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Sample records for fluegge var saurae

  1. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  2. Simulation of hypothetical Asian carp egg and larvae development and transport in the Lockport, Brandon Road, Dresden Island, and Marseilles Pools of the Illinois Waterway by use of the Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Duncker, James J.

    2016-04-05

    As part of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is conducting an assessment of the vulnerability of the Chicago Area Waterway System and Des Plaines River to Asian carp (specifically, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp) and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)) spawning and recruitment. As part of this assessment, the USACE requested the help of the U.S. Geological Survey in predicting the fate and transport of Asian carp eggs hypothetically spawned at the electric dispersal barrier on the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal and downstream of the Brandon Road Lock and Dam on the Des Plaines River under dry weather flow and high water temperature conditions. The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) model predicted that approximately 80 percent of silver carp eggs spawned near the electric dispersal barrier would hatch within the Lockport and Brandon Road pools (as close as 3.6 miles downstream of the barrier) and approximately 82 percent of the silver carp eggs spawned near the Brandon Road Dam would hatch in the Des Plaines River (as close as 1.6 miles downstream from the gates of Brandon Road Lock). Extension of the FluEgg model to include the fate and transport of larvae until gas bladder inflation—the point at which the larvae begin to leave the drift—suggests that eggs spawned at the electric dispersal barrier would reach the gas bladder inflation stage primarily within the Dresden Island Pool, and those spawned at the Brandon Road Dam would reach this stage primarily within the Marseilles and Starved Rock Pools.

  3. Measurement of /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Yee B.

    1988-10-01

    The current status of the measurement of ''direct'' CP violation parameters /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ in the Fermilab experiment E731 is reviewed. Preliminary results on upper limit for the decays K/sub L/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// and ..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup /minus// (from 20% of the data taken in 1987-88) are also reported. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and Pimenta racemosa var. grisea.

    PubMed

    Saenz, M T; Tornos, M P; Alvarez, A; Fernandez, M A; García, M D

    2004-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and P. racemosa var. grisea was determined against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. P. racemosa var. grisea demonstrated a more pronounced activity. These data would indicate the potential usefulness of the variety grisea as a microbiostatic, antiseptic or disinfectant agent.

  5. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  6. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  7. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  8. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  9. Pregnane glycosides from Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Olaf; Rao, Vijayalakshmi Gurunath; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Sujatha, Palatheeya; Sivagamy, Malayalam; Anuradha, Sandala; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Alex, Robert Michael; Schühly, Wolfgang; Kühnelt, Doris; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwara; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2008-02-01

    Eleven novel pregnane glycosides, 2-7 and 9-13, of which four, i.e., 10-13, comprised a new pregnane-type genin exhibiting a hydroxymethylene instead of a Me group at C(19), and the known pregnane glycoside stalagmoside V (8) were isolated from whole plants of Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata, a native Indian succulent plant. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies.

  10. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Aster ageratoides var. pilosus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fu-Lin; Wang, Ai-Xia; Jia, Zhong-Jian

    2004-11-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, 2beta,3beta,16alpha-trihydroxyl-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2beta,3beta-dihydroxyl-16-O-beta-D-glucopyranose-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and two known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Aster ageratoides var. pilosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR). In addition, the anti-bacterial activity and anti-tumor activity of compound 2 were tested.

  11. Genetic maps for Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis using AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M; Cross, M; Dieters, M J; Henry, R

    2003-05-01

    Genetic maps for individual Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis trees were generated using a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A total of 329 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) and 12 microsatellite markers were found to segregate in a sample of 93 interspecfic F(1) progeny. The male P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent was more heterozygous than the female P. elliottii var. elliottii parent with 19% more markers segregating on the male side. Framework maps were constructed using a LOD 5 threshold for grouping and interval support threshold of LOD 2. The framework map length for the P. elliottii var. elliottii megagametophyte parent (1,170 cM Kosambi; 23 linkage groups) was notably smaller than the P. caribaea var. hondurensis pollen parent (1,658 cM Kosambi; 27 linkage groups). The difference in map lengths was assumed to be due to sex-related recombination variation, which has been previously reported for pines, as the difference in map lengths not be accounted for by the larger number of markers mapping to the P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent - 109 compared with 78 in P. elliottii var. elliottii parent. Based on estimated genome sizes for these species, the framework maps for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis covered 82% and 88% of their respective genomes. The pseudo-testcross strategy was extended to include AFLP and microsatellite markers in an intercross configuration. These comprehensive maps provided further genome coverage, 1,548 and 1,828 cM Kosambi for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, respectively, and enabled homologous linkage groups to be identified in the two parental maps. Homologous linkage groups were identified for 11 out of 24 P. elliottii var. elliottii and 10 out of 25 P. caribaea var. hondurensis groups. A higher than expected level of segregation distortion was found for both AFLP and microsatellite markers. An explanation for this segregation

  12. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  13. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  14. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  15. Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh K; Verma, Suman K

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves were studied for their phytochemical constituents and termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. The 5% chloroform extract was found to be significantly effective against termite workers.

  16. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  17. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

  18. New pseudoguaiane derivatives from Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Genova, Viktoriya; Shestakova, Pavletta; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Jadranine, Milka; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2014-08-01

    The aerial parts of Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana afforded parthenolide, diepoxycostunolide, inusoniolide, chrysosplenol C and four new pseudoguaiane-type sesquiterpenoids. Their structures were determined using spectral methods and relative stereochemistry by NOESY correlations.

  19. Immunomodulatory Activity of Xanthones from Calophyllum teysmannii var. inuphylloide.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M J; Nascimento, M S; Cidade, H M; Pinto, M M; Kijjoa, A; Anantachoke, C; Silva, A M; Herz, W

    1999-05-01

    Nine xanthones, including 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metnylbutyl)-4,8-dihydroxyxanthone, were isolated from the wood of a Thai collection of CALOPHYLLUM TEYSMANNII Miq. var. INUPHYLLOIDE (King) P. Stephen. Immunomodulatory activities of eight of these have been investigated.

  20. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  1. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  2. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    PubMed

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  3. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  4. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  5. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum - var silencing is not dependent on antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Stuart A; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mattei, Denise; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Guigon, Ghislaine; Coppee, Jean-Yves; David, Peter H; Scherf, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, undergoes antigenic variation through successive presentation of a family of antigens on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes. These antigens, known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins, are subject to a mutually exclusive expression system, and are encoded by the multigene var family. The mechanism whereby inactive var genes are silenced is poorly understood. To investigate transcriptional features of this mechanism, we conducted a microarray analysis of parasites that were selected to express different var genes by adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) or CD36. Results In addition to oligonucleotides for all predicted protein-coding genes, oligonucleotide probes specific to each known var gene of the FCR3 background were designed and added to the microarray, as well as tiled sense and antisense probes for a subset of var genes. In parasites selected for adhesion to CSA, one full-length var gene (var2csa) was strongly upregulated, as were sense RNA molecules emanating from the 3' end of a limited subset of other var genes. No global relationship between sense and antisense production of var genes was observed, but notably, some var genes had coincident high levels of both antisense and sense transcript. Conclusion Mutually exclusive expression of PfEMP1 proteins results from transcriptional silencing of non-expressed var genes. The distribution of steady-state sense and antisense RNA at var loci are not consistent with a silencing mechanism based on antisense silencing of inactive var genes. Silencing of var loci is also associated with altered regulation of genes distal to var loci. PMID:16277748

  7. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  8. New diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y H; Chen, C H; Huang, S L

    1998-06-26

    An abietane diterpene, 11,14-dihydroxy-8,11,13-abietatrien-7-one (1); a seco-abietane diterpene, obtuanhydride (2); and an isopimarane diterpene, 18,19-O-isopropylidene-18, 19-dihydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-diene (3) were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  9. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  10. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    PubMed

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  11. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  12. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  13. Autofluorescence of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida.

    PubMed

    Zižka, Z; Gabriel, J

    2011-03-01

    Autofluorescence (primary fluorescence (AF)) of fruiting bodies and stems of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida was studied by fluorescence microscopy including sporangia and ascospores. The ascospores were characterized by a weak green-yellow AF at blue excitation. Using a green excitation, no AF was observed. The hyphae located under the layer of asci with ascospores exhibited a higher primary fluorescence, namely their walls that had green-yellow color at blue excitation. Also, their red AF observed when a green excitation was used was significant. Similarly, the hyphae located in the fungal stem exhibited a significant AF, especially their walls when the blue light was used for excitation. In addition, large, yellow-to-yellow/green, oval-to-round bodies with strong fluorescence were detected whose morphological equivalents were not clearly visible in the white halogen light. The AF of the fungus M. conica var. rigida was lower compared with the other higher fungi studied so far.

  14. Synthesis of Calocybe indica var. APK2 polysaccharide repeating unit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiangming

    2014-06-04

    The first total synthesis of p-methoxyphenyl α-l-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) was achieved starting from five monosaccharide building blocks. This structure represents the repeating unit of the polysaccharide isolated from edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2, and was synthesized in high overall yield via a convergent '3+2' glycosylation strategy.

  15. New lignans from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-07-01

    Four new lignans, 3',4'-O,O-demethylenehinokinin (1), chamalignolide (2), 8'beta-hydroxyhinokinin (3) and 7beta,8beta-epoxyzuonin A (4), as well as (-)-hinokinin (5), and (-)-zuonin A (6), were isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana. The structures of these lignans were unambiguously determined by spectroscopic methods. And the absolute configuration of 1 was elucidated with a circular dichroism (CD) spectrum.

  16. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

  17. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  18. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Italian clinical Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zamfirova, Ralika R; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii is the major etiological agent of cryptococcal meningitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The current PCR-based molecular methods are not sufficient to discriminate among the different populations of this yeast. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the genotypes of the Italian clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 53 isolates, each representative of a single case, were studied. Genotyping was performed using the ISHAM Cryptococcus MLST consensus scheme and the results were compared to the publically available global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset. A total of 16 genotypes were identified; 14 were new genotypes, one was identical to sequence type (ST) ST81, which had been previously reported from Thailand, and one to ST23 already identified in Uganda, the USA and Korea. Sequence type ST61 was the most numerous, including 16 isolates. Network phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian isolates could be divided into at least three clusters with similarities with those recovered in Africa, Asia and Americas. Distribution of the STs among the isolates could not be correlated to the hospital in which they were recovered or to the HIV status of the patients. The majority of the isolates belonged to the molecular type VNI; three belonged to the rare molecular type VNII and one to the VNB group, which until now had not been described in Europe. The results reveal that the Italian C. neoformans var. grubii population presents a distinct variability, displaying a high number of new genotypes, and probably recombines sexually.

  20. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  1. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  2. A flicker reduction control strategy using an adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Jatskevich, J.; Wasynczuk, O.; Conrad, L.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed computer model of a power network with loads, resistance welders and an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) has been developed and used to determine the effectiveness of the AVC on the reduction of observable flicker at neighboring loads. Flicker severity is determined using the UIE/IEC flickermeter methodology. Different control strategies for the AVC are considered and compared with respect to flicker reduction. A new flicker adaptive control (FAC) strategy is proposed that can be used for both power factor correction and flicker reduction. The measurement technique used in the FAC is shown to be accurate even in presence of significant harmonic distortion.

  3. Adaptive fuzzy logic control of a static VAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Routray, A.; Panda, P.C.; Panda, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A fuzzy gain scheduling scheme for PID controller for transient and dynamic voltage stabilization of power transmission systems has been presented in this paper. Fuzzy rules and reasoning are utilized on-line to determine the controller parameters based on the error signal and its derivative. The static VAR controller is designed with the bus angle deviation and its rate as the input signal to a fuzzy PI or PID control loop. This control is tested for a power transmission system supplying dynamic loads and provides superior performance.

  4. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  5. [Coumarins from Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Chen, Erlin

    2009-05-01

    The root of Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum was extracted with methanol, then separated with solvents at different polarity into four fractions: aqueous (H2O), ethyl acetate (AcOEt), chloroform (CHCl3) and petroleum ether (DAB-6). From AcOEt psoralen, bargapten, xanthotoxin, marmesin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, (+/-) peuformosin, Pd-I b, (+/-) selinidin, praeruptorin D were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, using petroleum ether/ethyl acetate as eluent. The structures of the coumarins were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  6. Pungent Alkamides from Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Nagashima, M

    1992-01-01

    A main pungent amide, spilanthol (1), and three alkamides, (2E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)-2-undecene-8,10-diynamide (2), (2E,7Z)-N-isobutyl-2,7-tridecadiene-10,12-diynamide (3), and (7Z)-N-isobutyl-7-tridecene-10,12-diynamide (4) were isolated from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2 and 4 were new and 3 was found for the first time in Spilanthes species. Chemotaxonomic aspects are discussed.

  7. Novel diterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Hsiu-Chuan

    2004-06-01

    Two novel diterpenes, obtusanal B (1) and obtusadione (2), along with obtusanal A (3), obtunone (4), 12-hydroxy-6,7-secoabieta-8,11,13-triene-6,7-dial, 8,12-dihydroxydielmentha-5,9-diene-7,11-dione and myrcene, isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana, were characterized by spectroscopic means, including 2D-NMR techniques. Compounds 1 and 2 are 7(6-->2)abeoabietane and 14(8-->9)abeoabietane type diterpenes, respectively. Their biosyntheses were proposed.

  8. A new languidulane diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Escárcega-Bobadilla, Martha Verónica; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

    2011-10-21

    From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β) of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  9. Spasmolytic constituents from Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, S; Farhat, F; Sultana, I; Siddiqui, B S; Shaheen, F; Gilani, A H

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical studies on the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa have resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenoid camaldulin (3beta-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4), and beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR studies. Compounds 1-3 were tested for spasmolytic activity and were found to possess calcium antagonist activity.

  10. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  11. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... must be identified. Each VAR formula record must also contain the following information: (a) Automated... description of each adjustment to any initially set concentration. The concentration adjustment information..., accessible, and easily readable. VAR formula records must also be stored with access and audit...

  12. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  13. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  14. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable. (i) For a facility which uses in-line meters to measure detergent usage, the total volume of... formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii... supporting data may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or...

  15. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  16. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  17. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  18. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  19. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  20. 1D-Var assimilation of TMI and SSM/I observations in rainy areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, E.; Lopez, P.; Bauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The assimilation of observations related to cloud and precipitation has become a very important issue for most operational weather services including ECMWF. A 1D-Var method was developed by Marécal and Mahfouf (2000) for correcting individual profiles of the model's control variables in order to decrease the discrepancies that often exist between the simulated surface rainfall rates and corresponding retrievals obtained from TMI or SSM/I microwave measurements. Instead of performing the 1D-Var on surface rainfall rates that are derived from multi-channel microwave brightness temperatures (BTs) thanks to various algorithms, the 1D-Var calculations have been applied to the BTs directly. The multiple sensitivities of the BTs to the vertically integrated amounts of rain water and cloud water should provide a stronger constraint on the 1D-Var minimization. Another advantage of this method could result from the better knowledge of the errors on observed BTs than on derived rainfall rates. The potential of applying 1D-Var directly to TMI and SSM/I microwave brightness temperatures has been investigated in this study and its results have been compared with the 1D-Var with derived rainfall rates. Results are presented for a pacific super-typhoon and for a north-atlantic extratropical front. A comparison of the retrieved rain profiles using both methods with rain information deduced from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) is also presented. Additional direct comparisons with the PR reflectivities will be shown by A. Benedetti (2003). Following the work by Marécal and Mahfouf (2002), indirect "1D-Var + 4D-Var" assimilation experiments will be performed. In this approach, the temperature and humidity increments provided by the 1D-Var are first converted into total column water vapour pseudo-observations that are in turn assimilated in ECMWF's 4D-Var system.

  1. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  2. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  4. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  5. Minor pregnanes from Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kommidi Devendar; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Braca, Alessandra; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwar; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora (Asclepiadaceae) whole plant extracts allowed to isolate one pregnane glycoside and two pregnanes characterized as 12β,20-O-dibenzoyl-5α,6-dihydrosarcostin β-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxypyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranoside (1), 12β-O-benzoyl-3β,11α,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (2), and 11α-O-benzoyl-3β,12β,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (3), respectively. Their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. Three known pregnane glycosides along with lupeol and β-sitosterol were also isolated and characterized.

  6. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  7. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  8. Origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Diploid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria C.; Clarke, David L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Viviani, Maria A.

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATα. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the present study, 133 isolates, mostly from Italian patients, were investigated to detect the presence of diploid strains in the Igiene Università Milano culture collection. All of the diploid isolates were further investigated by different methods to elucidate their origins. Forty-nine diploid strains were identified by flow cytometry. PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer showed that the diploid state was associated with two specific genotypes identified as VN3 and VN4. Determination of mating type on V8 juice medium confirmed that the majority of the strains were sterile. PCR and dot blotting using the two pheromone genes (MFa and MFα) as probes identified 36 of the 49 diploid isolates as MATa/α. The results of pheromone gene sequencing showed that two allelic MFα genes exist and are distinct for serotypes A and D. In contrast, the MFa gene sequence was conserved in both serotype alleles. Amplification of serotype-specific STE20 alleles demonstrated that the diploid strains contained one mating locus inherited from a serotype A parent and one inherited from a serotype D parent. The present results suggest that diploid isolates may be common among the C. neoformans population and that in Italy and other European countries serotype A and D populations are not genetically isolated but are able to recombine by sexual reproduction. PMID:11682503

  9. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: Separate Varietal Status for Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Franzot, Sarah P.; Salkin, Ira F.; Casadevall, Arturo

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans presently includes isolates which have been determined by the immunologic reactivity of their capsular polysaccharides to be serotype A and those which have been determined to be serotype D. However, recent analyses of the URA5 sequences and DNA fingerprinting patterns suggest significant genetic differences between the two serotypes. Therefore, we propose to recognize these genotypic distinctions, as well as previously reported phenotypic differences, by restricting C. neoformans var. neoformans to isolates which are serotype D and describing a new variety, C. neoformans var. grubii, for serotype A isolates. PMID:9986871

  10. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  11. Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica in China (Acari, Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Yan-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica, namely Aculops jilinensis sp. n. and Phyllocoptes terniflores sp. n., are described. Both species infest the tender leaves of host plants, inducing severe curling and blistering. PMID:27833416

  12. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  13. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves. PMID:22171181

  14. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  15. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  16. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    PubMed

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  17. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans.

  18. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  19. Genomic organization and expression of 23 new genes from MATalpha locus of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Roncaglia, Paola; Springer, Deborah J; Fan, Jinjiang; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-07

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease of the brain. Molecular studies of Cn variety gattii have lagged behind other two varieties (var. grubii and var. neoformans) although they have distinct biology and disease patterns. We focused on gene discovery in MATalpha locus because it predominates in clinical strains. A var. gattii cosmid library was screened with DNA probes from other two varieties. Two positive clones were sequenced to identify ORFs based on similarities to known proteins, and to ESTs using bioinformatics, and manually by a curator. Approximately 76kb sequenced DNA revealed 23 genes and ORFs. The existence of predicted genes was verified by RT-PCR analyses designed to amplify spliced sequences. The results confirmed that the transcripts were expressed both at 30 and 37 degrees C. The var. gattii MATalpha locus genes showed rearrangements in order and orientation vis-a-vis other two varieties. Mating-specific genes showed higher nonsynonymous mutation rates, and gene trees showed var. gattii strains in a distinct clade. The identification of the largest number, thus far, of var. gattii structural genes should set the stage for future molecular pathogenesis studies.

  20. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  1. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  2. Isolation of Su(var)3-7 mutations by homologous recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Seum, Carole; Pauli, Daniel; Delattre, Marion; Jaquet, Yannis; Spierer, Anne; Spierer, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Su(var)3-7 gene, a haplo-suppressor and triplo-enhancer of position-effect variegation (PEV), encodes a zinc finger heterochromatin-associated protein. To understand the role of this protein in heterochromatin and genomic silencing, mutations were generated by homologous recombination. The donor fragment contained a yellow(+) gene and 7.6 kb of the Su(var)3-7 gene inserted between two FRTs. The Su(var)3-7 sequence contained three stop codons flanking an I-SceI cut site located in the 5' half of the gene. Using two different screening approaches, we obtained an allelic series composed of three mutant alleles. The three mutations are dominant suppressors of PEV. One behaves as a null mutation and results in a maternal-effect recessive lethal phenotype that can be rescued by a zygotic paternal wild-type gene. A P transposon zygotically expressing a Su(var)3-7 full-length cDNA also rescues the mutant phenotype. One hypomorphic allele is viable and the pleiotropic phenotype showed by adult flies indicates that rapidly and late dividing cells seem the most affected by reduced amounts of Su(var)3-7 protein. All three mutants were characterized at the molecular level. Each expresses a portion of the Su(var)3-7 protein that is unable to enter the nucleus and bind chromatin. PMID:12136016

  3. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. haldia leaves.

    PubMed

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-02-15

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin(®) as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  4. ACAT inhibitory activity of exudates from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an enzyme controlling cholesterol esterification in cells. Large amounts of cholesterol esters accumulate in macrophages and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls resulting in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, atherosclerosis might be inhibited through inhibition of the activity of ACAT. In the present study, we identified by spectral analysis and chromatographic quantification that ferruginol was the most abundant component of exudates secreted from the wounding site of Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana. Results obtained from the cholesterol absorption assay revealed that ferruginol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in mice macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell). Based on the results from analyzing the ratio of cholesterol esterification, ferruginol dose-dependently suppressed cholesterol esterification and the IC50 value was 2.0 microg/mL. In conclusion, ferruginol revealed strong inhibitory activities that retarded the absorption and esterification of cholesterol in cells. Our finding indicates that ferruginol might possess a potential for development as a pharmaceutical product for preventing arteriosclerosis.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  6. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  7. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population.

  8. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  9. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  10. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested.

  11. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  12. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  13. Antioxidant properties of European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule).

    PubMed

    Rop, Otakar; Reznicek, Vojtech; Valsikova, Magdalena; Jurikova, Tunde; Mlcek, Jiri; Kramarova, Daniela

    2010-06-23

    In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars Leningradskaya otbornaya , Souzga and Taezny rubiny of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r(2) = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r(2) = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  14. Indolizidine, antiinfective and antiparasitic compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Ashfaq, Mohammad K; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Manly, Susan P; Joshi, Vaishali C; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    A new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride (1) was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa. Three additional new (2-4) and one known (5) indolizidines were also isolated, and the dihydrochloride salts of 1-3 (compounds 6, 7, and 8) were prepared. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra. Compound 1 showed potent in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus (IC(50) values = 0.4 and 3.0 microg/mL, respectively) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare (IC(50) values of 0.35 and 0.9 microg/mL, respectively). The remarkable in vitro fungicidal activity of 1-4 against C. neoformans (MFCs = 0.63-1.25 microg/mL) and 2, 3, and 5 against A. fumigatus (MFCs = 0.63-2.5 microg/mL) were similar to amphotericin B, but >2-4-fold more potent than 6-8. Prosopilosidine (1) showed potent in vivo activity at 0.0625 mg/kg/day/ip for 5 days in a murine model of cryptococcosis by eliminating approximately 76% of C. neoformans infection from brain tissue compared to approximately 83% with amphotericin B at 1.5 mg/kg/day. Compounds 1 and 4 exhibited potent activity and high selectivity index (SI) values against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values of 39 and 95 ng/mL and 42 and 120 ng/mL, respectively (chloroquine, IC(50) = 17 and 140 ng/mL). Prosopilosine (1) also showed in vivo antimalarial activity, with an ED(50) value of approximately 2 mg/kg/day/ip against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice after 3 days of treatment.

  15. Identification of parental genomes and genomic organization in Aster microcephalus var. ovatus.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Soejima, Akiko; Hoshi, Yoshikazu

    2007-09-01

    The karyotype of diploid Aster iinumae is morphologically similar to that of diploid Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides, however, its chromosome size is apparently smaller (S-type chromosomes versus L-type chromosomes, respectively). The hybrid origin of tetraploid Aster microcephalus var. ovatus (LS-type chromosomes) has previously been suggested by cytogenetics and chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) data. The cp DNA phylogeny also implies that the S-type chromosome is apomorphic, which means that genome size reduction occurred on the evolutionary way to A. iinumae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the chromosome size difference does not depend on the intensity of chromosome condensation but on the DNA content. The simultaneous genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) results show the similarity between S-type chromosomes of A. iinumae and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, and between L-type chromosomes of A. ageratoides and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, which provide additional evidence for A. microcephalus var. ovatus being a tetraploid amphidiploid produced by hybridization between S-type chromosomes and L-type chromosomes. The distribution patterns of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons were similar in L- and S-type chromosomes. The copies of this retrotransposon dispersed uniformly on all chromosomes, and it is not yet apparent how the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon affects the size difference between them.

  16. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  17. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  18. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  19. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  20. VarMod: modelling the functional effects of non-synonymous variants.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Morena; Wass, Mark N

    2014-07-01

    Unravelling the genotype-phenotype relationship in humans remains a challenging task in genomics studies. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean there are now thousands of sequenced human genomes, revealing millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). For non-synonymous SNVs present in proteins the difficulties of the problem lie in first identifying those nsSNVs that result in a functional change in the protein among the many non-functional variants and in turn linking this functional change to phenotype. Here we present VarMod (Variant Modeller) a method that utilises both protein sequence and structural features to predict nsSNVs that alter protein function. VarMod develops recent observations that functional nsSNVs are enriched at protein-protein interfaces and protein-ligand binding sites and uses these characteristics to make predictions. In benchmarking on a set of nearly 3000 nsSNVs VarMod performance is comparable to an existing state of the art method. The VarMod web server provides extensive resources to investigate the sequence and structural features associated with the predictions including visualisation of protein models and complexes via an interactive JSmol molecular viewer. VarMod is available for use at http://www.wasslab.org/varmod.

  1. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  2. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  3. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  4. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  5. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  6. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana, P. densata, P. tabuliformis, and P. yunnanensis, with one to seven alleles per locus. Conclusions: The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species. PMID:28224057

  7. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  8. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  9. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  10. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kivçak, B; Akay, S

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus, leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in P. lentiscus var. chia.

  11. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  12. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  16. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  17. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Taehyun; Lee, Yong Se

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea.

  18. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Se

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea. PMID:28154493

  19. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  20. Strain Rate Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    45, pp 60-66 March, 1978. 17. C.F. Hickey, Jr. and A. A. Anctil, "Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR and VAR 4340 Steel ", A•MMRC...Embrittlement in High Hardness ESR 4340 Steel Forgings", ANMRC Technical Report 82-1, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Watertown, Mass, January, 1982...Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel . 0 by S. Tanimura and J. Duffy DTICr:fti Army Research Office . . 1

  1. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  2. Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

    2011-07-01

    Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp.

  3. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  4. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  5. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  6. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  7. Hydroxyurea enhances post-fusion hyphal extension during sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Naim; Kaur, Jan Naseer; Panepinto, John C

    2012-03-01

    Mating and sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii strains of the H99 background is often less robust than that laboratory generated isogenic C. neoformans var. neoformans strains in the JEC21 background. In Candida albicans and Saccharomyces serevisiae, slowing of DNA synthesis and engagement of the replication stress response, such as that caused by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU), induces filamentation and pseudohyphal growth, respectively. In this study, we investigated the effect of HU treatment on C. neoformans var. grubii morphogenesis. Treatment with HU did not induce filamentation of yeast cells either in liquid culture or on solid YPD or V8 agar. In the presence of the opposite mating partner, we observed early emergence of hyphae in the presence of HU. Semi-quantitative analysis of fusion using marked strains demonstrated that no significant enhancement of fusion in the presence of HU. Transfer of fusion colonies from crosses performed in the absence of HU to V8 + HU revealed enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of HU. Analysis of expression of the target of HU, ribonucleotide reductase, revealed that a phylogenetically divergent catalytic subunit is replication stress responsive in C. neoformans. These results suggest that induction of replication stress promotes post-fusion hyphal growth of C. neoformans var. grubii strains in the H99 background.

  8. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures.

  9. First Case of Human Cryptococcosis Due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Colom, M. Francisca; Frasés, Susana; Ferrer, Consuelo; Jover, Alejandro; Andreu, Mariano; Reus, Sergio; Sánchez, Manuel; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii described in our country, which was presented as brain cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. An extensive sampling of the patient's environment was carried out to find the source of infection. PMID:16000503

  10. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  11. CanProVar 2.0: An Updated Database of Human Cancer Proteome Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghuan; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jia; Wang, Xiaojing; Xie, Lu; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yixue; Li, Jing

    2017-02-03

    Identification and annotation of the mutations involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression are crucial for both cancer biology and clinical applications. Previously, we developed a public resource CanProVar, a human cancer proteome variation database for storing and querying single amino acid alterations in the human cancers. Since the publication of CanProVar, extensive cancer genomics efforts have revealed the enormous genomic complexity of various types of human cancers. Thus, there is an overwhelming need for comprehensive annotation of the genomic alterations at the protein level and making such knowledge easily accessible. Here, we describe CanProVar 2.0, a significantly expanded version of CanProVar, in which the amount of cancer-related variations and noncancer specific variations was increased by about 10-fold as compared to the previous version. To facilitate the interpretation of the variations, we added to the database functional data on potential impact of the cancer-related variations on 3D protein interaction and on the differential expression of the variant-bearing proteins between cancer and normal samples. The web interface allows for flexible queries based on gene or protein IDs, cancer types, chromosome locations, or pathways. An integrated protein sequence database containing variations that can be directly used for proteomics database searching can be downloaded.

  12. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  13. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  14. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  15. Characterization of a cinnamoyl derivative from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Ko, Eunyoung; Lee, Choonghwan; Choi, Jung Nam; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Se Won

    2010-12-01

    A new intact glucosinolate Cinnamoyl derivative [6'-O-trans-(4″- hydroxy cinnamoyl)-4-(methylsulphinyl) butyl glucosinolate] (A) has been isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. The compound was isolated and characterized by LC, MS-ESI, FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as (1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135° spectrometric experiments.

  16. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Melissa J; Lee, Jennifer M; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R

    2016-01-04

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions.

  17. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  18. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) Mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Philip E.; Dev, Vasu; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Moore, Peggy E.

    2000-01-01

    β-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. β-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while δ-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil.

  19. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  20. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must...

  1. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must...

  2. Allelopathy on bark of downed logs of Chamaecyparis Obtusa sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lai, Wen-Rong; Hsieh, Chin-Lin; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung

    2007-06-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa Sieb. and Zucc. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder is the dominant species in the temperate forest of Yuanyang Lake Nature Reserve (YYL), Taiwan. Although downed logs of C. obstusa var. formosana occupy only a small percentage of the forest floor area in YYL, they are important regeneration substrates. Seedlings of this species often grow without competition on the new downed logs, and a few broadleaf trees grow with them. We hypothesized that the bark of the newly fallen logs possesses allelopathic potential that provides a habitat especially suitable for seedling establishment. Eight different seeds including those from Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce), Bidens pilosa (an invasive weed), and six species in YYL were planted on the bark of the downed logs in an incubator for germination tests. Two dominant species in the forest of YYL, C. obtusa var. formosana and Rhododendron formosanum, were able to grow normally, but the others, Pieris taiwanensis, Barthea formosana, Chamaecyparis formosensis, Miscanthus transmorrisonensis, lettuce, and B. pilosa were growth inhibited. A bioactivity-guided isolation was designed to isolate allelochemicals from the bark. Salicylic acid, one of the inhibiting substances, was isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR), and infrared (IR). Bioassay of salicylic acid confirmed a phytotoxic effect. The results suggest that the dominance of C. obtusa var. formosana seedlings on bark could be partly due to allelopathy.

  3. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  4. VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies.

  5. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  6. Evidence that the Human Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii May Have Evolved in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Carbone, Ignazio; Rossouw, Jenny; Thakur, Rameshwari; Govender, Nelesh P.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis – an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm. PMID:21589919

  7. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  8. Isoprene derivatives from the leaves and callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    PubMed

    Migas, Piotr; Cisowski, Wojciech; Dembińska-Migas, Wanda

    2005-01-01

    The phytochemical analysis of Vaccinium corymbosum var bluecrop leaves and callus biomass revealed ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin in both plant materials. Beta-sitosterol was determined only in callus biomass. The structure of isolated compounds was elucidated by TLC co-chromatography with standards and with spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS).

  9. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  10. InterVar: Clinical Interpretation of Genetic Variants by the 2015 ACMG-AMP Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-02

    In 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) published updated standards and guidelines for the clinical interpretation of sequence variants with respect to human diseases on the basis of 28 criteria. However, variability between individual interpreters can be extensive because of reasons such as the different understandings of these guidelines and the lack of standard algorithms for implementing them, yet computational tools for semi-automated variant interpretation are not available. To address these problems, we propose a suite of methods for implementing these criteria and have developed a tool called InterVar to help human reviewers interpret the clinical significance of variants. InterVar can take a pre-annotated or VCF file as input and generate automated interpretation on 18 criteria. Furthermore, we have developed a companion web server, wInterVar, to enable user-friendly variant interpretation with an automated interpretation step and a manual adjustment step. These tools are especially useful for addressing severe congenital or very early-onset developmental disorders with high penetrance. Using results from a few published sequencing studies, we demonstrate the utility of InterVar in significantly reducing the time to interpret the clinical significance of sequence variants.

  11. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  12. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  13. Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR (Electroslag Remelting) and VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) 4340 Steel. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    34· AMMRC TR 83-27 (Revised) lAD SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL CHARI£S F. HICKEY, Jr. and ALBERT A...COIIEREO SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF Final Report ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL ’ PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NU1118ER 7. AU THOA(•I •• CONTRACT...decarburized (AOD) heat of 4340 steel which was further pro- cessed by vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting ( ESR ) into 12.7 em (5 inch) square

  14. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary.

  15. [Polymorphism of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (fabaceae). Evidences of natural hibridation].

    PubMed

    Hoc, Patricia S; Espert, Shirley M; Drewes, Susana I; Burghardt, Alicia D

    2003-01-01

    A polymorphic population of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus growing at the Northwest of Argentina was studied. In order to know the origin of this polymorphism, some plants belonging to the var. aborigineus, other plants showing floral dimorphism and other individuals with particular characters were collected. Their seeds, obtained after field-work treatments of autogamy and free pollination, were sown in a greenhouse, isolated of the access of pollinators. The growth of each plant was followed until its fructification, and the number of plants that died due to infections was recorded. The number of plants that flowered and fructified was registered in order to study their reproductive success. The floral, fruit and seed qualitative and quantitative characters were documented. With the results obtained, the authors concluded that those individuals that showed floral dimorphism are probably a result of hybridization and introgression between the var. aborigineus and "old cultivars". This hypothesis is supported by the presence of divergent segregation, observed in the offspring of the plants with this segregation. Other crops should allow the genic flow between the parental entities, with the consequence of the establishment of an hybrid population coexistent with their ancestors. Perhaps, as a result of introgression, the stabilized lines exhibit characters different from their parental varieties. The results of autopollination and free pollination in those individuals assigned to var. aborigineus, showed that free pollination brings a great genetic plasticity, because next generations can persist and resist infections. The offspring of the F1 was followed. The plants that belonged to var. aborigineus, product of free pollination, exhibited fast growth and were healthy, while the descendant of the individuals with the floral dimorphism showed characteristics that allowed to conclude the possible existence of degeneration of the hybrid progeny; this

  16. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  17. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  18. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Methods and Results: Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii, whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei, respectively. Conclusions: The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations. PMID:28337394

  19. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  20. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Ditlev, Sisse B; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  1. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P < 0.05). The growth of stem and H460 cells treated with a combination of T. chinensis var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Rh-123 was significantly accumulated in the intracellular region and showed delayed efflux in stem cells treated with T. chinensis var. (P < 0.05), compared to those treated with verapamil. T. chinensis var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P < 0.05) compared to H460 cells. Thus, T. chinensis var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  2. Central role of Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 in histone H3-K9 methylation and heterochromatic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Schotta, Gunnar; Ebert, Anja; Krauss, Veiko; Fischer, Andreas; Hoffmann, Jan; Rea, Stephen; Jenuwein, Thomas; Dorn, Rainer; Reuter, Gunter

    2002-03-01

    Su(var)3-9 is a dominant modifier of heterochromatin-induced gene silencing. Like its mammalian and Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologues, Su(var) 3-9 encodes a histone methyltransferase (HMTase), which selectively methylates histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3-K9). In Su(var)3-9 null mutants, H3-K9 methylation at chromocentre heterochromatin is strongly reduced, indicating that SU(VAR)3-9 is the major heterochromatin-specific HMTase in Drosophila. SU (VAR)3-9 interacts with the heterochromatin-associated HP1 protein and with another silencing factor, SU(VAR)3-7. Notably, SU(VAR)3-9-HP1 interaction is interdependent and governs distinct localization patterns of both proteins. In Su(var)3-9 null mutants, concentration of HP1 at the chromocentre is nearly lost without affecting HP1 accumulation at the fourth chromosome. By contrast, in HP1 null mutants SU(VAR)3-9 is no longer restricted at heterochromatin but broadly dispersed across the chromosomes. Despite this interdependence, Su(var)3-9 dominates the PEV modifier effects of HP1 and Su(var)3-7 and is also epistatic to the Y chromosome effect on PEV. Finally, the human SUV39H1 gene is able to partially rescue Su(var)3-9 silencing defects. Together, these data indicate a central role for the SU(VAR)3-9 HMTase in heterochromatin-induced gene silencing in Drosophila.

  3. The influence of morphology on geldanamycin production in submerged fermentations of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Lynne F; O'Cleirigh, Cormac C; O'Shea, Daniel G

    2008-07-01

    The diverse morphology of the filamentous organism Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus was characterised by image analysis under various environmental conditions. In the presence of surfactant compounds, a significant decrease in the mean pellet diameter was observed. Cell aggregation was also influenced by spore inoculum level, with high concentrations reducing pellet size. In addition, the dispersion of pellets was found to increase with the inclusion of glass beads to submerged shake-flask cultures. In all cases, production of the secondary metabolite geldanamycin was determined to be dependent on the morphological profile of the organism, with a concomitant increase of 88% in geldanamycin yield observed as the mean pellet diameter was reduced by 70%. Thus, to maximise the yield of geldanamycin, it is necessary to limit pellet formation in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus to an appropriate size.

  4. The anti-rheumatoid arthritis property of the folk medicine Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis, Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Lu, Yi; Yan, Cheng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Liu, Zizhen; Xu, Guanling; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xia; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jianqiu; She, Gaimei

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese folk medicine Dianbaizhu, consisting of Gaultheria species, is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by several minority nationalities. The species and plant parts of this genus used as Dianbaizhu in clinical application are confused. In order to elucidate the species and the medicinal parts, as well as to ascertain the effective components and the probable optimal source of Dianbaizhu, the different plant parts and polarity fractions of its mainstream species, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis were investigated. The inhibition of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor produced in macrophage J774 were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of those samples. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis may be the preferred species for anti-RA effect. The underground parts of this taxon showed the best anti-inflammatory and anti-RA activities; the n-butanol and water fractions of the underground parts may be the most anti-RA active.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Biological Activities of Extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; Lima, Fernanda Oliveira; Amaro de Carvalho, Camilo; Viana, Carine; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this work, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Brassica oleracea var. capitata extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction are evaluated. The extracts obtained using the best extraction conditions were subjected to different hydrolysis conditions before their use in the biological tests. The crude and hydrolysed extracts were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with a mass detector. The use of ultrasound at 30 °C with 60% (by volume) solvent enabled obtaining a richer extract. All extracts had antioxidant activities against DPPH (13.0–80.0%), superoxide (35.2–63.2%) and peroxyl (89.3–99.5%) radicals, but the use of hydrolysed extracts considerably improved the antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activities only of the hydrolysed extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata were detected. It was confirmed that antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts can be considerably increased when hydrolysis is applied as a pretreatment to their extraction. PMID:27904339

  6. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-12-12

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa.

  7. Inhibition of Lung Inflammation by Acanthopanax divaricatus var. Albeofructus and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2016-01-01

    In order to find potential therapeutic agents on lung inflammatory conditions, the extracts of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus were prepared and its constituents were isolated. They include lignans such as (+)-syringaresinol (1), acanthoside B (2), salvadoraside (3) and acanthoside D (4), lariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and phenylpropanoids such as 4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-1-propenyl]phenol (6), coniferin (7), and methyl caffeate (8). The extracts and several constituents such as compound 1, 6 and 8 inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, IL-6 and nitric oxide, from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, the extracts and compound 4 significantly inhibited lung inflammation in lipolysaccharide-treated acute lung injury in mice by oral administration. Thus it is suggested that A. divaricatus var. albeofructus and its several constituents may be effective against lung inflammation. PMID:26759704

  8. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June-September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  9. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica).

  10. Reproductive activity alterations on the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex.

    PubMed

    Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Vilar, Mônica Magno; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

    2007-09-01

    The reproductive activity of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex was evaluated. Parameters related to fecundity and fertility were observed. The snails were exposed to the LD50 (1 mg/l) of crude latex. At the first week post exposure (p.e.), the egg laying was reduced. After the fourth week p.e., an increase of the number of eggs/snail occurred. The results showed a marked reduction in the hatching of the snails, revealing an interference of latex exposure with the reproductive process of B. glabrata of E. splendens var. hislopii. The LD50 of the latex may be used as an alternative method to control the size of the populations of B. glabrata in field.

  11. Characterization of convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V M; Maia, J G; de Souza, J M; Bortolotto, Z A; Cavalheiro, E A

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea, male Wistar rats were injected ip with 50 to 150 mg/kg of the extract and EEG and behavior were observed for periods as long as 2 h. Following the lower doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) only minor behavioral changes such as grooming and wet dog shakes were observed. Higher doses (100 to 150 mg/kg) induced full tonic-clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner which were accompanied by typical electrographic seizures in the EEG. These results confirm that the hexane extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea is able to induce generalized convulsions in rats and can be used as a tool in the development of new models of epilepsy.

  12. Production of isoflavonoids in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham was investigated for callus induction using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. After 8 weeks of culture, 66-100% of leaf or stem explants formed calli. Calli from stem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) gave the maximum of shoot induction (16%) and the highest level of total isoflavonoids [(50.39 +/- 7.06) mg/g dry wt], which was 7-fold higher than that of the native tuber [(7.04 +/- 0.29) mg/g dry wt]. These results suggest that addition of TDZ to the culture medium markedly enhances the production of isoflavonoids in calli induced from stem explants of P. candollei var. mirifica.

  13. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    PubMed

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  14. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  15. Development and characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pan; Niu, Shihui; Yuan, Huwei; Li, Zhexin; Zhang, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lu; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST) microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. • Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. • Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. PMID:25202597

  16. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  17. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  18. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Mitchell, T G; Litvintseva, A P; Lengeler, K B; Heitman, J; Kumar, A; Basu, S; Paliwal-Joshi, A

    2005-09-01

    The association of Cryptococcus gattii with Eucalyptus trees has been well established. Here we report the isolation of both C. gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India. We investigated a total of 233 samples of Eucalyptus trees: 120 flowers, 81 fragments of bark, and 32 leaves. C. gattii was isolated from two samples of flowers of Eucalyptus terreticornis. C. neoformans var. grubii was recovered twice from the bark of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, initially from one of three samples, and again 2 months later, from one of four samples collected beneath the canopy of the tree. The primary isolation medium was Nigerseed agar, and brown colonies were presumptively identified as C. gattii or C. neoformans. The species identification was confirmed by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Using the Crypto-Check kit (Iatron, Tokyo, Japan), the first two isolates were identified as serotype B (C. gattii) and the other two were serotype A (C. neoformans var. grubii). PCR analysis of the isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii revealed that they possessed the MATalpha mating type allele. Molecular typing by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers indicated that both isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii possessed the same genotype. This study demonstrates that C. neoformans var. grubii, as well as C. gattii, may be associated with Eucalyptus trees.

  19. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  20. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  1. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Sideritis erythrantha Boiss. and Heldr. (var. erythrantha and var. cedretorum P.H. Davis) endemic in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Köse, Elif Odabaş; Deniz, Ismail Gökhan; Sarıkürkçü, Cengiz; Aktaş, Ozgür; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, chemical compositions, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Sideritis erythrantha var. erythrantha (SE) and Sideritis erythrantha var. cedretorum (SC), which are endemic taxa in Turkey, were investigated. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). α-Pinene was the major component of the essential oils of SC and SE. SC essential oil was as effective as antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), ampicillin resistant Haemophilusinfluenzae and vancomycin sensitive E. faecalis. Similarly, SE essential oil was also as effective as antibiotic against VRE and ampicillin resistant H. influenzae. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils of SC and SE were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Both essential oils exhibited weak antioxidant activity. This is the first report on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of SC and SE.

  3. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-04

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  4. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia.

    PubMed

    Magiatis, P; Melliou, E; Skaltsounis, A L; Chinou, I B; Mitaku, S

    1999-12-01

    The chemical composition of the three essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the mastic gum, leaves and twigs of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, was studied by GC/MS. Sixty nine constituents were identified from the oils. alpha-Pinene, myrcene, trans-caryophyllene and germacrene D were found to be the major components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the three essential oils and of the resin (total, acid and neutral fraction) against six bacteria and three fungi is reported.

  5. Influence of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Altherr, B J; Tölke, C; Schmidt, M F G

    2007-12-15

    In a feeding trial, sows and piglets were fed with the probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus var. toyoi as a feed additive, and the effects on immune cell populations were examined. The development of the gut immune system was determined for piglets at the ages of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days post partum. Tissue samples of the Jejunum and the continuous Peyer's patch were used for enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocyte populations by fluorescence activated flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Both independent methods of investigation led to similar results: the population of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells was significantly enhanced in the probiotic group piglets (p< or =0.05), and the numbers of gammadelta T cells tended to be higher in the intestinal epithelium (p<0.1) at the time of weaning (day 28). Lamina propria lymphocytes were also influenced by the treatment. Application of B. cereus var. toyoi resulted in significantly more CD25+ lymphocytes and gammadelta T cells in the probiotic group post-weaning. The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups was also less frequent in the feces of piglets from the probiotic group. The finding that the CD8+ T cell population in the intestinal mucosa showed changes on day 28 indicated that the influence of B. cereus var. toyoi supplementation on the intestinal immune system started before weaning, an observation supported by changes in the intestinal microflora observed during the suckling-period. The results suggest that feeding of B. cereus var. toyoi to sows may result in beneficial effects on piglet health status independent of their feed supplementation.

  6. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus and Rodwayella citrinula, Two Unrecorded Taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae (Tribe Arachnopezizeae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A fungal survey that targeted the tribe Arachnopezizeae (Hyaloscyphaceae, Helotiales) was conducted in Korea. One variety belonging to Proliferodiscus and one species belonging to Rodwayella are recorded for the first time from Korea. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus differs from P. earoleucus by its amyloid reaction in ascal apices and larger asci. Rodwayella citrinula is distinguished from other members of the genus by small ascospores and its occurrence on grasses. The descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics of the species are provided. PMID:24808741

  7. A new flavonoid and other constituents from Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Leila; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Samir; Mosset, Paul; Lobstein, Annelise; Chaabi, Mehdi; León, Francisco; Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime; Benayache, Fadila

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glucoside, apigenin 4'-(6″-methylglucuronide) (1), together with six known compounds, cirsilineol, jaceosidin, melitensin, apigenin, apigenin 7-(6″-methylglucuronide) and prunasin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M. (Asteraceae) collected from Souk-Ahras, eastern Algeria. The structures were established by spectral analysis, mainly HRESI-MS, UV and 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC).

  8. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. ); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. )

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  9. Physalindicanols, New Biogenetic Precursors of C28-Steroidal Lactones from Physalis minima var. indica.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S C; Ali, A; Bagchi, A; Sahai, M; Ray, A B

    1987-02-01

    The structures of two isomeric C (28)-sterols isolated from PHYSALIS MINIMA Linn. var. INDICA were elucidated as ergosta-5,25-dien-3beta,24zeta,-diol and ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta,25-diol on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The isolated sterols are regarded as precursors in the elaboration of complex C (28)-steroidal lactones, native in this plant and related species.

  10. Effects of Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum on kraft lignin: color stabilization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Remédios, Marlene; Carvalho, Filomena A; Enguita, Francisco J; Cardoso, Carlos; Martins, Ivo C; Santos, Nuno C; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2016-06-01

    Wood industries and agricultural crops generate an inexhaustible supply of by-products like lignin, which constitutes an environmental problem. Increasing efforts have been done to find new applications for lignin. One of them is as a food additive, but its chemical nature makes it sensitive to browning which constitutes a major drawback for this type of lignin application. In the present study we are documenting how color stabilization of a commercial kraft lignin was achieved after the treatment with Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. In addition the fungal capacity to remove lignin is studied together with the effect of its treatment on cytotoxicity of lignin. P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was able to transform lignin, ensuring its color stability for more than 24 months. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy showed that the fungus contributed to homogenize particle size and hydrodynamic properties in lignin suspensions without increase the toxicity over HeLa cells and human primary fibroblasts. These findings suggest new uses for kraft lignin after P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum treatment providing an effective approach for improve color stability.

  11. Tyrosinase inhibitory properties of phenylpropanoid glycosides and flavonoids from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes

    PubMed Central

    Boghrati, Zahra; Naseri, Maryam; Rezaie, Mitra; Pham, Ngoc; Quinn, Ronald J; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. Materials and Methods: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assays. Results: In this research, we isolated two phenylpropanoid glycosides including verbascoside and poliumoside and two flavonoids including jaranol and isorhoifolin using chromatographic techniques. We found promising antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase compounds from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes. Conclusion: To date, different compounds have been isolated and characterized from T. polium including terpenoids and flavonoids. But no phytochemical study has been reported from T. polium var. gnaphalodes. Poliumoside and jaranol showed promising antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, respectively. PMID:27746860

  12. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  13. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.

  14. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  15. Influence of Intermittent Preventive Treatment on Antibodies to VAR2CSA in Pregnant Cameroonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L.; Bobbili, Naveen; Salanti, Ali; Wey, Andrew; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Robert J.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure interfered with acquisition of Ab in primigravidae, with 71% primigravidae being seronegative to FV2 at delivery. Use of IPT for > 13 weeks by multigravidae resulted in 26% of women being seronegative at delivery and a significant reduction in Ab levels to FV2, DBL5, DBL6, proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2, and number of variants recognized. Thus, in women using IPT important immune responses were not acquired by primigravidae and reduced in a portion of multigravidae, especially women with one to two previous pregnancies. Longitudinal data from individual multigravidae on IPT suggest that lower Ab levels most likely resulted from lack of boosting of the VAR2CSA response and not from a short-lived Ab response. PMID:26711513

  16. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus. PMID:28095462

  17. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  18. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  19. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-11-07

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem.

  20. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  1. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus.

  2. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  3. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici.

  4. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  5. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the berries of Juniperus communis L. var. communis and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natalizia; Trovato, Ada; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso M; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Taviano, Maria F

    2009-08-12

    The present study was designed to define and compare the flavonoid composition and the biological potential of berries methanol extracts of Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc) and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis. Pall. (Jcs) from Turkey. Total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteau method) were 3-fold higher in Jcc (59.17 +/- 1.65 mg GAE/g extract) than in Jcs (17.64 +/- 0.09 mg GAE/g extract). Flavonoid and biflavonoid content, evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis, was higher in Jcc (25947 +/- 0.86 and 4346 +/- 3.95 microg/g extract) than in Jcs (5387 +/- 34.88 and 1944 +/- 26.88 microg/g extract). The HPLC analysis of Jcc allowed the separation of 16 flavonoids; hypolaetin-7-pentoside and quercetin-hexoside are the main compounds. Moreover, gossypetin-hexoside-pentoside and gossypetin-hexoside were identified for the first time in Jcc berries. In Jcs eight flavonoids were identified: quercetin-hexoside and isoscutellarein-8-O-hexoside are the most abundant compounds. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined using different methods; Jcc was found to be more active than Jcs in the DPPH test (IC(50) of 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/mL and 1.84 +/- 0.10 mg/mL) in reducing power assay (12.82 +/- 0.10 ASE/mL and 64.14 +/- 1.20 ASE/mL), and in TBA assay (IC(50) of 4.44 +/- 0.70 microg/mL and 120.07 +/- 3.60 microg/mL). By contrast, Jcs exhibited more elevated Fe(2+) chelating ability than Jcc. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying antimicrobial capacity only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  6. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus) x Citrullus colocynthis.

    PubMed

    Levi, A.; Thomas, E.; Joobeur, T.; Zhang, X.; Davis, A.

    2002-09-01

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [Plant Accession Griffin 14113 ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x New Hampshire Midget (NHM; C. lanatus var. lanatus)] x U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 386015 ( Citrullus colocynthis). The map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker that was previously reported as linked (1.6 cM) to race-1 Fusarium wilt [incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F.Sm.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans] resistance in watermelon. The map consists of 25 linkage groups. Among them are a large linkage group that contains 22 markers covering a mapping distance of 225.6 cM and six large groups each with 10-20 markers covering a mapping distance of 68.8 to 110.8 cM. There are five additional linkage groups consisting of 3-7 markers per group, each covering a mapping distance of 36.5 to 57.2 cM. The 13 remaining linkage groups are small, each consisting of 2-11 markers covering a mapping distance of 3.5-29.9 cM. The entire map covers a total distance of 1,166.2 cM with an average distance of 8.1 cM between two markers. This map is useful for the further development of markers linked to disease resistance and watermelon fruit qualities.

  7. Mutations in Su(var)205 and Su(var)3-7 Suppress P-Element-Dependent Silencing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bushey, Daniel; Locke, John

    2004-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the w+ transgene in P{lacW}ciDplac is uniformly expressed throughout the adult eye. However, when other P elements are present, this w+ transgene is randomly silenced and this produces a variegated eye phenotype. This P-element-dependent silencing (PDS) is limited to w+ transgenes inserted in a specific region on chromosome 4. In a screen for genetic modifiers of PDS, we isolated mutations in Su(var)205, Su(var)3-7, and two unidentified genes that suppress this variegated phenotype. Therefore, only a few of the genes encoding heterochromatic modifiers act dose dependently in PDS. In addition, we recovered two spontaneous mutations of P{lacW}ciDplac that variegate in the absence of P elements. These P{lacW}ciDplac derivatives have a gypsy element inserted proximally to the P{lacW}ciDplac insert. The same mutations that suppress PDS also suppress w+ silencing from these P{lacW}ciDplac derivative alleles. This indicates that both cis-acting changes in sequence and trans-acting P elements cause a similar change in chromatin structure that silences w+ expression in P{lacW}ciDplac. Together, these results confirm that PDS occurs at P{lacW}ciDplac because of the chromatin structure at this chromosomal position. Studying w+ variegation from P{lacW}ciDplac provides a model for the interactions that can enhance heterochromatic silencing at single P-element inserts. PMID:15579693

  8. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  9. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  10. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  11. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  12. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  13. RBP-Var: a database of functional variants involved in regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fengbiao; Xiao, Luoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Liang, Jialong; Teng, Huajing; Cai, Wanshi; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors bind to the genome by forming specific contacts with the primary DNA sequence; however, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have greater scope to achieve binding specificity through the RNA secondary structure. It has been revealed that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that alter RNA structure, also known as RiboSNitches, exhibit 3-fold greater local structure changes than replicates of the same DNA sequence, demonstrated by the fact that depletion of RiboSNitches could result in the alteration of specific RNA shapes at thousands of sites, including 3′ UTRs, binding sites of microRNAs and RBPs. However, the network between SNVs and post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we developed RBP-Var, a database freely available at http://www.rbp-var.biols.ac.cn/, which provides annotation of functional variants involved in post-transcriptional interaction and regulation. RBP-Var provides an easy-to-use web interface that allows users to rapidly find whether SNVs of interest can transform the secondary structure of RNA and identify RBPs whose binding may be subsequently disrupted. RBP-Var integrates DNA and RNA biology to understand how various genetic variants and post-transcriptional mechanisms cooperate to orchestrate gene expression. In summary, RBP-Var is useful in selecting candidate SNVs for further functional studies and exploring causal SNVs underlying human diseases. PMID:26635394

  14. [Experimental inoculation of Terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C ].

    PubMed

    Escandón, Patricia; Huérfano, Sandra; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    In 1997, our laboratory reported for the first time the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C associated with almond tree (Terminalia catappa) detritus. This finding led to a more detailed follow up of the association between the plant and the yeast. Preliminary data have shown that survival of the yeast in almond trees seedlings goes beyond 100 days. The aim of the present study was to establish if under the conditions previously studied, C. neoformans var. gattii would remain viable for longer periods. A total of 83 almond tree seedings, 20-40 cm high, were inoculated with C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C (INS-755). Assays were carried out inoculating the stem or the soil where the seedlings were planted. Observations were undertaken for a period of up to 12 months. As processing techniques we employed the endophytic fungi procedure (stems), maceration (roots, leaves) and standard suspension method (soils). Additionally, microscopic visualization of the yeast in plant tissues was done with trypan blue plus lactophenol. C. neoformans var. gattii was recovered from the inoculated plants for a period of up to 12 months post-inoculation; additionally, the fungus had the capacity to migrate from the stem to the soil and viceversa, without causing macroscopic or microscopic alterations in the plant tissues. This finding suggests that there appears to be an association between the host plant and C. neoformans var. gattii in the environment.

  15. CanVar: A resource for sharing germline variation in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, Daniel; Broderick, Peter; Dobbins, Sara E.; Houlston, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing has accelerated our ability to discover genes predisposing to disease and is transforming clinical genomic sequencing. In both contexts knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of genetic variation in the general population and in disease cohorts is vital to the interpretation of sequencing data. While population level data is becoming increasingly available from publicly accessible sources, as exemplified by The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), the availability of large-scale disease-specific frequency information is limited. These data are of particular importance to contextualise findings from clinical mutation screens and small gene discovery projects. This is especially true for cancer, which is typified by a number of hereditary predisposition syndromes.  Although mutation frequencies in tumours are available from resources such as Cosmic and The Cancer Genome Atlas, a similar facility for germline variation is lacking. Here we present the Cancer Variation Resource (CanVar) an online database which has been developed using the ExAC framework to provide open access to germline variant frequency data from the sequenced exomes of cancer patients. In its first release, CanVar catalogues the exomes of 1,006 familial early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) patients sequenced at The Institute of Cancer Research. It is anticipated that CanVar will host data for additional cancers, providing a resource for others studying cancer predisposition and an example of how the research community can utilise the ExAC framework to share sequencing data. PMID:28105316

  16. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  17. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  18. Identification of novel hybrids between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII.

    PubMed

    Aminnejad, Mojgan; Diaz, Mara; Arabatzis, Michael; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Lazera, Marcia; Velegraki, Aristea; Marriott, Deborah; Sorrell, Tania C; Meyer, Wieland

    2012-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are pathogenic yeasts causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction occurs normally between individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) is comprised of molecular types VNI, VNII, and VNB, and C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) contains the molecular type VNIV. Additionally, diploid or aneuploid AD hybrids (VNIII) have been reported. C. gattii contains the molecular types VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, which encompass both serotypes B and C. To identify possible hybrid strains, URA5-RFLP analysis was performed on 350 globally obtained clinical, environmental, and veterinary isolates. Four clinical isolates from cerebrospinal fluid showed combination patterns of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii: Brazil (n = 2), Colombia (n = 1), and India (n = 1). These strains were monokaryotic and diploid or aneuploid. M13 PCR fingerprinting showed that they contained fragments of both proposed parental groups. Luminex IGS genotyping identified these isolates as hybrids with two different molecular type combinations: three VNI/VGII and one VNI/VGI. Blue color development on CGB agar was delayed in three isolates and absent in one. C. gattii-specific PCR confirmed the presence of C. gattii in the hybrids. CAP59 allele-specific PCR revealed that all the hybrids contained both serotype A and B alleles. Determination of mating-type allelic patterns by PCR revealed that the isolates were αA aB. This is the first study discovering novel natural hybrids between C. neoformans molecular type VNI and C. gattii molecular type VGII.

  19. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida mycelial biomass.

    PubMed

    Komura, Dirce L; Ruthes, Andrea C; Carbonero, Elaine R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2014-09-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida known as Hiratake has a high nutritional value, presents medicinal and nutraceutical properties and it is one of the consumed mushrooms in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the chemical structure of polysaccharides found in mycelial biomass produced by submerged culture of P. ostreatus var. florida in order to compare with those found in P. ostreatus var. florida fruit bodies. Aqueous and alkali extracts obtained from mycelial biomass were purified, 13C NMR, GC-MS and chemical techniques were used to characterize three polysaccharide structures: a mannogalactan (MG-PfM) with α-D-Galp and 3-O-Me-α-D-Galp units, both (1→6)-linked, highly substituted at O-2 by D-Manp, a glycogen-like polymer (GLY-PfM) with α-D-Glp (1→4)-linked main chain, partially substituted at O-6 by α-D-Glcp side chains and a (1→3), (1→6) β-D-glucan (βGLC-PfM) with a main chain of β-D-Glcp (1→3)-linked units, partially substituted at O-6 by side chains of 6-O-substituted β-D-glucopyranosyl units, on an average of one to every two residues of the backbone. These results show the possibility to obtain similar and also different molecules from those found in the fruiting body of the same mushroom species, therefore the submerged culture of mushroom is a promising way to give raise molecules of interest.

  20. Development and field testing of a 15-kv class adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Dong, M.; Huang, T.; Szofran, A.; Andexler, G.; Venkata, S.S.; Butler, N.; Rodriguez, A.; Kerszenbaum

    1995-10-01

    A 15-kV class Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) is developed and field tested. The AVC is a solid stat switched, binary stepped capacitor bank, used to compensate any rapidly changing reactive demand within one-half cycle without introducing transients of harmonics. The main features of the AVC are introduced followed by an historical evolution. A general description of each major module is presented and modifications as development proceeded are shown. Results from two industrial site installations are also presented showing the adverse conditions in which the AVC will successfully operate.

  1. Field installation and modifications of a 5-kV class adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Huang, T.; Szofran, A.; Andexler, G.; Dong, M.; Venkata, S.S.; Butler, N.; Rodriguez, A.; Kerszenbaum, I.

    1995-10-01

    A 5-kV class Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) was designed, installed, and tested at a rock crushing plant where the reactive power is rapidly varying. Several novel circuits including optical triggering for the switching of the solid state devices are used in the AVC. The AVC provides reactive power support for cyclic loads, and maintains the power factor at unity at the point of installation without introducing transients to the system. During the field testing of the AVC, several modifications were made to ensure that the AVC operates accurately in a harsh industrial environment. The design, modifications and field test results of the AVC are presented in this paper.

  2. Dry-heat Resistance of Bacillus Subtilis Var. Niger Spores on Mated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simko, G. J.; Devlin, J. D.; Wardle, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials including stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum. These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min. Survivor data were subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times.

  3. Cloning and expression of the lepidopteran toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var Sotto in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rady, M H

    1991-01-01

    During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis var. Sotto produces a parasporal crystalline protein which is toxic for the silk-worm, Bombyx mori and the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis. The gene coding this crystal protein is present in a single plasmid. The plasmid DNA was isolated, purified and physically mapped using restriction endonuclease enzymes (R.E.). The gene coding the delta-endotoxin was inserted into Escherichia coli-Jm103, using cloning vector pUC8. Transformed E. coli cells were found to synthesize the delta-endotoxin as demonstrated by the pathogenicity of the transformed cells against 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis.

  4. Operational benefits from optimal volt/var scheduling in the south-east Australian transmission network

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Eichler, R.; Lyons, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian power system supplies the Australian federal state of Victoria (population: 4.5 million; capital city: Melbourne) with electricity. Over the last three years an extensive EMS computer system has been installed at the System Control Centre in Melbourne. It includes among other functions a complete set of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) applications. This paper reports on the results gained during the first year of daily application of the Optimal Volt/Var Scheduling (VVS) function and ends with an outlook on planned future extensions.

  5. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  6. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  7. Saponins from leaves of Kalopanax pictum var. maximowiczii, a Korean medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D R; Oinaka, T; Kasai, R; Tanaka, O

    1989-08-01

    From leaves of Kalopanax pictum var. maximowiczii, a Korean medicinal plant, six known saponins of hederagenin were isolated. One of the monodesmosides was identified as sapindoside A, previously isolated from Sapindus spp. Another monodesmoside and four bisdesmosides were proved to be identical with saponins-K3, -K10 and -K12 and Kizuta saponins-K8 and -K11, respectively, all of which have been isolated from Hedera rhombea. It was observed that the water solubilities of these monodesmosides were increased in the presence of the co-occurring bisdesmosides. The relationship between structure and solubilizing effect is reported.

  8. Five new cadinane-type sesquiterpenes from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chia-Hsien; Chien, Shih-Chang; Lin, Yun-Lian

    2002-01-01

    Muurola-4,10(14)-dien-3-one (1), 10-O-acetyl-15-oxo-alpha-cadinol (2), 15-hydroxy-alpha-cadinol (3), 4alpha-hydroxy-5beta-ethoxy-epi-cubenol (4), and 4alpha-hydroxy-5beta-acetoxy-epi-cubenol (5), five new bicyclic sesquiterpenes, have been isolated from the heartwood of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana along with the known compounds epi-cubenol, T-cadinol, T-muurolol, delta-cadinol, and alpha-cadinol. The structures of the new constituents were elucidated through chemical and spectral studies.

  9. A new lignan glycoside from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Chen, Ke-Li; Liu, Yi-Mei; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Tan, Ning-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Mei

    2014-02-01

    A new lignan glycoside, (-)-(8S, 8'R)-thujastandin-4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with fourteen known lignanoids (2-15) and one coumarin (16) were isolated from the branches and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. Compound 16 exhibited cytotoxicity against A549, BGC-823 and Hela cell lines with IC50 values of 25.9, 20.9 and 18.5 microM, respectively.

  10. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  11. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given.

  12. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  13. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

    PubMed

    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee.

  14. Differential var gene expression in children with malaria and antidromic effects on host gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Yvonne; Rottmann, Matthias; Kombila, Maryvonne; Kremsner, Peter G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Kun, Jürgen F J

    2010-07-15

    Among 62 children with mild malaria, cerebral malaria, or severe malarial anemia, we analyzed the transcription of different var gene types. There was no difference in parasitemia level or body temperature between groups. However, a significantly different expression pattern was observed in children with cerebral malaria, compared with that in patients in the other 2 groups: children with cerebral malaria had lower expression of the upsA subtype but higher expression of the upsB and upsC subtypes. Furthermore, expression of human genes responsive to tumor necrosis factor and hypoxia correlated with distinct ups types.

  15. Haemolytic activity and immunological adjuvant effect of a new steroidal saponin from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    PubMed

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira da Silva, Bernadete; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Parente, José Paz

    2012-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-3-{(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxyspirostan-2-one (1). Results of the present study indicated that 1 exhibited haemolytic activity in the in vitro assays, and immunological adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen.

  16. SURVIVAL OF MICROORGANISMS IN A SIMULATED MARTIAN ENVIRONMENT. I. BACILLUS SUBTILIS VAR. GLOBIGII.

    PubMed

    HAGEN, C A; HAWRYLEWICZ, E J; EHRLICH, R

    1964-05-01

    Survival of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii in a simulated Martian environment was demonstrated. Previous contact with the simulated Martian soil or atmosphere reduced germination or outgrowth of unheated spores, or both. Inoculation into simulated Martian soil and then flushing with a simulated Martian atmosphere were lethal to both vegetative cells and spores. After one diurnal temperature cycle (26 to -60 C), the majority of of cells present were spores. No further effect of the diurnal cycle on survival was noted in any of the experimental samples.

  17. Relationship between poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production and delta-endotoxin for Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A Karin; Farrera, Reynold R; López, Ruth; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2006-05-01

    A linear relationship between total solid concentration (TSC), delta-endotoxin production [Cry = 0.2795(TSC)-0.2472, R2 = 0.8644] and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation [PHB = 0.1327(TSC) + 0.3974, R2 = 0.9877] in Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-73 was observed. A similar correlation between delta-endotoxin and PHB accumulation [Cry = 2.1573(PHB)-1.1248, R2 = 0.9181] was found. A minimum PHB accumulation of 0.52 mg l(-1) was required before the onset of delta-endotoxin production.

  18. Immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1-VarO Adhesin: Induction of Surface-Reactive and Rosette-Disrupting Antibodies to VarO Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Igonet, Sébastien; Hessel, Audrey; Petres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Le Scanf, Cécile; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Bentley, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC) to human erythrocytes (i.e. rosetting) is associated with severe malaria. Rosetting results from interactions between a subset of variant PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins and specific erythrocyte receptors. Interfering with such interactions is considered a promising intervention against severe malaria. To evaluate the feasibility of a vaccine strategy targetting rosetting, we have used here the Palo Alto 89F5 VarO rosetting model. PfEMP1-VarO consists of five Duffy-Binding Like domains (DBL1-5) and one Cysteine-rich Interdomain Region (CIDR1). The binding domain has been mapped to DBL1 and the ABO blood group was identified as the erythrocyte receptor. Here, we study the immunogenicity of all six recombinant PfEMP1-VarO domains and the DBL1- CIDR1 Head domain in BALB/c and outbred OF1 mice. Five readouts of antibody responses are explored: ELISA titres on the recombinant antigen, VarO-iRBC immunoblot reactivity, VarO-iRBC surface-reactivity, capacity to disrupt VarO rosettes and the capacity to prevent VarO rosette formation. For three domains, we explore influence of the expression system on antigenicity and immunogenicity. We show that correctly folded PfEMP1 domains elicit high antibody titres and induce a homogeneous response in outbred and BALB/c mice after three injections. High levels of rosette-disrupting and rosette-preventing antibodies are induced by DBL1 and the Head domain. Reduced-alkylated or denatured proteins fail to induce surface-reacting and rosette-disrupting antibodies, indicating that surface epitopes are conformational. We also report limited cross-reactivity between some PfEMP1 VarO domains. These results highlight the high immunogenicity of the individual domains in outbred animals and provide a strong basis for a rational vaccination strategy targeting rosetting. PMID:26222304

  19. Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Son, Youngmin; Jeon, Bo Ra; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus belongs to the Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, and grows on the needleleaf tree. The fruiting bodies of Laetiporus species are known to produce N-methylated tyramine derivatives, polysaccharides, and various lanostane triterpenoids. As part of our ongoing effort to discover biologically active compounds from wood-rotting fungi, an anti-inflammatory triterpene, LSM-H7, has been isolated from the fruiting body of L. sulphureus var. miniatus and identified as acetyl eburicoic acid. LSM-H7 dose-dependently inhibited the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells without any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Furthermore it suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, when compared with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These data suggest that LSM-H7 is a crucial component for the anti-inflammatory activity of L. sulphureus var. miniatus. PMID:26190920

  20. Drosophila H1 Regulates the Genetic Activity of Heterochromatin by Recruitment of Su(var)3-9

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingwu; Wontakal, Sandeep N.; Kavi, Harsh; Kim, Byung Ju; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Xu, Na; Hannon, Gregory J.; Zavadil, Jiri; Fyodorov, Dmitry V.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbor transposable elements and other repetitive sequences that must be silenced. Small RNA interference pathways play a major role in their repression. Here, we reveal another mechanism for silencing these sequences in Drosophila. Depleting the linker histone H1 in vivo leads to strong activation of these elements. H1-mediated silencing occurs in combination with the heterochromatin-specific histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. H1 physically interacts with Su(var)3-9 and recruits it to chromatin in vitro, which promotes H3 methylation. We propose that H1 plays a key role in silencing by tethering Su(var)3-9 to heterochromatin. The tethering function of H1 adds to its established role as a regulator of chromatin compaction and accessibility. PMID:23559249

  1. Selection and characterization of Euglena anabaena var. minor as a new candidate Euglena species for industrial application.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kengo; Mitra, Sharbanee; Iwata, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Sueo; Yamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalgae used as a model organism. Recently, mass cultivation of this species has been achieved for industrial applications. The genus Euglena includes more than 200 species that share common useful features, but the potential industrial applications of other Euglena species have not been evaluated. Thus, we conducted a pilot screening study to identify other species that proliferate at a sufficiently rapid rate to be used for mass cultivation; we found that Euglena anabaena var. minor had a rapid growth rate. In addition, its cells accumulated more than 40% weight of carbohydrate, most of which is considered to be a euglenoid specific type of beta-1-3-glucan, paramylon. Carbohydrate is stored in E. anabaena var. minor cells during normal culture, whereas E. gracilis requires nitrogen limitation to facilitate paramylon accumulation. These results suggest the potential industrial application of E. anabaena var. minor.

  2. Transformation of Bacillus subtilis in alpha-amylase productivity by deoxyribonucleic acid from B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Y; Yamane, K; Yamaguchi, K; Nagata, Y; Maruo, B

    1974-12-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Bacillus subtilis var. amylosacchariticus showed almost the same ability as B. subtilis Marburg to induce transfer of several genetic markers in DNA-mediated transformation. DNA-DNA hybridization data also showed an intimate relationship between the two strains. Genetic elements involved in the production of extracellular alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) in B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus were studied by using DNA-mediated transformation. Two Marburg derivatives, NA20(amyR2) and NA20-22(amyR1), produced about 50 and 10 U of alpha-amylase per mg of cells, respectively, whereas B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus produced as much as 150 U of the enzyme per mg of cells. When B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus was crossed with strain NA20-22 as recipient, transformants that acquired high alpha-amylase productivity (about 50 U/mg of cells) were obtained. Genetic analysis revealed that a regulator gene (amyR) for alpha-amylase synthesis was found in B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus, as in the case of B. natto 1212 (amyR2) and B. subtilis Marburg (amyR1). The allele was designated amyR3; it is phenotypically indistinguishable from amyR2, but is readily distinguishable from amyR1. The presence of amyR3 was not sufficient for an organism to render production of an exceptional amount of alpha-amylase. Extra-high alpha-amylase producers could be obtained by crossing B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus as donor with strain NA20 as recipient. The transformants produced the same or even greater amounts of the enzyme than the donor strain. Results suggest the presence of another gene that is involved in the production of the exceptional amount of alpha-amylase.

  3. 40 CFR 180.1154 - CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the... Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki encapsulated in killed Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the expression plasmid and cloning vector genetic constructs. CryIA(c) and CryIC derived delta-endotoxins of...

  4. Chromosomal location of genes for novel glutenin subunits and gliadins in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides).

    PubMed

    Xu, S S; Khan, K; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Nygard, G

    2004-05-01

    The glutenin and gliadin proteins of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides, have potential for improvement of durum wheat ( T. turgidum L. var. durum) quality. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomes controlling the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins present in three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions (Israel-A, PI-481521, and PI-478742), which were used as chromosome donors in Langdon durum- T. turgidum var. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) chromosome substitution lines. The three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions, their respective LDN-DIC substitution lines, and a number of controls with known HMW glutenin subunits were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea/SDS-PAGE, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE). The results revealed that all three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions possess Glu-A1 alleles that are the same as or similar to those reported previously. However, each T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accession had a unique Glu-B1 allele. PI-478742 had an unusual 1Bx subunit, which had mobility slightly slower than the 1Ax subunit in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. The subunits controlled by chromosome 1B of PI-481521 were slightly faster in mobility than the subunits of the Glu-B1n allele, and the 1By subunit was identified as band 8. The 1B subunits of Israel-A had similar mobility to subunits 14 and 16. The new Glu-B1 alleles were designated as Glu-B1be in Israel-A, Glu-B1bf in PI-481521, and Glu-B1bg in PI-478742. Results from A-PAGE revealed that PI-481521, PI-478742, and Israel-A had eight, 12, and nine unique gliadin bands, respectively, that were assigned to specific chromosomes. The identified glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins in the LDN-DIC substitution lines provide the basis for evaluating their effects on end-use quality, and they are also useful biochemical markers for identifying specific chromosomes or chromosome

  5. Necrotising ventriculitis due to combined infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Candida krusei in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus).

    PubMed

    Muir, M; Raidal, S R

    2012-07-01

    Acute necrosis of the ventriculus is a very uncommon lesion in birds. We describe a fatal case of acute necrotising ventriculitis caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis in a mature female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). The bird presented acutely dull and lethargic, was vomiting and had bright green droppings, suggestive of acute heavy metal poisoning. It was treated with fluids and chelation therapy, but died within 12 h. Necropsy, cytology, histopathology and culture results demonstrated fungal invasion of the ventriculus associated with transmural necrosis, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and abundant R. microsporus var. chinensis and lesser numbers of Candida krusei.

  6. Disseminated histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a non-HIV patient in Burkina Faso: Case report.

    PubMed

    Zida, A; Niamba, P; Barro-Traoré, F; Korsaga-Somé, N; Tapsoba, P; Briegel, J; Guiguemdé, R T

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum. The African form of this mycosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, remains rare. We report a case of disseminated African histoplasmosis with skin, lymph nodes, bones and viscera localizations. The 22-year-old patient was HIV-seronegative and was considered immunocompetent. The presence of Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii in ulcerations and a nodule pus aspiration was confirmed by direct microscopic examination and by culture. The medical treatment was based on fluconazole. Even though a regression of the symptoms was observed, the patient died. In disseminated African histoplasmosis, an early laboratory diagnosis must be carried out for accurate treatment.

  7. Viola kauaensis var. hosakae (Violaceae), a new variety of endemic Hawaiian violet

    PubMed Central

    Havran, J. Christopher; Harbin, Susan Ching; Portner, Talia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Hawaiian endemic Viola kauaensis A. Gray has a broad distribution in bogs of Kaua`i and a limited distribution on mesic ridges in the Ko`olau Mountains of O`ahu. Based on differences in scale, the O`ahu populations of Viola kauaensis had previously been described as a distinct taxon. The taxonomic status of the O`ahu populations was reevaluated through a morphometric analysis of all varieties of Viola kauaensis and the morphologically similar Viola vanroyenii. Morphological features of historic and freshly collected specimens of all varieties of Viola kauaensis were analyzed with a principal components analysis. Populations from O`ahu represent a distinct cluster that slightly overlaps with Viola kauaensis var. kauaensis. Lamina width, apex angle, and base angles contribute to the separation of the O`ahu populations from other varieties of Viola kauaensis. Due to differences in scale, the O`ahu populations are described as Viola kauaensis var. hosakae, a new critically endangered taxon. PMID:25197224

  8. Chemical variability of the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Atik Bekkara, Fewzia; Consiglio, Danaë; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 50 samples of leaf oil isolated from Algerian Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata L. harvested in eight locations (littoral zone and highlands) was investigated by GC-FID (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The composition of the J. phoenicea var. turbinata leaf oils was dominated by monoterpenes. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses confirmed the chemical variability of the leaf oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters were distinguished on the basis of the α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate, β-phellandrene, and germacrene D contents. In most oil samples, α-pinene (30.2-76.7%) was the major compound, associated with β-phellandrene (up to 22.5%) and α-terpinyl acetate (up to 13.4%). However, five out of the 50 samples exhibited an atypical composition characterized by the predominance of germacrene D (16.7-22.7%), α-pinene (15.8-20.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.1-22.6%).

  9. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  10. Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, Southeast France.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Michèl, Hervé; Funel, Geneviève Barci; Féraud, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 μg g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program.

  11. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS PRODUCING PACLITAXEL FROM TAXUS WALLICHIANA VAR MAIREI.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Hongsheng, Wang; Ning, Wang; Li, Meng; Guifang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture. Surface sterilized bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was used as source material and potato dextrose agar culture medium was used in isolation of endophytic fungi. Fungal cultures were extracted with a mixture of chloroform / methanol (1:1, v/v) and the paclitaxel in the extracts was determined and authenticated with LC-MS. An endophytic fungus that produced paclitaxel was identified by ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. The results showed that a total of 435 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from T. wallichiana var. mairei and purified. Only one of these strains produced paclitaxel and it belongs to Fusarium. The paclitaxel productivity in whole PDB culture and that in spent culture medium from this strain is 0.0153 mg/L and 0.0119 mg/L respectively. The paclitaxel content in dry mycelium is 0.27 mg/kg. This isolated endophytic fungus produced paclitaxel at a considerable level and shows potentiality as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture after strain improvement.

  13. Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus with potential for production of thermostable amylases.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Simone C; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2003-12-01

    The effect of several nutritional and environmental parameters on growth and amylase production from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis was analysed. This fungus was isolated from soil of the Brazilian "cerrado" and produced high levels of amylolytic activity at 45 degrees C in liquid medium supplemented with starch, sugar cane bagasse, oat meal or cassava flour. Glucose in the culture medium drastically repressed the amylolytic activity. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by thin layer chromatography, and glucose was detected as the main component. The amylolytic activity hydrolysed several substrates, such as amylopectin, amylase, glycogen, pullulan, starch, and maltose. Glucose was always the main end product detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicated that the amylolytic activity studied is a glucoamylase, but there were also low levels of alpha-amylase. As compared to other fungi, R. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis can be considered an efficient producer of thermostable amylases, using raw residues of low cost as substrates. This information is of technological value, considering the importance of amylases for industrial hydrolysis.

  14. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

    2011-02-28

    The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.

  16. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): serological evidence for subclinical cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Krockenberger, M B; Canfield, P J; Barnes, J; Vogelnest, L; Connolly, J; Ley, C; Malik, R

    2002-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has been shown to have a strong association with eucalypts frequently used by koalas and, not surprisingly, it has been shown to colonize the nasal cavities of koalas. The progression from nasal colonization to tissue invasion is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in this species and provides a model for pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in other species. Cryptococcal antigenaemia was detected in twenty-eight healthy koalas from three different regions. This was interpreted as representing limited subclinical disease. One koala developed cryptococcal pneumonia 6 months after leaving the study, whereas another developed cryptococcal meningoencephalitis during the course of the study. Opportunistic necropsies on ten antigen-positive koalas resulted in discovery of small cryptococcal lesions in two (paranasal sinus and lung, respectively). Our data suggest that cryptococcal antigenaemia occurs commonly in koalas, especially in areas with a high environmental presence of C n. var. gattii. Subclinical disease appears most likely to manifest as a small focal lesion in the respiratory tract. Possible outcomes include elimination by an effective immune response, quiescence with possibility of later re-activation or direct progression to overt disease. Symptomatic and subclinical cases showed differences in levels of antigenaemia. The data presented have significant implications for koalas in captivity.

  17. Antifungal properties of ethanolic extract and its active compounds from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana (Florin) heartwood.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsair-Bor; Chang, Hui-Ting; Hsieh, Chun-Chun; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana heartwood was screened for antifungal compounds by agar dilution assay and liquid chromatography. Two compounds, beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin, responsible for the antifungal property of C. macrolepis var. formosana heartwood were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The antifungal activities of these two compounds were further evaluated against total 15 fungi, including wood decay fungi, tree pathogenic fungi and molds. The hexane soluble fraction showed the strongest antifungal activities among all fractions. beta-Thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin exhibited not only very strong antifungal activity, but also broad antifungal spectrum. The MIC values of beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin were in the range of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to study the structural change of fungal hyphae induced by beta-thujaplicin. Strong cell wall shrinkage indicated the fungicidal effect could be attributed to the combined actions of metal chelating and cytoplasm leakage. It also suggests that the role of metal chelating is indispensable in the design of environmental-friendly fungicides.

  18. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  19. Assimilation of SAPHIR radiance: impact on hyperspectral radiances in 4D-VAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indira Rani, S.; Doherty, Amy; Atkinson, Nigel; Bell, William; Newman, Stuart; Renshaw, Richard; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Assimilation of a new observation dataset in an NWP system may affect the quality of an existing observation data set against the model background (short forecast), which in-turn influence the use of an existing observation in the NWP system. Effect of the use of one data set on the use of another data set can be quantified as positive, negative or neutral. Impact of the addition of new dataset is defined as positive if the number of assimilated observations of an existing type of observation increases, and bias and standard deviation decreases compared to the control (without the new dataset) experiment. Recently a new dataset, Megha Tropiques SAPHIR radiances, which provides atmospheric humidity information, is added in the Unified Model 4D-VAR assimilation system. In this paper we discuss the impact of SAPHIR on the assimilation of hyper-spectral radiances like AIRS, IASI and CrIS. Though SAPHIR is a Microwave instrument, its impact can be clearly seen in the use of hyper-spectral radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation systems in addition to other Microwave and InfraRed observation. SAPHIR assimilation decreased the standard deviation of the spectral channels of wave number from 650 -1600 cm-1 in all the three hyperspectral radiances. Similar impact on the hyperspectral radiances can be seen due to the assimilation of other Microwave radiances like from AMSR2 and SSMIS Imager.

  20. Impact of AIRS radiance in the NCUM 4D-VAR assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Desamsetti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Sharma, Priti

    2016-04-01

    The hyperspectral radiances from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), on board NASA-AQUA satellite, have been processed through the Observation Processing System (OPS) and assimilated in the Variational Assimilation (VAR) System of NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). Numerical experiments are conducted in order to study the impact of the AIRS radiance in the NCUM analysis and forecast system. NCMRWF receives AIRS radiance from EUMETCAST through MOSDAC. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 channels covering the thermal infrared spectrum between 3 and 15 μm. Out of 2378 channels, 324 channels are selected for assimilation according to the peaking of weighting function and meteorological importance. According to the surface type and day-night conditions, some of the channels are not assimilated in the VAR. Observation Simulation Experiments (OSEs) are conducted for a period of 15 days to see the impact of AIRS radiances in NCUM. Statistical parameters like bias and RMSE are calculated to see the real impact of AIRS radiances in the assimilation system. Assimilation of AIRS in the NCUM system reduced the bias and RMSE in the radiances from instruments onboard other satellites. The impact of AIRS is clearly seen in the hyperspectral radiances like IASI and CrIS and also in infrared (HIRS) and microwave (AMSU, ATMS, etc.) sensors.

  1. [Niche characteristics of plant populations in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands in Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghua; Lei, Ruide; He, Xingyuan; Jia, Xia

    2004-06-01

    Based on the data collected from 31 plots and using Levins, Hurlbert and Pianka formulas, this paper calculated and analyzed the niche breadths and overlaps of 24 tree and 29 shrub populations in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands in Mt. Qinling, Shaanxi. The results showed that the Levins and Hurlbert's niche breadths of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata , Pinus armandi, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, Populus davidiana and Pinus tabulaeformis in arbor layer were 3.695, 1.695, 1.325, 0.840, 0.702 and 0.036, 0.299, 0.568, 1.721, 2.701 respectively, and those of Corrylus heterophylla, Lespedeza formosa and Smilax vaginata in shrub layer were 1.833, 1.466, 0.984 and 0.111, 0.300, 0.594, respectively. In general, the niche overlaps between the species with bigger niche breadth and other species were higher, and those of the species having similar environmental requirements were also higher.

  2. Antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extract from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana leaves.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Szu-Chin; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Shi, Yeu-Ching; Yen, Pei-Ling; Lin, Huan-You; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-05-07

    The antioxidant activity and delayed aging effects of hot water extracts from leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana were investigated. Free radical, superoxide radical scavenging, and total phenolic content assays were employed to evaluate the in vitro activities of the extracts. In addition, in vivo assays using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were also performed in this study. The results showed that among all soluble fractions obtained from the extracts, the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction has the best in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Moreover, it decreased significantly the deposition of lipofuscin (aging pigment) and extended the lifespan of C. elegans. Bioactivity-guided fractionation yielded six potent antioxidant constituents from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, namely, catechin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside, vanillic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. Quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnoyranoside pretreatment showed the highest survival of C. elegans upon juglone exposure. Taken together, the results revealed that hot water extracts from C. obtusa var. formosana leaves have the potential to be used as a source for antioxidant or delayed aging health food.

  3. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  4. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  5. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  6. MinVar: A rapid and versatile tool for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michael; Metzner, Karin J; Geissberger, Fabienne D; Shah, Cyril; Leemann, Christine; Klimkait, Thomas; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Zagordi, Osvaldo

    2017-02-01

    Genotypic monitoring of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 infected individuals is strongly recommended to guide selection of the initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes of drug regimens. Traditionally, mutations conferring drug resistance are detected by population sequencing of the reverse transcribed viral RNA encoding the HIV-1 enzymes target by ART, followed by manual analysis and interpretation of Sanger sequencing traces. This process is labor intensive, relies on subjective interpretation from the operator, and offers limited sensitivity as only mutations above 20% frequency can be reliably detected. Here we present MinVar, a pipeline for the analysis of deep sequencing data, which allows reliable and automated detection of DRMs down to 5%. We evaluated MinVar with data from amplicon sequencing of defined mixtures of molecular virus clones with known DRM and plasma samples of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals and we compared it to VirVarSeq, another virus variant detection tool exclusively working on Illumina deep sequencing data. MinVar was designed to be compatible with a diverse range of sequencing platforms and allows the detection of DRMs and insertions/deletions from deep sequencing data without the need to perform additional bioinformatics analysis, a prerequisite to a widespread implementation of HIV-1 genotyping using deep sequencing in routine diagnostic settings.

  7. Integrated Use of Planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis against Aedes Taeniorhynchus: A Laboratory Bioassay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A233 581 -dW ^ R 1990 IN~ha ’ ?YB. L AGAINST AE. TAENI (JRHYNCHUS 667 •" €D USE OF PLANARIA (DUGESIA DOROTOCEPHALA) LUS THURINGIENSIS VAR...the pi’esent study Legner, E. F. 1977. Response of Culex spp . larvae and ! 1 DECEMBER 1990 INTEGRATION OF PLANARIA AND B.T.I. AGAINST AE. TAENIORHYNCHUS

  8. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  9. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  10. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa from Nevada and Texas USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named (Delta) 1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2-6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were...

  11. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara halstedii on the native Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The showy black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) is an important perennial wildflower native to the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Besides its aesthetic value in the landscape, this native plant attracts pollinators and provides seeds for birds during t...

  12. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yie...

  13. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  14. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  15. [The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berge].

    PubMed

    Yuan, A X

    1993-10-01

    A new constituent iso-aloesin was isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera var. chinensis found in the Province of Guangxi. The molecular formula of iso-aloesin is C19H22O9, which is 2-acetonyl-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-chromone.

  16. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, P E; Voss, A; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J F

    1997-09-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  17. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  18. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cD...

  19. Effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on immune parameters of pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Filter, Matthias; Scharek, Lydia; Toelke, Christiane; Taras, David; Tedin, Karsten; Haverson, Karin; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H

    2009-01-15

    Changing immune parameters during pregnancy have previously been reported in humans and cattle, and have been suggested to contribute to increased susceptibility to infections. However, data regarding immune parameters during pregnancy in sows are rare. In this study, we investigated the peripartal immune status of sows using phenotypical (FACS analysis) as well as functional (proliferation assays, cytokine analysis) parameters of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in pregnant sows. In previous studies, we reported a modulation of the immune system after feed supplementation of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi in piglets [Schierack, P., Wieler, L.H., Taras, D., Herwig, V., Tachu, B., Hlinak, A., Schmidt, M.F., Scharek, L., 2007. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118, 1-11]. Here, we extended these previous studies to include investigations of possible probiotic effects on the peripartal immune status of sows and their reproductivity. We show that immune parameters of sows change during pregnancy, the proliferative response of PBMCs to several bacterial antigens in control animals decreased from days 90 to 30 ante partum. Relative numbers (%) of CD3+CD8+, CD4+, cytotoxic T, CD14+ and CD21+ cells were reduced compared to non-pregnant sows. In contrast, the proliferative response of PBMCs of probiotic-treated sows increased during pregnancy. Bacterial antigens primarily stimulated the proliferation of naïve CD21+ cells and the relative CD21+ cell numbers were elevated in the probiotic group in the absence of effects on other immune cell populations. The clinical and microbial status of both control and probiotic sows was similar, excluding pre-existing health problems or infections as responsible for the immunological changes, and feed supplementation also had no significant effects on reproductivity. The results suggest that the probiotic B. cereus var. toyoi can alter the

  20. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae) and comparative analysis with its congeneric species

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Zhao; Geng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in plant systematics, genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and divergence dating. The genus Gentiana contains 362 species, but there are only two valuable complete cp genomes. The purpose of this study is to report the characterization of complete cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Methods Using high throughput sequencing technology, we got the complete nucleotide sequence of the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome. The comparison analysis including genome difference and gene divergence was performed with its congeneric species G. straminea. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and phylogenetics were studied as well. Results The cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri is a circular molecule of 138,750 bp, containing a pair of 24,653 bp inverted repeats which are separated by small and large single-copy regions of 11,365 and 78,082 bp, respectively. The cp genome contains 130 known genes, including 85 protein coding genes (PCGs), eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses indicated that G. lawrencei var. farreri is 10,241 bp shorter than its congeneric species G. straminea. Four large gaps were detected that are responsible for 85% of the total sequence loss. Further detailed analyses revealed that 10 PCGs were included in the four gaps that encode nine NADH dehydrogenase subunits. The cp gene content, order and orientation are similar to those of its congeneric species, but with some variation among the PCGs. Three genes, ndhB, ndhF and clpP, have high nonsynonymous to synonymous values. There are 34 SSRs in the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome, of which 25 are mononucleotide repeats: no dinucleotide repeats were detected. Comparison with the G. straminea cp genome indicated that five SSRs have length polymorphisms and 23 SSRs are species-specific. The phylogenetic analysis of 48 PCGs from 12 Gentianales taxa cp genomes

  1. Homology blocks of Plasmodium falciparum var genes and clinically distinct forms of severe malaria in a local population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary target of the human immune response to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is encoded by the members of the hyper-diverse var gene family. The parasite exhibits antigenic variation via mutually exclusive expression (switching) of the ~60 var genes within its genome. It is thought that different variants exhibit different host endothelial binding preferences that in turn result in different manifestations of disease. Results Var sequences comprise ancient sequence fragments, termed homology blocks (HBs), that recombine at exceedingly high rates. We use HBs to define distinct var types within a local population. We then reanalyze a dataset that contains clinical and var expression data to investigate whether the HBs allow for a description of sequence diversity corresponding to biological function, such that it improves our ability to predict disease phenotype from parasite genetics. We find that even a generic set of HBs, which are defined for a small number of non-local parasites: capture the majority of local sequence diversity; improve our ability to predict disease severity from parasite genetics; and reveal a previously hypothesized yet previously unobserved parasite genetic basis for two forms of severe disease. We find that the expression rates of some HBs correlate more strongly with severe disease phenotypes than the expression rates of classic var DBLα tag types, and principal components of HB expression rate profiles further improve genotype-phenotype models. More specifically, within the large Kenyan dataset that is the focus of this study, we observe that HB expression differs significantly for severe versus mild disease, and for rosetting versus impaired consciousness associated severe disease. The analysis of a second much smaller dataset from Mali suggests that these HB-phenotype associations are consistent across geographically distant populations, since we find

  2. Processes of late Quaternary turbidity current flow and deposition on the Var deep sea fan, northwest Mediterranean sea

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )

    1993-09-01

    Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.

  3. Hybrid Origins of Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, Two Problematic Taxa in Carex Section Vesicariae (Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    M. Pedersen, A. Tiril; Nowak, Michael D.; Brysting, Anne K.; Elven, Reidar; Bjorå, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of “pure” species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C. rostrata var. borealis has received very little attention in the years since its first description in the 19th century. By performing an extensive sampling of relevant taxa from a broad distribution range, and analyzing data from fifteen microsatellite loci developed specifically for our study together with pollen stainability measures, we resolve the hybrid origins of C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis and provide new insights into this taxonomically challenging group of sedges. Our results are in accordance with previous findings suggesting that C. stenolepis is a hybrid between C. vesicaria and C. saxatilis. They are also in accordance with a previous proposition that C. rostrata var. borealis is a hybrid between C. rostrata and C. rotundata, and furthermore suggest that both hybrids are the result of multiple, recent (i.e., postglacial) hybridization events. We found little evidence for successful sexual reproduction within C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, but conclude that the common and recurrent, largely predictable occurrence of these taxa justifies accepting both hybrids as hybrid species with binomial names. There are, however, complications as to types and priority names, and we therefore choose to address these problems in a separate paper. PMID:27780239

  4. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  5. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  6. Study on the free radical scavenging activity of sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) gelatin hydrolysate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Mingyong; Xiao, Feng; Zhao, Yuanhui; Liu, Zunying; Li, Bafang; Dong, Shiyuan

    2007-07-01

    Gelatin from the sea cucumber (Paracaudina chinens var.) was hydrolyzed by bromelain and the hydrolysate was found to have a high free radical scavenging activity. The hydrolysate was fractionated through an ultrafiltration membrane with 5 kDa molecular weight cutoff (MWCO). The portion (less than 5 kDa) was further separated by Sephadex G-25. The active peak was collected and assayed for free radical scavenging activity. The scavenging rates for superoxide anion radicals (O2·-) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) of the fraction with the highest activity were 29.02% and 75.41%, respectively. A rabbit liver mitochondrial free radical damage model was adopted to study the free radical scavenging activity of the fraction. The results showed that the sea cucumber gelatin hydrolysate can prevent the damage of rabbit liver and mitochondria.

  7. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye

    2010-05-01

    Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. Many of these medicinal plants are also excellent sources for phytochemicals, many of which contain potent antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) is widely spread in Turkey and used as an antidiabetic in traditional medicine. In the present study, the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor capacity of chard were examined. In addition, proline level of chard was determined. The antioxidant activity of water extract of chard was evaluated using different antioxidant tests. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that chard may provide a natural source of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities and proline content.

  8. Induction of quinone reductase (QR) by withanolides isolated from Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Hu, Zhijuan; Yu, Liyan; Ma, Zhongjun; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Xiaofeng

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, the EtOAc extract of the persistent calyx of Physalis angulata L. var. villosa Bonati (PA) was tested for its potential quinone reductase (QR) inducing activity with glutathione (GSH) as the substrate using an UPLC-ESI-MS method. The result revealed that the PA had electrophiles that could induce quinone reductase (QR) activity, which might be attributed to the modification of the highly reactive cysteine residues in Keap1. Herein, three new withanolides, compounds 3, 6 and 7, together with four known withanolides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were isolated from PA extract. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic techniques, including (1)H-, (13)C NMR (DEPT), and 2D-NMR (HMBC, HMQC, (1)H, (1)H-COSY, NOESY) experiments, as well as by HR-MS. All the seven compounds were tested for their QR induction activities towards mouse hepa 1c1c7 cells.

  9. Agropyrenol and agropyrenal, phytotoxins from Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of Elitrigia repens.

    PubMed

    Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Troise, Ciro; Zonno, Maria Chiara; Motta, Andrea; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-07-01

    A strain of Ascochyta agropyrina var. nana, a fungal pathogen of the perennial weed Elytrigia repens, produced several toxins in a liquid medium, and its primary toxin, named agropyrenol, was characterized as a substituted salicylaldehyde on the basis of its chemical and spectroscopic properties. Its absolute stereochemistry was determined by Mosher's method. Two other minor metabolites were isolated from the same culture and named agropyrenal and agropyrenone, respectively. They were characterized as a trisubstituted naphthalene carbaldehyde and a pentasubstituted 3H-benzofuranone, respectively, using the same techniques. When assayed on leaves of several weed plants, i.e., Mercurialis annua, Chenopodium album and Setaria viridis, agropyrenol proved to be phytotoxic, causing the appearance of necrotic lesions, agropyrenal was less active, while agropyrenone was inactive. None of the compounds showed antibiotic, fungicidal or zootoxic activity.

  10. Dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on mated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Simko, G J; Devlin, J D; Wardle, M D

    1971-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials (stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum). These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min, with survivor data being subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times. Differences in the dry-heat resistance of the test organism resulting from pressure, atmosphere, and material were observed.

  11. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  12. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Lantana camara var. moritziana.

    PubMed

    Tesch, Nurby Rios; Mora, Flor; Rojas, Luis; Díaz, Tulia; Velasco, Judith; Yánez, Carlos; Rios, Nahile; Carmona, Juan; Pasquale, Sara

    2011-07-01

    The essential oil obtained from the leaves of Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) López-Palacios collected at Rubio, Táchira State, Venezuela, was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger trap (0.1% yield). The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) on HP GC-MS System, model 5973, identifying 33 compounds (97.1%) of which the major components were germacrene D (31.0%), followed by beta-caryophyllene (14.8%), a-phellandrene (6.7%), limonene (5.7%) and 1,8-cineole (5.2%). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity by agar diffusion method with discs against international reference bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella Typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) showed growing inhibition of E. faecalis and S. aureus at MIC of 350 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL, respectively.

  13. Influence of microstructural purity on the bending fatigue behavior of VAR-melted superelastic Nitinol.

    PubMed

    Launey, Maximilien; Robertson, Scott W; Vien, Lot; Senthilnathan, Karthikeyan; Chintapalli, Prashanth; Pelton, Alan R

    2014-06-01

    The bending fatigue resistance of commercially-available Standard versus High Purity Nitinol was evaluated at 3% mean strain and a range of strain amplitudes with the simple wire Z-specimen geometry. The Standard grade Nitinol demonstrated a 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 0.50% alternating strain, comparable to results reported elsewhere in the literature. Conversely, the High Purity grade VAR Nitinol demonstrated a 5-fold improvement in fatigue resistance with an impressive 10(7)-cycle fatigue strain limit of 2.5% alternating strain. The High Purity Nitinol has an oxygen+nitrogen content of 60wppm, maximum wrought-material inclusion length of 17µm, and inclusion volume fraction of 0.28%, all substantially less than industry standards. With all processing variables held constant except for inclusion content, it is clear that this marked fatigue superiority is due exclusively to the reduction in both size and area fraction of inclusions.

  14. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: from isolation to potential medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K(i), 0.1 x 10(-9)M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  15. Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W

    2006-07-01

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water (13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8% dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.

  16. Retention for Stoploss reinsurance to minimize VaR in compound Poisson-Lognormal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleh, Achmad Zanbar; Noviyanti, Lienda; Nurrahmawati, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Automobile insurance is one of the emerging general insurance's product in Indonesia. Fluctuation in total premium revenues and total claim expenses leads to a risk that insurance company can not be able to pay consumer's claims, thus reinsurance is needeed. Reinsurance is a risk transfer mechanism from the insurance company to another company called reinsurer, one of the reinsurance type is Stoploss. Because reinsurer charges premium to the insurance company, it is important to determine the retention or the total claims to be retain solely by the insurance company. Thus, retention is determined using Value at Risk (VaR) which minimize the total risk of the insurance company in the presence of Stoploss reinsurance. Retention depends only on the distribution of total claims and reinsurance loading factor. We use the compound Poisson distribution and the Log-Normal Distribution to illustrate the retention value in a collective risk model.

  17. [Modification and expression of insecticidal protein structural gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai 7-29].

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Hong, Z; Wang, J; Wang, M; Yu, M; Fan, Y

    1992-06-01

    The regulative region (181bp) and the fifth toxic active domain (217bp) were removed from the insecticidal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai 7-29. After the synthesis of the adaptor (15bp) that contains initiation codon (ATG) and the PCR synthesis of the fifth toxic active domain (229bp) that contains stop codon (TAA), were inserted into on 5' truncated and 3' truncated of the coding fod N-terminal peptid's DNA fragment, that to become a modified structural gene. The modified structural gene can be play initiatic translation-function and stop translation-function during translation of insecticidal protein. The insecticidal protein was determined by western blotting, showed the expression of modified structural gene in Escherichia coli JM 103. The bioassay of insecticidal proteins showed the 3' truncated and 5' truncated of insecticidal gene was higher toxic active than the 3' truncated of insecticidal gene in Escherichia coli JM 103.

  18. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  19. Oxygenated diterpenes and other constituents from Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus thurifera var. africana.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Quilez del Moral, José F; Herrador, M Mar; Akssira, Mohamed; Bennamara, Ahmed; Akkad, Said; Aitigri, Mohamed

    2004-09-01

    Six new diterpenic acids isolated as their methyl ester derivatives, i.e., methyl 12-oxo-8alpha,15-dihydroxyabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 12-oxo-8alpha-hydroxyabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroperoxy-8alpha,12alpha-epidioxiabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroxy-8alpha,12alpha-epidioxiabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroperoxy-8alpha,14alpha,12alpha,13alpha-diepoxiabietan-13-en-19-oate, and methyl 7alpha,12beta-dihydroxysandaracopimarate, together with two new isovalerate derivatives of p-methoxycinnamyl alcohol and linalool, were isolated from the leaves of Juniperus thurifera var. africana and Juniperus phoenicea, grown in Morocco. The structures of these compounds were established by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra. The cytotoxicity of the abietane diterpenoids was tested against five cell lines.

  20. A performance comparison of static VAr compensator based on Goertzel and FFT algorithm and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Gani, Ahmet; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce a new approach for measuring and calculation of fundamental power components in the case of various distorted waveforms including those containing harmonics. The parameters of active, reactive, apparent power and power factor, are measured and calculated by using Goertzel algorithm instead of fast Fourier transformation which is commonly used. The main advantage of utilizing Goertzel algorithm is to minimize computational load and trigonometric equations. The parameters measured in the new technique are applied to a fixed capacitor-thyristor controlled reactor based static VAr compensation system to achieve accurate power factor correction for the first time. This study is implemented both simulation and experimentally.

  1. In vivo effects on the intestinal microflora of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Zhang, Cuili; Li, Weiling; Wu, Dachang; Liu, Jianjun; Tang, Li; Xin, Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects on the intestinal microflora balance of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts (PE) using in vivo mouse model. Luteolin-7-O-β-glycoside, Physalin J, Physalin D, and Physalin P were isolated from PE extracts and identified. Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Odoribacter and Oribacterium were detected as dominant organisms in the intestinal tract of mice by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The quality and quantity of Lactobacillus genus increased significantly with increasing concentration of PE. This study shows that the intestinal microflora balance could be improved by PE, and thus, it has the significant potential to be used as a natural agent for restoring the intestinal microflora balance.

  2. Six new physalins from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Kun; Xie, Si-da; Xu, Wan-Xuan; Nian, Yin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Peng, Xing-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Six new physalin steroids, 7β-methoxylisophysalin B (1), 7β-methoxylphysalin C (2), physalin V (3), physalin VI (4), physalin VII (5), isophysalin I (6), together with 20 known physalins (7-26) were isolated from calyces of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. Structures of the new compounds were revealed through 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-26 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480, and the results indicated that compounds 8, 11, and 14 displayed potent cytotoxicities (IC50<5μM) in vitro. Further antibacterial assay indicated that compounds 8, 14, and 19 showed high antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

  3. [The vicissitude of the historically famous medicinal herb Xuan Huanglian (Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala)].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-qun; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2008-07-01

    "Xuan Huanglian" is particularly referring to the Coptis chinensis var. brevisepala W. T. Wang et Hsiao distributed in the Southern Anhui mountainous regions adjacent to Xuan Cheng and its adjoining northwest Zhejiang mountainous regions. This herb produced here is of perfect qualities used as an authentic medicinal herb from Ben cao jing ji zhu (Variorum of Classic of Materia Medica) of 536 A. D to Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplement to the Compendium of Materia Medica) of 1803 A. D. It was recorded successively as an authentic medicinal herb in herbal literature for a period as long as 1200 years. It is declined gradually because of prolonged and unlimitedly gathering, leading to the shortage of its resources.

  4. A new phenolic glycoside from Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Mei; Xu, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Tan, Ning-Hua

    2013-01-18

    A new phenolic glycoside, 3-methoxyphenol 1-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)- O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), was isolated from the 90% acetone extract of the branches and leaves of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii along with another 10 known phenolics 2-11. Their structures were determined mainly by means of MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR data. Cytotoxicities of compounds 3 and 5-11 were tested on BGC-823, Hela and A549 cancer cell lines, the results showed that compound 8 was bioactive and its IC(50) values were 6.9, 29.7 and 52.9 μM, respectively.

  5. Bioactive exopolysaccharides from the cultured cells of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum var. San Marzano.

    PubMed

    Poli, Annarita; Manca, Maria Cristina; De Giulio, Alfonso; Strazzullo, Giuseppe; De Rosa, Salvatore; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2006-04-01

    Three exopolysaccharides, EPS(1), EPS(2), and EPS(3), were isolated from suspension-cultured cells of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, var. San Marzano). The partial primary structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. EPS(2) was a heteropolysaccharide with a tetrasaccharide repeating unit constituted by sugars having one residue in alpha-manno, one residue in beta-manno, and two different residues in beta-gluco/galacto configurations. EPS(3) was a heteropolysaccharide with a pentasaccharide repeating unit with sugars having three residues in alpha-manno, one residue in alpha-gluco/galacto, and one residue in beta-gluco/galacto configurations. The anticytotoxic activities of exopolysaccharides were tested in a brine shrimp bioassay.

  6. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  7. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  8. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  9. Influence of nutrient factors on production of mucilage by Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Elena; Gianna, Roberto; Marchiori, Enrico; Bruno, Milena

    1997-08-01

    Widely distributed productions of mucilages affected the coasts of the Adriatic sea in the summers of 1988, 1989 and 1991 (the so-called "dirty sea" phenomenon). Samples taken in this area revealed a mix of diatom and dinoflagellate algae trapped in the mucilagenous matrix, but cultured isolates from the samples showed the species Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla producing a kind of exopolysaccharide (EPS) very similar in structure to that of the floating pillows which appear in the Adriatic waters. The effects of growing concentrations of primary nutrients on EPS production by A. coffeaeformis were evaluated and the results showed a prevailing influence of nitrogen, alone or in synergy with phosphorus, with respect to phosphorus alone. EPS production never stopped, even during the stationary phase and never overlapped with growth curves. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  10. Raphanus sativus L. var niger as a source of phytochemicals for the prevention of cholesterol gallstones.

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel

    2014-02-01

    Raphanus sativus L. var niger (black radish) is a plant of the cruciferous family with important ethnobotanical uses for the treatment of gallstones in Mexican traditional medicine. It has been established that the juice of black radish decreases cholesterol levels in plasma and dissolves gallstones in mice. Glucosinolates, the main secondary metabolites of black radish, can hydrolyze into its respective isothiocyanates and have already demonstrated antioxidant properties as well as their ability to diminish hepatic cholesterol levels; such therapeutic effects can prevent the formation of cholesterol gallstones. This disease is considered a current problem of public health. In the present review, we analyze and discuss the therapeutic effects of the main glucosinolates of black radish, as well as the effects that this plant has on cholesterol gallstones disease.

  11. Structural characterization and gastroprotective property of a novel glucofructan from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Camila R A; da Silva, Bernadete P; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Parente, José P

    2015-01-30

    A new polysaccharide with an estimated weight-average molar mass of 2.6×10(3) was isolated from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum by hot water extraction, and purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR high-resolution chromatography. It was composed of D-fructose and D-glucose in 10:6 molar ratio, respectively. The structure of the glucofructan was investigated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). The results permitted the structure of the glucofructan to be written as α-D-Glcp-(1→1)-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)-{[α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-Fruf-(2→6)]-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)}4-β-D-Fruf-(2↔1)-α-D-Glcp. Results of the present study indicated that this new glucofructan exhibited significant gastroprotective property, using in vivo experimental models.

  12. Antifungal saponins from bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L. var. Voghiera.

    PubMed

    Lanzotti, Virginia; Barile, Elisa; Antignani, Vincenzo; Bonanomi, Giuliano; Scala, Felice

    2012-06-01

    A bioassay-guided phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the bulbs of garlic, Allium sativum L., var. Voghiera, typical of Voghiera, Ferrara (Italy), allowed the isolation of ten furostanol saponins; voghieroside A1/A2 and voghieroside B1/B2, based on the rare agapanthagenin aglycone; voghieroside C1/C2, based on agigenin aglycone; and voghieroside D1/D2 and E1/E2, based on gitogenin aglycone. In addition, we found two known spirostanol saponins, agigenin 3-O-trisaccharide and gitogenin 3-O-tetrasaccharide. The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of two eugenol diglycosides were also found for the first time in Allium spp. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity towards two fungal species, the air-borne pathogen Botrytis cinerea and the antagonistic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

  13. Polyphenols isolated from leaves of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana regulate APP related pathway.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jin; Lin, Ting; Xu, Junyue; Ding, Rong; Wang, Guanghui; Shen, Ruichi; Zhang, Yun-Wu; Chen, Haifeng

    2016-01-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. The major component of the plaques, amyloid-β (Aβ), is generated from amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretase-mediated cleavages. Multiple lines of evidence demonstrate that overproduction/accumulation of Aβ in vulnerable brain regions is a primary cause of the pathogenesis of AD. Among the twelve polyphenols isolated from the leaf extracts of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT), stenophyllol C, stenophyllol B, ampelopsin C, vitisin A, and davidiol A were shown to significantly reduce both Aβ40 and Aβ42 levels in N2a695 cells. Further studies revealed that ampelopsin C and vitisin A reduce Aβ production through inhibiting β-secretase activity, while the effects of the other active polyphenols on reducing Aβ generation are through different mechanisms. These results suggest that VTT extracts may be beneficial for AD prevention and treatment.

  14. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: From isolation to potential medicinal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K{sub i}, 0.1 x 10{sup -9} M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  15. Neuroprotective effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana on damage induced by cerebral ischaemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, Ma Eva; Gómez, Claudia; Chánez-Cárdenas, Ma Elena; Ventura-Martinez, Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Tilia americana var. mexicana (T. americana) is a plant widely used in Mexico for its medicinal properties on the central nervous system. In the present study, we designed a protocol to investigate the neuroprotective effects of non-polar and polar extracts of T. americana on damage induced by cerebral ischaemia in mice. Vehicle or extracts were administered immediately after ischaemia. Functional neurological deficit, survival percentage and infarct area were determined in each experimental group. Results showed that groups treated with non-polar or polar extracts of T. americana had increased survival rate, improved neurological deficits and diminished the infarct area in relation to the ischaemic group. In conclusion, this study confirms the neuroprotective activity of T. americana, suggests a possible synergism between non-polar and polar constituents and supports its potential as a useful aid in the clinical management of stroke.

  16. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  17. The Drosophila Su(var)3-7 gene is required for oogenesis and female fertility, genetically interacts with piwi and aubergine, but impacts only weakly transposon silencing.

    PubMed

    Basquin, Denis; Spierer, Anne; Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3-7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3-7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3-7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3-7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3-7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3-7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3-7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3-7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3-7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing.

  18. [Seed rain, soil seed bank, and natural regeneration of natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Lu; Liao, Cheng-Kai

    2012-04-01

    Taking the natural Toona ciliata var. pubescens forest in the Jiujiangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province of China as test object, an investigation was conducted on the seed rain, soil seed bank, and seedlings number in 2008-2011. The seed rain of the forest was dispersed from late October to the end of December. In 2010, the seed rain intensity in different sampling plots was in the order of Xiagongtang observatory (320.3 +/- 23.5 seeds x m(-2)) > Xiagongtang protection station (284.7 +/- 24.2 seeds x m(-2)) > Daqiutian protection station (251.6 +/- 24.7 seeds x m(-2)), and the quantity of the intact seeds in soil supplied for seed germination and regeneration was 222.0, 34.3, and 22.6 seeds x m(-2), respectively. The seed bank reserves was affected by the seed production amount, bird feeding, and seed viability, etc., of which, bird feeding was the prime factor for the substantial drop of the seed bank reserves. Due to the low resistance against storage and a large number of rot during storage, the seeds in soil could hardly be effectively stored beyond one month. The seedlings germinated in December were averagely less than 2 stands x m(-2), and the soil seed reserves in the next January was the least (6.7-11.8 seeds x m(-2)), with the germinated seedlings averagely 0.4-0.6 stands x m(-2), which was consistent with the rare distribution of natural seedlings in the forest. It was concluded that the small seed rain reserves, low seed vigor of soil seed bank, and low seedling establishment were the important factors impacting the natural regeneration of T. ciliata var. pubescens.

  19. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of flavonoids isolated from Stevia satureiifolia var. satureiifolia.

    PubMed

    Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines

    2016-10-01

    Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50  value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50  value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL.

  20. Antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Dongmei; Chen, Liping; Yang, Xiuyan; Tu, Ya; Jiao, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Depressive order is one of the most common psychiatric diseases, and Toona ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis has shown many bioactivities in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of essential oil isolated from T. ciliata Roem. var. yunnanensis. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the compositions of essential oil. The immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST), tail suspending test (TST), and open field test (OFT) were used to evaluate the antidepressive effects of essential oil. Furthermore, chronic mild stress (CMS) rats were established, and contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-electron capture detector (HPLC-ECD). Western blotting was performed to investigate the effects of essential oil on the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein in rats' brain. The GC-MS analysis showed that the main components of essential oil were estragole (6.16 %), β-elemene (24.91 %), β-cubebene (14.29 %), and γ-elemene (8.05 %). The results from the FST and TST demonstrated that the immobility time could be significantly reduced by essential oil (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in the OFT. Additionally, the contents of DA, NE, 5-HT, and BDNF in the hippocampus of CMS rats could be increased by treatment with essential oil at doses of 20, 40, and 80 mg/kg. All these results suggested that essential oil could be considered as a new candidate for curing depressive disorders.

  1. Extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbon extraction and quantitation from the green microalgae Botryococcus braunii var. Showa.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Ela; Melis, Anastasios

    2010-04-01

    Mechanical fractionation and aqueous or aqueous/organic two-phase partition approaches were applied for extraction and separation of extracellular terpenoid hydrocarbons from Botryococcus braunii var. Showa. A direct spectrophotometric method was devised for the quantitation of botryococcene and associated carotenoid hydrocarbons extracted by this method. Separation of extracellular botryococcene hydrocarbons from the Botryococcus was achieved upon vortexing of the micro-colonies with glass beads, either in water followed by buoyant density equilibrium to separate hydrocarbons from biomass, or in the presence of heptane as a solvent, followed by aqueous/organic two-phase separation of the heptane-solubilized hydrocarbons (upper phase) from the biomass (lower aqueous phase). Spectral analysis of the upper heptane phase revealed the presence of two distinct compounds, one absorbing in the UV-C, attributed to botryococcene(s), the other in the blue region of the spectrum, attributed to a carotenoid. Specific extinction coefficients were developed for the absorbance of triterpenes at 190nm (epsilon = 90 +/- 5 mM(-1) cm(-1)) and carotenoids at 450 nm (epsilon=165+/-5mM(-1) cm(-1)) in heptane. This enabled application of a direct spectrophotometric method for the quantitation of water- or heptane-extractable botryococcenes and carotenoids. B. braunii var. Showa constitutively accumulates approximately 30% of the dry biomass as extractable (extracellular) botryococcenes, and approximately 0.2% of the dry biomass in the form of a carotenoid. It was further demonstrated that heat-treatment of the Botryococcus biomass substantially accelerates the rate and yield of the extraction process. Advances in this work serve as foundation for a cyclic Botryococcus growth, non-toxic extraction of extracellular hydrocarbons, and return of the hydrocarbon-depleted biomass to growth conditions for further product generation.

  2. Molecular and agronomic analysis of intraspecific variability in Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

    PubMed

    Leite, P S S; Rodrigues, R; Silva, R N O; Pimenta, S; Medeiros, A M; Bento, C S; Gonçalves, L S A

    2016-10-05

    Capsicum baccatum is one of the most important chili peppers in South America, since this region is considered to be the center of origin and diversity of this species. In Brazil, C. baccatum has been widely explored by family farmers and there are different local names for each fruit phenotype, such as cambuci and dedo-de-moça (lady's finger). Although very popular among farmers and consumers, C. baccatum has been less extensively studied than other Capsicum species. This study describes the phenotypic and genotypic variability in C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions. Twenty-nine accessions from the Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro gene bank, and one commercial genotype ('BRS-Mari') were evaluated for 53 morphoagronomic descriptors (31 qualitative and 22 quantitative traits). In addition, accessions were genotyped using 30 microsatellite primers. Three accessions from the C. annuum complex were included in the molecular characterization. Nine of 31 qualitative descriptors were monomorphic, while all quantitative descriptors were highly significant different between accessions (P < 0.01). Using the unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages, four groups were obtained based on multicategoric variables and five groups were obtained based on quantitative variables. In the genotyping analysis, 12 polymorphic simple sequence repeat primers amplified in C. baccatum with dissimilarity between accessions ranging from 0.13 to 0.91, permitting the formation of two distinct groups for Bayesian analysis. These results indicate wide variability among the accessions comparing phenotypic and genotypic data and revealed distinct patterns of dissimilarity between matrices, indicating that both steps are valuable for the characterization of C. baccatum var. pendulum accessions.

  3. dbVar structural variant cluster set for data analysis and variant comparison

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Lon; Hsu, Jeffrey; Tri, Le Quang Minh; Willi, Michaela; Mansour, Tamer; Kai, Yan; Garner, John; Lopez, John; Busby, Ben

    2017-01-01

    dbVar houses over 3 million submitted structural variants (SSV) from 120 human studies including copy number variations (CNV), insertions, deletions, inversions, translocations, and complex chromosomal rearrangements. Users can submit multiple SSVs to dbVAR  that are presumably identical, but were ascertained by different platforms and samples,  to calculate whether the variant is rare or common in the population and allow for cross validation. However, because SSV genomic location reporting can vary – including fuzzy locations where the start and/or end points are not precisely known – analysis, comparison, annotation, and reporting of SSVs across studies can be difficult. This project was initiated by the Structural Variant Comparison Group for the purpose of generating a non-redundant set of genomic regions defined by counts of concordance for all human SSVs placed on RefSeq assembly GRCh38 (RefSeq accession GCF_000001405.26). We intend that the availability of these regions, called structural variant clusters (SVCs), will facilitate the analysis, annotation, and exchange of SV data and allow for simplified display in genomic sequence viewers for improved variant interpretation. Sets of SVCs were generated by variant type for each of the 120 studies as well as for a combined set across all studies. Starting from 3.64 million SSVs, 2.5 million and 3.4 million non-redundant SVCs with count >=1 were generated by variant type for each study and across all studies, respectively. In addition, we have developed utilities for annotating, searching, and filtering SVC data in GVF format for computing summary statistics, exporting data for genomic viewers, and annotating the SVC using external data sources. PMID:28357035

  4. The mechanism of adhesion and germination in the carpospores of Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia (Rhodophyta, Bangiales).

    PubMed

    Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Schmidt, Eder Carlos; Bouzon, Zenilda Laurita

    2012-02-01

    Spore release is the primary means of dispersion employed by red algae, and it provides insight into the elements linking the stages of their life history. In most red algae, spores are released within a sheath-like envelope of mucilage, which is responsible for their primary attachment. However, few studies have characterized the polysaccharides involved in the adhesion of seaweed spores. Therefore, in this paper, the process of spore germination and adhesion in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is described, as representative of the germination pattern of the Naccaria type. Using FITC-labeled lectins, we discovered high concentrations of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose in the mucilage. The germ tube reacted with RCA-FITC, indicating the presence β-D-galactose, and the rhizoidal cells showed the presence of α-D-mannose, α-D-glucose and β-D-galactose, indicating their importance to substrate adhesion. Using light and transmission electron microscopy, we also conducted an analysis of spore ultrastructure. We found that the differentiation of a vacuole in the spore is one of the most important processes marking the initial stage of germination. Thus, as the degree of vacuolation increases, whole cell contents move towards the germ tube, which undergoes several successive divisions forming the sporophytic phase. Therefore, we can conclude that germination in Porphyra spiralis var. amplifolia is characterized by (1) the fixation of carpospores in the substrate by sugars present in the mucilage and (2) the polarization of cell contents by the processes of vacuolization and germ tube formation.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana L. var. mexicana in mice.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hernández, E; Martínez, A L; González-Trujano, M E; Moreno, J; Vibrans, H; Soto-Hernández, M

    2007-01-03

    The anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana L. var. mexicana (Schltdl.) Hardin inflorescence extracts and its acute toxicity were tested. Sodium pentobarbital (SP)-induced hypnosis potentiation (SPP), as well as ambulatory activity and anti-anxiety response in three different experimental models were evaluated with hexane and methanol extracts in mice. In order to determine the proper timing of assessments and to identify the most active extract, a 100mg/kg dosage of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol crude extracts were tested on SPP after 15, 30 and 60min of the administration. Then a dose-response curve was made for the hexane (10-1000mg/kg) and methanol (10-300mg/kg) extracts in all experimental models. Both extracts produced a significant and dose-dependent lengthening in the time of SP, with the methanol extract being more potent than the hexane extract at 60min after administration. Moreover, a significant and dose-dependent attenuation in the anxiety-response in the plus-maze test and exploratory cylinder activity, but also a diminution in the ambulatory activity and in the head dipping response were observed resembling the response to diazepam. Acute toxicity was observed with less dose of methanol extract (LD(50)=375mg/kg) in comparison to the hexane extract (LD(50)>2900mg/kg). Results of the present study shows that Tilia americana var. mexicana possesses depressant activity on the CNS similar to the better-studied species of European Tilia and reinforces its use as anxiolytic and sedative in traditional medicine.

  6. An expanded genetic linkage map of an intervarietal Agaricus bisporus var. bisporusxA. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid based on AFLP, SSR and CAPS markers sheds light on the recombination behaviour of the species.

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Spataro, Cathy; Cathalot, Vincent; Monllor, Sarah; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2010-03-01

    A genetic linkage map for the edible basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus was constructed from 118 haploid homokaryons derived from an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus x A. bisporus var. burnettii hybrid. Two hundred and thirty-one AFLP, 21 SSR, 68 CAPS markers together with the MAT, BSN, PPC1 loci and one allozyme locus (ADH) were evenly spread over 13 linkage groups corresponding to the chromosomes of A. bisporus. The map covers 1156cM, with an average marker spacing of 3.9cM and encompasses nearly the whole genome. The average number of crossovers per chromosome per individual is 0.86. Normal recombination over the entire genome occurs in the heterothallic variety, burnettii, contrary to the homothallic variety, bisporus, which showed adaptive genome-wide suppressed recombination. This first comprehensive genetic linkage map for A. bisporus provides foundations for quantitative trait analyses and breeding programme monitoring, as well as genome organisation studies.

  7. Transcriptome Sequence Analysis of an Ornamental Plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, Revealed the Potential Unigenes Involved in Terpenoid and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun; Kanakala, S.; He, Yehua; Zhang, Junli; Zhong, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies. Results The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. Conclusion The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. PMID:25769053

  8. Reclassification of the Candida haemulonii Complex as Candida haemulonii (C. haemulonii Group I), C. duobushaemulonii sp. nov. (C. haemulonii Group II), and C. haemulonii var. vulnera var. nov.: Three Multiresistant Human Pathogenic Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cendejas-Bueno, E.; Kolecka, A.; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A.; Theelen, B.; Groenewald, M.; Kostrzewa, M.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Gómez-López, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Candida haemulonii species complex is currently known as C. haemulonii groups I and II. Here we describe C. haemulonii group II as a new species, Candida duobushaemulonii sp. nov., and C. haemulonii var. vulnera as new a variety of C. haemulonii group I using phenotypic and molecular methods. These taxa and other relatives of C. haemulonii (i.e., Candida auris and Candida pseudohaemulonii) cannot be differentiated by the commercial methods now used for yeast identification. Four isolates (C. haemulonii var. vulnera) differed from the other isolates of C. haemulonii in the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear rRNA gene operon. The new species and the new variety have a multiresistant antifungal profile, which includes high MICs of amphotericin B (geometric mean MIC, 1.18 mg/liter for C. haemulonii var. vulnera and 2 mg/liter for C. duobushaemulonii sp. nov) and cross-resistance to azole compounds. Identification of these species should be based on molecular methods, such as sequence analysis of ITS regions and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:22952266

  9. VarPy: A python library for volcanology and rock physics data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcom; Bell, Andrew; Snelling, Brawen; Main, Ian

    2014-05-01

    The increasing prevalence of digital instrumentation in volcanology and rock physics is leading to a wealth of data, which in turn is increasing the need for computational analyses and models. Today, these are largely developed by each individual or researcher. The introduction of a shared library that can be used for this purpose has several benefits: 1. when an existing function in the library meets a need recognised by a researcher it is usually much less effort than developing ones own code; 2. once functions are established and multiply used they become better tested, more reliable and eventually trusted by the community; 3. use of the same functions by different researchers makes it easier to compare results and to compare the skill of rival analysis and modelling methods; and 4. in the longer term the cost of maintaining these functions is shared over a wide community and they therefore have greater duration. Python is a high-level interpreted programming language, with capabilities for object-oriented programming. Often scientists choose this language to program their programs because of the increased productivity it provides. Although, there are many software tools available for interactive data analysis and development, there are not libraries designed specifically for volcanology and rock physics data. Therefore, we propose a new Python open-source toolbox called "VarPy" to facilitate rapid application development for rock physicists and volcanologists, which allow users to define their own workflows to develop models, analyses and visualisations. This proposal is triggered by our work on data assimilation in the NERC EFFORT (Earthquake and Failure Forecasting in Real Time) project, using data provided by the NERC CREEP 2 experimental project and volcanic experiments from INVG observatory Etna and IGN observatory Hierro as a test cases. In EFFORT project we are developing a scientist gateway which offers services for collecting and sharing volcanology

  10. Melanin synthesis is associated with changes in hyphopodial turgor, permeability, and wall rigidity in gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis.

    PubMed

    Money, N P; Caesar-TonThat, T C; Frederick, B; Henson, J M

    1998-01-01

    Mycelia of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis form large cells called hyphopodia with deeply lobed, melanized walls. Like appressoria produced by other pathogens, hyphopodia develop on hydrophobic surfaces, but it is not clear that hyphopodia function as platforms for host penetration. In appressoria, melanin synthesis is linked to the generation of enormous turgor pressures that provide the necessary force for plant penetration. In the present study, hyphopodial turgor was measured in a wild-type strain of G. graminis var. graminis, a mutant exhibiting constitutive synthesis of melanin (referred to as the dark mutant), and a melanin-deficient strain (thr). These experiments demonstrate that hyphopodia of the wild-type strain generate higher pressures than the dark mutant and that nonmelanized thr hyphopodia generate minuscule internal pressures. Melanization of the wall is also associated with an increase in its rigidity. These data correlate with differences in wall permeability consistent with a recent model for turgor generation by appressoria.

  11. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur.

    PubMed

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean; Paolini, Julien

    2014-12-01

    The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican.

  12. (1)H NMR spectroscopy-guided isolation of new sucrose esters from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Yang; Luo, Jian-Guang; Liu, Rui-Huan; Lin, Ru; Yang, Ming-Hua; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-10-01

    Ten new sucrose esters, physakengoses A-J (1-10), were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii under the guidance of (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analyses (HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and ESIMS) and chemical methods. These new compounds were tested for antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Among them, compounds 2 and 5-8 showed potent inhibitory effects against test strains with MIC values ranging from 3.5 to 14.9μg/mL. These findings may indicate that the P. alkekengi var. franchetii has potential application as an ingredient in pharmaceuticals.

  13. [Introduction of mutator phage D3112 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa into Alcaligenes eutrophus var. metallotollerans (Strain CH34)].

    PubMed

    Krylov, V N

    1996-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the intact genome of a D3112 tranposable phage (TP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, integrated into a recombinant plasmid RP4 :: D3112, can be transferred by means of conjugation from P. putida PpG1 (RP4npt :: D3112) donor cells into Alcaligenes eutrophus var. metallotollerans cells. P. aeruginosa strains are unacceptable as donors because they have a bactericidal effect on A. eutrophus. RP4npt :: D3112 plasmid is stably inherited by A. eutrophus with D3112 being expressed and successfully reproduced. However, TP loses the induction ability after UV irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. It is suggested that D3112 TP and its miniderivatives could be used in manipulations with A. eutrophus var. metallotolerans.

  14. Volatile and Flavonoid Composition of the Peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican Fruit for Quality Assessment of Its Liqueur

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Nicolas; Barboni, Toussaint; Curk, Franck; Costa, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Summary The volatile and flavonoid compositions of the peel of Citrus medica L. var. Corsican fruits cultivated in Corsica were studied according to the maturity of the citron fruits measured using growing degree-days. Quantitative variation with the stage of development of the fruit was observed using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. Thirty volatile compounds were identified in the peel essential oil. Limonene and γ-terpinene were the major compounds. The volatile compositions of commercial citron liqueurs were also characterized by high amounts of monoterpene hydrocarbons with the same two major components. The main flavonoid components of citron fruits and derived liqueurs were rutin and neohesperidin. This chemical characterization can be used for quality assessment of food products from C. medica var. Corsican. PMID:27904313

  15. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    PubMed

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  16. A role for the Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 protein in chromatin organization at the histone gene cluster and in suppression of position-effect variegation.

    PubMed Central

    Ner, Sarbjit S; Harrington, Michael J; Grigliatti, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for Su(var)3-9 are dominant suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV). We show that SU(VAR)3-9 is a chromatin-associated protein and identify the large multicopy histone gene cluster (HIS-C) as one of its target loci. The organization of nucleosomes over the entire HIS-C region is altered in Su(var)3-9 mutants and there is a concomitant increase in expression of the histone genes. SU(VAR)3-9 is a histone H3 methyltransferase and, using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that SU(VAR)3-9 is present at the HIS-C locus and that the histone H3 at the HIS-C locus is methylated. We propose that SU(VAR)3-9 is involved in packaging HIS-C into a distinct chromatin domain that has some of the characteristics of beta-heterochromatin. We suggest that methylation of histone H3 is important for the chromatin structure at HIS-C. The chromosomal deficiency for the HIS-C is also a suppressor of PEV. In contrast to what might be expected, we show that hemizygosity for the HIS-C locus leads to a substantial increase in the histone transcripts. PMID:12524347

  17. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA. PMID:25487735

  18. Development and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite markers from Taiwan cow-tail fir, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Pinaceae) and cross-species amplification in other Keteleeria taxa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Pinaceae), Taiwan cow-tail fir, is an endangered species listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and only two populations remain, both on the Taiwan Island. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in an endangered and endemic gymnosperm species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, and were tested in an additional 6 taxa, K. davidiana var. calcarea, K. davidiana var. chienpeii, K. evelyniana, K. fortunei, K. fortunei var. cyclolepis, and K. pubescens, to evaluate the genetic variation available for conservation management and to reconstruct the phylogeographic patterns of this ancient lineage. Findings Polymorphic primer sets were developed from K. davidiana var. formosana using the modified AFLP and magnetic bead enrichment method. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 16, with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.28 to 1.00. All of the loci were found to be interspecifically amplifiable. Conclusions These polymorphic and transferable loci will be potentially useful for future studies that will focus on identifying distinct evolutionary units within species and establishing the phylogeographic patterns and the process of speciation among closely related species. PMID:24755442

  19. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-12-09

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA.

  20. Diversity of the var gene family of Indonesian Plasmodium falciparum isolates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The large polymorphic protein PfEMP1 is encoded by the var gene family. PfEMP1 has been shown to play an important role as cytoadherence ligand on the surface of infected erythrocytes and thereby contributes to the distinct pathogenesis of malaria. The study explored the diversity of the DBL1α and DBL2β-C2 domains of the protein from Indonesian Plasmodium falciparum field isolates. Methods Samples of patients with severe and uncomplicated malaria from two different malaria-endemic areas in Indonesia were collected and DNA directly extracted. Dried blood on filter paper was prepared for RNA extraction. PCR amplicons were either cloned and subsequently sequenced or directly sequenced for analysis on nucleotide and amino acid level. Recently published as well as self-designed primers were used for amplification. Results Blood from eight patients was finally used for analysis. Seventy-one different sequences out of over 500 DBL1α sequenced clones were observed, resulting in an average of 8.9 different DBL1α sequences per isolate. The average DBL1α sequence similarity within isolates was similar to between isolates. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated no clustering of sequences regarding strain or geographical origin. The DBL1α sequences were analysed by distribution of semi-conserved features (cysteine/PoLV1-4 grouping) and classified into six sequence groups. The DBL1α cys2 type was observed in all expressed sequences in vivo. Expression of certain DBL sequences implied potential involvement in the pathogenesis. As expected, the DBL2β-C2 domains showed high to moderate homology among each other. Conclusion The DBL1α domains of PfEMP1 from clinical Indonesian isolates showed high divergence among same isolates and some similarities with other Asia-Pacific strains. Further investigations of important var gene domains with a larger sample size are required to confirm with statistical significance observed associations with severe malaria in Indonesian

  1. Exploring coupled 4D-Var data assimilation using an idealised atmosphere-ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Polly; Fowler, Alison; Lawless, Amos; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The successful application of data assimilation techniques to operational numerical weather prediction and ocean forecasting systems has led to an increased interest in their use for the initialisation of coupled atmosphere-ocean models in prediction on seasonal to decadal timescales. Coupled data assimilation presents a significant challenge but offers a long list of potential benefits including improved use of near-surface observations, reduction of initialisation shocks in coupled forecasts, and generation of a consistent system state for the initialisation of coupled forecasts across all timescales. In this work we explore some of the fundamental questions in the design of coupled data assimilation systems within the context of an idealised one-dimensional coupled atmosphere-ocean model. The system is based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS) atmosphere model and a K-Profile Parameterisation (KKP) mixed layer ocean model developed by the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) climate group at the University of Reading. It employs a strong constraint incremental 4D-Var scheme and is designed to enable the effective exploration of various approaches to performing coupled model data assimilation whilst avoiding many of the issues associated with more complex models. Working with this simple framework enables a greater range and quantity of experiments to be performed. Here, we will describe the development of our simplified single-column coupled atmosphere-ocean 4D-Var assimilation system and present preliminary results from a series of identical twin experiments devised to investigate and compare the behaviour and sensitivities of different coupled data assimilation methodologies. This includes comparing fully and weakly coupled assimilations with uncoupled assimilation, investigating whether coupled assimilation can eliminate or lessen initialisation shock in coupled model forecasts, and

  2. Population genetics and phylogeography of endangered Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea and relatives: arctic-alpine disjuncts in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Chung, Melissa; Gelembiuk, Greg; Givnish, Thomas J

    2004-12-01

    Fassett's locoweed (Oxytropis campestris var. chartacea, Fabaceae) is an endangered perennial endemic to Wisconsin. Patterns of genetic variation within and among six remaining populations and their relationship to other members of the O. campestris complex were analysed using AFLPs from 140 accessions across northern North America. Within-population measures of genetic diversity were high (mean expected heterozygosity HE = 0.16; mean nucleotide diversity pi = 0.015) compared with other herbaceous plants. Estimates of among-population differentiation were low (FST = 0.12; PhiST = 0.29), consistent with outcrossing. Genetic and geographical distances between populations were significantly correlated within Fassett's locoweed (r2 = 0.73, P < 0.002 for Mantel test) and O. campestris as a whole (r2 = 0.63, P < 0.0001). Individual and population-based phylogenetic analyses showed that Fassett's locoweed is monophyletic and sister to O. campestris var. johannensis. Morphometric analyses revealed significant differences between Fassett's locoweed and populations of var. johannensis. The first chromosome count for Fassett's locoweed indicates that it is tetraploid (2n = 32), unlike hexaploid var. johannensis. High within-population diversity and relatively low among-population differentiation are consistent with populations of Fassett's locoweed being relicts of a more continuous Pleistocene distribution. Our data support the continued recognition of Fassett's locoweed and protection under federal and state regulations. High levels of genetic diversity within populations suggest that maintain-ing the ecological conditions that favour the life cycle of this plant may be a more pressing concern than the erosion of genetic variation.

  3. Helikaurolides A-D with a Diterpene-Sesquiterpene Skeleton from Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Varela, Rosa M; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-10-02

    Four novel compounds (1-4) with an unprecedented skeleton that combines a sesquiterpene lactone and a kaurane diterpene acid were isolated from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna extract, which was obtained under supercritical conditions. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. The biosynthetic routes involve sesquiterpene lactones and kauranic acid, both of which were previously isolated from this species.

  4. PhenoVar: a phenotype-driven approach in clinical genomics for the diagnosis of polymalformative syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We propose a phenotype-driven analysis of encrypted exome data to facilitate the widespread implementation of exome sequencing as a clinical genetic screening test. Twenty test-patients with varied syndromes were selected from the literature. For each patient, the mutation, phenotypic data, and genetic diagnosis were available. Next, control exome-files, each modified to include one of these twenty mutations, were assigned to the corresponding test-patients. These data were used by a geneticist blinded to the diagnoses to test the efficiency of our software, PhenoVar. The score assigned by PhenoVar to any genetic diagnosis listed in OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) took into consideration both the patient’s phenotype and all variations present in the corresponding exome. The physician did not have access to the individual mutations. PhenoVar filtered the search using a cut-off phenotypic match threshold to prevent undesired discovery of incidental findings and ranked the OMIM entries according to diagnostic score. Results When assigning the same weight to all variants in the exome, PhenoVar predicted the correct diagnosis in 10/20 patients, while in 15/20 the correct diagnosis was among the 4 highest ranked diagnoses. When assigning a higher weight to variants known, or bioinformatically predicted, to cause disease, PhenoVar’s yield increased to 14/20 (18/20 in top 4). No incidental findings were identified using our cut-off phenotypic threshold. Conclusion The phenotype-driven approach described could render widespread use of ES more practical, ethical and clinically useful. The implications about novel disease identification, advancement of complex diseases and personalized medicine are discussed. PMID:24884844

  5. Volatile components of essential oil from cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Mayuko; Myoda, Takao; Wakita, Yoichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tanahashi, Ikuko; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic components in the essential oil prepared from the leaves of cultivated Myrica gale var. tomentosa were compared with those from oil derived wild plants by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). We found that essential oils from both the wild and cultivated plants contained similar aromatic components such as β-elemenone, selina 3,7(11)-diene, myrcene, limonene, cymene, 1,8-cineole, and β-pinene, but the content ratio of the oil was significantly different, which might yield differences in the aromatic properties. The aroma impact components of the essential oils were also determined using GC/MS-Olfactometry (GC/MS-O) and aroma extract dilution analysis. Eight aromatic compounds, including linalool, limonene, and 1,8-cineole, were shown to contribute to the aromatic properties of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa. The strongest aromatic note was defined as linalool, followed by limonene, 1,8-cineole, and β-elemenone. The essential oil, ethanol (EtOH), 1,3-butylene glycol (BG), and 1,3-propanediol (PD) extracts prepared from the leaves of cultivated M. gale var. tomentosa also showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, that is, they demonstrated scavenger activity against hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in the aqueous phase, and showed inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. The essential oil extracts also exhibited antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration value against Bacillus subtilis. In conclusion, the essential oil and solvent extracts from cultivated M. gala var. tomentosa have a potential for utilization as food and cosmetic ingredients.

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. growing wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Felice; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; Piozzi, Franco

    2004-10-15

    The essential oil of aerial parts of Salvia multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. (Lamiaceae) growing wild in Lebanon was obtained by hydrodistillation and was analysed by GC and GC-MS. 67 compounds constituting 95.2% of the oil were identified, the major components being alpha-copaene (8.0%), alpha-pinene (6.6%), myrtenol (5.7%), trans-sabinyl acetate (5.3%).

  7. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki in the control of two mosquito species (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus).

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Senthil; Moorthi, M; Ramakrishnan, N; Dhanapakiam, P; Ramasamy, V K; Rajeswari, A Raja

    2009-05-01

    Bioinsecticide Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk) was used for controlling the mosquito species (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) which gave a significant (p<0.05) mortality in both species. The higher concentration of Btk was highly effective compared to the control ones. The controlling effect was dose and time dependent. Among the studied mosquitoes the C. quinquefasciatus (LC5 0.154%) was more susceptible than A. stephensi (LC50 0.372%) towards the bioinsecticide Btk.

  8. Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii – a new variety of mangrove species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India (Rhizophoraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ragavan, P.; Mohan, P. M.; Jayaraj, R. S. C.; Ravichandran, K.; Saravanan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rhizophora mucronata var. alokii (Rhizophoraceae), a new variety of Rhizophora from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, is described and illustrated. The new variety is remarkable in having four stamens, laterally folded leaves, a short peduncle, thick leathery petals, and a four-sided ovary with a sessile style. A key for the species of Rhizophora of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is also provided. PMID:26312036

  9. Hydrodynamic processes, velocity structure and stratification in natural turbidity currents: Results inferred from field data in the Var Turbidite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migeon, Sébastien; Mulder, Thierry; Savoye, Bruno; Sage, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    The Var Turbidite System (NW Mediterranean Sea) is fed during the present-day highstand sea level by large earthquake-induced ignitive turbidity currents, low-density turbidity currents resulting from retrogressive failures triggered on the upper continental slope, and hyperpycnal flows related to the Var River floods. Using a large dataset including bathymetric data, side-scan sonar images, seismic-reflection profiles, cores and photographs of the seafloor, this paper attempts to better constrain the hydrodynamic behaviour of debris flows and turbidity currents along the Upper and Middle Valley of the Var Turbidite System. The drastic change of the seafloor morphology between the Upper and the Middle Valley suggests that gravity flows undergo rapid transformation from cohesive to fully turbulent behaviour. This transformation is related to a hydraulic jump caused by an abrupt decrease in slope angle at the transition between the Upper and the Middle Valley and is associated with en masse deposition and elevation of the seafloor. Strong seafloor erosion prevails in the Middle Valley, suggesting that, for a low and constant slope angle, turbulent flows must regain a balance between concentration and flow thickness rapidly after they experience hydraulic jump. The internal stratification and vertical grain-size distribution within turbulent flows are inferred from the distribution of fine- to coarse-grained turbidites found in cores located along the crest of the Var Sedimentary Ridge with a decreasing elevation above the floor of the Middle Valley. The theoretical vertical velocity profile deduced from the vertical grain-size distribution exhibits a general trend and an inflection of the gradient curve different from those of the velocity profiles classically obtained using numerical modelling.

  10. Genetic and morphological contrasts between wild and anthropogenic populations of Agave parryi var. huachucensis in south-eastern Arizona

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kathleen C.; Trapnell, Dorset W.; Hamrick, J. L.; Hodgson, Wendy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims At least seven species of Agave, including A. parryi, were cultivated prehistorically in Arizona, serving as important sources of food and fibre. Many relict populations from ancient cultivation remain in the modern landscape, offering a unique opportunity to study pre-Columbian plant manipulation practices. This study examined genetic and morphological variation in six A. p. var. huachucensis populations of unknown origin to compare them with previous work on A. parryi populations of known origin, to infer their cultivation history and to determine whether artificial selection is evident in populations potentially managed by early agriculturalists. Methods Six A. p. var. huachucensis and 17 A. parryi populations were sampled, and morphometric, allozyme and microsatellite data were used to compare morphology and genetic structure in purportedly anthropogenic and wild populations, as well as in the two taxa. Analysis of molecular variance and Bayesian clustering were performed to partition variation associated with taxonomic identity and hypothesized evolutionary history, to highlight patterns of similarity among populations and to identify potential wild sources for the planting stock. Key Results A p. var. huachucensis and A. parryi populations differed significantly both morphologically and genetically. Like A. parryi, wild A. p. var. huachucensis populations were more genetically diverse than the inferred anthropogenic populations, with greater expected heterozygosity, percentage of polymorphic loci and number of alleles. Inferred anthropogenic populations exhibited many traits indicative of past active cultivation: greater morphological uniformity, fixed heterozygosity for several loci (non-existent in wild populations), fewer multilocus genotypes and strong differentiation among populations. Conclusions Where archaeological information is lacking, the genetic signature of many Agave populations in Arizona can be used to infer their

  11. Analyses of effects of α-cembratrien-diol on cell morphology and transcriptome of Valsa mali var. mali.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ning; Du, Yongmei; Liu, Xinmin; Zhang, Hongbo; Liu, Yanhua; Shi, John; Xue, Sophia Jun; Zhang, Zhongfeng

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the underlying mechanisms of growth inhibition of Valsa mali var. mali, the causative pathogen of apple tree canker disease, by α-cembratrien-diol. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of α-cembratrien-diol against V. mali var. mali is 18.0mg/L. Treatment of V. mali var. mali with α-cembratrien-diol resulted in various mycelial and cellular abnormalities, and the up- and down-regulation of 94 and 170 differentially expressed genes, respectively. Gene Ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that α-cembratrien-diol substantially altered the expression of genes involved in the redox process, tetrapyrrole binding, coenzyme binding, heme binding, and iron binding. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis also showed significant enrichment of specific metabolic pathways involving the set of differentially expressed genes. The present study will assist in the development of alternative α-cembratrien-diol-based biological control agents and ultimately facilitate organic apple production.

  12. Monoterpenoids from the traditional North Italian vegetable Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Fusani, Pietro; Stanisławska, Iwona; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Melck, Dominique; Motta, Andrea; Zidorn, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of young shoots of Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae), collected from the wild and used as vegetables in alpine provinces of Italy, yielded eight monoterpenoids. Besides known compounds, aruncin A, aruncide A, and cimicifugolide, five previously undescribed substances, aruncins C, D, and E, and aruncides D and E, were identified. Based on results from the full synthesis of aruncin B, structures of aruncin A and aruncide A were revised. Structures were established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and based on data from synthetic aruncin B. An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed to investigate the distribution of the monoterpenoids in different organs of Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris and in aerial parts of A. dioicus var. aethusifolius (H.Lév.) H.Hara [Syn.: Aruncus aethusifolius (H.Lév.) Nakai]. Preliminary bioactivity studies moreover indicated weak cytotoxicity for some of the compounds against human prostrate adenocarcinoma cells.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  14. Targeting the Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii cell wall using lectins: study of the carbohydrate-binding domain.

    PubMed

    de Brito Ximenes, Pamella; Beltrão, Eduardo Isidoro Carneiro; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Buonafina, Maria Daniela Silva; de Lima-Neto, Reginaldo Gonçalves; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2015-02-25

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is considered to be the major cause of cryptococcosis in immunosuppressed patients. Understanding cell wall glycoproteins using lectins is of medical interest and can contribute to specific therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the carbohydrates on the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii clinical isolates, using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-lectin binding protocol. Thirty yeast strains stocked in the culture collection were cultivated for 2 days at 30 °C with shaking. Cells were obtained by centrifugation, washed in phosphate-buffered saline, and a suspension of 107 cells/mL was obtained. To determine the binding profile of lectins, concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), and peanut agglutinin (PNA) conjugated to fluorescein were used. All the tested clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were intensely stained by WGA, moderately stained by Con A, and weakly stained by PNA and UEA-I. Thus, Cryptococcus can be detected in clinical specimens such as blood and cerebrospinal fluid using the fluorescent lectin WGA, which may be considered as an option for detection in cases of suspected cryptococcosis with low laboratory sensitivity. Future applications may be developed using this basic tool.

  15. An historical analysis of the California Current circulation using ROMS 4D-Var: System configuration and diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neveu, Emilie; Moore, Andrew M.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme; Drake, Patrick; Crawford, William J.; Jacox, Michael G.; Nuss, Emma

    2016-03-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation tool has been used to compute two sequences of circulation analyses for the U.S. west coast. One sequence of analyses spans the period 1980-2010 and is subject to surface forcing derived from relatively low resolution atmospheric products from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform wind product (CCMP) and the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis project. The second sequence spans the shorter period 1999-2012 and is subject to forcing derived from a high resolution product from the Naval Research Laboratory Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS). The two analysis periods are divided into eight day windows, and all available satellite observations of sea surface temperature and sea surface height, as well as in situhydrographic profiles are assimilated into ROMS using 4D-Var. The performance of the system is monitored in terms of the cost function and the statistics of the innovations, and the impact of data assimilated on the circulation is assessed by comparing the posterior circulation estimates with the prior circulation and the circulation from a run of the model without data assimilation, with particular emphasis on eddy kinetic energy. This is part I of a two part series, and the circulation variability of the 4D-Var analyses will be documented in part II.

  16. Analysis of phospholipids, sterols, and fatty acids in Taxus chinensis var. mairei cells in response to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Han, Pei-pei; Zhou, Jian; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2009-08-17

    Plant cell culture has been developed as an alternative method for the production of an anticancer drug, paclitaxel. However, the sensitivity of plant cells to shear stress has been one of the main obstacles to the scale-up of the plant cell culture. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of plant cells' response to hydrodynamic mechanical stress, lipid profiling of suspension-cultured Taxus chinensis (Chinese yew) var. mairei cells under shear stress was carried out using liquid chromatography-tandem MS and gas chromatography-time-of-flight MS. T. chinensis var. mairei cells cultured in a Couette-type shear reactor responded with an increase of cell membrane permeability compared with control cells, which indicated that the adaptation to shear stress altered membrane lipid composition. The main changes of lipid profiles in the shear-stress-induced cells were the following: (a) the total phospholipid content decreased, especially that of structural phospholipids such as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine; (b) cells showed increased stigmasterol at the expense of sitosterol and campesterol; (c) the stigmasterol/phospholipid ratio increased; (d) the mono-unsaturated-fatty-acid content increased; (e) the shear-stress-induced cells accumulated very-long-chain saturated fatty acids (C22:0, C23:0, C24:0 and C25:0). These findings suggested alterations in membrane composition and hinted at a possible molecular basis for the mechanotransduction processes induced by shear stress in T. chinensis var. mairei cells.

  17. Part I. Metabolites of Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium; Part II. Regioselective deuteriations of deoxyribose and incorporation into deoxynucleosides

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium is the fungus responsible for several outbreaks of neurotoxicoses among cattle in Tennessee beginning in 1979. Verrucosidin isolated from samples of P. verrucosum var. cyclopium was later shown to be a powerful neurotoxin capable of paralyzing its victims and was also said to cause tremoring in some cases. Part I of this dissertation describes the re-investigation of metabolites of P. verrucosum var. cyclopium and tremorgenicity of verrucosidin. Verrucosidin has been shown in this study to be non-tremorgenic. This research also describes development of efficient synthetic methods for incorporation of deuterium into the deoxyribose moiety of deoxyribonucleosides. Deuteriated deoxynucleosides are presently being considered for synthesis of deuteriated sequences of DNA to be utilized in {sup 1}H NMR studies of solution conformation and dynamics, as well as interactions with proteins, drugs, metals and carcinogens. A route for synthesizing 2-deoxy-D-ribose from D-ribonic-acid-{gamma}-lactone incorporating deuterium at the C-1, C-2 or C-5 positions is presented.

  18. Effects of Fermentation Temperature and Aeration on Production of Natural Isoamyl Acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaztekin, Murat; Cabaroglu, Turgut; Erten, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Isoamyl acetate is a natural flavour ester, widely used as a source of banana flavour by the food industry. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus is a yeast which can produce isoamyl acetate by esterification of amyl alcohols with acetyl coenzyme A via fermentation. The evaluation of this kind of production as an alternative way to obtain natural banana flavour could be possible, if the levels produced were high enough to make a commercial product. In this study, the effects of temperature (15°C and 25°C) and aeration (aerobic, semiaerobic, and anaerobic) on the production of isoamyl acetate by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus from sugar beet molasses were examined. According to the results obtained, isoamyl acetate production rate and specific productivity were higher at 25°C than at 15°C and at semiaerobic condition than aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus showed a production rate of 0.703 mg L−1 h−1 and a specific productivity of 0.0297 mg L−1 cell−1 h−1 isoamyl acetate with semiaerobic condition at 25°C. The maximum amount of isoamyl acetate reached with these conditions was 118 mg/L. PMID:23862159

  19. Biochemical and molecular modulation of CCl4-induced peripheral and central damage by Tilia americana var. mexicanaextracts.

    PubMed

    Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; González-García, María Carolina; Núñez-Ramírez, Eithan; Floriano-Sánchez, Esaú; González-Trujano, María Eva; Fernández-Rojas, Berenice; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Rivera-Espinosa, Liliana; Sampieri, Aristides Iii; Carmona-Aparicio, Liliana

    2017-03-01

    Around the world, species from the genus Tilia are commonly used because of their peripheral and central medicinal effects; they are prepared as teas and used as tranquilizing, anticonvulsant, and analgesic agents. In this study, we provide evidence of the protective effects of organic and aqueous extracts (100 mg/kg, i.p.) obtained from the leaves of Tilia americana var. mexicana on CCl4-induced liver and brain damage in the rat. Protection was observed in the liver and brain (cerebellum, cortex and cerebral hemispheres) by measuring the activity of antioxidant enzymes and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) using spectrophotometric methods. Biochemical parameters were also assessed in serum samples from the CCl4-treated rats. The T. americana var. mexicana leaf extracts provided significant protection against CCl4-induced peripheral and central damage by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, diminishing lipid peroxidation, and preventing alterations in biochemical serum parameters, such as the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-globulin (γ-GLOB), serum albumin (ALB), total bilirubin (BB), creatinine (CREA) and creatine kinase (CK), relative to the control group. Additionally, we correlated gene expression with antioxidant activity in the experimental groups treated with the organic and aqueous Tilia extracts and observed a non-statistically significant positive correlation. Our results provide evidence of the underlying biomedical properties of T. americana var. mexicana that confer its neuro- and hepatoprotective effects.

  20. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  1. [Chemical constituents from polarity part in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-gai; Gui, Zhi-jia; Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-10-01

    The chemical constituents from polarity part in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Fourteen compounds were obtained and identified as tert-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(R)-byakangelicin (1), (2"S) -3"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oxypeucedanin hydrate (2), marmesinin (3), sec-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-byakangelicin (4), isofraxidin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5), benzyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), 8-O-β-D-glycopyranosylxanthotoxol (7), prenyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (8), scopolin (9), (2' R) -5'-hydroxymarmesin-5'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), (2'S,3'R) -3'-hydroxymarmesinin (11), skimmin (12), benzyl-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1"--> 6')-β-D-glucopyranoside (13), and decuroside IV (14). Among them, compounds 2, 5, 6, 8, and 10-13 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  2. The Extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum Ameliorates Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyuk Soon; Kim, Do Kyun; Lee, Jun Ho; Yoo, Young Hyo; Park, Sun Kyu; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Lee, Dajeong; Lee, Min Beom

    2016-01-01

    Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZ) has been used for beverage or tea and also as folk medicine for the remedy of diverse inflammatory diseases. Nevertheless, the therapeutic effect of CZ on arthritis remains to be unknown. In this paper we aim to investigate the CZ's antiarthritic effect and mechanism of action both in vitro and in vivo. To assess CZ's antiarthritic effect, mouse models of type II collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were used. Mice were used to gauge clinical arthritis index and histopathological changes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), and other biological methods were adopted to measure CZ's effect on arthritis and to understand the veiled mechanism of action. CZ greatly suppressed CIA, histopathological score, bone erosion, and osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, CZ inhibited the production of various inflammatory and arthritic mediators like inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and chemokines. Of note, CZ significantly suppressed the activation of the NF-κB pathway in vivo. CZ exerted an antiarthritic effect in CIA mice by curbing the production of crucial inflammatory and arthritis mediators. This study warrants further investigation of CZ for the use in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PMID:27840652

  3. Clinical response of captive common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) infected with Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati.

    PubMed

    Skerratt, Lee F

    2003-01-01

    Seven common wombats (Vombatus ursinus) were exposed and two of these were re-exposed to Sarcoptes scabiei var. wombati (Acari: Sarcoptidae). For wombats exposed for the first time, five exposed to 5,000 mites on their shoulder developed moderate to severe parakeratotic mange after 11 wk compared with two given 1,000 mites that developed mild clinical signs of mange after 11 wk. For re-exposed wombats, one of two given 5,000 mites developed mild parakeratotic mange and the other developed severe parakeratotic mange. Initial signs of mange were erythema followed by parakeratosis, alopecia, excoriation and fissuring of parakeratotic crust and skin. Erythema usually became apparent within 14 days after exposure (DAE) or within 24 hrs of re-exposure. Parakeratosis was visible 14-21 DAE and alopecia first occurred 35-77 DAE. Clinical signs increased in severity over time and lesions spread slowly from the site of exposure. Mangy wombats scratched excessively, lost weight, and exhibited a significant neutrophilia compared with control wombats. Treatment of mange with three injections of ivermectin, 300 micrograms/kg, 10 days apart led to complete resolution of clinical signs. However mites were not entirely eliminated until wombats received a second regime of treatment.

  4. Factors Affecting Germination of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis Teliospores from Yellow Starthistle.

    PubMed

    Bruckart, William L; Eskandari, Farivar

    2002-04-01

    ABSTRACT The rust fungus Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis is a candidate for biological control of yellow starthistle (YST). Part of the risk assessment includes determining if safflower seedlings are susceptible to infection by teliospores of P. jaceae. A protocol for germination of P. jaceae teliospores is needed to verify that teliospores used in comparative studies are viable. The protocol developed from this research has two steps: first, priming teliospores on water agar at 4 degrees C in the dark, and second, incubating them at warmer temperatures for 1 week in the presence of an exogenous stimulator. Priming longer than 4 weeks resulted in significantly greater germination than priming for shorter periods. Sources of effective stimulator included seeds and seedlings of YST or safflower. The greatest germination occurred during incubation at 18 degrees C in the dark. Teliospore germination was reduced after incubation with a 12- or 14-h photoperiod. A low percentage (<20%) of teliospores of two isolates germinated after 44 and 96 weeks of dry storage at room temperature; samples of each isolate tested after that did not germinate. Data indicate teliospores of several isolates of P. jaceae are viable, and the protocol will be used to prepare teliospores of P. jaceae for comparative studies with P. carthami on safflower seedlings.

  5. Transient analysis of distribution class Adaptive Var Compensators: Simulation and field test results

    SciTech Connect

    Kagalwala, R.A.; Venkata, S.S.; El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Butler, N.G.; Van Leuven, A.; Rodriguez, A.P.; Kerszenbaum, I.; Smith, D.

    1995-04-01

    Simulation studies are performed to analyze the transient behavior of the Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC), a power electronic device installed at the distribution level, during its design, installation and field testing stages. The simulation model includes detailed models for power apparatus, power semiconductor devices and low signal level electronics. Hence, by using this model, a wide range of simulation studies which contribute towards the development of the AVC and its effectiveness in the field can all be performed on the same platform. A new power electronics simulator called SABER has proven to be very effective for this study because of its model-independent structure and extensive library that covers various disciplines of engineering. The simulation studies are aimed at gaining a better understanding of the interaction between the AVC and the distribution system. They cover a range of phenomena such as switching transients due to mechanical capacitor bank closing, fast transients due to reverse recovery of the power diodes of the AVC, power system harmonics and voltage flicker problem. This paper also briefly describes the criteria for selection of the simulation tool and the models developed.

  6. Antispasmodic saponins from bulbs of red onion, Allium cepa L. var. Tropea.

    PubMed

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Capasso, Raffaele; Izzo, Angelo A

    2005-02-23

    A phytochemical analysis of the polar extract from the red bulbs of Allium cepa L. var. Tropea, typical of Calabria, a southern region of Italy, was performed extensively for the first time, leading to the isolation of four new furostanol saponins, named tropeoside A1/A2 (1a/1b) and tropeoside B1/B2 (3a/3b), along with the respective 22-O-methyl derivatives (2a/2b and 4a/4b), almost certainly extraction artifacts. High concentrations of ascalonicoside A1/A2 (5a/5b) and ascalonicoside B (6), previously isolated from Allium ascalonicum Hort., were also found. This is the first report of furostanol saponins in this A. cepa variety. The chemical structures of the new compounds were established through a combination of extensive nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry and chemical analyses. High concentrations of quercetin, quercetin 4(I)-glucoside, taxifolin, taxifolin 7-glucoside, and phenylalanine were also isolated. The new saponins were found to possess antispasmodic activity in the guinea pig isolated ileum; such an effect might contribute to explaining the traditional use of onion in the treatment of disturbances of the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Variants of Aspergillus alutaceus var. alutaceus (formerly Aspergillus ochraceus) with altered ochratoxin a production

    SciTech Connect

    Chelack, W.S.; Borsa, J.; Szekely, J.G. ); Marquardt, R.R.; Frohlich, A.A. )

    1991-09-01

    The present studies, using Asperigillus alutaceus var. alutaceus Berkeley et Curtis (formerly A. ochraceus Wilhelm) NRRL 3174 along with three other wild-type strains, were undertaken in an attempt to understand the effects of irradiation and other treatments on mycotoxin production in grain. Bedford barley was inoculated with spores of NRRL 3174, gamma irradiated, and incubated at 28C and 25% moisture. After 10 days of incubation, two colony types, ocher (parental) and yellow (variant), were isolated from the grain. Further culturing of the yellow variant resulted in the spontaneous appearance of a white variant that exhibited greatly enhanced fluorescence under UV light. In subsequent work, we have also isolated variants producing a soluble red pigment. In addition, in model experiments involving irradiation (1 kGy) of pure cultures, induction frequencies ranging between 2 and 4% (survival basis) were observed for the yellow and red variants. Inoculation of these variants into wheat and incubation for 14 days at 28C and 32% moisture resulted in ochratoxin A production in the relative amounts of 0.09:1:4.6:9.3 for the red, ocher (parental), yellow, and white variants, respectively. Additional characteristics of these isolates are described. Confirmation that the white high-ochratoxin-A-producing variants were derived from the parental strain was demonstrated by obtaining revertant sectors in monoclonal cultures of the variants.

  8. SAGE-VAR: AN INFRARED SURVEY OF VARIABILITY IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Riebel, D.; Boyer, M. L.; Srinivasan, S.; Whitelock, P.; Feast, M.; Meixner, M.; Shiao, B.; Babler, B.; Meade, M.; Whitney, B.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Ita, Y.

    2015-07-01

    We present the first results from the Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE)-Var program, a follow up to the Spitzer legacy program SAGE (Meixner et al.). We obtained four epochs of photometry at 3.6 and 4.5 μm covering the bar of the LMC and the central region of the SMC in order to probe the variability of extremely red sources missed by variability surveys conducted at shorter wavelengths, and to provide additional epochs of observation for known variables. Our six total epochs of observations allow us to probe infrared (IR) variability on 15 different timescales ranging from ∼20 days to ∼5 yr. Out of a full catalog of 1 717 554 (LMC) and 457 760 (SMC) objects, we find 10 (LMC) and 6 (SMC) large amplitude Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) variables without optically measured variability owing to circumstellar dust obscuration. The catalog also contains multiple observations of known AGB variables, type I and II Cepheids, eclipsing variables, R CrB stars, and young stellar objects, which will be discussed in following papers. Here we present IR Period–Luminosity (PL) relations for classical Cepheids in the Magellanic Clouds, as well as improved PL relationships for AGB stars pulsating in the fundamental mode using mean magnitudes constructed from six epochs of observations.

  9. Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Allium roseum L. var. grandiflorum Briq. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Touihri, Imen; Boukhris, Maher; Marrakchi, Naziha; Luis, José; Hanchi, Belgacem; Kallech-Ziri, Olfa

    2015-01-01

    Allium roseum L. (Alliaceae) endemic mediterranean specie was represented in the North Africa by 12 different taxa. In the present study, chemical composition, antiproliferative, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil extracted from A. roseum var. grandiflorum Briq. bulbs collected in the North of Tunisia were investigated. Chemical characterization has shown methyl methanethiosulfinate as major sulphurous compounds. A. roseum bulbs essential oil provides interesting antiproliferative activity against two human colonic adenocarcinoma HT29 and CACO2 cell lines in dose-dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 4.64 µg/mL and 8.22 µg/mL respectively. The antioxidant activity, as determined by FRAP assay, was 285 µmol equivalent Trolox/g of essential oil. The scavenging effect on DPPH radicals of essential oil was estimated as IC50 values at 156 µg/mL. The inhibition of superoxide anion production in a model of cancer cell lines was significant for both lines HT29 and CACO2 with IC50 of 20.25 µg/mL and 29.12 µg/mL respectively. Allium roseum essential oil exhibited antibacterial and antifungal activities with a high effectiveness against Candida albicans given by an MIC value of 0.019 mg/mL. This biological effect appears to be related mainly to the presence of organosulfur compounds.

  10. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu(2+) levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu(2+) levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu(2+) in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu(2+) indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu(2+) the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins).

  11. A detailed analysis of the recombination landscape of the button mushroom Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus.

    PubMed

    Sonnenberg, Anton S M; Gao, Wei; Lavrijssen, Brian; Hendrickx, Patrick; Sedaghat-Tellgerd, Narges; Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Kong, Won-Sik; Schijlen, Elio G W M; Baars, Johan J P; Visser, Richard G F

    2016-08-01

    The button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) is one of the world's most cultivated mushroom species, but in spite of its economic importance generation of new cultivars by outbreeding is exceptional. Previous genetic analyses of the white bisporus variety, including all cultivars and most wild isolates revealed that crossing over frequencies are low, which might explain the lack of introducing novel traits into existing cultivars. By generating two high quality whole genome sequence assemblies (one de novo and the other by improving the existing reference genome) of the first commercial white hybrid Horst U1, a detailed study of the crossover (CO) landscape was initiated. Using a set of 626 SNPs in a haploid offspring of 139 single spore isolates and whole genome sequencing on a limited number of homo- and heterokaryotic single spore isolates, we precisely mapped all COs showing that they are almost exclusively restricted to regions of about 100kb at the chromosome ends. Most basidia of A. bisporus var. bisporus produce two spores and pair preferentially via non-sister nuclei. Combined with the COs restricted to the chromosome ends, these spores retain most of the heterozygosity of the parent thus explaining how present-day white cultivars are genetically so close to the first hybrid marketed in 1980. To our knowledge this is the first example of an organism which displays such specific CO landscape.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ah-Young; Kim, Yong-Min; Koo, Namjin; Lee, Su Min; Nahm, Seokhyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background The oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of the most important cultivated cucurbits grown widely in Korea, Japan, and northern China. It is cultivated because its fruit has a sweet aromatic flavor and is rich in soluble sugars, organic acids, minerals, and vitamins. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of the developmental changes that determine size, color, and sugar contents of the fruit, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to analyze the genes expressed during fruit development. Results We identified a total of 47,666 of representative loci from 100,875 transcripts and functionally annotated 33,963 of the loci based on orthologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Among those loci, we identified 5,173 differentially expressed genes, which were classified into 14 clusters base on the modulation of their expression patterns. The expression patterns suggested that the differentially expressed genes were related to fruit development and maturation through diverse metabolic pathways. Analyses based on gene set enrichment and the pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes suggested that the expression of genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism and carotenoid biosynthesis were regulated dynamically during fruit development and subsequent maturation. Conclusion Our results provide the gene expression patterns related to different stages of fruit development and maturation in the oriental melon. The expression patterns give clues about important regulatory mechanisms, especially those involving starch, sugar, and carotenoid biosynthesis, in the development of the oriental melon fruit. PMID:28070461

  13. Hepatoprotection of enzymatic-extractable mycelia zinc polysaccharides by Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuo; Gao, Zheng; Zhang, Jianjun; Jing, Huijuan; Li, Shangshang; Ren, Zhenzhen; Wang, Shouxian; Jia, Le

    2017-02-10

    The purpose of this work was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of enzymatic-extractable mycelia zinc polysaccharides (En-MZPS) from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis on the hyperlipidemic mice induced by high-fat-high-cholesterol emulsion (HFHCM). The results showed that the supplementation of En-MZPS had potential anti-hyperlipidemia effects on reducing hepatic lipid levels by monitoring the serum enzyme activities (ALP, ALT and AST) and serum lipid levels (TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C and VLDL-C), enhancing the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T-AOC), and decreasing the lipid peroxidation (MDA and LPO). Furthermore, the in vitro scavenging results indicated that the inhibition effects of En-MZPS on hydroxyl radicals and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals reached 59.98±6.29% and 37.01±2.15%, respectively. These conclusions demonstrated that the En-MZPS might be suitable for functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the HFHCM-induced hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  14. [Cryptococcus Neoformans Var. Gattii meningoencephalitis with cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient successfully treated by surgical resection].

    PubMed

    Inada, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Kawamoto, Michi; Sekiya, Hiroaki; Imai, Yukihiro; Tani, Shoichi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Mineharu, Yohei; Asai, Katsunori; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Takenori; Shibata, Teishiki; Beppu, Mikiya; Agawa, Yuji; Shimizu, Kanpei; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Haruhiko

    2014-02-01

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection, which mainly invades the lungs and central nervous system. In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or fungal infection was, as such, suspected. Although he received 2 years of intravenous and intraventricular antifungal treatment, brain cryptococcomas were formed and gradually increased. Because of the refractory clinical course, the patient underwent surgical resection of the cerebral lesions. With continuation of antifungal drugs for 6 months after the surgeries, Cryptococcus could not be cultured from cerebrospinal fluid, and no lesions were seen on MR images. If cerebral cryptococcosis responds poorly to antifungal agents, surgical treatment of the cerebral lesion should be considered.

  15. Decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by Emericella nidulans var. nidulans.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Anjali; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2009-11-15

    In this study geno-toxicity analysis along with effluent treatment was taken up to evaluate the efficiency of biological treatment process for safe disposal of treated effluent. Four fungi were isolated from sediments of pulp and paper mill in which PF4 reduced colour (30%) and lignin content (24%) of the effluent on 3rd day. The fungal strain was identified as Emericella nidulans var. nidulans (anamorph: Aspergillus nidulans) on the basis of rDNA ITS1 and rDNA ITS2 region sequences. The process of decolourization was optimized by Taguchi approach. The optimum conditions were temperature (30-35 degrees C), rpm (125), dextrose (0.25%), tryptone (0.1%), inoculum size (7.5%), pH (5) and duration (24h). Decolourization of effluent improved by 31% with reduction in colour (66.66%) and lignin (37%) after treatment by fungi in shake flask. Variation in pH from 6 to 5 had most significant effect on decolourization (71%) while variation in temperature from 30 to 35 degrees C had no effect on the process. Treated effluent was further evaluated for geno-toxicity by alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae MTCC 36 as model organism, indicated 60% reduction.

  16. Toxins Produced by Valsa mali var. mali and Their Relationship with Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Chao; Li, Baohua; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Zhang, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), the causal agent of apple tree canker disease, produces various toxic compounds, including protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid and phloroglucinol. Here, we examined the relationship between toxin production and the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and determined their bioactivities in several assays, for further elucidating the pathogenesis mechanisms of Vmm and for developing new procedures to control this disease. The toxins were quantified with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and the results showed that the strain with attenuated virulence produced low levels of toxins with only three to four kinds of compounds being detectable. In contrast, higher amounts of toxins were produced by the more aggressive strain, and all five compounds were detected. This indicated a significant correlation between the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and their ability to produce toxins. However, this correlation only existed in planta, but not in vitro. During the infection of Vmm, protocatechuic acid was first detected at three days post inoculation (dpi), and the others at seven or 11 dpi. In addition, all compounds produced noticeable symptoms on host plants at concentrations of 2.5 to 40 mmol/L, with protocatechuic acid being the most effective compound, whereas 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the most active compounds on non-host plants. PMID:24662481

  17. Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Mi Ju; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Park, Sun Hee; Kim, Duyeol; Park, Cheol Beom; Kang, Jin Seok; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2017-01-01

    Acanthopanax divaricatus (Siebold & Zucc.) Seem. var. albeofructus (ADA), a traditional medical herb, has been used to treat arthritis and muscular injury, to strengthen muscle and bone, and to get vital energy. However, information regarding its toxicity is limited. ADA was administered by oral gavage to groups of rats at doses of 0 (control), 1,000, 1,500, 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 mg/kg five times per week for 13 weeks. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, organ weights, necropsy, histopathological finding, vaginal cytology, and sperm morphology were compared between control and ADA-treated groups. Salivation was intermittently observed in both sexes receiving 2,500 and 3,000 mg/kg directly after dosing. Absolute liver weights increased in females receiving 2,000, 2,500, and 3,000 mg/kg ADA (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively) and so did the relative liver weights (P < 0.001). Salivation and increased liver weight were ADA-related changes but not considered to be adverse effects. Salivation was intermittent and transient, and the liver weight increase was minor and not accompanied by other changes such as hepatic morphological or functional alterations. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was determined to be at least 3,000 mg/kg in both sexes of rats. PMID:28133509

  18. Past landscape dynamics in mountain territories: historical trajectory of vulnerability in the Vars catchment (French Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Anne; Cioloboc, Florin; Schlosser, Arnaud; Gazo, Aurelien; Martin, Brice; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, mountain landscapes have experiment natural and man-made landcover/use changes with mainly the development of tourism activities and the reduction of agro-pastoral activities. These transformations have directly influenced the spatial organization of mountain landscapes. To better anticipate the future exposure of the territory to natural hazards, decision-makers need retrospective analyses of the past changes. In the frame of the SAMCO project, whose objective is to propose mountain risk assessment methodologies in the context of global changes, this research presents a retrospective analysis of land cover/use changes (from 1948 to 2013) in the Vars catchment (French South Alps) submitted to several natural hazards (rockfall, landslide, and flood). Database of elements at risk has been built for five dates and evolution of vulnerability is performed through a versatile GIS-based analysis tool developed for the estimation of vulnerability indicators (physical, economical, social) at a fine scale (1:5000). Results allow identifying several areas with different trajectories of vulnerability which can be use as input data for risk analysis and define future trends.

  19. Expression of salicylic acid-related genes in Brassica oleracea var. capitata during Plasmodiophora brassicae infection.

    PubMed

    Manoharan, Ranjith Kumar; Shanmugam, Ashokraj; Hwang, Indeok; Park, Jong-In; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2016-06-01

    Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage) is an important vegetable crop in Asian countries such as Korea, China, and Japan. Cabbage production is severely affected by clubroot disease caused by the soil-borne plant pathogen Plasmodiophora brassicae. During clubroot development, methyl salicylate (MeSA) is biosynthesized from salicylic acid (SA) by methyltransferase. In addition, methyl salicylate esterase (MES) plays a major role in the conversion of MeSA back into free SA. The interrelationship between MES and methytransferases during clubroot development has not been fully explored. To begin to examine these relationships, we investigated the expression of MES genes in disease-susceptible and disease-resistant plants during clubroot development. We identified three MES-encoding genes potentially involved in the defense against pathogen attack. We found that SS1 was upregulated in both the leaves and roots of B. oleracea during P. brassicae infection. These results support the conclusion that SA biosynthesis is suppressed during pathogen infection in resistant plants. We also characterized the expression of a B. oleracea BSMT gene, which appears to be involved in glycosylation rather than MeSA biosynthesis. Our results provide insight into the functions and interactions of genes for MES and methyltransferase during infection. Taken together, our findings indicate that MES genes are important candidates for use to control clubroot diseases.

  20. Metabolic profiling and biological capacity of Pieris brassicae fed with kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Oliveira, Jorge M A; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-06-01

    Phenolic and organic acid profiles of aqueous extracts from Pieris brassicae material and the host kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) leaves were determined by HPLC/UV-DAD/MS(n)-ESI and HPLC-UV, respectively. The identified phenolics included acylated and nonacylated flavonoid glycosides, hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides, and sulphate phenolics. Kale exhibited the highest content (11g/kg lyophilized extract), while no phenolics were identified in the butterflies or exuviae. Nine different organic acids were characterized in the materials, with kale showing the highest amount (112g/kg lyophilized extract). With the exception of the exuviae extract, the rest were screened for bioactivity. Using spectrophotometric microassays, all exhibited antiradical capacity against DPPH and NO in a concentration-dependent way, whereas only kale and excrement extracts were active against superoxide. All displayed activity on intestinal smooth muscle, albeit with distinct relaxation-contraction profiles. Larvae and butterfly extracts were more efficacious for intestinal relaxation than was kale extract, whereas excrement extract evoked only contractions, thus evidencing their different compositions. Collectively, these results show that P. brassicae sequesters and metabolizes kale's phenolic compounds. Moreover, the extract's bioactivities suggest that they may constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds whose complex chemical structures preclude either synthesis or isolation.

  1. Purification and characterization of 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol dehydrogenase from Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum.

    PubMed

    Fujimitsu, Hiroshi; Taniyama, Yuko; Tajima, Sae; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Arima, Jiro; Mori, Nobuhiro

    2016-09-01

    From investigation of 60 filamentous fungi, we identified Fusarium merismoides var. acetilereum, which uses 4-N-trimethylamino-1-butanol (TMA-butanol) as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The fungus produced NAD(+)-dependent TMA-butanol dehydrogenase (DH) when it was cultivated in medium containing TMA-butanol. The enzyme showed molecular mass of 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE and 160 kDa by gel filtration, suggesting that it is a homotetramer. TMA-butanol DH is stable at pH 7.5-9.0. It exhibits moderate stability with respect to temperature (up to 30 °C). Additionally, it has optimum activity at 45 °C and at pH 9.5. The enzyme has broad specificity to various alkyl alcohols and amino alkyl alcohols, and the carbon chains of which are longer than butanol. Moreover, the activity is strongly inhibited by oxidizing agents, carbonyl and thiol modulators, and chelating agents. This report is the first study examining TMA-butanol DH from eukaryotic microbes.

  2. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Aziz Abdur; Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Jacob, Melissa R; Sahu, Rajnish; Jain, Surendra K; Khan, Shabana I; Tekwani, Babu L; Muhammad, Ilias

    2011-09-01

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named Δ¹,⁶-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2- 6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines, juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7), were isolated from P. glandulosa leaves collected in Texas, USA. The structures of compound 1 and 7 were determined using a combination of NMR and MS techniques. Compound 7 exhibited potent antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains with IC (50) values of 170 and 150 ng/mL, respectively, while 1 was found to be less active (IC₅₀ values 560 and 600 ng/mL, respectively). Both compounds were devoid of VERO cells toxicity up to a concentration of 23 800 ng/mL. The antileishmanial activity of indolizidines was evaluated against Leishmania donovani promastigotes, axenic amastigotes, and amastigotes in THP1 macrophage cultures. When tested against macrophage cultures, the tertiary bases (1, 3, 6) were found to be more potent than quaternary salts (2, 5, 7), displaying IC₅₀ values between 0.8-1.7 µg/mL and 3.1-6.0 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, compound 7 showed potent antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium intracellulare, while 1 was potent only against C. neoformans and weakly active against other organisms.

  3. Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla var. flavescens (Swiss chard): flavonoids, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities.

    PubMed

    Hashem, A N; Soliman, M S; Hamed, M A; Swilam, N F; Lindequist, U; Nawwar, M A

    2016-04-01

    The novel flavonoids, 2",2"'-di-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-vicenin II, a di-C-glycosyl flavone, and herbacetin 3-O-β-xylopyranosyl- (1"' --> 2")-O-β-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the leaves of Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla L. var. flavescens, an edible plant which is consumed in the Mediterranean areas, additional to the known flavonoids, 6-C-glucosyl isoscutellarein, vitexin-(1"' --> 2")-O-β-xylopyranosyl, vitexin-(1'" --> 2")-O-α-rhamnopyranosyI and vitexin. All metabolites were established by conventional methods of analysis and their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis, including 1 D and 2D-NMR and by HR-ESIMS, as well. The extract of the plant leaves shows hepatoprotective effects in rats intoxicated by administration of acetaminophen and exhibits hypolipidemic activity in rats with high-fat-diet induced hypercholesterolemia. The evaluation was done through measuring the liver function enzymes (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase, the lipid profile (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) and histopathological analysis of liver slides.

  4. Compositional and Proteomic Analyses of Genetically Modified Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) Harboring an Agrobacterial Gene

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, “Green King”. Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined. PMID:25170807

  5. Studies in vitro on the relative efficacy of current acaricides for Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis.

    PubMed

    Walton, S F; Myerscough, M R; Currie, B J

    2000-01-01

    Resistance of Sarcoptes scabiei to various topical therapies has been described, but clinical assessment of treatment failure is problematic and in-vitro assays are generally not available. We describe a simple in-vitro analysis used to evaluate the relative efficacy of a range of topical, oral, and herbal treatments available in Australia for the treatment of scabies. S. scabiei var. hominis mites were collected from skin scrapings obtained from 7 crusted scabies patients over a period of 2 years (1997 and 1998). Larvae, nymphal instars, and adult mites were tested within 3 h of collection and continuously exposed to selected commercially available treatment products until death, with the elapsed time recorded. Neem was the only product to show little acaricidal activity. Survival curves indicated that, of the other agents, 5% permethrin (Lyclear) had the slowest killing time, with 35% of mites still alive after 3 h, and 4% still alive after 18-22 h of constant exposure. In contrast, no mites were alive after 3 h exposure to 25% benzyl benzoate (Ascabiol), 1% lindane (Quellada), 5% tea tree oil and 100-8000 ng/g of ivermectin (Equimec). Despite the slower killing time with 5% permethrin, there was no evidence of any mite tolerance in vivo or treatment failure in any patients or contact cases.

  6. Expressed var gene repertoire and variant surface antigen diversity in a shrinking Plasmodium falciparum population.

    PubMed

    Carlos, Bianca C; Fotoran, Wesley L; Menezes, Maria J; Cabral, Fernanda J; Bastos, Marcele F; Costa, Fabio T M; Sousa-Neto, Jayme A; Ribolla, Paulo E M; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2016-11-01

    The var gene-encoded erythrocyte membrane protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfEMP-1) is the main variant surface antigen (VSA) expressed on infected erythrocytes. The rate at which antibody responses to VSA expressed by circulating parasites are acquired depends on the size of the local VSA repertoire and the frequency of exposure to new VSA. Because parasites from areas with declining malaria endemicity, such as the Amazon, typically express a restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire, we hypothesized that Amazonians would rapidly acquire antibodies to most locally circulating VSA. Consistent with our expectations, the analysis of 5878 sequence tags expressed by 10 local P. falciparum samples revealed little PfEMP-1 DBL1α domain diversity. Among the most commonly expressed DBL1α types, 45% were shared by two or more independent parasite lines. Nevertheless, Amazonians displayed major gaps in their repertoire of anti-VSA antibodies, although the breadth of anti-VSA antibody responses correlated positively with their cumulative exposure to malaria. We found little antibody cross-reactivity even when testing VSA from related parasites expressing the same dominant DBL1α types. We conclude that variant-specific immunity to P. falciparum VSAs develops slowly despite the relatively restricted PfEMP-1 repertoire found in low-endemicity settings.

  7. Antiproliferative Effects of Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) Lipophilic Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Patrícia A. B.; Guerra, Ângela R.; Guerreiro, Olinda; Santos, Sónia A. O.; Oliveira, Helena; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Duarte, Maria F.

    2016-01-01

    Besides being traditionally used to relieve hepatobiliary disorders, Cynara cardunculus L. has evidenced anticancer potential on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study highlights the antiproliferative effects of lipophilic extracts from C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) leaves and florets, and of their major compounds, namely cynaropicrin and taraxasteryl acetate, against MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results demonstrated that MDA-MB-231 cells were much less resistant to leaves extract (IC50 10.39 µg/mL) than to florets extract (IC50 315.22 µg/mL), during 48 h. Moreover, leaves extract and cynaropicrin (IC50 6.19 µg/mL) suppressed MDA-MB-231 cells colonies formation, via an anchorage-independent growth assay. Leaves extract and cynaropicrin were also assessed regarding their regulation on caspase-3 activity, by using a spectrophotometric assay, and expression levels of G2/mitosis checkpoint and Akt signaling pathway proteins, by Western blotting. Leaves extract increased caspase-3 activity, while cynaropicrin did not affect it. Additionally, they caused p21Waf1/Cip1 upregulation, as well as cyclin B1 and phospho(Tyr15)-CDK1 accumulation, which may be related to G2 cell cycle arrest. They also downregulated phospho(Ser473)-Akt, without changing total Akt1 level. Cynaropicrin probably contributed to leaves extract antiproliferative action. These promising insights suggest that cultivated cardoon leaves lipophilic extract and cynaropicrin may be considered toward a natural-based therapeutic approach on TNBC. PMID:28036090

  8. The chromoplasts of Or mutants of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    PubMed

    Paolillo, D J; Garvin, D F; Parthasarathy, M V

    2004-12-01

    The Or mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) leads to abnormal accumulations of beta-carotene in orange chromoplasts, in tissues in which leucoplasts are characteristic of wild-type plants. Or chromoplasts were investigated by light microscopy of fresh materials and electron microscopy of glutaraldehyde- and potassium permanganate-fixed materials. Carotenoid inclusions in Or chromoplasts resemble those found in carrot root chromoplasts in their optical activity and angular shape. Electron microscopy revealed that the inclusions are made up of parallel, membrane-bound compartments. These stacks of membranes are variously rolled and folded into three-dimensional objects. We classify Or chromoplasts as "membranous" chromoplasts. The Or mutation also limits plastid replication so that a single chromoplast constitutes the plastidome in most of the affected cells. There are one to two chromoplasts in each cell of a shoot apex. The ability of differentiated chromoplasts to divide in the apical meristems of Or mutant plants resembles the ability of proplastids to maintain plastid continuity from cell to cell in meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in which plastid replication is drastically limited. The findings are used to discuss the number of levels of regulation involved in plastid replication.

  9. Anticonceptive and estrogenic effects of a seed extract of Ricinus communis var. minor.

    PubMed

    Okwuasaba, F K; Osunkwo, U A; Ekwenchi, M M; Ekpenyong, K I; Onwukeme, K E; Olayinka, A O; Uguru, M O; Das, S C

    1991-09-01

    An ether-soluble fraction of a methanol extract of Ricinus communis var. minor seeds administered subcutaneously to adult female rats and rabbits at doses up to 1.2 g/kg and 600 mg/kg, respectively, in divided doses showed anti-implantation and anticonceptive activities. Laparotomy performed on Day 10 and Day 15 of pregnancy on mated female rats and rabbits treated with the extract did not reveal any uterine implantation sites. The animals were protected against pregnancy for over three gestation periods and among those that later delivered, there was no evidence of abnormality in the pups. In ovariectomized young female rats as well as in immature mice, the extract dose-dependently increased uterine wet weight. Furthermore, the extract induced premature opening of the vagina, increased the number of epithelial cells and cornified cells and decreased the leucocyte number in the vaginal smear. The estrogen-like activities exhibited by the extract were dose-dependent and the anticonceptive effect may be due at least in part to such estrogenic action.

  10. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wafaa; Al-Gendy, Amal; Al-Youssef, Hanan; El-Shazely, Assem

    2012-01-01

    A new eremophilane sesquiterpene, 1-beta-hydroxy-8-oxoeremophila-7,9-dien-12-oic acid (1), in addition to two known flavonol glycosides, rutin (2) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside-7-O-rutinoside (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the aqueous alcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Senecio aegyptius var. discoideus Boiss. (family Asteraceae). The chemical structures of the isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR analysis (1H, 13C, COSY, HMQC, HMBC), MS and UV data, and through comparison with the literature. The ethyl acetate fraction and the isolated rutin showed significant cytotoxic activity against colorectal carcinoma (HCT 116) and to less extent against brain (U 251) and breast carcinoma (MCF 7). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a significant level of activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae, while the total extract showed the best antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was significant (96.7%) when compared to ascorbic acid. It also showed anti-inflammatory activity but no diuretic effect.

  11. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of Thymus longicaulis C. Presl subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis.

    PubMed

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M; Eskici, Mustafa; Tepe, Bektas; Can, Sendil; Mete, Ebru

    2010-07-01

    This study is designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of the hydrodistillated essential oil and various extracts obtained from Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. longicaulis. GC and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil were resulted in determination 22 different compounds, representing 99.61% of total oil. gamma-terpinene, thymol and p-cymene were determined as the major compounds of the oil (27.80, 27.65 and 19.38%, respectively). Antioxidant activities of the samples were determined by four different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power and chelating effect. Essential oil showed the highest antioxidant activity in beta-carotene/linoleic acid system among the experiments examined. In the case of other test systems, in general, methanol and water extracts exhibited the strongest activity profiles. Especially, reducing power of water extract was found superior than those of synthetic antioxidants. As well as the antioxidant activities of the extracts, they were evaluated in terms of their total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Hexane and water extracts were found to be rich-in phenolics. However, flavonoids were determined in the highest level in methanol extract.

  12. Chemical composition and nutritional value of unripe banana flour (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão).

    PubMed

    Menezes, Elizabete Wenzel; Tadini, Carmen Cecília; Tribess, Tatiana Beatris; Zuleta, Angela; Binaghi, Julieta; Pak, Nelly; Vera, Gloria; Dan, Milana Cara Tanasov; Bertolini, Andréa C; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco M

    2011-09-01

    Banana flour obtained from unripe banana (Musa acuminata, var. Nanicão) under specific drying conditions was evaluated regarding its chemical composition and nutritional value. Results are expressed in dry weight (dw). The unripe banana flour (UBF) presented a high amount of total dietary fiber (DF) (56.24 g/100 g), which consisted of resistant starch (RS) (48.99 g/100 g), fructans (0.05 g/100 g) and DF without RS or fructans (7.2 g/100 g). The contents of available starch (AS) (27.78 g/100 g) and soluble sugars (1.81 g/100 g) were low. The main phytosterols found were campesterol (4.1 mg/100 g), stigmasterol (2.5 mg/100 g) and β-sitosterol (6.2 mg/100 g). The total polyphenol content was 50.65 mg GAE/100 g. Antioxidant activity, by the FRAP and ORAC methods, was moderated, being 358.67 and 261.00 μmol of Trolox equivalent/100 g, respectively. The content of Zn, Ca and Fe and mineral dialyzability were low. The procedure used to obtain UBF resulted in the recovery of undamaged starch granules and in a low-energy product (597 kJ/100 g).

  13. A New Design Method of AC Filter for Static Var Compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Yuji; Irokawa, Shoichi; Takeda, Hideo; Takagi, Kikuo; Noro, Yasuhiro; Ametani, Akihiro

    A new approach of the AC filter design for the SVC (Static Var Compensator) is proposed in this paper. When the SVC consists of TCR(s) (Thyristor Controlled Reactor(s)) or TCT(s) (Thyristor Controlled Transformer(s)) and the AC filter(s), it is required to design AC filter(s) carefully to meet regulation level of harmonic voltage and current at the connection point of the SVC. In general, the AC filter design may require many iterative calculations of the harmonic performance by changing electrical parameters of the AC filter until all the harmonic voltage and current performances at the connection point of the SVC meet the regulation level on various conditions in terms of the filter de-tuning cases and the AC power system conditions. In this respect a new AC filter design approach is proposed, which is innovative on evaluation method of the performance to predetermine the permissible range of the AC filter harmonic impedance on the complex plane. By using this method, the iterations of the calculation can be reduced and it enables more efficient process of the design providing clear accountability of the decision of AC filter parameters.

  14. Toxins produced by Valsa mali var. mali and their relationship with pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caixia; Li, Chao; Li, Baohua; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Zhang, Qingming

    2014-03-21

    Valsa mali var. mali (Vmm), the causal agent of apple tree canker disease, produces various toxic compounds, including protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid and phloroglucinol. Here, we examined the relationship between toxin production and the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and determined their bioactivities in several assays, for further elucidating the pathogenesis mechanisms of Vmm and for developing new procedures to control this disease. The toxins were quantified with the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, and the results showed that the strain with attenuated virulence produced low levels of toxins with only three to four kinds of compounds being detectable. In contrast, higher amounts of toxins were produced by the more aggressive strain, and all five compounds were detected. This indicated a significant correlation between the pathogenicity of Vmm strains and their ability to produce toxins. However, this correlation only existed in planta, but not in vitro. During the infection of Vmm, protocatechuic acid was first detected at three days post inoculation (dpi), and the others at seven or 11 dpi. In addition, all compounds produced noticeable symptoms on host plants at concentrations of 2.5 to 40 mmol/L, with protocatechuic acid being the most effective compound, whereas 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid or p-hydroxybenzoic acid were the most active compounds on non-host plants.

  15. The complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from Bauhinia variegata var. candida seeds.

    PubMed

    Di Ciero, L; Oliva, M L; Torquato, R; Köhler, P; Weder, J K; Camillo Novello, J; Sampaio, C A; Oliveira, B; Marangoni, S

    1998-11-01

    Trypsin inhibitors of two varieties of Bauhinia variegata seeds have been isolated and characterized. Bauhinia variegata candida trypsin inhibitor (BvcTI) and B. variegata lilac trypsin inhibitor (BvlTI) are proteins with Mr of about 20,000 without free sulfhydryl groups. Amino acid analysis shows a high content of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glycine, and a low content of histidine, tyrosine, methionine, and lysine in both inhibitors. Isoelectric focusing for both varieties detected three isoforms (pI 4.85, 5.00, and 5.15), which were resolved by HPLC procedure. The trypsin inhibitors show Ki values of 6.9 and 1.2 nM for BvcTI and BvlTI, respectively. The N-terminal sequences of the three trypsin inhibitor isoforms from both varieties of Bauhinia variegata and the complete amino acid sequence of B. variegata var. candida L. trypsin inhibitor isoform 3 (BvcTI-3) are presented. The sequences have been determined by automated Edman degradation of the reduced and carboxymethylated proteins of the peptides resulting from Staphylococcus aureus protease and trypsin digestion. BvcTI-3 is composed of 167 residues and has a calculated molecular mass of 18,529. Homology studies with other trypsin inhibitors show that BvcTI-3 belongs to the Kunitz family. The putative active site encompasses Arg (63)-Ile (64).

  16. Impact of copper toxicity on stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) in hydroponics

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Shahzad, Ahmad Naeem; Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Anees, Moazzam; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Fatima, Ammara

    2015-01-01

    Arable soils are frequently subjected to contamination with copper as the consequence of imbalanced fertilization with manure and organic fertilizers and/or extensive use of copper-containing fungicides. In the present study, the exposure of stone-head cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) to elevated Cu2+ levels resulted in leaf chlorosis and lesser biomass yield at ≥2 µ M. Root nitrate content was not statistically affected by Cu2+ levels, although it was substantially decreased at ≥5 µ M Cu2+ in the shoot. The decrease in nitrate contents can be related to lower nitrate uptake rates because of growth inhibition by Cu-toxicity. Shoot sulfate content increased strongly at ≥2 µ M Cu2+ indicating an increase in demand for sulfur under Cu stress. Furthermore, at ≥2 µM concentration, concentration of water-soluble non-protein thiol increased markedly in the roots and to a smaller level in the shoot. When exposed to elevated concentrations of Cu2+ the improved sulfate and water-soluble non-protein thiols need further studies for the evaluation of their direct relation with the synthesis of metal-chelating compounds (i.e., phytochelatins). PMID:26290787

  17. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuli; Wang, Yingdong; Zhang, Nan; Sun, Zhe; Shi, Yan; Cao, Xingnan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at different temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fibrinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1% residual activity after 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis. PMID:27904355

  18. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed.

  19. Effect of banana powder (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) on gastric mucosal shedding.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyaya, K; Bhattacharya, D; Chakraborty, A; Goel, R K; Sanyal, A K

    1987-01-01

    Banana pulp powder (Musa sapientum Linn. var. paradisiaca) was studied for its effects on gastric mucosal resistance. Banana-treated (0.5 g/kg orally, twice daily for 3 days) rats of either sex showed: (i) a significant increase in the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA; (ii) a significant increase in the total carbohydrate (sum of total hexoses, hexosamine, fucose and sialic acid) content of gastric mucosa; (iii) a significant decrease in gastric juice DNA and protein; (iv) a significant increase in the total carbohydrates and carbohydrate/protein ratio of gastric juice. Aspirin treatment to rats caused similar effects as banana on the [3H]thymidine incorporation into mucosal cell DNA but showed opposite effects on the other parameters. These results suggest that banana treatment increased and aspirin decreased the gastric mucosal resistance as evidenced by a respective decrease and increase in gastric juice DNA, the latter serving as an index of the rate of mucosal shedding. Increased cellular mucus may be the factor for increased mucosal resistance. The results of the present study tend to confirm that plantain banana powder strengthens mucosal resistance and promotes the healing of ulcers.

  20. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity In Vitro of Isoniazid Derivatives against Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    de Farias Marques, Francisca Jakelyne; de Aguiar Cordeiro, Rebecca; da Silva, Marcos Reinaldo; Donato Maia Malaquias, Angela; Silva de Melo, Charlline Vládia; Mafezoli, Jair; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição; Nogueira Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia; Gadelha Rocha, Marcos Fábio; Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus; Costa Sidrim, José Júlio

    2014-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a severe infection that affects millions of patients worldwide and is endemic in the Americas. Amphotericin B (AMB) and itraconazole are highly effective for the treatment of severe and milder forms of the disease, but AMB is toxic, and the bioavailability of itraconazole is erratic. Therefore, it is important to investigate new classes of drugs for histoplasmosis treatment. In this study, a series of nine isoniazid hydrazone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their antifungal activities in vitro against the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum. The drugs were tested by microdilution in accordance with CLSI guidelines. The compound N′-(1-phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide had the lowest MIC range of all the compounds for the yeast and filamentous forms of H. capsulatum. The in vitro synergy of this compound with AMB against the planktonic and biofilm forms of H. capsulatum cells was assessed by the checkerboard method. The effects of this hydrazone on cellular ergosterol content and membrane integrity were also investigated. The study showed that the compound alone is able to reduce the ergosterol content of planktonic cells and can alter the membrane permeability of the fungus. Furthermore, the compound alone or in combination with AMB showed inhibitory effects against mature biofilms of H. capsulatum. N′-(1-Phenylethylidene)isonicotinohydrazide alone or combined with AMB might be of interest in the management of histoplasmosis. PMID:24514090

  1. Biotechnological advancement in genetic improvement of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica), an important vegetable crop.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Srivastava, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of molecular biotechnology, plant genetic engineering techniques have opened an avenue for the genetic improvement of important vegetable crops. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has significantly contributed to the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) is an important vegetable crop, of the family Brassicaceae; however, various biotic and abiotic stresses cause enormous crop yield losses during the commercial cultivation of broccoli. Thus, genetic engineering can be used as a tool to add specific characteristics to existing cultivars. However, a pre-requisite for transferring genes into plants is the availability of efficient regeneration and transformation techniques. Recent advances in plant genetic engineering provide an opportunity to improve broccoli in many aspects. The goal of this review is to summarize genetic transformation studies on broccoli to draw the attention of researchers and scientists for its further genetic advancement.

  2. Two novel bioactive glucosinolates from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Jang, Mi; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Yang, Deok-Chun; Park, Se Won

    2012-09-01

    Two novel glucosinolates along with one known glucosinolate were isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. Their structures were established mainly by 1D ((1)H and (13)C NMR), 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135°, HSQC and HMBC), and Tandem MS-MS spectrometric data as 2-mercaptomethyl sulfinyl glucosinolate [(Z)-4-(methylsulfinyl)-N-(sulfooxy)-2-((2'S,3'R,4'S,5'S,6'R)-3',4',5'-trihydroxy-6'(hydroxylmethyl)-2'-mercapto tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl) butane amide] 1, (Z)-1-((2S,5S)-5-hydroxytetra-hydro-2H-pyran-2-ylthio)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl) ethylidene amino sulfate 2 and a known cinnamoyl [6'-O-trans-(4″-hydroxy cinnamoyl)4-(methylsulphinyl)butyl glucosinolate] 3. Compound 1 exhibited scavenging activity against DPPH with an inhibitory concentration IC(50) of 20 mM, whereas compound 3 was a weak antioxidant when compared to the standard quercetin (5 mM) as a positive control. Both the compounds showed a significant and similar antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with an IC(50) of <625 μg/mL when compared to antibiotic duricef. Against Salmonella typhimurium the IC(50) of 1 and 3 was determined as <625 μg/mL and <1250 μg/mL, respectively, when compared to ampicillin (IC(50) ≤ 39 μg/mL) as a positive control.

  3. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Silvio J; Yuan, Youxi; Faquin, Valdemar; Guilherme, Luiz Roberto G; Li, Li

    2011-04-27

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here, we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expresion. We found that the total Se content varied with over 2-fold difference among the leaf tissues of broccoli accessions when the plants were treated with 20 μM Na(2)SeO(4). Approximately half of total Se accumulated in leaves was Se-methylselenocysteine and selenomethionine. Transcriptional regulation of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate sulfurylase and selenocysteine Se-methyltransferase gene expression might contribute to the different levels of Se accumulation in broccoli. Total glucosinolate contents were not affected by the concentration of selenate application for the majority of broccoli accessions. Essential micronutrients (i.e., Fe, Zn, Cu, and Mn) remained unchanged among half of the germplasm. Moreover, the total antioxidant capacity was greatly stimulated by selenate in over half of the accessions. The diverse genotypic variation in Se, glucosinolate, and antioxidant contents among accessions provides the opportunity to breed broccoli cultivars that simultaneously accumulate Se and other health benefit compounds.

  4. Glucosinolate biosynthesis in hairy root cultures of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Ju; Park, Woo Tae; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Nam, Sang-Yong; Jho, Kwang Hyun; Park, Sang Un

    2013-02-01

    Here we present previously unreported glucosinolate production by hairy root cultures of broccoli (B. oleracea var. italica). Growth media greatly influenced the growth and glucosinolate content of hairy root cultures of broccoli. Seven glucosinolates, glucoraphanin, gluconapin, glucoerucin, glucobrassicin, 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, gluconasturtiin, and neoglucobrassicin, were identified by analysis of the broccoli hairy root cultures. Both half and full strength B5 and SH media enabled the highest accumulation of glucosinolates. In most cases, the levels of glucosinolates were higher in SH and BS media. Among the 7 glucosinolates, the accumulation of neoglucobrassicin was very high, irrespective of growth medium. The neoglucobrassicin content was 7.4-fold higher in SH medium than 1/2 MS, in which its level was the lowest. The 1/2 B5 medium supported the production of the highest amounts of glucobrassicin and 4-methoxyglucobrassicin, the levels for which were 36.2- and 7.9- fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. The 1/2 SH medium enabled the highest accumulation of glucoraphanin and gluconapin in the broccoli hairy root cultures, whose levels were 1.8- and 4.6-fold higher, respectively, than their lowest content in 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that hairy root cultures of broccoli could be a valuable alternative approach for the production of glucosinolate compounds.

  5. Compositional and proteomic analyses of genetically modified broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) harboring an agrobacterial gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mao-Sen; Ko, Miau-Hwa; Li, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Shwu-Jene; Lai, Ying-Mi; Chang, You-Ming; Wu, Min-Tze; Chen, Long-Fang O

    2014-08-28

    Previously, we showed improved shelf life for agrobacterial isopentenyltransferase (ipt) transgenic broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), with yield comparable to commercial varieties, because of the protection mechanism offered by molecular chaperones and stress-related proteins. Here, we used proximate analysis to examine macronutrients, chemical and mineral constituents as well as anti-nutrient and protein changes of ipt-transgenic broccoli and corresponding controls. We also preliminarily assessed safety in mice. Most aspects were comparable between ipt-transgenic broccoli and controls, except for a significant increase in carbohydrate level and a decrease in magnesium content in ipt-transgenic lines 101, 102 and 103, as compared with non-transgenic controls. In addition, the anti-nutrient glucosinolate content was increased and crude fat content decreased in inbred control 104 and transgenic lines as compared with the parental control, "Green King". Gel-based proteomics detected more than 50 protein spots specifically found in ipt-transgenic broccoli at harvest and after cooking; one-third of these proteins showed homology to potential allergens that also play an important role in plant defense against stresses and senescence. Mice fed levels of ipt-transgenic broccoli mimicking the 120 g/day of broccoli eaten by a 60-kg human adult showed normal growth and immune function. In conclusion, the compositional and proteomic changes attributed to the transgenic ipt gene did not affect the growth and immune response of mice under the feeding regimes examined.

  6. Purification and characterization of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase).

    PubMed

    Mahn, Andrea; Angulo, Alejandro; Cabañas, Fernanda

    2014-12-03

    Myrosinase (β-thioglucosidase glucohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.147) from broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by concanavalin A affinity chromatography, with an intermediate dialysis step, resulting in 88% recovery and 1318-fold purification. These are the highest values reported for the purification of any myrosinase. The subunits of broccoli myrosinase have a molecular mass of 50-55 kDa. The native molecular mass of myrosinase was 157 kDa, and accordingly, it is composed of three subunits. The maximum activity was observed at 40 °C and at pH below 5.0. Kinetic assays demonstrated that broccoli myrosinase is subjected to substrate (sinigrin) inhibition. The Michaelis-Menten model, considering substrate inhibition, gave Vmax equal to 0.246 μmol min(-1), Km equal to 0.086 mM, and K(I) equal to 0.368 mM. This is the first study about purification and characterization of broccoli myrosinase.

  7. Fire reinforces structure of pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium) domes in a wetland landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Adam C.; Kobziar, Leda N.; Snyder, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Fire periodically affects wetland forests, particularly in landscapes with extensive fire-prone uplands. Rare occurrence and difficulty of access have limited efforts to understand impacts of wildfires fires in wetlands. Following a 2009 wildfire, we measured tree mortality and structural changes in wetland forest patches. Centers of these circular landscape features experienced lower fire severity, although no continuous patch-size or edge effect was evident. Initial survival of the dominant tree, pondcypress (Taxodium distichum var. imbricarium), was high (>99%), but within one year of the fire approximately 23% of trees died. Delayed mortality was correlated with fire severity, but unrelated to other hypothesized factors such as patch size or edge distance. Tree diameter and soil elevation were important predictors of mortality, with smaller trees and those in areas with lower elevation more likely to die following severe fire. Depressional cypress forests typically exhibit increasing tree size towards their interiors, and differential mortality patterns were related to edge distance. These patterns result in the exaggeration of a dome-shaped profile. Our observations quantify roles of fire and hydrology in determining cypress mortality in these swamps, and imply the existence of feedbacks that maintain the characteristic shape of cypress domes.

  8. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  9. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Vicia pannonica var. purpurascens on trichostrongylosis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Kozan, Esma; Anul, Serap Arabaci; Tatli, I Irem

    2013-07-01

    Vicia species are used for the treatment of malaria, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, kidney problems and infertility in Turkish traditional medicine. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Vicia pannonica Crantz. var. purpurascens (DC). Ser. extracts. Larval motility test was used to determine anthelmintic activity of this plant. Motility of the larvae is measured by observation. The methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, acetone, and aqueous extracts of the aerial parts of the plant including the leaves and flowers were applied to developing trichostrongylus larvae at 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/ml doses. Thiabendazole and distilled water with 5% DMSO was used as positive and negative control. All of the extracts were 100% effective. Two flavone and flavonol glycosides; luteolin-7-β-O-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the acetone extract and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. The solutions prepared from two flavonoid fractions at several doses were performed in vitro to larvae in the same way. Both of them were 100% effective at 1 and 0.8 mg/ml doses. Results of the present study support the utilization of these plant species employed in Turkish folk medicine.

  10. Identification and characterization of a LTR retrotransposon from the genome of Cyprinus carpio var. Jian.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liping; Yin, Guojun; Cao, Zheming; Bing, Xuwen; Ding, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    A Ty3/gypsy-retrotransposon-type transposon was found in the genome of the Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) in a previous study (unpublished), and was designated a JRE retrotransposon (Jian retrotransposon). The full-length JRE retrotransposon is 5126 bp, which includes two long terminal repeats of 470 bp at the 5' end and 453 bp at the 3' end, and two open reading frames between them: 4203 bp encoding the group-specific antigen (GAG) and polyprotein (POL). The pol gene has a typical Ty3/gypsy retrotransposon structure, and the gene order is protease, reverse transcriptase, RNase H, and integrase (PR-RT-RH-IN). A phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that it has similarities of 40.7, 40, and 32.8 %, to retrotransposons of Azumapecten farreri, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, and Xiphophorus maculatus, respectively. Therefore, JRE might belong to the JULE retrotransposon family. The copy number of the JRE transposon in the genome of the Jian carp is 124, determined with real-time quantitative PCR. The mRNA of the JRE retrotransposon is expressed in five Jian carp tissues, the liver, kidney, blood, muscle, and gonad, and slightly higher in the kidney and liver than in the other tissues.

  11. [Production and cytogenetics of intergeneric hybrids between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria and Raphanus sativus].

    PubMed

    Huang, B Q; Chang, L; Ju, C M; Chen, J G

    2001-01-01

    Crosses between Ogura CMS Brassica campestris var. purpuraria (AA, 2n = 20) and Raphanus sativus (RR, 2n = 18) were made and many intergeneric hybrids were produced. The F1 seedlings did not show chlorosis at low temperature. When red Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were purple, and when white Raphanus sativus varieties were used as male parent, the leaf petiole and leaf vein of F1 plants were not purple. All the F1 plants had white flowers and normal honey glands. Male gametes of the F1 were highly sterile and female gametes of the F1 were partly fertile. Cytological studies indicated that chromosome number of the F1 was 2n = 19 as expected, the mean chromosome pairing pattern was 15.53 I + 1.34 II + 0.25 III + 0.01 IV. Most chromosomes exsistet as univalents, but there also exsisted some bivalents, trivalents and even tetravalents, suggesting that chromosome set A was partly homologous with chromosome set R.

  12. In vitro effects on intestinal bacterium of physalins from Physalis alkekengi var. Francheti.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Zhang, Cuili; Wu, Dachang; Tang, Li; Cao, Xuejiao; Xin, Yi

    2012-12-01

    Intestinal probiotic bacterium stimulative activity-guided fractionation of Physalis alkekengi var. Francheti calyces extract resulted in the isolation of four new physalins (1-4). Their structures were elucidated as 5α, 6β-dihydroxy-25, 27-dihydro-7-deoxyphysalin A (1), 5α, 6β-dihydroxyphysalin R (2), 3β-hydroxy-2-hydrophysalin A (3) and 5α-hydroxy-7-dehydro-25, 27-dihydro-7-deoxyneophysalin A (4) by UV, MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Growth curves of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Escherichia coli for different total physalins extract (TPE) concentrations were tested in vitro. Middle concentrations (0.78mg/mL-1.56mg/mL) of TPE promoted the growth of L. delbrueckii, but all inhibited the growth of E. coli, in which the bacteriostatic activity increased while TPE concentration increases. Physalins showed stimulative effects on the growth of probiotic bacteria but inhibitory effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Improvement of intestinal microflora balance by polysaccharide from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Cuili; Wu, Dachang; Tang, Li; Xin, Yi

    2014-02-01

    A water‑soluble polysaccharide fraction (PPSB) was fractionated from Physalis alkekengi var. francheti and purified using DEAE‑52 Cellulose and Sephadex G‑200 chromatography. The physicochemical properties of PPSB and its molecular activities involved in the improvement of intestinal microflora balance were evaluated. PPSB (12.5‑25.0 mg/ml) was shown to promote the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis identified Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Enterococcus, Odoribacter, Alistipes and Akkermansia as dominant organisms in the intestinal tract of mice. PPSB exhibited stimulatory effects on the growth of probiotic bacteria but inhibitory effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria in vitro. The number of species and quantity of the Lactobacillus genus increased significantly with increasing concentrations of PPSB in vivo. Experimental results of this study suggest that PPSB may improve intestinal microflora imbalances and therefore has strong potential as a natural agent for restoring the intestinal microflora balance.

  14. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract and its catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chun-Gang; Huo, Can; Yu, Shuixin; Gui, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Biological synthesis approach has been regarded as a green, eco-friendly and cost effective method for nanoparticles preparation without any toxic solvents and hazardous bi-products during the process. This present study reported a facile and rapid biosynthesis method for gold nanoparticles (GNPs) from Capsicum annuum var. grossum pulp extract in a single-pot process. The aqueous pulp extract was used as biotic reducing agent for gold nanoparticle growing. Various shapes (triangle, hexagonal, and quasi-spherical shapes) were observed within range of 6-37 nm. The UV-Vis spectra showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak for the formed GNPs at 560 nm after 10 min incubation at room temperature. The possible influences of extract amount, gold ion concentration, incubation time, reaction temperature and solution pH were evaluated to obtain the optimized synthesis conditions. The effects of the experimental factors on NPs synthesis process were also discussed. The produced gold nanoparticles were characterized by transform electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results demonstrated that the as-obtained GNPs were well dispersed and stable with good catalytic activity. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract were responsible for the capping and stabilization of GNPs.

  15. Influence of culture conditions on production of phytase by Zygosaccharomyces baili var. balil.

    PubMed

    Lata, Suman; Rastogi, Smita; Kapoor, Ashima; Imran, Mohd

    2015-07-01

    Microbial phytases are phosphohydrolytic enzymes which are gaining attention for their commercial exploitation in feed and food industry. In the present study, ten yeasts were isolated from different soil samples and screened for their phytase producing capability. Among these isolates, the most promising yeast strain was Zygosaccharomyces bailii var. bailii which produced highest phytase yield (6.36 U ml(-1)) in malt yeast extract glucose peptone (MYGP) medium. In order to improve phytase production by Zygosaccharomyces bailii, different physio-chemical parameters were optimized. The optimal conditions for phytase production was found to be: incubation time-42 hr, temperature-30 degrees C, medium pH-6.0 and substrate (calcium phytate) concentration-0.1%. Glucose at 0.5% concentration supported higher phytase production (13.75 U ml(-1)) than other carbon sources tested. Metal ions (Ca+/+, Na+, K+, Mg++) and additives; ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and toluene did not affect enzyme production. However, Zn++, Ni++, Ba++, Pb++ and detergents like Triton X-100 and Tweens strongly inhibited (>90%) phytase production. An overall 2.21-fold enhancement in phytase activity (6.36-->14.03 U ml(-1)) was attained after optimization studies.

  16. Purification and characterization of catalase from chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Dinçer, A; Aydemir, T

    2001-01-01

    Catalase is a major primary antioxidant defence component that primarily catalyses the decomposition of H(2) O(2) to H(2) O. Here we report the purification and characterization of catalase from chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla). Following a procedure that involved chloroform treatment, ammonium sulfate precipitation and three chromatographic steps (CM-cellulose, Sephadex G-25, and Sephadex G-200), catalase was purified about 250-fold to a final specific activity of 56947 U/mg of protein. The molecular weight of the purified catalase and its subunit were determined to be 235 000 and 58 500 daltons, indicating that the chard catalase is a tetramer. The absorption spectra showed a soret peak at 406 nm, and there was slightly reduction by dithionite. The ratio of absorption at 406 and 275 nanometers was 1.5, the value being similar to that obtained for catalase from other plant sources. In the catalytic reaction, the apparent Km value for chard catalase was 50 mM. The purified protein has a broad pH optimum for catalase activity between 6.0 and 8.0. The enzyme had an optimum reaction temperature at 30 degrees C. Heme catalase inhibitors, such as azide and cyanide, inhibited the enzyme activity markedly and the enzyme was also inactivated by ?-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol and iodoacetamide.

  17. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-proliferative activities of Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte.

    PubMed

    Bontempo, Paola; Carafa, Vincenzo; Grassi, Roberto; Basile, Adriana; Tenore, Gian Carlo; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Altucci, Lucia

    2013-05-01

    Solanum tuberosum L. var. Vitelotte is a potato variety widely used for human consumption. The pigments responsible for its attractive color belong to the class of anthocyanins. The objectives of this study were to characterize and measure the concentration of anthocyanins in pigmented potatoes and to evaluate their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and their anti-proliferative effects in solid and hematological cancer cell lines. Anthocyanins exert anti-bacterial activity against different bacterial strains and a slight activity against three fungal strains. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the fungus Rhyzoctonia solani were the most affected microorganisms. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP methods; the extract showed a higher reducing capability than anti-radical activity. Moreover, we found that in different cancer cell models the anthocyanins cause inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. These biological activities are likely due to the high content of malvidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside and petunidin 3-O-p-coumaroyl-rutinoside-5-O-glucoside.

  18. Thermodynamic properties of vanadium and cobalt argide ions, VAr+ and CoAr+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, M. A.; Kulikov, A. N.; Morozov, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The positive ions of 3d metal and argon compounds (metal argide ions, MAr+) play essential role in the mass spectrometry with argon plasma sources. At the same time their thermodynamical properties are still not sufficiently studied. Rough estimations of the internal partition functions of MAr+ have been made by Witte and Houk in order to calculate the concentration ratio between metal and metal argide ions in the plasma. In this work we performed more accurate estimations of the internal partition functions for VAr+ and CoAr+, for which the experimental measurements of molecular constants are available. The thermodynamic functions and equilibrium constant for reaction M+ + Ar = MAr+ were obtained for the temperatures up to 104 K. The molecular constants were used to construct the potential curves for the ground and excited states of the molecules. The one-dimensional Schrodinger equation was solved using the Level code to find the rovibronic levels of the electronic states for the specified potential. Different potential models such as a simple Morse potential and the potential with the long range electrostatic attraction were used for comparison.

  19. [A new monoterpenoid glucoside from the twigs of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Chen, Ke-Li; Tan, Ning-Hua; Liu, Yi-Mei

    2012-09-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. breviramea f. crippsii, various column chromatography and spectroscopic methods were used for the isolation and elucidation of compounds. One new monoterpenoid glucoside, (4S)-4-isopropylcyclohex-l-enecarboxylic acid 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), together with five known compounds, (4R)-p-menth-l-ene-7, 8-diol 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), skimmin (3), 7-[[6-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (4), stigmast-4-en-3-one (5) and 1, 4-benzenedicarboxylic acid 1-butyl-4-(2-methylpropyl) ester (6) were isolated and identified from the twigs of this plant. All compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time. The methanol extract of this plant showed cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines A549, BGC-823, Du145 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 0.94, 1.07, 0.95 and 0.96 microg x mL(-1), respectively. Yet, compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cell lines HeLa, BGC-823 and A549.

  20. The voltage profile improvement using static var compensator (SVC) in power system transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramdan, G. M.; Mulyadi, Y.; Hasbullah

    2016-04-01

    In transmission system named ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ there are the voltage drop which relatively high and the voltage profile at the receiving ends below 0.95 p.u. Therefore, this research proposed a method to improve the voltage profile in the transmission system using one of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) technology which is Static Var Compensator (SVC) and ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan and New Ujungberung’ as the object. This research aims to get the voltage profile in ‘Subsistem Bandung Selatan dan New Ujungberung’ before and after connected to SVC and to set optimal location and rating of SVC to maintain the voltage profile at the system that has desire range (0.95 p.u - 1.05 p.u). To get the result in accordance with these objects, Newton -Raphson power flow solution is applied to the system. The result of Newton- Raphson power flow solution of the system shows the voltage profile before connecting to SVC are averagely 140.95 kV or 0.94 p.u while after connecting to SVC are 145.28 kV or 0.97 p.u. The SVC installation is connected to ‘Bandung Utara I’ as the weakest bus, and the SVC rating is -250 Mvar to 300 Mvar.

  1. A new aminopeptidase from the keratin-degrading strain Streptomyces fradiae var. k11.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Shi, Pengjun; Li, Jiang; Wang, Yaru; Meng, Kun; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Yang, Peilong; Zhou, Zhigang; Yao, Bin

    2010-03-01

    An aminopeptidase gene fragment was isolated from a keratin-degrading strain, Streptomyces fradiae var. k11, by PCR amplification using a degenerate primer set designed based on the partial amino acid sequence of the native enzyme. The gene, designated sfap, encoded a polypeptide of 461 amino acids comprised of three domains: a signal peptide, a mature region, and a C-terminal propeptide. The aminopeptidase, SFAP, had highest amino acid sequence identity (79%) with a putative aminopeptidase from Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus NBRC 13350. The gene with and without C-terminal propeptide was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the gene without C-terminal propeptide encoded a functional enzyme. Purified recombinant SFAP exhibited optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, and retained >60% peak activity over a broad range of temperature. The enzyme was thermal and pH stable, and showed metalloprotease characteristics, which was inhibited by EDTA but activated by Ca(2+) and Co(2+). This is the first study to report the gene cloning and expression of a leucine aminopeptidase from S. fradiae.

  2. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P K; Singh, A; Gaurav, K; Goel, Shalini; Khanna, H D; Goel, R K

    2009-01-01

    Plantain banana (M. sapientum var. paradisiaca, MS) has been shown to possess ulcer healing activity. The present work with plantain banana was undertaken with the premise that the drug promoting ulcer healing could have effect on wound healing also. Wound healing activity of MS was studied in terms of (i) percent wound contraction, epithelization period and scar area; (ii) wound breaking strength and (iii) on granulation tissue antioxidant status [estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), free radical (lipid peroxidation, an indicator of tissue damage) and connective tissue formation and maturation (hexuronic acid, hydroxyproline and hexosamine levels)] in excision, incision and dead space wound models respectively. The rats were given graded doses (50-200 mg/kg/day) of aqueous (MSW) and methanolic (MSE) extracts of MS orally for a period of 10-21 days depending upon the type of study. Both extracts (100 mg/kg) when studied for incision and dead space wounds parameters, increased wound breaking strength and levels of hydroxyproline, hexuronic acid, hexosamine, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione in the granulation tissue and decreased percentage of wound area, scar area and lipid peroxidation when compared with the control group. Both the extracts showed good safety profile. Plantain banana thus, favoured wound healing which could be due to its antioxidant effect and on various wound healing biochemical parameters.

  4. Multivariate analysis of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) phenolics: influence of fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Carla; Pereira, David M; Pereira, José A; Bento, Albino; Rodrigues, M Angelo; Dopico-García, Sonia; Valentão, Patrícia; Lopes, Graciliana; Ferreres, Federico; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B

    2008-03-26

    A field experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of fertilization level on the phenolic composition of tronchuda cabbage ( Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC) external and internal leaves. Eight different plots were constituted: a control without fertilization, one with organic matter, and six experiments with conventional fertilizers (nitrogen, boron, and sulfur, two levels each). The phenolic compounds were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC-DAD. External and internal leaves revealed distinct qualitative composition. In the internal leaves were found 15 phenolics (5 kaempferol and 10 cinnamic acid derivatives), whereas the external leaves presented 3- p-coumaroylquinic acid and 13 kaempferol derivatives. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to assess the relationships between phenolic compounds, agronomical practices, and harvesting time. Samples obtained with conventional practices were quite effectively separated from organic samples, for both types of leaves. In general, samples developed without any fertilization presented the highest phenolics amounts: external and internal leaves contained 1.4- and 4.6-fold more phenolic compounds than the ones that received conventional fertilizer, respectively, and the internal leaves presented 2.4 times more phenolics than the ones grown with organic amendment. Additionally, samples from organic production exhibited higher total phenolics content than those from conventional practices, collected at the same time. Samples harvested first were revealed to be distinct from the ones collected later. The results show that it is possible to grow tronchuda cabbage without excess fertilizers, with highest amounts of phenolics and reduced environment contamination.

  5. Purification of peroxidase from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra) by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Somtürk, Burcu; Kalın, Ramazan; Özdemir, Nalan

    2014-08-01

    Peroxidase was purified in a single step using 4-amino benzohydrazide affinity chromatography from red cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. rubra), and some important biochemical characteristics of the purified enzyme were determined. The enzyme, with a specific activity of 3,550 EU/mg protein, was purified 120.6-fold with a yield of 2.9% from the synthesized affinity matrix. The molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 69.3 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The enzyme exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.0 and 30 °C. For guaiacol substrate, the K m and V max values were found as 0.048 mM and 1.46 EU/mL/min, respectively. Additionally, the IC50 and K i values for 4-amino benzohydrazide were calculated to be 1.047 and 0.702±0.05 mM, respectively, and 4-amino benzohydrazide showed noncompetitive inhibition.

  6. Effects of GA3 Pregerminative Treatment on Gentiana lutea L. var. aurantiaca Germination and Seedlings Morphology

    PubMed Central

    González-López, Óscar; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2014-01-01

    Gentiana lutea L. is widely used in bitter beverages and in medicine; Gentianae Radix is the pharmaceutical name of the root of G. lutea. These uses have generated a high demand. The wild populations of Gentiana lutea var. aurantiaca (M. Laínz) M. Laínz have been decimated; it is necessary to establish guidelines for its cultivation. Gentian as most alpine species has dormant seeds. Dormancy can be removed by cold and by means of a gibberellic acid (GA3) treatment. However, cold treatments produce low germination percentages and GA3 treatments may produce off-type seedlings. So, the objective was to determine, for the first time, the presowing treatments that allow high germination rate and good seedling morphology. The best pregerminative doses of GA3 to break seed dormancy were 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, while the best doses to optimize the seedling habit were 50 and 100 ppm. This study provides, for the first time, a 100 ppm GA3 dose that led to a high germination rate and good seedling morphology, as the starting point for gentian regular cultivation. PMID:25105167

  7. Embryogenesis in Polianthes tuberosa L var. Simple: from megasporogenesis to early embryo development.

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Alejandra G; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    The genus Polianthes belongs to the subfamily Agavoideae of the Asparagaceae family formerly known as Agavaceae. The genus is endemic to México and comprises about 15 species, among them is Polianthes tuberosa L. The aim of this work was to study and characterize the embryo sac and early embryo development of this species in order to generate basic knowledge for its use in taxonomy, in vitro fertilization and production of haploid plants and to complement studies already performed in other genera and species belonging to the Agavoideae sub-family. It was found that the normal development of the P. tuberosa var. Simple embryo sac follows a monosporic pattern of the Polygonum type and starts its development from the chalazal megaspore. At maturity, the embryo sac is of a pyriform shape with a chalazal haustorial tube where the antipodals are located, just below the hypostase, which connects the embryo sac with the nucellar tissue of the ovule. The central cell nucleus shows a high polarity, being located at the chalazal extreme of the embryo sac. The position of cells inside the P. tuberosa embryo sac may be useful for in depth studies about the double fertilization. Furthermore, it was possible to make a chronological description of the events that happen from fertilization and early embryo development to the initial development of the endosperm which was classified as of the helobial type.

  8. Mannitol-induced drought stress on calli of Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Var. RMt-303.

    PubMed

    Pant, Naveen C; Agarrwal, Ruchi; Agrawal, Sanjeev

    2014-11-01

    Different explants of fenugreek, T. foenum-graecum L. (Var. RMt-303), were compared for their callus induction and subsequent shoot regeneration capabilities on Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with different phytohormones in varying concentration. The highest percentage of callus induction frequency was observed in 1 ppm benzylaminopurine (BAP). Maximum shoots were induced on media supplemented with 0.5 ppm BAP using leaf and stem tissues as explants. However, root tissues showed only callusing with no subsequent shooting. Cotyledonary node responded better than hypocotyls in terms of shoot induction on media supplemented with thidiazuron (0.1 ppm). The callus was subjected to drought stress as simulated by reduced water potential of growth media due to addition of mannitol. Calli could withstand -2 MPa water potential till 30 days indicating that the drought stress tolerance mechanisms are functional in this variety. Chlorophyll a and b and total chlorophyll, proline and total phenolic contents, total peroxidase and catalase activities increased under stress conditions suggesting the tolerance of callus to drought stress. However, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase activities were found to decrease slightly. Malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents were found to decrease while only a slight disturbance was found in membrane stability index. These results underline the mechanisms that are crucial for drought stress tolerance in fenugreek.

  9. An antifungal compound involved in symbiotic germination of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Shimura, Hanako; Matsuura, Mayumi; Takada, Noboru; Koda, Yasunori

    2007-05-01

    Germination of orchid seeds fully depends on a symbiotic association with soil-borne fungi, usually Rhizoctonia spp. In contrast to the peaceful symbiotic associations between many other terrestrial plants and mycorrhizal fungi, this association is a life-and-death struggle. The fungi always try to invade the cytoplasm of orchid cells to obtain nutritional compounds. On the other hand, the orchid cells restrict the growth of the infecting hyphae and obtain nutrition by digesting them. It is likely that antifungal compounds are involved in the restriction of fungal growth. Two antifungal compounds, lusianthrin and chrysin, were isolated from the seedlings of Cypripedium macranthos var. rebunense that had developed shoots. The former had a slightly stronger antifungal activity than the latter, and the antifungal spectra of these compounds were relatively specific to the nonpathogenic Rhizoctonia spp. The level of lusianthrin, which was very low in aseptic protocorm-like bodies, dramatically increased following infection with the symbiotic fungus. In contrast, chrysin was not detected in infected protocorm-like bodies. These results suggest that orchid plants equip multiple antifungal compounds and use them at specific developmental stages; lusianthrin maintains the perilous symbiotic association for germination and chrysin helps to protect adult plants.

  10. Bolete diversity in two relict forests of the Mexican beech (Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana; Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, Ernesto Ch; Moreno, Claudia E

    2010-05-01

    The current distribution of the endangered Mexican beech [Fagus grandifolia var. mexicana (Martinez) Little] is restricted to relict isolated populations in small remnants of montane cloud forest in northeastern Mexico, and little is known about its associated biota. We sampled bolete diversity in two of these monospecific forests in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico. We compared alpha diversity, including species richness and ensemble structure, and analyzed beta diversity (dissimilarity in species composition) between forests. We found 26 bolete species, five of which are probably new. Species diversity and evenness were similar between forests. Beta diversity was low, and the similarities of bolete samples from within and between forests were not significantly different. These results support the idea that the two forests share a single bolete ensemble with a common history. In contrast, cumulative species richness differed between the forests, implying that factors other than the mere presence of the host species have contributed to shaping the biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relict Mexican beech forests.

  11. Kinetic Study of the Active Site Structure of β-Amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Y; Shirakawa, M; Takasaki, Y

    1996-01-01

    The subsite affinities of the active site of β-amylase from Bacillus cereus var. mycoides were evaluated based on Hiromi's theory, using (14)C-radiolabeled maltooligosaccharides as substrate. It was estimated that the active site consisted of six subsites, and all subsite affinities could be evaluated. The active site had a common subsite arrangement with those of β -amylases from soybean and wheat bran. The intrinsic breakdown rate constant of α-1,4 glucosidic linkage (kint) was five to seven times as large as those of the other enzymes.From the pH dependence of log[k0/Km], pK values of two functional ionizable groups were pK1 =4.0 and pK2 = 8.4. The pK values were 0.5-0.6 units for pK1 and 0.2-0.3 units for pK2 larger than those of the other enzymes. For the affinity-labeling of this enzyme by 2, 3 epoxypropyl α-D-glucopyranoside (α-EPG), the binding affinity of α-EPG was 1-1.6kcal/mol larger than those of the other β-amylases.

  12. Antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of mycelia zinc polysaccharides by Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuo; Ren, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jianjun; Song, Xinling; Gao, Zheng; Jing, Huijuan; Li, Shangshang; Wang, Shouxian; Jia, Le

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this work were designed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of acidic- and alkali-extractable mycelia zinc polysaccharides (AcMZPS, AlMZPS) from Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis on high-fat-high-cholesterol emulsion-induced hyperlipidemic mice. The in vivo experiments demonstrated that both AcMZPS and AlMZPS had potential hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing the levels of LDL-C, VLDL-C, TC, TG, ALT, AST, ALP, MDA and LPO, and remarkably increasing the HDL-C, SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT in serum lipid/liver homogenate, respectively. In addition, four polysaccharide fractions of AcMZPS-1, AcMZPS-2, AlMZPS-1, and AlMZPS-2, purified from AcMZPS and AlMZPS using DEAE chromatography, respectively, were subjected to monosaccharide composition analysis and valuated for the in vitro antioxidant activity. The results obtained in present study suggested that AcMZPS, AlMZPS and their purified fractions could be used as functional foods and natural drugs in preventing the hyperlipidemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver.

  13. Cloning, expression and purification of isoflavone-2'-hydroxylase from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. Var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yuan, Hui; Zhang, Lin; Pan, Haiyun; Xu, Rongyan; Zhong, Yang; Chen, Jiakuan; Nan, Peng

    2015-03-01

    Plant cytochrome P450 enzymes play vital roles in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites, including phenylpropanoids and phytoalexins. Isoflavone-2'-hydroxylase (AmI2'H) from Astragalus membranaceus Bge. Var. mongolicus (Bge.) Hsiao is a membrane protein and an eukaryotic cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in isoflavonoid biosynthesis. We cloned the AmI2'H gene by employing RACE methods and modified the gene sequence to facilitate protein expression and increase protein solubility. Two vectors, pET-28a(+) and pCW ori(+), were used to express AmI2'H in Escherichia coli. The expression efficiency and purity of target protein were analyzed and demonstrated that pET-28a(+) vector containing the AmI2'H gene could produce larger amounts of target proteins with higher purity than pCWori(+). The purified proteins were identified as AmI2'H by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis and their proper folding was assessed by CO difference spectrum.

  14. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  15. Phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two Aloe greatheadii var. davyana extracts.

    PubMed

    Botes, Lisa; van der Westhuizen, Francois H; Loots, Du Toit

    2008-09-12

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae) is used among rural South African communities to treat arthritis, skin cancer, burns, eczema, psoriasis, digestive problems, high blood pressure and diabetes, despite very little supporting scientific evidence. Due to increased interest by both the scientific community and industry regarding the medicinal uses of this plant species, we identified, quantified and compared the phytochemical contents and antioxidant capacities of two extracts of A. greatheadii; a leaf gel extract (LGE) and a 95 % aqueous ethanol leaf gel extract (ELGE), using various modified extraction procedures, GC-MS and spectrophotometry. Apart from extensively characterizing this medicinal plant with regards to its organic acid, polyphenols/phenolic acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ketone, alkane, pyrimidine, indole, alkaloid, phytosterol, fatty acid and dicarboxylic acid contents and antioxidant capacities, we describe a modified extraction procedure for the purpose of general phytochemical characterization, and compare this to a 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction technique. From the results it is clear that A. greatheadii contains a variety of compounds with confirmed antioxidant capacity and other putative health benefits (such as blood glucose, cholesterol and cortisol lowering properties) relating to the prevention or treatment of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer and hypertension. The results also indicate that separate ethyl acetate/diethyl ether and hexane extractions of the LGE, better serve for general phytochemical characterization purposes, and 95 % aqueous ethanol extraction for concentrating selective groups of health related compounds, hence justifying its use for biological in vivo efficacy studies.

  16. Antiproliferative Effects of Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) Lipophilic Extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Patrícia A B; Guerra, Ângela R; Guerreiro, Olinda; Santos, Sónia A O; Oliveira, Helena; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Duarte, Maria F

    2016-12-29

    Besides being traditionally used to relieve hepatobiliary disorders, Cynara cardunculus L. has evidenced anticancer potential on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). This study highlights the antiproliferative effects of lipophilic extracts from C. cardunculus L. var. altilis (DC) leaves and florets, and of their major compounds, namely cynaropicrin and taraxasteryl acetate, against MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results demonstrated that MDA-MB-231 cells were much less resistant to leaves extract (IC50 10.39 µg/mL) than to florets extract (IC50 315.22 µg/mL), during 48 h. Moreover, leaves extract and cynaropicrin (IC50 6.19 µg/mL) suppressed MDA-MB-231 cells colonies formation, via an anchorage-independent growth assay. Leaves extract and cynaropicrin were also assessed regarding their regulation on caspase-3 activity, by using a spectrophotometric assay, and expression levels of G2/mitosis checkpoint and Akt signaling pathway proteins, by Western blotting. Leaves extract increased caspase-3 activity, while cynaropicrin did not affect it. Additionally, they caused p21(Waf1/Cip1) upregulation, as well as cyclin B1 and phospho(Tyr15)-CDK1 accumulation, which may be related to G2 cell cycle arrest. They also downregulated phospho(Ser473)-Akt, without changing total Akt1 level. Cynaropicrin probably contributed to leaves extract antiproliferative action. These promising insights suggest that cultivated cardoon leaves lipophilic extract and cynaropicrin may be considered toward a natural-based therapeutic approach on TNBC.

  17. Enhancement of bifidobacteria survival by Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus in milk.

    PubMed

    Yeo, A Y Y; Toh, M Z; Liu, S Q

    2016-02-01

    The viability of three strains of probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis that were inoculated into UHT milk was examined with and without the presence of the yeast, Williopsis saturnus var. saturnus NCYC 22, in polypropylene tubes at 30 (°)C. The B. lactis viable cell count for strains HN019 and BB-12 remained above 6.0 Log cfu/ml, while strain B94 had 5.7 Log cfu/ml after six weeks of incubation in the presence of the co-inoculated yeast. Incubating the bifidus milk without added yeast under anaerobic condition did not improve the survival of B. lactis HN019, indicating that oxygen removal may not be responsible for W. saturnus NCYC 22's viability enhancing property. The addition of yeast supernatant or non-viable yeast also did not show any stabilising effects, suggesting that physical contact and/or interaction between viable W. saturnus and B. lactis plays an important role in sustaining the viability of the probiotic. W. saturnus NCYC 22 could increase the survival of B. lactis in bifidus milk under ambient temperature regardless of the initial concentration of yeast cells inoculated due to yeast growth. This study demonstrated the viability enhancing effect of viable W. saturnus NCYC 22 on B. lactis HN019, which could help towards extending the shelf-life of dairy beverages containing probiotic bifidobacteria.

  18. Enhanced tocopherol levels during early germination events in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis seeds.

    PubMed

    Siles, Laura; Alegre, Leonor; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-10-01

    Most angiosperms accumulate vitamin E in the form of tocopherols in seeds, exerting a protective antioxidant role. However, several palm trees principally accumulate tocotrienols, rather than tocopherols, in seeds, as it occurs in other monocots. To unravel the protective role of either tocopherols or tocotrienols against lipid peroxidation during seed germination in Chamaerops humilis var. humilis; seed viability, natural and induced germination capacity, seed water content, malondialdehyde levels (as an indicator of the extent of lipid peroxidation) and vitamin E levels (including both tocopherols and tocotrienols) were examined at various germination phases in a simulated, natural seed bank. At the very early stages of germination (operculum removal), malondialdehyde levels increased 2.8-fold, to decrease later up to 74%, thus indicating a transient lipid peroxidation at early stages of germination. Tocopherol levels were absent in quiescent seeds and did not increase during operculum removal, but increased later presumably dampening malondialdehyde accumulation. Thereafter, tocopherols continued increasing, while lipid peroxidation levels decreased. By contrast, tocotrienols levels remained constant or even decreased as germination progressed, showing no correlation with lipid peroxidation levels. We hypothesize that despite their high tocotrienol content, seeds synthesize tocopherols during germination to protect lipids from peroxidation events.

  19. Anthocyanin accumulation and transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjie; Chen, Guoping; Dong, Tingting; Pan, Yu; Zhao, Zhiping; Tian, Shibing; Hu, Zongli

    2014-12-24

    Bok choy (Brassica rapa var. chinensis) is an important dietary vegetable cultivated and consumed worldwide for its edible leaves. The purple cultivars rich in health-promoting anthocyanins are usually more eye-catching and valuable. Fifteen kinds of anthocyanins were separated and identified from a purple bok choy cultivar (Zi He) by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in bok choy, the expression profiles of anthocyanin biosynthetic and regulatory genes were analyzed in seedlings and leaves of the purple cultivar and the green cultivar (Su Zhouqing). Compared with the other tissues, BrTT8 and most of the anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were significantly up-regulated in the leaves and light-grown seedlings of Zi He. The results that heterologous expression of BrTT8 promotes the transcription of partial anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in regeneration shoots of tomato indicate that BrTT8 plays an important role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Anthemis altissima L. var. altissima.

    PubMed

    Samadi, Nasrin; Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Samadi, Mahtab; Zeinalzadeh, Zahra; Saghari, Zahra; Abadian, Neda; Mozaffarian, Vali-O-Allah; Khanavi, Mahnaz

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from the flowering parts of Anthemis altissima L. var. altissima was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectroscopy. In this study, 34 compounds representing 98.76% of the essential oil were identified. The main components were α-terpineol (26.42%), β-pinene (9.23%), cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (6.30%), globulol (5.36%), n-tricosane (4.41%), terpinen-4-ol (4.08%) and 1,8 cineole (3.84%). Antibacterial activities of the essential oil and its two major components (α-terpineol and β-pinene) were determined using microdilution method against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) bacteria. The essential oil showed a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity (MICs ranged from 3.13 to 6.25 µL mL(-1)). It was found that α-terpineol with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the range 0.87-1.56 µL mL(-1) was a more potent antibacterial agent than β-pinene with MIC values of the range 1.56-6.25 µL mL(-1). All of them, the essential oil, β-pinene and α-terpineol, were more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative ones.

  1. Etiology of UV-C-induced browning in var. Superior white table grapes.

    PubMed

    González-Barrio, Rocío; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Cantos, Emma; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2005-07-27

    White table grapes, var. Superior, were treated with UV-C light after harvest to increase stilbenes concentration, especially trans-resveratrol (RES), because this may be of relevance to the health-promoting properties assigned to these compounds. However, irradiated grapes also developed some browning on the surface on the third day of storage at 22 degrees C, with the subsequent detriment in the sensorial quality of the fruit. Possible causes for browning development during storage were investigated. The phenolic-related oxidative enzymes, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), were not specifically activated, and no new isoforms appeared upon UV-C treatment. UV-treated grapes had lower content of chlorophyll b than control grapes on the fourth day of storage, concomitant with the increase of pheophytins (chlorophyll degradation derived compounds). Microscopy data showed lower fluorescence emission in chloroplasts from the UV-treated samples, which may explain the decrease of chlorophylls content in the corresponding grape berries extracts. In addition, microscopy images showed cell wall thickening in the skin tissue of UV-treated grapes which could be considered as a general wound response in plant tissues. These results suggest that the development of browning in Superior white grapes after UV-C treatment is not closely related with the evolution of oxidative enzymes during storage and may be mainly due to the decrease of chlorophylls content.

  2. Characteristics of a Bacteriocin Derived from Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes Antagonistic to Diplococcus peumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Bottone, Edward; Allerhand, Jona; Pisano, Michael A.

    1971-01-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain of Streptococcus faecalis var. zymogenes (E-1) was isolated from clinical material (conjunctiva). The active substance differed from bacteriocins described by other investigators primarily in its spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially by its marked inhibition of Diplococcus pneumoniae. The E-1 bacteriocin also inhibited nonhemolytic strains of enterococci as well as one-third of the Viridans group of streptococcal strains investigated. The degree of inhibition, however, as indicated by the size of the zones against the latter organisms, was significantly reduced. No activity was detected against any of the strains belonging to the following groups of bacteria: hemolytic enterococci, beta-hemolytic streptococci, nonhemolytic streptococci, staphylococci, and various gram-negative species. Similarly, three strains each of Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes and one strain of Erysipelothrix insidiosa were not inhibited. The bacteriocin was able to diffuse through bacterial membranes as well as cellulose dialyzer tubing. It was inactivated by heating to 80 C for 20 min but resisted inactivation by either trypsin or chloroform. Images PMID:4398532

  3. Kinetics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis growth on high glucose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Berbert-Molina, M A; Prata, A M R; Pessanha, L G; Silveira, M M

    2008-11-01

    The kinetic and general growth features of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis were evaluated. Initial glucose concentration (S0) in fermentation media varied from 10 to 152 g/l. The results afforded to characterize four morphologically and physiologically well-defined culture phases, independent of S0 values: Phase I, vegetative growth; Phase II, transition to sporulation; Phase III, sporulation; and Phase IV, spores maturation and cell lysis. Important process parameters were also determined. The maximum specific growth rates (microX,m) were not affected with S0 up to 75 g/l (1.0-1.1 per hour), but higher glucose concentrations resulted in growth inhibition by substrate, revealed by a reduction in microX,m values. These higher S0 values led to longer Phases III and IV and delayed sporulation. Similar biomass concentrations (Xm=15.2-15.9 g/l) were achieved with S0 over 30.8 g/l, with increasing residual substrate, suggesting a limitation in some other nutrients and the use of glucose to form other metabolites. In this case, with S0 from 30.8 to 152 g/l, cell yield (YX/S) decreased from 0.58 to 0.41 g/g. On the other hand, with S0=10 g/l growth was limited by substrate, and YX/S has shown its maximum value (0.83 g/g).

  4. Neuroprotective activity of Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana extracts in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Kwe; Chen, Lih-Geeng; Wen, Chi-Luan; Hou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Ling-Fang; Yen, Shish-Jung; Shen, Yi-Jyun; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2010-02-01

    Vitis thunbergii var. taiwaniana (VTT) is a wild grape native to Taiwan, where it has been used as a folk medicine. In this study, we found that the branch and leaf ethanol extracts of VTT significantly inhibited the inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein expression and NO production in BV2 microglia. Using primary neuronal cells, kainic acid (KA) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide production in a dose-dependent manner. All four ethanol extracts of VTT significantly decreased hydrogen peroxide production. However, only root and branch ethanol extracts were able to prevent the neuronal cell death induced by KA in vitro. In the animal study, administration of all four plant part extracts of VTT delayed the onset of seizure and decreased the hippocampus neuronal cell loss, and the neuroprotective activity could be ranked as follows: branch approximately leaf > root > trunk. The results suggest that VTT extracts have a potential to prevent neurodegeneration through the antioxidative activity by their ability to inhibit NO and hydrogen peroxide production.

  5. The nitrogen and nitrate economy of butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa var capitata L).

    PubMed

    Broadley, Martin R; Seginer, Ido; Burns, Amanda; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J; Burns, Ian G; White, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Quantifying and simulating the relationships between crop growth, total-nitrogen (total-N) and nitrate-N (NO3--N) concentration can improve crop nutritional husbandry. In this study, the relationship between shoot relative growth rate (RGR) and shoot total-N, organic-N and NO3--N concentration of hydroponically-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata L. cv. Kennedy) was described and simulated. Plants were grown hydroponically for up to 74 d. Nitrogen was supplied throughout (control; T1), or removed at 35 d (T2) and 54 d (T3), respectively, after sowing. The organic-N and NO3--N concentration declined in the shoots of control plants with growth, until commercial maturity approached when organic-N and NO3--N concentration increased. There were sub-linear relationships between both total-N and organic-N concentration, and shoot RGR, in the N-limited treatments, i.e. shoot RGR approached an asymptote at high shoot N concentration. The proportional effects of total-N and organic-N concentration on shoot RGR were independent of plant age. A dynamic simulation model ('Nicolet'), derived previously under different conditions, was used to simulate the growth, dry matter content, organic-N, and NO3--N concentration of lettuce grown under the extreme N-stress conditions experienced by the plants. In view of the largely successful fitting of the model to experimental data, the model was used to interpret the results. Suggestions for model improvement are made.

  6. The influence of different hydroponic conditions on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingna; Zhou, Sai; Liu, Li; Du, Liang; Wang, Jianmei; Huang, Zhenling; Ma, Lijian; Ding, Songdong; Zhang, Dong; Wang, Ruibing; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different hydroponic conditions (such as concentration of thorium (Th), pH, carbonate, phosphate, organic acids, and cations) on thorium uptake by Brassica juncea var. foliosa were evaluated. The results showed that acidic cultivation solutions enhanced thorium accumulation in the plants. Phosphate and carbonate inhibited thorium accumulation in plants, possibly due to the formation of Th(HPO4)(2+), Th(HPO4)2, or Th(OH)3CO3 (-) with Th(4+), which was disadvantageous for thorium uptake in the plants. Organic aids (citric acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid) inhibited thorium accumulation in roots and increased thorium content in the shoots, which suggested that the thorium-organic complexes did not remain in the roots and were beneficial for thorium transfer from the roots to the shoots. Among three cations (such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)), ferrous ion (Fe(2+)), and zinc ion (Zn(2+))) in hydroponic media, Zn(2+) had no significant influence on thorium accumulation in the roots, Fe(2+) inhibited thorium accumulation in the roots, and Ca(2+) was found to facilitate thorium accumulation in the roots to a certain extent. This research will help to further understand the mechanism of thorium uptake in plants.

  7. Flavonoid glycosides from the leaves of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum and their anti-neuroinflammatory effects.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Moon, Eunjung; Park, So Young; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2012-12-15

    Eight new flavonoid glycosides, named allivictoside A-H (1-8), together with twelve known flavonoids (9-20) were isolated from the leaves of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum. The structures of 1-8 were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR analyses and HR-MS. To evaluate the anti-neuroinflammatory activities of all isolates, we measured the secreted nitric oxide levels in murine microglia BV-2 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. In this study, compounds 2, 6, 10, and 18 significantly inhibited nitric oxide production (IC(50) values of 20.67, 20.42, 21.48 and 19.80 μM, respectively) without cell toxicity. Therefore, we suggest that allivictoside B (2) and F (6), 3-O-β-D-glucosyl-7-O-β-D-(2-O-feruloyl)glucosylkaempferol (10) and quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (18) may be considered as candidates for the treatment of diseases associated with neuroinflammation.

  8. Identification of housekeeping genes suitable for gene expression analysis in Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian).

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-kai; Yu, Ju-hua; Xu, Pao; Li, Jian-lin; Li, Hong-xia; Ren, Hong-tao

    2012-10-01

    Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. jian) is an important economic fish species cultured in China. In this report, we performed a systematic analysis to identify an appropriate housekeeping (HK) gene for the study of gene expression in Jian carp. For this purpose, partial DNA sequences of four potential candidate genes (elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1α), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH), beta-actin (ACTB), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were isolated, and their expression levels were studied using RNA extracted from nine tissues (forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, fore-intestine, hind-intestine, ovary, muscle, heart, kidney) in juvenile and adult Jian carp. Gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and expression stability was evaluated by comparing the coefficients of variation (CV) of the Ct values. The results showed that EF-1α was the most suitable HK gene in all tissues of juvenile and adult Jian carp. However, at distinct juvenile and adult developmental stages, there was not a single optimal gene for normalization of expression levels in all tissues. EF-1α was the most stable gene only in forebrain, hypothalamus, liver, heart, and kidney. These results provide data that can be expected to aid gene expression analysis in Jian carp research, but underline the importance of identifying the optimal HK gene for each new experimental paradigm.

  9. Variation in the volatile constituents of Artemisia annua var. CIM-Arogya during plant ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2011-02-01

    The essential oils yield and composition of the aerial parts of A. annua var. CIM-Arogya grown in Uttarakhand, India were analyzed and compared by capillary GC and GC-MS at different stages of development. The analysis led to the identification of 81 constituents forming 91.0%-97.1% of the essential oils compositions. The essential oil content of the aerial parts was found to vary from 0.3% to 0.7% at different stages of growth. A. annua crop harvested at full flowering and seed setting stage gave higher yield of essential oil (0.6%, 0.7%) than that harvested at pre flowering (0.5%), late vegetative (0.4%, 0.5%), mid vegetative (0.4%, 0.4%) and early vegetative stages (0.3%, 0.3%). The essential oils at different stages of growth showed monoterpenoids (38.5%-72.0%) and sesquiterpenoids (22.2%-48.2%) as major grouped constituents. The major constituents identified were camphor (22.8%-42.6%), 1,8-cineole (3.7%-8.4%), linalool (<0.1%-11.9%), beta-caryophyllene (2.0%-9.2%), (E)-beta-farnesene (1.3%-8.5%), germacrene D (0.5%-7.3%) and 1-epi-cubenol (0.7%-5.2%) in essential oil samples collected at different crop stages.

  10. Deciphering the ability of Agaricus bisporus var. burnettii to produce mushrooms at high temperature (25 °C).

    PubMed

    Foulongne-Oriol, Marie; Navarro, Pilar; Spataro, Cathy; Ferrer, Nathalie; Savoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    The button mushroom Agaricus bisporus is cultivated almost worldwide. Its cultivation is standardized and a temperature of 16-19 °C is needed during the fruiting period. The development of A. bisporus cultivars able to fruit at higher temperature (FHT) represents a promising alternative to reduce energy costs during cultivation in hot countries as well as in temperate countries during the hot season. A. bisporus var. burnettii is able to fruit at 25 °C. Understanding the biological mechanisms that underlie such a thermo-tolerance is a prerequisite to further development of breeding strains. The foundation of the FHT ability of the var. burnettii was dissected using a combination of candidate gene approaches and genetic tools. Transcript profiling of A. bisporus var. burnettii at two developmental stages (primordium P and sporophore SP) under two fruit-producing temperature conditions (17 °C and 25 °C) were established by cDNA-AFLP. The expression patterns were more similar within the same stage at the two different temperatures rather than between stages under the same temperature. Only one transcript-derived fragment (TDF) sequence differentially expressed between temperatures was recovered but it could not be further characterized. Twenty-nine TDF sequences differentially expressed between development stages were obtained. The phenotypic assessment of an intervarietal A. bisporus var. bisporus×A. bisporus var. burnettii progeny demonstrated the complex inheritance of the FHT trait. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in the number of fruit bodies yielded at 25 °C were found on LG II and LG VI. Two functional candidate genes known to be potentially involved in A. bisporus thermo-tolerance, a heat shock protein (HSP70) gene and a gene coding for a para-aminobenzoic acid synthase (PABA), were found in the vicinity of the QTL on LG II. Several positional candidate genes have been also identified in the confidence interval of the QTL on LG VI and are

  11. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino.

    PubMed

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar "Yumeiren", encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development.

  12. Purification, characterization, and immunological properties of fumarase from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, H; Gardiner, W E; Schwartzbach, S D

    1985-01-01

    A rapid three-step procedure utilizing heat treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and affinity chromatography on Matrex gel Orange A purified fumarase (EC 4.2.1.2) 632-fold with an 18% yield from crude extracts of Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris. The apparent molecular weight of the native enzyme was 120,000 as determined by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The preparation was over 95% pure, and the subunit molecular weight was 60,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme is a dimer composed of two identical subunits. The pH optimum for E. gracilis fumarase was 8.4. The Km values for malate and fumarate were 1.4 and 0.031 mM, respectively. Preparative two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to further purify the enzyme for antibody production. On Ouchterlony double-immunodiffusion gels, the antifumarase serum gave a sharp precipitin line against total E. gracilis protein and purified E. gracilis fumarase. It did not cross-react with purified pig heart fumarase. On immunoblots of purified E. gracilis fumarase and crude cell extracts of E. gracilis, the antibody recognized a single polypeptide with a molecular weight of approximately 60,000, indicating that the antibody is monospecific. This polypeptide was found in E. gracilis mitochondria. The antibody cross-reacted with an Escherichia coli protein whose molecular weight was approximately 60,000, the reported molecular weight of the fumA gene product of E. coli, but it failed to cross-react with proteins found in crude mouse cell extracts, Bacillus subtilis extracts, or purified pig heart fumarase. Images PMID:3932328

  13. Comparative effects of plant growth regulators on leaf and stem explants of Labisia pumila var. alata

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Tan, Kinn Poay; Hussein, Sobri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Labisia pumila var. alata, commonly known as ‘Kacip Fatimah’ or ‘Selusuh Fatimah’ in Southeast Asia, is traditionally used by members of the Malay community because of its post-partum medicinal properties. Its various pharmaceutical applications cause an excessive harvesting and lead to serious shortage in natural habitat. Thus, this in vitro propagation study investigated the effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila. Methods: The capabilities of callus, shoot, and root formation were evaluated by culturing both explants on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various PGRs at the concentrations of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 mg/L. Results: Medium supplemented with 3 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) showed the optimal callogenesis from both leaf and stem explants with (72.34±19.55)% and (70.40±14.14)% efficacy, respectively. IBA was also found to be the most efficient PGR for root induction. A total of (50.00±7.07)% and (77.78±16.47)% of root formation were obtained from the in vitro stem and leaf explants after being cultured for (26.5±5.0) and (30.0±8.5) d in the medium supplemented with 1 and 3 mg/L of IBA, respectively. Shoot formation was only observed in stem explant, with the maximum percentage of formation ((100.00±0.00)%) that was obtained in 1 mg/L zeatin after (11.0±2.8) d of culture. Conclusions: Callus, roots, and shoots can be induced from in vitro leaf and stem explants of L. pumila through the manipulation of types and concentrations of PGRs. PMID:23825148

  14. Constrained adaptive bias correction for satellite radiances assimilation in the ECMWF 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Bormann, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Satellite radiance observations are typically affected by biases that arise from uncertainties in the absolute calibration, the radiative transfer modeling, or other aspects. These biases have to be removed for the successful assimilation of the data in NWP systems. Two key problems have been identified in bias correction: Firstly, bias corrections can drift towards unrealistic values in regions where there is strong model error and relatively few "anchor" observations, ie, observations that have little systematic error and therefore allow the separation between model and observation bias. Examples where this has been particularly problematic are channels sensitive to ozone or stratospheric temperature. Secondly, there is undesired interaction between the quality control and bias correction for observations where bias-corrected observation departures are used for quality control and where these departures show skewed distributions (e.g., in case of cloud detection). In the study, we investigated potential solutions to these problems by providing further constraints using potential available information, such as constraints on the size of the bias correction and innovative bias correction metrics using uncertainty estimation from calibration and radiative transfer. This has been studied in the full ECMWF global 4D-Var system, using data from microwave sounders which are sensitive to stratospheric temperature. The resulting enhanced bias corrections was assessed in the context of other assimilated observations (in particular radiosondes and GPS radio occultation measurements), and through comparisons of MLS temperature retrieval data in stratosphere and mesosphere. The constrained adaptive bias correction of AMSU-A stratospheric sounding channels reduces the biases in stratosphere and improves the medium range forecasts in both stratosphere and troposphere.

  15. Phenanthrene derivatives from roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yu; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Shang, Ming-Ying; Yu, Jie; Tang, Jia-Wei; Liu, Guang-Xue; Li, Yao-Li; Li, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2017-03-01

    Five new phenanthrene derivatives: 9-ethoxy-7-methoxy-aristololactam IV (1), norcepharadione A N-β-d-glucopyranoside (2), aristololactamoside I (3), aristololactamoside II (4) and aristothiolactoside (5) together with eleven known phenanthrene derivatives (6-16) were isolated from the ethanol extract of the roots and rhizomes of Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum. The aristololactams with substitution of ethoxy at C-9 position (1, 9, and 10) and the sulfur-containing phenanthrene derivative (5) were reported in the genus Asarum for the first time. Furthermore, six phenanthrene glucoside derivatives (2-5, 13 and 14) were also found in this genus for the first time and compounds 7 and 9-15 were isolated from the genus Asarum for the first time. Six of them (1, 2, 9, 10, 13 and 14) were submitted to cytotoxicity test against human renal proximal tubular epithelial cell lines (HK-2) using MTT and LDH assays. Compounds 1 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activity against HK-2 cell lines with IC50 values of 18.18 and 20.44μmol/L in MTT assay and 84.36 and 35.06μmol/L in LDH assay, respectively. Compound 9 showed moderate cytotoxicity in MTT assay with IC50 values of 95.60μmol/L, but no cytotoxicity in LDH assay. Compounds 2, 13 and 14 showed cytotoxic effect in neither MTT assay nor LDH assay. Considering the other nephrotoxic phenanthrene derivatives (6, 8, 12, 15 and 16) previously tested, the results implied the potency of renal toxicity of this herb used as a medicine.

  16. Flavonoids and phenolic acids of Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Becker) Balb. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Modnicki, Daniel; Tokar, Magdalena; Klimek, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside, apigenin 7-O-glucuronide as well as free aglycones luteolin and apigenin have been isolated from lemon catnip herb (Nepeta cataria L. var citriodora). Luteolin 7-O-glucurono-(1-->6)-glucoside is probably a new compound, for the first time described. Two minor constituents of flavonoid fraction have been identified as apigenin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucoside by means of HPLC method. The percentage of total flavonoids determined by use of spectrophotometric method was in the range from 0.30 to 0.46% of dry mass. In phenolic acid fraction, caffeic, rosmarinic and p-coumaric acids have been identified. Total amount of phenolic acids determined by spectrophotometric method was in the range of 0.75% to 1.4 % and the content of rosmarinic acid quantified by HPLC method fluctuated in the wide range from 0.06% to 0.15% depending on the sample. The results of the investigations showed that the composition of flavonoid compounds and phenolic acids in lemon catnip are similar to those in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The amount of flavonoids are similar in both plants, and the percentage of rosmarinic acid is about ten times lower in lemon catnip than in lemon balm. The presence of luteolin, apigenin and their glycosides, caffeic acid as well as the previously described terpenoids (ursolic acid, citral, nerol. geraniol) suggests the possibility of the use of lemon catnip herb as a constituent of phytopharmaceutical preparations with mild sedative, antispasmodic, antioxidative and antiinflammatory action.

  17. Characterization of a novel resistance-related deoxycytidine deaminase from Brassica oleracea var. capitata.

    PubMed

    Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Yang, Hsueh-Hui; Lo, Chaur-Tsuen; Lin, Hong-Shin; Liu, Shu-Ying; Peng, Kou-Cheng

    2014-02-26

    Brassica oleracea deoxycytidine deaminase (BoDCD), a deoxycytidine deaminase (DCD, EC 3.5.4.14) enzyme, is known to play an important role in the Trichoderma harzianum ETS 323 mediated resistance mechanism in young leaves of B. oleracea var. capitata during Rhizoctonia solani infection. BoDCD potentially neutralizes cytotoxic products of host lipoxygenase activity, and thereby BoDCD restricts the hypersensitivity-related programmed cell death induced in plants during the initial stages of infection. To determine the biochemical characteristics and to partially elucidate the designated functional properties of BoDCD, the enzyme was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system, and its potential to neutralize the toxic analogues of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) was examined. BoDCD transformants of E. coli cells were found to be resistant to 2'-deoxycytidine analogues at all of the concentrations tested. The BoDCD enzyme was also overexpressed as a histidine-tagged protein and purified using nickel chelating affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of BoDCD was determined to be 20.8 kDa as visualized by SDS-PAGE. The substrate specificity and other kinetic properties show that BoDCD is more active in neutralizing cytotoxic cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside than in deaminating 2'-deoxycytinde to 2'-deoxyuridine in nucleic acids or in metabolizing cytidine to uridine. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were 27 °C and 7.5. The Km and Vmax values of BoDCD were, respectively, 91.3 μM and 1.475 mM for its natural substrate 2'-deoxycytidine and 63 μM and 2.072 mM for cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside. The phenomenon of neutralization of cytotoxic dC analogues by BoDCD is discussed in detail on the basis of enzyme biochemical properties.

  18. Long-term survival and germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki in a field trial.

    PubMed

    Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    2002-03-01

    Long-term survival, dispersal, and germination of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki DMU67R has been investigated in a field trial. An experimental cabbage plot was sprayed with DMU67R in 1993 and allowed to lie fallow since. The investigations reported here were carried out from 1997 to 2000 in this plot. High persistence of DMU67R for 7 years in the bulk soil of the plot has been demonstrated. The numbers have not significantly reduced since 1994, stabilizing around 6.6 x 10(2) cfu/g from 1996 to 2000. Horizontal dispersal of DMU67R in the 1994-1999 period was limited. Vertical dispersal occurred from 1994 to 1999, as 77% of the population of DMU67R occurred in the 0-2 cm layer in 1994, while only 22% of the population was found there in 1999. Most of the population in 1999 was present homogeneously in the upper 6 cm of the soil profile. Germination, as evidenced by the ratio of DMU67R cfu before and after heat treatment, was not observed in the bulk soil. However, in the rhizospheres of dandelion (Taraxacum officinalis) and quackgrass (Agropyron repens), 40 and 50% of DMU67R was present as vegetative germinated cells, respectively. No germination occurred in the rhizosphere of red fescue (Festuca rubra). The material from the gut of the earthworm species Lumbricus rubellus, Lumbricus terrestris, and Apporrectodea caliginosa and from a tipulid larvae from the plot also contained vegetative cells of DMU67R. Further investigations of A. caliginosa showed that germination seemed to be restricted to the gut and that sporulation occurred after defecation. The germination of DMU67R in rhizospheres and in the gut of nontarget invertebrates suggests that survival in the soil of B. thuringiensis is a dynamic process involving germination, cell divisions, and sporulation in specific microhabitats.

  19. IASI hyperspectral radiances in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR assimilation system: OSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Priti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; Srinivas, D.; George, John P.; Dasgupta, Munmun

    2016-04-01

    Accuracy of global NWP depends more on the contribution of satellite data than the surface based observations. This is achieved through the better usage of satellite data within the data assimilation system. Efforts are going on at NCMRWF to add more and more satellite data in the assimilation system both from Indian and international satellites in geostationary and polar orbits. Impact of the new dataset is assessed through Observation System Experiments (OSEs), through which the impact of the data is evaluated comparing the forecast output with that of a control run. This paper discusses one such OSEs with Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) onboard MetOp-A and B. IASI is the main payload instrument for the purpose of supporting NWP. IASI provides information on the vertical structure of the atmospheric temperature and humidity with an accuracy of 1K and a vertical resolution of 1 km, which is necessary to improve NWP. IASI measures the radiance emitted from the Earth in 8641 channels, covering the spectral interval 645-2760 cm-1. The high volume data resulting from IASI presents many challenges, particularly in the area of assimilation. Out of these 8641 channels, 314 channels are selected depending on the relevance of information in each channel to assimilate in the NCMRWF 4D-VAR assimilation system. Studies show that the use of IASI data in NWP accounts for 40% of the impact of all satellite observations in the NWP forecasts, especially microwave and hyperspectral infrared sounding techniques are found to give the largest impacts

  20. Purification and characterization of an extracellular trypsin-like protease of Fusarium oxysporum var. lini.

    PubMed

    Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Andrade, Milton Hercules Guerra; Rodrigues, Roberta Dias; Castro, Ieso Miranda

    2002-01-01

    An alkaline serineprotease, capable of hydrolyzing Nalpha-benzoyl- dl arginine p-nitroanilide, was secreted by Fusarium oxysporum var. lini grown in the presence of gelatin as the sole nitrogen and carbon source. The protease was purified 65-fold to electrophoretic homogenity from the culture supernatant in a three-step procedure comprising QSepharose chromatography, affinity chromatography, and FPLC on a MonoQ column. SDS-PAGE analysis of the purified protein indicated an estimated molecular mass of 41 kDa. The protease had optimum activity at a reaction temperature of 45 degrees C and showed a rapid decrease of activity at 48 degrees C. The optimum pH was around 8.0. Characterization of the protease showed that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations increased the activity, which was not inhibited by EDTA or 1,10-phenanthroline. The enzyme activity on Nalpha-benzoyl-DL arginine p-nitroanilide was inhibited by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride, p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochloride, aprotinin, 3-4 dichloroisocoumarin, and N-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone. The enzyme is also inhibited by substrate concentrations higher than 2.5 x 10(-4)M. The protease had a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.16 mM and a V(max) of 0.60 mumol released product.min(-1).mg(-1) enzyme when assayed in a non-inhibiting substrate concentration. The activity on Nalpha-benzoyl- dl arginine p-nitroanilide was competitively inhibited by p-aminobenzamidine dihydrochoride. A K(i) value of 0.04 mM was obtained.

  1. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  2. Efficient and stable transformation of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) var. Eroica by particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Batista, Dora; Fonseca, Sandra; Serrazina, Susana; Figueiredo, Andreia; Pais, Maria Salomé

    2008-07-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first accurate and reliable protocol for hop (Humulus lupulus L.) genetic transformation using particle bombardment. Based on the highly productive regeneration system previously developed by us for hop var. Eroica, two efficient transformation protocols were established using petioles and green organogenic nodular clusters (GONCs) bombarded with gusA reporter and hpt selectable genes. A total of 36 hygromycin B-resistant (hyg(r)) plants obtained upon continuous selection were successfully transferred to the greenhouse, and a first generation group of transplanted plants was followed after spending a complete vegetative cycle. PCR analysis showed the presence of one of both transgenes in 25 plants, corresponding to an integration frequency of 69.4% and an overall transformation efficiency of 7.5%. Although all final transformants were GUS negative, the integration frequency of gusA gene was higher than that of hpt gene. Petiole-derived transgenic plants showed a higher co-integration rate of 76.9%. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed co-integration in 86% of the plants tested and its stability until the first generation, and identified positive plants amongst those previously assessed as hpt (+) only by conventional PCR. Our results suggest that the integration frequencies presented here, as well as those of others, may have been underestimated, and that PCR results should be taken with precaution not only for false positives, but also for false negatives. The protocols here described could be very useful for future introduction of metabolic or resistance traits in hop cultivars even if slight modifications for other genotypes are needed.

  3. The pathological changes caused by Eimeria falciformis var pragensis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, G M; Bellamy, J E; Stockdale, P H

    1978-01-01

    Groups of Swiss white mice weighing 25-28 grams were infected orally with 500, 2,000, 5,000 or 20,000 oocysts of Eimeria falciformis var pragensis. Depression, anorexia, weight loss, diarrhea or dysentery, and dehydration were most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection. The highest mortality, 31%, occurred in mice infected with 20,000 oocysts. None of the mice infected with 500 oocysts died. The pathological findings were equally severe in mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts. The enteric lesions, most pronounced at eight to ten days postinfection, were restricted mainly to the large intestine and consisted initially of both cryptal and absorptive epithelial cell destruction and submucosal edema. These changes were followed in 12 to 24 hours by a transient influx of neutrophils into the lamina propria followed by mononuclear cell infiltration which lasted for five to ten days. As the infective dose decreased, the inflammatory response occurred later and was less extensive. When seen, hemorrhage occurred seven to 11 days postinfection. In 50% of the mice infected with 5,000 and 20,000 oocysts, varying degrees of a nonselective mucosal necrosis were seen at eight to 12 days postinfection. In mice infected with 500 oocysts, mucosal destruction was restricted to the epithelium. Neutrophils predominated when necrosis was extensive, otherwise, mononuclear cells were the main inflammatory cells. Two to three days following necrosis, crypt hyperplasia was marked and mucosal integrity was restored. Ulcers, some of which extended into the submucosa, healed by days 14 to 20. Localized granulomatous colitis, induced by trapped oocysts within the lamina propria, was seen until the experiment was terminated at 25 days postinfection. Infection was followed by lymphoid hyperplasia in the lymph nodes and the spleen. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. PMID:743602

  4. Isolation of Alkaline and Neutral Proteases from Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris, a Soy Sauce Koji Mold

    PubMed Central

    Impoolsup, Attawut; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Flegel, Timothy W.

    1981-01-01

    Two different extracellular proteases, protease I (P-I), an alkaline protease, and protease II (P-II) a neutral protease, from Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris were partially purified by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sephadex A-50 chromatography, carboxymethylcellulose CM-52 chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The degree of purity was followed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The activity of P-I was completely inhibited by 0.1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, and that of P-II was completely inhibited by 1 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetate. By using these inhibitors with extracts of wheat bran koji, the proportions of total activity that could be assigned to P-I and P-II were 80 and 20%, respectively. This compared favorably with activities estimated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis slices (82 and 18%, respectively). Extracts from factory-run soybean koji gave comparable results. Both enzymes demonstrated maximum activity at 50 to 55°C and only small changes in activity between pH 6 and 11. For P-I, activity was somewhat higher from pH 8.0 to 11.0, whereas for P-II it was somewhat higher from pH 6 to 9. In the presence of 18% NaCl, the activities of both P-I and P-II dropped by approximately 90 and 85%, respectively. P-I was inferred to possess aminopeptidase activity since it could hydrolyze l-leucyl-p-nitroanilide hydrochloride. P-II was devoid of such activity. The ramifications of the results for factory-produced soy sauce koji are discussed. Images PMID:16345858

  5. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  6. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-05

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p < 0.001) in an oxidative stress-dependent fashion via mitochondrial membrane depolarization (52-87%), activation of transcription factor p53 (6.3-25.4%), protease caspase-3 (8.3-20%) and predominance of AIF reactivity (20.6-36%) in all extracts. Similar results were obtained with 0.5 mg/mL extracts. However, extract ≥1 mg/mL concentration induced necrosis (100%). Conclusions: P. americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia.

  7. Microwave application on air drying of apple (var. Granny Smith). The influence of vacuum impregnation pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Esparza, Maria Eugenia

    Combined hot air-microwave drying has been studied on apple (var. Granny Smith), with and without vacuum impregnation (VI) pretreatment with isotonic solution, respect to kinetics, microstructural and final quality items. In order to reach this objective, a drier has been designed and built, that allows to control and to register all the variables which take place during the drying process. Thermal and dielectric properties, that are very important characteristics when studying heat and mass transfer phenomena that occur during the combined drying process, have been related to temperature and/or moisture content throughout empirical equations. It could be observed that all these properties decreased with product moisture content. Respect to dielectric properties, a relationship among water binding forms to food structure and water molecules relaxation frequency has been found. On the other hand, the effect of drying treatment conditions (air rate, drying temperature, sample thickness and incident microwave power) on the drying rate, from an empirical model based on diffusional mechanisms with two kinetic parameters (k1 and k2), both function of the incident microwave power, has been studied. Microwave application to air drying implied a notable decrease on drying time, the higher the applied power the higher the reduction. Microstructural study by Cryo-Sem revealed fast water vaporization taking place when microwaves are applied. Vacuum impregnation did not implied an additional advantage for combined drying as drying rate was similar to that of NIV samples. Finally, it has been studied the influence of process conditions on the color and mechanical properties of the dried product (IV and NIV). Vacuum impregnation implied an increase on the fracture resistance and less purity and tone angle. Microwave application induced product browning with respect to air drying (tone decreased and purity increased).

  8. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan-ju; Zhu, Neng; Jia, Hai-quan; Wu, Jin-hui; Yi, Ying; Qi, Jian-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has been used as a fumigant in the disinfection of biosafety laboratories. In this study, some experiments were conducted to assess the inactivation of spores inoculated on six materials [stainless steel (SS), painted steel (PS), polyvinyl chlorid (PVC), polyurethane (PU), glass (GS), and cotton cloth (CC)] by CD gas. The main aims of the study were to determine the sporicidal efficacy of CD gas and the effect of prehumidification before decontamination on sporicidal efficacy. Methods: Material coupons (1.2 cm diameter of SS, PS, and PU; 1.0 cm×1.0 cm for PVC, GS, and CC) were contaminated with 10 μl of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (ATCC 9372) spore suspension in mixed organic burden and then dried in a biosafety cabinet for 12 h. The spores were recovered by soaking the coupons in 5 ml of extraction liquid for 1 h and then vortexing the liquid for 1 min. Results: The log reductions in spore numbers on inoculated test materials exposed to CD gas [0.080% (volume ratio, v/v) for 3 h] were in the range of from 1.80 to 6.64. Statistically significant differences were found in decontamination efficacies on test material coupons of SS, PS, PU, and CC between with and without a 1-h prehumidification treatment. With the extraction method, there were no statistically significant differences in the recovery ratios between the porous and non-porous materials. Conclusions: The results reported from this study could provide information for developing decontamination technology based on CD gas for targeting surface microbial contamination. PMID:22467366

  9. Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Two Lipoxygenases in Oriental Melon, Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Songxiao; Chen, Hao; Zhang, Chong; Tang, Yufan; Liu, Jieying; Qi, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are a class of non-heme iron-containing dioxygenases that catalyse oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to produce hydroperoxidation that are in turn converted to oxylipins. Although multiple isoforms of LOXs have been detected in several plants, LOXs in oriental melon have not attracted much attention. Two full-length LOX cDNA clones, CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 which have been isolated from oriental melon (Cucumis melo var. makuwa Makino) cultivar “Yumeiren”, encode 902 and 906 amino acids, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 included all of the typical LOX domains and shared 58.11% identity at the amino acid level with each other. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 were members of the type 2 13-LOX subgroup which are known to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the full-length CmLOX10 and truncated CmLOX13 in Escherichia coli revealed that the encoded exogenous proteins were identical to the predicted molecular weights and possessed the lipoxygenase activities. The purified CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 recombinant enzymes exhibited maximum activity at different temperature and pH and both had higher affinity for linoleic acid than linolenic acid. Chromatogram analysis of reaction products from the CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 enzyme reaction revealed that both enzymes produced 13S-hydroperoxides when linoleic acid was used as substrate. Furthermore, the subcellular localization analysis by transient expression of the two LOX fusion proteins in tobacco leaves showed that CmLOX10 and CmLOX13 proteins were located in plasma membrane and chloroplasts respectively. We propose that the two lipoxygenases may play different functions in oriental melon during plant growth and development. PMID:27101009

  10. Influence of Spore Moisture Content on the Dry-Heat Resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Angelotti, Robert; Maryanski, James H.; Butler, Thomas F.; Peeler, James T.; Campbell, Jeptha E.

    1968-01-01

    The dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores located in or on various materials was determined as D and z values in the range of 105 through 160 C. The systems tested included spores located on steel and paper strips, spores located between stainless-steel washers mated together under 150 inch-lb and 12 inch-lb of torque, and spores encapsulated in methylmethacrylate and epoxy plastics. D values for a given temperature varied with the test system. High D values were observed for the systems in which spores were encapsulated or under heavy torque, whereas lower D values were observed for the steel and paper strip systems and the lightly torqued system. Similar z values were obtained for the plastic and steel strip systems (zD = 21 C), but an unusually low z for spores on paper (zD = 12.9 C) and an unusually high z for spores on steel washers mated at 150 inch-lb of torque (zD = 32 C) were observed. The effect of spore moisture content on the D value of spores encapsulated in water-impermeable plastic was determined, and maximal resistance was observed for spores with a water activity (aw) of 0.2 to 0.4. Significantly decreased D values were observed for spores with moisture contents below aw 0.2 or above aw 0.4. The data indicate that the important factors to be considered when measuring the dry heat resistance of spores are (i) the initial moisture content of the spore, (ii) the rate of spore desiccation during heating, (iii) the water retention capacity of the material in or on which spores are located, and (iv) the relative humidity of the system at the test temperature. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 PMID:4968962

  11. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of the Early Infection of Wheat Roots by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lirong; Xie, Lihua; Xue, Baoguo; Goodwin, Paul H.; Quan, Xin; Zheng, Chuanlin; Liu, Taiguo; Lei, Zhensheng; Yang, Xiaojie; Chao, Yueen; Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Take-all, which is caused by the fungal pathogen, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), is an important soil-borne root rot disease of wheat occurring worldwide. However, the genetic basis of Ggt pathogenicity remains unclear. In this study, transcriptome sequencing for Ggt in axenic culture and Ggt-infected wheat roots was performed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Approximately 2.62 and 7.76 Gb of clean reads were obtained, and 87% and 63% of the total reads were mapped to the Ggt genome for RNA extracted from Ggt in culture and infected roots, respectively. A total of 3,258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified with 2,107 (65%) being 2-fold up-regulated and 1,151 (35%) being 2-fold down-regulated between Ggt in culture and Ggt in infected wheat roots. Annotation of these DEGs revealed that many were associated with possible Ggt pathogenicity factors, such as genes for guanine nucleotide-binding protein alpha-2 subunit, cellulase, pectinase, xylanase, glucosidase, aspartic protease and gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase. Twelve DEGs were analyzed for expression by qRT-PCR, and could be generally divided into those with high expression only early in infection, only late in infection and those that gradually increasing expression over time as root rot developed. This indicates that these possible pathogenicity factors may play roles during different stages of the interaction, such as signaling, plant cell wall degradation and responses to plant defense compounds. This is the first study to compare the transcriptomes of Ggt growing saprophytically in axenic cultures to it growing parasitically in infected wheat roots. As a result, new candidate pathogenicity factors have been identified, which can be further examined by gene knock-outs and other methods to assess their true role in the ability of Ggt to infect roots. PMID:25875107

  12. Osmotic Adjustment of Cultured Tobacco Cells (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsum) Grown on Sodium Chloride 1

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, James W.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1981-01-01

    Tobacco cell cultures (var. Samsum) were grown on increasing levels of NaCl to select variants for increased salt tolerance. The osmotic adjustment of NaCl-adapted and nonadapted cell lines was studied. Both cell lines were grown on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium with or without NaCl. Few differences were found in the response of adapted and nonadapted lines to NaCl. The concentrations of sugars, Na+, Cl−, and NO3− were identical in the cells and medium. Potassium and amino acids were accumulated by the cells. All of the above solutes accounted for 80 to 90% of the osmotic potential for both cell lines when grown on basal medium with or without NaCl. The osmotic potential of growing cells was always 1 to 3 bars more negative than that of the medium. During the first 10 days culture, the cells hydrolyzed the 117 millimolar sucrose present in the fresh media, and the media became more negative by 3 bars. Growing cells absorbed and metabolized the sugars, NH4+, and NO3− during the next 25 days, and the osmotic potential of the media and cells became less negative. The addition of 130 millimolar NaCl made the media and cells osmotically more negative by 6 bars throughout the growth cycle, as compared with cells growing on basal medium. The efflux of cellular solutes during distilled H2O washes was resolved into two components. The fast component (0.6 to 1.7 minutes half-time) included solutes of the free space and cytoplasm, whereas the slow component (1.6 to 4.9 hours half-time) represented the vacuolar solutes. Sodium and Cl− were present in the vacuole. No differences were observed in the solute efflux between the adapted and nonadapted cell lines. PMID:16661743

  13. Heterogeneity of clonal patterns among patches of kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, an invasive plant

    PubMed Central

    Kartzinel, Tyler R.; Hamrick, J. L.; Wang, Chongyun; Bowsher, Alan W.; Quigley, Bryan G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Viny species are among the most serious invasive plants, and better knowledge of how vines grow to dominate landscapes is needed. Patches may contain a single genotype (i.e. genet), a competitively dominant genet or many independent but interacting genets, yet the clonal structure of vining species is often not apparent. Molecular markers can discriminate among the genetic identities of entwined vines to reveal the number and spatial distribution of genets. This study investigated how genets are spatially distributed within and among discrete patches of the invasive vine kudzu, Pueraria montana var. lobata, in the United States. It was expected that ramets of genets would be spatially clustered within patches, and that an increase in the number of genets within a patch would be associated with a decrease in the average size of each genet. Methods Six discrete kudzu patches were sampled across 2 years, and 1257 samples were genotyped at 21 polymorphic allozyme loci. Variation in genotypic and genetic diversity among patches was quantified and patterns of genet interdigitation were analysed. Key Results Substantial genotypic and genetic variation occurred within and among patches. As few as ten overlapping genets spanned up to 68 m2 in one patch, while >90 % of samples were genetically unique in another patch. Genotypic diversity within patches increased as mean clone size decreased, although spatially widespread genets did not preclude interdigitation. Eight genets were shared across ≥2 patches, suggesting that vegetative dispersal can occur among patches. Conclusions Genetically unique kudzu vines are highly interdigitated. Multiple vegetative propagules have become established in spatially discrete patches, probably through the movement of highway construction or maintenance machinery. The results suggest that common methods for controlling invasive vines (e.g. mowing) may inadvertently increase genotypic diversity. Thus, understanding

  14. Clerodane type diterpene as a novel antifungal agent from Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Asish K; Chand, Hemender R; John, Jyothis; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2015-04-13

    Bioactivity-guided chemical examination of methanolic extract of leaves of Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula led to the isolation of the active constituent, a diterpene 1 which was identified as 16α-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide on the basis of its spectral data. Among the tested strains, diterpene 1 was found to exhibit antifungal activities having MIC90 values of 50.3, 100.6 and 201.2 μM against Candida albicans NCIM3557, Cryptococcus neoformans NCIM3542 (human pathogens) and Neurospora crassa NCIM870 (saprophyte), respectively. Initial, structure-activity-relationship (SAR) data generated by synthesizing some derivatives revealed that the double bond between C3-C4 and the free hydroxyl group at C16 are crucial for the antifungal activity of the diterpene 1. The mode of action of 1 in C. albicans is due to compromised cell membrane permeability and also probably due to disruption of cell wall structures. The red blood cell haemolysis of all the compounds (1-4) did not show any significant haemolysis and was found to be less than 15% for all the compounds when tested at highest concentration, i.e. 1200 μM. Interestingly, all the tested compounds inhibited Y-H transition in dimorphic C. albicans NCIM3557 at much lower concentration than their MIC90 values. Determination of ROS generation by diterpene 1 using DCFH-DA and DHR123 (dihydrorhodamine) staining of C. albicans NCIM3557 indicated production of intracellular ROS as a mechanism of antifungal activity.

  15. Examination of B. subtilis var. niger Spore Killing by Dry Heat Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempf, Michael J.; Kirschner, Larry E.

    2004-01-01

    Dry heat microbial reduction is the only NASA approved sterilization method to reduce the microbial bioburden on space-flight hardware prior to launch. Reduction of the microbial bioburden on spacecraft is necessary to meet planetary protection requirements specific for the mission. Microbial bioburden reduction also occurs if a spacecraft enters a planetary atmosphere (e.g., Mars) and is heated due to frictional forces. Temperatures reached during atmospheric entry events (>200 C) are sufficient to damage or destroy flight hardware and also kill microbial spores that reside on the in-bound spacecraft. The goal of this research is to determine the survival rates of bacterial spores when they are subjected to conditions similar to those the spacecraft would encounter (i.e., temperature, pressure, etc.). B. subtilis var. niger spore coupons were exposed to a range of temperatures from 125 C to 200 C in a vacuum oven (at <1 Torr). After the exposures, the spores were removed by sonication, dilutions were made, and the spores were plated using the pour plate method with tryptic soy agar. After 3 days incubation at 32 C, the number of colony-forming units was counted. Lethality rate constants and D-values were calculated at each temperature. The calculated D-values were: 27 minutes (at 125 C), 13 minutes (at 135 C), and <0.1 minutes (at 150 C). The 125 C and 135 C survivor curves appeared as concavedownward curves. The 150 C survivor curve appeared as a straight-line. Due to the prolonged ramp-up time to the exposure conditions, spore killing during the ramp-up resulted in insufficient data to draw curves for exposures at 160 C, 175 C, and 200 C. Exploratory experiments using novel techniques, with short ramp times, for performing high temperature exposures were also examined. Several of these techniques, such as vacuum furnaces, thermal spore exposure vessels, and laser heating of the coupons, will be discussed.

  16. A 4D-Var inversion system based on the icosahedral grid model (NICAM-TM 4D-Var v1.0) - Part 1: Offline forward and adjoint transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Yosuke; Tomita, Hirofumi; Satoh, Masaki; Imasu, Ryoichi; Sawa, Yousuke; Tsuboi, Kazuhiro; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Belan, Boris; Saigusa, Nobuko

    2017-03-01

    A four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) method is a popular algorithm for inverting atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements. In order to meet the computationally intense 4D-Var iterative calculation, offline forward and adjoint transport models are developed based on the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM). By introducing flexibility into the temporal resolution of the input meteorological data, the forward model developed in this study is not only computationally efficient, it is also found to nearly match the transport performance of the online model. In a transport simulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), the data-thinning error (error resulting from reduction in the time resolution of the meteorological data used to drive the offline transport model) is minimized by employing high temporal resolution data of the vertical diffusion coefficient; with a low 6-hourly temporal resolution, significant concentration biases near the surface are introduced. The new adjoint model can be run in discrete or continuous adjoint mode for the advection process. The discrete adjoint is characterized by perfect adjoint relationship with the forward model that switches off the flux limiter, while the continuous adjoint is characterized by an imperfect but reasonable adjoint relationship with its corresponding forward model. In the latter case, both the forward and adjoint models use the flux limiter to ensure the monotonicity of tracer concentrations and sensitivities. Trajectory analysis for high CO2 concentration events are performed to test adjoint sensitivities. We also demonstrate the potential usefulness of our adjoint model for diagnosing tracer transport. Both the offline forward and adjoint models have computational efficiency about 10 times higher than the online model. A description of our new 4D-Var system that includes an optimization method, along with its application in an atmospheric CO2 inversion and the effects of using either the

  17. Placental Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Parasites Is Mediated by the Interaction Between VAR2CSA and Chondroitin Sulfate A on Syndecan-1

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yang; Resende, Mafalda; Daugaard, Mads; Riis Kristensen, Anders; Damm, Peter; G. Theander, Thor; R. Hansson, Stefan; Salanti, Ali

    2016-01-01

    During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location. VAR2CSA pull-down experiments using placental extracts from whole placenta or syncytiotrophoblast microvillous cell membranes showed three distinct CSPGs available for VAR2CSA adherence. Further examination of these three CSPGs by immunofluorescence and proximity ligation assays showed that syndecan-1 is the main receptor for VAR2CSA mediated placental adherence. We further show that the commonly used placental choriocarcinoma cell line, BeWo, express a different set of proteoglycans than those present on placental syncytiotrophoblast and may not be the most biologically relevant model to study placental malaria. Syncytial fusion of the BeWo cells, triggered by forskolin treatment, caused an increased expression of placental CS-modified syndecan-1. In line with this, we show that rVAR2 binding to placental CS impairs syndecan-1-related Src signaling in forskolin treated BeWo cells, but not in untreated cells. PMID:27556547

  18. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae): loss of an inverted repeat region and comparative analysis with related species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Li, Ruyi; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Zhang, Lin

    2014-05-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae) is a domestic variety of yew species in local China. This plant is one of the sources for paclitaxel, which is a promising antineoplastic chemotherapy drugs during the last decade. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of T. chinensis var. mairei. The T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome is 129,513 bp in length, with 113 single copy genes and two duplicated genes (trnI-CAU, trnQ-UUG). Among the 113 single copy genes, 9 are intron-containing. Compared to other land plant cp genomes, the T. chinensis var. mairei cp genome has lost one of the large inverted repeats (IRs) found in angiosperms, fern, liverwort, and gymnosperm such as Cycas revoluta and Ginkgo biloba L. Compared to related species, the gene order of T. chinensis var. mairei has a large inversion of ~110kb including 91 genes (from rps18 to accD) with gene contents unarranged. Repeat analysis identified 48 direct and 2 inverted repeats 30 bp long or longer with a sequence identity greater than 90%. Repeated short segments were found in genes rps18, rps19 and clpP. Analysis also revealed 22 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T.

  19. Effect of benzoic acid and combination of benzoic acid with a probiotic containing Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi in weaned pig nutrition.

    PubMed

    Papatsiros, V G; Tassis, P D; Tzika, E D; Papaioannou, D S; Petridou, E; Alexopoulos, C; Kyriakis, S C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a probiotic containing Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi spores (Toyocerin) and benzoic acid (VevoVitall) on growth performance and diarrhoea in weaning pigs, against negative controls. The trial groups were as follows: (a) NC group (Negative Controls): No treatment (b) TOYO group: Same feed as in the controls plus Toyocerin at a dose of 1 x 10(9) Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi spores/kg feed, (c) BA group: Same feed as in the controls plus VevoVitall at a dose of 5 g/kg feed (5000 ppm benzoic acid) and (d) TOYO+BA group: Same feed as in the controls plus Toyocerin at a dose of 1 x 10(9) Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi spores and VevoVitall at a dose of 5 g/kg feed. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that administration of Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi spores at 1 x 10(9)/kg feed or benzoic acid at a dose of 5000 ppm or the combination of 1 x 10(9) Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi spores and 5000 ppm of benzoic acid/kg feed, improved the growth performance parameters and reduced the severity of diarrhoea in weaning pigs.

  20. Studies on the Cytotoxic Activities of Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (Apple Punice) Extract on Prostate Cell Line by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sineh Sepehr, Koushan; Baradaran, Behzad; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Khori, Vahid; Shahneh, Fatemeh Zare

    2012-01-01

    The Punica granatum L. var. granatum (pomegranate) has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on various types of cancer cells. The present study aimed to evaluate the medicinal herbs Punica granatum L. var. spinosa (apple punice) that are native to Iran. This study was determined to test the possible cytotoxic activity and induction of apoptosis on human prostate cell lines. The effect of ethanol extracts of the herbs on the inhibition of cell proliferation was assessed by MTT colorimetric assay. PC3 cell lines treated with the extracts were analyzed for the induction of apoptosis by cell death detection (ELISA) and TUNEL assay. Dye exclusion analysis was performed for viability rate. Our results demonstrated that the Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract dose dependently suppressed the proliferation of PC3 cells (IC50= 250.21 μg/mL) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug (Toxol) (Vesper Pharmaceuticals) with increased nucleosome production from apoptotic cells. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa extract attenuated the human prostate cell proliferation in vitro possibly by inducing apoptosis. The Punica granatum L. var. spinosa is likely to be valuable for the treatment of some forms of human prostate cell line. PMID:23320197

  1. EnKF and 4D-Var data assimilation with chemical transport model BASCOE (version 05.06)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skachko, Sergey; Ménard, Richard; Errera, Quentin; Christophe, Yves; Chabrillat, Simon

    2016-08-01

    We compare two optimized chemical data assimilation systems, one based on the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and the other based on four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation, using a comprehensive stratospheric chemistry transport model (CTM). This work is an extension of the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE), initially designed to work with a 4D-Var data assimilation. A strict comparison of both methods in the case of chemical tracer transport was done in a previous study and indicated that both methods provide essentially similar results. In the present work, we assimilate observations of ozone, HCl, HNO3, H2O and N2O from EOS Aura-MLS data into the BASCOE CTM with a full description of stratospheric chemistry. Two new issues related to the use of the full chemistry model with EnKF are taken into account. One issue is a large number of error variance parameters that need to be optimized. We estimate an observation error variance parameter as a function of pressure level for each observed species using the Desroziers method. For comparison purposes, we apply the same estimate procedure in the 4D-Var data assimilation, where both scale factors of the background and observation error covariance matrices are estimated using the Desroziers method. However, in EnKF the background error covariance is modelled using the full chemistry model and a model error term which is tuned using an adjustable parameter. We found that it is adequate to have the same value of this parameter based on the chemical tracer formulation that is applied for all observed species. This is an indication that the main source of model error in chemical transport model is due to the transport. The second issue in EnKF with comprehensive atmospheric chemistry models is the noise in the cross-covariance between species that occurs when species are weakly chemically related at the same location. These errors need to be filtered out in addition to a

  2. Biosynthesis of defense-related proteins in transformed root cultures of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum (Kitam.).

    PubMed Central

    Savary, B J; Flores, H E

    1994-01-01

    We have established transformed ("hairy") root cultures from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim. var japonicum Kitam. (Cucurbitaceae) and four related species to study the biosynthesis of the ribosome-inactivating protein trichosanthin (TCN) and other root-specific defense-related plant proteins. Stable, fast-growing root clones were obtained for each species by infecting in vitro grown plantlets with Agrobacterium rhizogenes American Type Culture Collection strain 15834. Each species accumulated reproducibly a discrete protein pattern in the culture medium. Analysis of the extracellular proteins from T. kirilowii var japonicum root cultures showed differential protein accumulation in the medium during the time course of growth in batch cultures. Maximum protein accumulation, approaching 20 micrograms/mL, was observed at mid-exponential phase, followed by a degradation of a specific protein subset that coincided with the onset of stationary phase. Two major extracellular proteins and one intracellular protein, purified by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, were identified as class III chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) based on N-terminal amino acid sequence and amino acid composition homologies with other class III chitinases. The Trichosanthes chitinases also showed reactivity with a cucumber class III chitinase antiserum and chitinolytic activity in a glycol chitin gel assay. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analysis of intracellular proteins showed that normal and transformed T. kirilowii var japonicum roots accumulated only low levels of TCN (approximately 0.5% total soluble protein). Storage roots from the plant displayed protein and antigen patterns different from root cultures and produced TCN as the dominant protein. Roots undergoing secondary growth and differentiation exhibited patterns similar to those of storage roots, including increased TCN levels, indicating that high production of TCN

  3. Chemical Composition, Leishmanicidal and Cytotoxic Activities of the Essential Oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Eduardo H. S.; Moraes, Marcílio M.; Nerys, Laís L. de A.; Nascimento, Silene C.; Militão, Gardênia C. G.; de Figueiredo, Regina C. B. Q.; da Câmara, Cláudio A. G.; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25136617

  4. Enhancement of cadmium tolerance and accumulation by introducing Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt var. frutescens genes in Nicotiana tabacum L. plants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Keqiang; Pang, Shengxi; Yang, Junxian; Wei, Zhizhong

    2015-04-01

    The tobacco has the genetic potential to remove toxic metals from the soil. To develop hyperaccumulating tobacco plants, distant hybridization between tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), a high-biomass crop, and Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt var. frutescens, a newfound Cd-hyperaccumulator species, was carried out using a novel method viz. pollination following grafting. Their hybrid nature was preliminarily confirmed by phenotype, isozyme pattern, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and metabolites analysis. About 120 putative F2 hybrids derived from the cross-combination [(N. sylvestris Speg. & Comes rootstock + N. tabacum L. var. 78-04 scion) × P. frutescens (L.) Britt var. frutescens] were then subjected to up to 300 μM CdCl2 in hydroponic conditions for 10 days. Results showed five seedlings were more resistant to Cd than female parent and accumulated 314.6 ± 99.9 mg kg(-1) Cd in their aerial biomass, which was 5.7 times greater than that in "78-04" tobacco (47.2 ± 3.56 mg kg(-1)) (P ≤ 0.05). Two of these seedlings exceeded male parent P. frutescens in the Cd concentration of shoots and reached 424 and 396 mg kg(-1), which was 13% and 6% greater for that of perilla (374.2 ± 10.38 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Compared with parents, two other F2 hybrids tended to accumulate more Cd in the root with bioconcentration factor (BCF) 7.05 and 5.17, respectively. Only one hybrid showed lower Cd concentration but transferred Cd more effectively from the root to the shoot than parents and other F2 hybrids, with the maximum translocation factor (TF) value 1.37. These indicated that the introduction of P. frutescens genes could obviously enhance the cadmium tolerance and accumulation of superior individuals.

  5. Chemical composition, leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils from Mangifera indica L. var. Rosa and Espada.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Eduardo H S; Moraes, Marcílio M; Nerys, Laís L de A; Nascimento, Silene C; Militão, Gardênia C G; de Figueiredo, Regina C B Q; da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from Mangifera indica var. Rosa and Espada latex were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Twenty-seven components were identified. The main compound in the essential oil from M. indica var. Espada (EOMiE) was terpinolene (73.6%). The essential oil of M. indica var. Rosa (EOMiR) was characterized by high amounts of β-pinene (40.7%) and terpinolene (28.3%). In the test for leishmanicidal activity against promastigotes forms of L. amazonensis, EOMiR and EOMiE showed IC50 (72 h) of 39.1 and 23.0 μg/mL, respectively. In macrophages, EOMiR and EOMiE showed CC50 of 142.84 and 158.65 μg/mL, respectively. However, both were more specific to the parasite than macrophages, with values of selectivity index of 6.91 for EOMiE and 3.66 for EOMiR. The essential oils were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against the human tumor cells HEp-2, HT-29, NCI-H292, and HL-60. The EOMiR and EOMiE were most effective against the HL-60, with IC50 values of 12.3 and 3.6 μg/mL, respectively. The results demonstrated that the essential oils of M. indica can destroy L. amazonensis and inhibit tumor cell growth. These findings contribute to the knowledge of the Brazilian biodiversity as a source of potential therapeutic agents.

  6. Acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract against Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaobin; Fang, Chunlin; Yang, Guangyou; Xie, Yue; Nong, Xiang; Zhu, Junyang; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yan, Qigui

    2014-02-01

    The potential acaricidal properties of an Ailanthus altissima bark extract were assessed against two common species of animal ectoparasitic mites, Psoroptes cuniculi and Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi, in vitro. A. altissima bark extract was obtained by ethanol thermal circumfluence and tested at four concentrations (1.0, 0.5, 0.25 and 0.125 g/ml) on mites collected from rabbits. Compared to the fenvalerate treatment group, the A. altissima bark exhibited significant acaricidal properties for both mite species treated. The extract of concentrations of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml killed all tested S. scabiei within 7 h, however, only 1.0 and 0.5 g/ml of extract killed all treated P. cuniculi. The median lethal time (LT50) values at 1, 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml were 0.60, 0.78, 1.48 h for S. scabiei and 0.74, 1.29, 3.33 h for P. cuniculi. The median lethal concentration (LC50) for P. cuniculi was approximately 1.6 times that for S. scabiei var. cuniculi at 4 h. The extract showed stronger toxicity against S. scabiei than against P. cuniculi. Mortality rates increased with increasing concentration of extract administered and with increasing time post-treatment, indicating that the acaricidal activity of A. altissima bark extract is both time-dependent and dose-dependent. This is the first report on acaricidal activity of A. altissima against P. cuniculi and S. scabiei var. cuniculi. It indicates that A. altissima contain potential acaricidal compounds. Our study is the first step to develop potentially novel compounds from A. altissima for the effective control of mites in livestock.

  7. Photovoltaic Impact Assessment of Smart Inverter Volt-VAR Control on Distribution System Conservation Voltage Reduction and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Fei; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Baggu, Murali; Nguyen, Andu; Walinga, Sarah; McCarty, Michael; Bell, Frances

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an impact assessment study of distributed photovoltaic (PV) with smart inverter Volt-VAR control on conservation voltage reduction (CVR) energy savings and distribution system power quality. CVR is a methodology of flattening and lowering a distribution system voltage profile in order to conserve energy. Traditional CVR relies on operating utility voltage regulators and switched capacitors. However, with the increased penetration of distributed PV systems, smart inverters provide the new opportunity to control local voltage and power factor by regulating the reactive power output, leading to a potential increase in CVR energy savings. This report proposes a methodology to implement CVR scheme by operating voltage regulators, capacitors, and autonomous smart inverter Volt-VAR control in order to achieve increased CVR benefit. Power quality is an important consideration when operating a distribution system, especially when implementing CVR. It is easy to measure the individual components that make up power quality, but a comprehensive method to incorporate all of these values into a single score has yet to be undertaken. As a result, this report proposes a power quality scoring mechanism to measure the relative power quality of distribution systems using a single number, which is aptly named the 'power quality score' (PQS). Both the CVR and PQS methodologies were applied to two distribution system models, one obtained from the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) and another obtained from Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E). These two models were converted to the OpenDSS platform using previous model conversion tools that were developed by NREL. Multiple scenarios including various PV penetration levels and smart inverter densities were simulated to analyze the impact of smart inverter Volt-VAR support on CVR energy savings and feeder power quality. In order to analyze the CVR benefit and PQS, an annual simulation was conducted for each scenario.

  8. The structural elucidation and antimicrobial activities of two isoflavane glycosides from Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge) Hsiao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qing-Hu; Han, Na-ren-chao-ke-tu; Dai, Na-yin-tai; Wang, Xiu-lan; Ao, Wu-Li-Ji

    2014-11-01

    Two isoflavane glycoside had been isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of the roots of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge) Hsiao. This is the first report on the structure elucidation of 2‧,5‧-dicarbonyl-3‧,4‧-dimethoxyisoflavanequinone-7-O-β-D-glucoside (1) based on spectroscopic methods including UV (Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry), IR (Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy), ESI-MS (Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry), 1D NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) and 2D NMR techniques. At the same time, antimicrobial activity of the two compounds was evaluated against various bacteria and fungi.

  9. Structural characterization of an immunoenhancing cytotoxic heteroglycan isolated from an edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Eshita Kar; Maity, Kousik; Maity, Saikat; Gantait, Sanjoy K; Maiti, Swatilekha; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2011-10-18

    A water-soluble polysaccharide of an edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2 showed immunoenhancing (macrophage, splenocyte, thymocyte, and bone marrow activation) and cytotoxic activity toward HeLa cell lines and found to consist of D-glucose, D-galactose, and L-fucose in a molar ratio of nearly 3:1:1. On the basis of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, TOCSY, DQF-COSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC, and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the fuco-galacto-glucan was established as: [see formula in text].

  10. Structure and immunology of a heteroglycan from somatic hybrid mushroom of Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2.

    PubMed

    Dey, Biswajit; Bhunia, Sanjoy K; Maity, Kankan K; Patra, Sukesh; Mandal, Soumitra; Behera, Birendra; Maiti, Tapas K; Sikdar, Samir R; Islam, Syed S

    2013-01-01

    A water soluble polysaccharide was isolated from the aqueous extract of the fruit bodies of somatic hybrid mushroom PCH3FB, obtained through protoplast fusion between the strains Pleurotus florida and Calocybe indica var. APK2. On the basis of sugar analysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT-135, DQF-COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, ROESY, HMQC and HMBC), the structure of the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was established as: [formula, see text] This molecule showed macrophage, splenocyte and thymocyte activations.

  11. Var C: Long-term photometric and spectral variability of a luminous blue variable in M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burggraf, B.; Weis, K.; Bomans, D. J.; Henze, M.; Meusinger, H.; Sholukhova, O.; Zharova, A.; Pellerin, A.; Becker, A.

    2015-09-01

    Aims: So far the highly unstable phase of luminous blue variables (LBVs) has not been understood well. It is still uncertain why and which massive stars enter this phase. Investigating the variabilities by looking for a possible regular or even (semi-)periodic behaviour could give a hint at the underlying mechanism for these variations and might answer the question of where these variabilities originate. Finding out more about the LBV phase also means understanding massive stars better in general, which have (e.g. by enriching the ISM with heavy elements, providing ionising radiation and kinetic energy) a strong and significant influence on the ISM, hence also on their host galaxy. Methods: Photometric and spectroscopic data were taken for the LBV Var C in M 33 to investigate its recent status. In addition, scanned historic plates, archival data, and data from the literature were gathered to trace Var C's behaviour in the past. Its long-term variability and periodicity was investigated. Results: Our investigation of the variability indicates possible (semi-)periodic behaviour with a period of 42.3 years for Var C. That Var C's light curve covers a time span of more than 100 years means that more than two full periods of the cycle are visible. The critical historic maximum around 1905 is less strong but discernible even with the currently rare historic data. The semi-periodic and secular structure of the light curve is similar to the one of LMC R71. Both light curves hint at a new aspect in the evolution of LBVs. Based on observations collected at the Thüringer Landessternwarte (TLS) Tautenburg.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).Tables 2-4, and 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. A new steroidal saponin with antiinflammatory and antiulcerogenic properties from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    PubMed

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; da Silva, Bernadete Pereira; Parente, José Paz

    2011-12-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum var. porrumL. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and comparison of known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-6-[(β-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-spirostan-3-yl O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-galactopyranoside. Results of the present study indicated that the steroidal saponin showed haemolytic effects in the in vitro assays and demonstrated antiinflammatory activity and gastroprotective property using in vivo models.

  13. Experimental infection of almond trees seedlings (Terminalia catappa) with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C.

    PubMed

    Huérfano, S; Castañeda, A; Castañeda, E

    2001-09-01

    Recently, our laboratory reported the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C for the first time from almond trees (Terminalia catappa) detritus. The aim of the present study was to establish the survival of C. neoformans in almond trees seedlings. Thirty seedlings were infected in the stems and samples were taken and processed at different times and by different techniques. No morphological alterations (macro or microscopic) were observed in the infected plants. However, C. neoformans was found to be viable for at least 100 days after infection. These data constitute our first approach towards the understanding of the yeast interactions with a host-plant.

  14. Changes in the activity of the general amino acid permease from Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lglesias, R; Ferreras, J M; Arias, F J; Muñoz, R; Girbès, T

    1990-10-20

    The evolution of the activity of the general amino acid permease and ethanol and glucose concentrations in the medium were studied in a mild fermentation process carried out by a wine strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus isolated from grape musts in spontaneous fermentation. The cells displayed a reduction in the activity of the general amino acid permease parallel to the increase of ethanol in the medium. This ethanol increase was not enough to promote a substantial inhibition on the total polypeptide synthesis measured as polyuridylic-acid-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis.

  15. Lupenone isolated from Adenophora triphylla var. japonica extract inhibits adipogenic differentiation through the downregulation of PPARγ in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Joa Sub

    2013-05-01

    Adenophora triphylla var. japonica (Campanulaceae) is known to have anti-inflammatory and anti-tussive effects. Dysfunction of adipocytes and adipose tissue in obesity is related to various inflammatory cytokines or adipokines. In this study, we investigated whether lupenone isolated from A. triphylla var. japonica extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation and expression of adipogenic marker genes in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We demonstrated that lupenone resulted in a significant reduction in lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic marker genes in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, lupenone decreased the transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) induced by troglitazone, and we also demonstrated that lupenone suppressed the PPARγ and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) protein levels. These findings demonstrated that lupenone isolated from A. triphylla var. japonica extract effectively inhibited adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of related transcription factor, particularly the PPARγ gene.

  16. Diversity of entomopathogenic fungi near leaf-cutting ant nests in a neotropical forest, with particular reference to Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W O H; Thomsen, L; Eilenberg, J; Boomsma, J J

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi associated with leaf-cutting ant colonies in a small area of tropical forest in Panama. There was a high abundance of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae near the colonies. Beauveria bassiana was also detected in the soil, Aspergillus flavus in dump material, and six Camponotus atriceps ants were found infected with Cordyceps sp. Based on a partial sequence of the IGS region, almost all of the M. anisopliae var. anisopliae isolates fell within one of the three main clades of M. anisopliae var. anisopliae, but with there still being considerable diversity within this clade. The vast majority of leaf-cutting ants collected were not infected by any entomopathogenic fungi. While leaf-cutting ants at this site must, therefore, regularly come into contact with a diversity of entomopathogenic fungi, they do not appear to be normally infected by them.

  17. [Responses of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth to climate warming in Great Xing' an Mountins: a case study in Mangui].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xing-Liang; He, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Zhen-Ju; Cui, Ming-Xing; Li, Na

    2011-12-01

    Based on the theory and methodology of dendrochronology, the tree ring width chronology of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica in Mangui of Great Xing' an Mountains was developed, and the relationships between the standardized tree ring width chronology and local climate factors (temperature and precipitation) as well as the effects of climate factors on the P. sylvestris var. mongolica radial growth were analyzed. In this region, the mean monthly temperature in April-August of current year was the main factor limiting the radial growth, and the increasing mean monthly temperature from April to August had negative effects to the radial growth. The simulation of the variations of the radial growth by the mean monthly temperature change in April-August showed that the radial growth of P. sylvestris var. mongolica would present a declining trend accompanied with the warmer and drier regional climate condition.

  18. Chemical composition and phytotoxic effects of essential oils of Salvia hierosolymitana Boiss. and Salvia multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. growing wild in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice

    2009-11-19

    The chemical composition of the essential oils of S. hierosolymitana Boiss. and S. multicaulis Vahl. var. simplicifolia Boiss. collected in Lebanon was studied by means of GC and GC-MS analysis. In all 115 compounds were identified: 82 for S hierosolymitana and 72 for S. multicaulis var. simplicifolia. The presence of carbonylic compounds (17%) characterizes the oil from S. hierosolymitana,while S. multicaulis var. simplicifolia oil is rich of monoterpenes (34.5%) and sesquiterpenes (46.9%). The effects of the essential oils on germination and initial radical elongation of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) were studied, indicating in a different activity against radical elongation of the species tested.

  19. [Aspergillus galactomannan assay for the management of histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in HIV-infected patients: education from a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Therby, A; Polotzanu, O; Khau, D; Monnier, S; Greder Belan, A; Eloy, O

    2014-06-01

    The diagnosis of histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum is based on a direct examination identifying encapsulated yeast with narrow-based budding. Galactomannan antigenemia facilitates diagnosis, as well as the monitoring of patients receiving treatment. The case of a HIV-positive patient from Congo-Brazzaville with a disseminated form of African histoplasmosis highlighted the positive galactomannan antigen in this disease due to Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii. Galactomannan antigenemia remained high with a very slow decrease during antifungal therapy and slow regression of clinical lesions. African histoplasmosis is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose and rarely described in immunocompromised patients, in whom differential diagnosis can be common. This observation underlines the importance of the galactomannan antigen assay in patients who have travelled to endemic areas. As in the case of Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum, the positivity of the Aspergillus galactomannan antigen is very useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of African histoplasmosis.

  20. Argania spinosa var. mutica and var. apiculata: variation of fatty-acid composition, phenolic content, and antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities among varieties, organs, and development stages.

    PubMed

    El Adib, Saifeddine; Aissi, Oumayma; Charrouf, Zoubida; Ben Jeddi, Fayçal; Messaoud, Chokri

    2015-09-01

    Argania spinosa includes two varieties, var. apiculata and var. mutica. These argan varieties were introduced into Tunisia in ancient times and are actually cultivated in some botanic gardens. Little is known about the chemical differentiation among these argan varieties. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the fatty-acid composition, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of leaf, seed, and pulp extracts of both argan varieties harvested during the months of January to April. The fatty-acid distribution was found to depend on the argan variety, the plant organ, and the harvest time. Significant variations in the phenolic contents were observed between the investigated varieties as well as between leaves, pulps, and seeds of each variety. As expected, phenolic compounds were found to be contributors to the antioxidant and α-amylase-inhibitory activities of both argan varieties. The chemical differentiation observed among the two argan varieties, based mainly on the fatty-acid composition, might have some chemotaxonomic value.