. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-08-31

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Two tasks were active during this quarter: Task (1) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System and Task (2) Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) a nine element particulate control apparatus has been constructed and ceramic oxygen ion conducting electrolyte reactor elements have been procured and coated with electrode materials on both the high surface area foam cathode and the flat low surface area anode sides. Task (2) is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO{sub x} and oxygen and ex-situ FT-IR was used to verify the electrochemical reduction rates. 1 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Neyman, M. ); Gordon, A.Z. )

    1988-11-21

    The IGR emission control technology controls SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, flow-through, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, normally a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Two tasks were active during this quarter: Task, Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System and Task, Electrocatalyst Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task a nine element particulate control apparatus is ready for testing with oxide ion conducting pieces and a test apparatus has been setup to test ceramic oxygen ion conducting electrolyte reactor elements. Task is the screening of electrocatalysts for high oxygen overpotential and low SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} overpotential. Electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks using a series of electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2} and oxygen. 1 ref., 3 tabs.

  19. Positive Streamers and Glows in Air and Exhaust Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, R.

    1998-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of the effects of sub-microsecond voltage pulses on the plasma chemistry of real flue gases in a test cell. Chemical analysis shows that, for real flue gases, the pulsed system can remove up to 90 % of NO, and 30 % of SO_2, if a residence time of ~ 30s is used. We also find that (i) water vapour is essential to the removal of SO_2, but not for the removal of NO or NO_2; and (ii) that small quantities of N_2O are produced. The removal of SO2 is primarily due to reactions with OH radicals from water vapour, producing sulphuric acid, whereas nitrogen oxides are reduced by N atoms. When a positive voltage is abruptly applied to a point in air at atmospheric pressure, positive streamers are produced. A theory is presented for the development of the first such streamer by solving the continuity equations for electrons, positive ions and negative ions, including the effects of ionisation, attachment, recombination, electron diffusion, and photoionisation, simultaneously with Poisson's equation. With an applied voltage of 20 kV across a 50 mm gap, the streamer does not reach the cathode. When the voltage is sustained in the presence of free electrons, the electric field at the anode starts to recover until positive glow pulses develop at the anode. The presence of the positive glow corona precludes any further streamer formation; this limits the number of chemical reactions stimulated by the discharge because the positive glow is confined close to the anode. Thus, a limit is set for the voltage pulse width. A theory is also presented for the current and light pulses of positive glow corona from a point in air; results are obtained by solving the continuity equations, described above, in concentric sphere geometry. A series of ``saw--toothed'' current pulses of period ~ 1 μs are predicted with a dc current level. Accompanying the current peaks are discrete 30 ns wide pulses of light. It is found that if, in the presence

  20. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  1. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  2. Impact of oxy-fuel combustion gases on mercury retention in activated carbons from a macroalgae waste: effect of water.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Anton, M A; Ferrera-Lorenzo, N; Fuente, E; Díaz-Somoano, M; Suarez-Ruíz, I; Martínez-Tarazona, M R; Ruiz, B

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the different sorption behaviors of mercury species on activated carbons in the oxy-fuel combustion of coal and the effect of high quantities of water vapor on the retention process. The work evaluates the interactions between the mercury species and a series of activated carbons prepared from a macroalgae waste (algae meal) from the agar-agar industry in oxy-combustion atmospheres, focussing on the role that the high concentration of water in the flue gases plays in mercury retention. Two novel aspects are considered in this work (i) the impact of oxy-combustion gases on the retention of mercury by activated carbons and (ii) the performance of activated carbons prepared from biomass algae wastes for this application. The results obtained at laboratory scale indicate that the effect of the chemical and textural characteristics of the activated carbons on mercury capture is not as important as that of reactive gases, such as the SOx and water vapor present in the flue gas. Mercury retention was found to be much lower in the oxy-combustion atmosphere than in the O2+N2 (12.6% O2) atmosphere. However, the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to form oxidized mercury (Hg2+) amounted to 60%, resulting in an enhancement of mercury retention in the flue gas desulfurization units and a reduction in the amalgamation of Hg0 in the CO2 compression unit. This result is of considerable importance for the development of technologies based on activated carbon sorbents for mercury control in oxy-combustion processes.

  3. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section... ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Engine Fluids, Test Fuels, Analytical Gases and Other Calibration Standards § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  4. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92.112... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for... as the diluent. (b) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be single blends of propane using zero...

  5. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  6. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  7. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  8. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  9. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  10. 7 CFR 29.9403 - Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flue-Cured Tobacco Advisory Committee. 29.9403 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Policy Statement and Regulations Governing Availability of Tobacco Inspection and Price Support Services to Flue-Cured Tobacco on Designated Markets § 29.9403...

  11. Flue Gas Desulfurization at Navy Bases, Navy Energy Guidance Study. Phase IV.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    inconvenient 19 Reagent feed rate Weight belt mechanism Wear System becomes inoperable control if not repaired 20 Flue gas flow meter Annubar type flow Plugging...required: 3) Rotor NI System becomes S - Normal operation balance inoperable A - Rebalance fan Flue gas flow 4) Annubar Plugging with System function

  12. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  13. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue...

  14. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  15. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  16. Potential Flue Gas Impurities in Carbon Dioxide Streams Separated from Coal-fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    For geological sequestration of CO2 separated from pulverized coal combustion flue gas, it is necessary to adequately evaluate the potential impacts of flue gas impurities on groundwater aquifers in the case of the CO2 leakage from its storage sites. This s...

  17. CO2 , NOx and SOx removal from flue gas via microalgae cultivation: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-06-01

    Flue gas refers to the gas emitting from the combustion processes, and it contains CO2 , NOx , SOx and other potentially hazardous compounds. Due to the increasing concerns of CO2 emissions and environmental pollution, the cleaning process of flue gas has attracted much attention. Using microalgae to clean up flue gas via photosynthesis is considered a promising CO2 mitigation process for flue gas. However, the impurities in the flue gas may inhibit microalgal growth, leading to a lower microalgae-based CO2 fixation rate. The inhibition effects of SOx that contribute to the low pH could be alleviated by maintaining a stable pH level, while NOx can be utilized as a nitrogen source to promote microalgae growth when it dissolves and is oxidized in the culture medium. The yielded microalgal biomass from fixing flue gas CO2 and utilizing NOx and SOx as nutrients would become suitable feedstock to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. In addition to the removal of SOx , NOx and CO2 , using microalgae to remove heavy metals from flue gas is also quite attractive. In conclusion, the use of microalgae for simultaneous removal of CO2 , SOx and NOx from flue gas is an environmentally benign process and represents an ideal platform for CO2 reutilization.

  18. Process and apparatus for drying and preheating coking coal by means of flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Meckel, J.F.; Wagener, D.

    1981-12-29

    Flue gas discharged from a recuperator or regenerator of a coke oven battery has the steam thereof removed by means of a direct or indirect cooling and condensation operation. After the steam is removed from the flue gas it is then passed through a coke dry cooling plant in direct contact with hot coke therein to form dry cooled coke while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the flue gas. The flue gas is then passed through a coal preheating plant to directly contact and dry and preheat moist coking coal contained therein. The entire system is open, such that a given quantity of the flue gas passes only once through the system. When the temperature of the flue gas as received from a coke oven battery is extremely high, then the flue gas may be subjected to a partial cooling operation prior to the cooling and condensation operation. Further, a portion of the heat of the flue gas, after the discharge thereof from the coke dry cooling plant and prior to the introduction thereof into the coal preheating plant, may be used to generate steam and/or electricity.

  19. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se, and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile elements, such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg), which could lead to serious environmental health risks. The capture of these toxic elements in the scrubber with a flue gas desulphurization (FGD...

  20. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se, and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile elements, such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg), which could lead to serious environmental health risks. The capture of these toxic elements in the scrubber with a flue gas desulphurization (FGD...

  1. Speciation, Characterization, And Mobility Of As, Se and Hg In Flue Gas Desulphurization Residues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile toxic trace elements such as arsenic (As), selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg). The capture of these elements in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in generation of a metal-laden residue...

  2. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  3. UV light source adaptive sensing technology for flue gas measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Changku; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Bo; Liu, Bin; Wang, Peng

    2010-11-01

    The UV absorption spectrometry technique DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) has been widely used in continuous monitoring of flue gas, and has achieved good results. DOAS method is based on the basic law of light absorption--Lambert-Beer law. SO2, NOX are the principal component of the flue gas. These components are considered by DOAS method at the same time. And certain mathematical methods are used for concentrations measuring. The Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) based on the principle of DOAS mainly has two probe-styles present: in-situ probe-style and extractive probe-style. For the in-situ probe-style CEMS based on DOAS method, prolonged use for the UV light source, contaminated lens caused by floating oil and complex environment of the flue will all bring attenuation of the spectral intensity, it will affect the accuracy of measurement. In this article, an in-situ continuous monitoring system based on DOAS method is described, and a component adaptive sensing technology is proposed. By using this adaptive sensing technology, CEMS can adjust the integral time of the spectrometer according to the non-measuring attenuation of the light source intensity and automatically compensate the loss of spectral intensity. Under the laboratory conditions, the experiments for SO2, NO standard gas measurement using adaptive sensing technology is made. Many different levels of light intensity attenuation are considered in the experiments. The results show that the adaptive sensing technology can well compensate the non-measuring loss of spectral intensity. In the field measurement, this technology can well reduce the measurement error brought by attenuation of light intensity, compared with the handheld gas analyzer, the average error of concentration measurement is less than 2% FS(Full Scale).

  4. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} from coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of activated carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. In the previous three quarters, a detailed project management plan was prepared describing the experimental setup, work plan, and test plan. The experimental system was completed for SO{sub 2} conversion at Waterloo and for NO{sub x} conversion at RTI. Shakedown experiments were completed. In the present quarter, the NO{sub x} removal performance of two additional modified carbon catalysts (MCCII and MCCIII) was studied. MCCII showed NO{sub x} removal efficiency which was similar to that observed for MCCI. However, MCCI was considerably less active for NO{sub x} removal. SO{sub 2} removal experiments with NO present in the feed gas were performed with MCCI. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was consistently about 98% over each of 10 cycles and was very similar to that observed earlier with no NO present in the feed. Finally, a preliminary economic evaluation of the process was performed and a project review meeting was held. The economic evaluation showed that the Rn-Waterloo process was competitive with SCR/IFGD and other combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, removal processes.

  5. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  6. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  7. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

  8. Fouling reduction characteristics of a no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger for flue gas heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Jun, Y.D.; Lee, K.B.; Islam, S.Z.; Ko, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    In conventional flue gas heat recovery systems, the fouling by fly ashes and the related problems such as corrosion and cleaning are known to be major drawbacks. To overcome these problems, a single-riser no-distributor-fluidized-bed heat exchanger is devised and studied. Fouling and cleaning tests are performed for a uniquely designed fluidized bed-type heat exchanger to demonstrate the effect of particles on the fouling reduction and heat transfer enhancement. The tested heat exchanger model (1 m high and 54 mm internal diameter) is a gas-to-water type and composed of a main vertical tube and four auxiliary tubes through which particles circulate and transfer heat. Through the present study, the fouling on the heat transfer surface could successfully be simulated by controlling air-to-fuel ratios rather than introducing particles through an external feeder, which produced soft deposit layers with 1 to 1.5 mm thickness on the inside pipe wall. Flue gas temperature at the inlet of heat exchanger was maintained at 450{sup o}C at the gas volume rate of 0.738 to 0.768 CMM (0.0123 to 0.0128 m{sup 3}/sec). From the analyses of the measured data, heat transfer performances of the heat exchanger before and after fouling and with and without particles were evaluated. Results showed that soft deposits were easily removed by introducing glass bead particles, and also heat transfer performance increased two times by the particle circulation. In addition, it was found that this type of heat exchanger had high potential to recover heat of waste gases from furnaces, boilers, and incinerators effectively and to reduce fouling related problems.

  9. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  10. A novel carbon-based process for flue gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Gangwal, S.K. ); Silveston, P.L. )

    1992-04-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the preliminary technical and economic feasibility of a novel carbon-based process for removal of at least 95% SO{sub 2} and at least 75% NO{sub x} coal combustion flue gas. In the process, flue gas leaving the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) is passed through a trickle bed of achieved carbon catalyst employing a periodic flush of low strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2} is oxidized to SO{sub 3} and removed as medium strength sulfuric acid. The SO{sub 2}-free flue gas is then mixed with NH{sub 3}, and the NO{sub x} in the gas is subjected to selective catalytic reduction (SCR) to N{sub 2} over a fixed bed of activated carbon catalyst. The experimental work is divided between Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and the University of Waterloo (Waterloo). RTI will conduct the NO{sub x} removal studies, whereas Waterloo will conduct the SO{sub 2} removal studies. The ultimate goal of the project is to demonstrate that the process can be reduce the cost of electricity by 20% over conventional SCR/flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. In the present quarter, the continuous SO{sub 2} analyzer system at Waterloo was completed. The SO{sub 2} removal factorial experiments were begun Waterloo with the BPL carbon at 21{degrees}C. Also, SO{sub 2} removal was tested on two catalyst at RTI at 80{degrees}C. NO{sub x} conversion was tested on a variety of catalysts at RTI. It was shown that the BPL carbon could remove over 95% SO{sub 2} at 21{degrees}C but would required several beds at space velocity in each bed of abut 1,500 scc/(cc{center dot}h) to reduce SO{sub 2} from 2,500 ppm to 100 ppm. A modified carbon catalyst tested at RTI showed 99% SO{sub 2} removal at 80{degrees}C at 1,400 scc/(cc{center dot}h). Also, it was possible to produce nearly 9 normal H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} by periodic flushing of this catalyst. The modified carbon catalyst also demonstrated removal of more than 80% NO{sub x}. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Spray tower: the workhorse of flue-gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, A.

    1980-10-01

    A recently developed spray tower system for use in a utility flue gas desulfurization system is simple, durable, and capable of achieving very high sulfur dioxide removal efficiencies, possibly approaching 100%. The principles behind the design and operation of the spray tower are discussed. The quality of water used for washing, tower size limitations, construction materials liquid distribution, gas-inlet design, gas distribution, mass transfer, and operating characteristics are examined. Procedures to maintain the reliability and high performance of the spray tower are described. (5 diagrams, 5 photos, 12 references, 1 table)

  12. Cost effective materials for flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Brady, B.

    1996-10-01

    Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) is an effective way to remove sulfur dioxide from coal combustion processes and reduce the potential for acid rain. However, wet FGD processes often require highly corrosion resistant construction materials such as high alloys for adequate service life. An excellent material for wet FGD applications at about one half the cost of high alloys is fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) based on epoxy vinyl ester resin. This paper discusses the background and improvements that have led to the use of some of the world`s largest composite structures in FGD service.

  13. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be temporarily...

  14. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be temporarily...

  15. 46 CFR 194.15-17 - Compressed gases other than inert gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases other than inert gases. 194.15-17... Scientific Laboratory § 194.15-17 Compressed gases other than inert gases. (a) When, in consideration for a particular operation, compressed gases are needed within the laboratory, the cylinders may be temporarily...

  16. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  17. Advanced separation technology for flue gas cleanup. Quarterly technical report {number_sign}6, [July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Bhown, A.S.; Alvarado, D.; Stearns, P.; Ventura, S.; Sirkar, K.K.; Majumdar, S.; Bhaumick, D.

    1993-11-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a novel system for regenerable SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing of flue gas that focuses on a novel method for regeneration of spent SO{sub 2} scrubbing liquor and novel chemistry for reversible absorption of NO{sub x}. High efficiency hollow fiber contractors (BFC) are proposed as the devices for scrubbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. The system will remove more than 95% of the SO{sub x} and more than 75% of the NO{sub x} from flue gases typical of pulverized coal-fired power plants at a cost at least 20% less than combined wet limestone scrubbing of SO{sub x} and selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The process will make only marketable byproducts. The approach is to reduce the capital cost using high efficiency hollow fiber devices for absorbing and desorbing the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. New process chemistry is introduced to minimize well-known problems with SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} absorption and desorption. The novel chemistry for scrubbing NO{sub x} will consist of water soluble phthalocyanine compounds invented by SRI and polymeric forms of Fe{sup ++} complexes similar to traditional NO{sub x} scrubbing media. Past work with the phthalocyanine compounds shows that these compounds bind NO and NO{sub 2} reversibly and with no interference from O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, or other components of flue gas. The arrangement of the absorbers in cassette (stackable) form so that the NO{sub x} absorber can be on top of the SO{sub x} absorber. This arrangement is possible only because of the high efficiency of the hollow fiber scrubbing devices. This cassette (stacked) arrangement makes it possible for the SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} scrubbing chambers to be separate without incurring the large ducting and gas pressure drop costs necessary if a second conventional absorber vessel were used. There will be separate liquor loops to deconvolute the chemical complexity of simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} scrubbing.

  18. Abating environmentally harmful waste gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Sichen, Du; Pal, U. B.; Seetharaman, S.

    2002-05-01

    A gas-purification method, based on the condensation of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon-containing environmentally hazardous gases produced from industrial processes, is proposed in this article. The method, which utilizes the cooling capacity of waste nitrogen in the oxygen plant to condense the hazardous gases, is capable of removing hazardous impurities up to 99.98%. Theoretical calculations underlying the condensation process are presented employing gases produced in a blast furnace and coke oven in an integrated steel plant. The cooling power required for the condensation process is calculated using the waste nitrogen generated from an oxygen plant that generates captive oxygen for the steel plant. Design modifications that need to be made to the oxygen plant in order to utilize the cooling power of the waste nitrogen gas are also presented. As a case study, the advantages of the method are illustrated with purification of coke-oven gas. The economic impact and the investment aspects are also discussed.

  19. Mutual and Self-Diffusivities in Binary Mixtures of [EMIM][B(CN)4] with Dissolved Gases by Using Dynamic Light Scattering and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Thomas M; Heller, Andreas; Rausch, Michael H; Wasserscheid, Peter; Economou, Ioannis G; Fröba, Andreas P

    2015-07-09

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are possible working fluids for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from flue gases. For evaluating their performance in such processes, reliable mutual-diffusivity data are required for mixtures of ILs with relevant flue gas components. In the present study, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used for the investigation of the molecular diffusion in binary mixtures of the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetracyanoborate ([EMIM][B(CN)4]) with the dissolved gases carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and hydrogen sulfide at temperatures from 298.15 to 363.15 K and pressures up to 63 bar. At conditions approaching infinite dilution of a gas, the Fick mutual diffusivity of the mixture measured by DLS and the self-diffusivity of the corresponding gas calculated by MD simulations match, which could be generally found within combined uncertainties. The obtained diffusivities are in agreement with literature data for the same or comparable systems as well as with the general trend of increasing diffusivities for decreasing IL viscosities. The DLS and MD results reveal distinctly larger molecular diffusivities for [EMIM][B(CN)4]-hydrogen mixtures compared to mixtures with all other gases. This behavior results in the failure of an empirical correlation with the molar volumes of the gases at their normal boiling points. The DLS experiments also showed that there is no noticeable influence of the dissolved gas and temperature on the thermal diffusivity of the studied systems.

  20. Quantum Degenerate Gases of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, Brian; Martinez de Escobar, Natali; Mickelson, Pacal; Yan, Mi; Killian, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    We have produced quantum degenerate gases of three of the four stable isotopes of strontium. Using two-stage laser trapping and cooling followed by direct evaporative cooling in a far-off- resonance optical dipole trap (ODT), a stable Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of ^84Sr is formed. Via dual species trapping and sympathetic cooling in an ODT, an attractive BEC of ^88Sr is created, as well as a degenerate Fermi gas of ^87Sr. Differences in the evaporation scheme used to reach degeneracy for each isotope will be presented as well as the varied dynamics of the gases.

  1. Isothermal compressors for process gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederuh, E.; Meinhart, D. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on isothermal compressors which are more efficient for all gases. The study of several representative gases considered stage efficiencies, pressure ratios and pressure losses of the intercoolers. Generally there are two ways to reduce power consumption of a gas compression process: minimize losses of the compressor or improve the thermodynamics of the process. But there are some new ways to reduce losses of turbocompressors. Losses of the impeller labyrinth seals and the balance piston labyrinth seal can be reduced by optimizing the labyrinth geometry and minimizing labyrinth clearances. Therefore, conventional labyrinth seals are still being studied and will be improved.

  2. Progress in the electron beam treatment of stack gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, S.

    The Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing Process removes simultaneously SO 2 and NO x from exhaust gases forming solid Ammoniumsulfate and -nitrate in the presence of NH 3 which can be sold as fertilizer. Basic research on this process started 1970 at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and at Tokyo University while the technical development was followed up by EBARA Corporation. A first pilot plant was built and operated in 1977. A second phase of intense development on the process started in 1983 in the USA and the Federal Republic of Germany. Initiated by legislative efforts in West Germany to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions, the development of a low cost, flexible and simultaneous scrubbing process was promoted. Two technical scale Electron Beam research facilities and two pilot plants are in operation since 1984 resp. 1985 in Karlsruhe, Germany, and Indianapolis, USA. From these plants operating with flue gas from crude oil, gas and coal fired boilers numerous data are available. Extensive parameter measurements enable to identify the conditions where the process has high efficiencies.

  3. Effect of pCO2 on direct flue gas mineral carbonation at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Mouedhen, Ikbel; Kemache, Nassima; Pasquier, Louis-César; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy

    2017-08-01

    Concerns about global warming phenomena induced the development of research about the control of anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions. The current work studies on the scaling up of aqueous mineral carbonation route to reduce the CO2 emissions at the chimney of industrial emitters. The reactivity of serpentinite in a stirred tank reactor was studied for several partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) (0.4, 0.7, 1.3 and 1.6 bar). Prior to carbonation, the feedstock was finely grinded and dehydroxyled at 650 °C by a thermal treatment. The major content of magnetite was removed (7.5 wt% · total weight(-1)). Experiments were carried out under batch mode at room temperature using real cement plant flue gas (14-18 vol% CO2) and open pit drainage water. The effect of the raw water and the pCO2 on the carbonation efficiency was measured. First, the main results showed a positive effect of the quarry water as a slight enhancement of the Mg leaching in comparison with distilled water. Secondly, a pCO2 of 1.3 bar was the optimal working pressure which provided the highest efficiency of the carbonation reaction (0.8 gCO2 · g residue(-1)). Precipitation rates of dissolved CO2 ranged from 7% to 33%. Pure precipitate was obtained and essentially composed of Nesquehonite. At a pCO2 of 1.3 bar, additional physical retreatment of the solid material after being contacted with 6 batches of gas enhanced considerably mineral carbonation efficiency (0.17 gCO2 · g residue(-1).). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microalgal biomass and lipid production in mixed municipal, dairy, pulp and paper wastewater together with added flue gases.

    PubMed

    Gentili, Francesco G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to grow microalgae on mixed municipal and industrial wastewater to simultaneously treat the wastewater and produce biomass and lipids. All algal strains grew in all wastewater mixtures; however, Selenastrum minutum had the highest biomass and lipids yields, up to 37% of the dry matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal were high and followed a similar trend in all three strains. Ammonium was reduced from 96% to 99%; this reduction was due to algal growth and not to stripping to the atmosphere, as confirmed by the amount of nitrogen in the dry algal biomass. Phosphate was reduced from 91% to 99%. In all strains used the lipid content was negatively correlated to the nitrogen concentration in the algal biomass. Mixtures of pulp and paper wastewater with municipal and dairy wastewater have great potential to grow algae for biomass and lipid production together with effective wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. e-SCRUB -- Electron scrubbing of flue gases from high sulfur fuel to remove unwanted by-products

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews the rich development history of the Electron Beam Dry Scrubbing (EBDS) system, describes briefly the principal chemical and physical processes, and provides an overview of the e-SCRUB program, technology transfer effort sponsored by the Department of Defense. Electron beam dry scrubbing (EBDS) is a very promising method for the simultaneously removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in a single step treatment process. The process can be applied to boilers burning high sulfur coal or to incinerators burning municipal solid waste (MSW). For both applications removal efficiencies of about 90% for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} have been achieved at high overall process energy efficiency and low energy consumption.

  6. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  7. Levels of brominated diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the extensive use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including brominated diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of brominated chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...

  8. Method for removing sulfur oxides from combusting gases in wet, calcium-based flue gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, R.E.; Meserole, F.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a method for reducing accumulation of solid sulfate-containing deposits in apparatus for storing, transporting or utilizing wet lime or limestone for combustion gas desulfurization. It comprises: the step of contact the combustion gas in a reaction zone in the presence of the wet lime or limestone with thiosulfate and an organic polyacid chelating agent. The thiosulfate and chelating agent being present in sufficient concentrations to diminish the amount of sulfate formed as the result of oxidation of sulfite to sulfate.

  9. Removal of dioxins and furans from flue gases by non-flammable adsorbents in a fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Fell, H J; Tuczek, M

    1998-01-01

    The presented adsorption--process KOMBISORBON is applied for high efficient off-gas purification, preferably of polychlorinated dioxins and furans from off-gas of incineration plants, which are generated, when these are operated under unfavourable conditions [2]. This off-gas purification process complies with german laws, which limit the concentration of these substances to less than 0.1 ng toxicity equivalents (TE) per cubic metre of gas [1]. The adsorbent, the adsorption process and its plant concept (fixed bed) is described in detail including economics and obtained operation results. Alternative removal technologies are briefly outlined.

  10. CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases using three Ca-based sorbents in a fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.S.; Fang, F.; Cai, N.S.

    2009-06-15

    Abstract: Experiments of CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration characteristics of limestone, dolomite, and CaO/Ca{sub 1}2Al{sub 14}O{sub 3}3 at high temperature were investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a fluidized bed reactor. The effect of reactivity decay of limestone, dolomite, and CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 3}3 sorbents on CO{sub 2} capture and sorbent regeneration processes was studied. The experimental results indicated that the operation time of high efficient CO{sub 2} capture stage declined continuously with increasing of the cyclic number due to the loss of the sorbent activity, and the final CO{sub 2} capture efficiency would remain nearly constant, due to the sorbent already reaching the final residual capture capacity. After the CO{sub 2} capture step, the Ca-based sorbents need to be regenerated to be used for a subsequent cycle, and the multiple calcination processes of Ca-based sorbent under different calcination conditions are studied and discussed. Reactivity loss of limestone, dolomite and CaO/Ca{sub 12}Al{sub 14}O{sub 3}3 sorbents from a fluidized bed reactor at both mild and severe calcination conditions was compared with the TGA data. At mild calcination conditions, TGA results of sorbent reactivity loss were similar to the experimental results of fluidized bed reactor for three sorbents at 850 degrees C calcination temperature, and this indicated that TGA experimental results can be used as a reference to predict sorbent reactivity loss behavior in fluidized bed reactor. At severe calcination condition, sorbent reactivity loss behavior for limestone and dolomite from TGA compare well with the result from a fluidized bed reactor.

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-07-01

    Sodium based sorbents including sodium carbonate may be used to capture carbon dioxide from flue gas. A relatively concentrated carbon dioxide stream may be recoverable for sequestration when the sorbent is regenerated. Electrobalance tests indicated that sodium carbonate monohydrate was formed in a mixture of helium and water vapor at temperatures below 65 C. Additional compounds may also form, but this could not be confirmed. In the presence of carbon dioxide and water vapor, both the initial reaction rate of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water and the sorbent capacity decreased with increasing temperature, consistent with the results from the previous quarter. Increasing the carbon dioxide concentration at constant temperature and water vapor concentration produced a measurable increase in rate, as did increasing the water vapor concentration at constant carbon dioxide concentration and temperature. Runs conducted with a flatter TGA pan resulted in a higher initial reaction rate, presumably due to improved gas-solid contact, but after a short time, there was no significant difference in the rates measured with the different pans. Analyses of kinetic data suggest that the surface of the sodium carbonate particles may be much hotter than the bulk gas due to the highly exothermic reaction with carbon dioxide and water, and that the rate of heat removal from the particle may control the reaction rate. A material and energy balance was developed for a cyclic carbonation/calcination process which captures about 26 percent of the carbon dioxide present in flue gas available at 250 C.

  12. Flue gas conditioning for fabric filter performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S. J.

    1989-12-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a particulate control technology that can reliably remove particulate matter, with particle diameters from 0.01 to 10 micrometers ({mu}m), from a flue gas stream, with a removal efficiency of at least 99.9% for all particle sizes, independent of coal type. The method involved injection of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) as conditioning agents into the flue gas, upstream of a baghouse to increase particle collection efficiency and simultaneously reduce baghouse pressure drop. Work included the design and construction of a single-bag, reverse-air baghouse that was installed on the existing EERC particulate test combustor. Effort consisted of four, one-day tests with the shaker baghouse to verify conditioning agent concentrations determined in previous bench-scale research at EERC, and four, one-day shakedown tests with the reverse-air baghouse. Four tests were conducted, including a baseline and conditioning test with the reverse-air baghouse using Pittsburgh {number sign}8 seam bituminous and Monticello Texas lignite. Longer-term verification of the effectiveness of conditioning with a reverse-air-cleaned baghouse consisted of 500-hour baseline and conditioning tests with, the Monticello lignite. 30 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Thief process for the removal of mercury from flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Pennline, Henry W.; Granite, Evan J.; Freeman, Mark C.; Hargis, Richard A.; O'Dowd, William J.

    2003-02-18

    A system and method for removing mercury from the flue gas of a coal-fired power plant is described. Mercury removal is by adsorption onto a thermally activated sorbent produced in-situ at the power plant. To obtain the thermally activated sorbent, a lance (thief) is inserted into a location within the combustion zone of the combustion chamber and extracts a mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas. The semi-combusted coal has adsorptive properties suitable for the removal of elemental and oxidized mercury. The mixture of semi-combusted coal and gas is separated into a stream of gas and semi-combusted coal that has been converted to a stream of thermally activated sorbent. The separated stream of gas is recycled to the combustion chamber. The thermally activated sorbent is injected into the duct work of the power plant at a location downstream from the exit port of the combustion chamber. Mercury within the flue gas contacts and adsorbs onto the thermally activated sorbent. The sorbent-mercury combination is removed from the plant by a particulate collection system.

  14. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1992-01-14

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) serve as the primary air pollution control device for the majority of coal-fired utility boilers in the Eastern and Midwestern regions of the United States. Since most of these ESPs are collecting flyash generated from medium- and high-sulfur coal, they are not experiencing operational limitations which are common when treating high-resistivity particles and are performing at an efficiency that is as high as could be expected. However, there are indications that the collection efficiency could be improved with flue gas conditioning. Conditioning is commonly used for solving operational problems associated with high-resistivity dusts. The purpose of conditioning for low- and moderate-resistivity applications is to increase the adhesive characteristics of the dust. Flue gas conditioning that increases particle adhesion has the potential to improve collection efficiency because a large percentage of particulate emissions from a well-performing ESP is due to reentrainment. Improved ESP performance should result if particle reentrainment could be reduced by making the particles more adhesive. This could produce a significant reduction in emissions from and ESP from the Following mechanisms: reduced erosion-type reentrainment; reduced rapping emissions; reduced hopper reentrainment; increased agglomeration of fine particles.

  15. Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas.

    PubMed

    Presto, Albert A; Granite, Evan J

    2006-09-15

    Methods for removing mercury from flue gas have received increased attention because of recent limitations placed on mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various states. A promising method for mercury removal is catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg0) to oxidized mercury (Hg2+), followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). FGD cannot remove Hg0, but easily removes Hg2+ because of its solubility in water. To date, research has focused on three broad catalyst areas: selective catalytic reduction catalysts, carbon-based materials, and metals and metal oxides. We review published results for each type of catalyst and also present a discussion on the possible reaction mechanisms in each case. One of the major sources of uncertainty in understanding catalytic mercury oxidation is a lack of knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Thus, we propose that future research in this area should focus on two major aspects: determining the reaction mechanism and kinetics and searching for more cost-effective catalyst and support materials.

  16. Survey of catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Albert A. Presto; Evan J. Granite

    2006-09-15

    Methods for removing mercury from flue gas have received increased attention because of recent limitations placed on mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and various states. A promising method for mercury removal is catalytic oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) to oxidized mercury (Hg{sup 2+}), followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD). FGD cannot remove Hg{sup 0}, but easily removes Hg{sup 2+} because of its solubility in water. To date, research has focused on three broad catalyst areas: selective catalytic reduction catalysts, carbon-based materials, and metals and metal oxides. We review published results for each type of catalyst and also present a discussion on the possible reaction mechanisms in each case. One of the major sources of uncertainty in understanding catalytic mercury oxidation is a lack of knowledge of the reaction mechanisms and kinetics. Thus, we propose that future research in this area should focus on two major aspects: determining the reaction mechanism and kinetics and searching for more cost-effective catalyst and support materials. 91 refs.

  17. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Andreas Weber; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-01-01

    This report describes research conducted between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A field test was conducted to examine the extent to which RTI's supported sorbent can be regenerated in a heated, hollow screw conveyor. This field test was conducted at the facilities of a screw conveyor manufacturer. The sorbent was essentially completely regenerated during this test, as confirmed by thermal desorption and mass spectroscopy analysis of the regenerated sorbent. Little or no sorbent attrition was observed during 24 passes through the heated screw conveyor system. Three downflow contactor absorption tests were conducted using calcined sodium bicarbonate as the absorbent. Maximum carbon dioxide removals of 57 and 91% from simulated flue gas were observed at near ambient temperatures with water-saturated gas. These tests demonstrated that calcined sodium carbonate is not as effective at removing CO{sub 2} as are supported sorbents containing 10 to 15% sodium carbonate. Delivery of the hollow screw conveyor for the laboratory-scale sorbent regeneration system was delayed; however, construction of other components of this system continued during the quarter.

  18. Influence of flue gas SO2 on the toxicity of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash after accelerated carbonation stabilization.

    PubMed

    Sicong, Tian; Jianguo, Jiang; Chang, Zhang

    2011-09-15

    The influence of CO(2) content and SO(2) presence on the leaching toxicity of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash was studied by examining the carbonation reaction of MSWI fly ash with different combinations of simulated incineration flue gases. Compared with raw ash, the leaching solution pH of carbonated ash decreased by almost 1 unit and the leaching concentrations of heavy metals were generally lower, with that of Pb decreasing from 19.45 mg/L (raw ash) to 4.08 mg/L (1# carbonated ash). The presence of SO(2) in the incineration flue gas increased the leaching concentrations of heavy metals from the fly ash to different extents after the carbonation stabilization reaction. The pH of the leaching solution was the main factor influencing the leaching concentrations of heavy metals. The increase in buffer capacity with the pH of carbonated ash caused an increase in heavy metal stability after the carbonation reaction. Accelerated carbonation stabilization of MSWI fly ash could reduce its long-term leaching concentrations (toxicity) of Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn. The leaching concentrations of heavy metals from carbonated ash also likely had better long-term stability than those from raw ash. The presence of SO(2) in the incineration flue gas increased the proportion of exchangeable state species of heavy metals; slightly increased the long-term leaching toxicity of Cu, Pb, Se, and Zn; and reduced the long-term stability of these metals in the fly ash after the carbonation reaction.

  19. Permeability of cork to gases.

    PubMed

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  20. Hydrophobic encapsulation of hydrocarbon gases.

    PubMed

    Leontiev, Alexander V; Saleh, Anas W; Rudkevich, Dmitry M

    2007-04-26

    [reaction: see text] Encapsulation data for hydrophobic hydrocarbon gases within a water-soluble hemicarcerand in aqueous solution are reported. It is concluded that hydrophobic interactions serve as the primary driving force for the encapsulation, which can be used for the design of gas-separating polymers with intrinsic inner cavities.

  1. Interaction quenches of Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.

  2. A comprehensive evaluation of the influence of air combustion and oxy-fuel combustion flue gas constituents on Hg(0) re-emission in WFGD systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2014-07-15

    This paper evaluates the influence of the main constituents of flue gases from coal combustion (CO2, O2, N2 and water vapor), in air and oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the re-emission of Hg(0) in wet scrubbers. It was observed that the concentration of water vapor does not affect the re-emission of mercury, whereas O2 and CO2 have a notable influence. High concentrations of O2 in the flue gas prevent the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the reaction of oxygen with the metals present in low oxidation states. High concentrations of CO2, which cause a decrease in the pH and the redox potential of gypsum slurries, reduce the amount of Hg(0) that is re-emitted. As a consequence, the high content of CO2 in oxy-fuel combustion may decrease the re-emission of Hg(0) due to the solubility of CO2 in the suspension and the decrease in the pH. It was also found that O2 affects the stabilization of Hg(2+) species in gypsum slurries. The results of this study confirm that the amount of metals present in limestone as well as the redox potential and pH of the slurries in wet desulphurization plants need to be strictly controlled to reduce Hg(0) re-emissions from power plants operating under oxy-fuel combustion conditions.

  3. Transport and transformation of mercury during wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous metal smelting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhilou; Wang, Dongli; Peng, Bing; Chai, Liyuan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Shu; Yang, Bentao; Xiang, Kaisong; Liu, Cao

    2017-08-12

    Reducing mercury emission is hot topic for international society. The first step for controlling mercury in fuel gas is to investigate mercury distribution and during the flue gas treatment process. The mercury transport and transformation in wet flue gas cleaning process of nonferrous smelting industry was studied in the paper with critical important parameters, such as the solution temperature, Hg(0) concentration, SO2 concentration, and Hg(2+) concentration at the laboratory scale. The mass ratio of the mercury distribution in the solution, flue gas, sludge, and acid fog from the simulated flue gas containing Hg(2+) and Hg(0) was 49.12~65.54, 18.34~35.42, 11.89~14.47, and 1.74~3.54%, respectively. The primary mercury species in the flue gas and acid fog were gaseous Hg(0) and dissolved Hg(2+). The mercury species in the cleaning solution were dissolved Hg(2+) and colloidal mercury, which accounted for 56.56 and 7.34% of the total mercury, respectively. Various mercury compounds, including Hg2Cl2, HgS, HgCl2, HgSO4, and HgO, existed in the sludge. These results for mercury distribution and speciation are highly useful in understanding mercury transport and transformation during the wet flue gas cleaning process. This research is conducive for controlling mercury emissions from nonferrous smelting flue gas and by-products.

  4. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.

    2003-04-01

    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of cold quantum gases. Different aspects of atom optics, matter wave interferometry, laser manipulation of atoms and molecules, and production of very cold and degenerate gases are presented. The variety of subjects demonstrates the steadily expanding role associated with this research area. The topics discussed in this issue, extending from basic physics to applications of atom optics and of cold atomic samples, include: bulletBose--Einstein condensation bulletFermi degenerate gases bulletCharacterization and manipulation of quantum gases bulletCoherent and nonlinear cold matter wave optics bulletNew schemes for laser cooling bulletCoherent cold molecular gases bulletUltra-precise atomic clocks bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to metrology and spectroscopy bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to quantum computing bulletNanoprobes and nanolithography. This special issue is published in connection with the 7th International Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, held in Lunteren, The Netherlands, from 28 September to 2 October 2002. This was the last in a series of Workshops organized with the support of the European Community that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The scientific part of the Workshop was managed by A Hemmerich, W Hogervorst, W Vassen and J T M Walraven, with input from members of the International Programme Committee who are listed below. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Petra de Gijsel from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The Workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation (programme BEC2000+), the European Networks 'Cold Quantum Gases (CQG)', coordinated by E Arimondo, and 'Cold Atoms and Ultraprecise Atomic Clocks (CAUAC)', coordinated by J Henningsen, by the German Physical Society (DFG), by

  5. New particle formation in the fresh flue-gas plume from a coal-fired power plant: effect of flue-gas cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylläri, Fanni; Asmi, Eija; Anttila, Tatu; Saukko, Erkka; Vakkari, Ville; Pirjola, Liisa; Hillamo, Risto; Laurila, Tuomas; Häyrinen, Anna; Rautiainen, Jani; Lihavainen, Heikki; O'Connor, Ewan; Niemelä, Ville; Keskinen, Jorma; Dal Maso, Miikka; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric emissions, including particle number and size distribution, from a 726 MWth coal-fired power plant were studied experimentally from a power plant stack and flue-gas plume dispersing in the atmosphere. Experiments were conducted under two different flue-gas cleaning conditions. The results were utilized in a plume dispersion and dilution model taking into account particle formation precursor (H2SO4 resulted from the oxidation of emitted SO2) and assessment related to nucleation rates. The experiments showed that the primary emissions of particles and SO2 were effectively reduced by flue-gas desulfurization and fabric filters, especially the emissions of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Primary pollutant concentrations reached background levels in 200-300 s. However, the atmospheric measurements indicated that new particles larger than 2.5 nm are formed in the flue-gas plume, even in the very early phases of atmospheric ageing. The effective number emission of nucleated particles were several orders of magnitude higher than the primary particle emission. Modelling studies indicate that regardless of continuing dilution of the flue gas, nucleation precursor (H2SO4 from SO2 oxidation) concentrations remain relatively constant. In addition, results indicate that flue-gas nucleation is more efficient than predicted by atmospheric aerosol modelling. In particular, the observation of the new particle formation with rather low flue-gas SO2 concentrations changes the current understanding of the air quality effects of coal combustion. The results can be used to evaluate optimal ways to achieve better air quality, particularly in polluted areas like India and China.

  6. MOFs for CO2 capture and separation from flue gas mixtures: the effect of multifunctional sites on their adsorption capacity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijuan; Zhao, Yonggang; Gong, Qihan; Li, Zhong; Li, Jing

    2013-01-25

    Microporous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted tremendous attention because of their versatile structures and tunable porosity that allow almost unlimited ways to improve their properties and optimize their functionality, making them very promising for a variety of important applications, especially in the adsorption and separation of small gases and hydrocarbons. Numerous studies have demonstrated that MOFs with multifunctional groups, such as open metal sites (OMSs) and Lewis basic sites (LBSs), interact strongly with carbon dioxide and are particularly effective in its capture and separation from binary mixtures of CO(2) and N(2). In this feature article, we briefly review the current state of MOF development in this area, with an emphasis on the effect of multifunctional groups on the selectivity and capacity of MOFs for the CO(2) capture from flue gas mixtures.

  7. SNOX flue gas cleaning demonstration project: A DOE assessment

    SciTech Connect

    2000-06-01

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with a suite of advanced, cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally responsible coal-utilization technologies through cooperatively implementing a series of demonstration projects with industry stake holders. These projects seek to establish at scale the commercial viability of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as DOE's post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2, SNOX{trademark} Flue Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project. DOE's participation in this project through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-90PC89655 is consistent with Public Law 100-202 as amended by Public Law 100-446. The SNOX process is a combination of catalytic processes that remove sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and residual particulate matter (PM) from flue gas that has been pre-cleaned with particulate removal. The process generates salable sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) meeting an industry wide standard (US Government Specification O-S-801E) from the SO{sub 2} and converts the NO{sub x} to harmless nitrogen and water vapor. The integrated design of the process enables high-pollutant-removal efficiencies, no significant waste production (only very low quantities of flue gas ash and catalyst degradation fines), and significant heat recovery potential that can be used in the commercial application of the technology to attain increased thermal efficiency of the system. The host site chosen for this CCT demonstration project was Ohio Edison's Niles Station located along the Mahoning River in Niles, Ohio, just northwest of Youngstown. There are two cyclone coal-fired, steam electricity-generating units at the plant. The performance objectives of this project were as follows: to demonstrate SO{sub 2}-removal efficiency greater than 95%; to

  8. Hybrid heat exchange for the compression capture of CO2 from recirculated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2004-01-01

    An approach proposed for removal of CO2 from flue gas cools and compresses a portion of a recirculated flue-gas stream, condensing its volatile materials for capture. Recirculating the flue gas concentrates SOx, H2O and CO2 while dramatically reducing N2 and NOx, enabling this approach, which uses readily available industrial components. A hybrid system of indirect and direct-contact heat exchange performs heat and mass transfer for pollutant removal and energy recovery. Computer modeling and experimentation combine to investigate the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer, chemistry and engineering design of this integrated pollutant removal (IPR) system.

  9. Chemical Control of Nematodes on Flue-cured Tobacco in Brazil, Canada, United States, and Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Rich, J. R.; Arnett, J. D.; Shepherd, J. A.; Watson, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    A survey was conducted in four major flue-cured tobacco producing countries to determine use of nematicides for control of plant-parasitic nematodes on flue-cured tobacco. Included in the survey were scientists from Brazil, Canada, the United States, and Zimbabwe. Nematicides were used on 60-95% of the flue-cured tobacco crop in these regions. The choice of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides, however, varied greatly as influenced by the edaphic factors, nematode species, and other pests present. The major nematicides, application methods, and efficacy evaluation systems used in these countries were addressed. PMID:19287656

  10. Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

  11. Extended thermodynamics of dense gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arima, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Ruggeri, T.; Sugiyama, M.

    2012-11-01

    We study extended thermodynamics of dense gases by adopting the system of field equations with a different hierarchy structure to that adopted in the previous works. It is the theory of 14 fields of mass density, velocity, temperature, viscous stress, dynamic pressure, and heat flux. As a result, most of the constitutive equations can be determined explicitly by the caloric and thermal equations of state. It is shown that the rarefied-gas limit of the theory is consistent with the kinetic theory of gases. We also analyze three physically important systems, that is, a gas with the virial equations of state, a hard-sphere system, and a van der Waals fluid, by using the general theory developed in the former part of the present work.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section 1065.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.750 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 1065.750 Section 1065.750 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... § 1065.750 Analytical gases. Analytical gases must meet the accuracy and purity specifications of...

  14. 46 CFR 147.60 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compressed gases. 147.60 Section 147.60 Shipping COAST... Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.60 Compressed gases. (a) Cylinder requirements. Cylinders used for containing hazardous ships' stores that are compressed gases must be— (1) Authorized for...

  15. 46 CFR 147.60 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compressed gases. 147.60 Section 147.60 Shipping COAST... Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.60 Compressed gases. (a) Cylinder requirements. Cylinders used for containing hazardous ships' stores that are compressed gases must be— (1) Authorized for...

  16. 46 CFR 147.60 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compressed gases. 147.60 Section 147.60 Shipping COAST... Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.60 Compressed gases. (a) Cylinder requirements. Cylinders used for containing hazardous ships' stores that are compressed gases must be— (1) Authorized for...

  17. 46 CFR 147.60 - Compressed gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compressed gases. 147.60 Section 147.60 Shipping COAST... Other Special Requirements for Particular Materials § 147.60 Compressed gases. (a) Cylinder requirements. Cylinders used for containing hazardous ships' stores that are compressed gases must be— (1) Authorized for...

  18. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Treesearch

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  19. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 89.312 Section 89.312 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded....

  20. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polypropylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polypropylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The gases from this sample appeared to be equivalent or less toxic than the gases from a sample of polyethylene under these particular test conditions. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant.

  1. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using zero...

  2. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... gases shall be accurate to within ±1 percent of NIST gas standards, or other gas standards which have been approved by the Administrator. (3) Span gases shall be accurate to within ±2 percent of NIST gas... acceptable, provided that the blended gases are accurate to within ±1.5 percent of NIST gas standards, or...

  3. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-05-01

    Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.

  4. Flue-gas desulfurization inspection and performance evaluation. Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The intent of this manual is to provide inspectors from Federal and state environmental agencies with information regarding the problems that plague lime/limestone slurry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that will aid them in their inspections and performance evaluations of these systems with respect to compliance with the emission standards that have evolved since the passage of the 1970 Clean Air Act. A unique feature of the manual is its structure as a tool, or working document, which will accompany the inspector on each plant inspection. Thus, the document is presented in user friendly fashion and tailored to provide practical information for its intended use--to assist in the systematic inspection of an FGD system to determine present and future compliance status. The approach entails the use of nomographs, checklists, matrices, simplified diagrams, cross-referencing, and indexing of textual information, and the presentation of important guidelines and recommendations in a readily discernible fashion.

  5. The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

  6. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Research on flue gas clean-up continued. We have examined the dehydration behavior of the two particular aluminas which we have chosen to use as standard'' materials, a 99.995% pure {gamma}-alumina from Goodfellow with a surface area of 110--150 m{sup 2}/g and a commercial'' alumina from Alcoa, containing significant amounts of Boehmite, with a surface area of 325 m{sup 2}/g. Figures 1 through 4 are the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results from the two different materials. Figures 1 and 2 show the present weight losses as a function of temperature for the Goodfellow and Alcoa aluminas, respectively. The Goodfellow alumina loses approximately 7% of its total weight on heating to 800{degree}C, while the Alcoa alumina loses 18.75%. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  7. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-07-01

    Fossil fuels used for power generation, transportation, and by industry are the primary source of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. Much of the CO{sub 2} emission reduction effort will focus on large point sources, with fossil fuel fired power plants being a prime target. The CO{sub 2} content of power plant flue gas varies from 4% to 9% (vol), depending on the type of fossil fuel used and on operating conditions. Although new power generation concepts that may result in CO{sub 2} control with minimal economic penalty are under development, these concepts are not generally applicable to the large number of existing power plants.

  8. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Thomas Nelson

    2004-07-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2004 and June 30, 2004 on the preparation and use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Support materials and supported sorbents were prepared by spray drying. Sorbents consisting of 20 to 50% sodium carbonate on a ceramic support were prepared by spray drying in batches of approximately 300 grams. The supported sorbents exhibited greater carbon dioxide capture rates than unsupported calcined sodium bicarbonate in laboratory tests. Preliminary process design and cost estimation for a retrofit application suggested that costs of a dry regenerable sodium carbonate-based process could be lower than those of a monoethanolamine absorption system. In both cases, the greatest part of the process costs come from power plant output reductions due to parasitic consumption of steam for recovery of carbon dioxide from the capture medium.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Nelson; David Green; Paul Box; Raghubir Gupta; Gennar Henningsen

    2007-06-30

    Regenerable sorbents based on sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) can be used to separate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal-fired power plant flue gas. Upon thermal regeneration and condensation of water vapor, CO{sub 2} is released in a concentrated form that is suitable for reuse or sequestration. During the research project described in this report, the technical feasibility and economic viability of a thermal-swing CO{sub 2} separation process based on dry, regenerable, carbonate sorbents was confirmed. This process was designated as RTI's Dry Carbonate Process. RTI tested the Dry Carbonate Process through various research phases including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA); bench-scale fixed-bed, bench-scale fluidized-bed, bench-scale co-current downflow reactor testing; pilot-scale entrained-bed testing; and bench-scale demonstration testing with actual coal-fired flue gas. All phases of testing showed the feasibility of the process to capture greater than 90% of the CO{sub 2} present in coal-fired flue gas. Attrition-resistant sorbents were developed, and these sorbents were found to retain their CO{sub 2} removal activity through multiple cycles of adsorption and regeneration. The sodium carbonate-based sorbents developed by RTI react with CO{sub 2} and water vapor at temperatures below 80 C to form sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or Wegscheider's salt. This reaction is reversed at temperatures greater than 120 C to release an equimolar mixture of CO{sub 2} and water vapor. After condensation of the water, a pure CO{sub 2} stream can be obtained. TGA testing showed that the Na{sub 2}CO3 sorbents react irreversibly with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) (at the operating conditions for this process). Trace levels of these contaminants are expected to be present in desulfurized flue gas. The sorbents did not collect detectable quantities of mercury (Hg). A process was designed for the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-based sorbent that includes a co

  11. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir Gupta; Alejandro Lopez-Ortiz

    2001-01-01

    Four grades of sodium bicarbonate and two grades of trona were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, surface area, pore size distribution, and attrition. Surface area and pore size distribution determinations were conducted after calcination of the materials. The sorbent materials were subjected to thermogravimetric testing to determine comparative rates and extent of calcination (in inert gas) and sorption (in a simulated coal combustion flue gas mixture). Selected materials were exposed to five calcination/sorption cycles and showed no decrease in either sorption capacity or sorption rate. Process simulations were conducted involving different heat recovery schemes. The process is thermodynamically feasible. The sodium-based materials appear to have suitable physical properties for use as regenerable sorbents and, based on thermogravimetric testing, are likely to have sorption and calcination rates that are rapid enough to be of interest in full-scale carbon sequestration processes.

  12. Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains most of the papers, both invited and contributed, that were presented at the Workshop of Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies. This was the fifth in a biennial series associated with the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Subjects covered included the scattering and annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in various media, including those of astrophysical interest. In addition, the topics of antimatter and dark matter were covered.

  13. Theoretical Insight into Shocked Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Leiding, Jeffery Allen

    2016-09-29

    I present the results of statistical mechanical calculations on shocked molecular gases. This work provides insight into the general behavior of shock Hugoniots of gas phase molecular targets with varying initial pressures. The dissociation behavior of the molecules is emphasized. Impedance matching calculations are performed to determine the maximum degree of dissociation accessible for a given flyer velocity as a function of initial gas pressure.

  14. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

  15. Greenhouse Gases Monitoring from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    The role of greenhouse gases in global warming processes and an important element of the global carbon cycle is widely recognized. With the advent of the technical means to provide new monitoring and measurement of greenhouse gases (GHG) from space, JAXA has identified the coordination of these measurements and their application by cooperating with international space agencies. In order to foster the use of space-based GHG observations and consolidate data requirements for the next generation GHG monitoring mission from space, a synergetic strategy for easy access to GHG satellite observations, including GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Monitoring Satellite, JAXA) and current observations should be developed, and also harmonizing the next generation of GHG satellite observations shoud be facilitated. The Paper describes the current status of international activities of GHG monitoring from space and relations with policy makers and stake holders. The long term GHG monitoring from space is also proposed by respecting the GEO Carbon Strategy which is published in March 2010. Also, GOSAT sample XCO2 and XCH4 global column amount datasets will be introduced with the avtivities of validation campaign.

  16. Separation of CO2 from flue gas using electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pennline, H.W; Granite, E.J.; Luebke, D.R; Kitchin, J.R; Landon, J.; Weiland, L.M.

    2010-06-01

    ABSTRACT Past research with high temperature molten carbonate electrochemical cells has shown that carbon dioxide can be separated from flue gas streams produced by pulverized coal combustion for power generation, However, the presence of trace contaminants, i.e" sulfur dioxide and nitric oxides, will impact the electrolyte within the cell. If a lower temperature cell could be devised that would utilize the benefits of commercially-available, upstream desulfurization and denitrification in the power plant, then this CO2 separation technique can approach more viability in the carbon sequestration area, Recent work has led to the assembly and successful operation of a low temperature electrochemical cell. In the proof-of-concept testing with this cell, an anion exchange membrane was sandwiched between gas-diffusion electrodes consisting of nickel-based anode electrocatalysts on carbon paper. When a potential was applied across the cell and a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide was flowed over the wetted electrolyte on the cathode side, a stream of CO2 to O2 was produced on the anode side, suggesting that carbonate/ bicarbonate ions are the CO2 carrier in the membrane. Since a mixture of CO 2 and 02 is produced, the possibility exists to use this stream in oxy-firing of additional fuel. From this research, a novel concept for efficiently producing a carbon dioxide rich effiuent from combustion of a fossil fuel was proposed. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are captured from the flue gas of a fossilfuel combustor by one or more electrochemical cells or cell stacks. The separated stream is then transferred to an oxy-fired combustor which uses the gas stream for ancillary combustion, ultimately resulting in an effluent rich in carbon dioxide, A portion of the resulting flow produced by the oxy-fired combustor may be continuously recycled back into the oxy-fired combustor for temperature control and an optimal carbon dioxide rich effluent.

  17. Volatile metal species in coal combustion flue gas.

    PubMed

    Pavageau, Marie-Pierre; Pécheyran, Christophe; Krupp, Eva M; Morin, Anne; Donard, Olivier F X

    2002-04-01

    Metals are released in effluents of most of combustion processes and are under intensive regulations. To improve our knowledge of combustion process and their resulting emission of metal to the atmosphere, we have developed an approach allowing usto distinguish between gaseous and particulate state of the elements emitted. This study was conducted on the emission of volatile metallic species emitted from a coal combustion plant where low/medium volatile coal (high-grade ash) was burnt. The occurrence of volatile metal species emission was investigated by cryofocusing sampling procedure and detection using low-temperature packed-column gas chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as multielement detector (LT-GC/ICP-MS). Samples were collected in the stack through the routine heated sampling line of the plant downstream from the electrostatic precipitator. The gaseous samples were trapped with a cryogenic device and analyzed by LT-GC/ICP-MS. During the combustion process, seven volatile metal species were detected: three for Se, one for Sn, two for Hg, and one for Cu. Thermodynamic calculations and experimental metal species spiking experiments suggest that the following volatile metal species are present in the flue gas during the combustion process: COSe, CSSe, CSe2, SeCl2, Hg0, HgCl2, CuO-CuSO4 or CuSO4 x H2O, and SnO2 or SnCl2. The quantification of volatile species was compared to results traditionally obtained by standardized impinger-based sampling and analysis techniques recommended for flue gas combustion characterization. Results showed that concentrations obtained with the standard impinger approach are at least 10 times higher than obtained with cryogenic sampling, suggesting the trapping microaerosols in the traditional methods. Total metal concentrations in particles are also reported and discussed.

  18. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, March 1, 1994--May 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is converted to a sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is converted to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. Preliminary engineering activities involved evaluating various design options for the major process vessels with the principal focus being on the sorbent heater vessel, which is operated at the highest temperature. Additionally, the impact of the NOXSO system on power plant particulate emissions and opacity was estimated. It is predicted that particulate emissions will decrease slightly while opacity will increase slightly. Neither change will be significant enough to have an impact on emissions compliance. Advertised performance of the proposed adsorber separator is being verified by laboratory testing. Process studies activities included POC equipment inspection and materials evaluations.

  19. Commercial demonstration of the NOXSO SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal flue gas cleanup system. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, December 1, 1993--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The NOXSO process is a dry, post-combustion flue gas treatment technology which uses a regenerable sorbent to simultaneously adsorb sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas of a coal-fired utility boiler. In the process, the SO{sub 2} is reduced to sulfur by-product and the NO{sub x} is reduced to nitrogen and oxygen. It is predicted that the process can economically remove 90% of the acid rain precursor gases from the flue gas stream in a retrofit or new facility. The objective of the NOXSO Demonstration Project is to design, construct, and operate a flue gas treatment system utilizing the NOXSO process. The effectiveness of the process will be demonstrated by achieving significant reductions in emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. In addition, sufficient operating data will be obtained to confirm the process economics and provide a basis to guarantee performance on a commercial scale. The project is presently in the project definition and preliminary design phase. Data obtained during pilot plant testing which was completed on July 30, 1993 is being incorporated in the design of the commercial size plant. A suitable host site to demonstrate the NOXSO process on a commercial scale is presently being sought. The plant general arrangement has been revised to incorporate principles used in the design of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) plants. A NOXSO plant availability analysis was prepared using operating experience from the recently completed pilot plant as a basis. The impact of water desorption in the sorbent heater and water adsorption in the sorbent cooler has been quantified and incorporated into the NOXSO process simulator. NOXSO process economics has been updated based on the present design. Capital cost for a 500 MW plant designed to remove 98% of the SO{sub 2} and 85% of the NO{sub x} is estimated at $247/kW.

  20. Single-bubble sonoluminescence from noble gases.

    PubMed

    Yasui, K

    2001-03-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) from noble gases in water is studied theoretically in order to clarify the reason of the distinguished feature that the luminescence is strong for all noble gases, while the other systems of cavitation luminescence are greatly enhanced by the presence of the heavy noble gas(xenon). It is clarified that in spite of the larger thermal conductivity of lighter noble gases the maximum temperature in a SBSL bubble of lighter noble gases is higher due both to the segregation of water vapor and noble gas inside a SBSL bubble and the stronger acoustic drive of a SBSL bubble of lighter noble gases.

  1. Single-bubble sonoluminescence from noble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Kyuichi

    2001-03-01

    Single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) from noble gases in water is studied theoretically in order to clarify the reason of the distinguished feature that the luminescence is strong for all noble gases, while the other systems of cavitation luminescence are greatly enhanced by the presence of the heavy noble gas(xenon). It is clarified that in spite of the larger thermal conductivity of lighter noble gases the maximum temperature in a SBSL bubble of lighter noble gases is higher due both to the segregation of water vapor and noble gas inside a SBSL bubble and the stronger acoustic drive of a SBSL bubble of lighter noble gases.

  2. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Yin, G J; Yang, L Q; Wang, W; Cheng, D D

    2001-04-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a big difficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaust can meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  3. SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION INCREASE IN FLUE GAS ACROSS A WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental data from a laboratory scale wet scrubber simulator confirmed that oxidized mercury can be reduced by aqueous speciesand results in elemental mercury emissions under typical flue gas desulfurization conditions.

  4. Flue Gas Purification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO{sub 2} Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Fogash, Kevin

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO{sub 2} stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO{sub 2} derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  5. Flue Gas Perification Utilizing SOx/NOx Reactions During Compression of CO2 Derived from Oxyfuel Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Fogash

    2010-09-30

    The United States wishes to decrease foreign energy dependence by utilizing the country’s significant coal reserves, while stemming the effects of global warming from greenhouse gases. In response to these needs, Air Products has developed a patented process for the compression and purification of the CO2 stream from oxyfuel combustion of pulverized coal. The purpose of this project was the development and performance of a comprehensive experimental and engineering evaluation to determine the feasibility of purifying CO2 derived from the flue gas generated in a tangentially fired coal combustion unit operated in the oxy-combustion mode. Following the design and construction of a 15 bar reactor system, Air Products conducted two test campaigns using the slip stream from the tangentially fired oxy-coal combustion unit. During the first test campaign, Air Products evaluated the reactor performance based on both the liquid and gaseous reactor effluents. The data obtained from the test run has enabled Air Products to determine the reaction and mass transfer rates, as well as the effectiveness of the reactor system. During the second test campaign, Air Products evaluated reactor performance based on effluents for different reactor pressures, as well as water recycle rates. Analysis of the reaction equations indicates that both pressure and water flow rate affect the process reaction rates, as well as the overall reactor performance.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of coal-derived activated carbons for removal of mercury vapor from simulated coal combustion flue fases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsi, H.-C.; Chen, S.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Rood, M.J.; Richardson, C.F.; Carey, T.R.; Chang, R.

    1998-01-01

    Coal-derived activated carbons (CDACs) were tested for their suitability in removing trace amounts of vapor-phase mercury from simulated flue gases generated by coal combustion. CDACs were prepared in bench-scale and pilot-scale fluidized-bed reactors with a three-step process, including coal preoxidation, carbonization, and then steam activation. CDACs from high-organicsulfur Illinois coals had a greater equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity than activated carbons prepared from a low-organic-sulfur Illinois coal. When a low-organic-sulfur CDAC was impregnated with elemental sulfur at 600 ??C, its equilibrium Hg0 adsorption capacity was comparable to the adsorption capacity of the activated carbon prepared from the high-organicsulfur coal. X-ray diffraction and sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure examinations showed that the sulfur in the CDACs was mainly in organic forms. These results suggested that a portion of the inherent organic sulfur in the starting coal, which remained in the CDACs, played an important role in adsorption of Hg0. Besides organic sulfur, the BET surface area and micropore area of the CDACs also influenced Hg0 adsorption capacity. The HgCl2 adsorption capacity was not as dependent on the surface area and concentration of sulfur in the CDACs as was adsorption of Hg0. The properties and mercury adsorption capacities of the CDACs were compared with those obtained for commercial Darco FGD carbon.

  7. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M.

    1989-07-21

    The objective is to develop an all solid-state electrochemical technology to control SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The solid electrolyte is a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor such as a stabilized zirconia or ceria. The cell electrodes may be of various electronically conductive materials such as porous, high surface area nickel, silver, or gold. Work was performed in two areas, electrocatalyst preparation and testing and particulate control tests. Transition metal oxide electrocatalysts were tested by applying the electrocatalyst along with gold electrodes to a stabilized ceria solid electrolyte disk and measuring the reduction of NO and SO{sub 2} in gas mixtures containing 0 to 4% oxygen while a voltage was applied to the disk. The high temperature particulate control test apparatus was installed and flyash tests were done. The efficiency of high temperature particulate filters was also tested. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Capture of carbon dioxide from flue gas on TEPA-grafted metal-organic framework Mg2(dobdc).

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Song, Fujiao; Zhao, Yunxia; Zhong, Qin

    2013-10-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on a standard metal-organic framework Mg2(dobdc) (Mg/DOBDC or Mg-MOF-74) and a tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) modified Mg2(dobdc) (TEPA-Mg/DOBDC) were investigated and compared. The structural information, surface chemistry and thermal behavior of the adsorbent samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm analysis. CO2 adsorption capacity was measured by dynamic adsorption experiments with N2-CO2 mixed gases at 60 degrees C. Results showed that the CO2 adsorption capacity of Mg/DOBDC was significantly improved after amine modification, with an increase from 2.67 to 6.06 mmol CO2/g adsorbent. Moreover, CO2 adsorption on the TEPA-Mg/DOBDC adsorbent was promoted by water vapor, and the adsorption capacity was enhanced to 8.31 mmol CO2/g absorbent. The adsorption capacity of the TEPA-Mg/DOBDC adsorbent dropped only 3% after 5 consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles. Therefore, this kind of adsorbent can be considered as a promising material for the capture of CO2 from flue gas.

  9. Thermodynamics of Trapping Gases for Underwater Superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Patankar, Neelesh A

    2016-07-12

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness, and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag, enhance boiling, and reduce biofouling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. In this work, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g., air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data.

  10. Inert gases in Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinogradov, A. P.; Zadorozhnyy, I. K.

    1974-01-01

    The content and isotopic composition were studied of inert gases -- He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe -- in samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The samples were taken from depths of about 12 and 30 cm. The high concentrations of inert gases exceed by several orders their concentrations observed in ordinary stony meteorites. The gases in lunar regolith were a complex mixture of gases of different origins: Solar, cosmogenic, radiogenic, and so on. Solar wind gases predominated, distributed in the thin surficial layer of the regolith grains. The concentrations of these gases in the surficial layer is several cubic centimeters per gram. The isotopic composition of the inert gases of solar origin approaches their composition measured in gas-rich meteorites.

  11. Noble Metal Catalysts for Mercury Oxidation in Utility Flue Gas: Gold, Palladium and Platinum Formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Presto, A.A.; Granite, E.J

    2008-07-01

    The use of noble metals as catalysts for mercury oxidation in flue gas remains an area of active study. To date, field studies have focused on gold and palladium catalysts installed at pilot scale. In this article, we introduce bench-scale experimental results for gold, palladium and platinum catalysts tested in realistic simulated flue gas. Our initial results reveal some intriguing characteristics of catalytic mercury oxidation and provide insight for future research into this potentially important process.

  12. Sulfur oxides control technology series: Flue-gas desulfurization. Dual alkali process. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The report describes a dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. The collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate (CaSO4), or a mixed crystal of both salts, and is purged from the system.

  13. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs.

    PubMed

    Douskova, I; Doucha, J; Livansky, K; Machat, J; Novak, P; Umysova, D; Zachleder, V; Vitova, M

    2009-02-01

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO(2) for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO(2) simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% (v/v) CO(2) and 8-10% (v/v) O(2) for the photobioreactor agitation and CO(2) supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO(2) and air (11% (v/v) CO(2)). Correspondingly, the CO(2) fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO(2) l(-1) 24 h(-1)) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO(2) l(-1) 24 h(-1)). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements.

  14. Investigation on mercury removal method from flue gas in the presence of sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yongpeng; Qu, Zan; Xu, Haomiao; Wang, Wenhua; Yan, Naiqiang

    2014-08-30

    A new integrated process was developed for the removal and reclamation of mercury from the flue gas in the presence of SO2, typically derived from nonferrous metal smelting. The new process contains a pre-desulfurization unit (Stage I) and a co-absorption unit (Stage II). In Stage I, 90% of the SO2 from flue gas can be efficiently absorbed by ferric sulfate and reclaimed sulfuric acid. Meanwhile, the proportion of Hg(2+) and Hg(0) in the flue gas can be redistributed in this stage. Then, over 95% of the Hg(0) and the residual SO2 can be removed simultaneously with a composite absorption solution from the flue gas in Stage II, which is much more efficient for the Hg(0) reclaiming than the traditional method. The composite absorption solution in Stage II, which is composed of 0.1g/L HgSO4, 1.0% H2O2 and H2SO4, could effectively remove and reclaim Hg(0) overcoming the negative effect of SO2 on Hg(0) absorption. Moreover, the concentrations of HgSO4 and H2O2 were adjusted with the changes in of the concentrations of Hg(0) and SO2 in the flue gas. It is a potential and promising technology for the mercury removal and reclaim from the flue gas in the presence of SO2.

  15. Analysis and collection of PAHs in the flue gas of energy conversion facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Klakwarf, D.R.; Veverka, C.

    1983-10-01

    Sampling and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in flue gas from oil shale retorts and fossil-fuel power plants were performed in this study. The sampling train used to collect PAHs in the flue gas worked well, especially when long sampling periods were needed. This system was able to discriminate between PAHs in the vapor phase and those condensed on particles. The analytical results from the oil shale retort suggest that the diversity of PAHs in the flue gas originate from the oxidizer/combustion unit rather than the retort itself. However, since the testing was not done simultaneously, no firm conclusion can be made. The analytical results from the three coal fired power plants demonstrate the large variability in individual PAH concentrations one can encounter in the flue gas of these plants. These tests also confirm the presence of 1-nitropyrene in the flue gas of these plants and that most of the PAHs in the flue gas are in the gas phase. 9 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Device for cooling chimney gases

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.

    1980-10-14

    The invention relates to a device for cooling chimney-gases in such plants, where water, heated in a heating boiler, is supplied to heat consumers; e.g. radiators. According to the invention, a condenser-heat exchanger is arranged downstream of the heat consumers, a chimney gas cooler is situated in the chimney gas channel from the heating boiler, whereby said condenser-heat exchanger and said chimney gas cooler are parts of a closed cooling system, containing, e.g. Freon gas, together with a refrigerating compressor and a throttle.

  17. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  18. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  19. Development of Nano-crystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hai; Dong, Junhang; Lin, Jerry; Romero, Van

    2012-03-01

    This is a final technical report for the first project year from July 1, 2005 to Jan 31, 2012 for DoE/NETL funded project DE-FC26-05NT42439: Development of Nanocrystalline Doped-Ceramic Enabled Fiber Sensors for High Temperature In-Situ Monitoring of Fossil Fuel Gases. This report summarizes the technical progresses and achievements towards the development of novel nanocrystalline doped ceramic material-enabled optical fiber sensors for in situ and real time monitoring the gas composition of flue or hot gas streams involved in fossil-fuel based power generation and hydrogen production.

  20. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbent being used in this project is sodium carbonate which is converted to sodium bicarbonate, ''baking soda,'' through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Sodium bicarbonate is regenerated to sodium carbonate when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. Testing conducted previously confirmed that the reaction rate and achievable CO{sub 2} capacity of sodium carbonate decreased with increasing temperature, and that the global rate of reaction of sodium carbonate to sodium bicarbonate increased with an increase in both CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O concentrations. Energy balance calculations indicated that the rate of heat removal from the particle surface may determine the reaction rate for a particular particle system. This quarter, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were conducted which indicated that calcination of sodium bicarbonate at temperatures as high as 200 C did not cause a significant decrease in activity in subsequent carbonation testing. When sodium bicarbonate was subjected to a five cycle calcination/carbonation test, activity declined slightly over the first two cycles but was constant thereafter. TGA tests were also conducted with two other potential sorbents. Potassium carbonate was found to be less active than sodium carbonate, at conditions of interest in preliminary TGA tests. Sodium carbonate monohydrate showed negligible activity. Testing was also conducted in a 2-inch internal diameter quartz fluidized-bed reactor system. A five cycle test demonstrated that initial removals of 10 to 15 percent of the carbon dioxide in a simulated flue gas could be achieved. The carbonation reaction proceeded at temperatures as low as 41 C. Future work by TGA and in fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and transport

  1. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2017-04-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2-bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  2. Predicting Flows of Rarefied Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) is a flexible, highly automated, easy-to-use computer program for predicting flows of rarefied gases -- especially flows of upper-atmospheric, propulsion, and vented gases impinging on spacecraft surfaces. DAC implements the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is widely recognized as standard for simulating flows at densities so low that the continuum-based equations of computational fluid dynamics are invalid. DAC enables users to model complex surface shapes and boundary conditions quickly and easily. The discretization of a flow field into computational grids is automated, thereby relieving the user of a traditionally time-consuming task while ensuring (1) appropriate refinement of grids throughout the computational domain, (2) determination of optimal settings for temporal discretization and other simulation parameters, and (3) satisfaction of the fundamental constraints of the method. In so doing, DAC ensures an accurate and efficient simulation. In addition, DAC can utilize parallel processing to reduce computation time. The domain decomposition needed for parallel processing is completely automated, and the software employs a dynamic load-balancing mechanism to ensure optimal parallel efficiency throughout the simulation.

  3. Atmospheric trace gases in antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, R A; Khalil, M A; Dalluge, R W

    1981-01-16

    Trace gases have been measured, by electron-capture gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry techniques, at the South Pole (SP) in Antarctica and in the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) ( approximately 45 degrees N) during January of each year from 1975 to 1980. These measurements show that the concentrations of CCl(3)F, CCl(2)F(2), and CH(3)CCl(3) have increased exponentially at substantial rates. The concentration of CCl(3)F increased at 12 percent per year at the SP and at 8 percent per year in the PNW; CCl(2)F(2) increased at about 9 percent per year at both locations, and CH(3)CCl(3) increased at 17 percent per year at the SP and 11.6 percent per year at the PNW site. There is some evidence that CCl(4) ( approximately 3 percent per year) and N(2)O (0.1 to 0.5 percent per year) may also have increased. Concentrations of nine other trace gases of importance in atmospheric chemistry are also being measured at these two locations. Results of the measurements of CHClF(2)(F-22), C(2)Cl(3)F(3)(F-113), SF(6), C(2)-hydrocarbons, and CH(3)Cl are reported here.

  4. Bacterial contamination of anaesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, H; Vasegaard, M; Stokke, D B

    1978-08-01

    The bacterial content of oxygen and nitrous oxide immediately before and after passing through clean and used breathing systems (circuits) was measured using a specially constructed agar chamber (Bourdillon's slit sampler). The content per litre of oxygen from the outlet of the anaesthetic machine was 4.0 X 10-2, and 2.9 X 10-2 for nitrous oxide, corresponding to 3.5 X 10-2 for a 50% mixture of the gases. After passing through cleaned circuits, the bacterial pollution of the gas mixture had increased by 30%, but more than elevenfold after passing through used circuits. The content from cleaned circuits was less than that measured previously in the air of hospital wards and operating theatres, whereas gases from used circuits were polluted to approximately the same extent. It is concluded that used circuits may increase the risk of cross-infection. The cleaning method employed by us (dish-washer--hot airy drying) appeared to be acceptable.

  5. Capturing Gases in Carbon Honeycomb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.

    2016-12-01

    In our recent paper (Krainyukova and Zubarev in Phys Rev Lett 116:055501, 2016. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.055501) we reported the observation of an exceptionally stable honeycomb carbon allotrope obtained by deposition of vacuum-sublimated graphite. A family of structures can be built from absolutely dominant {sp}2 -bonded carbon atoms, and may be considered as three-dimensional graphene. Such structures demonstrate high absorption capacity for gases and liquids. In this work we show that the formation of honeycomb structures is highly sensitive to the carbon evaporation temperature and deposition rates. Both parameters are controlled by the electric current flowing through thin carbon rods. Two distinctly different regimes were found. At lower electric currents almost pure honeycomb structures form owing to sublimation. At higher currents the surface-to-bulk rod melting is observed. In the latter case densification of the carbon structures and a large contribution of glassy graphite emerge. The experimental diffraction patterns from honeycomb structures filled with absorbed gases and analyzed by the advanced method are consistent with the proposed models for composites which are different for Ar, Kr and Xe atoms in carbon matrices.

  6. Catalysts for oxidation of mercury in flue gas

    DOEpatents

    Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2010-08-17

    Two new classes of catalysts for the removal of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg) from effluent gases. Both of these classes of catalysts are excellent absorbers of HCl and Cl.sub.2 present in effluent gases. This adsorption of oxidizing agents aids in the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants. The catalysts remove mercury by oxidizing the Hg into mercury (II) moieties. For one class of catalysts, the active component is selected from the group consisting of iridium (Ir) and iridum-platinum (Ir/Pt) alloys. The Ir and Ir/Pt alloy catalysts are especially corrosion resistant. For the other class of catalyst, the active component is partially combusted coal or "Thief" carbon impregnated with Cl.sub.2. Untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-activating in the presence of effluent gas streams. The Thief carbon catalyst is disposable by means of capture from the effluent gas stream in a particulate collection device (PCD).

  7. Toxic gases used in the microelectronics industry.

    PubMed

    Wald, P H; Becker, C E

    1986-01-01

    Toxic gases are among the most dangerous materials used in manufacturing semiconductors and related devices. The storage, handling, and disposal of these gases pose a major hazard to workers and to communities located near high-technology companies. It must be anticipated that accidents, acts of terrorism, and natural calamities will result in exposure. Flammability, corrosiveness, and concentration must be considered, as well as the immediate danger to life and known human health effects of the gases used.

  8. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Tyler Moore; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-08-01

    This report describes research conducted between April 1, 2003 and June 30, 2003 on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for concentration of carbon dioxide from flue gas. Grade 1 sodium bicarbonate performed similarly to grade 5 sodium bicarbonate in fixed bed testing in that activity improved after the first carbonation cycle and did not decline over the course of 5 cycles. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that sodium bicarbonate sorbents produced by calcination of sodium bicarbonate are superior to either soda ash or calcined trona. Energy requirements for regeneration of carbon dioxide sorbents (either wet or dry) is of primary importance in establishing the economic feasibility of carbon dioxide capture processes. Recent studies of liquid amine sorption processes were reviewed and found to incorporate conflicting assumptions of energy requirements. Dry sodium based processes have the potential to be less energy intensive and thus less expensive than oxygen inhibited amine based systems. For dry supported sorbents, maximizing the active fraction of the sorbent is of primary importance in developing an economically feasible process.

  10. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  11. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  12. Composition of matter useful in flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, D.

    1983-05-03

    Flue gas having a content of sulfur dioxide is passed upwardly through a scrubbing tower against a descending flow of recycled aqueous sodium aluminate-sodium hydroxide liquor. The sulfur dioxide in the gas is converted to sodium and aluminum sulfates and sulfites and the liquor removes any fly ash present in the gas. Underflow is continuously discharged from the tower and is sent to an evaporator for removal of excess water. Make-up solutions of sodium sulfate and aluminum sulfate are added, as necessary. Carbonaceous reducing agent is added to the discharge from the evaporator. The mixture is continuously fed into a reducing furnace where the sulfates and sulfites are reduced to sulfides. The product of the furnace (Molten sodium and aluminum sulfides) is charged into a continuous hydrolyzer. Hydrogen sulfide is evolved and collected, and, if desired, its sulfur content is converted to elementary sulfur. The underflow from the hydrolyzer is filtered. The filtrate is aqueous sodium aluminate sodium hydroxide solution which is recycled to the scrubbing tower.

  13. Multi-component removal in flue gas by aqua ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, James T.; Pennline, Henry W.

    2007-08-14

    A new method for the removal of environmental compounds from gaseous streams, in particular, flue gas streams. The new method involves first oxidizing some or all of the acid anhydrides contained in the gas stream such as sulfur dioxide (SO.sub.2) and nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N.sub.2O) to sulfur trioxide (SO.sub.3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO.sub.2). The gas stream is subsequently treated with aqua ammonia or ammonium hydroxide which captures the compounds via chemical absorption through acid-base or neutralization reactions. The products of the reactions can be collected as slurries, dewatered, and dried for use as fertilizers, or once the slurries have been dewatered, used directly as fertilizers. The ammonium hydroxide can be regenerated and recycled for use via thermal decomposition of ammonium bicarbonate, one of the products formed. There are alternative embodiments which entail stoichiometric scrubbing of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides with subsequent separate scrubbing of carbon dioxide.

  14. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems.

  15. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-08-31

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO{sub 2} emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO{sub 2} removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge.

  16. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  17. Characteristics of pneumatically-emplaced dry flue gas desulfurization materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Rathbone, R.F.; Graham, U.M.; Robl, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    The University of Kentucky in collaboration with the Department of Energy, Addington, Inc. and Costain Coal is currently developing a commercial concept for the haul back of dry flue gas desulfurization materials (FGDM) into highwall mine adits. The University`s Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) is investigating emplacement systems for a mine demonstration which is planned for the third quarter of 1996. A laboratory-scale transport system has been built at the CAER to evaluate the potential of pneumatic transport for FGDM emplacement. The system is modeled after shotcreting systems in which water is mixed with cement (FGDM) in a nozzle at the end of the pneumatic pipe. Solids travel approximately 70 ft in the lab-scale system at a rate of up to 6 lb FGDM/minute prior to impingement onto a sample collector. Prehydrated FGDM from a circulating fluidized bed combustor has been successfully emplaced onto vertically positioned sample surfaces without excessive dust liberation. The test program is focussed on determining the pneumatic conditions necessary to maximize the strength of the emplaced FGDM under anticipated mine curing conditions while minimizing dust formation. The mineralogy and strength of a pneumatically created sample are described following curing for 60 days.

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Jeffrey W. Portzer; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Ya Liang; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple and inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates or intermediate salts through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests suggested that high calcination temperatures decrease the activity of sodium bicarbonate Grade 1 (SBC No.1) during subsequent carbonation cycles, but there is little or no progressive decrease in activity in successive cycles. SBC No.1 appears to be more active than SBC No.3. As expected, the presence of SO{sub 2} in simulated flue gas results in a progressive loss of sorbent capacity with increasing cycles. This is most likely due to an irreversible reaction to produce Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}. This compound appears to be stable at calcination temperatures as high as 200 C. Tests of 40% supported potassium carbonate sorbent and plain support material suggest that some of the activity observed in tests of the supported sorbent may be due to adsorption by the support material rather than to carbonation of the sorbent.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Thomas Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2005-10-01

    This report describes research conducted between July 1, 2005, and September 30, 2005, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from flue gas from coal combustion. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 10% sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) was obtained and characterized. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) testing confirmed that the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} sorbent reacted with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) at temperatures between 40 and 160 C. Although the rate of reaction was more rapid at lower temperatures, these data suggest that SO{sub 2} will not be released from the sorbent under expected sorbent-regeneration conditions. Preliminary work has been conducted to establish the design specifications for a laboratory screw-conveyor sorbent regeneration/cooling apparatus. A plan for a scheduled pilot-scale test of a heated hollow-screw conveyor was developed. This test will be conducted at facilities of the screw conveyor fabricator. This test will confirm the extent of sorbent regeneration and will provide data to evaluate multi-cycle sorbent attrition rates associated with this type of processing.

  20. Angular correlation studies in noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    There has been a recent revival of interest in the measurement of angular correlation of annihilation photons from the decay of positrons and positronium in gases. This revival has been stimulated by the possibility offered by the technique to shed new light on the apparently low positronium formation fraction in the heavier noble gases and to provide information on positronium quenching processes in gases such as oxygen. There is also the potential for learning about positronium slowing down in gases. This review focuses on experimental noble gas work and considers what new information has been, and may be, gained from these studies.

  1. New perspectives for noble gases in oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aeschbach, Werner

    2016-08-01

    Conditions prevailing in regions of deep water formation imprint their signature in the concentrations of dissolved noble gases, which are conserved in the deep ocean. Such "recharge conditions" including temperature, salinity, and interactions with sea ice are important in view of ocean-atmosphere CO2 partitioning. Noble gases, especially the temperature sensitive Kr and Xe, are well-established tracers to reconstruct groundwater recharge conditions. In contrast, tracer oceanography has traditionally focused on He isotopes and the light noble gases Ne and Ar, which could be analyzed at the required high precision. Recent developments of analytical and data interpretation methods now provide fresh perspectives for noble gases in oceanography.

  2. APPARATUS FOR CATALYTICALLY COMBINING GASES

    DOEpatents

    Busey, H.M.

    1958-08-12

    A convection type recombiner is described for catalytically recombining hydrogen and oxygen which have been radiolytically decomposed in an aqueous homogeneous nuclear reactor. The device is so designed that the energy of recombination is used to circulate the gas mixture over the catalyst. The device consists of a vertical cylinder having baffles at its lower enda above these coarse screens having platinum and alumina pellets cemented thereon, and an annular passage for the return of recombined, condensed water to the reactor moderator system. This devicea having no moving parts, provides a simple and efficient means of removing the danger of accumulated hot radioactive, explosive gases, and restoring them to the moderator system for reuse.

  3. Electron clusters in inert gases.

    PubMed

    Nazin, S; Shikin, V

    2008-10-17

    This Letter addresses the counterintuitive behavior of electrons injected into dense cryogenic media with negative scattering length L. Instead of strongly reduced mobility at all but the lowest densities due to the polaronic effect involving the formation of density enhancement clusters (expected in the theory with a simple gas-electron interaction successfully applied earlier to electrons in helium where L>0) which should substantially decrease the electron mobility, an opposite picture is observed: with increasing |L| (the trend taking place for inert gases with the growth of atomic number) and the gas density, the electrons remain practically free. An explanation of this behavior is provided based on consistent accounting for the nonlinearity of the electron interaction with the gaseous medium in the gas atom number density.

  4. Kinetics of degenerate atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geist, W.; You, L.; Kennedy, T. A. B.

    1998-05-01

    Using the Uehling-Uhlenbeck, or quantum Boltzmann equation, we discuss the kinetics and evaporative cooling of quantum degenerate gases confined in magnetic traps with cylindrical symmetry. We study the full nonergodic time evolution and compare with results obtained by making the ergodic or continuum energy approximation(C. W. Gardiner, P. Zoller, R. J. Ballagh, M. J. Davis, ``Quantum kinetic theory. Simulation of the quantum Boltzmann master equation'', Phys. Rev. A 56), 575 (1997).. We report evidence of strongly non-ergodic distribution functions, whose relaxation times do not coincide with other characteristic timescales, but depend on trap anisotropy. We also report our study of condensate growth which exhibits the same qualitative behaviour as observed in a recent experiment(H. J. Miesner, D. M. Stamper, M. R. Andrews, D. S. Durfee, S. Inouve, W. Ketterle, ``Bosonic stimulation in the formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate'', (preprint).). Preliminary results for sympathetic cooling of fermions by bosons will also be presented.

  5. Biological effects of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, J; Benes, J; Bolek, L; Markvartová, V

    2007-01-01

    Noble gases are known for their inertness. They do not react chemically with any element at normal temperature and pressure. Through that, some of them are known to be biologically active by their sedative, hypnotic and analgesic properties. Common inhalation anesthetics are characterized by some disadvantages (toxicity, decreased cardiac output, etc). Inhalation of xenon introduces anesthesia and has none of the above disadvantages, hence xenon seems to be the anesthetic gas of the future (with just one disadvantage - its cost). It is known that argon has similar anesthetic properties (under hyperbaric conditions), which is much cheaper and easily accessible. The question is if this could be used in clinical practice, in anesthesia of patients who undergo treatment in the hyperbaric chamber. Xenon was found to be organ-protective. Recent animal experiments indicated that xenon decreases infarction size after ischemic attack on brain or heart. The goal of our study is to check if hyperbaric argon has properties similar to those of xenon.

  6. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder

    DOE PAGES

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; ...

    2015-12-10

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. Here in this paper, we propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approachmore » the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.« less

  7. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul; Delgado, Hugo (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO, from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2, This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO, capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous supply of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

  8. Effects of flue gas compositions on nitrosamine and nitramine formation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Mitch, William A

    2014-07-01

    Amine-based technologies are emerging as the prime contender for postcombustion CO2 capture. However, concerns have arisen over the health impacts of amine-based CO2 capture associated with the release of nitrosamines and nitramines, which are byproducts from the reactions between flue gas NOx and solvent amines. In this study, flue gas compositions were systematically varied to evaluate their effects on the formation of nitrosamines and nitramines in a lab-scale CO2 capture reactor with morpholine as a model solvent amine. The accumulation of N-nitrosomorpholine in both the absorber and washwater increased linearly with both NO and NO2 for concentrations up to ∼20 ppmv. These correlations could be extrapolated to estimate N-nitrosomorpholine accumulation at extremely low NOx levels (0.3 ppmv NO2 and 1.5 ppmv NO). NO played a particularly important role in driving N-nitrosomorpholine formation in the washwater, likely following partial oxidation to NO2 by O2. The accumulation of N-nitromorpholine in both the absorber and washwater positively correlated with flue gas NO2 concentration, but not with NO concentration. Both N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitromorpholine accumulated fastest in the absence of CO2. Flue gas humidity did not affect nitrosamine accumulation in either the absorber or the washwater unit. These results provide a basis for estimating the effects of flue gas composition on nitrosamine and nitramine accumulation in postcombustion CO2 capture systems.

  9. Valorization of Flue Gas by Combining Photocatalytic Gas Pretreatment with Microalgae Production.

    PubMed

    Eynde, Erik Van; Lenaerts, Britt; Tytgat, Tom; Blust, Ronny; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2016-03-01

    Utilization of flue gas for algae cultivation seems to be a promising route because flue gas from fossil-fuel combustion processes contains the high amounts of carbon (CO2) and nitrogen (NO) that are required for algae growth. NO is a poor nitrogen source for algae cultivation because of its low reactivity and solublilty in water and its toxicity for algae at high concentrations. Here, we present a novel strategy to valorize NO from flue gas as feedstock for algae production by combining a photocatalytic gas pretreatment unit with a microalgal photobioreactor. The photocatalytic air pretreatment transforms NO gas into NO2 gas and thereby enhances the absorption of NOx in the cultivation broth. The absorbed NOx will form NO2(-) and NO3(-) that can be used as a nitrogen source by algae. The effect of photocatalytic air pretreatment on the growth and biomass productivity of the algae Thalassiosira weissflogii in a semicontinuous system aerated with a model flue gas (1% CO2 and 50 ppm of NO) is investigated during a long-term experiment. The integrated system makes it possible to produce algae with NO from flue gas as the sole nitrogen source and reduces the NOx content in the exhaust gas by 84%.

  10. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  11. Measurement of mercury in flue gas based on an aluminum matrix sorbent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7% recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg(0) on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg(0) was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field.

  12. Measurement of Mercury in Flue Gas Based on an Aluminum Matrix Sorbent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Wang, Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of total mercury in flue gas based on an economical aluminum matrix sorbent was developed in this paper. A sorbent trap consisted of three tubes was employed to capture Hg from flue gas. Hg trapped on sorbent was transferred into solution by acid leaching and then detected by CVAAS. Hg adsorbed on sorbent was recovered completely by leaching process. The 87.7% recovery of Hg in flue gas by tube 1 and tube 2 was obtained on the equipment of coal combustion and sampling in lab. In order to evaluate the ability to recover and accurately quantify Hg0 on the sorbent media, the analytical bias test on tube 3 spiked with Hg0 was also performed and got the average recovery of 97.1%. Mercury measurements based on this method were conducted for three coal-fired power plants in China. The mercury in coal is distributed into bottom ash, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash, wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) reactant, and flue gas, and the relative distribution varied depending on factors such as the coal type and the operation conditions of plants. The mercury mass balances of three plants were also calculated which were 91.6%, 77.1%, and 118%, respectively. The reliability of this method was verified by the Ontario Hydro (OH) method either in lab or in field. PMID:22235178

  13. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  14. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Gases Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Pinar Seda; Kaya, Ebru; Geban, Omer

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction (CCOI) over traditionally designed chemistry instruction (TDCI) on overcoming 10th grade students' misconceptions on gases concepts. In addition, the effect of gender difference on students' understanding of gases concepts was investigated. The…

  15. Terahertz pulse generation from noble gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yunqing; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Wang Mingfeng; Zhang, X.-C.

    2007-12-17

    Terahertz pulse generation in the laser-induced plasma from a series of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) was systematically investigated. Femtosecond laser pulses consisting of both a fundamental and its second-harmonic frequency were used for the terahertz generation. Experimental results reveal that terahertz generation efficiency of these noble gases increases with decreasing ionization potential.

  16. Predict thermal conductivities of pure gases

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The programs presented for the TI-59 programmable calculator can determine the thermal conductivity of pure gases and gases at low pressures as well as the effect of pressure on conductivity. They are based on correlations by Eucken, Stiel-Thodos, Misic-Thodos, Roy-Thodos, and Redlich-Kwong.

  17. CO₂ Capture Membrane Process for Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, Lora; Kataria, Atish; Gupta, Raghubir

    2012-04-01

    Because the fleet of coal-fired power plants is of such importance to the nation's energy production while also being the single largest emitter of CO₂, the development of retrofit, post-combustion CO₂ capture technologies for existing and new, upcoming coal power plants will allow coal to remain a major component of the U.S. energy mix while mitigating global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture technologies are an attractive option for coal-fired power plants as they do not require modification of major power-plant infrastructures, such as fuel processing, boiler, and steam-turbine subsystems. In this project, the overall objective was to develop an advanced, hollow-fiber, polymeric membrane process that could be cost-effectively retrofitted into current pulverized coal-fired power plants to capture at least 90% of the CO₂ from plant flue gas with 95% captured CO₂ purity. The approach for this project tackled the technology development on three different fronts in parallel: membrane materials R&D, hollow-fiber membrane module development, and process development and engineering. The project team consisted of RTI (prime) and two industrial partners, Arkema, Inc. and Generon IGS, Inc. Two CO₂-selective membrane polymer platforms were targeted for development in this project. For the near term, a next-generation, high-flux polycarbonate membrane platform was spun into hollow-fiber membranes that were fabricated into both lab-scale and larger prototype (~2,200 ft²) membrane modules. For the long term, a new fluoropolymer membrane platform based on poly(vinylidene fluoride) [PVDF] chemistry was developed using a copolymer approach as improved capture membrane materials with superior chemical resistance to flue-gas contaminants (moisture, SO₂, NOx, etc.). Specific objectives were: - Development of new, highly chemically resistant, fluorinated polymers as membrane materials with minimum selectivity of 30 for CO₂ over N₂ and CO₂ permeance

  18. Shawnee flue gas desulfurization computer model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, F.A.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    In conjunction with the US Enviromental Protection Agency sponsored Shawnee test program, Bechtel National, Inc., and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly developed a computer model capable of projecting preliminary design and economics for lime- and limestone-scrubbing flue gas desulfurization systems. The model is capable of projecting relative economics for spray tower, turbulent contact absorber, and venturi-spray tower scrubbing options. It may be used to project the effect on system design and economics of variations in required SO/sub 2/ removal, scrubber operating parameters (gas velocity, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ration, alkali stoichiometry, liquor hold time in slurry recirculation tanks), reheat temperature, and scrubber bypass. It may also be used to evaluate alternative waste disposal methods or additives (MgO or adipic acid) on costs for the selected process. Although the model is not intended to project the economics of an individual system to a high degree of accuracy, it allows prospective users to quickly project comparative design and costs for limestone and lime case variations on a common design and cost basis. The users manual provides a general descripton of the Shawnee FGD computer model and detailed instructions for its use. It describes and explains the user-supplied input data which are required such as boiler size, coal characteristics, and SO/sub 2/ removal requirments. Output includes a material balance, equipment list, and detailed capital investment and annual revenue requirements. The users manual provides information concerning the use of the overall model as well as sample runs to serve as a guide to prospective users in identifying applications. The FORTRAN-based model is maintained by TVA, from whom copies or individual runs are available. 25 refs., 3 figs., 36 tabs.

  19. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  1. Chemical and physical properties of dry flue gas desulfurization products.

    PubMed

    Kost, David A; Bigham, Jerry M; Stehouwer, Richard C; Beeghly, Joel H; Fowler, Randy; Traina, Samuel J; Wolfe, William E; Dick, Warren A

    2005-01-01

    Beneficial and environmentally safe recycling of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) products requires detailed knowledge of their chemical and physical properties. We analyzed 59 dry FGD samples collected from 13 locations representing four major FGD scrubbing technologies. The chemistry of all samples was dominated by Ca, S, Al, Fe, and Si and strong preferential partitioning into the acid insoluble residue (i.e., coal ash residue) was observed for Al, Ba, Be, Cr, Fe, Li, K, Pb, Si, and V. Sulfur, Ca, and Mg occurred primarily in water- or acid-soluble forms associated with the sorbents or scrubber reaction products. Deionized water leachates (American Society for Testing and Materials [ASTM] method) and dilute acetic acid leachates (toxicity characteristic leaching procedure [TCLP] method) had mean pH values of >11.2 and high mean concentrations of S primarily as SO(2-)4 and Ca. Concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se (except for ASTM Se in two samples) were below drinking water standards in both ASTM and TCLP leachates. Total toxicity equivalents (TEQ) of dioxins, for two FGD products used for mine reclamation, were 0.48 and 0.53 ng kg(-1). This was similar to the background level of the mine spoil (0.57 ng kg(-1)). The FGD materials were mostly uniform in particle size. Specific surface area (m2 g(-1)) was related to particle size and varied from 1.3 for bed ash to 9.5 for spray dryer material. Many of the chemical and physical properties of these FGD samples were associated with the quality of the coal rather than the combustion and SO2 scrubbing processes used.

  2. CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Green; Brian S. Turk; Raghubir P. Gupta; William J. McMichael; Douglas P. Harrison; Ya Liang

    2002-04-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a simple, inexpensive process to separate CO{sub 2} as an essentially pure stream from a fossil fuel combustion system using a regenerable, sodium-based sorbent. The sorbents being investigated in this project are primarily alkali carbonates, and particularly sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, which are converted to bicarbonates, through reaction with carbon dioxide and water vapor. Bicarbonates are regenerated to carbonates when heated, producing a nearly pure CO{sub 2} stream after condensation of water vapor. This quarter, electrobalance tests conducted at LSU indicated that exposure of sorbent to water vapor prior to contact with carbonation gas does not significantly increase the reaction rate. Calcined fine mesh trona has a greater initial carbonation rate than calcined sodium bicarbonate, but appears to be more susceptible to loss of reactivity under severe calcination conditions. The Davison attrition indices for Grade 5 sodium bicarbonate, commercial grade sodium carbonate and extra fine granular potassium carbonate were, as tested, outside of the range suitable for entrained bed reactor testing. Fluidized bed testing at RTI indicated that in the initial stages of reaction potassium carbonate removed 35% of the carbon dioxide in simulated flue gas, and is reactive at higher temperatures than sodium carbonate. Removals declined to 6% when 54% of the capacity of the sorbent was exhausted. Carbonation data from electrobalance testing was correlated using a shrinking core reaction model. The activation energy of the reaction of sodium carbonate with carbon dioxide and water vapor was determined from nonisothermal thermogravimetry.

  3. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-01-15

    It is concluded that the laboratory tests should be conducted at high levels of SO[sub 3] such that the resulting resistivity is in the range of 10[sup 7]--10[sup 8] ohm-cm. There are several reasons leading to this conclusion. At SO[sub 3] concentrations of 30 ppM and greater, the curves for both dew point and resistivity are relatively flat so that changes in gas phase SO[sub 3] will have minimal impact on particle characteristics. In addition, the electrostatic forces are relatively flat in this range so that changes in flue gas conditions will that result in a change in resistivity by up to two orders of magnitude will have little effect on the magnitude of reentrainment. Finally, at the very low resistivity conditions, reentrainment will be the highest. Since the purpose of the laboratory resistivity tests is to determine the relative ability of the various additives to reduce resistivity, the greater the reentrainment, the easier it will be to measure an improvement. Tests were conducted by first operating at baseline conditions with no additives and then repeating the test with additives. The data collected during each test includes the resistivity of the material, thickness of the collected dust layer, and subjective indications of the dust characteristics. The candidate additives were from the polymer group, cellulose derivatives, starches and gums, and oils. No waxes or synthetic compounds have been tested to date in the laboratory apparatus. Of the seventeen additives tested, eight appeared to have a positive impact on either the ash layer thickness or the physical appearance of the dust layer. Excessive deposits on the discharge electrode resulted during injection of some of the additives. Three of the additives resulted in significant deposits in the injection chamber. The build up on the electrode was interpreted as a positive indicator of increase particle adhesion. The initial observations and comments for the eight additives are listed in Table 1.

  4. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  5. Hyperpolarized noble gases as contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Hyperpolarized noble gases ((3)He and (129)Xe) can provide NMR signal enhancements of 10,000 to 100,000 times that of thermally polarized gases and have shown great potential for applications in lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by greatly enhancing the sensitivity and contrast. These gases obtain a highly polarized state by employing a spin exchange optical pumping technique. In this chapter, the underlying physics of spin exchange optical pumping for production of hyperpolarized noble gases is explained and the basic components and procedures for building a polarizer are described. The storage and delivery strategies of hyperpolarized gases for in vivo imaging are discussed. Many of the problems that are likely to be encountered in practical experiments and the corresponding detailed approaches to overcome them are also discussed.

  6. Compression stripping of flue gas with energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SO.sub.X and NO.sub.X and CO.sub.2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  7. Compression Stripping of Flue Gas with Energy Recovery

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2005-05-31

    A method of remediating and recovering energy from combustion products from a fossil fuel power plant having at least one fossil fuel combustion chamber, at least one compressor, at least one turbine, at least one heat exchanger and a source of oxygen. Combustion products including non-condensable gases such as oxygen and nitrogen and condensable vapors such as water vapor and acid gases such as SOX and NOX and CO2 and pollutants are produced and energy is recovered during the remediation which recycles combustion products and adds oxygen to support combustion. The temperature and/or pressure of the combustion products are changed by cooling through heat exchange with thermodynamic working fluids in the power generation cycle and/or compressing and/or heating and/or expanding the combustion products to a temperature/pressure combination below the dew point of at least some of the condensable vapors to condense liquid having some acid gases dissolved and/or entrained and/or directly condense acid gas vapors from the combustion products and to entrain and/or dissolve some of the pollutants while recovering sensible and/or latent heat from the combustion products through heat exchange between the combustion products and thermodynamic working fluids and/or cooling fluids used in the power generating cycle. Then the CO2, SO2, and H2O poor and oxygen enriched remediation stream is sent to an exhaust and/or an air separation unit and/or a turbine.

  8. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  9. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  10. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction... AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Mandatory Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated...

  11. 7 CFR 29.75b - Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... warehouse floors in designated markets. 29.75b Section 29.75b Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Inspection § 29.75b Display of baled flue-cured tobacco on auction warehouse floors in designated markets. Each lot of baled flue-cured tobacco displayed for sale on auction warehouse floors shall have...

  12. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  13. Novel process for simultaneous removal of NO(x) and SO2 from simulated flue gas by using a sustainable Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Raju, Thasan; Chung, Sang Joon; Moon, Il Shik

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a sustainable process for simultaneous removal of waste gases such as NO, NO2, and SO2 by an electrochemically generated Ag(I)/Ag(II) redox mediator system. High removal efficiency was achieved for NO and SO2 by the wet scrubbing method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This removal is achieved through oxidation and absorption by contacting the gaseous stream with redox mediator ions that offer specific or selective solubility for the solute gases to be recovered in a wet scrubber. The process parameters such as gas velocity, liquid velocity, Ag(I) concentration, and HNO3 concentration were investigated to explore the possibility of complete removal of waste gases. The Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based mediated electrochemical oxidation process proved to be quite effective for simultaneous removal of NO, NO(x), and SO2 from the simulated flue gas mixtures containing NO and SO2 over a wide concentration range of 100-400 ppm. Studies were carried out with individual gas components for the mixture, and the effect of input NO and input SO2 concentrations on the NO(x) and SO2 removal efficiencies at 20 degrees C was examined. Complete oxidation of NO to NO2 with 100% NO removal efficiency and 92% NO(x) removal efficiency was achieved along with 100% SO2 removal efficiency, highlighting a potentially far greater efficiency of the Ag(I)/Ag(II)-based system in functionality and selectivity. Active research work in this direction is anticipated in the near future.

  14. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent...

  15. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent...

  16. 40 CFR 86.514-78 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analytical gases. 86.514-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.514-78 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for... diluent. (2) Gases for the THC analyzer shall be: (i) Single blends of propane using air as the diluent...

  17. [The influence factors of SO2 removal in flue gas with a pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Li, J; Wu, Y; Wang, N; Li, G; Zhang, Y

    2001-09-01

    The influence of the operation parameters on SO2 removal rate with a pulsed corona discharge was studied in this paper, in order to promote the industrial applications of this technology. The flow rate of the flue gas was 1000-3000 m3/h. The SO2 removal rate reached 80%. The range of SO2 concentration in flue gas was 1000-2000 ml/m3. The flue gas temperature was 60 degrees C-80 degrees C. The molecule ratio of NH3 to SO2 was 2. The energy consumption was 3-5 W.h/Nm3. The wire-plane electrode structure and a positive high voltage pulse power supply were used in the experiment.

  18. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  19. Proof-of concept testing of the advanced NOXSO flue gas cleanup process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The NOXSO Process uses a regenerable sorbent that removes SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} simultaneously from flue gas. The sorbent is a stabilized {gamma}-alumina bed impregnated with sodium carbonate. The process was successfully tested at three different scales, equivalent to 0.017, 0.06 and 0.75 MW of flue gas generated from a coal-fired power plant. The Proof-of-Concept (POC) Test is the last test prior to a full-scale demonstration. A slip stream of flue gas equivalent to a 5 MW coal-fired power plant was used for the POC test. This paper summarizes the NOXSO POC plant and its test results.

  20. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.