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Son, Kwon Joong; Fahrenthold, Eric P.
The augmentation of high strength fabrics with non-Newtonian fluids has been suggested as a means for improving the ballistic performance of fragment barrier materials widely used in fan blade containment, body armor, orbital debris shielding, and other applications. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids have attracted particular interest, in view of their controllability and proven effectiveness in a variety of damping applications. In a basic research investigation of the MR fluid augmented fabric barrier concept, the authors have fabricated MR fluid saturated Kevlar targets and measured the ballistic performance of these targets both with and without an applied magnetic field. The experimental results show that magnetization of the MR fluid does, when considered in isolation, improve the ability of the augmented fabric to absorb impact energy. However, the benefits of plastic and viscous energy dissipation in the magnetized semi-solid are more than offset by the detrimental effects of yarn lubrication associated with the fluid’s hydrocarbon carrier. An analytical model developed to assist in the interpretation of the experimental data suggests that frictional interaction of the yarns is significantly more effective than magnetorheological augmentation of the fabric in distributing projectile loads away from the point of impact.
Joyce-Brady, Martin; Hiratake, Jun
Glutathione is abundant in the lining fluid that bathes the gas exchange surface of the lung. On the one hand glutathione in this extracellular pool functions in antioxidant defense to protect cells and proteins in the alveolar space from oxidant injury; on the other hand, it functions as a source of cysteine to maintain cellular glutathione and protein synthesis. These seemingly opposing functions are regulated through metabolism by gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, EC 18.104.22.168). Even under normal physiologic conditions, lung lining fluid (LLF) contains a concentrated pool of GGT activity exceeding that of whole lung by about 7-fold and indicating increased turnover of glutathione at the epithelial surface of the lung. With oxidant stress LLF GGT activity is amplified even further as glutathione turnover is accelerated to meet the increased demands of cells for cysteine. Mouse models of GGT deficiency confirmed this biological role of LLF GGT activity and revealed the robust expansiveness and antioxidant capacity of the LLF glutathione pool in the absence of metabolism. Acivicin, an irreversible inhibitor of GGT, can be utilized to augment LLF fluid glutathione content in normal mice and novel GGT inhibitors have now been defined that provide advantages over acivicin. Inhibiting LLF GGT activity is a novel strategy to selectively augment the extracellular LLF glutathione pool. The enhanced antioxidant capacity can maintain lung epithelial cell integrity and barrier function under oxidant stress.
Li, A.; Instrella, R.; Chirayath, V.
Recently, there has been increased interest in monitoring the effects of climate change upon the world's marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. These delicate ecosystems are especially threatened due to their sensitivity to ocean warming and acidification, leading to unprecedented levels of coral bleaching and die-off in recent years. However, current global aquatic remote sensing datasets are unable to quantify changes in marine ecosystems at spatial and temporal scales relevant to their growth. In this project, we employ various supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms to augment existing datasets from NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS), using high resolution airborne imagery. This method utilizes NASA's ongoing airborne campaigns as well as its spaceborne assets to collect remote sensing data over these afflicted regions, and employs Fluid Lensing algorithms to resolve optical distortions caused by the fluid surface, producing cm-scale resolution imagery of these diverse ecosystems from airborne platforms. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and K-mean clustering methods were applied to satellite imagery at 0.5m resolution, producing segmented maps classifying coral based on percent cover and morphology. Compared to a previous study using multidimensional maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to separate these features in high resolution airborne datasets, SVMs are able to achieve above 75% accuracy when augmented with existing MAP estimates, while unsupervised methods such as K-means achieve roughly 68% accuracy, verified by manually segmented reference data provided by a marine biologist. This effort thus has broad applications for coastal remote sensing, by helping marine biologists quantify behavioral trends spanning large areas and over longer timescales, and to assess the health of coral reefs worldwide.
McCarthy, P L; Grundy, G W; Spiesel, S Z; Dolan, T F
In a 20-month period, 1,783 children seen in the pediatric outpatient department had blood cultures performed and 117 (6.5%) of these children had bacteremia. Two thirds of the isolates were Diplococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae b. Ninety-three percent of children with H. influenzae b bacteremia and 20% of children with pneumococcal bacteremia had soft tissue involvement at the initial visit. Most children with positive blood cultures (102) were previously well and beyond the newborn period and many (46) had seemingly trivial illnesses initially: upper respiratory tract infection, fever of unknown origin, otitis media, and diarrhea. In the absence of soft tissue infection, the latter three diagnoses correlated best with bloodstream invasion. Nineteen children had persistent bacteremia and five developed soft tissue complications not noted initially. Two factors, age between 7 and 24 months and temperature between 39.4 and 40.6 C, showed increased specificity for bacteremia but were sensitive only for pneumococcal disease. A temperature larger than or equal to 40.5 C showed more specificity for bacteremia than lesser fevers. A white blood cell count greater than 20,000/cu mm was poorly sensitive, and pulmonary infiltrates were neither specific nor sensitive for positive blood cultures. Five bacteremic children had aseptic lymphocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid. Two days of intravenous antibiotic therapy and eight days of oral therapy were adequate for pneumococcal bacteremia without soft tissue involvement. This therapy may not be without soft tissue involvement. This therapy may not be ideal, however, since other routes and duration of therapy were not evaluated.
Di Bernardo, Julie; Maiden, Michael M; Hershenson, Marc B; Kunisaki, Shaun M
Recent experimental work suggests the therapeutic role of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) during lung morphogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential paracrine effects of amniotic fluid-derived MSCs (AF-MSCs) on fetal lung growth in a nitrofen explant model. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley dams were gavage fed nitrofen on gestational day 9.5 (E9.5). E14.5 lung explants were subsequently harvested and cultured ex vivo for three days on filter membranes in conditioned media from rat AF-MSCs isolated from control (AF-Ctr) or nitrofen-exposed (AF-Nitro) dams. The lungs were analyzed morphometrically and by quantitative gene expression. Although there were no significant differences in total lung surface area among hypoplastic lungs, there were significant increases in terminal budding among E14.5+3 nitrofen explants exposed to AF-Ctr compared to explants exposed to medium alone (58.8±8.4 vs. 39.0±10.0 terminal buds, respectively; p<0.05). In contrast, lungs cultured in AF-Nitro medium failed to augment terminal budding. Nitrofen explants exposed to AF-Ctr showed significant upregulation of surfactant protein C to levels observed in normal fetal lungs. AF-MSCs can augment branching morphogenesis and lung epithelial maturation in a fetal explant model of pulmonary hypoplasia. Cell therapy using donor-derived AF-MSCs may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of fetal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skarmoutsos, Ioannis; Samios, Jannis
The local density inhomogeneities in neat supercritical fluids were investigated via canonical molecular dynamics simulations. The selected systems under investigation were the polar and hydrogen-bonded fluid methanol as well as the quadrupolar non-hydrogen-bonded carbon dioxide one. Effective local densities, local density augmentation, and enhancement factors were calculated at state points along an isotherm close to the critical temperature of each system (T(r)=1.03). The results obtained reveal strong influence of the polarity and hydrogen bonding upon the intensity of the local density augmentation. It is found that this effect is sufficiently larger in the case of the polar and associated methanol in comparison to those predicted for carbon dioxide. For both fluids the local density augmentation values are maximized in the bulk density region near 0.7rho(c), a result that is in agreement with experiment. In addition, the local density dynamics of each fluid were investigated in terms of the appropriate time correlation functions. The behavior of these functions reveals that the bulk density dependence of the local density reorganization times is very sensitive to the specific intermolecular interactions and to the size of the local region. Also, the estimated local density reorganization time as a function of bulk density of each fluid was further analyzed and successfully related to two different time-scale relaxation mechanisms. Finally, the results obtained indicate a possible relationship between the single-molecule reorientational dynamics and the local density reorganization ones.
Ngatu, Grum T.
Most advanced helicopter rotors are typically fitted with lag dampers, such as elastomeric or hybrid fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag dampers, which have lower parts counts, are lighter in weight, easier to maintain, and more reliable than conventional hydraulic dampers. However, the damping and stiffness properties of elastomeric and fluid elastomeric lag dampers are non-linear functions of lag/rev frequency, dynamic lag amplitude, and operating temperature. It has been shown that elastomeric damping and stiffness levels diminish markedly as amplitude of damper motion increases. Further, passive dampers tend to present severe damping losses as damper operating temperature increases either due to in-service self-heating or hot atmospheric conditions. Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have also been considered for application to helicopter rotor lag dampers to mitigate amplitude and frequency dependent damping behaviors. MR dampers present a controllable damping with little or no stiffness. Conventional MR dampers are similar in configuration to linear stroke hydraulic type dampers, which are heavier, occupy a larger space envelope, and are unidirectional. Hydraulic type dampers require dynamic seal to prevent leakage, and consequently, frequent inspections and maintenance are necessary to ensure the reliability of these dampers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of combining the simplicity and reliability of FE and smart MR technologies in augmenting helicopter lag mode stability, an adaptive magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) lag damper is developed in this thesis as a retrofit to an actual fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag damper. Consistent with the loading condition of a helicopter rotor system, single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev at 1/rev) sinusoidal loading were applied to the MRFE damper at varying temperature conditions. The complex modulus method was employed to linearly characterize and compare the performance of the MRFE damper with the
Wiberg-Itzel, Eva; Pembe, Andrea B; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Norman, Margareta; Wihlbäck, Anna-Carin; Hoesli, Irene; Todesco Bernasconi, Monya; Azria, Elie; Åkerud, Helena; Darj, Elisabet
One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries. A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study. AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l) or low (< 10.1mmol/l) AFL values was 39.0% (95% CI; 27-50), specificity 90.3% (95% CI; 87-93) PPV 37.3% (95% CI; 27-48) and NPV was 91.0% (95% CI; 88-93). The overall percentage of correct predictions of delivery outcome when the AFL level was used was 83.7%. Deliveries with a high AFL-level correlated with delivery time >12h (p = 0.04), post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01) and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04). The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications.
Pembe, Andrea B.; Järnbert-Pettersson, Hans; Norman, Margareta; Wihlbäck, Anna-Carin; Hoesli, Irene; Todesco Bernasconi, Monya; Azria, Elie; Åkerud, Helena; Darj, Elisabet
Background One of the major complications related to delivery is labor dystocia, or an arrested labor progress. Many dystocic deliveries end vaginally after administration of oxytocin, but a large numbers of women with labor dystocia will undergo a long and unsafe parturition. As a result of the exertion required in labor, the uterus produces lactate. The uterine production of lactate is mirrored by the level of lactate in amniotic fluid (AFL). Objectives To evaluate whether the level of AFL, analysed in a sample of amniotic fluid collected vaginally at arrested labor when oxytocin was needed, could predict labor outcome in nulliparous deliveries. Methods A prospective multicentre study including 3000 healthy primiparous women all with a singleton pregnancy, gestational age 37 to 42 weeks and no maternal /fetal chronic and/or pregnancy-related conditions. A spontaneous onset of labor, regular contractions and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were required before the women were invited to take part in the study. Results AFL, analysed within 30 minutes before augmentation, provides information about delivery outcome. Sensitivity for an acute cesarean section according to high (≥10.1mmol/l) or low (< 10.1mmol/l) AFL values was 39.0% (95% CI; 27–50), specificity 90.3% (95% CI; 87–93) PPV 37.3% (95% CI; 27–48) and NPV was 91.0% (95% CI; 88–93). The overall percentage of correct predictions of delivery outcome when the AFL level was used was 83.7%. Deliveries with a high AFL-level correlated with delivery time >12h (p = 0.04), post-partum fever (>38°C, p = 0.01) and post-partum haemorrhage >1.5L (p = 0.04). Conclusion The AFL is a good predictor of delivery outcome in arrested nulliparous deliveries. Low levels of AFL may support the decision to continue a prolonged vaginal labor by augmentation with oxytocin. A high level of AFL correlates with operative interventions and post-partum complications. PMID:27783611
Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D
Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828
Suzuki, Masashi; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Horita, Shoko; Seki, George; Moriya, Kyoji
Infection is a common complication and is the second leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. The risk of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients is 26-fold higher than in the general population, and 1/2-3/4 of the causative organisms of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients are Gram-positive bacteria. The ratio of resistant bacteria in hemodialysis patients compared to the general population is unclear. Several reports have indicated that hemodialysis patients have a higher risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection. The most common site of infection causing bacteremia is internal prostheses; the use of a hemodialysis catheter is the most important risk factor for bacteremia. Although antibiotic lock of hemodialysis catheters and topical antibiotic ointment can reduce catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI), their use should be limited to necessary cases because of the emergence of resistant organisms. Systemic antibiotic administration and catheter removal is recommended for treating CRBSI, although a study indicated the advantages of antibiotic lock and guidewire exchange of catheters over systemic antibiotic therapy. An infection control bundle recommended by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention succeeded in reducing bacteremia in hemodialysis patients with either a catheter or arteriovenous fistula. Appropriate infection control can reduce bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27872830
Anumolu, Lakshman; Ryddner, Douglas; Trujillo, Mario
Recent numerical methods for implicit interface transport are generally presented as enjoying higher order of spatial-temporal convergence when compared to classical methods or less sophisticated approaches. However, when applied to test cases, which are designed to simulate practical industrial conditions, significant reduction in convergence is observed in higher-order methods, whereas for the less sophisticated approaches same convergence is achieved but a growth in the error norms occurs. This provides an opportunity to understand the underlying issues which causes this decrease in accuracy in both types of methods. As an example we consider the Gradient Augmented Level Set method (GALS) and a variant of the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method in our study. Results show that while both methods do suffer from a loss of accuracy, it is the higher order method that suffers more. The implication is a significant reduction in the performance advantage of the GALS method over the VoF scheme. Reasons for this lie in the behavior of the higher order derivatives, particular in situations where the level set field is highly distorted. For the VoF approach, serious spurious deformations of the interface are observed, albeit with a deceptive zero loss of mass.
Hood, R. Lyle; Ecker, Tobias; Andriani, Rudy; Robertson, John; Rossmeisl, John; Rylander, Christopher G.
This paper describes a new infusion catheter, based on our fiberoptic microneedle device (FMD), designed with the objective of photothermally augmenting the volumetric dispersal of infused therapeutics. We hypothesize that concurrent delivery of laser energy, causing mild localized photothermal heating (4-5 °C), will increase the spatial dispersal of infused chemotherapy over a long infusion period. Agarose brain phantoms, which mimic the brain's mechanical and fluid conduction properties, were constructed from 0.6 wt% Agarose in aqueous solution. FMDs were fabricated by adhering a multimode fiberoptic to a silica capillary tube, such that their flat-polished tips co-terminated. Continuous wave 1064 nm light was delivered simultaneously with FD&C Blue #2 (5%) dye into phantoms. Preliminary experiments, where co-delivery was tested against fluid delivery alone (through symmetrical infusions into in vivo rodent models), were also conducted. In the Agarose phantoms, volumetric dispersal was demonstrated to increase by more than 3-fold over a four-hour infusion time frame for co-delivery relative to infusion-only controls. Both forward and backward (reflux) infusions were also observed to increase slightly. Increased volumetric dispersal was demonstrated with co-delivery in an in vivo rodent model. Photothermal augmentation of infusion was demonstrated to influence the directionality and increase the volume of dye dispersal in Agarose brain phantoms. With further development, FMDs may enable a greater distribution of chemotherapeutic agents during CED therapy of brain tumors.
Nishiyama, Akira; Seth, Dale M; Navar, L Gabriel
Angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension is associated with augmented intrarenal concentrations of Ang II; however, the distribution of the increased intrarenal Ang II has not been fully established. To determine the changes in renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations in Ang II-induced hypertension and the consequences of treatment with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker. Rats were selected to receive vehicle (5% acetic acid subcutaneously; n = 6), Ang II (80 ng/min subcutaneously, via osmotic minipump; n = 7) or Ang II plus an AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan cilexetil (10 mg/kg per day, in drinking water; n = 6) for 13-14 days, at which time, experiments were performed on anesthetized rats. Microdialysis probes were implanted in the renal cortex and were perfused at 2 microl/min. The effluent dialysate concentrations of Ang I and Ang II were measured by radioimmunoassay and reported values were corrected for the equilibrium rates at this perfusion rate. Ang II-infused rats developed greater mean arterial pressures (155 +/- 7 mmHg) than vehicle-infused rats (108 +/- 3 mmHg). Ang II-infused rats showed greater plasma (181 +/- 30 fmol/ml) and kidney (330 +/- 38 fmol/g) Ang II concentrations than vehicle-infused rats (98 +/- 14 fmol/ml and 157 +/- 22 fmol/g, respectively). Renal interstitial fluid Ang II concentrations were much greater than plasma concentrations, averaging 5.74 +/- 0.26 pmol/ml in Ang II-infused rats - significantly greater than those in vehicle-infused rats (2.86 +/- 0.23 pmol/ml). Candesartan treatment prevented the hypertension (87 +/- 3 mmHg) and led to increased plasma Ang II concentrations (441 +/- 27 fmol/ml), but prevented increases in kidney (120 +/- 15 fmol/g) and renal interstitial fluid (2.15 +/- 0.12 pmol/ml) Ang II concentrations. These data indicate that Ang II-infused rats develop increased renal interstitial fluid concentrations of Ang II, which may contribute to the increased vascular resistance and
Khaled, A-R A
Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost.
Khaled, A.-R. A.
Enhancement of heat transfers in counterflow plate heat exchanger due to presence of an intermediate auxiliary fluid flow is investigated. The intermediate auxiliary channel is supported by transverse conducting pins. The momentum and energy equations for the primary fluids are solved numerically and validated against a derived approximate analytical solution. A parametric study including the effect of the various plate heat exchanger, and auxiliary channel dimensionless parameters is conducted. Different enhancement performance indicators are computed. The various trends of parameters that can better enhance heat transfer rates above those for the conventional plate heat exchanger are identified. Large enhancement factors are obtained under fully developed flow conditions. The maximum enhancement factors can be increased by above 8.0- and 5.0-fold for the step and exponential distributions of the pins, respectively. Finally, counterflow plate heat exchangers with auxiliary fluid flows are recommended over the typical ones if these flows can be provided with the least cost. PMID:24719572
Dash, R K; Jayaraman, G; Mehta, K N
The unsteady dispersion of a solute in a Casson fluid flowing in a conduit (pipe/channel) is studied using the generalized dispersion model of Gill and Sankarasubramanian. With this approach, the entire dispersion process is described appropriately in terms of a simple diffusion process with the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of time, in addition to its dependence on the yield stress of the fluid. The results are accurate up to a first approximation for small times, but verified with Sharp to be exact for large times. The model brings out mainly the effect of yield stress, or equivalently, the plug flow region on the overall dispersion process. It is found that the rate of dispersion is reduced (i.e., the effective diffusivity decreases) due to the yield stress of the fluid, or equivalently, the plug flow region in the conduit. Also, the effective diffusivity increases with time, but eventually attains its steady state value below a critical time [0.48(a2/Dm) for dispersion in a pipe and 0.55(a2/Dm) for dispersion in a channel-the critical transient time for a Newtonian fluid-where "a" is the radius of the pipe and Dm is the molecular diffusivity]. At steady state, for dispersion in a pipe with the plug flow radius one tenth of the radius of the pipe, the effective diffusivity is reduced to about 0.78 times of the corresponding value for a Newtonian fluid at equivalent flow rates; for dispersion in a channel, the reduction factor is about 0.73 confirming the earlier result of Sharp. Further, the location of the center of mass of a passive species over a cross section is found to remain unperturbed during the course of dispersion and for different values of the plug flow parameter (i.e., the yield stress of the fluid). The study can be used as a starting first approximate solution for studying the dispersion in the cardiovascular system or blood oxygenators.
Magneto-rheological Fluid (MRF) iron nano-particles were synthesized using the reverse micelle technique and coated with poly(NIPAAm). The size...distribution of the nano iron particles was characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The particle size was 730nm, and the Tg of the coating was...characterized using DSC. The 80 wt.% MRF based on phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and iron particles was characterized using the shear rheometer in the
particles are surface coated using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with various polymers, such as poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm...and poly(acrylamide) (poly(AAm)). The surface grafted polymer has been characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and properties of...resulting fluid has been measured using a rheometer. A mathematical model is developed to explore the behavior of iron particles injected into
Jensen, Allan Garlik
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is still associated with a high mortality, and knowledge on risk factors and the clinical and the therapeutic aspects of SAB is still limited. This thesis focuses on the clinical aspects of SAB and its metastatic infections. In a study of all patients with bacteremia in Copenhagen County October 1992 through April 1993 (study I) we emphasized previous findings, that S. aureus is one of the most frequent pathogens in bacteremia, and in a case control study also in Copenhagen County 1994-95 (study II) we demonstrated, that not only an inserted central venous catheter and nasal S. aureus carriage but also hyponatremia and anemia are important risk factors for hospital-acquired SAB (study II). Studies on the treatment of SAB have pointed out, that the eradication of a primary is important, but there are only limited clinical studies dealing with antibiotic treatment. By logistic regression analysis, we were able to demonstrate that focus eradication is essential, but also that treatment with dicloxacillin 1 g x 4 or 2 g x 3 are superior to 1 g x 3 (studie III), indicating that the time for serum concentration above the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) for the bacteria plays a role in the outcome of SAB treatment. S. aureus osteomyelitis secondary to SAB is frequently observed. No other countries, however, have a centralized registration, which make it possible to evaluate a large number of these patients. Since 1960, The Staphylococcal Laboratory, Statens Serum Institut in Copenhagen, has registrated selected clinical informations from nearly all patients with positive blood cultures of S. aureus. Based on this registration, we were able to show an increased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis among older patients and a decreased number of S. aureus osteomyelitis of femur and tibia among younger infants in the period 1980-90 (study IV). By reviewing the records of a large number of patients with vertebral S. aureus
Sasahara, T; Hayashi, S; Morisawa, Y; Sakihama, T; Yoshimura, A; Hirai, Y
We describe an outbreak of Bacillus cereus bacteremia that occurred at Jichi Medical University Hospital in 2006. This study aimed to identify the source of this outbreak and to implement appropriate control measures. We reviewed the charts of patients with blood cultures positive for B. cereus, and investigated B. cereus contamination within the hospital environment. Genetic relationships among B. cereus isolates were analyzed. Eleven patients developed B. cereus bacteremia between January and August 2006. The hospital linens and the washing machine were highly contaminated with B. cereus, which was also isolated from the intravenous fluid. All of the contaminated linens were autoclaved, the washing machine was cleaned with a detergent, and hand hygiene was promoted among the hospital staff. The number of patients per month that developed new B. cereus bacteremia rapidly decreased after implementing these measures. The source of this outbreak was B. cereus contamination of hospital linens, and B. cereus was transmitted from the linens to patients via catheter infection. Our findings demonstrated that bacterial contamination of hospital linens can cause nosocomial bacteremia. Thus, blood cultures that are positive for B. cereus should not be regarded as false positives in the clinical setting.
Zhang, Cecelia; Manninen, Katja; Touchberry, Joanne; Greene, Shermalyn R.; Holland, Thomas L.
Kerstersia spp. are an unusual cause of human infections. We report the first known case of bacteremia and sepsis due to Kerstersia gyiorum, in a patient with chronic lower-extremity ulcers, and we review the literature on this uncommon pathogen. PMID:25809974
Min, Jeong Jin; Kim, Tae Kyong; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Park, Jiyeon; Cho, Hyun Sung; Kim, Wook Sung; Lee, Young Tak
Pulse pressure variation (PPV) is a well known dynamic preload indicator of fluid responsiveness. However, its usefulness in open-chest conditions remains controversial. We evaluated whether augmented PPV during a Valsalva manoeuvre can predict fluid responsiveness after sternotomy. A prospective, observational study. Single-centre trial, study period from October 2014 to June 2015. Forty-nine adult patients who underwent off-pump coronary arterial bypass grafting. After midline sternotomy, haemodynamic parameters were measured before and after volume expansion (6 ml kg of crystalloids). PPV was calculated both automatically (PPVauto) and manually (PPVmanual). For PPV augmentation, we performed Valsalva manoeuvres with manual holding of the rebreathing bag and constant airway pressure of 30 cmH2O for 10 s before fluid loading and calculated PPV during the Valsalva manoeuvre (PPVVM). The predictive ability of PPVVM for fluid responsiveness using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. Responders were identified when an increase in cardiac index of at least 12% occurred after fluid loading. Twenty-one patients were responders and 28 were nonresponders. PPVVM successfully predicted fluid responsiveness with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.75 to 0.95; sensitivity 91%, specificity 79%, P < 0.0001] and a threshold value of 55%. Baseline PPVauto and PPVmanual also predicted fluid responsiveness [AUC 0.75 (0.62 to 0.88); sensitivity 79%, specificity 75%; and 0.76 (0.61 to 0.87]; sensitivity 71%, specificity 71%, respectively). However, only PPVVM showed a significant AUC-difference from that of central venous pressure (P = 0.008) and correlated with the change of cardiac index induced by volume expansion (r = 0.6, P < 0.001). Augmented PPV using a Valsalva manoeuvre can be used as a clinically reliable predictor of fluid responsiveness under open-chest condition. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT
Bellomo, Rinaldo; Cass, Alan; Cole, Louise; Finfer, Simon; Gallagher, Martin; Lee, Joanne; Lo, Serigne; McArthur, Colin; McGuiness, Shay; Norton, Robyn; Myburgh, John; Scheinkestel, Carlos; Su, Steve
To examine associations between mean daily fluid balance during intensive care unit study enrollment and clinical outcomes in patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal vs. Augmented Level (RENAL) replacement therapy study. Statistical analysis of data from multicenter, randomized, controlled trials. Thirty-five intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1453 patients enrolled in the RENAL study. We analyzed the association between daily fluid balance on clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression, Cox proportional hazards, time-dependent analysis, and repeated measure analysis models. During intensive care unit stay, mean daily fluid balance among survivors was -234 mL/day compared with +560 mL/day among nonsurvivors (p < .0001). Mean cumulative fluid balance over the same period was -1941 vs. +1755 mL (p = .0003). A negative mean daily fluid balance during study treatment was independently associated with a decreased risk of death at 90 days (odds ratio 0.318; 95% confidence interval 0.24-0.43; p < .000.1) and with increased survival time (p < .0001). In addition, a negative mean daily fluid balance was associated with significantly increased renal replacement-free days (p = .0017), intensive care unit-free days (p < .0001), and hospital-free days (p = .01). These findings were unaltered after the application of different statistical models. In the RENAL study, a negative mean daily fluid balance was consistently associated with improved clinical outcomes. Fluid balance may be a target for specific manipulation in future interventional trials of critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy.
Lee, Byung Kook; Jeung, Kyung Woon; Lee, Seung Cheol; Min, Yong Il; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Kim, Mu Jin; Lee, Hyoung Youn; Heo, Tag
This study was undertaken to determine how rapidly refrigerated fluids gain heat during bolus infusion and to determine whether the refrigerated fluids could be kept cold by a simple cold-insulation method. One liter of refrigerated fluid was run through either a 16-gauge catheter (16G(-) and 16G(+) groups) or an 18-gauge catheter (18G(-) and 18G(+) groups) while monitoring the temperature in the fluid bag and the outflow site. In the 16G(+) and the 18G(+) groups, the fluid bag was placed with an ice pack inside an insulating sleeve during the fluid run. In the 16G(-) and the 18G(-) groups, the outflow temperature increased to 10-12 degrees C during the fluid run. Meanwhile, outflow temperatures in the 16G(+) and the 18G(+) groups remained below 4.6 and 6.8 degrees C, respectively. The temperatures differed significantly between the 16G(-) and the 16G(+) groups (p < 0.001) and between the 18G(-) and the 18G(+) groups (p < 0.001), respectively. Substantial heat gain occurred in the refrigerated fluid even during the relatively short duration of bolus infusion. The heat gain could, however, be easily minimized by cold insulation of the fluid bag. (c) 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Aubin, Guillaume Ghislain; Haloun, Alain; Treilhaud, Michèle; Reynaud, Alain
We describe the first case of bacteremia due to Gallibacterium anatis. The patient, a 26-year-old woman, developed bacteremia and diarrhea. The origin of infection was possibly due to a diet contaminated by G. anatis in this highly immunocompromised patient. PMID:23966514
Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd
Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. PMID:25071002
Wang, I-Kuan; Chang, Yi-Chih; Liang, Chih-Chia; Chuang, Feng-Rong; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Chung-Chih; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Po-Chang; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Chen; Chen, Jin-Hua
To analyze the incidence rates and risk factors for bacteremia in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). The records of 898 consecutive patients undergoing dialysis from January 2003 to December 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Episodes of bacteremia were recorded. China Medical University (Taichung, Taiwan). The overall incidence rate of bacteremia was 7.63 per 100 patient-years in HD patients and 3.56 per 100 patient-years in PD patients and it was higher in HD patients each year from 2003 to 2008. S. aureus (27.53%) was the most common pathogen in HD patients, whereas Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (21.3%) was the most common pathogen in PD patients. Vascular access infection was the most common etiology in HD patients, whereas peritonitis was the most common etiology in PD patients. Older age, shorter dialysis vintage, use of HD rather than PD, current smoker, use of a venous dialysis catheter, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher comorbidity score, and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia. Diabetes mellitus and lower serum albumin were significant risk factors for bacteremia-associated mortality. Placement of a permanent access (fistula, graft, or PD catheter) prior to initiation of dialysis, smoking cessation, and better nutritional status (i.e. higher serum albumin) were associated with a reduced risk of bacteremia in dialysis patients. Higher serum albumin was also associated with a reduced bacteremia-associated mortality.
Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Kan; Otsuka, Fumio
We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. The patient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. A literature review in MEDLINE showed that there have been only 8 previously reported cases of A. turicensis bacteremia. This infection frequently occurs in patients with visceral abscesses, and blood culture examinations usually reveal a polymicrobial pattern. However, the prognosis of such patients has been reported to generally be benign. Due to difficulties in performing bacterial identification and the wide-spectrum clinical pictures associated with this bacteremia, no comprehensive understanding of the clinical features of each Actinomyces species has yet been established.
Gazmuri, Raúl J; Whitehouse, Kasen; Whittinghill, Karla; Baetiong, Alvin; Shah, Kruti; Radhakrishnan, Jeejabai
Current management of hemorrhagic shock favors restrictive fluid resuscitation before control of the bleeding source. We investigated the additional effects of early and sustained vasopressin infusion in a swine model of hemorrhagic shock produced by liver laceration. Forty male domestic pigs (32-40 kg) had a liver laceration inflicted with an X-shaped blade clamp, 32 received a second laceration at minute 7.5, and 24 received two additional lacerations at minute 15. Using a two-by-two factorial design, animals were randomized 1:1 to receive vasopressin infusion (0.04 U/kg per minute) or vehicle intraosseously from minute 7 until minute 240 and 1:1 to receive isotonic sodium chloride solution (12 mL/kg) intravenously at minute 30 or no fluids. Kaplan-Meier curves showed greater survival after vasopressin with isotonic sodium chloride solution (8/10) compared to vasopressin without isotonic sodium chloride solution (4/10), vehicle with isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), or vehicle without isotonic sodium chloride solution (3/10), but the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.095 by log-rank test). However, logistic regression showed vasopressin to elicit a statistically significant benefit on survival (p = 0.042). Vasopressin augmented mean aortic pressure between 10 and 20 mm Hg without intensifying the rate of bleeding from liver laceration, which was virtually identical to that of vehicle-treated animals (33.9 ± 5.1 and 33.8 ± 4.8 mL/kg). Vasopressin increased systemic vascular resistance and reduced transcapillary fluid extravasation, augmenting the volume of isotonic sodium chloride solution retained (6.5 ± 2.7 vs 2.4 ± 2.0 mL/kg by minute 60). The cardiac output and blood flow to the myocardium, liver, spleen, kidney, small bowel, and skeletal muscle at minute 120 and minute 180 were comparable or higher in the vasopressin group. Early and sustained vasopressin infusion provided critical hemodynamic stability during hemorrhagic shock
Gold, H S; Karchmer, A W
The majority of cases of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia are hospital-acquired, and most are associated with infected intravenous catheters. Preventive measures, early detection of infections, and strategies for effective treatment have become matters of increasing urgency.
Lessard, R. D.; Giramonti, A. J.; Merrick, D.
This paper presents highlights of an ongoing study program to assess the technical and economic feasibility of advanced concepts for generating peak-load electric power from a compressed air energy storage (CAES) power plant incorporating a coal-fired fluid bed combustor (FBC). It reviews the analyses performed to select an FBC/CAES power plant system configuration for the subsequent conceptual design phase of the study. Included in this review are: the design and operating considerations involved with integrating either an atmospheric or a pressurized fluid bed combustor with a CAES system to yield practical system configurations; the integration of system configurations; the parametric performance of these system configurations; and the preliminary screening which considered performance, cost, and technical risk and led to the identification of an open-bed PFBC/CAES system as having the greatest near-term commercialization potential.
Were, T.; Davenport, G. C.; Hittner, J. B.; Ouma, C.; Vulule, J. M.; Ong'echa, J. M.; Perkins, D. J.
Since the etiologies and clinical outcomes of bacteremia in children with Plasmodium falciparum infections, particularly in areas of holoendemic malaria transmission, are largely unexplored, blood cultures and comprehensive clinical, laboratory, hematological, and nutritional parameters for malaria-infected children (aged 1 to 36 months, n = 585 patients) were investigated at a rural hospital in western Kenya. After the exclusion of contaminant microorganisms, the prevalence of bacteremia was 11.7% in the cohort (n = 506), with nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. being the most common isolates (42.4%). Bacteremia was found to occur in a significantly higher proportion of females than males and was associated with elevated blood glucose concentrations and lowered malaria parasite and hemoglobin (Hb) levels compared to those in abacteremic participants. In addition, the incidences of respiratory distress and severe malarial anemia (SMA; Hb level of <6.0g/dl) were nonsignificantly greater in children with bacteremia. Mortality was 8.5-fold higher in children with bacteremia. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that bacteremia was significantly associated with reduced incidences of high-density parasitemia (HDP; ≥10,000/μl) and increased incidences of malnutrition (i.e., underweight; weight-for-age Z score of <−2 using the NCHS system). Since previous studies showed that bacteremia caused by Gram-negative organisms is associated with enhanced anemia and mortality, multivariate logistic regression was also performed separately for randomly age- and gender-matched children with bacteremia caused by Gram-negative organisms (n = 37) and for children found to be abacteremic (n = 74). These results revealed that the presence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative organisms was significantly associated with reduced HDP, enhanced susceptibility to respiratory distress, SMA (Hb level of <6.0 g/dl), and being underweight (Z score, <−2). Data presented here from a
Mikals, Kyle; Masel, Jennifer; Gleeson, Todd
Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is a rare human infection that occurs almost exclusively in the setting of advanced age, immunosuppression, human immunodeficiency virus infection, alcoholism, or recent gastrointestinal surgery. This report of C. fetus bacteremia in a 39-year-old immunocompetent traveler who ate raw beef identifies C. fetus as a potential emerging pathogen in normal hosts. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Carvalho, Werther Brunow de
To summarize the main clinical entities associated with fever without source (FWS) in infants, as well as the clinical management of children with occult bacteremia, emphasizing laboratory tests and empirical antibiotics. A non-systematic review was conducted in the following databases--PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO, between 2006 and 2015. The prevalence of occult bacteremia has been decreasing dramatically in the past few years, due to conjugated vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Additionally, fewer requests for complete blood count and blood cultures have been made for children older than 3 months presenting with FWS. Urinary tract infection is the most prevalent bacterial infection in children with FWS. Some known algorithms, such as Boston and Rochester, can guide the initial risk stratification for occult bacteremia in febrile infants younger than 3 months. There is no single algorithm to estimate the risk of occult bacteremia in febrile infants, but pediatricians should strongly consider outpatient management in fully vaccinated infants older than 3 months with FWS and good general status. Updated data about the incidence of occult bacteremia in this environment after conjugated vaccination are needed. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Hung, C C; Chang, S C; Chen, Y C; Hsieh, W C; Luh, K T
Listeria monocytogenes has been recognized as an important pathogen in immunocompromised patients, but it has been rarely reported in Taiwan. We reviewed 13 cases of L. monocytogenes bacteremia at National Taiwan University Hospital over a 12-year period. All of the patients had underlying diseases. Fever was the most common presenting symptom, and neurologic signs were found in 6 patients. Most of the patients received penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin with an aminoglycoside. Corticosteroids were used in 9 of 13 patients. The overall mortality directly due to L. monocytogenes bacteremia was 31%. However, patients treated with cephalosporins or oxacillin had higher mortality than those treated with penicillin G, ampicillin or piperacillin (p = 0.05). Given the increasing number of immunosuppressed patients in Taiwan, it is likely that more cases will be encountered. Physicians in Taiwan should be aware of L. monocytogenes bacteremia and its treatment.
Brouqui, P; Lascola, B; Roux, V; Raoult, D
Infection with Bartonella quintana can cause trench fever, endocarditis, bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis. An outbreak of bacteremia due to B. quintana has been reported among homeless people in Seattle, and the seroprevalence is high among homeless people in both the United States and Europe. Body lice are known to be the vectors of B. quintana. We studied all the homeless people who presented in 1997 to the emergency departments of the University Hospital, Marseilles, France. Blood was collected for microimmunofluorescence testing for antibodies against B. quintana and for culture of the bacterium. Body lice were collected and analyzed by the polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of a portion of the citrate synthase gene of B. quintana. In 10 of 71 homeless patients (14 percent), blood cultures were positive for B. quintana, and 21 of the patients (30 percent) had high titers of antibody against the organism. A total of 17 patients (24 percent) had evidence of recent infection (bacteremia or seroconversion). Tests of lice from 3 of the 15 patients from whom they were collected were positive for B. quintana. The homeless people with B. quintana bacteremia were more likely to have been exposed to lice (P=0.002), were more likely to have headaches (P=0.03) and severe leg pain (P<0.001), and had lower platelet counts (P=0.006) than the homeless people who were seronegative for B. quintana and did not have bacteremia; 8 of the 10 patients with bacteremia were afebrile. Five patients had chronic bacteremia, as indicated by positive blood cultures over a period of several weeks. In an outbreak of urban trench fever among homeless people in Marseilles, B. quintana infections were associated with body lice in patients with nonspecific symptoms or no symptoms.
Robert, J; Moreno, A; Martínez, J A; Almela, M; Jiménez de Anta, M T; Soriano, E
Yersinia spp infection in human people are increasing attention last thirty years. We have reviewed the bacteremia in our hospital last five years. Three episodes were Yersinia spp bacteremia. Presence of disease or predisponent therapy were present in most of episodes. All patients were more than seventy years old. The septic metastasis were present in all the cases: one with meningitis, other with liver abscess and one with septic arthritis. We have documented a good clinical evolution, though the mortality in different reports is around 50%. The election therapy for all episodes were cephalosporins, and in two cases we added quinolones.
Blennow, Ola; Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Ozenci, Volkan
Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Westling, Katarina; Fröding, Inga; Özenci, Volkan
Kytococcus schroeteri, a saprophyte of the human skin, may cause serious infections in the immunocompromised host. Here, we describe a case of pneumonia and bacteremia due to Kytococcus schroeteri in an immunocompromised patient, successfully treated with linezolid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. PMID:22162554
Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine
Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191
Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine
Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.
of Table 1.-Principal Species in Groups bacteremia due to some member of each group. Such Group organisms (%) - 1 Providencia stuartii (23) 100- 203...have died with what ap- dencia stuartii . In the succeeding five years, during which peared to be lethal staphylococcal infection; this study silver
Özdemir, Tayfun; Öksüz, Lütfiye; Gürler, Nezahat
Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the incidence of bacteremia, bacteriology and antibiotic susceptibility against to causative bacteria associated with dental implant installation. Study Design: 30 generally healthy patients were enrolled in this study. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 30 minutes after dental implant installation and 24 hours after dental implant surgery. Blood samples were cultured in a BACTEC system. The isolated bacteria were identified using conventional methods. Antimicrobial sensitivity tests were performed by disc diffusion. Results: No bacteria were isolated at the baseline and 24 hours after surgery, whereas the prevalence of bacteremia at 30 minutes after dental implant installation was 23%. The isolated bacteria species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Eubacterium spp., Corynebacterium spp. and Streptococcus viridans. The Staphylococcus epidermidis, which was isolated in three patients, was found to be resistant to penicillin which is first choice of many clinicians. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that installation of dental implants can produce bacteremia. Within the limitations of this study, it can be speculated that the resistance of antibiotics may compromise the routine prophylaxis against infective endocarditis. Therefore use of blood cultures and antibiograms may be suggested in risky patients. The outcome of the present study should be verified using a larger patient group with varying conditions. Key words: Dental implant, bacteremia, infective endocarditis, antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:22157668
Ijyuuin, Toshiro; Umehara, Fujio
A 73-year old man was brought to our hospital because of acute onset of fever and consciousness disturbance. He had been hemodialyzed three times a week because of chronic renal failure since 13 years ago. Neurological examination revealed deteriorated consciousness and neck stiffness. A lumbar puncture yielded clouded fluid with a WBC 7,912/mm³ (polymorphonuclear cells 88%, mononuclear cells 12%), 786 mg/dl of protein and 4 mg/dl of glucose (blood glucose 118 mg/dl). Brain CT and MRI were unremarkable. He was treated with ceftriaxone and ampicillin. Streptococcus salivarius was isolated from the blood sample, but not from cerebrospinal fluid. The patient responded promptly to antibiotics therapy (ampicillin 3g/day, ceftriaxone 1g/day), and within several days he became lucid and afebrile. Isolated S. salivarius was sensitive for ampicillin and ceftriaxone. We diagnosed this case as S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis. A gastrointestinal diagnostic workup revealed an asymptomatic gastric adenocarcinoma. S. salivarius is a common inhabitant of the oral mucosa that has been associated with infection in different sites. Meningeal infection by S. salivarius generally related to neoplasia of colon or iatrogenia, has been described on few occasions. This is the first report of S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis associated with gastric neoplasm. Neurologist should be aware of the association of S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis and gastrointestinal disease.
Parekh, Jai; Townley, Theresa
We present the case of a 61-year-old Caucasian gentleman who presented with a one-day history of fever, chills, and altered mental status. His symptoms were initially thought to be secondary to cellulitis. Blood cultures grew Pasteurella multocida, a rare pathogen to cause bacteremia. Our patient was treated with ciprofloxacin for two weeks and made a complete and uneventful recovery. Our patient's uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease put him at a higher risk for developing serious P. multocida infection. The patient's dog licking the wounds on his legs was considered as the possible source of infection. As P. multicoda bacteremia is rare, but severe with a high mortality rate, it is imperative to have a high index of suspicion for this infection especially in the vulnerable immunocompromised population. PMID:27847521
De Luca, Concetta; Mancin, Annalisa; Calabrò, Maria; Daleno, Cristina; Ferrario, Antonella; Renzulli, Raffaella; Scuderi, Cristina; Casari, Erminia
We report a case of Helicobacter pylori transient bacteremia in a woman with ulcerated antral gastric cancer. The patient was hospitalized for laparoscopy and subtotal gastrectomy. After surgery she developed fever (39°C) and was empirically treated with levofloxacin. Blood cultures, collected and sent immediately to Laboratory, were positive for a spiral Gram-negative bacterium. This isolate was identified as H. pylori and the specific susceptibility test was performed. One day after the fever was decreased but antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin was continued and it was maintained until discharge. In summary, H. pylori transient bacteremia may occur as a rare complication after stomach surgery. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the potential role of Helicobacter pylori presence in blood.
Pérez Trallero, E; López Lopategui, C; Fernández Pérez, F
Shigella bacteremia is very uncommon, although it is known to occur in Shigella infection. Three cases of Shigella flexneri bacteremia are reported, two of them diagnosed at the Residencia Ntra. Sra. de Aránzazu of San Sebastián, and another at the Ciudad Sanitaria Francisco Franco of Barcelona. In spite of the frequency of Shigella infections in Spain, no cases of Shigella bacteriemia had been heretofore reported from our country. One of the patients was an alcoholic woman who died in coma and renal failure. The other two cases were children who had an uneventful recovery. Stool cultures were positive for Shigella flexneri in two of the three patients. In the third the bacillus could not be isolated from the stools in spite of three consecutive cultures.
Ifantidou, Athina M; Diamantidis, Michael D; Tseliki, Georgia; Angelou, Argiri S; Christidou, Photini; Papa, Anna; Pentilas, Demetrius
Corynebacterium jeikeium, frequently encountered in clinical specimens, is part of the normal skin flora. Nevertheless, a few cases of C. jeikeium bacteremia followed by severe clinical manifestations have been reported. C. jeikeium has been reported to cause endocarditis, septicemia, meningitis, pneumonia and osteomyelitis, along with soft tissue and trauma infections. Herein we describe a case of C. jeikeium bacteremia in Greece. The isolation of a coryneform bacterium from a clinical specimen should not immediately be considered a superinfection by the skin flora. Clinical and laboratory investigations are essential in order to evaluate such cases before applying appropriate treatment. On the other hand, the association of coryneform bacteria and disease should be critically investigated, with a thorough identification of the strain, ideally beyond the classical methods, at a specialized center.
Halim, Ilham; Ihbibane, Fatima; Belabbes, Houria; Zerouali, Khalid; El Mdaghri, Naima
The species Bordetella trematum was first described in 1996. Currently only eleven cases were published. We describe the first case of Bordetella trematum issued from bacteremia with a patient who has severe burns in Morocco. The identification was not possible by conventional microbiological methods where the resort to 16S ARNr sequencing. The use of molecular methods, including sequencing of the 16S ARNr, is currently an essential complementary tool to identify microbiological pathogens.
Llinares, Pedro; Iribarren, José Antonio
Community-acquired bacteremias assciated with healthcare and, especially, those of nosocomial origin, are mainly caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. Notable among this group are Staphylococcus spp, with an incidence of methicillin resistance of approximately 30% in S. aureus and of 70% in coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which is higher in patients admitted to intensive care units. Vancomycin has been the most widely used antibiotic in these situations but its toxicity, especially in the kidney, and reports of failure when used for the treatment of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and with a vancomycin MIC > 1 mg/L have led to the search for other treatments. Daptomycin is a new lipopeptide antibiotic that has been shown to be not inferior to vancomycin in a pivotal clinical trial in patients with bacteremia and right endocarditis due to S. aureus. Recent guidelines and consensus documents place daptomycin as an ideal alternative in these situations, indicating its use in MRSA bacteremia with a vancomycin MIC > 1 mg/L, as well as in patients whose renal dysfunction excludes the use of vancomycin therapy. Evidence of worse prognosis in MRSA bacteremia when empirical treatment is inappropriate has led to the recommendation of daptomycin as the first-choice drug in critically ill patients with suspected Gram-positive bacteremic infection and renal dysfunction and/or in hospitals where there is a high prevalence of MRSA with a MIC > 1 mg/L. The recommended dose in severely ill patients should be higher than 6 mg/kg/day.
Kenyon, Robert V; Leigh, Jason
Human Augmentics (HA) refers to technologies for expanding the capabilities, and characteristics of humans. One can think of Human Augmentics as the driving force in the non-biological evolution of humans. HA devices will provide technology to compensate for human biological limitations either natural or acquired. The strengths of HA lie in its applicability to all humans. Its interoperability enables the formation of ecosystems whereby augmented humans can draw from other realms such as "the Cloud" and other augmented humans for strength. The exponential growth in new technologies portends such a system but must be designed for interaction through the use of open-standards and open-APIs for system development. We discuss the conditions needed for HA to flourish with an emphasis on devices that provide non-biological rehabilitation.
Leistner, R; Bloch, A; Gastmeier, P; Schwab, F
In a previous study, we demonstrated prolonged length of hospital stay in cases of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive K. pneumoniae bacteremia compared to bacteremia cases due to E. coli (ESBL-positive and -negative) and ESBL-negative K. pneumoniae. The overall mortality was significantly higher in bacteremia cases resulting from ESBL-positive pathogens but also in K. pneumoniae cases disregarding ESBL-production. In order to examine whether pathogen species rather than multidrug resistance might affect mortality risk, we reanalyzed our dataset that includes 1.851 cases of bacteremia.
Dai, Julia; Huen, Auris O; Kestenbaum, Lori A; Sarezky, Margaret D; Coughlin, Carrie C; Yan, Albert C
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare, opportunistic infection most commonly encountered in immunocompromised patients during hospitalization. Primary uncomplicated bacteremia, catheter-associated infections, and pneumonia have been reported as the most common clinical presentations; skin and soft tissue infections from A. xylosoxidans are rare. We describe a case of A. xylosoxidans presenting as cellulitis and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient.
Dai, Julia; Huen, Auris O.; Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Sarezky, Margaret D.; Coughlin, Carrie C.; Yan, Albert C.
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare, opportunistic infection most commonly encountered among immunocompromised patients during hospitalization. Primary uncomplicated bacteremia, catheter-associated infections, and pneumonia have been reported as the most common clinical presentations, but skin and soft tissue infections from A. xylosoxidans are rare. We describe a case of A. xylosoxidans presenting as cellulitis and bacteremia in an immunocompromised patient. PMID:25973735
Reitman, Aaron J; Pisk, Rhonda M; Gates, John V; Ozeran, J Daniel
Our objective was to evaluate serial procalcitonin (PCT) levels compared with an initial PCT level at admission in predicting bacteremia in pediatric febrile neutropenic oncology patients. Serum PCT levels were measured at admission (t0) and within 24 hours of admission (t1) in pediatric oncology patients presenting with fever and neutropenia. A blood culture was collected at t0 and monitored for 5 days for bacterial growth. PCT value of 0.5 ng/mL at either t0 or t1 was considered predictive for bacteremia. PCT levels were significantly higher in children with positive blood cultures than with negative blood cultures. Serial PCT values mirrored t1 values. Serial PCT showed 76% specificity and negative predictive value of 93% in ruling out bacteremia. Elevated PCT levels are predictive of bacteremia. Using serial PCT levels within 24 hours allowed a better prediction of bacteremia than the PCT level at t0.
Louwen, R.; van Baarlen, P.; van Vliet, A. H. M.; van Belkum, A.; Hays, J. P.; Endtz, H. P.
Bacteria belonging to the species Campylobacter are the most common cause of bacterial diarrhoea in humans. The clinical phenotype associated with Campylobacter infections ranges from asymptomatic conditions to severe colitis and bacteremia. In susceptible patients, Campylobacter infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality, with both host factors and bacterial factors being involved in the pathogenesis of bacteremia. In the host, age, gender and immune-compromising conditions may predispose for Campylobacter infections, whilst the most important bacterial determinants mentioned in the literature are cytotoxin production and flagellar motility. The role of sialylated lipo-oligosaccharide (LOS) and serum resistance in bacteremia is inconclusive at this time, and the clinical significance of Campylobacter bacteremia is not yet fully understood. More emphasis on the detection of Campylobacter species from blood cultures in susceptible patients at risk for Campylobacter infections will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis and the relevance of Campylobacter bacteremia. PMID:24611124
Hilliard, Nicholaus J; Schelonka, Robert L; Waites, Ken B
Bacillus cereus is an uncommon but potentially serious bacterial pathogen causing infections of the bloodstream, lungs, and central nervous system of preterm neonates. A case of bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a 19-day-old preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin, tobramycin, meropenem, and clindamycin is described. Implications for the diagnostic laboratory and clinicians when Bacillus species are detected in normally sterile sites are discussed, and the small numbers of infant infections proven to be due to this organism that have been described previously are reviewed.
Gómez-Garcés, José Luis; Oteo, Jesús; García, Guadalupe; Aracil, Belén; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Funke, Guido
Dermabacter hominis is a gram-positive, catalase-positive, glucose-fermenting rod, which, as it grows forms small greyish-white colonies with a characteristic pungent odor. Previously known as coryneform Centers for Disease Control and Prevention groups 3 and 5, it was catalogued as D. hominis in 1994. Various strains isolated in blood cultures, abscesses, or wounds in the 1970s were retrospectively characterized in referral centers as D. hominis. In this report we describe two patients with severe underlying pathology who developed bacteremias by D. hominis within the context of their clinical pictures. PMID:11376092
Mycobacterium neoaurum (M. neoaurum) is an infrequently encountered cause of infection in humans. It is a member of the rapidly growing mycobacteria family. It predominately afflicts those with a compromised immune status and a chronically indwelling vascular access. Isolation of this organism is challenging yet the advent of 16s ribosomal sequencing paved the way for more sensitive detection. No treatment guidelines are available and treatment largely depends on the experience of the treating physician and nature of the isolate. We report a case of M. neoaurum bacteremia in an immune competent host, with a chronically placed peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC line). PMID:27807489
Parino, Eduardo; Mulinaris, Eric; Saccomano, Edgardo; Gallo, Juan Cruz; Kohan, Gabriel
A 34-year-old female patient presented with fever and right flank pain ten days after uncomplicated vaginal delivery. CT examination revealed right ovarian vein thrombosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from blood cultures. No other source of bacteremia was found. Antibiotic therapy and anticoagulation with enoxaparin were instituted. Fourteen days after admission, she was discharged in good condition. Although a very uncommon complication after spontaneous vaginal delivery, septic ovarian vein thrombophlebitis should be suspected in cases of persistent puerperal fever when other diagnostic possibilities have been excluded. PMID:26221549
Corredoira, J C; Alonso, M P; García, J F; Casariego, E; Coira, A; Rodriguez, A; Pita, J; Louzao, C; Pombo, B; López, M J; Varela, J
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Streptococcus salivarius isolates recovered from blood cultures and compare them with isolates of Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II. Seventeen of the 52 (32%) S. salivarius isolates recovered were considered clinically significant, compared with 62 of the 64 (97%) S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). Bacteremia caused by S. salivarius occurred mostly in patients who showed relevant disruption of the mucous membranes and/or serious underlying diseases. Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia were younger than those with S. bovis bacteremia (57 vs. 67 years; p<0.01). Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia and patients with S. bovis II bacteremia had similar rates of endocarditis, colon tumors, and non-colon cancer. On the other hand, when compared with S. bovis I bacteremia, S. salivarius bacteremia was associated with lower rates of endocarditis (18% vs. 74%, respectively) (p<0.01) and colon tumors (0% vs. 57%, respectively) (p<0.005) and higher rates of non-colon cancer (53% vs. 9.5%, respectively) (p<0.01). Bacteremia caused by S. bovis II had a hepatobiliary origin in 50% of the patients, while, in contrast, that due to S. salivarius or S. bovis I was less frequently associated with a hepatobiliary origin (12% and 5%, respectively) (p<0.00001). The rate of penicillin resistance was 31% among S. salivarius isolates and 0% among S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of S. salivarius bacteremia and S. bovis II bacteremia are similar, and the isolation of S. salivarius in blood should not be systematically regarded as contamination.
Micaelo, Maïté; Rasmy, Pascal; Amara, Marlène; Lambert, Juliette; Coutard, Aymeric; Pangon, Béatrice
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a Gram-positive bacillus, is reported to cause for cutaneous infections and endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia without severe clinical illness. The patient, a 74-year-old man, is suffering from a chronic lymphoid leukemia (LLC). Following a trauma, the patient developed a bruise on the left inch. Because the site of shock seemed clinically infected, oral amoxicilline-acid clavulanic (AAC) treatment was started after withdrawn 1 set of blood cultures. These blood culture specimens yielded a Gram-positive bacillus identified as E. rhusiopathiae by mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF (Microflex Brüker). The strain was sensitive to beta-lactam, fluoroquinolones and macrolides, resistant to vancomycin (natural resistance), and amikacin but sensitive to gentamicin. After 5 days of treatment by AAC, the patient became apyretic. One year after this episode, we reported no further symptoms of infection, or endocarditis. The natural resistance of E. rhusiopathiae in glycopeptides underlines the importance of a microbiological diagnosis. Indeed, vancomycine can be the treatment of first intention in Gram-positive bacillus bacteremia. The identification of bacteria using mass spectrometry is available the same day of the blood culture positivity and allows to prescribe the most adapted antibiotic treatment for the patient.
Yu, Jing; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Yaowu; Lu, Yanjun; Sun, Ziyong
Increasing evidence suggests that FOXO1, one critical gene related to the human immune system, probable is closely to the human infection. In the present study we aimed to investigate genetic association of FOXO1 with bacteremia in Han Chinese. 188 patients with bacteremia diagnosed with blood culture and 250 healthy blood donors without signs of infection were studied, two tagging SNPs of FOXO1 (rs9532571, rs3751436) were selected and genotyped using predesigned TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. The results showed that the allele frequency of rs9532571 and rs3751436 in FOXO1 was not associated with an increased risk of bacteremia (P=0.762, OR=1.05, 95% CI 0.77-1.43; P=0.059, OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.99-1.81 respectively), the genotype distribution of these two SNPs was also not significantly different between bacteremia patients and control groups (P=0.9; P=0.16). Haplotypes in this block were not significantly associated with bacteremia risk. Conclusion: the association between FOXO1 genetic polymorphism and bacteremia has not been observed in the study, maybe a larger sample population and more SNPs in the FOXO1 need to reveal the role in bacteremia in the future. PMID:26629162
Woods, T D; Watanakunakorn, C
We reviewed cases of Providencia stuartii bacteremia at a large community teaching hospital during a 12-year period (1981 to 1992). None of the infections were hospital-acquired. Of the 49 patients, 47 (96%) came from a nursing home, and 45 (92%) had a long-term indwelling Foley catheter. The urinary tract was definitely proven to be the source of bacteremia in 35 patients (71%) and was the probable source in another 5 patients (11%). Polymicrobial bacteremia occurred in 25 patients (51%). The overall mortality rate during hospitalization was 25%.
di Meo, Nicola; Stinco, Giuseppe; Gubertini, Nicoletta; Patriarca, Maria Martina; Trevisan, Giusto
In recent years, group G Streptococcus has been reported with increasing frequency as the cause of a variety of human infections. Underlying host factors such as immunosuppression, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and rheumatoid arthritis may be predisposing conditions leading to infection. Toxic involvement and post-streptococcal sequalae, once believed to be exclusive to infections caused by group A Streptococcus, are now known to occur following acute group G Streptococcus and group C Streptococcus infections. We report on a case of group G Streptococcus bacteremia and recurrent cellulitis with toxic involvement. Patient blood cultures were always negative for β-hemolytic Streptococci in all the recurrences, except during the last one. Antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram quickly resolved the infection. A regimen of intramuscular injection of 1.2 million units of benzathine penicillin every 15 days for one year prevented recurrences of cellulitis.
Dicpinigaitis, Peter V.; De Aguirre, Manuel; Divito, Joseph
Infection with Enterococcus hirae has rarely been reported in humans but is not uncommon in mammals and birds. We describe a case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia associated with acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and septic shock responsive to antibiotic therapy and supportive critical care management. Unique aspects of this case of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia are its association with acute pancreatitis and its geographical origin. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Enterococcus hirae bacteremia occurring in a patient in the United States. Although human infection with this organism appears to be rare, all cases reported to date describe bacteremia associated with severe and life-threatening illness. Thus, physicians need to be cognizant of the clinical significance of this heretofore little recognized pathogen. PMID:26417465
Rouzic, N; Héry-Arnaud, G; Jaffuel, S; Garo, B; Payan, C; Garré, M
Shewanella putrefaciens is rarely involved in human infectious disease. We report here a case of soft tissue infection with bacteremia on a patient with risk factors (liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Mory, Francine; Carlier, Jean-Philippe; Alauzet, Corentine; Thouvenin, Maxime; Schuhmacher, Hélène; Lozniewski, Alain
Metronidazole resistance among Prevotella spp. is rare. We report here the first case of bacteremia due to a high-level metronidazole-resistant Prevotella sp. responsible for treatment failure. PMID:16208024
Skov, Marianne N.; Justesen, Ulrik S.
We report two cases of bacteremia with the anaerobic bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus. In both cases, the bacteremia was associated with diverticular disease. Preliminary conventional identification suggested peptostreptococci, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis did not produce scores high enough for species identification. Finally, the bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. PMID:23363832
Chapagain, Bikash; Joshi, Astha; Brennessel, Debra J.
Crucial to the management of staphylococcal bacteremia is an accurate evaluation of associated endocarditis, which has both therapeutic and prognostic implications. Because the clinical presentation of endocarditis can be nonspecific, the judicious use of echocardiography is important in distinguishing patients at high risk of developing endocarditis. In the presence of high-risk clinical features, an early transesophageal echocardiogram is warranted without prior transthoracic echocardiography. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for staphylococcal infective endocarditis that might warrant earlier transesophageal echocardiography and to describe the incidence of endocarditis in cases of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A retrospective case-control study was conducted by means of chart review of 91 patients consecutively admitted to a community hospital from January 2009 through January 2013. Clinical risk factors of patients with staphylococcal bacteremia were compared with risk factors of patients who had definite diagnoses of infective endocarditis. There were 69 patients with bacteremia alone (76%) and 22 patients with endocarditis (24%), as verified by echocardiography. Univariate analysis showed that diabetes mellitus (P=0.024), the presence of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker (P=0.006) or a prosthetic heart valve (P=0.003), and recent hospitalization (P=0.048) were significantly associated with developing infective endocarditis in patients with S. aureus bacteremia. The incidence of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus bacteremia was similar in the bacteremia and infective-endocarditis groups (P=0.437). In conclusion, identified high-risk clinical factors in the presence of bacteremia can suggest infective endocarditis. Early evaluation with transesophageal echocardiography might well be warranted. PMID:28265207
Hofmans, M; Boel, A; Van Vaerenbergh, K; De Beenhouwer, H
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, especially in young and sexually active women. Presence in blood cultures is rare and often attributed to contamination. When bacteremia is significant, it occurs mostly in patients with hematologic malignancies and is predominantly catheter-related. However, we describe a case of significant bacteremia with S. saprophyticus associated with urinary tract infection after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of an ureterolithiasis in an otherwise healthy patient.
Henao-Martínez, Andrés F.; González-Fontal, Guido R.; Castillo-Mancilla, José R.; Yang, Ivana V.
Summary Background Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia is a common complication in patients with neoplasm. The cancer itself, chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression, and other cancer-related procedures play a role as predisposing factors for this condition. However, despite the clear association between cancer and Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, the distinctive clinical characteristics of patients with cancer presenting with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia have not been well established. Methods The population studied was a prospective cohort of adult hospitalized patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia in a tertiary care hospital. We compared the clinical variables and microbiological features between patients with an underlying neoplasm (n = 203) and those without (n = 259). STATA software was used for statistical association analysis. Results In a bivariate analysis, older age, prior exposure to aminopenicillins, fewer days of symptoms, biliary source of bacteremia, greater severity of APACHE II score, lower white blood cell and platelet counts, and the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae were more common in the neoplasm group. In a multivariable analysis, K. pneumoniae bacteremia (odds ratio (OR) 6.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.65–22.71; p = 0.007), APACHE II score (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.05–1.34; p = 0.007), and exposure to aminopenicillins (OR 28.84, 95% CI 1.94–429.3; p = 0.015) were associated with neoplasm. K. pneumoniae bacteremia was more commonly present in patients with lung and gastrointestinal cancers. Conclusions We have confirmed the association of K. pneumoniae bacteremia with underlying neoplastic disease, especially with gastrointestinal malignancies, which may allow stratification for initial empiric antibiotic therapy in this subset of patients. Prior exposure to aminopenicillins in the neoplasm group might contribute to this finding. PMID:23313157
Altuntas, Fevzi; Yildiz, Orhan; Eser, Bülent; Gündogan, Kürsat; Sumerkan, Bulent; Çetin, Mustafa
Background Micrococcus species may cause intracranial abscesses, meningitis, pneumonia, and septic arthritis in immunosuppressed or immunocompetent hosts. In addition, strains identified as Micrococcus spp. have been reported recently in infections associated with indwelling intravenous lines, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluids, ventricular shunts and prosthetic valves. Case presentation We report on the first case of a catheter-related bacteremia caused by Kocuria rosea, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, in a 39-year-old man undergoing peripheral blood stem cell transplantation due to relapsed Hodgkin disease. This uncommon pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in immunocompromised patients. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria rosea catheter related bacteremia after stem cell transplantation successfully treated with vancomycin and by catheter removal. PMID:15615593
Jacob-Kokura, Susan; Chan, Claire Y; Kaplan, Lewis
To describe the first reported case of bacteremia and empyema caused by Shewanella algae and summarize the existing literature on Shewanella human infection. A 25-year-old healthy male was shot through the chest into the abdomen and fled into an adjacent body of seawater. He underwent surgical repair of his injuries, including pleural decortication. Leukocytosis, bandemia, and copious yellow bronchorrhea led to cultures; piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin were started for broad-spectrum empiric management based on the local intensive care unit antibiogram. Blood and pleural fluid cultures revealed S algae. Sputum cultures grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae. He was successfully managed with an empiric and then tailored antibiotic regimen. Shewanella algae is a rare Gram-negative bacillus that has infrequently been reported to cause infection. It is found predominantly in men. Shewanella algae infections span bacteremia to necrotizing soft tissue infection and are associated with injury and seawater exposure. Shewanella is susceptible to the majority of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, aztreonam, and fluoroquinolones, but are less predictably susceptible to tetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and carbapenem agents. Shewanella infection is associated with medical comorbidities, in particular, renal failure and cardiovascular disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of bacteremia and empyema caused by S algae. Such a case involving a young healthy individual should encourage health care providers to be aware of the potential infections caused by unusual pathogens, and to employ appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy based on reported sensitivity profiles. Based on available susceptibilities, we recommend using a third or fourth-generation cephalosporin as first-line pharmacologic management with regimen de-escalation based on culture
Kizilbash, Quratulain F; Petersen, Nancy J; Chen, Guoqing J; Naik, Aanand D; Trautner, Barbara W
Although catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and catheter-associated asymptomatic bacteriuria (CAABU) are clinically distinct conditions, most literature describing the risks of bacteriuria does not distinguish between them. We studied the relationship between catheter-associated bacteriuria and bacteremia from a urinary source in CAUTI relative to that in CAABU. Second, we investigated whether the presence or absence of urinary symptoms in catheterized patients with bacteriuria was associated with bacteremia from any source or mortality. Finally, we explored the effect of antimicrobial treatment of bacteriuria on subsequent bacteremia from any source and mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study with 30 days of follow-up after an initial positive urine culture. CAUTI and CAABU were defined by Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines. A large tertiary care facility. All inpatients with a urinary catheter (external or indwelling) and a positive urine culture between October 2010 and June 2011. We captured 444 episodes of catheter-associated bacteriuria in 308 patients; 128 (41.6%) patients had CAUTI, and 180 (58.4%) had CAABU. Three episodes of bacteriuria were followed by bacteremia from a urinary source (0.7%). CAUTI, rather than CAABU, was associated with bacteremia from any source, but neither CAUTI nor CAABU predicted subsequent mortality. Use of antimicrobial agents to treat bacteriuria was not associated with either bacteremia from any source or mortality. Bacteremia from a urinary source was infrequent, and there was no evidence of an association of mortality with symptomatic versus asymptomatic bacteriuria in this population. Antibiotic treatment of bacteriuria did not affect outcomes.
Jensen, Slade O.; Vaska, Vikram L.; Espedido, Björn A.; Paterson, David L.; Gosbell, Iain B.
Summary: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes. PMID:22491776
van Hal, Sebastian J; Jensen, Slade O; Vaska, Vikram L; Espedido, Björn A; Paterson, David L; Gosbell, Iain B
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an important infection with an incidence rate ranging from 20 to 50 cases/100,000 population per year. Between 10% and 30% of these patients will die from SAB. Comparatively, this accounts for a greater number of deaths than for AIDS, tuberculosis, and viral hepatitis combined. Multiple factors influence outcomes for SAB patients. The most consistent predictor of mortality is age, with older patients being twice as likely to die. Except for the presence of comorbidities, the impacts of other host factors, including gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and immune status, are unclear. Pathogen-host interactions, especially the presence of shock and the source of SAB, are strong predictors of outcomes. Although antibiotic resistance may be associated with increased mortality, questions remain as to whether this reflects pathogen-specific factors or poorer responses to antibiotic therapy, namely, vancomycin. Optimal management relies on starting appropriate antibiotics in a timely fashion, resulting in improved outcomes for certain patient subgroups. The roles of surgery and infectious disease consultations require further study. Although the rate of mortality from SAB is declining, it remains high. Future international collaborative studies are required to tease out the relative contributions of various factors to mortality, which would enable the optimization of SAB management and patient outcomes.
Kleinschmidt, Sharon; Huygens, Flavia; Faoagali, Joan; Rathnayake, Irani U; Hafner, Louise M
Staphylococcus epidermidis is a biofilm-producing commensal organism found ubiquitously on human skin and mucous membranes, as well as on animals and in the environment. Biofilm formation enables this organism to evade the host immune system. Colonization of percutaneous devices or implanted medical devices allows bacteria access to the bloodstream. Isolation of this organism from blood cultures may represent either contamination during the blood collection procedure or true bacteremia. S. epidermidis bloodstream infections may be indolent compared with other bacteria. Isolation of S. epidermidis from a blood culture may present a management quandary for clinicians. Over-treatment may lead to patient harm and increases in healthcare costs. There are numerous reports indicating the difficulty of predicting clinical infection in patients with positive blood cultures with this organism. No reliable phenotypic or genotypic algorithms currently exist to predict the pathogenicity of a S. epidermidis bloodstream infection. This review will discuss the latest advances in identification methods, global population structure, pathogenicity, biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance and clinical significance of the detection of S. epidermidis in blood cultures. Previous studies that have attempted to discriminate between invasive and contaminating strains of S. epidermidis in blood cultures will be analyzed.
Rottier, Wouter C; Bamberg, Yara R P; Dorigo-Zetsma, J Wendelien; van der Linden, Paul D; Ammerlaan, Heidi S M; Bonten, Marc J M
To prevent inappropriate empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia caused by third-generation cephalosporin (3GC)-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (3GC-R EB), Dutch guidelines recommend β-lactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy or carbapenem monotherapy in patients with prior 3GC-R EB colonization and/or recent cephalosporin or fluoroquinolone usage. Positive predictive values (PPVs) of these determinants are unknown. We retrospectively studied patients with a clinical infection in whom blood cultures were obtained and empiric therapy with broad-spectrum β-lactams and/or aminoglycosides and/or fluoroquinolones was started. We determined the PPVs of prior colonization and antibiotic use for 3GC-R EB bacteremia, and the consequences of guideline adherence on appropriateness of empiric treatment. Of 9422 episodes, 773 (8.2%) were EB bacteremias and 64 (0.7%) were caused by 3GC-R EB. For bacteremia caused by 3GC-R EB, PPVs of prior colonization with 3GC-R EB (90-day window) and prior usage of cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (30-day window) were 7.4% and 1.3%, respectively, and PPV was 1.8% for the presence of any of these predictors. Adherence to Dutch sepsis guideline recommendations was 27%. Of bacteremia episodes caused by 3GC-R and 3GC-sensitive EB, 56% and 94%, respectively, were initially treated with appropriate antibiotics. Full adherence to guideline recommendations would hardly augment proportions of appropriate therapy, but could considerably increase carbapenem use. In patients receiving empiric treatment for sepsis, prior colonization with 3GC-R EB and prior antibiotic use have low PPV for infections caused by 3GC-R EB. Strict guideline adherence would unnecessarily stimulate broad-spectrum antibiotic use. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Litchford, Ron J.
Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems. The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1.5-MWe multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MWe MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable heat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing
Lau, Susanna K P; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O T; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L L; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ng, Ricky H Y; Wu, Alan K L; Cheung, Ingrid Y Y; Chau, Sandy K Y; Lung, David C; Lee, Rodney A; Tse, Cindy W S; Fung, Kitty S C; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C Y
Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise.
Barrero, Liliana I; Castillo, Juan S; Leal, Aura L; Sánchez, Ricardo; Cortés, Jorge A; Alvarez, Carlos A; González, Andrés L
Resistant infections, especially those involving the bloodstream, are associated with a greater use of resources. Their estimates are variable and depend on the methodology used. Staphylococcus aureus is the main pathogen isolated in blood in our hospitals. There is no consolidated data about economic implications of methicillin-resistant S. aureus infection. To describe the cost of care of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in a reference population from nine hospitals in Bogotá. Materials y methods: A multicenter cohort study included 204 patients in a 1:1 ratio according to resistance. Direct medical costs were calculated from hospitalization bills, while the bacteremia period was calculated by applying microcosting based on standard fares. We found no significant differences between groups in demographic and clinical characteristics, except for resistance risk factors. Fifty-three percent of patients died during hospitalization. Hospital stay and total invoiced value during hospitalization were significantly higher in the group with methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia. For this group, higher costs in ICU stay, antibiotics use, intravenous fluids, laboratory tests and respiratory support were recorded. A crude increase of 31% and an adjusted increase of 70% in care costs associated with methicillin resistance were registered. Our study supports decision makers in finding and funding infection prevention programs, especially those infections caused by resistant organisms.
Montaño-Remacha, Carmen; Márquez-Cruz, María Dolores; Hidalgo-Guzmán, Pilar; Sánchez-Porto, Antonio; Téllez-Pérez, Francisco de Paula
In January 2014 a possible outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bacteremia occurred in a hemodialysis center situated in La Linea de la Concepción (Cadiz). An investigation was begun to confirm the outbreak, identify the source, and implement control measures. A descriptive analysis was performed to describe the characteristics of the patients affected with Burkholderia cepacia bacteremia from November 2013 to February 2014. Environmental samples were taken. A molecular typing study was performed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (SpeI PFGE) and MLST analysis in order to determine the genetic similarity between the isolates. The bacterium was isolated from blood cultures of 7 patients during the study period. Three of the samples (2 of which were also cases) were endoluminal fluid from catheter locks, and 4 chlorhexidine bottle samples. The patients were coincident in 2 of the 6 work shifts. The mean age of the cases was 67 years of whom 57% were women. Human samples and an environmental sample was analyzed and found to be genetically identical (ST653 clone). The analysis confirmed the outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia, with 7 cases among the patients of the hemodialysis center. The outbreak was due to the same strain, probably a common source and secondary transmission from person to person. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Muranaka, Kiyoharu; Hase, Ryota; Otsuka, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Naoto
There are growing numbers of reports concerning the clinical and pathological features of Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi) bacteremia; however, few reports have discussed the features of this condition in healthy individuals. A retrospective observational study was conducted at a Japanese tertiary care hospital to assess the clinical features of community-acquired H. cinaedi. All patients in whom H. cinaedi was isolated between January 2009 and March 2014 were identified from the hospital database. Of the 28 patients included in the study, 12 had community-acquired H. cinaedi bacteremia. The most common clinical feature was cellulitis (n = 17). However, nearly half of the patients with healthcare-associated or nosocomial-associated bacteremia displayed no symptoms with the exception of fever. Most patients were successfully treated with a 14-day regime of third-generation cephalosporins or tetracycline. Our results show that H. cinaedi infections are quite common in immunocompetent community-dwelling individuals. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yokouchi, Yukako; Katsumori, Hiroshi; Koike, Yuji
Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection remains a leading cause of serious neonatal and early infantile infection. As the infection often presents with nonspecific symptoms, and is associated with underlying bacteremia, prompt investigation and treatment is required. We report a case of late, late-onset GBS infection with bacteremia in a 94-day-old boy experiencing cellulitis of the left hand. Although late-onset disease or late, late-onset disease has been reported to be common among infants with underlying conditions such as premature birth, immunocompromised status, trauma, or among those using medical devices, no such underlying medical condition predisposed this infant to invasive GBS infection. Recent reports including the present case underscore the risk of GBS infection among previously healthy infants beyond the neonatal period. Thus, clinicians should especially be aware of unusual presentations of GBS invasive disease with bacteremia.
Masood, Umair; Sharma, Anuj; Lowe, Dhruv; Khan, Rashad; Manocha, Divey
Streptococcus anginosus is part of the normal flora of the human gastrointestinal tract. Their ability to cause abscesses is very unique and sets them apart from the rest of the streptococci groups. While an association of group D streptococcus bacteremia and endocarditis with colorectal carcinoma is well established, S. anginosus infections are rarely implicated with colonic malignancy. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to the hospital with fatigue and generalized abdominal pain. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed multiple liver abscesses and rectal thickening. Blood cultures were found to grow S. anginosus bacteria. Colonoscopy revealed a rectal mass which was later confirmed to be rectal adenocarcinoma. This case presents an association between S. anginosus bacteremia and presence of colorectal cancer which has been highlighted in only a few case reports in literature. This should prompt clinicians to screen for colorectal cancer in patients with S. anginosus bacteremia. PMID:28100999
Dauby, Nicolas; Libois, Agnès; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Vandenberg, Olivier; Martiny, Delphine
Extra-colonic infections, and especially bacteremia, are infrequent manifestations of Clostridium difficile infection. C. difficile bacteremia is generally health-care associated and polymicrobial. We report the case of a patient on hunger strike that presented a C. difficile colitis and mono-microbial bacteremia on its admission to the hospital. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of stool and blood isolates indicated clonality. The strain was characterized as a ribotype 002, an emerging ribotype previously associated with high fatality rate. The patient received treatment by intra-venous amoxicillin-clavulanate and oral vancomycin but eventually died on the seventh day of admission with concomitant pneumonia and pulmonary embolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels
The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Artero, Arturo; Esparcia, Ana; Eiros, José M; Madrazo, Manuel; Alberola, Juan; Nogueira, José M
The clinical effect of bacteremia on outcomes in urinary tract infection (UTI) is still debated. This study aims to examine the clinical effect of bacteremia in elderly patients with UTI requiring hospital admission. This retrospective observational study recorded the clinical features, microbiology and outcomes in a Spanish cohort of patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized for UTI in whom blood cultures were performed in the emergency department. The primary outcome of the study was in-hospital mortality. Of 333 patients, with a mean age of 81.6 years, 137 (41.1%) had positive blood cultures. Escherichia coli, with 223 (66.9%) cases, was the most common microorganism isolated. Independent risk factors of bacteremia were temperature >38°C, heart rate >90bpm and inversely both Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteremia was not associated with the length of stay in hospital (6.96 ± 3.50 days versus 7.33 ± 5.54 days, P = 0.456). Mortality rate was 9.3% with no significant difference between bacteremic and nonbacteremic cases (8.8% and 9.7%, respectively, P = 0.773). In-hospital mortality analyzed by logistic regression was associated with McCabe index >2 (20.5% survival versus 66.7% death, adjusted odds ratio = 6.31, 95% CI: 2.71-14.67; P < 0.001) but not with bacteremia (41.4% survival versus 38.7% death, adjusted odds ratio = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.43-2.29; P = 0.992). Our study suggests that the presence or absence of bacteremia in elderly people with UTI requiring hospitalization does not have an influence on outcomes such as in-hospital mortality or length of stay. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Funada, H; Uotani, C; Machi, T; Matsuda, T; Nonomura, A
Bacillus cereus, which used to be considered non-pathogenic, was isolated from the blood of a patient with acute leukemia who was receiving intensive chemotherapy. Fatal bacteremia developed with a clinical syndrome of acute gastroenteritis, followed by both meningoencephalitis with subarachnoid hemorrhage and multiple liver abscesses probably caused by infective vasculitis. Surveillance stool cultures revealed colonization with the organism prior to the onset of diarrhea, and repetitive blood cultures were found to be positive. Thus, this case suggested some new important clinicopathologic features of true B. cereus bacteremia complicating acute leukemia.
Yoshino, Y; Kitazawa, T; Ikeda, M; Tatsuno, K; Yanagimoto, S; Okugawa, S; Ota, Y; Yotsuyanagi, H
We investigated the clinical features of Bacteroides bacteremia for 5 years to determine the risk factors for mortality and to ascertain whether bacteremia due to Bacteroides spp. is associated with colorectal carcinoma. This study comprised a review of all patients with Bacteroides bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Tokyo from April 2003 to March 2008. We also conducted a case-control study between Bacteroides bacteremia and bacteremia due to other pathogens. During the study period, 25 cases of bacteremia were due to Bacteroides spp. Bacteroides bacteremia was associated with a high mortality rate (24%). Malignancy (76%) was the major comorbidity, followed by a history of surgery (40%). Colorectal carcinoma was the most frequent (n = 8, 32%) of the comorbid malignancies and was recognized as the primary infection site in six cases. Prevalence of colorectal carcinoma as comorbidity was significantly higher in Bacteroides bacteremia than in other bacteremia. In the Bacteroides bacteremia cases of this study, colorectal carcinoma was the major comorbidity and primary infection site. Colorectal carcinoma screening in Bacteroides bacteremia patients is potentially an important diagnostic marker for the early detection of this infection in the future.
Hardjo Lugito, Nata Pratama; Cucunawangsih; Kurniawan, Andree
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a yellow-pigmented, glucose nonfermenting, aerobic, Gram negative bacillus of low pathogenicity. This organism was found in the implantation of indwelling catheters, sterile intravenous fluid, or contaminated hospital environment such as tap and distilled water, nebulizer, ventilator, and hemodialysis device. A 55-year-old female was hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer in the presence of multiple comorbidities: diabetes mellitus, colonic tuberculosis, end-stage renal disease, and indwelling catheters for central venous catheter and hemodialysis. The patient passed away on the 44th day of admission due to septic shock. The organism found on blood culture on the 29th day of admission was multidrug resistant S. paucimobilis. Severe infection and septic shock due to S. paucimobilis have been reported particularly in immunocompromised patients, but there has been only one reported case of death in a premature neonate with septic shock. This is the first reported lethal case of S. paucimobilis bacteremia in an adult patient. PMID:27088020
Ok, Hea Sung; Lee, Hyoun Soo; Park, Man Je; Kim, Ki Hoon; Kim, Byeong Ki; Wi, Yu Mi; Kim, June Myung
The high mortality attributable to persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in spite of glycopeptide treatment has heightened the need for early detection and intervention with alternative agents. The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of and risk factors for persistent MRSA bacteremia. All first episodes of significant MRSA bacteremia at a 710-bed academic medical center from November 2009 through August 2010 were recorded. Blood cultures were conducted at 3 days and every 2 to 3 days thereafter until clearance. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared between persistent MRSA bacteremia (≥ 7 days) and nonpersistent MRSA bacteremia (≤ 3 days). Of 79 patients with MRSA bacteremia during the study period, 31 (39.2%) had persistent MRSA bacteremia. The persistent MRSA bacteremia group had significantly higher 30-day mortality than the nonpersistent MRSA bacteremia group (58.1% vs. 16.7%, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that metastatic infection at presentation (odds ratio [OR], 14.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52 to 60.34; p < 0.001) and delayed catheter removal in catheter-related infection (OR, 3.80; 95% CI, 1.04 to 13.88; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of persistent MRSA bacteremia. Patients with a time to blood culture positivity (TTP) of < 11.8 hours were at increased risk of persistent MRSA bacteremia (29.0% vs. 8.3%, p = 0.029). High mortality in patients with persistent MRSA bacteremia was noted. Early detection of metastatic infection and early removal of infected intravascular catheters should be considered to reduce the risk of persistent MRSA bacteremia. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of TTP for predicting persistent MRSA bacteremia.
Duhon, Bryson; Dallas, Steven; Velasquez, Sadie T; Hand, Elizabeth
This case report describes the treatment of a rare infection caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis with cefazolin and rifampin. A 48-year-old man with significant comorbidities was admitted to our institution with complaints of malaise, shortness of breath, and vague persistent pain. He was diagnosed with S. lugdunensis infective endocarditis and was treated with cefazolin continuous infusion for 10 days without resolution of bacteremia. As surgical intervention was deemed inappropriate, rifampin was added to the treatment regimen for its antibiofilm activity. After rifampin initiation, resolution of bacteremia was rapidly achieved. Subsequent blood cultures remained negative, and the patient was discharged home in stable condition to complete six weeks of i.v. cefazolin and rifampin therapy. The patient continued treatment, as documented by the infusion center, weekly for five weeks. The patient was rehospitalized during his sixth week of treatment due to impending respiratory failure, whereupon he was intubated and admitted to the intensive care unit. The patient's cardiac status gradually worsened over the following days, and he ultimately died. Blood cultures from days 1 and 2 of hospitalization revealed no bacterial growth at five days. Cefazolin and rifampin therapy in a hospitalized patient with bacteremia and aortic valve endocarditis caused by S. lugdunensis resulted in rapid eradication of the bacteremia. After more than five weeks of cefazolin-rifampin treatment, the patient was rehospitalized with worsening cardiac function and died. Blood cultures during the second admission were negative. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Opota, Onya; Ney, Barbara; Zanetti, Giorgio; Jaton, Katia; Prod'hom, Guy
We report for the first time a case of bacteremia caused by Comamonas kerstersii in a 65-year-old patient with sign of diverticulosis. In addition, we review the isolation of Comamonas sp. and related organisms in our hospital over 25 years. PMID:24371242
John, Anna B; Razak, Eissa A S A; Razak, Emad E M H; Al-Naqeeb, Niran; Dhar, Rita
Although often regarded as a contaminant, Bacillus spp. have been implicated in serious systemic infections. The incidence of such infections is low with only a few cases reported in the literature. We describe the clinical course of early-onset Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a preterm neonate who was successfully treated with vancomycin.
Sarma, Podila S.; Mohanty, Smruti
Capnocytophaga cynodegmi (formerly “DF-2 like organism”), a commensal organism of the canine oral cavity, is a capnophilic, gram-negative, facultative bacillus. C. cynodegmi has rarely been encountered in human diseases. We report the first known case of cellulitis, bacteremia, and pneumonitis caused by C. cynodegmi in a diabetic man from central India following a dog bite. PMID:11326042
Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J
Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M.; McLeod, Charles G.; Levine, Myron M.; Rothman, Richard E.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; DeTolla, Louis J.
Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. PMID:25033732
Lasry, S; Simon, J; Marais, A; Pouchot, J; Vinceneux, P; Boussougant, Y
We report on the first case of documented Helicobacter cinaedi septic arthritis in an immunocompetent heterosexual young man. The patient presented no identified risk factor except for contact with animals that have been incriminated as a possible source of infection, particularly for these patients. Despite prolonged bacteremia, the response to long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin and rifampin was excellent.
Vähäkuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjänen, Jaana
We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995–2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types. PMID:20409380
Rantala, Sari; Vahakuopus, Susanna; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Vuento, Risto; Syrjanen, Jaana
We conducted a retrospective population-based study of 140 episodes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis bacteremia occurring in Finland during 1995-2004. Rare emm types were associated with more severe disease and increased mortality rates. Skin and soft tissue infections were more frequent clinical signs among cases caused by common emm types.
Gaudreau, C.; Delage, G.; Rousseau, D.; Cantor, E. D.
A review of the hospital records of 71 patients from whose blood viridans streptococci were isolated showed that in 13 cases the patient's illness was definitely related to the bacteremia: 4 patients had endocarditis, 3 had pneumonia, 2 had peritonitis and 1 each had meningitis, a scalp wound infection, sinusitis and otitis media. The bacteremia may have contributed to the two deaths among these 13 patients. In 45 cases the viridans streptococci may have contributed to the patient's illness: 15 patients had an infection of the lower respiratory tract and 7 an infection of the upper respiratory tract, 8 were neonates with suspected septicemia, 3 had soft tissue infections, 3 had leukemia and sepsis, and 9 had miscellaneous infections; the bacteremia was unrelated to the two deaths in this group. In another 13 cases the viridans streptococci could not be related to the patient's illness. The species most frequently isolated were Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguis II and S. MG-intermedius. The outcome of the bacteremia was generally good, even among the 11 patients not treated with antibiotics. When viridans streptococci are cultured from a single blood sample, further samples of blood and, if feasible, specimens from the associated focus of infection should be obtained for culture; further blood cultures are especially important in cases of suspected endocarditis. PMID:7332884
Tang, Tommy Hing-cheung; Cheng, Naomi Hua-yin; Ho, Roy Tsz-chung; Chan, Helen Shuk-ying; Lam, Kwok-wai; Xavier, Jimenez; Wu, Tak-chiu
Shewanella algae and Shewanella putrefaciens have been implicated for causing serious infections in humans, including disseminated infection. We report the possible first case of Shewanella-related Fournier's gangrene and bacteremia caused in a 65-year-old Chinese male with nephrotic syndrome. He was successfully managed by surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. PMID:27704006
Southern, P M; Kutscher, A E
We report two cases of bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea. One was a 2.5-yr-old boy with otitis media and pneumonia, who responded to treatment with amoxicillin. The other was a 47-yr-old man with underlying ethanol abuse who developed severe polymicrobial sepsis due to apparent intraabdominal disease. This man died despite extensive antimicrobial therapy.
Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia-Grande, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Pinnock, Elli; Salas, Antonio; Fink, Colin
Background The risk of bacteremia is considered low in children with acute bronchiolitis. However the rate of occult bacteremia in infants with RSV infection is not well established. The aim was to determine the actual rate and predictive factors of bacteremia in children admitted to hospital due to confirmed RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI), using both conventional culture and molecular techniques. Methods A prospective multicenter study (GENDRES-network) was conducted between 2011–2013 in children under the age of two admitted to hospital because of an ARI. Among those RSV-positive, bacterial presence in blood was assessed using PCR for Meningococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to conventional cultures. Results 66 children with positive RSV respiratory illness were included. In 10.6% patients, bacterial presence was detected: H. influenzae (n = 4) and S. pneumoniae (n = 2). In those patients with bacteremia, there was a previous suspicion of bacterial superinfection and had received empirical antibiotic treatment 6 out of 7 (85.7%) patients. There were significant differences in terms of severity between children with positive bacterial PCR and those with negative results: PICU admission (100% vs. 50%, P-value = 0.015); respiratory support necessity (100% vs. 18.6%, P-value < 0.001); Wood-Downes score (mean = 8.7 vs. 4.8 points, P-value < 0.001); GENVIP scale (mean = 17 vs. 10.1, P-value < 0.001); and length of hospitalization (mean = 12.1 vs. 7.5 days, P-value = 0.007). Conclusion Bacteremia is not frequent in infants hospitalized with RSV respiratory infection, however, it should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:26872131
Cárdenas, Ana María; Andreacchio, Kathleen A; Edelstein, Paul H
Mixed-population (heterogeneous) enterococcal bacteremia (MEB) is rarely reported. Based on one occasion in which Vitek2 missed a vancomycin-resistant subpopulation isolated from a patient, we developed a simple method to detect this subpopulation and determined MEB frequency. The four patients presented here had either Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis bacteremia caused by both vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and vancomycin-susceptible enterococci (VSE). No prior common antibiotic therapy was observed, and bacteremia resolved with daptomycin, gentamicin, and/or linezolid treatment. In two cases, VRE presence was missed by Vitek2. To detect the VRE subpopulation, tryptic soy broth was inoculated from positive blood cultures and a saline suspension was inoculated to a vancomycin (6-μg/ml) (V6) plate. Two isolates from each patient were studied further. Relatedness was assessed by multilocus sequence typing, fitness was evaluated by growth curve and competition assays, and vanA presence was determined by PCR. MEB represented ∼5% of all enterococcal bacteremias. All VRE subpopulations grew on V6 plates but were missed in two instances by Vitek2. VRE and VSE isolates from each patient were closely related and did not differ in overall fitness. All four VRE isolates and 2/4 VSE isolates were vanA positive. MEBs occur regardless of prior antimicrobial therapy, are relatively common in our hospital, and are important to detect. As far as we know, this study is the first to report heterogeneous E. faecalis bacteremia. There is a simple method to detect VRE subpopulations that may be missed by Vitek2.
Kinane, D F; Zhang, P; Benakanakere, M; Singleton, J; Biesbrock, A; Nonnenmacher, C; He, T
Bacteremia and systemic inflammatory markers are associated with periodontal and systemic diseases and may be linking mechanisms between these conditions. We hypothesized that in the development of gingival inflammation, systemic markers of inflammation and bacteremia would increase. To study the effect of bacteremia on systemic inflammatory markers, we recruited 80 subjects to participate in an experimental gingivitis study. Subjects were stratified based on gender, smoking and the number of bleeding sites and then randomized to one of two groups: control group (n = 40) or experimental gingivitis group (n = 40). Subjects in the control group conducted an oral hygiene regimen: brushing twice daily with a regular sodium fluoride cavity protection dentifrice and a standard manual toothbrush, flossing twice daily, and mouth rinsing with an anti-cavity fluoride rinse once daily. The experimental group stopped brushing and flossing, and used only the fluoride anti-cavity mouth rinse for 21 d. Seventy-nine of 80 subjects were evaluable. One subject in the control group was excluded from the results due to antibiotic use during the study. Our data showed the experimental gingivitis group exhibited a significant (p < 0.05) increase in dental plaque level and gingival inflammatory indices relative to baseline and the control group but a decrease in bacteremia and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels vs. baseline. Bacteremia was negatively correlated with gingival inflammatory indices and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the experimental gingivitis group, thus negating our hypothesis. We conclude that there are marked differences in systemic cytokine levels over the course of short-term experimentally induced gingivitis and further conclude that a long-term periodontitis study must be considered to address mechanisms whereby oral diseases may affect systemic diseases. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Choi, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Park, Jeong Eun
Background/Aims Providencia species frequently colonize urinary catheters and cause urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, bacteremia is uncommon and not well understood. We investigated the clinical features of Providencia bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibility of Providencia species. Methods We identified cases of Providencia bacteremia from May 2001 to April 2013 at a tertiary care hospital. The medical records of pertinent patients were reviewed. Results Fourteen cases of Providencia bacteremia occurred; the incidence rate was 0.41 per 10,000 admissions. The median age of the patients was 64.5 years. Eleven cases (78.6%) were nosocomial infections and nine cases (64.3%) were polymicrobial bacteremia. The most common underlying conditions were cerebrovascular/neurologic disease (n = 10) and an indwelling urinary catheter (n = 10, 71.4%). A UTI was the most common source of bacteremia (n = 5, 35.7%). The overall mortality rate was 29% (n = 4); in each case, death occurred within 4 days of the onset of bacteremia. Primary bacteremia was more fatal than other types of bacteremia (mortality rate, 75% [3/4] vs. 10% [1/10], p = 0.041). The underlying disease severity, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and Pitt bacteremia scores were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (p = 0.016, p =0.004, and p = 0.002, respectively). Susceptibility to cefepime, imipenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam was noted in 100%, 86%, and 86% of the isolates, respectively. Conclusions Providencia bacteremia occurred frequently in elderly patients with cerebrovascular or neurologic disease. Although Providencia bacteremia is uncommon, it can be rapidly fatal and polymicrobial. These characteristics suggest that the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy could be complicated in Providencia bacteremia. PMID:25750564
Choi, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Park, Jeong Eun; Uh, Young
Providencia species frequently colonize urinary catheters and cause urinary tract infections (UTIs); however, bacteremia is uncommon and not well understood. We investigated the clinical features of Providencia bacteremia and the antibiotic susceptibility of Providencia species. We identified cases of Providencia bacteremia from May 2001 to April 2013 at a tertiary care hospital. The medical records of pertinent patients were reviewed. Fourteen cases of Providencia bacteremia occurred; the incidence rate was 0.41 per 10,000 admissions. The median age of the patients was 64.5 years. Eleven cases (78.6%) were nosocomial infections and nine cases (64.3%) were polymicrobial bacteremia. The most common underlying conditions were cerebrovascular/neurologic disease (n = 10) and an indwelling urinary catheter (n = 10, 71.4%). A UTI was the most common source of bacteremia (n = 5, 35.7%). The overall mortality rate was 29% (n = 4); in each case, death occurred within 4 days of the onset of bacteremia. Primary bacteremia was more fatal than other types of bacteremia (mortality rate, 75% [3/4] vs. 10% [1/10], p = 0.041). The underlying disease severity, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and Pitt bacteremia scores were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (p = 0.016, p =0.004, and p = 0.002, respectively). Susceptibility to cefepime, imipenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam was noted in 100%, 86%, and 86% of the isolates, respectively. Providencia bacteremia occurred frequently in elderly patients with cerebrovascular or neurologic disease. Although Providencia bacteremia is uncommon, it can be rapidly fatal and polymicrobial. These characteristics suggest that the selection of appropriate antibiotic therapy could be complicated in Providencia bacteremia.
Al Akhrass, Fadi; Al Wohoush, Iba; Chaftari, Anne-Marie; Reitzel, Ruth; Jiang, Ying; Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Hachem, Ray; Raad, Issam
Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94%) central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%). Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated. PMID:22427914
Flynn, P M; Shenep, J L; Stokes, D C; Barrett, F F
Thirty-one patients with suspected central venous catheter-related bacteremia were evaluated with comparative quantitative cultures of central venous and peripheral blood specimens. Using criteria developed from studies in bacteremic animals, 19 patients were confirmed to have catheter-related bacteremia. Antibiotic therapy was administered through the catheter (in situ therapy) in 17 of those patients to evaluate the feasibility of treating patients with true central venous catheter-related bacteremias without catheter removal. Bacteremia was successfully eradicated in 11 of 17 patients (65%), allowing 7 patients to retain their catheter a median of 157 days. This study validates the use of comparative quantitative blood cultures in the diagnosis of catheter-related bacteremia and indicates that in situ therapy is a rational alternative to catheter removal in patients with catheter-related bacteremia.
Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Shingles, Luke J.
Augmented Reality consists of merging live images with virtual layers of information. The rapid growth in the popularity of smartphones and tablets over recent years has provided a large base of potential users of Augmented Reality technology, and virtual layers of information can now be attached to a wide variety of physical objects. In this article, we explore the potential of Augmented Reality for astrophysical research with two distinct experiments: (1) Augmented Posters and (2) Augmented Articles. We demonstrate that the emerging technology of Augmented Reality can already be used and implemented without expert knowledge using currently available apps. Our experiments highlight the potential of Augmented Reality to improve the communication of scientific results in the field of astrophysics. We also present feedback gathered from the Australian astrophysics community that reveals evidence of some interest in this technology by astronomers who experimented with Augmented Posters. In addition, we discuss possible future trends for Augmented Reality applications in astrophysics, and explore the current limitations associated with the technology. This Augmented Article, the first of its kind, is designed to allow the reader to directly experiment with this technology.
de Fernández, M I; Bugarín, G; Arévalo, C E
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare cause of bacteremia, and little information on treatment is available. The majority of patients who have developed Achromobacter bacteremia have presented predisposing causes to the infection. A case of community-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans in a previously healthy patient is reported. Achromobacter is usually resistant to ampicillin, cephalosporins (1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation), aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole inhibit most isolates.
Lau, Susanna K. P.; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Foo, Chuen-Hing; Curreem, Shirly O. T.; Lo, George Chi-Shing; Teng, Jade L. L.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, Ricky H. Y.; Wu, Alan K. L.; Cheung, Ingrid Y. Y.; Chau, Sandy K. Y.; Lung, David C.; Lee, Rodney A.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; Que, Tak-Lun; Woo, Patrick C. Y.
Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise. PMID:27185741
Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J.
Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. PMID:25385792
Uno, Shunsuke; Hase, Ryota; Toguchi, Akihiro; Otsuka, Yoshihito; Hosokawa, Naoto
Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known cause of meningitis, colitis, and bacteremia; however, obstructive pyelonephritis caused by L. monocytogenes has never been reported. We herein report on a 90-year-old Japanese woman with obstructive pyelonephritis and bacteremia due to uterus carcinoma invading the ureter. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of fever and chills, and her physical examination revealed left costovertebral angle tenderness. Computed tomography showed hydronephrosis and complete ureteral obstruction due to tumor invasion. Blood and urine cultures upon nephrostomy revealed the growth of L. monocytogenes. We treated the patient with two weeks of intravenous ampicillin and an additional one-week treatment of oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. This case shows the importance to recognize L. monocytogenes as a potential causative agent of urinary tract infection.
Jeon, Yongbum; Kim, Taek Soo; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Junghan; Kim, Eui Chong
Robinsoniella peoriensis has recently been identified as a Gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic rod originally recovered from swine manure storage pits. To date, 6 cases of R. peoriensis infection have been reported, including 2 cases of bacteremia, 1 of abdominal fluid collection, and 3 of wound infection. In the present study, we report a 76-yr-old man with R. peoriensis bacteremia who developed aspiration pneumonia. Gram staining of a purified colony revealed Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria. Biochemical identification using API 20 A (bioMérieux, France) indicated presence of Clostridium spp. We performed both 500-bp and full-gene sequencing of 16S rRNA of the isolate. The sequence was analyzed with MicroSeq ID 16S rRNA Library v2.0 (Applied Biosystems, USA), GenBank Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank), and EzTaxon database v2.1 (http://www.eztaxon.org). The 500-bp 16S rRNA sequence of the blood culture isolate showed 99.16-99.79% similarity with R. peoriensis and the full-gene 16S rRNA sequence showed 98.87-99.50% similarity with R. peoriensis. The organism was confirmed as R. peoriensis by using all of the mentioned databases except for MicroSeq, which did not include the RNA sequence of this bacterium. This case suggests that identification of R. peoriensis might be challenging in clinical laboratories with no access to molecular methods, as certain commercial identification systems may not identify, or may misidentify, this organism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of R. peoriensis in Korea. PMID:22950075
Park, Jong Eun; Park, So-Young; Song, Dong Joon; Huh, Hee Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Peck, Kyong Ran; Lee, Nam Yong
Bacteroides pyogenes, a non-spore-forming, anaerobic, gram-negative rod, is a component of the oral flora of animals and has, on occasion, been reported to cause human infection through dog or cat bites. We report the first case of B. pyogenes bacteremia secondary to liver abscess with no history of an animal bite. The microorganism was identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khatib, R; Labalo, V; Sharma, M; Johnson, L B; Riederer, K
We retrospectively evaluated adult cases with Enterococcus spp. in 1 blood culture (BC) (1/1/2010-12/31/2015; n=294) and stratified them into bacteremia or contamination. Contamination frequency was similar in community versus hospital-onset, E. faecalis versus E. faecium, and number of BC drawn per day. Contamination predictors were vancomycin-resistance, ampicillin-resistance, commensal organism copresence, and nonurinary/abdominal sources.
Falci, D R; Rigatto, M H; Cantarelli, V V; Zavascki, A P
Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a rare clinical pathogen. A case of bacteremia caused by L. rhamnosus in a kidney transplant recipient is described. Once considered only as a contaminant or a low-virulence organism, L. rhamnosus might be an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report of primary bloodstream infection caused by L. rhamnosus in a kidney transplant recipient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Egea, Ana L; Vilaró, Mario; De la Fuente, Jorge; Cuestas, Eduardo; Bongiovanni, María E
No clinical events to differentiate bacteteremia from other pathologies in hemodialysis patients therefore the physicians makes diagnosis and treatment decisions based on clinical evidence an local epidemiology. the aim of this work was to study the frequency of microorganism isolated from blood culture of hemodialysis patients with suspected bacteraemia and evaluate Sensitivity (S) and Specificity (E) of medical diagnostic orientation in this cases of suspected Materials and methods: we performed an observational and prospective study for one year in hemodialysis patient with suspected bacteremia. We evaluated blood pressure, temperature (Tº), altered conscious state (AEC), respiratory frequency (FR), chills (ESC),diarrhea (DIARR), blood culture results and microbiological identification. We work with the mean ± standar desviation for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables We analyzed S, E, negative predictive value (VPN), positive predictive value (VPP) RESULTADOS: a total of 87 events with suspected bacteremia 34 (39%) were confirmed with positive blood culture the most common microorganisms were cocci Gram positive (CGP) 65%, Most relevant clinical variables were PCP ≥ 2 (VPN 81%), Tº ≥ 38 (VPN 76%) and AEC (E 98% y VPP 80%). CGP were the most prevalent microorganisms None of the clinical variables shows high S and E indicating low usefulness as a predictive tool of bacteremia Excepting AEC with E98% and VPP 80% but it would be necessary to evaluate this variable with a more number patient. Results justify to routine HC use like diagnostic tool.
Behrens-Muller, Brie; Conway, Judith; Yoder, Jonathan; Conover, Craig S
To define the extent of an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia, determine the source of the outbreak, and implement control measures. An outbreak investigation, including environmental and infection control assessment, and evaluation of hypotheses using the binomial distribution and case control studies. A 50-bed medical surgical unit in a hospital in Illinois during the period January 1-July 15, 2006. Discontinuation of use of opioid delivery via patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) until the source of the outbreak was identified and implementation of new protocols to ensure more rigorous observation of PCA pump cartridge manipulations. Calculations based on the binomial distribution indicated the probability that all 9 patients with A. xylosoxidans bacteremia were PCA pump users by chance alone was <.001. A subsequent case control study identified PCA pump use for administration of morphine as a risk factor for A. xylosoxidans bacteremia (odds ratio, undefined; P < .001). Having a PCA pump cartridge with morphine started by nurse C was significantly associated with becoming a case-patient (odds ratio, 46; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-525.0; P < .001). We hypothesize that actions related to diversion of morphine by nurse C were the likely cause of the outbreak. An aggressive pain control program involving the use of opioid medication warrants an equally aggressive policy to prevent diversion of medication by staff.
Barg, N L; Supena, R B; Fekety, R
A patient with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia received vancomycin (MIC = 0.8 microgram/ml, MBC = 15 micrograms/ml) and heparin simultaneously through the same intravenous line to treat a septic deep venous thrombosis. Bacteremia persisted for 7 days. Bacteremia terminated when the simultaneous infusion of heparin and vancomycin through the same line was stopped. This suggested that an interaction between vancomycin and heparin may have occurred, which resulted in a reduction in vancomycin activity. To test for such an interaction, mixtures of heparin and vancomycin in various concentrations were made and tested for antimicrobial activity against the organisms in the patient. A precipitate formed at the concentrations achieved in the intravenous lines, and when the vancomycin concentrations were measured by bioassay, a 50 to 60% reduction in activity was noted. In contrast, when these solutions were prepared and mixed at microgram concentrations, a precipitate was no longer observed, and antimicrobial activity was not reduced. Heparin appeared to interact unfavorably with vancomycin at the concentrations in the intravenous lines when these drugs were administered simultaneously to patients. This may be the cause of poor therapeutic responses to vancomycin in some patients, especially those infected with tolerant organisms.
Kim, Soo-Kyung; Cho, Eun-Jung; Sung, Heungsup; An, Dongheui; Park, Sook-Ja; Nam, Gi-Byoung
Helicobacter cinaedi is an enterohepatic species. It can cause bacteremia, gastroenteritis, and cellulitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, malignancy, or alcoholism. There are no previous reports of H. cinaedi infection in Korea. A 71-yr-old man was admitted to the emergency room because of dyspnea on November 9, 2011. He had undergone splenectomy 3 yr ago because of immune hemolytic anemia. Chest plain radiography revealed bilateral pleural effusion. He developed fever on hospital day (HD) 21. Three sets of blood cultures were taken, and gram-negative spiral bacilli were detected in all aerobic vials. The isolate grew in tiny colonies on chocolate agar after 3-day incubation under microaerophilic conditions. This organism tested positive for catalase and oxidase, and negative for urease. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of this isolate exhibited 99.8% homology with the published sequence of H. cinaedi CCUG 18818T (GenBank accession no. ABQT01000054) and 98.5% homology with the sequence of Helicobacter bilis Hb1T (GenBank accession no. U18766). The patient was empirically treated with piperacillin/tazobactam and levofloxacin, and discharged with improvement on HD 31. To our knowledge, this is the first report of H. cinaedi bacteremia in an asplenic patient. Asplenia appears to be a risk factor for H. cinaedi bacteremia. PMID:23130344
Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
that an MHD accelerator can be an effective augmentation system for increasing engine exhaust velocity. More specifically, the experiment is intended to show that electromagnetic effects are effective at producing flow acceleration whereas electrothermal effects do not cause unacceptable heating of the working fluid. The MHD accelerator was designed as an externally diagonalized segmented Faraday channel, which will be inserted into an existing 2-tesla electromagnet. This allows the external power to be connected through two terminals thereby minimizing the complexity and cost associated with powering each segment independently. The design of the accelerator and other components in the flow path has been completed and fabrication activities are underway. This paper provides a full description of MAPX including performance analysis, design, and test plans, and current status.
Litchford, Ron J.; Cole, John; Lineberry, John; Chapman, Jim; Schmidt, Harold; Cook, Stephen (Technical Monitor)
that an MHD accelerator can be an effective augmentation system for increasing engine exhaust velocity. More specifically, the experiment is intended to show that electromagnetic effects are effective at producing flow acceleration whereas electrothermal effects do not cause unacceptable heating of the working fluid. The MHD accelerator was designed as an externally diagonalized segmented Faraday channel, which will be inserted into an existing 2-tesla electromagnet. This allows the external power to be connected through two terminals thereby minimizing the complexity and cost associated with powering each segment independently. The design of the accelerator and other components in the flow path has been completed and fabrication activities are underway. This paper provides a full description of MAPX including performance analysis, design, and test plans, and current status.
Easter, Sarah Rae; Molina, Rose L; Venkatesh, Kartik K; Kaimal, Anjali; Tuomala, Ruth; Riley, Laura E
To evaluate risk factors associated with maternal bacteremia in febrile peripartum women. We performed a case-control study of women with fevers occurring between 7 days before and up to 42 days after delivery of viable neonates at two academic hospitals. Women with positive blood cultures were matched with the next two febrile women meeting inclusion criteria with negative blood cultures in the microbiology data without other matching parameters. We compared maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes between women in the case group and those in the control group with univariate analysis. We then used logistic regression to examine the association between clinical characteristics and maternal bacteremia. After excluding blood cultures positive only for contaminants, we compared 115 women in the case group with 285 in the control group. Bacteremic women were more likely to experience their initial fever during labor (40.9% compared with 22.8%, P<.01) and more likely to have fever at or above 102°F (62.6% compared with 31.6%, P<.01). These associations persisted in the adjusted analysis: multiparity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.87), initial fever during labor (adjusted OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.70-4.70), and fever at or above 102°F (adjusted OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.37-6.19). In an analysis restricted to neonates whose mothers had initial fevers before or in the immediate 24 hours after delivery, neonates born to women in the case group had higher rates of bacteremia compared with those born to women in the control group (9.0% compared with 1.3%, P<.01). Eight of the nine bacteremic neonates born to bacteremic mothers (89%) grew the same organism as his or her mother in blood culture. Maternal bacteremia is associated with multiparity, initial fever during labor, and fever at or above 102°F; however, 37.5% of cases of bacteremia occurred in women with maximum fevers below this threshold. Obstetricians should maintain a heightened suspicion for an
Cobo, Fernando; Cabezas-Fernández, Maria Teresa; Cabeza-Barrera, Maria Isabel
Streptococcus pneumoniae remains an important cause of bacteremia worldwide. Last years, a decrease of S. pneumoniae penicillin-resistant isolates has been observed. The objective of this study was to describe the episodes of bacteremia due to S. pneumoniae during a period of 11 years. Epidemiological and clinical data, serotypes causing bacteremia, antibiotic susceptibility and prognosis factors were studied. Over a period of 11 years, all the episodes of S. pneumoniae bacteremia were analysed. Their clinical and microbiological features were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out to determine risk factors for pneumococcal bacteremia and predictors of fatal outcome. Finally, 67 S. pneumoniae bacteremia episodes were included in this study. The majority of cases were produced in white men in the middle age of their life. The main predisposing factors observed were smoking, antimicrobial and/or corticosteroids administration, chronic pulmonary obstructive disease and HIV infection, and the most common source of bacteremia was the low respiratory tract. The main serotypes found were 19A, 1, 14 and 7F. Seventy-seven percent of these isolates were penicillin-susceptible, and the mortality in this serie was really low. Statistical significance was observed between age, sex and race factors and the presence of bacteremia, and there was relationship between the patient's condition and the outcome. In our study, S. pneumoniae bacteremia is mainly from community-acquired origin mainly caused in men in the median age of the life. 40% of bacteremias were caused by serotypes 19A, 1, 7F and 14. During the period of study the incidence of bacteremia was stable and the mortality rate was very low. PMID:24470943
Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert
How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…
de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T
Developing the concept of gluteal augmentation through the past 17 years has been an academic adventure. During these years my coworkers and I have progressively improved surgical technique and devised an anatomical system for gluteal augmentation that includes an ideal implant design and templates to assist in evaluating patients in the preoperative period and to identify the most appropriate implant size.
Sinharay, Sandip; Haberman, Shelby J.
Recently, there has been an increasing level of interest in subscores for their potential diagnostic value. Haberman (2008b) suggested reporting an augmented subscore that is a linear combination of a subscore and the total score. Sinharay and Haberman (2008) and Sinharay (2010) showed that augmented subscores often lead to more accurate…
Munnerley, Danny; Bacon, Matt; Wilson, Anna; Steele, James; Hedberg, John; Fitzgerald, Robert
How can educators make use of augmented reality technologies and practices to enhance learning and why would we want to embrace such technologies anyway? How can an augmented reality help a learner confront, interpret and ultimately comprehend reality itself ? In this article, we seek to initiate a discussion that focuses on these questions, and…
Engelbart, Doug; Hooper, Kristina
Augmentation systems are composed of things that will add to what the human is genetically endowed with in order to extend the net capabilities that a human or human organization can apply to the problems or goals of human society. A broad brush categorization of the components of an augmentation system includes three distinct though interacting…
Ha, Young Eun; Song, Jae-Hoon; Kang, Won Ki; Peck, Kyong Ran; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Kang, Cheol-In; Joung, Mi-Kyong; Joo, Eun-Jeong; Shon, Kyung Mok
Bacteremia is an important clinical condition in febrile neutropenia that can cause clinical failure of antimicrobial therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical factors predictive of bacteremia in low-risk febrile neutropenia at initial patient evaluation. We performed a retrospective cohort study in a university hospital in Seoul, Korea, between May 1995 and May 2007. Patients who met the criteria of low-risk febrile neutropenia at the time of visit to emergency department after anti-cancer chemotherapy were included in the analysis. During the study period, 102 episodes of bacteremia were documented among the 993 episodes of low-risk febrile neutropenia. Single gram-negative bacteremia was most frequent. In multivariate regression analysis, initial body temperature ≥39°C, initial hypotension, presence of clinical sites of infection, presence of central venous catheter, initial absolute neutrophil count <50/mm(3), and the CRP ≥10 mg/dL were statistically significant predictors for bacteremia. A scoring system using these variables was derived and the likelihood of bacteremia was well correlated with the score points with AUC under ROC curve of 0.785. Patients with low score points had low rate of bacteremia, thus, would be candidates for outpatient-based or oral antibiotic therapy. We identified major clinical factors that can predict bacteremia in low-risk febrile neutropenia.
Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon
Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones.
Shapiro, C L; Haft, R F; Gantz, N M; Doern, G V; Christenson, J C; O'Brien, R; Overall, J C; Brown, B A; Wallace, R J
Tsukamurella paurometabolum is a weakly acid-fast, pleomorphic gram-positive bacterium found in soil. Human infection due to this organism has rarely been described, and there are no published accounts of bacteremia. Three cases of bacteremia due to T. paurometabolum and related to long-term use of a central venous catheter in patients with cancer who were receiving chemotherapy are described.
Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R.
Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones. PMID:27533890
Gauguet, Stefanie; Ahmed, Asim A; Zhou, Jing; Pfoh, Elizabeth R; Ahnger-Pier, Kathryn K; Harper, Marvin B; Ozonoff, Al; Wessels, Michael R; Lee, Grace M
We analyzed characteristics of 86 Group A streptococcal bacteremia cases at Boston Children's Hospital from 1992 to 2012. Twenty-three percent of children had severe disease, using intensive care unit admission (18), disability (7) or death (2) as indicators. Children with bacteremia without a source (30% of cases) were less likely to have severe disease than children with focal infections in adjusted models.
Sreenivasan, Prem K; Tischio-Bereski, Deborah; Fine, Daniel H
The aims of this study were to; 1) test susceptibility to bacteremia in subjects with moderate gingivitis, and 2) compare the effects of brushing with a fluoride toothpaste (control) as compared to a triclosan/copolymer toothpaste (test) on those susceptible to repeated bacteremia. One hundred and seven adult subjects were tested for repeated bacteremia after eating a hard apple. Twenty-nine bacteremia positive subjects were enrolled in a double-blind cross-over study designed to analyse the effects of a test toothpaste. After random toothpaste assignment, subjects brushed for 21 days. Following a wash-out period, subjects completed the study with the alternate toothpaste. Statistical analysis compared bacteremia between groups by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Twenty-six adult subjects completed the cross-over study. No statistically significant differences for bacteremia were seen at baseline. Mean bacterial counts at baseline and post-treatment visits were 45.5 and 10.8 counts versus 48.5 and 38.0 counts, respectively (test vs. control group; significant at p < .05). Significant reductions in blood borne bacteria were seen in the test versus control groups in both cultural and DNA data (p < .05). Thirty percentage of subjects showed repeated bacteremia. Brushing with a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice demonstrated significant reductions in bacteremia as compared to the control toothpaste. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tugcu, Deniz; Turel, Ozden; Aydogan, Gonul; Akcay, Arzu; Salcioglu, Zafer; Akici, Ferhan; Sen, Hulya; Demirkaya, Metin; Taskin, Necati; Gurler, Nezahat
Achromobacter xylosoxidans is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus and important cause of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. We describe a leukemia pediatric patient with severe neutropenia who developed bacteremia with A xylosoxidans resistant to multiple antibiotics, and treated the patient with tigecycline and piperacillin-tazobactam in addition to supportive medications.
Yoo, Jin-Hong; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Su Mi; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Shin, Wan-Shik; Kim, Myungshin; Yong, Dongeun; Lee, Kyungwon; Min, Woo-Sung; Kim, Chun-Choo
An increase in vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) bacteremia in hemato-oncological patients (n=19) in our institution from 2000 through 2001 led us to analyze the molecular epidemiologic patterns and clinical features unique to our cases. The pulsed field gel electrophoresis of the isolates revealed that the bacteremia was not originated from a single clone but rather showed endemic pattern of diverse clones with small clusters. A different DNA pattern of blood and stool isolates from one patient suggested exogenous rather than endogenous route of infection. Enterococcus faecium carrying vanA gene was the causative pathogen in all cases. Patients with VRE bacteremia showed similar clinical courses compared with those with vancomycin-susceptible enterococcal (VSE) bacteremia. Vancomycin resistance did not seem to be a poor prognostic factor because of similar mortality (5/8, 62.5%) noted in VSE bacteremia. Initial disease severity and neutropenic status may be major determinants of prognosis in patients with VRE bacteraemia.
Yoon, Young Kyung; Kim, Hyun Ah; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Mi Suk; Kim, Jieun; Park, Seong Yeon; Yang, Kyung Sook; Kim, Shin Woo
This study aimed to construct a prediction algorithm, which is readily applicable in the clinical setting, to determine the mortality rate for patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. A multicenter observational cohort study was performed retrospectively in seven university-affiliated hospitals in Korea from March 2012 to February 2015. In total, 264 adult patients with monomicrobial P. aeruginosa bacteremia were included in the analyses. Among the predictors independently associated with 30-day mortality in the Cox regression model, Pitt bacteremia score >2 and high-risk source of bacteremia were identified as critical nodes in the tree-structured survival analysis. Particularly, the empirical combination therapy was not associated with any survival benefit in the Cox regression model compared to the empirical monotherapy. This study suggests that determining the infection source and evaluating the clinical severity are critical to predict the clinical outcome in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.
Augmentation of a vocal fold serves to improve glottic closure and may be indicated for paresis of the recurrent nerve and after tumor resection. Methods include injection of viscous fluids (paraffin, liquid silicone, polyvinyl alcohol, gelatin, sesame oil, collagen and particularly teflon paste) and operations to tighten the vocal cord or displace it medially. The disadvantages of the former include the danger of overcorrection, tissue irritation and possible systemic absorption of the material. As an alternative, solid material such as cartilage or synthetics may be used for augmentation. Experience obtained so far has shown that chips of porous polyethylene (PHDPE) are particularly suitable: they are easy to use, show good tissue tolerance and are anchored by ingrowth of connective tissue. The value of photokymography of the larynx in the assessment of therapeutic results after vocal-fold augmentation is discussed.
Rosenman, J.E.; Pearce, W.H.; Kempczinski, R.F.
All currently used arterial prosthetics have a greater susceptibility to infection following bacteremia than does autogenous tissue. This experiment compares quantitative bacterial adherence to various prosthetic materials after bacteremia carried out in a tightly controlled and quantitative fashion. Ten centimeters long, 4 mm i.d. Dacron, umbilical vein (HUV), and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts, as well as PTFE grafts with a running suture line at the midportion were tested. Each graft was interposed into a pulsatile perfusion system modified from a Waters MOX 100 TM renal transplant pump. Indium-111-labeled Staphylococcus aureus were added to heparinized canine blood to give a mean concentration of 4.7 X 10(6) bacteria/cc. This infected blood was recirculated through each graft for 30 min at a rate of 125 cc/m, 100 Torr (sys), 60 beats/min. The gamma counts/graft were used to calculate the number of bacteria/cm2 of graft surface. After nine experiments, a mean of 9.63 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 were adherent to the Dacron, 1.04 X 10(5) bacteria/cm2 to the HUV, and 2.15 X 10(4) bacteria/cm2 to the PTFE. These differences were all significant at the 0.05 level. The addition of a suture line increased bacterial adherence to the PTFE graft by 50%. These results suggest that PTFE is the vascular graft material of choice when a prosthetic graft must be implanted despite a high risk of subsequent clinical bacteremia. An in vitro, pulsatile perfusion model gave accurate and reproducible results, and appears well suited for further studies of bacterial, or platelet adherence to grafts, as well as the biomechanics of vascular conduits.
Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Myungsook; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon
Background Investigation on incidence and mortality of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) is clinically relevant in spite of its infrequent occurrence and not often explored, which report varies according to period and institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incidence and risk factors related to mortality and assess clinical outcomes of AB in current aspect. Materials and Methods Characteristics of AB patients and anaerobic bacteria from blood culture at a university hospital in 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between risk factors and 28-day patient mortality was analyzed. Results A total of 70 non-duplicated anaerobic bacteria were isolated from blood of 70 bacteremia patients in 2012. The history of cardiovascular disease as host's risk factor was statistically significant (P = 0.0344) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Although the inappropriate therapy was not statistically significant in univariate and multivariate analysis, the survival rate of bacteremia was significantly worse in patients who had inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–6.9; P = 0.004). The most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides fragilis (32 isolates, 46%), followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10, 14%), and non-perfringens Clostridium (7, 10%). Conclusion The incidence of AB in 2012 was 2.3% (number of AB patients per 100 positive blood culture patients) and the mortality rate in patients with clinically significant AB was 21.4%. In addition, AB was frequently noted in patients having malignancy and the survival rate of AB was significantly worse in patients who received inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy. PMID:27433379
Schuppener, Leah M; Pop-Vicas, Aurora E; Brooks, Erin G; Duster, Megan N; Crnich, Christopher J; Sterkel, Alana K; Webb, Aaron P; Safdar, Nasia
OBJECTIVE To describe the investigation and control of a cluster of Serratia marcescens bacteremia in a 505-bed tertiary-care center. METHODS Cluster cases were defined as all patients with S. marcescens bacteremia between March 2 and April 7, 2014, who were found to have identical or related blood isolates determined by molecular typing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Cases were compared using bivariate analysis with controls admitted at the same time and to the same service as the cases, in a 4:1 ratio. RESULTS In total, 6 patients developed S. marcescens bacteremia within 48 hours after admission within the above period. Of these, 5 patients had identical Serratia isolates determined by molecular typing, and were included in a case-control study. Exposure to the post-anesthesia care unit was a risk factor identified in bivariate analysis. Evidence of tampered opioid-containing syringes on several hospital units was discovered soon after the initial cluster case presented, and a full narcotic diversion investigation was conducted. A nurse working in the post-anesthesia care unit was identified as the employee responsible for the drug diversion and was epidemiologically linked to all 5 patients in the cluster. No further cases were identified once the implicated employee's job was terminated. CONCLUSION Illicit drug use by healthcare workers remains an important mechanism for the development of bloodstream infections in hospitalized patients. Active mechanisms and systems should remain in place to prevent, detect, and control narcotic drug diversions and associated patient harm in the healthcare setting. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:1027-1031.
Jung, Dong Sik
Background To elucidate the clinical presentation, antimicrobial susceptibility, and prognostic factors of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia in order to determine the most effective optimal therapy. Materials and Methods We reviewed the medical records of Aeromonas bacteremia patients for the period January 2000 to December 2013 in a retrospective multi-center study. Results A total of 336 patient records were reviewed, with 242 having community-acquired bacteremia. The major clinical infections were of the hepatobiliary tract (50.6%) and peritonitis (18.5%), followed by primary bacteremia (17.9%). The infections usually occurred in patients with malignancy (42.3%), hepatic cirrhosis (39.3%), or diabetes mellitus (25.6%). High antimicrobial-resistance rates (15.5% for ceftriaxone, 15.5% for piperacillin/tazobactam) were noted. However, resistance to carbapenem and amikacin was only 9.8% and 3.0%, respectively. Aeromonas hydrophila (58.9%) was the most common pathogen, followed by Aeromonas caviae (30.4%). The severity of A. caviae bacteremia cases were less than that of A. hydrophila or Aeromonas veronii bacteremia (P <0.05). A. hydrophila showed higher antimicrobial resistance than did other Aeromonas species (P <0.05). Patients with hospital-acquired bacteremia were more likely to have severely abnormal laboratory findings and relatively high antimicrobial-resistance rates. Mortality was associated with metastatic cancer, shock, delayed use of appropriate antimicrobial agents, increased prothrombin time, and increased creatinine level (P <0.05). Conclusions Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative agents of bacteremia in patients with intra-abdominal infections or malignancies. Although ceftriaxone-resistant Aeromonas bacteremia was not statistically related to mortality in this study, it was associated with severe clinical manifestations and laboratory abnormalities. Appropriate antibiotics, including carbapenem, should be administered early
Komatsu, Takayuki; Takahashi, Erika; Mishima, Kentaro; Toyoda, Takeo; Saitoh, Fumihiro; Yasuda, Akari; Matsuoka, Joe; Sugita, Manabu; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence; Inoue, Kenji
Predicting the presence of true bacteremia based on clinical examination is unreliable. We aimed to construct a simple algorithm for predicting true bacteremia by using food consumption and shaking chills. A prospective multicenter observational study. Three hospital centers in a large Japanese city. In total, 1,943 hospitalized patients aged 14 to 96 years who underwent blood culture acquisitions between April 2013 and August 2014 were enrolled. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions were excluded. We assessed the patients' oral food intake based on the meal immediately prior to the blood culture with definition as "normal food consumption" when >80% of a meal was consumed and "poor food consumption" when <80% was consumed. We also concurrently evaluated for a history of shaking chills. We calculated the statistical characteristics of food consumption and shaking chills for the presence of true bacteremia, and subsequently built the algorithm by using recursive partitioning analysis. Among 1,943 patients, 223 cases were true bacteremia. Among patients with normal food consumption, without shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 2.4% (13/552). Among patients with poor food consumption and shaking chills, the incidence of true bacteremia was 47.7% (51/107). The presence of poor food consumption had a sensitivity of 93.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.4%-97.9%) for true bacteremia, and the absence of poor food consumption (ie, normal food consumption) had a negative likelihood ratio (LR) of 0.18 (95% CI, 0.17-0.19) for excluding true bacteremia, respectively. Conversely, the presence of the shaking chills had a specificity of 95.1% (95% CI, 90.7%-99.4%) and a positive LR of 4.78 (95% CI, 4.56-5.00) for true bacteremia. A 2-item screening checklist for food consumption and shaking chills had excellent statistical properties as a brief screening instrument for predicting true bacteremia.
Chen, Chung-Hua; Lin, Jesun; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Min
We present the case of a 49-year-old man, who developed Mycobacterium abscessus complex (M. abscessus complex) bacteremia and prostatitis after prostate biopsy. The patient was successfully treated with amikacin with imipenem-cilastatin with clarithromycin. Infections caused by M. abscessus complex have been increasingly described as a complication associated with many invasive procedures. Invasive procedures might have contributed to the occurrence of the M. abscessus complex. Although M. abscessus complex infection is difficult to diagnose and treat, we should pay more attention to this kind of infection, and the correct treatment strategy will be achieved by physicians.
Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient's rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection. It is important to keep in mind the risk factors of a particular patient when formulating a differential diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Listeria bacteremia causing leukocytoclastic vasculitis. PMID:27313916
Joseph, Noyal Mariya; Harish, Belgode Narasimha; Sistla, Sujatha; Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Parija, Subhash Chandra
A 29-year-old woman presented with multiple painful swelling with discharging sinuses over the scalp. Histopathological examination of the biopsy tissue was suggestive of actinomycotic mycetoma. Streptomyces spp. was isolated from blood culture. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and crystalline penicillin. This case is reported because of the rare occurrence of bacteremia by Streptomyces spp. secondary to subcutaneous actinomycotic mycetoma. Moreover, an interesting association between successive two pregnancies and occurrence of mycetoma of the scalp was observed in this case.
Harmon, Nicole; Mortensen, Joel E; Robinette, Eric; Powell, Eleanor A
We present a case of pediatric bacteremia caused by Chromobacterium haemolyticum, a β-hemolytic, non-pigmented, Gram-negative bacilli recovered from a blood culture and initially identified as Chromobacterium violaceum using phenotypic and proteomic methods. 16S rRNA sequencing of the patient isolated demonstrated a high degree of sequence homology with the type strain of C. haemolyticum. The patient recovered following treatment with meropenem, gentamicin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This case highlights the potential misidentification of C. haemolyticum as non-pigmented C. violaceum due to limitations of the currently available identification methodologies.
Bhuyan, U. N.; Ramalingaswami, V.
Staphylococcal bacteremia was induced in two groups of rabbits that were pairfed high protein and protein deficient diets. Marked deviations in response were observed as a result of protein deficiency: a) blood clearance of S aureus was delayed; b) persistence and multiplication of bacteria in blood and tissues were pronounced; c) neutrophilic response was poor and transitory; d) mortality was very high and occurred very early and e) focal necrotizing lesions, rather than well-formed abscesses, were found in organs. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4634740
Berryman, Donna R
Augmented reality is a technology that overlays digital information on objects or places in the real world for the purpose of enhancing the user experience. It is not virtual reality, that is, the technology that creates a totally digital or computer created environment. Augmented reality, with its ability to combine reality and digital information, is being studied and implemented in medicine, marketing, museums, fashion, and numerous other areas. This article presents an overview of augmented reality, discussing what it is, how it works, its current implementations, and its potential impact on libraries.
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100009.htm Chin augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100205.htm Breast augmentation - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...
Hollenbeck, D.A.; Krantz, E.A.; Hunt, G.L.; Meyer, O.R.
The outline of the LOFT Augmented Operator Capability Program is presented. This program utilizes the LOFT (Loss-of-Fluid Test) reactor facility which is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and the LOFT operational transient experiment series as a test bed for methods of enhancing the reactor operator's capability for safer operation. The design of an Operational Diagnotics and Display System is presented which was backfit to the existing data acquisition computers. Basic color-graphic displays of the process schematic and trend type are presented. In addition, displays were developed and are presented which represent safety state vector information. A task analysis method was applied to LOFT reactor operating procedures to test its usefulness in defining the operator's information needs and workload.
Shim, Hyoeun Eun; Sung, Heungsup; Baek, Seung Mi; Namgung, Seung; Kim, Mi-Na; Kim, Yong Gyun; Lee, Gyu Hyung
Tsukamurella pulmonis is an aerobic actinomycete. We report a catheter-related bacteremia of T. pulmonis. A 39 yr-old male with ALL was hospitalized to receive bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Although the patient developed a high fever at the 7th hospital day (HD), it subsided with vancomycin treatment, and he received BMT at 9th HD. Fever resurged at 16th HD despite sustained treatment with vancomycin, meropenem, and amphotericin B, but subsided with removal of Hickman catheter (HC) at 19th HD. Three sets of blood cultures comprising one from the HC and two from venipunctures were taken at 7th, 16th, and 19th HD, and the distal tip of the HC was also cultured. The aerobic vials of all 3 HC-withdrawn blood cultures and one peripheral blood culture taken at 19HD and the HC tip culture grew long, straight, thin gram-positive rods that were positive on modified Kinyoun stain. This organism showed tiny, rough, grey colonies after 3-day incubation and grew to large flat colonies when incubation was extended. It was catalase-positive, urease-positive, and alkaline-slant/alkaline-deep on triple sugar iron agar, and hydrolyzed hypoxanthine. The sequence of 1,296 base pairs of 16S rRNA of this organism showed a 100.0% homology with the published sequence of T. pulmonis DSM 44142T. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. pulmonis bacteremia in Korea.
Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Maurer, Katie; Torres, Victor J; Shopsin, Bo; Cadwell, Ken
Mutations that alter virulence and antibiotic susceptibility arise and persist during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. However, an experimental system demonstrating transmission following bacteremia has been lacking, and thus implications of within-host adaptation for between-host transmission are unknown. We report that S. aureus disseminates to the gastrointestinal tract of mice following intravenous injection and readily transmits to cohoused naive mice. Both intestinal dissemination and transmission were linked to the production of virulence factors based on gene deletion studies of the sae and agr two-component systems. Furthermore, antimicrobial selection for antibiotic-resistant S. aureus displaced susceptible S. aureus from the intestine of infected hosts, which led to the preferential transmission and dominance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria among cohoused untreated mice. These findings establish an animal model to investigate gastrointestinal dissemination and transmission of S. aureus and suggest that adaptation during the course of systemic infection has implications beyond the level of a single host. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Pavlinac, Patricia B.; Naulikha, Jaqueline M.; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Onchiri, Frankline M.; Okumu, Albert O.; Sitati, Ruth R.; Cranmer, Lisa M.; Lokken, Erica M.; Singa, Benson O.; Walson, Judd L.
In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8–4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < −2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < −2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0–2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies. PMID:26324730
Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; John-Stewart, Grace C; Onchiri, Frankline M; Okumu, Albert O; Sitati, Ruth R; Cranmer, Lisa M; Lokken, Erica M; Singa, Benson O; Walson, Judd L
In children, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) frequently disseminates systemically, presenting with nonspecific signs including fever. We determined prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia among febrile children presenting to hospitals in Nyanza, Kenya (a region with high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and M. tuberculosis prevalence). Between March 2013 and February 2014, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting with fever (axillary temperature ≥ 37.5°C) and no recent antibiotic use. Blood samples were collected for bacterial and mycobacterial culture using standard methods. Among 148 children enrolled, median age was 3.1 years (interquartile range: 1.8-4.1 years); 10.3% of children were living with a household member diagnosed with M. tuberculosis in the last year. Seventeen percent of children were stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2), 18.6% wasted (weight-for-height z-score < -2), 2.7% were HIV-infected, and 14.2% were HIV-exposed uninfected. Seventeen children (11.5%) had one or more signs of tuberculosis (TB). All children had a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination scar. Among 134 viable blood cultures, none (95% confidence interval: 0-2.7%) had Mycobacterium isolated. Despite exposure to household TB contacts, HIV exposure, and malnutrition, M. tuberculosis bacteremia was not detected in this pediatric febrile cohort, a finding consistent with other pediatric studies.
Chen, Hui-Lan; Lu, Jen-Her; Wang, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Shu-Jen; Chen, Chun-Jen; Wu, Keh-Gong; Tang, Ren-Bin
Enterobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in pediatric patients. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients (under the age of 18 years) having Enterobacter bacteremia who were treated at Taipei the Veterans General Hospital from January 2001 to June 2011. In total, 853 positive blood cultures were obtained from 620 patients during the study period. Among them, 96 episodes of Enterobacter bacteremia were found in 83 patients, accounting for 11.3% of all bacteremia. Eighty-two cases (98.8%) were nosocomial infections. Most of the cases were neonates (62 cases, 74.7%) and premature infants (51 cases, 61.5%). The common sources of bacteremia were the respiratory tract (53.0%), followed by intravascular catheter (10.8%), multiple sources (10.8%), and the gastrointestinal tract (8.4%). The overall case fatality rate was 18.1%, with the highest rate being reported among premature infants. The factors responsible for the deaths were leukocytosis and a higher median number of underlying diseases. Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Enterobacter species are probably an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia in premature neonates. The number of underlying diseases should be considered a major factor influencing the prognosis. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Obaro, Stephen K.; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Olateju, Eyinade K.; Umoru, Dominic; Lawson, Lovett; Olanipekun, Grace; Ibrahim, Sadeeq; Munir, Huda; Ihesiolor, Gabriel; Maduekwe, Augustine; Ohiaeri, Chinatu; Adetola, Anthony; Shetima, Denis; Jibir, Binta W.; Nakaura, Hafsat; Kocmich, Nicholas; Ajose, Therasa; Idiong, David; Masokano, Kabir; Ifabiyi, Adeyemi; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Chen, Baojiang; Meza, Jane; Akindele, Adebayo; Rezac-Elgohary, Amy; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Suwaid, Salman; Gambo, Mahmoud; Alter, Roxanne; Davies, Herbert D.; Fey, Paul D.
Background. Etiologic agents of childhood bacteremia remain poorly defined in Nigeria. The absence of such data promotes indiscriminate use of antibiotics and delays implementation of appropriate preventive strategies. Methods. We established diagnostic laboratories for bacteremia surveillance at regional sites in central and northwest Nigeria. Acutely ill children aged <5 years with clinically suspected bacteremia were evaluated at rural and urban clinical facilities in the Federal Capital Territory, central region and in Kano, northwest Nigeria. Blood was cultured using the automated Bactec incubator system. Results. Between September 2008 and April 2015, we screened 10 133 children. Clinically significant bacteremia was detected in 609 of 4051 (15%) in the northwest and 457 of 6082 (7.5%) in the central region. Across both regions, Salmonella species account for 24%–59.8% of bacteremias and are the commonest cause of childhood bacteremia, with a predominance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole was 38.11%, with regional differences in susceptibility to different antibiotics but high prevalence of resistance to readily available oral antibiotics. Conclusions. Salmonella Typhi is the leading cause of childhood bacteremia in central Nigeria. Expanded surveillance is planned to define the dynamics of transmission. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains calls for improvement in environmental sanitation in the long term and vaccination in the short term. PMID:26449948
Obaro, Stephen K; Hassan-Hanga, Fatimah; Olateju, Eyinade K; Umoru, Dominic; Lawson, Lovett; Olanipekun, Grace; Ibrahim, Sadeeq; Munir, Huda; Ihesiolor, Gabriel; Maduekwe, Augustine; Ohiaeri, Chinatu; Adetola, Anthony; Shetima, Denis; Jibir, Binta W; Nakaura, Hafsat; Kocmich, Nicholas; Ajose, Therasa; Idiong, David; Masokano, Kabir; Ifabiyi, Adeyemi; Ihebuzor, Nnenna; Chen, Baojiang; Meza, Jane; Akindele, Adebayo; Rezac-Elgohary, Amy; Olaosebikan, Rasaq; Suwaid, Salman; Gambo, Mahmoud; Alter, Roxanne; Davies, Herbert D; Fey, Paul D
Etiologic agents of childhood bacteremia remain poorly defined in Nigeria. The absence of such data promotes indiscriminate use of antibiotics and delays implementation of appropriate preventive strategies. We established diagnostic laboratories for bacteremia surveillance at regional sites in central and northwest Nigeria. Acutely ill children aged <5 years with clinically suspected bacteremia were evaluated at rural and urban clinical facilities in the Federal Capital Territory, central region and in Kano, northwest Nigeria. Blood was cultured using the automated Bactec incubator system. Between September 2008 and April 2015, we screened 10,133 children. Clinically significant bacteremia was detected in 609 of 4051 (15%) in the northwest and 457 of 6082 (7.5%) in the central region. Across both regions, Salmonella species account for 24%-59.8% of bacteremias and are the commonest cause of childhood bacteremia, with a predominance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole was 38.11%, with regional differences in susceptibility to different antibiotics but high prevalence of resistance to readily available oral antibiotics. Salmonella Typhi is the leading cause of childhood bacteremia in central Nigeria. Expanded surveillance is planned to define the dynamics of transmission. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains calls for improvement in environmental sanitation in the long term and vaccination in the short term. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rudman, D; Hontanosas, A; Cohen, Z; Mattson, D E
Little is known about bacteremia in long-term care facilities. We have conducted a retrospective study during a 12-month period analyzing the clinical correlates of bacteremia in 533 chronically institutionalized, predominantly male patients, with an average age of 69 years. Thirty-four men had forty-two bacteremic illnesses during this period. The incidence rate was 0.30 episodes per 1000 patient care days, and the mortality rate was 21%. The urinary tract was the most frequently identified tissue source (56%), followed by respiratory tract (7%) and skin (7%). Providencia stuartii was the most common gram-negative organism, while Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and enterococcus were the frequent gram-positive microbes. Gram-negative bacteremia accounted for 63% of the episodes (15% mortality rate), and gram-positive bacteremia accounted for 27% (18% mortality rate); 10% of the bacteremias were polymicrobial (25% mortality rate). Most of the isolated organisms were sensitive to available antimicrobial agents. The leading risk factor for bacteremia was an indwelling urinary catheter (odds ratio 39, 95% confidence limits 16 to 97). Patients with urinary catheters at the beginning of the study constituted only 5% of the population, but accounted for 40% of the gram-negative bacteremias during the year of observation.
Martin, Camilia R.; Dammann, Olaf; Allred, Elizabeth N.; Patel, Sonal; O’Shea, T. Michael; Kuban, Karl C. K.; Leviton, Alan
Objective To evaluate neurodevelopment following necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late bacteremia, alone and together. Study design Sample included 1155 infants born at 23-27 weeks’ gestation. NEC was classified by the Modified Bell’s staging criteria and grouped as medical NEC or surgical NEC. Late bacteremia was defined as a positive blood culture after the first postnatal week. Neurodevelopment was assessed at 24 months corrected age. Multivariable models estimated the risk of developmental dysfunction and microcephaly associated with medical or surgical NEC with and without late bacteremia. Results Children who had surgical NEC unaccompanied by late bacteremia were at increased risk of Psychomotor Developmental Indices <70 [OR=2.7 (1.2, 6.4)], and children who had both surgical NEC and late bacteremia were at increased risk of diparetic cerebral palsy [OR=8.4 (1.9, 39)] and microcephaly [OR=9.3 (2.2, 40)]. In contrast, children who had medical NEC with or without late bacteremia were not at increased risk of any developmental dysfunction. Conclusion The risk of neurodevelopmental dysfunction and microcephaly is increased in children who had surgical NEC, especially if they also had late bacteremia. These observations support the hypothesis that bowel injury might initiate systemic inflammation potentially affecting the developing brain. PMID:20598317
Conway, Laurie J.; Liu, Jianfang; Harris, Anthony D.; Larson, Elaine L.
Background Catheter-associated bacteriuria is complicated by secondary bacteremia in 0.4% to 4.0% of cases. The directly attributable mortality rate is 12.7% Objective To identify risk factors for bacteremia associated with catheter-associated bacteriuria. Methods Data were acquired from a large electronic clinical and administrative database of consecutive adult inpatient admissions to 2 acute care hospitals during a 7-year period. Data on patients with catheter-associated bacteriuria and bacteremia were compared with data on control patients with catheter-associated bacteriuria and no bacteremia, matched for date of admission plus or minus 30 days. Urine and blood cultures positive for the same pathogen within 7 days were used to define catheter-associated bacteriuria and bacteremia. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to determine independent risk factors for bacteremia. Results The sample consisted of 158 cases and 474 controls. Independent predictors of bacteremia were male sex (odds ratio, 2.76), treatment with immunosuppressants (odds ratio, 1.68), urinary tract procedure (odds ratio, 2.70), and catheter that remained in place after bacteriuria developed (odds ratio, 2.75). Patients with enterococcal bacteriuria were half as likely to become bacteremic as were patients with other urinary pathogens (odds ratio, 0.46). Odds of secondary bacteremia increased 2% per additional day of hospital stay (95% CI, 1.01-1.04) and decreased 1% with each additional year of age (95% CI, 0.97-0.99). Conclusions The results add new information about increased risk for bacteremia among patients with catheters remaining in place after catheter-associated bacteriuria and confirm evidence for previously identified risk factors. PMID:27965229
Richet, H; Escande, M C; Marie, J P; Zittoun, R; Lagrange, P H
From 1 August 1978 through 31 December 1982, 98 hematology-oncology patients had positive cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa serotype O16; 22 of these patients developed bacteremia, and this bacteremia was associated with the occurrence of extensive perineal cellulitis in 10 patients (45.5%). Seventeen bacteremic patients died. The epidemic strain differed from other P. aeruginosa organisms isolated at the hospital by its resistance to all antibiotics available at that time (ticarcillin, piperacillin, azlocillin, tobramycin, ceftizoxime, ceftriaxone, moxalactam, ceftazidime, and fosfomycin). Univariate analysis showed the following factors to be significantly associated with P. aeruginosa O16 bacteremia: the severity of granulocytopenia at the time of the bacteremia, more days with fever, the administration of ticarcillin or an aminoglycoside, the receipt of a greater number of antimicrobial agents for a longer period of time before documentation of the bacteremia, and the occurrence of cellulitis. Logistic regression analysis showed that duration of fever, duration of bacteremia, and the number of antimicrobial agents administered before documentation of the bacteremia were the best predictors of P. aeruginosa O16 bacteremia. In a prospective study of the acquisition of P. aeruginosa by hematology-oncology patients, 1,149 specimens (throat and rectal swabs) from 270 patients and 201 specimens from their washbasin drains were collected. On only three occasions was the epidemic strain isolated from both the patient and his or her washbasin, but in each case the colonization of the patient preceded the isolation of the strain from the washbasin. The transmission of any P. aeruginosa organism from washbasin drain to patient could not be documented. Contact isolation precautions from the Centers for Disease Control were used for all hematology-oncology patients colonized or infected with P. aeruginosa after 7 January 1983. No case of P. aeruginosa O16 bacteremia has
Siedner, Mark J.; Galar, Alicia; Guzmán-Suarez, Belisa B.; Kubiak, David W.; Baghdady, Nour; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hooper, David C.; O'Brien, Thomas F.; Marty, Francisco M.
Background. Carbapenems are recommended for treatment of Enterobacter infections with AmpC phenotypes. Although isolates are typically susceptible to cefepime in vitro, there are few data supporting its clinical efficacy. Methods. We reviewed all cases of Enterobacter species bacteremia at 2 academic hospitals from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes of interest were (1) persistent bacteremia ≥1 calendar day and (2) in-hospital mortality. We fit logistic regression models, adjusting for clinical risk factors and Pitt bacteremia score and performed propensity score analyses to compare the efficacy of cefepime and carbapenems. Results. Three hundred sixty-eight patients experienced Enterobacter species bacteremia and received at least 1 antimicrobial agent, of whom 52 (14%) died during hospitalization. Median age was 59 years; 19% were neutropenic, and 22% were in an intensive care unit on the day of bacteremia. Twenty-nine (11%) patients had persistent bacteremia for ≥1 day after antibacterial initiation. None of the 36 patients who received single-agent cefepime (0%) had persistent bacteremia, as opposed to 4 of 16 (25%) of those who received single-agent carbapenem (P < .01). In multivariable models, there was no association between carbapenem use and persistent bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.52; 95% CI, .58–3.98; P = .39), and a nonsignificant lower odds ratio with cefepime use (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, .19–1.40; P = .19). In-hospital mortality was similar for use of cefepime and carbapenems in adjusted regression models and propensity-score matched analyses. Conclusions. Cefepime has a similar efficacy as carbapenems for the treatment of Enterobacter species bacteremia. Its use should be further explored as a carbapenem-sparing agent in this clinical scenario. PMID:24647022
Siedner, Mark J; Galar, Alicia; Guzmán-Suarez, Belisa B; Kubiak, David W; Baghdady, Nour; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Hooper, David C; O'Brien, Thomas F; Marty, Francisco M
Carbapenems are recommended for treatment of Enterobacter infections with AmpC phenotypes. Although isolates are typically susceptible to cefepime in vitro, there are few data supporting its clinical efficacy. We reviewed all cases of Enterobacter species bacteremia at 2 academic hospitals from 2005 to 2011. Outcomes of interest were (1) persistent bacteremia ≥1 calendar day and (2) in-hospital mortality. We fit logistic regression models, adjusting for clinical risk factors and Pitt bacteremia score and performed propensity score analyses to compare the efficacy of cefepime and carbapenems. Three hundred sixty-eight patients experienced Enterobacter species bacteremia and received at least 1 antimicrobial agent, of whom 52 (14%) died during hospitalization. Median age was 59 years; 19% were neutropenic, and 22% were in an intensive care unit on the day of bacteremia. Twenty-nine (11%) patients had persistent bacteremia for ≥1 day after antibacterial initiation. None of the 36 patients who received single-agent cefepime (0%) had persistent bacteremia, as opposed to 4 of 16 (25%) of those who received single-agent carbapenem (P < .01). In multivariable models, there was no association between carbapenem use and persistent bacteremia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.52; 95% CI, .58-3.98; P = .39), and a nonsignificant lower odds ratio with cefepime use (aOR, 0.52; 95% CI, .19-1.40; P = .19). In-hospital mortality was similar for use of cefepime and carbapenems in adjusted regression models and propensity-score matched analyses. Cefepime has a similar efficacy as carbapenems for the treatment of Enterobacter species bacteremia. Its use should be further explored as a carbapenem-sparing agent in this clinical scenario.
Tudela, P; Queralt, C; Giménez, M; Carreres, A; Tor, J; Sopena, N; Valencia, J
To know the prevalence, the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremia episodes detected on discharged patients at the emergency unit, as well as the accordance of diagnostics and the predicting factors. We analysed the cases with bacteria detected on discharged patients during 2 years (1995-1996) in an university hospital. We reported: age, sex isolated organism in blood cultures, bacteremia source, leukocytes count, presence of underlying conditions, and accordance between initial and final diagnosis. We compared the characteristics of the groups with bacteremia without apparent origin and the ones with evident clinical source. We detected 61 cases, the mean age was 55 years (SD = 21), and 54% were males. The most commonly isolated agent was E. coli (50%). The leukocytes count was higher 10 x 10(9)/l in 15%. The source of bacteremia was: urinary tract infection (54%) no clinical focus (31%), respiratory tract (11%) and biliary duct (3%). The 90% of urinary tract and the 71% of respiratory infections were correctly diagnosed. However only the 5% of bacteremias without apparent source was correctly diagnosed. We found these differences statistically a significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002). Underlying conditions were detected in the 84% of cases in bacteremia without apparently source: AIDS (22%), cirrhosis (22%), parenteral drugs addiction (17%) and venous catheter (17%). Comparing both groups, with apparent focus and without it, we found that the presence of underlying condition is the only independent factor which predispose to bacteremia (p = 0.000; RR = 4.6; IC 95% = 1.9-11.8). The prevalence of bacteremia detected in discharged patients at the emergency unit seems acceptable. However those results suggest that we could decrease the number of patients with bacteremia without apparently source, because this group shows up to be the less successful in diagnosis. In patients with fever and no clinical focus in the emergency unit, it is useful to
Noguchi, Taro; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi
Cefotaxime plays an important role in the treatment of patients with bacteremia due to Enterobacteriaceae, although cefotaxime resistance is reported to be increasing in association with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC β-lactamase (AmpC). We conducted a case-control study in a Japanese university hospital between 2011 and 2012. We assessed the risk factors and clinical outcomes of bacteremia due to cefotaxime-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXNS-En) and analyzed the resistance mechanisms. Of 316 patients with Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia, 37 patients with bacteremia caused by CTXNS-En were matched to 74 patients who had bacteremia caused by cefotaxime-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CTXS-En). The most common CTXNS-En was Escherichia coli (43%), followed by Enterobacter spp. (24%) and Klebsiella spp. (22%). Independent risk factors for CTXNS-En bacteremia included previous infection or colonization of CTXNS-En, cardiac disease, the presence of intravascular catheter and prior surgery within 30 days. Patients with CTXNS-En bacteremia were less likely to receive appropriate empirical therapy and to achieve a complete response at 72 h than patients with CTXS-En bacteremia. Mortality was comparable between CTXNS-En and CTXS-En patients (5 vs. 3%). CTXNS-En isolates exhibited multidrug resistance but remained highly susceptible to amikacin and meropenem. CTX-M-type ESBLs accounted for 76% of the β-lactamase genes responsible for CTXNS E. coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates, followed by plasmid-mediated AmpC (12%). Chromosomal AmpC was responsible for 89% of CTXNS Enterobacter spp. isolates. CTXNS-En isolates harboring ESBL and AmpC caused delays in appropriate therapy among bacteremic patients. Risk factors and antibiograms may improve the selection of appropriate therapy for CTXNS-En bacteremia. Prevalent mechanisms of resistance in CTXNS-En were ESBL and chromosomal AmpC.
Khatib, Riad; Johnson, Leonard B; Fakih, Mohamad G; Riederer, Kathleen; Khosrovaneh, Amir; Shamse Tabriz, M; Sharma, Mamta; Saeed, Sajjad
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia often persists. The reasons for persistence and its outcome are poorly defined. We conducted a prospective-observational study among 245 consecutive S. aureus (MRSA: n=125; MSSA: n=120) bacteremias (>or=1 positive blood cultures (BC)) among 234 adults (18-103-y-old; median=59 y) hospitalized during 1 January 2002-31 December 2002 at a 600-bed teaching hospital. Measurements included bacteremia duration, complication-rate (metastatic infection, relapse or attributable mortality) and outcome. Bacteremia duration was measured based on follow-up BC among 193 patients and estimated based on symptoms resolution in the rest. Measured (1-59 d; median=2) and estimated (median=1 d) duration correlated (r=0.885) though positive follow-up BC was often detected without fever (57/105 patients, 54.3%). Persistence (defined as bacteremia for >or=3 d) was noted in 84 cases (38.4%). Complication-rate increased steadily with bacteremia duration (6.6%, 24.0% and 37.7% in bacteremia for 1-2, 3 and >or=4 d, respectively; p=0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that bacteremia duration correlated positively with endovascular sources (p=0.006), vancomycin treatment (p=0.016), cardiovascular prosthesis (p=0.025), metastatic infections (p=0.025) and diabetes (p=0.038). It is concluded that persistent bacteremia is a feature of S. aureus infection, irrespective of oxacillin susceptibility, associated with worse outcome. Risk factors include endovascular sources, cardiovascular prosthesis, metastatic infections, vancomycin treatment and diabetes. Patients at risk may benefit from novel treatment strategies.
Rodgers, G M; Barrera, E; Martin, R R
A patient with hemoglobin SC disease and cholelithiasis was found to have Bacillus cereus bacteremia. Hemolytic anemia developed, for which common causes of hemolysis were excluded, suggesting a relationship with the bacteremia. Following in vitro incubation, type O erythrocytes were hemolyzed by the culture, but not by a bacteria-free filtrate. This case confirms the association between sickle cell disorders and cholelithiasis with B cereus infections. In addition, it provides evidence for in vivo hemolysis with B cereus bacteremia, an organism not previously associated with hemolytic anemia.
Wan, Q Q; Ye, Q F; Yuan, H
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) remain as life-threatening complications and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality among solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria can cause serious bacteremias in these recipients. Reviews have aimed to investigate MDR Gram-negative bacteremias; however, they were lacking in SOT recipients in the past. To better understand the characteristics of bacteremias due to MDR Gram-negative bacteria, optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies, and improve the outcomes of SOT recipients, this review summarize the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory characteristics, and explores the mechanisms, prevention, and treatment of MDR Gram-negative bacteria.
Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI.
Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI. PMID:27433385
Medrano-Juarez, R. M.; Sotello, D.; D'Cuhna, L.; Payne, J. D.
We present a case of acute hemolytic anemia, renal failure, and Clostridium perfringens bacteremia in a patient with acute myelogenous leukemia. The high fatality of C. perfringens bacteremia requires that clinicians recognize and rapidly treat patients at risk for this infection. Although other hemolytic processes are in the differential diagnosis of these events, the presence of high fever, chills, and rapidly positive blood cultures may help narrow the diagnosis. Most cases of C. perfringens bacteremia have a concomitant coinfection, which makes broad spectrum empiric therapy essential. There is a high mortality rate of C. perfringens infections associated with leukemia. PMID:27774325
Bokhari, S. H.; Raza, A. D.
Three methods of augmenting computer networks by adding at most one link per processor are discussed: (1) A tree of N nodes may be augmented such that the resulting graph has diameter no greater than 4log sub 2((N+2)/3)-2. Thi O(N(3)) algorithm can be applied to any spanning tree of a connected graph to reduce the diameter of that graph to O(log N); (2) Given a binary tree T and a chain C of N nodes each, C may be augmented to produce C so that T is a subgraph of C. This algorithm is O(N) and may be used to produce augmented chains or rings that have diameter no greater than 2log sub 2((N+2)/3) and are planar; (3) Any rectangular two-dimensional 4 (8) nearest neighbor array of size N = 2(k) may be augmented so that it can emulate a single step shuffle-exchange network of size N/2 in 3(t) time steps.
Moise, Pamela A; Sakoulas, George; McKinnell, James A; Lamp, Kenneth C; DePestel, Daryl D; Yoon, Min J; Reyes, Katherine; Zervos, Marcus J
In light of recent evidence suggesting enhancement of daptomycin activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) by ampicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics, we evaluated the safety profile and clinical efficacy of daptomycin with and without concomitant β-lactam antimicrobials in the treatment of VRE (faecium or faecalis) bacteremia from multiple centers across the United States. Data were collected retrospectively as part of a larger multicenter registry (The Cubicin Outcomes Registry and Experience). Efficacy and clinical outcomes in patients with VRE bacteremia who received at least 3 days of daptomycin with or without concomitant β-lactams were analyzed. Although all the cases involved daptomycin-susceptible VRE, additional analysis was performed to examine whether the adjunctive β-lactam would play a more pivotal role in cases where the daptomycin MIC was in the upper limit of the susceptibility range, indicating that daptomycin monotherapy efficacy may be relatively compromised compared with cases with lower daptomycin MICs. Two hundred sixty-two patients from 33 hospitals were evaluated. Most patients had at least one significant comorbidity, such as solid-organ or bone marrow transplantation (16%), neutropenia (36%), dialysis dependency (20%), or critical illness (36%) requiring care in an intensive care unit. Overall treatment success was 86% (n = 225/262), and treatment success for patients taking concomitant β-lactams was 86% (n = 105/122). Logistic regression identified treatment failure to be associated with sepsis (odds ratio = 3.42; P = 0.009) and an elevated daptomycin MIC (3-4 µg/mL) (odds ratio = 3.23, P = 0.013). No significant increase in clinical failure was seen among patients with elevated daptomycin MIC who received concomitant β-lactam therapy (clinical success, 88% vs 79% for MIC ≤2 vs 3-4 µg/mL, respectively; P = 0.417). Of 262 patients, 33 (13%) experienced ≥1 adverse event possibly related to daptomycin (increased
Krease, Michael; Stroup, Jeff; Som, Mousumi
Severe ulcerative colitis is defined by more than six bloody stools daily and evidence of toxicity, demonstrated by fever, tachycardia, anemia, or an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Fulminant disease represents a subset of severe disease with signs and symptoms suggestive of increased toxicity. Treatment of severe colitis includes intravenous corticosteroid administration, with consideration of intravenous infliximab 5 mg/kg. Failure to show improvement after 3 to 5 days is an indication for colectomy or treatment with intravenous cyclosporine. We report a 23-year-old Hispanic woman with decompensated cirrhosis presenting with new-onset fulminant ulcerative colitis and resulting polymicrobial bacteremia, requiring colectomy for infection source control and colitis treatment. PMID:27695178
Richert, Mary E.; Hosier, Hillary; Weltz, Adam S.; Wise, Eric S.; Joshi, Manjari; Diaz, Jose J.
Patient: Female, 28 Final Diagnosis: Acute transverse myelitis Symptoms: Ascending paralysis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is an uncommon and often overlooked complication of certain bacterial and viral infections that can have a rapid onset and result in severe neurological deficits. Case Report: This case report describes a previously healthy 28-year-old woman who presented to the trauma center after developing acute paralysis and paresthesias of all four extremities within the span of hours. The initial presumptive diagnosis was spinal cord contusion due to a fall versus an unknown mechanism of trauma, but eventual laboratory studies revealed Salmonella bacteremia, indicating a probable diagnosis of parainfectious ATM. Conclusions: This case illustrates the importance of considering the diagnosis of parainfectious ATM in patients presenting with acute paralysis with incomplete or unobtainable medical histories. PMID:27928148
Maya, Ivan D
Catheter-related bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among catheter-dependent hemodialysis patients. Microorganism biofilm matrix formation in the catheter is the pathogenic process of this entity. Administration of systemic antibiotics and removal of the offending catheter is the most logical treatment. This article discusses an alternative option, instillation of an antibiotic-lock solution into the lumen of the catheter plus systemic antibiotic therapy. Recent studies suggest that this strategy could treat the infection and salvage the catheter, thus avoiding the need for further interventional procedures including but not limited to the removal of the catheter, placement of a temporary catheter, and finally placement of a new permanent catheter. The implementation of this effective approach will reduce morbidity and possibly reduce the cost and interventions associated with it.
Hernaiz, C; Picardo, A; Alos, J I; Gomez-Garces, J L
We present a case of Bacillus cereus bacteremia and catheter infection in an immunocompetent patient subjected to abdominal surgery, who recovered following central catheter removal and treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam.
Manassero, Norma Carolina; Navarro, Mercedes; Rocchi, Marta; di Bella, Horacio; Gasparotto, Ana M; Ocaña Carrizo, A Valeria; Novillo, Federico; Furiasse, Daniela; Monterisi, Aída
Enterococcal bacteremia has acquired considerable importance in recent years, mainly due to an increased number of cases that occur during hospital admission. We describe the episodes of enterococcal bacteremia in adult patients recorded at our hospital. Between January 2000 and December 2013, 117 episodes were analyzed. Sixty one percent (61%) of the patients were male and 39% female. The mean age was 68. Predisposing factors were present in 91% of patients. The primary source of infection was intraabdominal. Enterococcus faecalis was responsible for 65% of the cases; E. faecium for 28%; and other species for 7%. Thirty four percent (34%) of cases were polymicrobial bacteremia. All E. faecalis isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and vancomycin. Eighty eight percent (88%) of E. faecium were resistant to ampicillin and 54% to vancomycin and teicoplanin. In our hospital, Enterococcus is the sixth pathogen causing nosocomial bacteremia, with high incidence of ampicillin and vancomycin-resistant E. faecium.
Yamamoto, Kei; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Nagamatsu, Maki; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Mawatari, Momoko; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Tamura, Saeko; Mezaki, Kazuhisa; Ohmagari, Norio
An 87-year-old man with poorly controlled diabetic mellitus presented with fever, bedsores, and elevated hepatobiliary enzyme levels. He was diagnosed with bacteremia with acute cholangitis due to Arthrobacter species, which are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family Microbacteriaceae. Doripenem and subsequencial sulbactam/ampicillin treatment were used for the acute cholangitis, and the bacteremia was treated with a 2-week course of vancomycin. The bacteremia was misidentified by the phenotyping assay (API Coryne test), but was identified as Arthrobacter creatinolyticus by 16S rRNA and matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a human case of A. creatinolyticus bacteremia.
Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.
We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs. PMID:16455943
Fisher, M C; Baluarte, H J; Long, S S
Bacteremia caused by Bacteroides fragilis occurred in four of 75 children after renal transplantation, and B. fragilis was the most common cause of postoperative bacteremia. Bacteroides bacteremia was significantly associated with performance of elective appendectomy at the time of transplantation (P less than 0.01) and with profound lymphocytopenia (P = 0.01). No patient received antibiotics at the time of surgery or prior to the first positive blood culture, yet B. fragilis was the single organism isolated from blood and abscesses in these patients. A role for lymphocytes in containment of B. fragilis has not been suggested previously, although unexplained occurrence of bacteroides bacteremia in immunocompromised patients has occasionally been reported. Lymphocytes themselves may be important in this host-bacterium interaction, or lymphocytopenia may be the marker for a more generalized deficiency in host defenses.
Rettew, Andrew; Shaikh, Bilal; Abdulkareem, Abdullateef
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration. He reports similar diarrhea illness in two close contacts in preceding days. On examination, he was fully oriented but dehydrated, icteric, and febrile. Laboratory data revealed WBC of 2200/μL, elevated AST and ALT (201 IU/L, 73 IU/L resp.), normal alkaline phosphatase, elevated total and direct bilirubin of 8.2 mg/dL and 4.4 mg/dL, albumin of 3.2 g/dL, INR of 2.9, prothrombin time of 31.7, and platelet of 96,000/μL. Workup for infectious, autoimmune and medication-induced hepatitis, Wilson's disease, and hemochromatosis was negative. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen showed hepatic steatosis and right-sided colitis. Stool and blood cultures were positive for Shigella sonnei. He was treated with ciprofloxacin with improvement in liver function. Follow-up blood test 4 months later was within normal limits. PMID:28326205
Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; de Paiva Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Gilioli, Rovilson; Colombo, Silvia; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Nicholson, William L.; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira
Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%). Sixteen donors (3.2%) were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions. PMID:25590435
Darmstadt, Gary L.; Carlin, John B.; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Saha, Samir K.; Ray, Pallab; Narang, Anil; Mazzi, Eduardo; Kumar, Praveen; Kapil, Arti; Jeena, Prakash M.; Deorari, Ashok; Chowdury, A.K. Azad; Bartos, Andrés; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Adhikari, Miriam; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel; Weber, Martin W.
Background: Neonatal illness is a leading cause of death worldwide; sepsis is one of the main contributors. The etiologies of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in developing countries have not been well characterized. Methods: Infants <2 months of age brought with illness to selected health facilities in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, India, Pakistan and South Africa were evaluated, and blood cultures taken if they were considered ill enough to be admitted to hospital. Organisms were isolated using standard culture techniques. Results: Eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine infants were recruited, including 3177 0–6 days of age and 5712 7–59 days of age; 10.7% (947/8889) had a blood culture performed. Of those requiring hospital management, 782 (54%) had blood cultures performed. Probable or definite pathogens were identified in 10.6% including 10.4% of newborns 0–6 days of age (44/424) and 10.9% of infants 7–59 days of age (39/358). Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated species (36/83, 43.4%) followed by various species of Gram-negative bacilli (39/83, 46.9%; Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were the most common organisms). Resistance to second and third generation cephalosporins was present in more than half of isolates and 44% of the Gram-negative isolates were gentamicin-resistant. Mortality rates were similar in hospitalized infants with positive (5/71, 7.0%) and negative blood cultures (42/557, 7.5%). Conclusions: This large study of young infants aged 0–59 days demonstrated a broad array of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens responsible for community-acquired bacteremia and substantial levels of antimicrobial resistance. The role of S. aureus as a pathogen is unclear and merits further investigation. PMID:25389919
Hamer, Davidson H; Darmstadt, Gary L; Carlin, John B; Zaidi, Anita K M; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Saha, Samir K; Ray, Pallab; Narang, Anil; Mazzi, Eduardo; Kumar, Praveen; Kapil, Arti; Jeena, Prakash M; Deorari, Ashok; Chowdury, A K Azad; Bartos, Andrés; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Adhikari, Miriam; Addo-Yobo, Emmanuel; Weber, Martin W
Neonatal illness is a leading cause of death worldwide; sepsis is one of the main contributors. The etiologies of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in developing countries have not been well characterized. Infants <2 months of age brought with illness to selected health facilities in Bangladesh, Bolivia, Ghana, India, Pakistan and South Africa were evaluated, and blood cultures taken if they were considered ill enough to be admitted to hospital. Organisms were isolated using standard culture techniques. Eight thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine infants were recruited, including 3177 0-6 days of age and 5712 7-59 days of age; 10.7% (947/8889) had a blood culture performed. Of those requiring hospital management, 782 (54%) had blood cultures performed. Probable or definite pathogens were identified in 10.6% including 10.4% of newborns 0-6 days of age (44/424) and 10.9% of infants 7-59 days of age (39/358). Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly isolated species (36/83, 43.4%) followed by various species of Gram-negative bacilli (39/83, 46.9%; Acinetobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. were the most common organisms). Resistance to second and third generation cephalosporins was present in more than half of isolates and 44% of the Gram-negative isolates were gentamicin-resistant. Mortality rates were similar in hospitalized infants with positive (5/71, 7.0%) and negative blood cultures (42/557, 7.5%). This large study of young infants aged 0-59 days demonstrated a broad array of Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens responsible for community-acquired bacteremia and substantial levels of antimicrobial resistance. The role of S. aureus as a pathogen is unclear and merits further investigation.
Oteo, J; Aracil, B; Ignacio Alós, J; Luis Gómez-Garcés, J
Corynebacterium sp. is an extremely varied genus which includes little known species and of which only Corynebacterium diphteriae, Corynebacterium urealyticum and Corynebacterium jeikeium are considered indisputable pathogens. Other species, such as C. amycolatum are at present being reconsidered as causative agents in infectious pathologies, partly on account of our greater aquaintance and improved identification techniques for these microorganisms and partly on account of the growing number of immunocompromised patients in whom all their pathogenic capacity is usually able to develope. We present 3 cases of significant bacteremia by C. amycolatum. Bacterial isoliations from blood culture were obtained using the Vital Systems. Identification was performed by means of Gran stain, colony morphology, the results of numerous biochemical tests (including the Api Coryne systems), the behaviour of the strains against the vibriostatic agent O/129 and the antibiotic susceptibility pattern obtained with the E-test. The three isolates of C. amycolatum were obtained from patients after a lenghtly hospitalization, multi-instrumentation and who had severe underlying disease. All three presented with concomitant isolates of C. amycolatum from other sites: sputum, wound and catheter respectively, which could explain the origin of the bacteremia. Colony morphology, antibiotic susceptibility patterns, resistance to the vibriostatic agent O/129 and the results of the biochemical test carried out were similar to those previously describe in the literature. C. amycolatum should be born in mind as a agent responsable for significant and severe pathology in this type of patient. In addition, it as certain specific characteristics which assits in its identification in the normal micr
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Roig, P P; López, M M; Martín, C; Zorraquino, A; Sánchez, B; Navarro, V; Merino, J
Capnocytophaga sp. is a gram-negative bacilli, scarcely documented as the cause of bacteremias. Two cases of bacteremia caused by Capnocytophaga sp, one of them with endocarditis, are reported here. A review of previous published cases is also presented. One of the patients was immunocompromised, because of chemotherapy, the other, suffered from a rheumatic-cardiopathy which was complicated with endocarditis. Both patients developed an alteration of the oral mucosa. Antibiotic therapy proved to be effective with two patients.
San-Juan, Rafael; Lalueza, Antonio; Sanz, Francisca; Rodríguez-Otero, Joaquin; Gómez-Gonzalez, Carmen; Chaves, Fernando
We conducted a retrospective study of 99 patients with methicillin-suseptible Staphylococcus aureus catheter-related bacteremia in which vancomycin MIC was determined by Etest. High vancomycin MIC (>1.5 μg/mL) was the only independent risk factor for development of complicated bacteremia caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (odds ratio 22.9, 95% confidence interval 6.7–78.1). PMID:21749780
Rosenbaum, G.S.; Calubiran, O.; Cunha, B.A. )
A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan.
Ito, Ryota; Shindo, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Kimura, Kouji; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yoshinori
Some important virulence factors have been elucidated in Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. We investigated the relationship between virulence factors and multilocus sequence types (STs) and assessed the risk factors for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae. From April 2004 through April 2012, a total of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumonia (23 with bacteremia and 97 without bacteremia) were collected from 10 medical institutions in Japan. Additionally, 10 strains of K. pneumoniae serotype K2 that were isolated >30 years ago were included in this study. These isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the characteristics of their virulence factors, such as hypermucoviscosity phenotype and RmpA and aerobactin production between patients with and without bacteremia, were examined. MLST analysis was performed on the 120 isolates from patients with pneumonia, and some sequence type groups were defined as genetic lineages (GLs). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia (21.7%) than in those without bacteremia (7.2%). The majority of the strains with serotype K2 were classified into GL14 or GL65, and rmpA and the gene for aerobactin were present in all GL65-K2 strains but absent in all GL14-K2 strains. In a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for bacteremia included GL65 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81 to 49.31), as well as neoplastic disease (AOR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.61 to 37.92), immunosuppression (AOR, 17.85; 95% CI, 1.49 to 214.17), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.29 to 17.61). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia and was associated with the virulence factors of K. pneumoniae. PMID:25568434
Ito, Ryota; Shindo, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Ando, Masahiko; Jin, Wanchun; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Yamada, Keiko; Kimura, Kouji; Yagi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Arakawa, Yoshichika
Some important virulence factors have been elucidated in Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. We investigated the relationship between virulence factors and multilocus sequence types (STs) and assessed the risk factors for bacteremia in patients with pneumonia due to K. pneumoniae. From April 2004 through April 2012, a total of 120 K. pneumoniae isolates from patients with pneumonia (23 with bacteremia and 97 without bacteremia) were collected from 10 medical institutions in Japan. Additionally, 10 strains of K. pneumoniae serotype K2 that were isolated >30 years ago were included in this study. These isolates were characterized using multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and the characteristics of their virulence factors, such as hypermucoviscosity phenotype and RmpA and aerobactin production between patients with and without bacteremia, were examined. MLST analysis was performed on the 120 isolates from patients with pneumonia, and some sequence type groups were defined as genetic lineages (GLs). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia (21.7%) than in those without bacteremia (7.2%). The majority of the strains with serotype K2 were classified into GL14 or GL65, and rmpA and the gene for aerobactin were present in all GL65-K2 strains but absent in all GL14-K2 strains. In a multivariate analysis, the independent risk factors for bacteremia included GL65 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 9.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81 to 49.31), as well as neoplastic disease (AOR, 9.94; 95% CI, 2.61 to 37.92), immunosuppression (AOR, 17.85; 95% CI, 1.49 to 214.17), and hypoalbuminemia (AOR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.29 to 17.61). GL65 was more prevalent among patients with bacteremia and was associated with the virulence factors of K. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Nei, Takahito; Sonobe, Kazunari; Onodera, Asaka; Itabashi, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Maeda, Miho; Saito, Ryoichi
Pseudomonas oryzihabitans (formerly Flavimonas oryzihabitans) is a glucose non-fermentative, Gram-negative bacillus which is rarely isolated from human specimens. When isolated, it is on very rare occasion as a causative pathogen of catheter-related bloodstream infection in an immunocompromised patient. Herein, we describe two hematological malignancy patients suspected to have P. oryzihabitans bacteremia. We also review cases with bacteremia due to this pathogen and its microbiological characteristics.
Jean, G; Charra, B; Chazot, C; Vanel, T; Terrat, J C; Hurot, J M; Laurent, G
Infection, mainly related to vascular access, is one of the main causes of morbidity and a preventable cause of death in hemodialysis patients. From January 1994 to April 1998 we conducted a prospective study to assess the incidence and risk factors of catheter-related bacteremia. One hundred and twenty-nine tunneled dual-lumen hemodialysis catheters were inserted percutaneously into the internal jugular vein in 89 patients. Bacteremia (n = 56) occurred at least once with 37 (29%) of the catheters (an incidence of 1.1/1,000 catheter-days); local infection (n = 45, 1/1,000 catheter-days) was associated with bacteremia in 18 cases. Death in 1 case was directly related to Staphylococcus aureus (SA) septic shock, and septicemia contributed to deaths in 2 additional cases. Catheters were removed in 48% of the bacteremic episodes. Treatment comprised intravenous double antimicrobial therapy for 15-20 days. Bacteriological data of bacteremia showed 55% involvement of SA. Nasal carriage of SA was observed in 35% of the patients with catheters. Bacteremic catheters were more frequently observed in patients with diabetes mellitus (p = 0.03), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.001), a previous history of bacteremia (p = 0.05), nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.0001), longer catheter survival time (p = 0.001), higher total intravenous iron dose (p = 0.001), more frequent urokinase catheter infusion (p < 0.01), and local infection (p < 0.001) compared with non-bacteremic catheters. Monovariate survival analysis showed that significant initial risk factors for bacteremia were nasal carriage of SA (p = 0.00001), previous bacteremia (p = 0.0001), peripheral atherosclerosis (p = 0.005), and diabetes (p = 0.04). This study confirms the relatively high incidence of bacteremia with tunneled double-lumen silicone catheters and its potential complications. Possible preventive actions are discussed according to the risk factors.
Grubert, Jens; Langlotz, Tobias; Zollmann, Stefanie; Regenbrecht, Holger
Augmented Reality is a technique that enables users to interact with their physical environment through the overlay of digital information. While being researched for decades, more recently, Augmented Reality moved out of the research labs and into the field. While most of the applications are used sporadically and for one particular task only, current and future scenarios will provide a continuous and multi-purpose user experience. Therefore, in this paper, we present the concept of Pervasive Augmented Reality, aiming to provide such an experience by sensing the user's current context and adapting the AR system based on the changing requirements and constraints. We present a taxonomy for Pervasive Augmented Reality and context-aware Augmented Reality, which classifies context sources and context targets relevant for implementing such a context-aware, continuous Augmented Reality experience. We further summarize existing approaches that contribute towards Pervasive Augmented Reality. Based our taxonomy and survey, we identify challenges for future research directions in Pervasive Augmented Reality.
There is no definitive recipe for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) success, but its universal ingredients can be found at home. The main ones are: (1) Understanding that all children need to express themselves, however outgoing or shy they may be; (2) Willingness to embrace the technology that may help your child regardless of your…
Oskiper, Taragay; Sizintsev, Mikhail; Branzoi, Vlad; Samarasekera, Supun; Kumar, Rakesh
In this paper we present an augmented reality binocular system to allow long range high precision augmentation of live telescopic imagery with aerial and terrain based synthetic objects, vehicles, people and effects. The inserted objects must appear stable in the display and must not jitter and drift as the user pans around and examines the scene with the binoculars. The design of the system is based on using two different cameras with wide field of view and narrow field of view lenses enclosed in a binocular shaped shell. Using the wide field of view gives us context and enables us to recover the 3D location and orientation of the binoculars much more robustly, whereas the narrow field of view is used for the actual augmentation as well as to increase precision in tracking. We present our navigation algorithm that uses the two cameras in combination with an inertial measurement unit and global positioning system in an extended Kalman filter and provides jitter free, robust and real-time pose estimation for precise augmentation. We have demonstrated successful use of our system as part of information sharing example as well as a live simulated training system for observer training, in which fixed and rotary wing aircrafts, ground vehicles, and weapon effects are combined with real world scenes.
Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)
The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.
Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)
The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.
Sousa, M. B.
Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)
Sousa, M. B.
Describes project CAVE (Computer Augmented Video Education), an ongoing effort at the U.S. Naval Academy to present lecture material on videocassette tape, reinforced by drill and practice through an interactive computer system supported by a 12 channel closed circuit television distribution and production facility. (RAO)
Cost, Carrye R; Stegner, Martha M; Leonard, David; Leavey, Patrick
Despite a low bacteremia rate, pediatric oncology patients are frequently admitted for febrile neutropenia. A pediatric risk prediction model with high sensitivity to identify patients at low risk for bacteremia is not available. We performed a single-institution prospective cohort study of pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia to create a risk prediction model using clinical factors, respiratory viral infection, and cytokine expression. Pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia were enrolled between March 30, 2010 and April 1, 2011 and managed per institutional protocol. Blood samples for C-reactive protein and cytokine expression and nasopharyngeal swabs for respiratory viral testing were obtained. Medical records were reviewed for clinical data. Statistical analysis utilized mixed multiple logistic regression modeling. During the 12-month period, 195 febrile neutropenia episodes were enrolled. There were 24 (12%) episodes of bacteremia. Univariate analysis revealed several factors predictive for bacteremia, and interleukin (IL)-8 was the most predictive variable in the multivariate stepwise logistic regression. Low serum IL-8 predicted patients at low risk for bacteremia with a sensitivity of 0.9 and negative predictive value of 0.98. IL-8 is a highly sensitive predictor for patients at low risk for bacteremia. IL-8 should be utilized in a multi-institution prospective trial to assign risk stratification to pediatric patients admitted with febrile neutropenia.
Waghmare, Alka S.; Vhanmane, Priyanka B.; Savitha, B.; Chawla, Ruhee L.; Bagde, Hiroj S.
Background: Bacteremia frequently occurs after treatment procedures such as extractions, scaling, root planing, periodontal surgery. There is currently significant interest in the possibility that bacteremia with oral bacteria may play role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. There are well-conducted studies that have determined the frequency of passage of periodontal microorganisms to the bloodstream after periodontal treatment. There is scarce information related to the incidence of periodontopathic microorganisms during bacteremia induced by this procedure. Aim: The aim of this study was to establish the frequency of passage of periodontopathic microorganisms in peripheric blood after scaling and root planing in patients with periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects with chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Blood samples were drawn from each patient at following intervals pre-treatment i.e., before SRP (P1), immediately after SRP (P2), and 30 minutes after SRP (P3). Following SRP, blood samples were analyzed for following microorganisms: Porphyromonasgingivalis, Tannerella. forysthus, Eikenellanella. corrodens, Campylobacter species, Micromonas. micros, and Prevotella. intermedia. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test. Results: Bacteremia was found in 70% (28/40) immediately after SRP and after 30 min, it was reduced to 25% (10/40) and 7.5% (3/40) presented bacteremia before SRP. Conclusions: It was concluded that bacteremia frequently occurs immediately after SRP with P. gingivalis showing the highest frequency in blood. PMID:24554880
Berezin, Eitan Naaman; Iazzetti, Marco Antonio
We reviewed the incidence of occult bacteremia, to identify the most frequent etiological agents of bacteremias in otherwise healthy children from one month to 10 years old, who had fever of unknown origin attended at the emergency ward of an urban, university-affiliated pediatric referral center. This was a retrospective medical record review, evaluating children with fever. Data were collected from the initial visit, when blood cultures, hematological properties and hemosedimentation rates were examined. Fever was considered as the highest temperature assessed in the hospital or reported by the responsible adult. Occult bacteremia was discovered in 1.4% of the 1,051 children evaluated, and the most common etiologic agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Total leukocyte count and blood sedimentation rates greater than 30 mm(3) were not predictive factors for occult bacteremia. Fever greater than 39 masculineC was the most important factor for predicting occult bacteremia (P<0.001). The presence of occult bacteremia was significantly correlated with patient hospitalization.
Demirdal, Tuna; Demirturk, Nese; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Tufan, Gulnihal
In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (17.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.
van den Berg, Sanne; de Vogel, Corné P; van Belkum, Alex; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A J M
Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P) or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect.
van den Berg, Sanne; de Vogel, Corné P.; van Belkum, Alex; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A. J. M.
Staphylococcus aureus carriers with S. aureus bacteremia may have a reduced mortality risk compared to non-carriers. A role for the immune system is suggested. Here, we study in mice the effect of mild S. aureus skin infection prior to endogenous or exogenous S. aureus bacteremia, and evaluate protection in relation to anti-staphylococcal antibody levels. Skin infections once or twice by a clinical S. aureus isolate (isolate P) or S. aureus strain 8325-4 were induced in mice free of S. aureus and anti-staphylococcal antibodies. Five weeks later, immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels in blood against 25 S. aureus antigens were determined, and LD50 or LD100 bacteremia caused by S. aureus isolate P was induced. S. aureus skin infections led to elevated levels of anti-staphylococcal IgG in blood. One skin infection improved the course of subsequent severe endogenous bacteremia only. A second skin infection further improved animal survival rate, which was associated with increased pre-bacteremia IgG levels against Efb, IsaA, LukD, LukE, Nuc, PrsA and WTA. In conclusion, S. aureus isolate P skin infection in mice reduces the severity of subsequent endogenous S. aureus bacteremia only. Although cellular immune effects cannot be rules out, anti-staphylococcal IgG against specified antigens may contribute to this effect. PMID:26060995
Seo, Dong Young; Jo, Sion; Lee, Jae Baek; Jin, Young Ho; Jeong, Taeoh; Yoon, Jaechol; Park, Boyoung
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic value of lactate for predicting bacteremia in female patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). We conducted a retrospective study of female patients with APN who visited the study hospital emergency department. The demographics, comorbidities, physiologies, and laboratory variables including white blood cell count and segmented neutrophil count, C-reactive protein, and initial serum lactate levels were collected and analyzed to identify associations with the presence of bacteremia. During the study period, a total of 314 patients were enrolled. One hundred twenty-three patients (39.2%) had bacteremia. Escherichia coli was the most frequent pathogen. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the lactate level was independently associated with the presence of bacteremia (odds ratio, 1.39 [95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.78]). The C-statistic of the lactate level was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.60-0.73). At a cutoff value of 1.4mmol/L, the lactate level predicted bacteremia with a sensitivity (53.7%), specificity (72.3%), positive predictive value (55.5%), negative predictive value (70.8%), positive likelihood ratio (1.93), and negative likelihood ratio (0.64). The initial serum lactate level showed poor discriminative performance for predicting bacteremia in female patients with APN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ouyang, Wen; Li, Xiaoxiao; Wan, Qiquan; Ye, Qifa
Although bacteremias due to the six ESKAPE pathogens have recently been identified as a serious emerging problems in solid organ transplant (SOT), no information in liver transplant recipients is available. We sought to investigate the risk factors for mortality and septic shock in liver transplant recipients with ESKAPE bacteremia. A retrospective analysis of bacteremia after liver transplantation was reviewed. Risk factors for mortality and septic shock caused by ESKAPE bacteremia were identified. Forty-nine episodes ofbacteremia in 37 liver transplant recipients were due to ESKAPE strains. The only factor for bacteremia-related mortality independently associated with ESKAPE was septic shock (odds ratio [OR] = 67.500, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.464-538.300, P < .001). The factors for septic shock independently associated with ESKAPE were white blood cells count > 15,000/mm3 (OR = 15.205, 95% CI = 2.271-101.799, P = .005) and temperature of 39 °C or greater (OR = 10.959, 95% CI = 1.592-75.450, P = .015). To improve the results of liver transplantation, more effectively therapeutic treatments are of paramount importance when liver transplant recipients with ESKAPE bacteremia present with septic shock, elevated white blood cells count and high body temperature.
Pujol, M; Peña, C; Pallares, R; Ayats, J; Ariza, J; Gudiol, F
In a prospective surveillance study (February 1990-December 1991) performed at a 1000-bed teaching hospital to identify risk factors for nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, 309 patients were found to be colonized (n = 103; 33%) or infected (n = 206; 67%) by MRSA. Sixty-three of them developed bacteremia. Compared with 114 patients who had nosocomial bacteremia caused by methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus during the same period of time, MRSA bacteremic patients had more severe underlying diseases (p < 0.01), were more often in intensive care units (p < 0.01) and had received prior antibiotic therapy more frequently (p < 0.01). To further identify risk factors for MRSA bacteremia, univariate and multivariate analyses of this series of 309 patients were performed using the occurrence of MRSA bacteremia as the dependent variable. Among 14 variables analyzed, intravascular catheterization, defined as one or more intravascular catheters in place for more than 48 h, was the only variable selected by a logistic regression model as an independent risk factor (OR = 2.7, CI = 1.1-6.6). The results of this study reinforce the concept that recent antibiotic therapy may predispose patients to MRSA infection and suggest that among patients colonized or infected by MRSA, those with intravascular catheters are at high risk of developing MRSA bacteremia.
Jepsen, O B; Korner, B
A prospective clinical-bacteriological study of 102 consecutive cases of confirmed bacteremia at a Copenhagen City general hospital was carried out during 5 months of 1973 with special concern given to focus of infection and acquisition of microorganisms. Valid positive cultures were obtained from 7.2 patients per 1000 admissions. 50 of the 102 bacteremias were by all probability acquired in the hospital, mainly due to transurethral manipulations or intravenous lines. Pneumonia and hepatobiliary infections accounted for most of the non-hospital acquired bacteremias. 26/102 patients died in relation to the bacteremia. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus caused more than half of the infections. Bacteremia caused by proteus, klebsiella, enterobacter species of staphylococci was in most cases nosocomial and carried the highest mortality, i.e. 40%, verus 15% when other organisms were responsible. It is concluded that nosocomial bacteremia is a frequent and life-endangering complication which is often preceded by certain diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, not invariably linked to severe underlying diseases. Consequently, attempts to reduce bacteremic episodes should include surveillance of ecological factors and certain hospital procedures.
Imafuku, A; Araoka, H; Tanaka, K; Marui, Y; Sawa, N; Ubara, Y; Takaichi, K; Ishii, Y; Tomikawa, S
Helicobacter cinaedi can cause bacteremia mainly in immunocompromised patients. We present the clinical characteristics of H. cinaedi bacteremia in 4 renal transplant patients. Interestingly, all cases showed triggers of bacterial translocation: 2 cases developed after colonic perforation caused by diverticulitis, 1 case developed post cholecystectomy, and the remaining patient had chronic diarrhea. Accordingly, bacterial translocation caused by severe gastrointestinal complication could be a cause of H. cinaedi bacteremia.
Joo, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Ha, Young Eun; Kim, Jungok; Kang, Seung-Ji; Park, So Yeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Wi, Yu Mi; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon
This study was performed to identify risk factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia among Gram-negative bacterial infections in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. A case-control study was performed to identify clinical predictors for P. aeruginosa bacteremia among non-neutropenic patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Each case of P. aeruginosa bacteremia was matched to one or two controls with Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter or Citrobacter species in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. Seventy-eight patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia were compared with 98 control patients who had other Gram-negative bacteremias. The most common types of cancer were biliary tract cancer (49/176, 27.8%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (38/176, 21.6%), followed by gastric and bladder cancer. Factors associated with development of P. aeruginosa bacteremia were the presence of lung cancer, percutaneous tubes, nosocomial exposure, an invasive procedure and previous antimicrobial therapy (all P < 0.05). Independent risk factors for P. aeruginosa bacteremia included the presence of lung cancer and previous antimicrobial therapy. In the subgroup analysis including 90 patients with community-onset bacteremia, the previous use of antimicrobial agents and presence of bladder cancer were independent factors significantly associated with P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Underlying lung cancer and previous antimicrobial treatment were significantly associated with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in non-neutropenic patients with solid tumor. P. aeruginosa should be considered as a probable cause of Gram-negative bacteremia in this patient group. Copyright © 2011 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc
To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility. We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score) and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive. A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733). Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859). Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210). Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency. Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve prevention strategies and allow
1 Intelligent Filtering for Augmented Reality Sabrina Sestito*, Simon Julier, Marco Lanzagorta and Larry Rosenblum Advanced Information Technology...Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia) KEYWORDS: Augmented Reality , Intelligent Systems, Databases ABSTRACT: Recent developments in computing...hardware have begun to make mobile and wearable Augmented Reality (AR) systems a reality . With this new freedom, AR systems can now be used in a very wide
Wu, Hua; Li, Dongdong; Zhou, Haijian; Sun, Yunfang; Guo, Ling; Shen, Dingxia
To investigate bacteremia and other body site infection caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP), a recently recognized pathogen of invasive infection, and classic Klebsiella pneumoniae (cKP), a very common organism associated with many kinds of nosocomial infection. Clinical information obtained from patients with both bacteremia and other body site infections caused by hvKP and/or cKP was retrospectively reviewed. Homo-hvKP (or homo-cKP) was defined as homologous hvKP (or cKP) strains from different body sites in each individual patient according to string test, virulence gene amplification and PFGE pattern. MLST was carried on to understand the correlation of sequence type with capsular polysaccharide type for Klebsiella pneumoniae from blood. Sixty-four hvKP and 101 cKP strains were isolated from blood and other body sites of 76 patients who had bacteremia accompanied by other site infection. Among these patients, 27 were infected with homo-hvKP, 32 were with homo-cKP, 12 were with heterogeneous cKP, and five were with both hvKP and cKP. Patients with bacteremia and liver abscesses caused by homo-hvKP accounted for 51.9%, and 92.6% of homo-hvKP infected patients did not receive any invasive procedures before bacteremia. However, patients with bacteremia and biliary tract infection caused by homo-cKP accounted for 34.4%, and 78.1% of homo-cKP infected patients had history of invasive procedures before bacteremia. More homo-hvKP strains (59.3%) than homo-cKP strains (34.4%) were isolated from blood earlier than other sites. HvKP strains were statistically more susceptible to the tested antimicrobials than cKP strains. An outbreak of carbapenem-resistant cKP infection and possible gene transfer of KPC-2 from cKP to hvKP were brought to notice. Both hvKP and cKP could cause bacteremia and other body site infection. But patients with hvKP bacteremia usually suffered from liver abscess without previous invasive procedures, most patients with c
Ye, Q F; Zhao, J; Wan, Q Q; Qiao, B B; Zhou, J D
Although bacteremias caused by the 6 ESKAPE pathogens (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) have recently been highlighted as a serious complication in solid organ transplant (SOT), more information is urgently needed. We sought to investigate the frequency and clinical outcomes of ESKAPE bacteremia in SOT and determine the risk factors for mortality. A retrospective analysis of bacteremia after SOT was reviewed. Risk factors for mortality caused by ESKAPE bacteremia were identified. Eighty-four episodes of bacteremia were caused by ESKAPE strains. Of these strains, 41 were caused by resistant ESKAPE (rESKAPE) organisms. The only factor for bacteremia-related mortality independently associated with ESKAPE was septic shock (odds ratio [OR] = 21.017, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.038-87.682, P < 0.001). The factors for bacteremia-related mortality independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were septic shock (OR = 16.558, 95% CI = 6.620-104.668, P = 0.003) and age ≥40 years (OR = 7.521, 95% CI = 1.196-47.292, P = 0.031). To improve the outcomes of transplantation, more effective therapeutic treatments are of paramount importance when older SOT recipients with bacteremia due to ESKAPE/rESKAPE organisms present with septic shock. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yang, J; Wang, X; Zeng, Y; Wu, W
During the past 6 years, we have treated 406 patients with classical silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation were examined. We have proposed that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. In order to improve our operation and prove our hypothesis, we performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 cases with satisfactory results. In order to determine scientifically which layer the silicone implant should be inserted into, we investigated the biomechanics of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation characters under uniaxial tension. Although having less failure strain, the periosteum has more tensile strength than the fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher and stiffer than the fascia, thus is more suitable for covering silicone implants.
Adams, Louis R.; Hedgepeth, John M.
The BAT (Batten-Augmented Triangular) BEAM is characterized by battens which are buckled in the deployed state, thus preloading the truss. The preload distribution is determined, and the effects of various external loading conditions are investigated. The conceptual design of a deployer is described and loads are predicted. The influence of joint imperfections on effective member stiffness is investigated. The beam is assessed structurally.
Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H
To evaluate the history and current knowledge of computer-augmented reality in the field of surgery and its potential goals in education, surgeon training, and patient treatment. National Library of Medicine's database and additional library searches. Only articles suited to surgical sciences with a well-defined aim of study, methodology, and precise description of outcome were included. Augmented reality is an effective tool in executing surgical procedures requiring low-performance surgical dexterity; it remains a science determined mainly by stereotactic registration and ergonomics. Strong evidence was found that it is an effective teaching tool for training residents. Weaker evidence was found to suggest a significant influence on surgical outcome, both morbidity and mortality. No evidence of cost-effectiveness was found. Augmented reality is a new approach in executing detailed surgical operations. Although its application is in a preliminary stage, further research is needed to evaluate its long-term clinical impact on patients, surgeons, and hospital administrators. Its widespread use and the universal transfer of such technology remains limited until there is a better understanding of registration and ergonomics.
Nguyen, Anh H.; Bartlett, Erica L.; Kania, Katarzyna; Bae, Sang Mo
Augmentation rhinoplasty among Asian patients is often performed to improve the height of the nasal dorsum. As the use of autogenous tissues poses certain limitations, alloplastic materials are a viable alternative with a long history of use in Asia. The superiority of one implant prosthesis over another for augmentation rhinoplasty is a matter of debate, with each material representing varying strengths and weaknesses, indications for use, and precautions to consider in nasal implant placement. An implant prosthesis should be used on a case-by-case basis. Augmentation rhinoplasty requires the consideration of specific anatomical preoperative factors, including the external nose, nasal length, nasofrontal angle, humps, and facial proportions. It is equally important to consider several operative guidelines to appropriately shape implants to minimize the occurrence of adverse effects and postoperative complications. The most common postoperative complications include infection, nasal height change, movement of implant prosthesis, and silicone implant protrusion. In addition, the surgeon should consider the current standards of Asian beauty aesthetics to better understand the patient's desired outcome. PMID:26648804
Lüebbe, A S; Harris, P D; Garrison, R N
To test if anesthetic procedures change the hemodynamic pattern in animals with experimental septic shock. The effect of two anesthetics on systemic hemodynamic and skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses in high cardiac output live E. coli bacteremia was studied in rats and compared to the effect of two other anesthetic procedures in previously published studies. Baseline blood pressures and cardiac outputs were similar in rats with decerebrate, ketamine/xylazine, pentobarbital or urethane/chloralose anesthesia. There was a relative baseline tachycardia in decerebrate rats. Ketamine/xylazine anesthetized rats had reduced blood pressure, cardiac output, and heart rate. In decerebrate, pentobarbital, and urethane/chloralose anesthesia, cardiac output increased initially during bacteremia but did not remain elevated in pentobarbital anesthesia. Blood pressure and heart rate remained constant in pentobarbital, decerebrate, and urethane/chloralose anesth esia. During bacteremia, cardiac output, blood pressure, and vascular resistance did not change with ketamine/xylazine, but the heart rate increased. Baseline diameters of cremaster muscle large (A1) arterioles were higher in decerebrate anesthesia. A1 arterioles constricted during high cardiac output bacteremia in decerebrate rats, and pentobarbital or urethane/chloralose-anesthetized rats. A4 arterioles in bacteremia dilated in decerebrate and pentobarbital anesthesia, but did not change under urethane/chloralose and ketamine/xylazine anesthesia. Anesthetics influence baseline systemic variables and the response of systemic hemodynamics of rats to E. coli bacteremia. During bacteremia, anesthetics primarily affect the reactivity of skeletal muscle small arterioles. Ketamine/xylazine anesthesia has the most pronounced effect on systemic and microcirculatory variables and seems to be an inappropriate choice in sepsis experiments in rats.
Kang, Cheol-In; Song, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Son, Jun Seong; Wi, Yu Mi
The aim of this study was to more precisely delineate the characteristics and outcomes of bloodstream infections in adult cancer patients. Using a database for nationwide surveillance of bacteremia, we analyzed data related to bacteremia in adult patients with cancer in order to evaluate clinical features and outcomes and to define predictive factors for mortality. Of 1,246 patients, 896 (71.9%) had solid tumors, 328 (26.3%) had hematologic malignancies, and 22 (1.8%) had both. The following conditions were more common in the neutropenic group than in the non-neutropenic group: nosocomial acquisition, hematologic malignancy, corticosteroid use, immunosuppressant use, primary bacteremia, and pneumonia (all P < 0.05). The infections were caused by Gram-negative bacilli in 55.6% and by Gram-positive cocci in 32.7%. Gram-negative pathogens were more frequently isolated from neutropenic patients than from non-neutropenic patients (61.9% vs. 53.5%, P = 0.010), with a significant predominance of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Among 1,001 patients whose outcomes could be evaluated, the overall 30-day mortality rate was 24.1%, and multivariate analysis showed that Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia was a significant factor associated with mortality (odds ratio (OR), 1.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-3.15), along with nosocomial acquisition, pneumonia, severe sepsis or septic shock, and higher Pitt bacteremia score (all P values <0.05). This study represents the comprehensive assessment of bloodstream infections in neutropenic versus non-neutropenic cancer patients. Given the pathogenic significance of S. aureus bacteremia in adult patients with cancer, additional strategies for the management of S. aureus bacteremia in cancer patients are needed to improve outcomes.
Bernal, L.; Sarohia, V.
An experimental investigation of two-dimensional thrust augmenting ejector flows has been conducted. Measurements of the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean velocity, turbulent intensities and Reynolds stresses were made in two shroud geometries at various primary nozzle pressure ratios. The effects of shroud geometry and primary nozzle pressure ratio on the shroud surface pressure distribution, mean flow field and turbulent field were determined. From these measurements the evolution of mixing within the shroud of the primary flow and entrained fluid was obtained. The relationship between the mean flow field, the turbulent field and the shroud surface pressure distribution is discussed.
Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang
Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients’ BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable
Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang
Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients' BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of
Simplified risk stratification criteria for identification of patients with MRSA bacteremia at low risk of infective endocarditis: implications for avoiding routine transesophageal echocardiography in MRSA bacteremia.
Buitron de la Vega, P; Tandon, P; Qureshi, W; Nasr, Y; Jayaprakash, R; Arshad, S; Moreno, D; Jacobsen, G; Ananthasubramaniam, K; Ramesh, M; Zervos, M
The aim of this study was to identify patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia with low risk of infective endocarditis (IE) who might not require routine trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE). We retrospectively evaluated 398 patients presenting with MRSA bacteremia for the presence of the following clinical criteria: intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), long-term catheter, prolonged bacteremia, intra-cardiac device, prosthetic valve, hemodialysis dependency, vertebral/nonvertebral osteomyelitis, cardio-structural abnormality. IE was diagnosed using the modified Duke criteria. Of 398 patients with MRSA bacteremia, 26.4 % of cases were community-acquired, 56.3 % were health-care-associated, and 17.3 % were hospital-acquired. Of the group, 44 patients had definite IE, 119 had possible IE, and 235 had a rejected diagnosis. Out of 398 patients, 231 were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or TEE. All 44 patients with definite IE fulfilled at least one criterion (sensitivity 100 %). Finally, a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to evaluate the total risk score of our proposed criteria as a predictor of the presence of IE, and this was compared to the ROC curve of a previously proposed criteria. The area under the ROC curve for our criteria was 0.710, while the area under the ROC curve for the criteria previously proposed was 0.537 (p < 0.001). The p-value for comparing those 2 areas was less than 0.001, indicating statistical significance. Patients with MRSA bacteremia without any of our proposed clinical criteria have very low risk of developing IE and may not require routine TEE.
Tai, A. Y.; Kotsanas, D.; Francis, M. J.; Roberts, S. A.; Ballard, S. A.; Junckerstorff, R. K.; Korman, T. M.
Eggerthella lenta is an emerging pathogen that has been underrecognized due to historical difficulties with phenotypic identification. Until now, its pathogenicity, antimicrobial susceptibility profile, and optimal treatment have been poorly characterized. In this article, we report the largest cohort of patients with E. lenta bacteremia to date and describe in detail their clinical features, microbiologic characteristics, treatment, and outcomes. We identified 33 patients; the median age was 68 years, and there was no gender predominance. Twenty-seven patients (82%) had serious intra-abdominal pathology, often requiring a medical procedure. Of those who received antibiotics (28/33, 85%), the median duration of treatment was 21.5 days. Mortality from all causes was 6% at 7 days, 12% at 30 days, and 33% at 1 year. Of 26 isolates available for further testing, all were identified as E. lenta by both commercially available matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems, and none were found to harbor a vanA or vanB gene. Of 23 isolates which underwent susceptibility testing, all were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, cefoxitin, metronidazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, ertapenem, and meropenem, 91% were susceptible to clindamycin, 74% were susceptible to moxifloxacin, and 39% were susceptible to penicillin. PMID:25520446
You, Myung-Jo; Shin, Gee-Wook; Lee, Chang-Seop
Clostridium tertium is distributed in the soil and in animal and human gastrointestinal tracts. C. tertium has been isolated from patients with blood diseases, immune disorders, and abdominal surgeries. Glyphosate is toxic, causing cause eye and skin irritation, gastrointestinal pain, and vomiting. Ingestion of herbicides modiﬁes the gastrointestinal environment, which stresses the living organisms. However, there has been little attention to cases of bacteremia in patients recovering from suicide attempt by ingesting herbicide. Clostridium tertium was identified in a 44-year-old female who attempted suicide by glyphosate (a herbicide) ingestion. The 16S rRNA sequences from all colonies were 99% identical with that of C. tertium (AB618789) found on a BLAST search of the NCBI database. The bacterium was cultured on TSA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions showed that the bacterium was susceptible to penicillin, a combination of β-lactamase inhibitor and piperacillin or amoxicillin, and first- and second- generation cephalosporins. However, it was resistant to third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Glyphosate herbicide might be a predisposing factor responsible for the pathogenesis of C. tertium. The results highlight the need for careful diagnosis and selection of antibiotics in the treatment of this organism.
Shoai Tehrani, M; Hajage, D; Fihman, V; Tankovic, J; Cau, S; Day, N; Visseaux, C; Carbonnelle, E; Kouatchet, A; Cattoir, V; Nhan, T X; Corvec, S; Jacquier, H; Jauréguy, F; Le Monnier, A; Morand, P; Zahar, J R
Given the increasing frequency of cefotaxime-resistant strains, third-generation cephalosporins (3GC e.g. cefotaxime, ceftriaxone) might not be recommended any longer as empirical antibiotic therapy for community-acquired Gram-negative bacteremia (CA-GNB). We conducted a multicenter prospective descriptive study including patients with CA-GNB. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included. Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most frequently isolated species in 63% (n=138) and 11% (n=24) of the cases, respectively. The prevalence of cefotaxime-resistance reached 18% (n=39) mostly due to intrinsic resistance (27 cases, 12%). The presence of invasive material (P<0.001), the origin of the patient (Paris region or West of France) (P=0.006), and home health care (P<0.001) were variables predicting resistant GNB. The negative predictive value for resistance in patients with invasive material coming from the West of France, or without invasive material and with home health care was 94%. The positive predictive value for patients with invasive material living in Paris, or without invasive material and with home health care only reached 58 and 54%, respectively. Using 3GC for CA-GNB due to cefotaxime-resistant strains was relatively frequent, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae being rarely involved. Our study highlights the role of local epidemiology; before any changes to first-line antibiotic therapy, local epidemiological data should be taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gürol, Gölnül; Çiftci, İhsan Hakki; Terizi, Huseyin Agah; Atasoy, Ali Rıza; Ozbek, Ahmet; Köroğlu, Mehmet
Bacteremia and sepsis are common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with incorrect or delayed diagnoses being associated with increased mortality. New tests or markers that allow a more rapid and less costly detection of bacteremia and sepsis have been investigated. The aim of this study was to clarify the cutoff value of the neutrophillymphocyte ratio (NLR) according to procalcitonin (PCT) level in the decision-making processes for bacteremia and sepsis. In addition, other white blood cell subgroup parameters, which are assessed in all hospitals, for bacteremia and sepsis were explored. This retrospective study included 1,468 patients with suspected bacteremia and sepsis. Patients were grouped according to the following PCT criteria: levels <0.05 ng/ml (healthy group), 0.05-0.5 ng/ml (local infection group), 0.5-2 ng/ml (systemic infection group), 2-10 ng/ml (sepsis group), and >10 ng/ml (sepsis shock group). One important finding of this study, which will serve as a baseline to measure future progress, is the presence of many gaps in the information on pathogens that constitute a major health risk. In addition, clinical decisions are generally not coordinated, compromising the ability to assess and monitor a situation. This report represents the first study to determine the limits of the use of NLR in the diagnosis of infection or sepsis using a cutoff value of <5 when sufficient exclusion criteria are used.
Komatsu, Takayuki; Onda, Toshihito; Murayama, Go; Yamanouchi, Masashi; Inukai, Minori; Sakai, Ai; Kikuta, Masumi; Branch, Joel; Aoki, Makoto; Tierney, Lawrence M; Inoue, Kenji
Bacteremia and its complications are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. However, the yield of blood cultures is relatively low, with many false-positive results from bacterial contamination. We investigated the relationship between patient food consumption and the presence of bacteremia. This was an observational analysis of a cohort of 1179 patients who underwent blood culture analysis between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients with anorexia-inducing conditions, such as gastrointestinal illness and malignant disease treated with chemotherapy, were excluded. Food consumption was rated by nurses as the percentage of food consumed during the meal preceding the blood culture. Groupings were as follows: low consumption (<50%), moderate (>50% to <80%), and high (>80%). Low consumption was observed in 39.8% of patients, moderate in 17.8%, and high in 41.6%. The average body temperature was 38.1 ± 1.1°C. Bacteremia was present in 18.5%, 3.9%, and 1.4% of patients in the low, moderate, and high food consumption groups, respectively. The negative predictive value was 98.3%, suggesting that bacteremia is very unlikely in the setting of good food intake. Bacteremia is an unlikely occurrence in hospitalized patients who maintain adequate food consumption at the time of blood culture. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Park, Hyun; Jang, Ki Jun; Jang, Won; Park, Sang Hoon; Park, Ji Young; Jeon, Tae Joo; Oh, Tae Hoon; Shin, Won Chang; Choi, Won-Choong; Sinn, Dong Hyun
AIM: To analyze whether prompt and appropriate empirical antibiotic (AEA) use is associated with mortality in cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. METHODS: A total of 102 episodes of bacteremia in 72 patients with cirrhosis were analyzed. AEA was defined as a using or starting an antibiotic appropriate to the isolated pathogen at the time of bacteremia. The primary endpoint was 30-d mortality. RESULTS: The mortality rate at 30 d was 30.4% (31/102 episodes). Use of AEA was associated with better survival at 30 d (76.5% vs 46.9%, P = 0.05), and inappropriate empirical antibiotic (IEA) use was an independent factor associated with increased mortality (OR = 3.24; 95%CI: 1.50-7.00; P = 0.003, adjusted for age, sex, Child-Pugh Class, gastrointestinal bleeding, presence of septic shock). IEA use was more frequent when the isolated pathogen was a multiresistant pathogen, and when infection was healthcare-related or hospital-acquired. CONCLUSION: AEA use was associated with increased survival of cirrhotic patients who developed bacteremia. Strategies for AEA use, tailored according to the local epidemiological patterns, are needed to improve survival of cirrhotic patients with bacteremia. PMID:25834324
Calderwood, Michael S.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sakoulas, George; Nicol, Robert; DuBois, Andrea; Delaney, Mary L.; Kleinman, Ken; Cosimi, Lisa A.; Feldgarden, Michael; Onderdonk, Andrew B.; Birren, Bruce W.; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.
Background. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization predicts later infection, with both host and pathogen determinants of invasive disease. Methods. This nested case-control study evaluates predictors of MRSA bacteremia in an 8–intensive care unit (ICU) prospective adult cohort from 1 September 2003 through 30 April 2005 with active MRSA surveillance and collection of ICU, post-ICU, and readmission MRSA isolates. We selected MRSA carriers who did (cases) and those who did not (controls) develop MRSA bacteremia. Generating assembled genome sequences, we evaluated 30 MRSA genes potentially associated with virulence and invasion. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed the association of these genes with MRSA bacteremia, controlling for host risk factors. Results. We collected 1578 MRSA isolates from 520 patients. We analyzed host and pathogen factors for 33 cases and 121 controls. Predictors of MRSA bacteremia included a diagnosis of cancer, presence of a central venous catheter, hyperglycemia (glucose level, >200 mg/dL), and infection with a MRSA strain carrying the gene for staphylococcal enterotoxin P (sep). Receipt of an anti-MRSA medication had a significant protective effect. Conclusions. In an analysis controlling for host factors, colonization with MRSA carrying sep increased the risk of MRSA bacteremia. Identification of risk-adjusted genetic determinants of virulence may help to improve prediction of invasive disease and suggest new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24041793
Friesdorf, Florian; Pangercic, Dejan; Bubb, Heiner; Beetz, Michael
In mac, an ergonomic dialog-system and algorithms will be developed that enable human experts and companions to be integrated into knowledge gathering and decision making processes of highly complex cognitive systems (e.g. Assistive Household as manifested further in the paper). In this event we propose to join algorithms and methodologies coming from Ergonomics and Artificial Intelligence that: a) make cognitive systems more congenial for non-expert humans, b) facilitate their comprehension by utilizing a high-level expandable control code for human experts and c) augment representation of such cognitive system into “deep representation” obtained through an interaction with human companions.
de la Peña, J Abel; Rubio, Omar V; Cano, Jacobo P; Cedillo, Mariana C; Garcés, Miriam T
The concept of female beauty has changed throughout time, but the form and size of the breasts and gluteal region have remained constant as symbols of maximum femininity. Sculptures and prints show us feminine figures that are voluminous and reflect human history's interest in fertility. The early years of gluteal augmentation saw few published reports that described the procedure technique, follow-up, or possible complications. But developments continued as surgeons began experimenting with different anatomical planes for implant placement. The most important goal in plastic surgery is meeting a patient's expectations. It is important for the surgeon to thoroughly explain to patients what can realistically be achieved with a procedure.
PbLFICE SY 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION M.L. ENERGIA , Inc. AFOSR/NA 6r. ADDRESS (City. State. anW ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City State, and ZIPCode...27 -00 N ’fPECTED 0 6I FOREWORD This is the Final Report on research on Radiative Augmented Combustion conducted at M. L. ENERGIA , Inc. It was a...the first two annual reports prior to this one. The entire research program was performed at ENERGIA , Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, with Dr. Moshe Lavid
86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey
Lee, Meng-Rui; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Wei-Jie; Lee, Shih-Wei; Lee, Li-Na; Hsueh, Po-Ren
We describe 16 patients with bacteremia caused by Eggerthella lenta (n = 7), Paraeggerthella hongkongensis (n = 3), Eubacterium limosum (n = 4), Eubacterium callanderi (n = 1), and concomitant Eubacterium limosum/Eggerthella lenta (n = 1). Nine (56%) patients had polymicrobial bacteremia. The overall 60-day mortality rate was 19%, and all deaths occurred in patients with E. lenta bacteremia.
Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Houdouin, Véronique; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Mahjoub-Messai, Farah; Bingen, Edouard
Escherichia coli isolates causing urinary tract infection in 83 male infants younger than 90 days with and without bacteremia were compared for phylogenetic groups and the presence of 10 virulence factors. Our result suggest that the absence of both hemolysin and antigen K1 may be used as a negative predictive factor for bacteremia. PMID:16517919
Suwantarat, Nuntra; Adams, La'Tonzia L; Romagnoli, Mark; Carroll, Karen C
Herbaspirillum spp. are rare causes of human infections associated primarily with bacteremia in cancer patients. We report the first fatal case of bacteremia secondary to pneumonia caused by Herbaspirillum seropedicae in a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease and multiple myeloma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Song, Eun Hee; Park, Ki-Ho; Jang, Eun-Young; Lee, Eun Jung; Chong, Yong Pil; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Sung, Heungsup; Kim, Mi-Na; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Choi, Sang-Ho
We compared the characteristics and outcomes of 172 Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia and 67 Enterobacter aerogenes bacteremia (EAB) cases. Antimicrobial resistance rates to E. cloacae were higher than those to E. aerogenes. However, EAB more frequently presented as septic shock and was associated with poorer outcomes.
Maggi, Ricardo G.; Mozayeni, B. Robert; Pultorak, Elizabeth L.; Hegarty, Barbara C.; Bradley, Julie M.; Correa, Maria
Bartonella spp. infection has been reported in association with an expanding spectrum of symptoms and lesions. Among 296 patients examined by a rheumatologist, prevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae, B. koehlerae, or B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii (185 [62%]) and Bartonella spp. bacteremia (122 [41.1%]) was high. Conditions diagnosed before referral included Lyme disease (46.6%), arthralgia/arthritis (20.6%), chronic fatigue (19.6%), and fibromyalgia (6.1%). B. henselae bacteremia was significantly associated with prior referral to a neurologist, most often for blurred vision, subcortical neurologic deficits, or numbness in the extremities, whereas B. koehlerae bacteremia was associated with examination by an infectious disease physician. This cross-sectional study cannot establish a causal link between Bartonella spp. infection and the high frequency of neurologic symptoms, myalgia, joint pain, or progressive arthropathy in this population; however, the contribution of Bartonella spp. infection, if any, to these symptoms should be systematically investigated. PMID:22516098
Jimeno-Almazán, Amaya; Viqueira-Gonzalez, Montserrat; Alcalde, María Del Mar; Alcaraz-Vidal, Begoña; Vera-Méndez, Francisco
A gradual increase in severe cases due to Streptococcus pyogenes or Streptococcus beta-hemolytic group A (SGA), has been detected in the last few decades. Retrospective study of bacteremia due to S.pyogenes detected between January 2009 and January 2013 in Cartagena. The annual incidence for severe bacteremia has been estimated. Thirteen cases of SGA bacteremia were recorded. The incidence increased from 0.37 in 2009 to 2.5 cases/100,000 inhabitants in 2012. The predominant focus was skin and soft tissue infections (53%). Early mortality was 20%. Severe streptococcal disease is rare, but affects individuals with good functional status, and is associated with a high mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Watanakunakorn, C; Baird, I M
Records of 21 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia associated with a removable infected intravenous device were reviewed. Sixteen patients had a peripheral intravenous catheter, four had a central venous catheter and one had a transvenous cardiac pacer. The duration of the indwelling intravenous device in situ prior to the detection of infection ranged from two to 11 (mean 5.2) days. The infected intravenous device was promptly removed as soon as bacteremia was suspected. Endocarditis was diagnosed in eight patients: in two patients an aortic murmur developed; in two the diagnosis was made clinically and was confirmed at necropsy (one mitral and one aortic); in four the diagnosis was made at necropsy (two tricuspid and two atrial wall). In patients with Staph. aureus bacteremia associated with a removable infected intravenous device, the risk of endocarditis developing was significant.
The history of breast augmentation started effectively after World War II. Until then, this surgery was almost irrelevant because the indications were considered very rare and technical possibilities limited. During about two decades after 1945, two types of procedures were proposed. The first ones used autologous tissue especially fat in the form of dermofatty grafts taken from the buttocks. The results were very bad and sometimes disastrous for both techniques. At the beginning of the sixties, under the impulse of the Dow Corning Company, two surgeons: Frank Gerow and Thomas Cronin from Houston (Texas, USA) proposed an implant with a sheath filled with silicone gel. This new prosthesis had an immediate success and the number of breast augmentations growed very quickly. After an optimistic period, it had to be admitted that the results were sometimes deceiving or frankly bad. The breasts were often too firm, sometimes hard and even deformed. Capsular contracture occurred around the implants. During the 70's and 80's both consistency and envelops of the implants were regularly modified. The incision and the positioning were changed. At the end of the 80's, the problem of capsular contracture seemed to be resolved with the implants used, meanwhile a controversy took place about silicone in USA. Some cases of autoimmune diseases were attributed to silicone. In spite of scientific studies that proved the contrary, silicone implants were prohibited in the United States, Canada and temporarily in France.
Atcherson, Samuel R; Moreland, Christopher; Zazove, Philip; McKee, Michael M
Etiologies of hearing loss vary. When hearing loss is diagnosed, referral to an otology subspecialist, audiology subspecialist, or hearing aid dispenser to discuss treatment options is appropriate. Conventional hearing aids provide increased sound pressure in the ear canal for detection of sounds that might otherwise be soft or inaudible. Hearing aids can be used for sensorineural, conductive, or mixed hearing loss by patients with a wide range of hearing loss severity. The most common type of hearing loss is high-frequency, which affects audibility and perception of speech consonants, but not vowels. As the severity of hearing loss increases, the benefit of hearing aids for speech perception decreases. Implantable devices such as cochlear implants, middle ear implants, and bone-anchored implants can benefit specific patient groups. Hearing assistive technology devices provide auditory, visual, or tactile information to augment hearing and increase environmental awareness of sounds. Hearing assistive devices include wireless assistive listening device systems, closed captioning, hearing aid-compatible telephones, and other devices. For some patients, financial barriers and health insurance issues limit acquisition of hearing aids, implantable devices, and hearing assistive devices. Physicians should be aware that for some patients and families, hearing augmentation may not be desired for cultural reasons.
Engelbart, D. C.
User experience in applying our augmentation tools and techniques to various normal working tasks within our center is described so as to convey a subjective impression of what it is like to work in an augmented environment. It is concluded that working-support, computer-aid systems for augmenting individuals and teams, are undoubtedly going to be widely developed and used. A very special role in this development is seen for multi-access computer networks.
Sinclair, D.; Svendsen, A.; Marrie, T.
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of bacteremia and any correlation between signs and symptoms, risk factors, and laboratory data in elderly patients. DESIGN: Prospective analysis. All patients were contacted by the study nurse at 48 hours and 7 days after study entry. SETTING: Adult tertiary care hospital with an emergency department managing 48,000 visits yearly in a metropolitan area of 250,000. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the study population referred to the emergency department for medical or surgical problems. Of 113 nursing home patients, blood culture results were available for 111. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood cultures were obtained by standard protocol. Demographic and medical information was collected from the medical record. Three groups of patients were compared with respect to symptoms, risk factors, laboratory data, and outcome. RESULTS: Group 1 (n = 86) had two sets of negative blood cultures. Group 2 (n = 10) had true-positive cultures. Group 3 (n = 15) had false-positive cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis. The prevalence of bacteremia was 9.8% in the study population. No risk factors were predictive of bacteremia. Great variation in signs and symptoms were noted in all three groups, none correlating with bacteremia. Although seven of the 10 patients with positive cultures were febrile, this association did not reach statistical significance. All groups had high admission (> 50%) and mortality (20% to 37%) rates. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of bacteremia in the nursing home population presenting to the emergency department was 9.8%. The symptoms and signs of bacteremia in this population were variable and nonspecific. The high rate of false-positive cultures in this setting is of concern. PMID:9512835
Aoki, Yoshihiro; Kitazawa, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Senda, Masayoshi; Arahata, Yukie; Homma, Riu; Watanabe, Yudai; Honda, Akihito
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) can cause bacterial enterocolitis. Although some children with NTS infection develop bacteremia, its clinical manifestations have not been discussed adequately. Therefore, we examined children with NTS bacteremia. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 15 patients aged less than 15 years. Salmonella spp. were detected in the blood cultures of these patients between 1991 and 2014. We divided an additional sample group of 34 patients diagnosed with an NTS infection between 2005 and 2014, into 2 groups. Group bacteremia (B) included patients in whose blood cultures Salmonella spp. were detected, and group non-bacteremia (NB) included patients in whom Salmonella infection was not detected. We compared each group using Wilcoxon test and Fisher's exact test. The number of patients with fever, diarrhea, or abdominal pain was 15 (100%), 13 (87%), and 9 (60%), respectively, in the first sample of patients. However, vomiting and bloody stool were observed in only 5 patients (33%). More than 70% of patients exhibited a reduced white blood cell count, while C-reactive protein levels were variable in the patients. Salmonella spp. were detected via stool culture in 10 patients (67%). Diarrhea persisted for more than 4 days more frequently in group B than group NB (p = 0.004). The number of patients whose fever persisted for more than 4 days was significantly higher in group B than group NB (p = 0.030). Therefore, if NTS bacteremia is suspected, blood cultures should be collected and antibiotics should be initiated in cases with diarrhea or fever for more than 4 days. Furthermore, a negative stool culture result does not preclude the possibility of NTS bacteremia.
Cheng, Aristine; Liu, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Hsu, Meng-Shuian; Yang, Chia-Jui; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Hsueh, Po-Ren
There are only three case reports of adult patients with spontaneous Pantoea agglomerans bacteremia in the English literature. The aim of this study was to investigate clinical and microbiologic characteristics patients of P agglomerans bacteremia. We studied all adult patients with P agglomerans bacteremia at a medical center from 2000 to 2010. The isolates were identified using two commercial identification systems. Of the 18 patients identified, 72% (n = 13) had active gastroesophageal disease treated with antacids. Two-thirds of patients had indwelling central lines and advanced cancers. None of the removed catheter tips yielded P agglomerans and line persistence was not associated with adverse outcomes. Initial disease severity was low, hypotension was uncommon and no patient died of bacteremia. Recurrence of bacteremia occurred in one patient with deep-seated infection. 16srRNA gene sequencing identified only half of the isolates as P agglomerans. The remaining nine isolates were Enterobacter species for six, Pantoea ananatis for two, and Exiguobacterium profundum for one. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the subgroup molecularly identified as P agglomernas and the overall group characteristics. Eleven (61%) of the 18 isolates were susceptible to cefazolin, six (33%) susceptible to fosfomycin (MIC ≤ 64 mg/ml). Two isolates had colistin MICs ≥ 4 mg/ml. Bacteremia caused by P agglomerans is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease and receipt of antacids. 16srRNA gene sequencing should not be used as the sole basis for its identification and we have highlighted the need for another molecular-based technique to conclusively characterize P agglomerans. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A
There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli--Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)--that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains.
Miller, Sinead E.; Bell, Charleson S.; Cover, Timothy L.; Giorgio, Todd D.
The rise of multi-drug resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics, which has led to increased mortality rates associated with symptomatic bacteremia, or bacterial sepsis. To combat decreasing antibiotic effectiveness, extracorporeal bacterial separation approaches have been proposed to capture and separate bacteria from blood. However, bacteremia is dynamic and involves host-pathogen interactions across various anatomical sites. We developed a mathematical model that quantitatively describes the kinetics of pathogenesis and progression of symptomatic bacteremia under various conditions, including bacterial separation therapy, to better understand disease mechanisms and quantitatively assess the biological impact of bacterial separation therapy. Model validity was tested against experimental data from published studies. This is the first multi-compartment model of symptomatic bacteremia in mammals that includes extracorporeal bacterial separation and antibiotic treatment, separately and in combination. The addition of an extracorporeal bacterial separation circuit reduced the predicted time of total bacteria clearance from the blood of an immunocompromised rodent by 49%, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Implementation of bacterial separation therapy resulted in predicted multi-drug resistant bacterial clearance from the blood of a human in 97% less time than antibiotic treatment alone. The model also proposes a quantitative correlation between time-dependent bacterial load among tissues and bacteremia severity, analogous to the well-known ‘area under the curve’ for characterization of drug efficacy. The engineering-based mathematical model developed may be useful for informing the design of extracorporeal bacterial separation devices. This work enables the quantitative identification of the characteristics required of an extracorporeal bacteria separation device to provide biological benefit. These devices will potentially decrease the
Miller, Sinead E; Bell, Charleson S; McClain, Mark S; Cover, Timothy L; Giorgio, Todd D
The rise of multi-drug resistance has decreased the effectiveness of antibiotics, which has led to increased mortality rates associated with symptomatic bacteremia, or bacterial sepsis. To combat decreasing antibiotic effectiveness, extracorporeal bacterial separation approaches have been proposed to capture and separate bacteria from blood. However, bacteremia is dynamic and involves host-pathogen interactions across various anatomical sites. We developed a mathematical model that quantitatively describes the kinetics of pathogenesis and progression of symptomatic bacteremia under various conditions, including bacterial separation therapy, to better understand disease mechanisms and quantitatively assess the biological impact of bacterial separation therapy. Model validity was tested against experimental data from published studies. This is the first multi-compartment model of symptomatic bacteremia in mammals that includes extracorporeal bacterial separation and antibiotic treatment, separately and in combination. The addition of an extracorporeal bacterial separation circuit reduced the predicted time of total bacteria clearance from the blood of an immunocompromised rodent by 49%, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Implementation of bacterial separation therapy resulted in predicted multi-drug resistant bacterial clearance from the blood of a human in 97% less time than antibiotic treatment alone. The model also proposes a quantitative correlation between time-dependent bacterial load among tissues and bacteremia severity, analogous to the well-known 'area under the curve' for characterization of drug efficacy. The engineering-based mathematical model developed may be useful for informing the design of extracorporeal bacterial separation devices. This work enables the quantitative identification of the characteristics required of an extracorporeal bacteria separation device to provide biological benefit. These devices will potentially decrease the
Lücking, Vibeke; Rosthøj, Steen
The purpose was to identify risk factors for bacteremia in febrile episodes occurring during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children, and to develop a risk score permitting risk-adapted antibiotic therapy. We reviewed a total of 172 febrile episodes occurring during chemotherapy in 31 children and adolescents with ALL. Temperature, hematological parameters, culture findings, and antibiotic therapy were recorded. Bacteremias were classified as transmucosal or CVC-dependent. Blood cultures were positive with mucosal pathogens in 15 cases (9%) and with skin/environmental bacteria in 34 (20%). CVC-dependent infections occurred throughout the treatment phases, while transmucosal primarily during induction therapy. Transmucosal bacteremia was associated with induction therapy, leukocyte count ≤0.5 × 10(9)/L, neutrophil count ≤0.1 × 10(9)/L, monocyte count ≤0.01 × 10(9)/L, and platelet count ≤50 × 10(9)/L. Based on logistic conversion of the odds ratios for the five factors, a weight of 2 was assigned to induction therapy and leukocyte count ≤0.5 × 10(9)/L, and a weight of 1 to the remaining three parameters. The weights were included in a simple additive score ranging from 0 to 7, which defined groups with 4%, 6%, 24%, and 40% risk of transmucosal bacteremia. CVC-dependent bacteremia was not associated with markers of poor bone marrow function. In conclusion, transmucosal bacteremia in children with ALL is related to infiltration or suppression of the bone marrow. A score reflecting the condition of the marrow can define low-risk and high-risk groups and may prove clinically useful.
Tsai, Wan-Lin; Hung, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Hui-An; Wang, Jiun-Ling; Huang, I-Fei; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Chen, Yao-Shen; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Hung, Wan-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Fang
The prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. This study investigated the clinical features and bacteriology of pediatric patients with ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia and compared their characteristics with those of adult patients. Clinical and laboratory data from all of the 41 patients aged ≤18 years diagnosed with E. coli bacteremia were collected over 5 years. Patients aged >18 years diagnosed with E. coli bacteremia, matched 1:1 for calendar time, were enrolled as the adult group. All E. coli isolates were tested for their blaCTX-M group and sequence type 131 (ST131). A novel seven-single nucleotide polymorphism-based clonotyping test was applied to detect the septatypes of each isolate. In the adult group, patients with ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia had more previous hospitalizations and antimicrobial agent use than did those with non-ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia, but these differences were not found in pediatric group. In the pediatric group, the proportion of isolates producing CTX-M group 9 was higher than that in the adult group (85.7% vs. 42.9%; p < 0.05). Among both groups, there were more E. coli ST131 in ESBL isolates in than there were non-ESBL isolates. The distribution of septatypes was more homogenous in ESBL-producing E. coli among the pediatric patients than among the adult patients. ST131 was the major clone causing E. coli bacteremia in both pediatric and adult populations. The pediatric population demonstrated a higher number of isolates producing CTX-M group 9 with more homogenous septatypes compared with the adult population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Falguera, Miquel; Trujillano, Javier; Caro, Sílvia; Menéndez, Rosario; Carratalà, Jordi; Ruiz-González, Agustín; Vilà, Manuel; García, Mercè; Porcel, José Manuel; Torres, Antoni
We endeavored to construct a simple score based entirely on epidemiological and clinical variables that would stratify patients who require hospital admission because of community-acquired pneumonia into groups with a low or high risk of developing bacteremia. Derivation and internal validation cohorts were obtained by retrospective analysis of a database that included 3116 consecutive patients with community-acquired pneumonia from 2 university hospitals. Potential predictive factors were determined by means of a multivariate logistic regression equation applied to a cohort consisting of 60% of the patients. Points were assigned to significant parameters to generate the score. It was then internally validated with the remaining 40% of patients and was externally validated using an independent multicenter cohort of 1369 patients. The overall rates of bacteremia were 12%-16% in the cohorts. The clinical probability estimate of developing bacteremia was based on 6 variables: liver disease, pleuritic pain, tachycardia, tachypnea, systolic hypotension, and absence of prior antibiotic treatment. For the score, 1 point was assigned to each predictive factor. In the derivation cohort, a cutoff score of 2 best identified the risk of bacteremia. In the validation cohorts, rates of bacteremia were <8% for patients with a score 1 (43%-49% of patients), whereas blood culture results were positive in 14%-63% of cases for patients with a score 2. This clinical score, based on readily available and objective variables, provides a useful tool to predict bacteremia. The score has been internally and externally validated and may be useful to guide diagnostic decisions for community-acquired pneumonia.
Greenhow, Tara L; Hung, Yun-Yi; Herz, Arnd
In June 2010, Kaiser Permanente Northern California replaced all 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) vaccines with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13). Our objectives were to compare the incidence of bacteremia in children 3 to 36 months old by 3 time periods: pre-PCV7, post-PCV7/pre-PCV13, and post-PCV13. We designed a retrospective review of the electronic medical records of all blood cultures collected on children 3 to 36 months old at Kaiser Permanente Northern California from September 1, 1998 to August 31, 2014 in outpatient clinics, in emergency departments, and in the first 24 hours of hospitalization. During the study period, 57 733 blood cultures were collected in the population of children 3 to 36 months old. Implementation of routine immunization with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine resulted in a 95.3% reduction of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, decreasing from 74.5 to 10 to 3.5 per 100 000 children per year by the post-PCV13 period. As pneumococcal rates decreased, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, and Staphylococcus aureus caused 77% of bacteremia. Seventy-six percent of all bacteremia in the post-PCV13 period occurred with a source. In the United States, routine immunizations have made bacteremia in the previously healthy toddler a rare event. As the incidence of pneumococcal bacteremia has decreased, E coli, Salmonella spp, and S aureus have increased in relative importance. New guidelines are needed to approach the previously healthy febrile toddler in the outpatient setting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Peterson, William J.; Maya, Ivan D.; Carlton, Donna; Estrada, Erin; Allon, Michael
Background Catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) is a frequent complication of tunneled dialysis catheters, and Enterococcus is a common infecting organism. CRB may be treated by instilling an antibiotic lock into the catheter lumen, in conjunction with systemic antibiotics. The efficacy of this approach in Enterococcus bacteremia is unknown. Design Quality improvement report. Setting and participants 64 catheter-dependent hemodialysis outpatients with vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus bacteremia treated with a uniform antibiotic lock protocol. Clinical outcomes were tracked prospectively. Quality improvement plans Patients received intravenous vancomycin for 3 weeks, in conjunction with a vancomycin lock instilled into both catheter lumens after each dialysis session. Measures Treatment failure was defined as persistent fever 48 hours after initiation of antibiotics or recurrent Enterococcus bacteremia within 90 days. A clinical cure was defined as fever resolution without recurrent bacteremia. Major infection-related complications within 6 months were documented. Results Treatment failure occurred in 25 patients (39%), due to persistent fever in 10, and recurrent bacteremia in 15. Treatment success occurred in 39 patients (61%). A serious complication of Enterococcus CRB occurred in 4 of 64 patients (6%), endocarditis in 1 and osteomyelitis in 3. The frequency of serious complications was 16% (4/25) in patients with treatment failure, as compared with 0% (0/39) in those with treatment success (P=0.01). Limitations This was a single-center study. We did not measure serum vancomycin levels. Conclusions An antibiotic lock protocol permits catheter salvage in 61% of hemodialysis patients with Enterococcus CRB. Serious complications occur in 6% of patients, and are more common in those with treatment failure. PMID:18848379
Schmidt, D. K.
An augmentation synthesis method usable in the absence of quantitative handling qualities specifications, and yet explicitly including design objectives based on pilot-rating concepts, is presented. The algorithm involves the unique approach of simultaneously solving for the stability augmentation system (SAS) gains, pilot equalization and pilot rating prediction via optimal control techniques. Simultaneous solution is required in this case since the pilot model (gains, etc.) depends upon the augmented plant dynamics, and the augmentation is obviously not a priori known. Another special feature is the use of the pilot's objective function (from which the pilot model evolves) to design the SAS.
Prematunge, Chatura; MacDougall, Colin; Johnstone, Jennie; Adomako, Kwaku; Lam, Freda; Robertson, Jennifer; Garber, Gary
BACKGROUND Prior data suggest that vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteremia is associated with worse outcomes than vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus (VSE) bacteremia. However, many studies evaluating such outcomes were conducted prior to the availability of effective VRE therapies. OBJECTIVE To systematically review VRE and VSE bacteremia outcomes among hospital patients in the era of effective VRE therapy. METHODS Electronic databases and grey literature published between January 1997 and December 2014 were searched to identify all primary research studies comparing outcomes of VRE and VSE bacteremias among hospital patients, following the availability of effective VRE therapies. The primary outcome was all-cause, in-hospital mortality, while total hospital length of stay (LOS) was a secondary outcome. All meta-analyses were conducted in Review Manager 5.3 using random-effects, inverse variance modeling. RESULTS Among all the studies reviewed, 12 cohort studies and 1 case control study met inclusion criteria. Similar study designs were combined in meta-analyses for mortality and LOS. VRE bacteremia was associated with increased mortality compared with VSE bacteremia among cohort studies (odds ratio [OR], 1.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38-2.35; I2=0%; n=11); the case-control study estimate was similar, but not significant (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 0.97-3.82). LOS was greater for VRE bacteremia patients than for VSE bacteremia patients (mean difference, 5.01 days; 95% CI, 0.58-9.44]; I2=0%; n=5). CONCLUSIONS Despite the availability of effective VRE therapy, VRE bacteremia remains associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and LOS when compared to VSE bacteremia. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):26-35.
Lipsky, Benjamin A; Kollef, Marin H; Miller, Loren G; Sun, Xiaowu; Johannes, Richard S; Tabak, Ying P
Bacteremia is relatively common in patients with skin and skin-structure infection (SSSI) severe enough to require hospitalization. We used selected demographic and clinical characteristics easily assessable at initial evaluation to develop a model for the early identification of patients with SSSI who are at higher risk for bacteremia. A large database of adults hospitalized with SSSI at 97 hospitals in the United States during the period from 2003 through 2007 and from whom blood samples were obtained for culture at admission. We compared selected candidate predictor variables for patients shown to have bacteremia and patients with no demonstrated bacteremia. Using stepwise logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for bacteremia, we derived a model by using 75% of a randomly split cohort, converted the model coefficients into a risk score system, and then we validated it by using the remaining 25% of the cohort. Bacteremia was documented in 1,021 (11.7%) of the 8,747 eligible patients. Independent predictors of bacteremia (P<.001) were infected device or prosthesis, respiratory rate less than 10 or more than 29 breaths per minute, pulse rate less than 49 or more than 125 beats per minute, temperature less than 35.6 degrees C or at least 38.0 degrees C, white blood cell band percentage of 7% or more, white blood cell count greater than 11x10(9)/L, healthcare-associated infection, male sex, and older age. The bacteremia rates ranged from 3.7% (lowest decile) to 30.6% (highest decile) (P<.001). The model C statistic was 0.71; the Hosmer-Lemeshow test P value was .36, indicating excellent model calibration. Using data available at hospital admission, we developed a risk score that differentiated SSSI patients at low risk for bacteremia from patients at high risk. This score may help clinicians identify patients who require more intensive monitoring or antimicrobial regimens appropriate for treating bacteremia.
Ku, Nam Su; Kim, Hye-Won; Oh, Hyung Jung; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Min Hyung; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Ahn, Jin Young; Kim, Sun Bean; Jeong, Su Jin; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Chang Oh; Song, Young Goo; Kim, June Myung; Choi, Jun Yong
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is known to be a predictor of severe morbidity and mortality in some chronic diseases such as congestive heart failure. However, to our knowledge, little is known about RDW as a predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia, a major nosocomial cause of intra-abdominal infections, urinary tract infections, and primary bacteremia. Therefore, we investigated whether RDW is an independent predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Clinical characteristics, laboratory parameters, and outcomes of 161 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia from November 2010 to March 2011 diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea, were retrospectively analyzed. The main outcome measure was 28-day all-cause mortality. The 28-day mortality rate was significantly higher in the increased RDW group compared with the normal RDW group (P < 0.001). According to multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis, RDW levels at the onset of bacteremia (per 1% increase, P = 0.036), the Charlson index (per 1-point increase, P < 0.001), and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (per 1-point increase, P = 0.001) were independent risk factors for 28-day mortality. Moreover, the nonsurvivor group had significantly higher RDW levels 72 h after the onset of bacteremia than did the survivor group (P = 0.001). In addition, the area under the curve of RDW at the onset of bacteremia, the 72-h RDW, and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score for 28-day mortality were 0.764 (P = 0.001), 0.802 (P < 0.001), and 0.703 (P = 0.008), respectively. Red blood cell distribution width at the onset of bacteremia was an independent predictor of mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Also, 72-h RDW could be a predictor for all-cause mortality in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia.
Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit
Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia. PMID:27195164
Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit
Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.
Karunakaran, R; Halim, H A; Ng, K P; Hanifah, Y A; Chin, E; Jaafar, F L; Abubakar, S
Tsukamurella spp. are a rare but important cause of intravascular catheter-related bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. The organism is an aerobic, Gram-positive, weakly acid-fast bacillus that is difficult to differentiate using standard laboratory methods from other aerobic actinomycetales such as Nocardia spp., Rhododoccus spp., Gordonia spp., and the rapid growing Mycobacterium spp. We report a case of Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens catheter-related bacteremia in a 51-year-old haematology patient who responded to treatment with imipenem and subsequent line removal. 16srRNA sequencing allowed for the prompt identification of this organism.
Smith, Janessa M; Avdic, Edina; Tamma, Pranita D; Zhang, Long; Carroll, Karen C; Cosgrove, Sara E
The objective of this study was to determine risk factors for the development of resistance to β-lactams/β-lactamase inhibitors (βL/βLIs) and ertapenem among Bacteroides species bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 101 adult patients with Bacteroides species bacteremia at a 1,051-bed tertiary care medical center. The duration of exposure to βL/βLIs (odds ratio [OR], 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 2.31) was the only independent risk factor for resistance. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kwon, Hee Jin; Yoo, Kwai Han; Kim, In Young; Lee, Seulkee; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Kwon, Ghee Young
Megalocytic interstitial nephritis is a rare form of kidney disease caused by chronic inflammation. We report a case of megalocytic interstitial nephritis occurring in a 45-yrold woman who presented with oliguric acute kidney injury and acute pyelonephritis accompanied by Escherichia coli bacteremia. Her renal function was not recovered despite adequate duration of susceptible antibiotic treatment, accompanied by negative conversion of bacteremia and bacteriuria. Kidney biopsy revealed an infiltration of numerous histiocytes without Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. The patient's renal function was markedly improved after short-term treatment with high-dose steroid.
Pãosinho, Ana; Azevedo, Telma; Alves, João V.; Costa, Isabel A.; Carvalho, Gustavo; Peres, Susana R.; Baptista, Teresa; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal
Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice. PMID:27127665
Al Soub, Hussam; Al Maslamani, Mona; Al Khuwaiter, Jameela; El Deeb, Yasser; Abu Khattab, Mohammed
A case of pacemaker infection complicated by bacteremia and myocardial abscess caused by Mycobacterium fortuitum is reported and 9 other cases of pacemaker infection associated with rapidly growing mycobacteria are reviewed. Most cases developed within 6 months from implantation suggesting nosocomial acquisition. Wound discharge, fever, and pain at generator site were the most common presenting features. At presentation they had a median duration of symptoms of 34 days. Concomitant bacteremia was present in half of the cases. Antibiotics therapy and removal of the pacemaker system were needed to achieve cure in the majority of cases. Clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones were the most commonly used antibiotics.
Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.
The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.
Real time motion tracking hardware has for the most part been cost prohibitive for research to regularly take place until recently. With the release of the Microsoft Kinect in November 2010, researchers now have access to a device that for a few hundred dollars is capable of providing redgreenblue (RGB), depth, and skeleton data. It is also capable of tracking multiple people in real time. For its original intended purposes, i.e. gaming, being used with the Xbox 360 and eventually Xbox One, it performs quite well. However, researchers soon found that although the sensor is versatile, it has limitations in real world applications. I was brought aboard this summer by William Little in the Augmented Virtual Reality (AVR) Lab at Kennedy Space Center to find solutions to these limitations.
Hoover, John J.
This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.
Lin, Chien-Liang; Su, Yu-Zheng; Hung, Min-Wei; Huang, Kuo-Cheng
In recent years, Augmented Reality (AR) is very popular in universities and research organizations. The AR technology has been widely used in Virtual Reality (VR) fields, such as sophisticated weapons, flight vehicle development, data model visualization, virtual training, entertainment and arts. AR has characteristics to enhance the display output as a real environment with specific user interactive functions or specific object recognitions. It can be use in medical treatment, anatomy training, precision instrument casting, warplane guidance, engineering and distance robot control. AR has a lot of vantages than VR. This system developed combines sensors, software and imaging algorithms to make users feel real, actual and existing. Imaging algorithms include gray level method, image binarization method, and white balance method in order to make accurate image recognition and overcome the effects of light.
Rebouças, Rafael B; Monteiro, Rodrigo C; Souza, Thiago N S de; Aragão, Augusto J de; Burity, Camila R T; Nóbrega, Júlio C de A; Oliveira, Natália S C de; Abrantes, Ramon B; Dantas Júnior, Luiz B; Cartaxo Filho, Ricardo; Negromonte, Gustavo R P; Sampaio, Rafael da C R; Britto, Cesar A
Guillain-Barre syndrome is an acute neuropathy that rarely compromises bladder function. Conservative management including clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy is the primary approach for hypocompliant contracted bladder. Surgical treatment may be used in refractory cases to improve bladder compliance and capacity in order to protect the upper urinary tract. We describe a case of pure laparoscopic augmentation ileocystoplasty in a patient affected by Guillain-Barre syndrome. A 15-year-old female, complaining of voiding dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infection and worsening renal function for three months. A previous history of Guillain-Barre syndrome on childhood was related. A voiding cystourethrography showed a pine-cone bladder with moderate post-void residual urine. The urodynamic demonstrated a hypocompliant bladder and small bladder capacity (190 mL) with high detrusor pressure (54 cmH2O). Nonsurgical treatments were attempted, however unsuccessfully.
Shao, Xingling; Liu, Jun; Yang, Wei; Tang, Jun; Li, Jie
This paper presents a sigmoid function based augmented nonlinear differentiator (AND) for calculating the noise-less time derivative from a noisy measurement. The prominent advantages of the present differentiation technique are: (i) compared to the existing tracking differentiators, better noise suppression ability can be achieved without appreciable delay; (ii) the enhanced noise-filtering mechanism not only can be applied to the designed differentiator, but also can be extended for improving noise-tolerance capability of the available differentiators. In addition, the convergence property and robustness performance against noises are investigated via singular perturbation theory and describing function method, respectively. Also, comparison with several classical differentiators is given to illustrate the superiority of AND in noise suppression. Finally, applications on autopilot design and displacement following for nonlinear mass spring mechanical system are given to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed AND technique.
Hoover, John J.
This project was one project within the Native American Earth and Space Academy (NAESA). NAESA is a national initiative comprised of several organizations that support programs which focus on 1) enhancing the technological, scientific and pedagogical skills of K-14 teachers who instruct Native Americans, 2) enhancing the understanding and applications of science, technology, and engineering of college-bound Native Americans and teaching them general college "survival skills" (e.g., test taking, time management, study habits), 3) enhancing the scientific and pedagogical skills of the faculty of tribally-controllcd colleges and community colleges with large Native American enrollments, and 4) strengthening the critical relationships between students, their parents, tribal elders, and their communities. This Augmentation Pilot Project focused on the areas of community-school alliances and intemet technology use in teaching and learning and daily living addressing five major objectives.
Simon, Tamara D.; Van Yserloo, Brian; Nelson, Kevin; Gillespie, David; Jensen, Randy; McAllister, James P.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Stockmann, Chris; Daly, Judy A.; Blaschke, Anne J.
The aim of this study was to develop a quantitative 16S rRNA assay for determination of bacterial nucleic acid load in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt infection and to compare quantitative 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) findings to those of conventional bacterial culture in patients treated for CSF shunt infection. We developed a quantitative 16S rRNA PCR assay that detected bacterial load across a range of 2.5 × 109 down to 2.5 × 104 16S copies/mL CSF under experimental conditions for numerous Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. However, when applied to archived CSF samples from 25 shunt infection episodes, correlations between positive bacterial culture and 16S rRNA levels were seen in only half of infections, and 16S rRNA levels dropped precipitously after an initial peak on the first day of sample collection. Bacterial load measured using 16S rRNA PCR does not provide sufficient information beyond bacterial culture to inform CSF shunt infection treatment. PMID:23953744
Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…
Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as…
UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010892 TITLE: BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System DISTRIBUTION...component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP010865 thru. ADP010894 UNCLASSIFIED 27-1 BARS: Battlefield Augmented Reality System Simon Julier... future military operations are expected to occur overload, we have developed an intelligent filter which in urban environments. These complex, 3D
Engelbart, D. C.
This progress report covers a two-year project which is part of a program that is exploring the value of computer aids in augmenting human intellectual capability. The background and nature of the program, its resources, and the activities it has undertaken are outlined. User experience in applying augmentation tools and techniques to various…
Samet, A; Sledzińska, A; Krawczyk, B; Hellmann, A; Nowicki, S; Kur, J; Nowicki, B
In patients with leukemia, the portal(s) and reasons for the persistence of an Escherichia coli recurrent bacteremia remain unclear. Adult Hematology Clinic (AHC) databases at the State Clinical Hospital in Gdańsk were reviewed to evaluate the frequency of E. coli bacteremia between 2002 and 2005. Blood and bowel E. coli strains were obtained and the genetic relatedness of the strains was analyzed. The rate of E. coli bacteremia per 1,000 admissions at the AHC was higher (85.0) than in the other clinics of the hospital (2.9), p < 0.001. A higher mortality was observed in patients with a history of E. coli versus non-E. coli bacteremia [30/95 (31 %) vs. 53/430 (12 %), p < 0.001]; 72.8 % of patients with leukemia had an unknown source of bacteremia. In 2005, 6 out of 25 (24 %) patients with leukemia had ≥2 episodes of E. coli-positive blood cultures. These gastrointestinal E. coli isolates were replaced within 3-8 weeks with a new E. coli H genotype. A recurrent episode of bacteremia was usually caused by an infection with a transient E. coli H genotype identical to that found in the subject's bowel. Consistent with the definition of bowel/blood translocation, the bowel appeared to be a portal for E. coli in these subjects and, hence, a clear source for their recurring bacteremia.
Morozumi, Toshiya; Kubota, Takehiko; Abe, Daisuke; Shimizu, Taro; Komatsu, Yasutaka; Yoshie, Hiromasa
Transient bacteremia frequently occur secondary to several periodontal procedures. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effects of irrigation with an essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO) and oral administration of azithromycin (AZM) on bacteremia caused by scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty patients with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to three groups (control, EO, and AZM). The EO group received quadrant subgingival irrigation with EO, and mouthrinsing was continued at home for 1 week. Oral administration of AZM was started 3 days before SRP in the AZM group. No adjunctive treatment was performed before SRP in the control group. Peripheral blood and subgingival plaque were collected at baseline and after 1 week. The second blood sample was taken 6 minutes after the initiation of quadrant SRP. The blood samples were cultured and analyzed for bacteremia. Quantitative analysis of periodontopathic bacteria in the sulcus was performed using the polymerase chain reaction Invader method. Bacteremia incidence rates were 90%, 70%, and 20% for the control, EO, and AZM groups, respectively. Significant reduction of the incidence of bacteremia was shown in the AZM group only (P <0.01). Subgingival bacterial counts significantly decreased in both the EO and AZM groups (P <0.01). Quadrant SRP frequently induced bacteremia. Although AZM was effective in reducing bacteremia incidence, EO showed less effectiveness.
Davis, Sanford (Editor)
The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.
Aliyev, D A; Vezirova, Z Sh; Geyusheva, T F
Dynamics of procalcitonin level was studied in 75 pediatric patients, in whom on back- ground of polychemotherapy conduction for oncological disease bacteremia and neutropenia have occurred. Determination of procalcitonin level as a rapidly reacting biomarker of generalized infectious process permits to establish its progression, to con- duct early diagnosis, to perform timely and adequate treatment measures.
Nakamura, Itaru; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Nakagami, Yoshihiro; Tachibana, Masaaki; Matsumoto, Tetsuya
A case of bacteremia caused by a rare Helicobacter species, Campylobacter-like organism 3 (CLO-3), in a 75-year-old man with prostate cancer and an indwelling urethral catheter for urinary retention, is reported. Oral levofloxacin (500mg per day) was effective, although the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing were unknown. Non-film-like, small, clear colonies were isolated on blood agar after 72h of microaerobic incubation at 37°C. Biochemical testing indicated that the isolates were catalase-positive, negative for nitrate reduction and urease activity, and positive for indoxyl acetate hydrolysis. The isolate was identified as CLO-3 by sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA and hsp60 genes. Although CLO-3 is known to cause enterocolitis, bacteremia due to CLO-3 has not been described. There have been an increasing number of reports of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and Helicobacter fennelliae, which were first reported as CLO-1 and CLO-2, and CLO-3 may represent another emerging cause of Helicobacter-induced bacteremia.
Patel, Jean Baldus; Clarridge, Jill; Schuster, Mindy S.; Waddington, Michael; Osborne, Janet; Nachamkin, Irving
We report a case of Leptotrichia species bacteremia in a patient undergoing treatment for acute myelogenous leukemia. Like previously reported Leptotrichia species, this is a gram-variable, pleomorphic rod that is catalase negative and utilizes glucose and sucrose. However, it is more fastidious than previously reported isolates of Leptotrichia and may represent a novel species. PMID:10325382
Chemaly, Roy F; Rathod, Dhanesh B; Sikka, Monica K; Hayden, Mary K; Hutchins, Mark; Horn, Tracy; Tarrand, Jeffery; Adachi, Javier; Nguyen, Kim; Trenholme, Gorden; Raad, Issam
A national outbreak of Serratia marcescens bacteremia because of contaminated prefilled heparin and saline syringes led to their recall. We evaluated the clinical impact of this outbreak in 57 patients at 3 centers. All patients were symptomatic and were treated with intravenous antibiotics with a fatal outcome in 1 patient.
TX and University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine, Knoxville, TN (Rasnake). Correspondence address: MAJ Clinton K Murray, Infectious...Providencia stuartii, Yersinia kristensenii, and Salmonella spp. Overall, burn patients with bacteremia had higher TBSA and ISS, and were more likely
Hizawa, Kazuoki; Nagata, Yuko; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Nakamori, Mari; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Iida, Mitsuo
We describe a case of 36-year-old Japanese man with Crohn's disease, complicated by Bacillus cereus bacteremia on maintenance azathioprine therapy. Although anti-microbial agents were ineffective, the patient became well immediately after a partial resection of the ileum with multiple severe stenosis.
Garcia, I; Fainstein, V; McLaughlin, P
After placement of an Ommaya reservoir, meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus occurred in a patient with stage IV lymphoblastic lymphoma and meningeal involvement. Bacillus species have been implicated as meningeal pathogens after lumbar punctures. These organisms have become an important cause of severe infection, especially in immunologically compromised patients.
Köten, Bente; Becker, Karsten; Podschun, Rainer; von Eiff, Christof; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Harder, Jürgen; Gläser, Regine
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing cutaneous infections to life-threatening bacteremia. These infections are often caused by strains derived from the own microflora suggesting that a disturbed epidermal barrier may promote invasion of S. aureus. Antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMP) such as human beta-defensin-3 and RNase 7 contribute to control the colonization of S. aureus on the skin surface. This leads to the hypothesis that strains with a decreased susceptibility toward skin-derived AMP may better overcome the innate cutaneous defence barrier increasing the possibility of invading into the blood stream. To address this hypothesis we determined whether S. aureus strains from bacteremia patients are less susceptible to various skin-derived AMP than strains from healthy carriers. No differences in the AMP-killing activity against bacteremia-derived S. aureus and control strains were detected suggesting that the onset of S. aureus bacteremia is not based on the varying susceptibilities against skin-derived AMP.
Saksena, R; Manchanda, V; Mittal, M
Bordetella trematum spp. nov. has been isolated from wounds, ear infections and diabetic ulcers. We report a case of a 7-month-old infant with fever, vomiting and abnormal body movements with bacteremia caused by this novel species. The infant responded to fluoroquinolone and macrolide combination therapy.
Derber, Catherine; Coudron, Philip; Tarr, Cheryl; Gladney, Lori; Turnsek, Maryann; Shankaran, Shivanjali; Wong, Edward
Vibrio furnissii in the blood is rarely reported, which may explain why clinical features of bloodstream infections with this organism have not been described. We describe a patient who developed skin lesions and V. furnissii bacteremia and was successfully treated with fluoroquinolones. V. furnissii may be a serious pathogen in patients with underlying comorbidities who are exposed to seafood. PMID:21450956
Oliveira, Marisa I; Batalha, Sara; Gouveia, Catarina; Maia, Raquel; Kjöllerstrom, Paula
Pantoea agglomerans has been classically associated with cellulitis or synovitis secondary to penetrating trauma by vegetation. It is an infrequent cause of systemic infections. We describe the case of a 5-year-old girl with sickle cell disease with P. agglomerans bacteremia and review its potential causes.
Basaglia, G.; Carretto, E.; Barbarini, D.; Moras, L.; Scalone, S.; Marone, P.; De Paoli, P.
We report on the first case of a catheter-related recurrent bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, in a 51-year-old woman with ovarian cancer. This unusual pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases. PMID:11773142
Sng, Li-Hwei; Koh, T. H.; Toney, S. R.; Floyd, M.; Butler, W. R.; Tan, B. H.
Gordonia species have been recognized as pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. We report the first case of bacteremia due to Gordonia bronchialis in a diabetic patient with a sequestrated lung. Species identification was confirmed with mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. PMID:15184495
O'Neal, Catherine S; O'Neal, Hollis R; Daniels, Titus L; Talbot, Thomas R
Infections with resistant Enterobacter spp. are increasingly described, yet data on outcomes associated with these infections are limited. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate outcomes of hospitalized patients with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (CR) Enterobacter bacteremia. Cephalosporin resistance was detected using cefotaxime and cefpodoxime. Patients with Enterobacter spp. bacteremia from January 2006 through February 2008 defined the population. We defined cases as those with CR isolates; controls were patients with bacteremia due to non-CR isolates. Treatment failure was defined as persistence of the presenting signs of infection 72 h after initial culture collection. Of the 95 Enterobacter cases identified, 31 (33%) were CR. CR cases were significantly associated with treatment failure (odds ratio (OR) 2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-6.94). This association was not seen after adjustment for age, simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II), and inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy. Inappropriate empiric therapy (adjusted OR 3.86, 95% CI 1.32-11.31) and SAPS II score (adjusted OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.16) were significantly associated with treatment failure in the multivariate analysis. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacter bacteremia is associated with treatment failure due to receipt of inappropriate empiric antibiotic therapy and severity of illness.
Oweira, Hani; Lahdou, Imad; Daniel, Volker; Hofer, Stefan; Mieth, Markus; Schmidt, Jan; Schemmer, Peter; Opelz, Gerhard; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Sadeghi, Mahmoud
Bacterial infections are the most common complications, and the major cause of mortality after liver transplantation (Tx). Neopterin, a marker of immune activation, is produced in monocyte/macrophages in response to inflammation. The aim of our study was to investigate whether early post-operation serum levels of neopterin were associated with post-transplant bacteremia and mortality in liver transplant recipients. We studied 162 of 262 liver Tx patients between January 2008 and February 2011 of whom pre- and early post-Tx sera samples were available. Pre- and early post-operative risk factors of infection and mortality were evaluated in 45 bacteremic patients and 117 non-bacteremic patients. During one-year follow-up, 28 of 262 patients died because of graft failure, septicemia and other diseases. Post-Tx serum neopterin on day 10 (p<0.001) were significantly higher in bacteriemic patients than in patients without bacteremia. Logistic regression analyses showed that day 10 post-Tx neopterin serum level ⩾40 nmol/l has a predictive value (OR=6.86: p<0.001) for bacteremia and mortality (OR=3.47: p=0.021). Our results suggest that early post-Tx neopterin serum levels are very sensitive predictive markers of one-year post-Tx bacteremia and mortality in liver Tx recipients. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Yijun; Foo, Kelly; Koh, Han Fang; Tow, Charlene; Zhang, Yiwen; Ang, Li Wei; Cui, Lin; Badaruddin, Hishamuddin; Ooi, Peng Lim; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin; Cutter, Jeffery
We conducted a retrospective study of 40 case-patients and 58 controls as part of a nationwide investigation of a group B Streptococcus outbreak in Singapore in 2015. Eating a Chinese-style raw fish dish (yusheng) was a major risk factor for bacteremia, particularly caused by serotype III sequence type 283. PMID:27767904
Conway, Laurie J; Carter, Eileen J; Larson, Elaine L
A systematic appraisal of evidence suggests that male patients in hospital may be at higher risk for bacteremia following urinary catheter-associated bacteriuria than females. Other risk factors include immunosuppressant medication, red blood cell transfusion, neutropenia, malignancy, and liver disease.
Buss, Sarah N.; Starlin, Richard
Microbacterium species are non-spore-forming, Gram-positive rods rarely associated with human disease. In this report, we describe the first case of bacteremia caused by Microbacterium binotii in a patient with sickle cell anemia. The utility of using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis along with phenotypic methods for identification is shown. PMID:24197889
Kichloo, Asim Ahmed; Hallac, Alexander; Mousavi, Ben; Hirekhan, Omkar
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a pleomorphic gram-positive bacillus, is found widely in nature or as a commensal pathogen. It infects domestic animals such as swine, which may be the major reservoir of the organism. E. rhusiopathiae is primarily an occupational illness; 89% of the cases are linked to high-risk epidemiological situations. Humans that are infected by this bacillus typically present with one or a combination of the following symptoms: localized skin lesion (erysipeloid), diffuse cutaneous eruptions with systemic symptoms, or bacteremia, which is often followed by endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia that was present without severe clinical illness such as endocarditis, arthritis, or skin lesions. The patient was a 64-year-old male with a complicated past medical history including subclinical alcoholic liver disease. Penicillin-G therapy completely resolved the patients bacteremia. The case presented has exceptional clinical merit due to 2 key factors: the patient does not fit the occupational demographic typically affected by this bacterium, and the patient presented with subclinical septicemia, which has a high correlation with fatal endocarditis. This case brings a new prospective to E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia.
Li, Guohua; Zeng, Sheng; Chen, Youxiang; Zhou, Xiaojiang; Lv, Nonghua
Background. The bacteremia is reported as being infrequent and transient in gastric EMR and ESD for treating gastric mucosa lesions or superficial gastric neoplastic lesion. There was no report of it being investigated in ESD for treating gastric muscular layer tumors (endoscopic submucosal excavation, ESE). This study aimed to determine the frequency of bacteremia in gastric ESE. Patients and Methods. A prospective study, in 122 consecutive patients who underwent gastric ESE for treating gastric muscular layer tumors, investigated the frequency of bacteremia before and 15 minutes after the procedure. Results. The median time for the total ESE procedure was 29 min (range from 8 to 62 min). The mean size of the biggest diameter of each resected specimen was 10 ± 2.7 mm (range from 5 mm to 30 mm). Blood cultures obtained before ESE were positive in 0% (0/122) of cases. Blood cultures obtained 15 min after ESE were positive in 2.5% (3/122) of cases. Six blood samples contained Staphylococcus with coagulase negative, which was considered contaminant. No signs of sepsis were seen in all patients. Conclusions. The frequency of bacteremia after gastric ESE was low. ESE for treating gastric lesions is thought to have a low risk of infectious complications; therefore, prophylactic administration of antibiotics may not be warranted. PMID:26060492
Arpi, Magnus; Klein, Kasper; Justesen, Ulrik S.
The genus Oscillibacter has been known since 2007, but no association to human infection has been reported. Here, we present four cases of Oscillibacter ruminantium bacteremia from hospitals across Denmark from 2001 to 2010. Correct identification is now possible, as the 16S rRNA gene sequence was recently made publicly available. PMID:24501034
do Nascimento, Marcelo Mazza; Chula, Domingos Candiota; Riella, Miguel Carlos
There is growing concern about the development of antibacterial resistance with the use of antibiotics in catheter lock solutions. The use of an antibiotic that is not usually used to treat other serious infections may be an alternative that may reduce the clinical impact should resistance develop. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare a solution of minocycline and EDTA with the conventional unfractionated heparin for the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients during a period of 90 d. The study included 204 incident catheters (27.8% tunneled); 14 catheters were excluded because of early dysfunction and 3 because of protocol violations. We observed catheter-related bacteremia in 19 patients in the heparin group (4.3 per 1000 catheter-days) and in 5 patients in the minocycline-EDTA group (1.1 per 1000 catheter-days; P = 0.005). We did not detect a significant difference in the rate of catheter removal for dysfunction. Catheter-related bacteremia-free survival was significantly higher in the minocycline-EDTA group than in the heparin group (P = 0.005). In conclusion, a minocycline-EDTA catheter lock solution is effective in the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialysis patients. PMID:21852579
Chan, Kevin E; Warren, H Shaw; Thadhani, Ravi I; Steele, David J R; Hymes, Jeffrey L; Maddux, Franklin W; Hakim, Raymond M
Staphylococcus bacteremia is a common and life-threatening medical emergency, but it is treatable with appropriate antibiotic therapy. To identify opportunities that may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with S. aureus, we analyzed data from 293,094 chronic hemodialysis outpatients to characterize practices of antibiotic selection. In the study population, the overall rate of bacteremia was 15.4 per 100 outpatient-years; the incidence rate for methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) was 2.1 per 100 outpatient-years, and the incidence rate for methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus was 1.9 per 100 outpatient-years. One week after the collection of the index blood culture, 56.1% of outpatients with MSSA bacteremia were receiving vancomycin, and 16.7% of outpatients with MSSA were receiving cefazolin. Among MSSA-bacteremic patients who did not die or get hospitalized 1 week after blood culture collection, use of cefazolin was associated with a 38% lower risk for hospitalization or death compared with vancomycin (adjusted HR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46-0.84). In conclusion, vancomycin is commonly used to treat MSSA bacteremia in outpatients receiving chronic dialysis, but there may be more risk of treatment failure than observed among those individuals who receive a β-lactam antibiotic such as cefazolin.
Warren, H. Shaw; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Steele, David J.R.; Hymes, Jeffrey L.; Maddux, Franklin W.; Hakim, Raymond M.
Staphylococcus bacteremia is a common and life-threatening medical emergency, but it is treatable with appropriate antibiotic therapy. To identify opportunities that may reduce morbidity and mortality associated with S. aureus, we analyzed data from 293,094 chronic hemodialysis outpatients to characterize practices of antibiotic selection. In the study population, the overall rate of bacteremia was 15.4 per 100 outpatient-years; the incidence rate for methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) was 2.1 per 100 outpatient-years, and the incidence rate for methicillin-resistant (MRSA) S. aureus was 1.9 per 100 outpatient-years. One week after the collection of the index blood culture, 56.1% of outpatients with MSSA bacteremia were receiving vancomycin, and 16.7% of outpatients with MSSA were receiving cefazolin. Among MSSA-bacteremic patients who did not die or get hospitalized 1 week after blood culture collection, use of cefazolin was associated with a 38% lower risk for hospitalization or death compared with vancomycin (adjusted HR=0.62, 95% CI=0.46–0.84). In conclusion, vancomycin is commonly used to treat MSSA bacteremia in outpatients receiving chronic dialysis, but there may be more risk of treatment failure than observed among those individuals who receive a β-lactam antibiotic such as cefazolin. PMID:22904350
Lee, Chung-Hsun; Lee, Ching-Chi; Hsieh, Chih-Chia; Hong, Ming-Yuan; Chi, Chih-Hsien
Enterobacteriaceae is a leading pathogen of community-onset bacteremia. This study aims to establish a predictive scoring algorithm to identify adults with community-onset Enterobacteriaceae bacteremia who are at risk for abscesses. Of the total 1262 adults, 152 (12.0%) with abscess occurrence were noted. The 6 risk factors significantly associated with abscess occurrence-liver cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, thrombocytopenia and high C-reactive protein (>100 mg/L) at bacteremic onset, delayed defervescence, and bacteremia-causing Klebsiella pneumoniae-were each assigned +1 point to form the scoring algorithm. In contrast, the elderly, fatal comorbidity (McCabe classification), and bacteremia-causing Escherichia coli were each assigned -1 point, owing to their negative associations with abscess occurrence. Using the proposed scoring algorithm, a cut-off value of +1 yielded a high sensitivity (85.5%) and an acceptable specificity (60.4%). Although the proposed predictive model needs further validation, this simple scoring algorithm may be useful for the early identification of abscesses by clinicians.
Campbell, Judith R; Hulten, Kristina; Baker, Carol J
We report an outbreak of Bacillus bacteremia among premature infants during a construction project. Our investigation revealed potential environmental sources. After replacement of air filters, cleaning of the unit, emphasis on hand hygiene, and relocation of the loading dock for linen and supply delivery, no further cases were detected.
Kichloo, Asim Ahmed; Mousavi, Ben; Hirekhan, Omkar
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, a pleomorphic gram-positive bacillus, is found widely in nature or as a commensal pathogen. It infects domestic animals such as swine, which may be the major reservoir of the organism. E. rhusiopathiae is primarily an occupational illness; 89% of the cases are linked to high-risk epidemiological situations. Humans that are infected by this bacillus typically present with one or a combination of the following symptoms: localized skin lesion (erysipeloid), diffuse cutaneous eruptions with systemic symptoms, or bacteremia, which is often followed by endocarditis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia that was present without severe clinical illness such as endocarditis, arthritis, or skin lesions. The patient was a 64-year-old male with a complicated past medical history including subclinical alcoholic liver disease. Penicillin-G therapy completely resolved the patients bacteremia. The case presented has exceptional clinical merit due to 2 key factors: the patient does not fit the occupational demographic typically affected by this bacterium, and the patient presented with subclinical septicemia, which has a high correlation with fatal endocarditis. This case brings a new prospective to E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia. PMID:23819078
Conway, Laurie J.; Carter, Eileen J.; Larson, Elaine L.
A systematic appraisal of evidence suggests that male patients in hospital may be at higher risk for bacteremia following urinary catheter-associated bacteriuria than females. Other risk factors include immunosuppressant medication, red blood cell transfusion, neutropenia, malignancy, and liver disease. PMID:26402994
von Kietzell, M; Richter, H; Bruderer, T; Goldenberger, D; Emonet, S; Strahm, C
Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed.
Richter, H.; Bruderer, T.; Goldenberger, D.; Emonet, S.; Strahm, C.
Neisseria cinerea is a human commensal. The first known case of meningitis and bacteremia due to Neisseria cinerea following percutaneous glycerol instillation of the trigeminal ganglion is reported. Conventional phenotypic methods and complete 16S RNA gene sequencing accurately identified the pathogen. Difficulties in differentiation from pathogenic neisseriae are discussed. PMID:26511743
Hung, Yuan-Pin; Lin, Hsiao-Ju; Wu, Chi-Jung; Chen, Po-Lin; Lee, Jen-Chieh; Liu, Hsiao-Chieh; Wu, Yi-Hui; Yeh, Fang Hao; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Ko, Wen-Chien
An 85 year-old male initially admitted for septic shock due to urinary tract infection experienced Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea during hospitalization and was treated by oral vancomycin. His clinical course was complicated by cytomegalovirus colitis and then vancomycin-resistant Clostridium innocuum bacteremia, which was cured by uneventfully parenteral piperacillin-tazobactam therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tande, Aaron J; Palraj, Bharath Raj; Osmon, Douglas R; Berbari, Elie F; Baddour, Larry M; Lohse, Christine M; Steckelberg, James M; Wilson, Walter R; Sohail, M Rizwan
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a life-threatening condition that may lead to metastatic infection, including prosthetic joint infection. To assess clinical factors associated with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection, we retrospectively reviewed all patients with a joint arthroplasty in place at the time of a first episode of S. aureus bacteremia over a 5-year period at our institution. Patients with postsurgical prosthetic joint infection without hematogenous prosthetic joint infection were excluded. There were 85 patients (143 arthroplasties) with either no prosthetic joint infection (n = 50; 58.8%) or hematogenous prosthetic joint infection in at least one arthroplasty (n = 35; 41.2%). The odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection was significantly increased among patients with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 18.07; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.64-infinity; P = .001), as compared with nosocomial S. aureus bacteremia, in which there were no patients with hematogenous prosthetic joint infection. After adjusting for S. aureus bacteremia classification, the presence of ≥3 joint arthroplasties in place was associated with a nearly ninefold increased odds of hematogenous prosthetic joint infection as compared with those with 1-2 joint arthroplasties in place (OR 8.55; 95% CI 1.44-95.71; P = .012). All but one joint with prosthetic joint infection demonstrated at least one clinical feature suggestive of infection. There were 4 additional S. aureus prosthetic joint infections diagnosed during a median of 3.4 years of follow-up post hospitalization for S. aureus bacteremia. Prosthetic joint infection is frequent in patients with existing arthroplasties and concomitant S. aureus bacteremia, particularly with community-acquired S. aureus bacteremia and multiple prostheses. In contrast, occult S. aureus prosthetic joint infection without clinical features suggestive of prosthetic joint infection at the time of S. aureus bacteremia
Bodro, Marta; Gudiol, Carlota; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Tubau, Fe; Contra, Anna; Boix, Lucía; Domingo-Domenech, Eva; Calvo, Mariona; Carratalà, Jordi
Infection due to the six ESKAPE pathogens has recently been identified as a serious emerging problem. However, there is still a lack of information on bacteremia caused by these organisms in cancer patients. We aimed to assess the epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE pathogens (rESKAPE) in patients with cancer. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized adults with cancer from 2006 to 2011 were analyzed. Of 1,148 episodes of bacteremia, 392 (34 %) were caused by ESKAPE pathogens. Fifty-four episodes (4.7 %) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium 0, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) 13, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESLB)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae 7, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii 4, carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa 18 and derepression chromosomic ß-lactam and ESBL-producing Enterobacter species 12. Risk factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were comorbidities, prior antibiotic therapy, urinary catheter and urinary tract source. Inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was more frequent in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia than in the other cases (55.6 % vs. 21.5 %, p < 0.001). Persistence of bacteremia (25 % vs. 9.7 %), septic metastasis (8 % vs. 4 %) and early case-fatality rate (23 % vs. 11 %) were more frequent in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia than in patients with other etiologies (p < 0.05). Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens in cancer patients occurs mainly among those with comorbidities who have received prior antibiotic therapy and have a urinary tract source. These patients often receive inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy and have a poor outcome.
Maggi, Ricardo G; Ericson, Marna; Mascarelli, Patricia E; Bradley, Julie M; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely source of transmission and the mother, a
Background Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic, alpha Proteobacterium, historically associated with cat scratch disease (CSD), but more recently associated with persistent bacteremia, fever of unknown origin, arthritic and neurological disorders, and bacillary angiomatosis, and peliosis hepatis in immunocompromised patients. A family from the Netherlands contacted our laboratory requesting to be included in a research study (NCSU-IRB#1960), designed to characterize Bartonella spp. bacteremia in people with extensive arthropod or animal exposure. All four family members had been exposed to tick bites in Zeeland, southwestern Netherlands. The mother and son were exhibiting symptoms including fatigue, headaches, memory loss, disorientation, peripheral neuropathic pain, striae (son only), and loss of coordination, whereas the father and daughter were healthy. Methods Each family member was tested for serological evidence of Bartonella exposure using B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III, B. henselae and B. koehlerae indirect fluorescent antibody assays and for bacteremia using the BAPGM enrichment blood culture platform. Results The mother was seroreactive to multiple Bartonella spp. antigens and bacteremia was confirmed by PCR amplification of B. henselae DNA from blood, and from a BAPGM blood agar plate subculture isolate. The son was not seroreactive to any Bartonella sp. antigen, but B. henselae DNA was amplified from several blood and serum samples, from BAPGM enrichment blood culture, and from a cutaneous striae biopsy. The father and daughter were seronegative to all Bartonella spp. antigens, and negative for Bartonella DNA amplification. Conclusions Historically, persistent B. henselae bacteremia was not thought to occur in immunocompetent humans. To our knowledge, this study provides preliminary evidence supporting the possibility of persistent B. henselae bacteremia in immunocompetent persons from Europe. Cat or flea contact was considered an unlikely
Lee, Ching-Chi; Lee, Nan-Yao; Yan, Jing-Jou; Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Po-Lin; Chang, Chia-Ming; Wu, Chi-Jung; Ko, Nai-Ying; Wang, Li-Rong; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Ko, Wen-Chien
Enterobacter cloacae is an important nosocomial pathogen. However, few studies specifically dealing with the clinical characteristics and outcome of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. cloacae infections have been published. During an 8-year period in a medical center, of 610 E. cloacae bacteremic isolates, 138 (22.6%) with ESBL genes were designated the ESBL group, and 120 (19.6%) cefotaxime-nonsusceptible isolates without the ESBL phenotype and genes were designated the control group. Of the former group of isolates, 133 (96.3%) carried the bla(SHV-12) gene, 3 (2.1%) had bla(CTX-M3), and 2 (1.4%) had both the bla(SHV-12) and bla(CTX-M3) genes. After patients under the age of 18 years were excluded, there were 206 adults with E. cloacae bacteremia, and these consisted of 121 patients in the ESBL group and 85 in the control group. More episodes of hospital-onset and polymicrobial bacteremia, increased severity of illness, more cases of bacteremia onset in intensive care units (ICUs), and longer stays in the hospital and ICU after bacteremia onset were noted in the ESBL group. However, the crude and sepsis-related mortality rates in two groups were similar. Of the ESBL group, the in-hospital sepsis-related mortality rate of patients definitively treated by a carbapenem was lower than that of those treated by noncarbapenem beta-lactams (5/53, or 9.4%, versus 13/44, or 29.5%; P = 0.01) though the difference was not significant in the hierarchical multivariate analysis (P = 0.46). Among 62 patients with follow-up blood cultures within 14 days of bacteremia onset, breakthrough bacteremia was more common in those treated by a noncarbapenem beta-lactam agent than in those treated by a carbapenem (18/31, or 58.0%, versus 3/31, or 9.6%; P < 0.001). Thus, carbapenem therapy for ESBL-producing E. cloacae that cause bacteremia may provide therapeutic benefits.
Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc
Aim To calculate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia caused by the most common organisms, classified by their antimicrobial susceptibility. Methods We selected patients who developed nosocomial bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These microorganisms were analyzed because of their high prevalence and they frequently present multidrug resistance. A control group consisted of patients classified within the same all-patient refined-diagnosis related group without bacteremia. Our hospital has an established cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to analyze cost distribution. A logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia for each admission (propensity score) and was used for propensity score matching adjustment. Subsequently, the propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients who developed bacteremia, as well as differences in this cost, depending on whether the microorganism was multidrug-resistant or multidrug-sensitive. Results A total of 571 admissions with bacteremia matched the inclusion criteria and 82,022 were included in the control group. The mean cost was € 25,891 for admissions with bacteremia and € 6,750 for those without bacteremia. The mean incremental cost was estimated at € 15,151 (CI, € 11,570 to € 18,733). Multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa bacteremia had the highest mean incremental cost, € 44,709 (CI, € 34,559 to € 54,859). Antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had the lowest mean incremental cost, € 10,481 (CI, € 8,752 to € 12,210). Despite their lower cost, episodes of antimicrobial-susceptible E. coli nosocomial bacteremia had a major impact due to their high frequency. Conclusions Adjustment of hospital cost according to the organism causing bacteremia and antibiotic sensitivity could improve
Samanta, Dhritiman; Batte, Justin L; Brown, Stephanie N; Crosby, Angela G; Marcos, Luis A; Elasri, Mohamed O
Staphylococcus aureus is the predominant cause of bacteremia worldwide. We assessed the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of methicillin-resistant S aureus isolates causing bacteremia in southern Mississippi. Diverse genetic backgrounds in terms of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing types of methicillin-resistant S aureus were identified as causing bacteremia in Mississippi. A strong association of Panton-Valentine leukocidin genes with elevated vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration is one of the important findings of our study.
Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W.
An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two-dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.
Wellman, G.W.; Schuler, K.W. . Applied Mechanics Div. III)
An augmented railgun can provide the same driving force on a projectile at a lower plasma arc current and thus less potential erosion and barrel damage as an unaugmented railgun. However, there are structural consequences to railgun augmentation which must be overcome before the advantages of lower plasma arc currents can be realized. To investigate these consequences, a bolted V-block supporting structure is considered with two cores; unaugmented (a single pair of conducting rails), and augmented (conducting rails augmented by a second tandem set of conductors). The mechanical load on the cores consist of the static bolt preload, the plasma pressure behind the projectile, and the magnetic pressure induced by currents flowing in the rails or augmenting conductors. Assuming no current diffusion into the conductors, the magnetic pressure distribution on the conductors is determined by solving the two dimensional magnetostatic field equations using an analogy with heat transfer. These loads are then used in a dynamic finite element structural model. The maximum rail current is found at which the unaugmented railgun can be repetitively fired without detrimental gaps forming at the bore. For the augmented railgun, at the same projectile acceleration, large permanent deformations can occur. Thus successful implementation of rail gun augmentation will require improvement of the supporting structure.
Stille, Maik; Kleine, Matthias; Hägele, Julian; Barkhausen, Jörg; Buzug, Thorsten M
The presence of high-density objects remains an open problem in medical CT imaging. Data of projections passing through objects of high density, such as metal implants, are dominated by noise and are highly affected by beam hardening and scatter. Reconstructed images become less diagnostically conclusive because of pronounced artifacts that manifest as dark and bright streaks. A new reconstruction algorithm is proposed with the aim to reduce these artifacts by incorporating information about shape and known attenuation coefficients of a metal implant. Image reconstruction is considered as a variational optimization problem. The afore-mentioned prior knowledge is introduced in terms of equality constraints. An augmented Lagrangian approach is adapted in order to minimize the associated log-likelihood function for transmission CT. During iterations, temporally appearing artifacts are reduced with a bilateral filter and new projection values are calculated, which are used later on for the reconstruction. A detailed evaluation in cooperation with radiologists is performed on software and hardware phantoms, as well as on clinically relevant patient data of subjects with various metal implants. Results show that the proposed reconstruction algorithm is able to outperform contemporary metal artifact reduction methods such as normalized metal artifact reduction.
Caragea, Cornelia; Silvescu, Adrian; Caragea, Doina; Honavar, Vasant
High accuracy sequence classification often requires the use of higher order Markov models (MMs). However, the number of MM parameters increases exponentially with the range of direct dependencies between sequence elements, thereby increasing the risk of overfitting when the data set is limited in size. We present abstraction augmented Markov models (AAMMs) that effectively reduce the number of numeric parameters of k(th) order MMs by successively grouping strings of length k (i.e., k-grams) into abstraction hierarchies. We evaluate AAMMs on three protein subcellular localization prediction tasks. The results of our experiments show that abstraction makes it possible to construct predictive models that use significantly smaller number of features (by one to three orders of magnitude) as compared to MMs. AAMMs are competitive with and, in some cases, significantly outperform MMs. Moreover, the results show that AAMMs often perform significantly better than variable order Markov models, such as decomposed context tree weighting, prediction by partial match, and probabilistic suffix trees.
Barks, John D.; Liu, Yi-Qing; Shangguan, Yu; Silverstein, Faye S.
Seizures are associated with adverse outcome in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We hypothesized that early administration of the anticonvulsant phenobarbital after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia could enhance the neuroprotective efficacy of delayed-onset hypothermia. We tested this hypothesis in a neonatal rodent model. Seven-day-old rats (n=104) underwent right carotid ligation, followed by 90 min 8%O2 exposure; 15 min later, they received injections of phenobarbital (40 mg/kg) or saline. One or 3h later, all were treated with hypothermia (30°C, 3h). Function and neuropathology were evaluated after 7 days (“early outcomes”) or 1 month (“late outcomes”). Early outcome assessment demonstrated better sensorimotor performance and less cortical damage in phenobarbital-treated groups; there were no differences between groups in which the hypothermia delay was shortened from 3h to 1h. Late outcome assessment confirmed sustained benefits of phenobarbital+hypothermia treatment; sensorimotor performance was better (persistent attenuation of contralateral forepaw placing deficits and absence of contralateral forepaw neglect); neuropathology scores were lower (medians, phenobarbital 2, saline 8.5, p<0.05), and less ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere %Damage (mean±SD, 11±17 vs. 28±22, p<0.05). These results suggest that early post-hypoxia-ischemia administration of phenobarbital may augment the neuroprotective efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:20098339
Lust, Robert V.; Schmit, Lucien A.
A methodology for control augmented structural synthesis is proposed for a class of structures which can be modeled as an assemblage of frame and/or truss elements. It is assumed that both the plant (structure) and the active control system dynamics can be adequately represented with a linear model. The structural sizing variables, active control system feedback gains and nonstructural lumped masses are treated simultaneously as independent design variables. Design constraints are imposed on static and dynamic displacements, static stresses, actuator forces and natural frequencies to ensure acceptable system behavior. Multiple static and dynamic loading conditions are considered. Side constraints imposed on the design variables protect against the generation of unrealizable designs. While the proposed approach is fundamentally more general, here the methodology is developed and demonstrated for the case where: (1) the dynamic loading is harmonic and thus the steady state response is of primary interest; (2) direct output feedback is used for the control system model; and (3) the actuators and sensors are collocated.
Linder, Nehama; Hernandez, Adriana; Amit, Limor; Klinger, Gil; Ashkenazi, Shai; Levy, Itzhak
This study sought to expand current knowledge on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of persistent coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) bacteremia in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Background and disease-related data were collected prospectively on 143 VLBW infants diagnosed with CoNS bacteremia at a pediatric tertiary medical center in 1995-2003. Findings were compared between those with persistent (positive blood cultures for >72 h under appropriate treatment ) and nonpersistent disease. Fifty-eight infants (40.6%) were found to have persistent bacteremia. There were no between-group differences in maternal characteristics, mode of delivery, newborn characteristics, dwell time of central venous and umbilical catheters, complications of prematurity, or mean hospital stay. The persistent bacteremia group had significantly higher rates of hypothermia at presentation (37.9% vs. 17.6%, p < 0.04), creatinine >1.2 mg% on treatment day 7 (13.7% vs. 2.4%, p < 0.02; transient phenomenon), and endocarditis (p < 0.03); one infant had an aortic thrombus. Predominantly breast-fed infants had a higher rate of negative cultures within 72 h of appropriate treatment than predominantly formula-fed infants (60% vs. 19%, p < 0.02). In conclusion, persistence of CoNS bacteremia is common in VLBW infants. Endocarditis should be excluded in all infants with persistent disease. Breast-feeding is associated with a shorter disease duration.
Yu, T Y; Kim, H R; Hwang, K E; Lee, J-M; Cho, J H; Lee, J H
The use of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) has rapidly increased recently at acute stage, but the CT findings associated with bacteremia in UTI patients are unknown. 189 UTI patients were enrolled who underwent a CT scan within 24 h after hospital admission. We classified CT findings into eight types: a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion, enlarged kidneys, perinephric fat stranding, ureteritis or pyelitis, complicated renal cyst, renal papillary necrosis, hydronephrosis, and renal and perirenal abscess. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate the CT findings associated with bacteremia. The mean age of these patients was 60 ± 17.2 years, and 93.1 % were women. Concurrent bacteremia was noted in 40.2 % of the patients. Abnormal CT findings were noted in 96.3 % of the patients and 62.4 % had two or more abnormal findings. The most frequent abnormal CT finding was a focal or multifocal wedge-shaped area of hypoperfusion (77.2 %), followed by perinephric fat stranding (29.1 %). Perinephric fat stranding, hydronephrosis, and the presence of two or more abnormal CT findings were significantly associated with bacteremia in patients with community-acquired UTI. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age [odds ratio (OR) 1.03; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.009-1.062], two or more abnormal CT findings (OR 3.163; 95 % CI 1.334-7.498), and hydronephrosis (OR 13.160; 95 % CI 1.048-165.282) were significantly associated with bacteremia. Physicians should be aware that appropriate early management is necessary to prevent fatality in patients with these CT findings.
Gubbels, Sophie; Nielsen, Jens; Voldstedlund, Marianne; Kristensen, Brian; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Ellermann-Eriksen, Svend; Engberg, Jørgen H; Møller, Jens K; Østergaard, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre
BACKGROUND In 2015, Denmark launched an automated surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, the Hospital-Acquired Infections Database (HAIBA). OBJECTIVE To describe the algorithm used in HAIBA, to determine its concordance with point prevalence surveys (PPSs), and to present trends for hospital-acquired bacteremia SETTING Private and public hospitals in Denmark METHODS A hospital-acquired bacteremia case was defined as at least 1 positive blood culture with at least 1 pathogen (bacterium or fungus) taken between 48 hours after admission and 48 hours after discharge, using the Danish Microbiology Database and the Danish National Patient Registry. PPSs performed in 2012 and 2013 were used for comparison. RESULTS National trends showed an increase in HA bacteremia cases between 2010 and 2014. Incidence was higher for men than women (9.6 vs 5.4 per 10,000 risk days) and was highest for those aged 61-80 years (9.5 per 10,000 risk days). The median daily prevalence was 3.1% (range, 2.1%-4.7%). Regional incidence varied from 6.1 to 8.1 per 10,000 risk days. The microorganisms identified were typical for HA bacteremia. Comparison of HAIBA with PPS showed a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 99%. HAIBA was less sensitive for patients in hematology departments and intensive care units. Excluding these departments improved the sensitivity of HAIBA to 44%. CONCLUSIONS Although the estimated sensitivity of HAIBA compared with PPS is low, a PPS is not a gold standard. Given the many advantages of automated surveillance, HAIBA allows monitoring of HA bacteremia across the healthcare system, supports prioritizing preventive measures, and holds promise for evaluating interventions. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-8.
Hirai, Jun; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Hagihara, Mao; Haranaga, Shusaku; Uechi, Kohei; Kato, Hideo; Hamada, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Naoya; Koizumi, Yusuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Yamagishi, Yuka; Fujita, Jiro; Mikamo, Hiroshige
Gene sequence analysis methods, including 16S rRNA identification, allows accurate identification of Streptococcus species, which include phenotypically closely related species that are difficult to differentiate using conventional chemical methods. We report a case of bacteremia due to Streptococcus tigurinus, identified by 16S rRNA, in a 72-year-old woman with gastrointestinal cancer and ascites. She was hospitalized to undergo elective tumor-related surgery. Five days prior to undergoing surgery, she developed a fever with no obvious source of infection. Blood cultures identified gram-positive cocci. The patient's bacteremia was initially thought to be caused by an Enterococcus species, given her underlying gastrointestinal disease. However, alpha-hemolytic, mucoid, circular colonies were observed on sheep blood agar the following day. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and biochemical testing suggested Streptococcus pneumoniae, we conducted further investigation to identify the bacterium, as the patient had no symptoms of infections usually related with S. pneumoniae such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sinusitis, and the bacteremia occurred 30 days after hospitalization. Finally, the gram-positive cocci were identified as S. tigurinus, assigned to the Streptococcus mitis group in 2012. Although the origin of infection was unclear, it was suspected that peritonitis or bacterial translocation from the gastrointestinal tract caused the bacteremia. This novel species was recently reported as being extremely pathogenic and different from other Streptococcus species. It has been reported to occur in cases of infectious endocarditis and bacteremia. In this article, we reviewed previous reports of S. tigurinus infection and summarized the clinical and pathogenetic features. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Arias-Ortiz, Paola Mariana; Calderón, Libia Del Pilar; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Moreno, José; Leal, Aura Lucía; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo; Grebo, Grupo
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent pathogen at critical care services. Its presence leads to increased hospital stays and mortality risk in patients with bacteremia. However, the etiology of this resistance marker has not been fully studied. To identify risk factors associated with the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia in critically ill patients treated at intensive care units in Bogotá, Colombia. We conducted a retrospective paired case-control study, nested in a cohort of patients diagnosed with S. aureus bacteremia and treated at intensive care units between 2006 and 2008 in Bogotá. Cases were patients with positive blood culture to methicillin resistance, matched in a 1:1 ratio with methicillin-sensitive controls isolated from the same institution and hospitalization year. We used conditional logistic regression to analyze the risk factors associated with the presence of resistance, with emphasis on prior antibiotic therapy. We included 372 patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Factors such as the use of pre-hospital devices: vascular (OR=1.986, 95% CI 1.038 to 3.801) and urinary (OR=2.559, 95% CI: 1.170 to 5.596), along with the number of previously used antibiotics, were associated with the emergence of resistance. The number of antibiotics used previously was determined to have a gradient effect, particularly carbapenems. The rational use of antibiotics and surveillance of exposure to surgical procedures or use of invasive devices are interventions that could diminish the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus bacteremia causes.
González, Andrés Leonardo; Leal, Aura Lucía; Cortés, Jorge Alberto; Sánchez, Ricardo; Barrero, Liliana Isabel; Castillo, Juan Sebastián; Álvarez, Carlos Arturo
Among hospital-acquired infections, bacteremia is one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide, especially among intensive care unit patients, where it is more frequent. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most aggressive agents causing bacteremia. To evaluate the association between initial antimicrobial therapy and hospital mortality in these patients. A multicenter and retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2005 and 2008. Antimicrobial therapy was considered adequate if it included at least one intravenous antibiotic to which the P. aeruginosa isolate was susceptible in vitro, was administered at the recommended dose and frequency for bacteremia, and initiated within the first 48 hours from diagnosis. The main outcome was 30-day hospital mortality. Patients were paired according to exposure level using propensity score matching, and then a parametric survival model was fitted. One hundred and sixty four patients were included. Median age and the APACHE II score were 56 and 13, respectively. The source of bacteremia was identified in 68.3 % of cases, the respiratory tract being the most frequent. Forty-four percent of patients received inadequate therapy, with bacterial resistance as the main associated variable. The incidence of severe sepsis, septic shock, multiple organ failure and death within the first 30 days was 67.7, 50, 41.5 and 43.9%, respectively. Adequate therapy was associated with a longer time to the event (adjusted time ratio, 2.95, 95% CI, 1.63 to 5.33). Adequate initial antimicrobial therapy is a protective factor against hospital mortality in patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia.
Schwartz, Ilan Steven; Keynan, Yoav; Gilmour, Matthew W; Dufault, Brenden; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe
European surveillance studies have reported an increasing incidence of β-hemolytic group G streptococcal bacteremia, but no studies have evaluated trends in β-hemolytic streptococcal bacteremia in North America. We reviewed bacteremic episodes and positive throat swab cultures from two tertiary care centers in Manitoba, Canada, from January 2007 to December 2012. During the study period, 19 864 bacteremic episodes, and 9948 positive throat swabs were identified. There were 1025 (5.16%) bacteremic episodes attributable to β-hemolytic streptococci: 425 (2.03%), 339 (1.71%), 62 (0.31%), and 199 (0.95%) to β-hemolytic groups A, B, C, and G streptococci, respectively. From 2007 to 2012, there were significant increases in the proportion of bacteremia attributable to β-hemolytic streptococci in general (6.32% vs. 4.02%; p<0.0001; linear trend test, p<0.0001), and to groups G (1.49% vs. 0.43%; p<0.0001; linear trend test, p<0.0001) and C (0.58% vs. 0.13%; p=0.0068; linear trend test, p=0.0105) β-hemolytic streptococci in particular. Bacteremia attributable to groups A and B β-hemolytic streptococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae were unchanged. There were no changes in the distribution of β-hemolytic streptococcal groups among throat swabs. Bacteremia attributable to β-hemolytic groups G and C streptococci increased in Manitoba, Canada. Further study of the factors underlying these changes is required.
Park, So-Youn; Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Hee-Joo; Ihm, Chun-Gyoo; Son, Jun Seong
Vancomycin has been a key antibiotic agent for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. However, little is known about the relationship between vancomycin MIC values at the higher end of the susceptibility range and clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of MRSA bacteremia on clinical outcomes in patients with a vancomycin MIC near the upper limit of the susceptible range. Patients with MRSA bacteremia were divided into a high-vancomycin-MIC group (2 μg/ml) and a low-vancomycin-MIC group (≤1.0 μg/ml). We examined the relationship between MIC, genotype, primary source of bacteremia, and mortality. Ninety-four patients with MRSA bacteremia, including 31 with a high vancomycin MIC and 63 with a low MIC were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the presence of agr dysfunction and SCCmec type between the two groups. A higher vancomycin MIC was not found to be associated with mortality. In contrast, high-risk bloodstream infection sources (hazard ratio [HR], 4.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24 to 17.33) and bacterial eradication after treatment (HR, 0.06; 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.17), irrespective of vancomycin MIC, were predictors of all-cause 30-day mortality. Our study suggests that a high-risk source of bacteremia is likely to be associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes, but a high vancomycin MIC in a susceptible range, as well as genotype characteristics, are not associated with mortality. PMID:23979741
Buesing, Mark; Cook, Michael
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology used on computing devices where processor-generated graphics are rendered over real objects to enhance the sensory experience in real time. In other words, what you are really seeing is augmented by the computer. Many AR games already exist for systems such as Kinect and Nintendo 3DS and mobile apps, such as Tagwhat and Star Chart (a must for astronomy class). The yellow line marking first downs in a televised football game2 and the enhanced puck that makes televised hockey easier to follow3 both use augmented reality to do the job.
Farnworth, Sarah L.; Henderson, Neil C.; MacKinnon, Alison C.; Atkinson, Kirsten M.; Wilkinson, Tom; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Hayashi, Katsutoshi; Simpson, A. John; Rossi, Adriano G.; Haslett, Christopher; Sethi, Tariq
The Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide, resulting in high mortality. Our in vivo studies show that galectin-3−/− mice develop more severe pneumonia after infection with S. pneumoniae, as demonstrated by increased bacteremia and lung damage compared to wild-type mice and that galectin-3 reduces the severity of pneumococcal pneumonia in part by augmenting neutrophil function. Specifically, we show that 1) galectin-3 directly acts as a neutrophil-activating agent and potentiates the effect of fMLP, 2) exogenous galectin-3 augments neutrophil phagocytosis of bacteria and delays neutrophil apoptosis, 3) phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by galectin-3−/− macrophages is less efficient compared to wild type, and 4) galectin-3 demonstrates bacteriostatic properties against S. pneumoniae in vitro. Furthermore, ad-back of recombinant galectin-3 in vivo protects galectin-3-deficient mice from developing severe pneumonia. Together, these results demonstrate that galectin-3 is a key molecule in the host defense against pneumococcal infection. Therapeutic strategies designed to augment galectin-3 activity may both enhance inflammatory cell function (by directly affecting neutrophil responsiveness and prolonging neutrophil longevity) and have direct bacteriostatic activity, improving clinical outcomes after severe pneumococcal infection. PMID:18202191
Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R
'Augmenter of liver regeneration' (ALR) (also known as hepatic stimulatory substance or hepatopoietin) was originally found to promote growth of hepatocytes in the regenerating or injured liver. ALR is expressed ubiquitously in all organs, and exclusively in hepatocytes in the liver. ALR, a survival factor for hepatocytes, exhibits significant homology with ERV1 (essential for respiration and viability) protein that is essential for the survival of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ALR comprises 198 to 205 amino acids (approximately 22 kDa), but is post-translationally modified to three high molecular weight species (approximately 38 to 42 kDa) found in hepatocytes. ALR is present in mitochondria, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and nucleus. Mitochondrial ALR may be involved in oxidative phosphorylation, but also functions as sulfhydryl oxidase and cytochrome c reductase, and causes Fe/S maturation of proteins. ALR, secreted by hepatocytes, stimulates synthesis of TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide in Kupffer cells via a G-protein coupled receptor. While the 22 kDa rat recombinant ALR does not stimulate DNA synthesis in hepatocytes, the short form (15 kDa) of human recombinant ALR was reported to be equipotent as or even stronger than TGF-α or HGF as a mitogen for hepatocytes. Altered serum ALR levels in certain pathological conditions suggest that it may be a diagnostic marker for liver injury/disease. Although ALR appears to have multiple functions, the knowledge of its role in various organs, including the liver, is extremely inadequate, and it is not known whether different ALR species have distinct functions. Future research should provide better understanding of the expression and functions of this enigmatic molecule.
Joffe, R T; Levitt, A J; Sokolov, S T
Approximately 20% to 40% of patients will fail to respond to the first antidepressant used for their current major depressive episode. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a further 20% to 30% of patients will have only a partial response. There are four main options to consider in the treatment of these patients: optimization, substitution, augmentation, and combination therapy. Several combination antidepressant treatments have been used in treatment-refractory depression. Moreover, various augmentation strategies have also proved to be successful. Although the empirical data to support these treatment options are limited, augmentation treatment has several potential advantages over the other clinical options available, particularly substitution. These data are reviewed and clinical applications discussed. Particular attention is paid to the role of anxiolytics as augmentation agents in the treatment of major depression.
Foda, Hossam M T
Premaxillary retrusion may distort the aesthetic appearance of the columella, lip, and nasal tip. This defect is characteristically seen in, but not limited to, patients with cleft lip nasal deformity. This study investigated 60 patients presenting with premaxillary deficiencies in which Mersiline mesh was used to augment the premaxilla. All the cases had surgery using the external rhinoplasty technique. Two methods of augmentation with Mersiline mesh were used: the Mersiline roll technique, for the cases with central symmetric deficiencies, and the Mersiline packing technique, for the cases with asymmetric deficiencies. Premaxillary augmentation with Mersiline mesh proved to be simple technically, easy to perform, and not associated with any complications. Periodic follow-up evaluation for a mean period of 32 months (range, 12-98 months) showed that an adequate degree of premaxillary augmentation was maintained with no clinically detectable resorption of the mesh implant.
Introduction The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Human Sciences Campaign calls out the topic of Virtual /Mixed and Augmented Reality as one of the...type of virtual environment. In virtual reality (VR), the totality of the environment is computer generated. In AR, the real world is augmented by...effectively. 20 17. References Alexander T. Visualisation of geographic data in virtual environments - what is essential for virtual reality systems
Litchford, Ron J.; Lineberry, John T.
Over the past several years, efforts have been under way to design and develop an operationally flexible research facility for investigating the use of cross-field MHD accelerators as a potential thrust augmentation device for thermal propulsion systems, The baseline configuration for this high-power experimental facility utilizes a 1,5-MW, multi-gas arc-heater as a thermal driver for a 2-MW, MHD accelerator, which resides in a large-bore 2-tesla electromagnet. A preliminary design study using NaK seeded nitrogen as the working fluid led to an externally diagonalized segmented MHD channel configuration based on an expendable beat-sink design concept. The current status report includes a review of engineering/design work and performance optimization analyses and summarizes component hardware fabrication and development efforts, preliminary testing results, and recent progress toward full-up assembly and testing
Piñana, José Luis; Montesinos, Pau; Martino, Rodrigo; Vazquez, Lourdes; Rovira, Montserrat; López, Javier; Batlle, Montserrat; Figuera, Ángela; Barba, Pere; Lahuerta, Juan José; Debén, Guillermo; Perez-Lopez, Cristina; García, Raimundo; Rosique, Pedro; Lavilla, Esperanza; Gascón, Adriana; Martínez-Cuadrón, David; Sanz, Miguel Ángel
Bacteremia is the most frequent infectious complication during neutropenia in patients receiving autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The objective of this study was to analyze the incidence, characteristics, risk factors, and outcome of bacteremia during the early period after ASCT. A total of 720 patients undergoing ASCT in two observational prospective consecutive multicenter studies of the Programa Español para el Tratamiento de las Hemopatías group were analyzed. Bacteremia occurred in 20 % of patients. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the most frequent (66 %) among the gram-positive agents and Escherichia coli (49 %) among the gram-negative agents. Multivariate analysis showed that the length of neutropenia <1 × 10(9)/L (more than 9 days) [relative risk (RR) of 2.6, p < 0.001] was the sole risk factor for overall bacteremia. We identified the length of neutropenia <1 × 10(9)/L (more than 9 days) (RR 4.98, p < 0.001) and the use of prophylactic fluoroquinolones (RR 0.46, p < 0.01) as specific risk factors for gram-negative bacteremia. Risk factors for gram-positive bacteremia were the use of total parenteral nutrition (RR 1.92, p < 0.01) and deep neutropenia (<0.1 × 10(9)/L), with duration over 5 days (RR 1.67, p < 0.027). Bacteremia showed an increased morbidity with no impact on neither overall nor infectious related mortality. The identification of such risk factors may be helpful to implement prophylactic and therapeutic risk-adapted strategies to reduce the incidence of bacteremia in ASCT.
Background Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is a common infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Telavancin is a bactericidal lipoglycopeptide active against Gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). We conducted a randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 trial in patients with uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia. Methods Patients were randomized to either telavancin or standard therapy (vancomycin or anti-staphylococcal penicillin) for 14 days. Continuation criteria were set to avoid complicated S. aureus bacteremia. The primary end point was clinical cure at 84 days. Results In total, 60 patients were randomized and 58 received ≥1 study medication dose (all-treated), 31 patients fulfilled inclusion/exclusion and continuation criteria (all-treated target [ATT]) (telavancin 15, standard therapy 16), and 17 patients were clinically evaluable (CE) (telavancin 8, standard therapy 9). Mean age (ATT) was 60 years. Intravenous catheters were the most common source of S. aureus bacteremia and ~50% of patients had MRSA. A similar proportion of CE patients were cured in the telavancin (88%) and standard therapy (89%) groups. All patients with MRSA bacteremia were cured and one patient with MSSA bacteremia failed study treatment in each group. Although adverse events (AEs) were more common in the telavancin ATT group (90% vs. 72%), AEs leading to drug discontinuation were similar (7%) in both treatment arms. Potentially clinically significant increases in serum creatinine (≥1.5 mg/dl and at least 50% greater than baseline) were more common in the telavancin group (20% vs. 7%). Conclusions This study suggests that telavancin may have utility for treatment of uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia; additional studies are warranted. (Telavancin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteremia (ASSURE); NCT00062647). PMID:24884578
Bodro, Marta; Sabé, Núria; Tubau, Fe; Lladó, Laura; Baliellas, Carme; Roca, Josep; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Carratalà, Jordi
Although infections due to the six ESKAPE pathogens have recently been identified as a serious emerging problem, information regarding bacteremia caused by these organisms in solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients is lacking. We sought to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes of bacteremia due to drug-resistant ESKAPE (rESKAPE) organisms in liver, kidney, and heart adult transplant recipients. All episodes of bacteremia prospectively documented in hospitalized SOT recipients from 2007 to 2012 were analyzed. Of 276 episodes of bacteremia, 54 (19.6%) were due to rESKAPE strains (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium , methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae , carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii , carbapenem- and quinolone-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and derepressed chromosomal β-lactam and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacter species ). Factors independently associated with rESKAPE bacteremia were prior transplantation, septic shock, and prior antibiotic therapy. Patients with rESKAPE bacteremia more often received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy than the others (41% vs. 21.6%; P=0.01). Overall case-fatality rate (30 days) was higher in patients with rESKAPE bacteremia (35.2% vs. 14.4%; P=0.001). Bacteremia due to rESKAPE pathogens is frequent in SOT recipients and causes significant morbidity and mortality. rESKAPE organisms should be considered when selecting empirical antibiotic therapy for hospitalized SOT recipients presenting with septic shock, particularly those with prior transplantation and antibiotic use.
Caballero-Granado, Francisco Javier; Cisneros, J. M.; Luque, R.; Torres-Tortosa, M.; Gamboa, F.; Díez, F.; Villanueva, J. L.; Pérez-Cano, R.; Pasquau, J.; Merino, D.; Menchero, A.; Mora, D.; López-Ruz, M. A.; Vergara, A.; Infecciosas, for the Grupo Andaluz Para El Estudio De Las Enfermedades
A prospective, multicenter study was carried out over a period of 10 months. All patients with clinically significant bacteremia caused by Enterococcus spp. were included. The epidemiological, microbiological, clinical, and prognostic features and the relationship of these features to the presence of high-level resistance to gentamicin (HLRG) were studied. Ninety-three patients with enterococcal bacteremia were included, and 31 of these cases were caused by HLRG (33%). The multivariate analysis selected chronic renal failure, intensive care unit stay, previous use of antimicrobial agents, and Enterococcus faecalis species as the independent risk factors that influenced the development of HLRG. The strains with HLRG showed lower levels of susceptibility to penicillin and ciprofloxacin. Clinical features (except for chronic renal failure) were similar in both groups of patients. HLRG did not influence the prognosis for patients with enterococcal bacteremia in terms of either the crude mortality rate (29% for patients with bacteremia caused by enterococci with HLRG and 28% for patients not infected with strains with HLRG) or the hospital stay after the acquisition of enterococcal bacteremia. Hemodynamic compromise, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, and mechanical ventilation were revealed in the multivariate analysis to be the independent risk factors for mortality. Prolonged hospitalization was associated with the nosocomial acquisition of bacteremia and polymicrobial infections. PMID:9466769
Marzec, Natalie S; Bessesen, Mary T
The risk of nosocomial methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in patients with nasal colonization on admission is 3-fold higher than in patients who are not colonized. Limited data on this question have been reported for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). This is an observational cohort study of patients admitted to a tertiary care medical center from October 1, 2007-September 30, 2013, who underwent active screening for nasal colonization with MRSA. There were 29,371 patients who underwent screening for nasal MRSA colonization; 3,262 (11%) were colonized with MRSA. There were 32 cases of MRSA bacteremia among colonized patients, for an incidence of 1%. Thirteen cases of bacteremia occurred in non-MRSA-colonized patients, for an incidence of 0.05%. The odds of developing MRSA bacteremia for patients who were nasally colonized with MRSA compared with those who were not colonized were 19.89. There was no difference between colonized and noncolonized subjects with bacteremia in all-cause mortality at 30 days or 1 year. In a setting with active screening for MRSA, the risk of MRSA bacteremia is 19.89-fold higher among colonized than noncolonized patients. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Noskin, G A; Clarke, J T
Recurrent nontyphoid salmonella septicemia is one of the opportunistic infections characteristic of AIDS. The increased incidence of severe salmonellosis in immunocompromised patients is due, in part, to defective cellular immunity. The literature contains reports of nine cases of extraintestinal Salmonella arizonae infections in patients ingesting rattlesnake capsules, all of whom had known underlying medical illnesses. We describe a previously healthy Hispanic man who developed S. arizonae bacteremia as his initial manifestation of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The patient ultimately stated that he had consumed rattlesnake meat for medicinal purposes--a relatively common practice among Hispanics. S. arizonae was cultured from the powder of all capsules remaining in his possession. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case of S. arizonae bacteremia as the presenting manifestation of HIV infection following the ingestion of capsules containing rattlesnake meat.
Lopardo, H; Mastroianni, A; Casimir, L
The presence of Granulicatella spp. in bacteremic episodes of neutropenic patients was recently highlighted whereas Abiotrophia defectiva, was only isolated in cases of infectious endocarditis. The aim of this study is to describe a case of A.defectiva bacteremia in a leukemic and febrile (40 degrees C) neutropenic (200 GB/mm3) boy. A.defectiva was only isolated from one of the two processed blood samples. Although the patient was undergoing an episode of varicela which could have accounted as the possible cause of fever, A. defectiva was considered a significant finding because this species is not part of the commensal skin flora. This case suggests that both A. defectiva and Granulicatella spp. should be regarded as possible causes of bacteremia in immunocompromised patients.
Lorente, L; Jiménez, A; García, C; Galván, R; Castedo, J; Martín, M M; Mora, M L
The objective of this prospective observational study was to determine the influence of femoral and central internal jugular venous catheters on the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB). We included patients admitted to a 12-bed polyvalent medico-surgical intensive care unit over 4 years who received one or more femoral or central internal jugular venous catheters. We diagnosed 16 cases of CRB in 208 femoral catheters and 22 in 515 central internal jugular venous catheters. We found a higher incidence of CRB with femoral (9.52 per 1,000 catheter days) than with central internal jugular venous access (4.83 per 1,000 catheter days; risk ratio = 1.93; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-3.73; P = 0.04). Central internal jugular venous access could be considered a safer route of venous access than femoral access in minimizing the risk of central venous catheter-related bacteremia.
Ko, Wen-Chien; Paterson, David L.; Sagnimeni, Anthanasia J.; Hansen, Dennis S.; Von Gottberg, Anne; Mohapatra, Sunita; Casellas, Jose Maria; Goossens, Herman; Mulazimoglu, Lutfiye; Trenholme, Gordon; Klugman, Keith P.; McCormack, Joseph G.
We initiated a worldwide collaborative study, including 455 episodes of bacteremia, to elucidate the clinical patterns of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Historically, community-acquired pneumonia has been consistently associated with K. pneumoniae. Only four cases of community-acquired bacteremic K. pneumoniae pneumonia were seen in the 2-year study period in the United States, Argentina, Europe, or Australia; none were in alcoholics. In contrast, 53 cases of bacteremic K. pneumoniae pneumonia were observed in South Africa and Taiwan, where an association with alcoholism persisted (p=0.007). Twenty-five cases of a distinctive syndrome consisting of K. pneumoniae bacteremia in conjunction with community-acquired liver abscess, meningitis, or endophthalmitis were observed. A distinctive form of K. pneumoniae infection, often causing liver abscess, was identified, almost exclusively in Taiwan. PMID:11897067
Goeke, Caspar M.; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter
A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred2 = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred2 = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred2 = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred2 = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in
Goeke, Caspar M; Planera, Serena; Finger, Holger; König, Peter
A large number of studies suggest that the integration of multisensory signals by humans is well-described by Bayesian principles. However, there are very few reports about cue combination between a native and an augmented sense. In particular, we asked the question whether adult participants are able to integrate an augmented sensory cue with existing native sensory information. Hence for the purpose of this study, we build a tactile augmentation device. Consequently, we compared different hypotheses of how untrained adult participants combine information from a native and an augmented sense. In a two-interval forced choice (2 IFC) task, while subjects were blindfolded and seated on a rotating platform, our sensory augmentation device translated information on whole body yaw rotation to tactile stimulation. Three conditions were realized: tactile stimulation only (augmented condition), rotation only (native condition), and both augmented and native information (bimodal condition). Participants had to choose one out of two consecutive rotations with higher angular rotation. For the analysis, we fitted the participants' responses with a probit model and calculated the just notable difference (JND). Then, we compared several models for predicting bimodal from unimodal responses. An objective Bayesian alternation model yielded a better prediction (χred(2) = 1.67) than the Bayesian integration model (χred(2) = 4.34). Slightly higher accuracy showed a non-Bayesian winner takes all (WTA) model (χred(2) = 1.64), which either used only native or only augmented values per subject for prediction. However, the performance of the Bayesian alternation model could be substantially improved (χred(2) = 1.09) utilizing subjective weights obtained by a questionnaire. As a result, the subjective Bayesian alternation model predicted bimodal performance most accurately among all tested models. These results suggest that information from augmented and existing sensory modalities in
Olson, Joshua; Yim, Juwon; Singh, Niedita B.; Kumaraswamy, Monika; Quach, Diana T.; Rybak, Michael J.; Pogliano, Joseph; Nizet, Victor
Ertapenem and cefazolin were used in combination to successfully clear refractory methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. In addition, recent work has demonstrated activity of combination therapy with beta-lactams from different classes against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The ertapenem-plus-cefazolin combination was evaluated for synergy in vitro and in vivo in a murine skin infection model using an index MSSA bloodstream isolate from a patient in whom persistent bacteremia was cleared with this combination and against a cadre of well-described research strains and clinical strains of MSSA and MRSA. Against the index MSSA bloodstream isolate, ertapenem and cefazolin showed synergy using both checkerboard (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.375) and time-kill assays. Using a disk diffusion ertapenem potentiation assay, the MSSA isolate showed a cefazolin disk zone increased from 34 to 40 mm. In vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling at clinically relevant drug concentrations demonstrated bactericidal activity (>3 log10-CFU/ml reduction) of the combination but bacteriostatic activity of ether drug alone at 48 h. A disk diffusion potentiation assay showed that ertapenem increased the cefazolin zone of inhibition by >3 mm for 34/35 (97%) MSSA and 10/15 (67%) MRSA strains. A murine skin infection model of MSSA showed enhanced activity of cefazolin plus ertapenem compared to monotherapy with these agents. After successful use in clearance of MSSA bacteremia, the combination of ertapenem and cefazolin showed synergy against MSSA in vitro and in vivo. This combination may warrant consideration for future clinical study in MSSA bacteremia. PMID:27572414
Tang, Hung-Jen; Chen, Chi-Chung; Ko, Wen-Chien
Non-typhoid Salmonella species represent a significant cause of aortitis. Few antimicrobial agents can be used when the patient is allergic or intolerable to cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. Here, we report a case of bacteremia and aortitis caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis. This patient was cured by initial parenteral tigecycline and subsequent oral ciprofloxacin without surgical intervention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sakoulas, George; Olson, Joshua; Yim, Juwon; Singh, Niedita B; Kumaraswamy, Monika; Quach, Diana T; Rybak, Michael J; Pogliano, Joseph; Nizet, Victor
Ertapenem and cefazolin were used in combination to successfully clear refractory methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia. In addition, recent work has demonstrated activity of combination therapy with beta-lactams from different classes against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The ertapenem-plus-cefazolin combination was evaluated for synergy in vitro and in vivo in a murine skin infection model using an index MSSA bloodstream isolate from a patient in whom persistent bacteremia was cleared with this combination and against a cadre of well-described research strains and clinical strains of MSSA and MRSA. Against the index MSSA bloodstream isolate, ertapenem and cefazolin showed synergy using both checkerboard (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] index = 0.375) and time-kill assays. Using a disk diffusion ertapenem potentiation assay, the MSSA isolate showed a cefazolin disk zone increased from 34 to 40 mm. In vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling at clinically relevant drug concentrations demonstrated bactericidal activity (>3 log10-CFU/ml reduction) of the combination but bacteriostatic activity of ether drug alone at 48 h. A disk diffusion potentiation assay showed that ertapenem increased the cefazolin zone of inhibition by >3 mm for 34/35 (97%) MSSA and 10/15 (67%) MRSA strains. A murine skin infection model of MSSA showed enhanced activity of cefazolin plus ertapenem compared to monotherapy with these agents. After successful use in clearance of MSSA bacteremia, the combination of ertapenem and cefazolin showed synergy against MSSA in vitro and in vivo This combination may warrant consideration for future clinical study in MSSA bacteremia. Copyright © 2016 Sakoulas et al.
Byun, Jongkyu; Yang, John Jeongseok
Herein, we describe a bacteremia caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae that presented as liver abscesses. The patient had no risk factors for disseminated gonococcal infection. Periodic fever, skin rashes, and papules were present and the results of an abdominal computed tomography scan indicated the presence of small liver abscesses. The results of blood culture and 16S rRNA sequencing of the bacterial isolates confirmed the presence of N. gonorrhoeae. The patient improved with antibiotic therapy. PMID:25844265
Kim, Kyong-Young; Hur, Jaehyung; Jo, Wonyong; Hong, Jeongmin; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kang, Dong Ho; Kim, Sunjoo
Roseomonas are a gram-negative bacteria species that have been isolated from environmental sources. Human Roseomonas infections typically occur in immunocompromised patients, most commonly as catheter-related bloodstream infections. However, Roseomonas infections are rarely reported in immunocompetent hosts. We report what we believe to be the first case in Korea of infectious spondylitis with bacteremia due to Roseomonas mucosa in an immunocompetent patient who had undergone vertebroplasty for compression fractures of his thoracic and lumbar spine. PMID:26483995
Chávez, A C; Barrera, S; Leon, A; Trueba, G
Campylobacter fetus is an opportunistic pathogen which causes bacteremia and other invasive infections in immunocompromised patients who have been exposed to livestock or ingested animal products (uncooked meat or unpasteurized milk). The present report describes a C. fetus infection in a healthy adult (immunocompetent) who returned from a visit to the Ecuadorian Amazonia and who did not report exposure to the typical sources of infection.
Valliant, Amanda M; Chaudhry, Muhammad K; Yevzlin, Alexander S; Astor, Brad; Chan, Micah R
Tunneled dialysis catheters are the most common form of vascular access among incident dialysis patients in the United States. Fibrin sheath formation is a frequent cause of late catheter dysfunction requiring an exchange procedure with balloon disruption of the fibrin sheath. It is unknown whether fibrin sheath disruption is associated with increased incidence of bacteremia or catheter failure. We reviewed all tunneled dialysis catheter exchange procedures at the University of Wisconsin between January 2008 and December 2011. The primary outcome was incidence of bacteremia, defined as positive blood cultures within 2 weeks of the procedure. Catheter failure, requiring intervention or replacement, was examined as a secondary outcome. Baseline characteristics examined included diabetic status, gender, race and age. A total of 163 procedures were reviewed; 67 (41.1%) had fibrin sheath disruption and 96 did not. Bacteremia occurred in 4.5% (3/67) of those with and 3.1% (3/97) of those without fibrin sheath disruption (p=0.65). Fibrin sheath disruption was not significantly associated with the risk of catheter failure (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-2.10; p=0.18). Diabetes was associated with greater risk of catheter failure (aHR=1.88; 95% CI: 1.19-2.95; p=0.006), whereas higher age was associated with a lower risk of catheter failure (aHR per 10 years=0.83; 95% CI: 0.72-0.96; p=0.01). This study demonstrates that there is no significant increase in bacteremia and subsequent catheter dysfunction rates after fibrin sheath disruption compared to simple over the wire exchange. These results are encouraging given the large numbers of patients utilizing tunneled catheters for initial hemodialysis access and the known rates of fibrin sheath formation leading to catheter failure.
De Baere, Thierry; Breyne, Joke; De Laere, Emmanuel; Mariën, Stan; Waets, Peter; Laffut, Wim
Pseudoclavibacter spp. are Gram-positive, aerobic, catalase-positive, coryneform bacteria belonging to the family of Microbacteriaceae. Identification of these species with conventional biochemical assays is difficult. This case report of a Pseudoclavibacter bifida bacteremia occurring in an immunocompromised host diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with a lethal outcome, confirms that this organism may be a human pathogen. PMID:23536403
Lai, C-C; Tan, C-K; Chou, C-H; Hsu, H-L; Huang, Y-T; Liao, C-H; Hsueh, P-R
The Legionella species is an important cause of communityand hospital-acquired pneumonia. Bacteremic pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila is rarely reported. We describe the first reported case of hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia caused by L. pneumophila from Taiwan in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who received steroid treatment. The patient was successfully treated with ceftazidime and clindamycin initially, followed by ciprofloxacin for 14 days. The blood isolate was further confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis.
Büyükcam, Ayşe; Karadağ Öncel, Eda; Özsürekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali B; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Sancak, Banu
Multiple-drug-resistant enterococcal infections canbe a serious problem in pediatric patients particularly concomitance with severe underlying diseases and lead to significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment options in children are limited compared with adults. We report a 3-year old-boy with acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-M7 and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus bacteremia successfully treated with daptomycin. Daptomycin may be an alternative therapy for VRE infections in children; more studies are needed for extended usage.
Ismi, Onur; Ozcan, Cengiz; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Öztürk, Candan; Tek, Sebahat Aslan; Görür, Kemal
Although effects of Merocel(®) nasal packs and silicone splints on nasal flora alterations and bacteremia formation after septoplasty were assessed before, the effect of transseptal suturing technique has not been studied yet. The objective of this study is to compare nasal flora alterations and bacteremia occurrence rates between Merocel packs, silicone splints, and transseptal suturing technique in septoplasty. Ninety patients were divided into three groups randomly: Merocel packing (Group M), silicone splint (Group S), and transseptal suturing without packing (Group T). Group M and S received prophylactic antibiotics and antibiotic pomade application to packs, whereas neither antibiotic prophylaxis nor topical pomade was applied to Group T. Preoperative, after pack removal and 1 month after pack removal nasal swab cultures and preoperative, immediately after surgery and 24 h after surgery blood cultures were taken from all patients. Group M increased Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) colonization (p = 0.003) and decreased normal flora colonization (p = 0.038), whereas Group S and T did not affect MSSA or normal flora colonization (p > 0.05). Antibiotic prophylaxis did not affect MSSA colonization (p = 0.14), whereas decreased normal flora colonization (p = 0.029). Transseptal suturing did not prevent bacteremia formation. Postoperative increasing of MSSA colonization in nasal cavity for septoplasty patients can be prevented by using transseptal suturing technique or silicone splints instead of Merocel packing, rather than applying prophylactic antibiotic treatment. Using transseptal suturing does not prevent bacteremia formation during septal surgery. These findings should be kept in mind to prevent postoperative life-threatening infective complications of septoplasty especially in immunosuppressive patients and patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Jonathan H K; Leung, Sally S M; So, Simon Y C; Wong, Shuk-Ching; Wong, Sally C Y; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
A high seasonal incidence of Bacillus bacteremia was associated with the use of contaminated hospital linens. An outbreak investigation was conducted to study the incidence and source of Bacillus bacteremia during the baseline, outbreak, and postoutbreak period from 1 January 2012 through 31 July 2016 at a university-affiliated teaching hospital in Hong Kong. Replicate organism detection and counting plates were used for microbial screening of linen samples. The Bacillus species isolated from patient and linen samples were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and were phylogenetically analyzed. During the study period, a total of 113 207 blood cultures were collected from 43 271 patients, of which 978 (0.86%) specimens from 744 (1.72%) patients were identified as Bacillus species. The incidence of Bacillus bacteremia per 10 000 patient admissions and per 10 000 patient-days was significantly higher during the summer outbreak as compared with baseline and 1 year postoutbreak after cessation of the linen supply from the designated laundry and change of laundry protocol (39.97 vs 18.21 vs 2.27; 13.36 vs 5.61 vs 0.73; P < .001). The mean total aerobic bacterial count per 100 cm2 was significantly higher among the 99 linen samples screened during the outbreak period compared to the 100 screened in the postoutbreak period (916.0 ± 641.6 vs 0.6 ± 1.6; P < .001). Blood culture isolates of Bacillus cereus group in 14 of 87 (16.1%) patients were phylogenetically associated with 9 linen sample isolates. Suboptimal conditions of hospital laundry contributed to the seasonal outbreak of Bacillus bacteremia.
Patel, Krunal; Gittens-Williams, Lisa; Apuzzio, Joseph J.; Martimucci, Kristina; Williams, Shauna F.
Background. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) is an anaerobic gram-negative enteric rod that causes infection when contaminated food or water is ingested and may cause illness in pregnancy. Case. This is a patient who presented at 31 weeks' gestation with abdominal pain and fever and was diagnosed with S. Typhi bacteremia. Conclusion. S. Typhi should be considered in febrile patients with recent travel presenting with abdominal discomfort with or without elevated liver enzymes. PMID:28203469
Townsend, Jennifer; Pelletier, Jamie; Peterson, Gail; Matulevicius, Susan; Sreeramoju, Pranavi
The purpose of this study is to improve the quality of care and patient outcomes for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. A quasi-experimental pre- and postintervention study design was used to compare process and clinical endpoints before and after a quality-improvement initiative. All inpatients >18 years of age with a positive blood culture for S. aureus during the specified pre- and postintervention period with clinical information available in the electronic medical record were included. An institutional protocol for the care of patients with S. aureus bacteremia was developed, formalized, and distributed to providers using a pocket card, an electronic order set, and targeted lectures over a 9-month period. There were 167 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia (160 patients) identified in the preintervention period, and 127 episodes (123 patients) in the postintervention period. Guideline adherence improved in the postintervention period for usage of transesophageal echocardiogram (43.9% vs 20.2%, P <.01) and adequate duration of intravenous therapy (71% vs 60%, P = .05). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, the variables associated with increased relapse-free survival were postintervention period (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; confidence interval [CI], 0.24-0.95; P .035) and appropriate source control (HR 0.53; CI, 0.24-0.92; P .027). Regardless of intervention, presence of cancer was associated with an increased risk of relapse or mortality at 90 days (HR 2.88; P <.0001; CI, 1.35-5.01). A bundled educational intervention to promote adherence to published guidelines for the treatment of S. aureus bacteremia resulted in a significant improvement in provider adherence to guidelines as well as increased 90-day relapse-free survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gollol-Raju, Narasimha Swamy
Gemella species are part of normal human flora. They are rarely associated with infections. As opportunistic pathogens, they can cause life-threatening infection in individuals with risk factors. We present an unusual case of an elderly patient, with no predisposing risk factors, who presented with respiratory tract infection and Gemella species bacteremia and suffered a stroke in the absence of features of endocarditis. PMID:28115939
Espinosa-Camacho, Luis F; Delgado, Gabriela; Miranda-Novales, Guadalupe; Soberón-Chávez, Gloria; Alcaraz, Luis D; Morales-Espinosa, Rosario
Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from children with bacteremia in Mexico City were sequenced using PacBio RS-II single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. The strains consist of a 7.0- to 7.4-Mb chromosome, with a high content of mobile elements, and variation in the genetic content of class 1 integron In1409. Copyright © 2017 Espinosa-Camacho et al.
Philosophy, 2005 Dissertation directed by: Professor Norman M. Wereley Department of Aerospace Engineering Conventional lag dampers use passive... Engineering at the University of Maryland. A special word of thanks to Dr. Gang Wang, Dr. Jinsong Bao, Dr. Y.T. Choi, Dr. J.H. Yoo, Dr. V.T. Nagaraj...condition, the system response will be easily solved. Using the same ODE solver, the RDES model can also be applied in the MATLAB Simulink program such that
Chou, Hsien-Ling; Han, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Tzeng, I-Shaing; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Wu, Chin-Chieh; Kuan, Jen-Tse; Chen, Kuan-Fu
Early diagnosis of bacteremia for patients with suspected sepsis is 1 way to improve prognosis of sepsis. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has long been utilized as a screening tool to detect bacteremia by front-line healthcare providers. The value of SIRS to predict bacteremia in elderly patients (≥65 years) with suspected sepsis has not yet been examined in emergency departments (EDs).We aimed to evaluate the performance of SIRS components in predicting bacteremia among elderly patients in EDs.We retrospectively evaluated patients with suspected sepsis and 2 sets of blood culture collected within 4 hours after admitting to ED in a tertiary teaching hospital between 2010 and 2012. Patients were categorized into 3-year age groups: young (18-64 years), young-old (65-74 years), and old patients (≥75 years). Vital signs and Glasgow Coma Scale with verbal response obtained at the triage, comorbidities, sites of infection, blood cultures, and laboratory results were retrieved via the electronic medical records.A total of 20,192 patients were included in our study. Among them, 9862 (48.9%) were the elderly patients (young-old and old patients), 2656 (13.2%) developed bacteremia. Among patients with bacteremia, we found the elderly patients had higher SIRS performance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90-3.03 in the young-old and aOR: 2.66, 95% CI: 2.19-3.23 in the old). Fever at the triage was most predictive of bacteremia, especially in the elderly patients (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.81-2.65 in the young-old and aOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.95-2.63 in the old), and tachypnea was not predictive of bacteremia among the elderly patients (all P > 0.2).The performance of SIRS to predict bacteremia was more suitable for elderly patients in EDs observed in this study. The elderly patients presented with more fever and less tachypnea when they had bacteremia.
Chou, Hsien-Ling; Han, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chun-Fu; Tzeng, I-Shaing; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Wu, Chin-Chieh; Kuan, Jen-Tse; Chen, Kuan-Fu
Abstract Early diagnosis of bacteremia for patients with suspected sepsis is 1 way to improve prognosis of sepsis. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) has long been utilized as a screening tool to detect bacteremia by front-line healthcare providers. The value of SIRS to predict bacteremia in elderly patients (≥65 years) with suspected sepsis has not yet been examined in emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate the performance of SIRS components in predicting bacteremia among elderly patients in EDs. We retrospectively evaluated patients with suspected sepsis and 2 sets of blood culture collected within 4 hours after admitting to ED in a tertiary teaching hospital between 2010 and 2012. Patients were categorized into 3-year age groups: young (18–64 years), young-old (65–74 years), and old patients (≥75 years). Vital signs and Glasgow Coma Scale with verbal response obtained at the triage, comorbidities, sites of infection, blood cultures, and laboratory results were retrieved via the electronic medical records. A total of 20,192 patients were included in our study. Among them, 9862 (48.9%) were the elderly patients (young-old and old patients), 2656 (13.2%) developed bacteremia. Among patients with bacteremia, we found the elderly patients had higher SIRS performance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.90–3.03 in the young-old and aOR: 2.66, 95% CI: 2.19–3.23 in the old). Fever at the triage was most predictive of bacteremia, especially in the elderly patients (aOR: 2.19, 95% CI: 1.81–2.65 in the young-old and aOR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.95–2.63 in the old), and tachypnea was not predictive of bacteremia among the elderly patients (all P > 0.2). The performance of SIRS to predict bacteremia was more suitable for elderly patients in EDs observed in this study. The elderly patients presented with more fever and less tachypnea when they had bacteremia. PMID:27930596
Yang, Chih-Chao; Wu, Chien-Hsing; Lee, Chien-Te; Liu, Han-Tsung; Chen, Jin-Bor; Chiu, Chien-Hua; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chuang, Feng-Rong
In the face of increasing treatment options for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) hemodialysis (HD) access-related bacteremia, the difference in clinical effectiveness between ertapenem and flomoxef remains unclear. We conducted this retrospective study to determine their efficacies and treatment outcomes. Patients on maintenance HD with fistula-, graft-, or catheter-related ESBL-Kp bacteremia were enrolled. Data related to clinical features and antibiotic treatments were collected. Outcome was determined by mortality resulting from bacteremia during the 14-day period after the collection of the first positive blood culture for flomoxef-susceptible ESBL-Kp. The 64 patients studied had severe septicemia as determined by the Pitt bacteremia score; 50% (32/64) were in the intensive care unit (ICU) at the time of bacteremia. Old age (>65 years; 57.8%), malnutrition (albumin<3.5g/dl; 92.2%), a history of severe illnesses (defined by shock, intubation, or ICU stay; 82.5%), and prolonged hospitalization prior to the onset of bacteremia (>30 days; 75%) were also highly prevalent. The study population comprised nine fistula-, 10 graft-, and 45 HD catheter-related bacteremia cases, and the mortality rate was high (38/64, 59.4%). The mortality rate was significantly higher in the flomoxef treatment group than in the ertapenem treatment group (22/30, 73% vs. 16/34, 47%, p<0.05). Among patients with catheter-related bacteremia, multivariate analyses revealed that flomoxef use (odds ratio (OR) 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.34-35.17) and Pitt bacteremia score (OR 4.37, 95% CI 1.28-5.26) were independently associated with mortality. In accordance with our previous study, our results have demonstrated the inferiority of flomoxef to carbapenems in the treatment of HD access-related ESBL-Kp bacteremia and provide an insight into the possibility of using ertapenem rather than flomoxef as an initial or de-escalating therapy for infections
van Eck van der Sluijs, A; Oosterheert, J J; Ekkelenkamp, M B; Hoepelman, I M; Peters, Edgar J G
Although Gram-negative micro-organisms are frequently associated with catheter-related bloodstream infections, the prognostic value and clinical implication of a positive catheter tip culture with Gram-negative micro-organisms without preceding bacteremia remains unclear. We determined the outcomes of patients with intravascular catheters colonized with these micro-organisms, without preceding positive blood cultures, and identified risk factors for the development of subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia. All patients with positive intravascular catheter tip cultures with Gram-negative micro-organisms at the University Medical Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands, between 2005 and 2009, were retrospectively studied. Patients with Gram-negative bacteremia within 48 h before catheter removal were excluded. The main outcome measure was bacteremia with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Other endpoints were length of the hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, secondary complications of Gram-negative bacteremia, and duration of intensive care admission. A total of 280 catheters from 248 patients were colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms. Sixty-seven cases were excluded because of preceding positive blood cultures, leaving 213 catheter tips from 181 patients for analysis. In 40 (19%) cases, subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia developed. In multivariate analysis, arterial catheters were independently associated with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] = 5.00, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20-20.92), as was selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) (OR = 2.47, 95% CI: 1.07-5.69). Gram-negative bacteremia in patients who received SDD was predominantly caused by cefotaxime (part of the SDD)-resistant organisms. Mortality was significantly higher in the group with subsequent Gram-negative bacteremia (35% versus 20%, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.00-4.49). Patients with a catheter tip colonized with Gram-negative micro-organisms had a high chance of
Urbonas, Vincas; Eidukaitė, Audronė; Tamulienė, Indrė
Early diagnosis of bacteremia and sepsis in pediatric oncology patients with febrile neutropenia still remains unresolved task due to lack of sensitive and specific laboratory markers particularly at the beginning of the infectious process. The objective of our study was to assess the potentiality of interleukin-10 (IL-10) to predict or exclude bacteremia or sepsis at the beginning of febrile episode in childhood oncology patients. A total of 36 febrile neutropenic episodes in 24 children were studied. Serum samples were collected after confirmation of febrile neutropenia and analyzed using automated random access analyzer. The sensitivity of IL-10 was 73% and specificity - 92% (cut-off=18pg/ml, area under the curve - 0.87, 95% CI for sensitivity 39-94%, 95% CI for specificity 74-99%) with negative predictive value (NPV) - 83%. IL-10 evaluation might be used as an additional diagnostic tool for clinicians in excluding bacteremia or clinical sepsis in oncology patients with febrile neutropenia because of high NPV and specificity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shoji, Takayo; Hirai, Yuji; Osawa, Makiko; Totsuka, Kyoichi
This is a retrospective cohort study of patients who were treated with cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, at Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital between January 2006 and December 2010. During the study period, 84/140 (60%) patients received cefazolin (mean age, 54 years; range, 0-94 years, male patients 64%). Of these, 60/84 (71%) cases were hospital acquired infections, 55/84 (65%) had heart disease, and 19/84 (23%) had moderate to severe heart failure (New York Heart Association class III/IV). The treatment failure rate at 12 weeks was 35% (n = 29). All-cause mortality were 15% (n = 13) after 12 weeks and 21% (n = 18) after a year. Secondary endocarditis and neurological events were observed in 10% (n = 8) and 2% (n = 2). Moderate to severe heart failure and retained intravascular devices were associated with treatment failure at 12 weeks by multivariate analysis (P < 0.01, P = 0.018). Our results suggest that hospital-acquired methicillin-susceptible S. aureus bacteremia can cause severe complications in patients with moderate to severe heart failure who retain their intravascular devices. Both effective antimicrobial therapy and removal of infected foci are essential for S. aureus bacteremia treatments. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hansford, Jordan R; Phillips, Marianne; Cole, Catherine; Francis, Joshua; Blyth, Christopher C; Gottardo, Nicholas G
Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy.
Hollis, A R; Wilkins, P A; Palmer, J E; Boston, R C
Bacteremia in sick foals is associated with survival, but the association of bacteremia and diarrhea is not reported. Neonatal foals with diarrhea will commonly be bacteremic. One hundred and thirty-three neonatal foals. Records of all foals <30 days of age presenting with diarrhea between January 1990 and September 2007 were reviewed. Sixty-six of 133 foals (50%) were bacteremic at admission, with 75 isolates from the 66 samples. The blood culture from a further 18 foals (13.5%) grew coryneform bacteria. Nine foals (6.8%) had 2 or more organisms grown on blood culture. One foal had 5 different organisms, interpreted as contamination. Forty-eight foals (36%) had no growth on admission blood cultures. No cultures isolated fungal organisms. Excluding coryneform bacteria, 43 isolates (57%) were Gram-negative organisms and 32 isolates (43%) were Gram-positive organisms. The most common isolate was Enterococcus spp. (22 isolates, 29%), followed by Pantoea agglomerans (13 isolates, 17%). IgG concentration at admission was not associated with blood culture status. Blood culture status was not associated with survival to hospital discharge. Bacteremia is common in neonatal foals with diarrhea. Decisions regarding antimicrobial selection should be made with these differences in mind.
Liu, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhongle; Song, Wen; Wu, Wenyong; Zhou, Zheng
Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu). In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu) expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia. PMID:25330314
Merchant, Chandni; Villanueva, Daphne-Dominique; Lalani, Ishan; Eng, Margaret; Kang, Yong
Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus which has been described as a pathogen responsible for various nosocomial infections including bacteremia, brain abscess, and infection of intravenous pacemakers. Recently, such bacteria have been described to be found typically on skin and mucosal surfaces. It is also believed to be a part of the preaxillary human flora and more frequently found in men. It is very similar in its pathogenicity with Staphylococcus aureus group and expresses a fibronectin binding protein. Literature on this pathogen reveals that it commonly causes otitis among dogs because of its location in the auditory meatus of canines. Also, it has strong association with pyoderma in dogs. The prime concern with this organism is the antibiotic resistance and relapse even after appropriate treatment. Very rarely, if any, cases have been reported about prostatic abscess (PA) with this microbe. Our patient had a history of recurrent UTIs and subsequent PA resulting in S. schleiferi bacteremia in contrast to gram negative bacteremia commonly associated with UTI. This organism was found to be resistant to methicillin, in spite of being negative for PBP2, which is a rare phenomenon and needs further studies. PMID:27092283
Liu, Haiyan; Cheng, Zhongle; Song, Wen; Wu, Wenyong; Zhou, Zheng
Incidences of leukopenia caused by bacteremia have increased significantly and it is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased cost. Immunoproteomic is a promising method to identify pathogenicity factors of different diseases. In the present study, we used immunoproteomic to analysis the pathogenicity factors in leukopenia caused by Klebsiella Pneumonia bacteremia. Approximately 40 protein spots localized in the 4 to 7 pI range were detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and 6 differentially expressed protein spots between 10 and 170 kDa were identified. Pathogenicity factors including S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, glutathione synthetase, UDP-galactose-4-epimerase, acetate kinase A and elongation factor tu (EF-Tu). In validation of the pathogenicity factor, we used western blotting to show that Klebsiella pneumonia had higher (EF-Tu) expression when they accompanied by leukopenia rather than leukocytosis. Thus, we report 6 pathogenicity factors of leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia bacteremia, including 5 housekeeping enzymes and EF-Tu. We suggest EF-Tu could be a potential pathogenicity factor for leukopenia caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.
Sugimoto, Naomi; Yamagishi, Yuka; Mikamo, Hiroshige
The isolation rate of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have been increasing in Japan. While the efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) for ESBL-producing bacteria is controversial, carbapenems have generally been shown to be effective. The aim of this study was to determine whether the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute susceptibility breakpoint of ≤16/4 μg/mL PIPC/TAZ predicts the clinical usefulness for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We retrospectively investigated 35 patients with bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBLs treated with PIPC/TAZ monotherapy. The microbiological and clinical efficacy with PIPC/TAZ minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤16/4 μg/mL was better than that with MICs ≥ 32/4 μg/mL. In contrast, MICs ≤8/4 μg/mL showed significantly higher microbiological and clinical efficacy compared to that of MICs ≥16/4 μg/mL (P < 0.05). These results suggest that 8/4 μg/mL PIPC/TAZ MIC is recommended as a breakpoint for bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Japan, although the current CLSI breakpoint is also useful. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mishra, Rashmi; Duncalf, Richard
Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7) revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known. PMID:26904307
Mileva, Sevda; Gospodinova, Margarita; Todorov, Ilian
Diseases caused by invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strains present with various extraintestinal manifestations, including bacteremia. Factors affecting the incidence include Salmonella serotype, geographic location, and host factors. We present an unusual case of Salmonella enteritidis primary bacteremia in a patient without any risk factors and originating from a region with the lowest burden of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella infections. We observed an incomplete clinical response to the treatment with a third-generation cephalosporin, despite the in vitro susceptibility of the strain. The diagnosis of Salmonella bacteremia was far from expected in our previously healthy patient from Taiwan, without any preceding diarrhea and the lack of marked response to therapy with ceftriaxone. Making the diagnosis was a challenge, requiring wide range of laboratory, imaging, and consultative work to rule out alternative diagnoses and complications. Invasive Salmonella infections are uncommon in our clinical practice at the present. Air transportation, intensive migration processes, and changes in climate are able to change the burden of infectious diseases dramatically in the near future. That fact along with the raising antibacterial resistance among invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella strains make imperative the profound understanding of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of those infections.
Millard, Michael A.; McManus, Kathleen A.; Wispelwey, Brian
Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is an uncommon yet serious clinical syndrome that typically arises from a gastrointestinal source. However, clinicians should consider nongastrointestinal sources as well. We present a rare case of C. perfringens bacteremia of urinary origin that required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. A 61-year-old male presented with acute nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, and chronic diarrhea. His physical exam revealed right costovertebral tenderness and his laboratory work-up revealed acute renal failure. Percutaneous blood cultures grew C. perfringens. Cross-sectional imaging revealed a right-sided ureteral stone with hydronephrosis, which required nephrostomy placement. On placement of the nephrostomy tube, purulent drainage was identified and Gram stain of the drainage revealed Gram-variable rods. A urinary source of C. perfringens was clinically supported. Although it is not a common presentation, nongastrointestinal sources such as a urinary source should be considered in C. perfringens bacteremia because failure to recognize a nongastrointestinal source can delay appropriate treatment, which may include surgical intervention. PMID:26998370
Kurihara, Yoko; Hitomi, Shigemi; Oishi, Tsuyoshi; Kondo, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Tsugio; Funayama, Yasunori; Kawakami, Yasushi
Although Proteus mirabilis is a common human pathogen, bacteremia caused by the organism, especially strains producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), has rarely been investigated. We examined 64 cases of P. mirabilis bacteremia identified in the Minami Ibaraki Area, Japan, between 2001 and 2010 and compared the characteristics of cases with ESBL-producing and ESBL-non-producing strains (13 and 51 cases, respectively). All ESBL-producing strains with the gene encoding the CTX-M-2-group were genetically nonidentical. Isolation of ESBL-producing strains was significantly associated with onset in a hospital (p = 0.030), receiving hemodialysis (p = 0.0050), and previous antibiotic use within 1 month (p = 0.036; especially penicillin and/or cephalosporin (p = 0.010) and fluoroquinolone (p = 0.0069)). Isolation was also associated with inappropriate antibiotic therapy on the 1st and 4th days (p = 0.011 and 0.032, respectively) but not with mortality on the 30th day. These findings indicate that, for P. mirabilis bacteremia, isolation of ESBL-producing strains causes delay of initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy but may not be associated with mortality.
Yawman, Daniel; Mahar, Patrick; Blumkin, Aaron; Conners, Gregory
Background. It is unclear if clinicians evaluate for concurrent bacteremia or UTI in young patients diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM). Objectives. To describe how often, and under which circumstances, emergency providers investigate for bacteremia or UTI in 2–36 month olds with AOM. Methods. Cases of AOM were analyzed from the 2001–2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-Emergency Department dataset. Results. AOM was diagnosed in 17% of the 10,847 recorded visits of 2–36 month olds. Of these visits, laboratory testing included: CBC: 7%, Blood culture: 4%, urinalysis or urine culture: 5%, and any of these tests: 9%. Rates of testing for 2–6 month olds with temperature ≥ 38.0 (CBC: 13%, blood culture: 9%, urinalysis or urine culture: 7%, any of the tests: 14%) were not significantly different from testing of patients aged 6–12 months, or 12–36 months (all P > .1). Patients with temperature of ≥39.0 were more likely to have all tests, with the exception of urine investigation, than patients with temperature between 38.0 and 38.9. Conclusions. 17% of 2–36 month old patients seen in the emergency department are diagnosed with AOM. Investigating for bacteremia or UTI in these patients is not routine, even in febrile infants. PMID:20827307
Yawman, Daniel; Mahar, Patrick; Blumkin, Aaron; Conners, Gregory
Background. It is unclear if clinicians evaluate for concurrent bacteremia or UTI in young patients diagnosed with acute otitis media (AOM). Objectives. To describe how often, and under which circumstances, emergency providers investigate for bacteremia or UTI in 2-36 month olds with AOM. Methods. Cases of AOM were analyzed from the 2001-2004 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)-Emergency Department dataset. Results. AOM was diagnosed in 17% of the 10,847 recorded visits of 2-36 month olds. Of these visits, laboratory testing included: CBC: 7%, Blood culture: 4%, urinalysis or urine culture: 5%, and any of these tests: 9%. Rates of testing for 2-6 month olds with temperature ≥ 38.0 (CBC: 13%, blood culture: 9%, urinalysis or urine culture: 7%, any of the tests: 14%) were not significantly different from testing of patients aged 6-12 months, or 12-36 months (all P > .1). Patients with temperature of ≥39.0 were more likely to have all tests, with the exception of urine investigation, than patients with temperature between 38.0 and 38.9. Conclusions. 17% of 2-36 month old patients seen in the emergency department are diagnosed with AOM. Investigating for bacteremia or UTI in these patients is not routine, even in febrile infants.
Nakakura, Ichiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Sakakura, Kota; Imanishi, Kaori; Hirota, Kazuyuki; Shimatani, Yasuaki; Uehira, Tomoko; Nakamori, Shoji; Sako, Rumi; Doi, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Kunio
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are becoming increasingly common worldwide. Although CPE infections can be fatal, few reports in the literature have described effective and successful treatments for infectious diseases caused by several types of IMP CPE, and, to our knowledge, no reports have described the successful treatment of IMP-6 CPE infections. We describe two patients who developed bacteremia caused by IMP-6 CPE after surgery for cancer who were successfully treated with amikacin plus high-dose prolonged-infusion meropenem. Both patients were treated over a 2-week period using amikacin 15 mg/kg at various intervals based on therapeutic drug monitoring and meropenem 2000 mg infused over 3 hours every 12 hours. The dosages of amikacin and meropenem were determined based on the creatinine clearance of each patient. Both patients were cured of their bacteremia and did not experience any antibiotic-related adverse effects. Based on the outcomes of these patients, it appears that amikacin plus high-dose prolonged-infusion meropenem may be safe and effective for the treatment of bacteremia caused by IMP-6 CPE. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Reisman, Ronald J.; Brown, David M.
Augmented Reality technology may help improve Air Traffic Control Tower efficiency and safety during low-visibility conditions. This paper presents the assessments of five off-duty controllers who shadow-controlled' with an augmented reality prototype in their own facility. Initial studies indicated unanimous agreement that this technology is potentially beneficial, though the prototype used in the study was not adequate for operational use. Some controllers agreed that augmented reality technology improved situational awareness, had potential to benefit clearance, control, and coordination tasks and duties and could be very useful for acquiring aircraft and weather information, particularly aircraft location, heading, and identification. The strongest objections to the prototype used in this study were directed at aircraft registration errors, unacceptable optical transparency, insufficient display performance in sunlight, inadequate representation of the static environment and insufficient symbology.
Kocjancic, Ervin; Demirdağ, Çetin
The aim of this review is to update the indications, contraindications, technique, complications, and the tissue engineering approaches of augmentation cystoplasty (AC) in patients with neurogenic bladder. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the keywords "augmentation cystoplasty," "neurogenic bladder," and "bladder augmentation." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. The update review of of the indications, contraindications, technique, outcome, complications, and tissue engineering approaches of AC in patients with neurogenic bladder is presented. Although some important progress has been made in tissue engineering AC, conventional AC still has an important role in the surgical treatment of refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:27617312
Segall, Lorne; Ellis, David A F
Aesthetic ideals vary with emerging fashion trends and within different cultures. However, over the past few decades, fuller lips have been considered a desirable trait. Many younger patients are presenting for lip augmentation to achieve the sought-after look commonly seen in many fashion magazines. In addition, as individuals age, they lose lip volume, with a thinning of the red lip, some effacement of the vermillion border, and elongation and flattening of the white portion of the lip. Rejuvenation of the lips plays a key role in restoring a more youthful appearance. As a result, lip augmentation appeals to a wide spectrum of patients who present with various different aesthetic goals and expectations. Numerous therapeutic options exist for aesthetic lip augmentation, ranging from temporary and permanent injectable fillers to implants and other surgical techniques.
Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Paxson, Daniel E. (Inventor)
A wave augmented diffuser for a centrifugal compressor surrounds the outlet of an impeller that rotates on a drive shaft having an axis of rotation. The impeller brings flow in in an axial direction and imparts kinetic energy to the flow discharging it in radial and tangential directions. The flow is discharged into a plurality of circumferentially disposed wave chambers. The wave chambers are periodically opened and closed by a rotary valve such that the flow through the diffuser is unsteady. The valve includes a plurality of valve openings that are periodically brought into and out of fluid communication with the wave chambers. When the wave chambers are closed, a reflected compression wave moves upstream towards the diffuser bringing the flow into the wave chamber to rest. This action recovers the kinetic energy from the flow and limits any boundary layer growth. The flow is then discharged in an axial direction through an opening in the valve plate when the valve plate is rotated to an open position. The diffuser thus efficiently raises the static pressure of the fluid and discharges an axially directed flow at a radius that is predominantly below the maximum radius of the diffuser.
Di Pino, Giovanni; Maravita, Angelo; Zollo, Loredana; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo
Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyses the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain. Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools. Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e., primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the sense of the self
Thomas, Rhys Gethin; John, Nigel William; Delieu, John Michael
The use of Virtual Environments has been widely reported as a method of teaching anatomy. Generally such environments only convey the shape of the anatomy to the student. We present the Bangor Augmented Reality Education Tool for Anatomy (BARETA), a system that combines Augmented Reality (AR) technology with models produced using Rapid Prototyping (RP) technology, to provide the student with stimulation for touch as well as sight. The principal aims of this work were to provide an interface more intuitive than a mouse and keyboard, and to evaluate such a system as a viable supplement to traditional cadaver based education.
Horisawa, Hideyuki; Tamada, Kazunobu; Kimura, Itsuro
A preliminary study of combustion-augmented laser-ramjets was conducted, in which chemical propellant such as a gaseous hydrogen/air mixture was utilized and detonated with a focused laser beam in order to obtain a higher impulse compared to the case only using lasers. CFD analysis of internal conical-nozzle flows and experimental measurements including impulse measurement were conducted to evaluate effects of chemical reaction on thrust performance improvement. From the results, a significant improvement in the thrust performances was confirmed with addition of a small amount of hydrogen to propellant air, or in combustion-augmented operation.
Teng, Sing-On; Yen, Muh-Yong; Ou, Tsong-Yih; Chen, Fu-Lun; Yu, Fang-Lan; Lee, Wen-Sen
Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) bacteremia has increasingly emerged as a nosocomial pathogen in healthcare settings, associated with high patient morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, risk factors, treatment outcome, and antibiotic resistance in patients with pneumonia- and non-pneumonia-related AB bacteremia. We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary teaching hospital in northern Taiwan. The medical records of the 141 episodes of hospital-acquired AB bacteremia between July 1, 2006 and June 30, 2012 were reviewed, and sorted into groups of AB bacteremia with (n = 59) and without pneumonia (n = 82). The hospital-acquired pneumonia-related AB bacteremia group were found to be significantly more frequently treated in intensive care units (49.2%, p < 0.001), but the AB bacteremia without pneumonia group were significantly more frequently treated on general wards (85.4%, p < 0.001). Patients with pneumonia tended to be older than the nonpneumonia group (72.8 years vs. 65.2 years in mean age, p < 0.01), and more likely to use mechanical ventilators (62.7% vs. 15.9 %, p < 0.001). Pneumonia patients were found to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics significantly earlier than nonpneumonia patients (p < 0.001). Compared to those without pneumonia, the patients with pneumonia had significantly higher incidence of antibiotic-resistance (p < 0.05), longer hospital stay (p < 0.01), and higher mortality rate (p < 0.001). The incidence of multidrug-resistant AB was significantly higher in patients with pneumonia (p < 0.05), and only colistin (p < 0.01) and tigecycline (p < 0.01) were significantly active against multidrug-resistant AB isolates. Pneumonia-related AB bacteremia has a worse outcome, more antibiotic resistance, and more comorbidity than the nonpneumonia group. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.
Sasaki, Sho; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Kawarazaki, Hiroo; Nomura, Atsushi; Uchida, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Takahiro; Furusho, Masahide; Nishiwaki, Hiroki; Fukuma, Shingo; Shibagaki, Yugo; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Background To our knowledge, no reliable clinical prediction rule (CPR) for identifying bacteremia in hemodialysis (HD) patients has been established. The aim of this study was to develop a CPR for bacteremia in maintenance HD patients visiting the outpatient department. Methods This multicenter cohort study involved consecutive maintenance HD patients who visited the outpatient clinic or emergency room of seven Japanese institutions between August 2011 and July 2013. The outcome measure was bacteremia diagnosed based on the results of blood cultures. The candidate predictors for bacteremia were extracted through a literature review. A CPR for bacteremia was developed using a coefficient-based multivariable logistic regression scoring method, and calibration was performed. The test performance was then assessed for the CPR. Results Of 507 patients eligible for the study, we analyzed the 293 with a complete dataset for candidate predictors. Of these 293 patients, 48 (16.4%) were diagnosed with bacteremia. At the conclusion of the deviation process, body temperature ≥ 38.3°C, heart rate ≥ 125 /min, C-reactive protein ≥ 10 mg/dL, alkaline phosphatase >360 IU/L, and no prior antibiotics use within the past week were retained and scored. The CPR had a good fit for the model on calibration. The AUC of the CPR was 0.76, and for score CPR ≥ 2, the sensitivity and specificity were 89.6% and 51.4%, respectively. Conclusions We established a simple CPR for bacteremia in maintenance HD patients using routinely obtained clinical information in an outpatient setting. This model may facilitate more appropriate clinical decision making. PMID:28081211
Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd
Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.
Takesue, Yoshio; Nakajima, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Ichiki, Kaori; Ishihara, Mika; Wada, Yasunao; Tsuchida, Toshie; Uchino, Motoi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki
Recent studies demonstrated that mortality associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia was high when vancomycin was used to treat infections with strains that had a high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). This study compared several characteristics of vancomycin MIC 2 μg/ml strains isolated from bacteremia with those isolated from infections other than bacteremia. A total of 128 episodes of MRSA bacteremia between 2005 and 2008 were followed-up, and compared with 631 MRSA infections other than bacteremia. The isolation of strains with a 2 μg/ml MIC accounted for 32.0% of isolates from MRSA bacteremia, whereas strains with a 2 μg/ml MIC comprised 9.0% of MRSA isolated from other sites (p < 0.001). The incidence of pneumonia as the source of infection was significantly higher in patients with bacteremia from strains with a 2 μg/ml MIC than in those with ≤1 μg/ml MIC. Prior vancomycin use did not correlate with the isolation of 2 μg/ml strains. The efficacy of glycopeptides as 1st line therapy in patients infected with 2 μg/ml strains was significantly lower than that for patients infected with ≤1 μg/ml strains (30.0 vs. 78.8%, p < 0.001) in bacteremia. In the analysis of infections other than bacteremia, efficacy did not reveal a significant difference according to MIC (69.0 vs. 79.6%, p = 0.109). In bacteremia, mortality was 65.8% in patients with 2 μg/ml strains and 19.5% in patients with ≤1 μg/ml strains (p < 0.001), whereas there was no significant difference in mortality from infections other than bacteremia (10.7 vs. 7.8%, p = 0.617). In multivariate analysis, bacteremia with 2 μg/ml strains, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and liver cirrhosis were independent risk factors for death in patients with bacteremia, and initial appropriate therapy lowered the risk. Several characteristics such as a higher incidence than at other infection sites, a high incidence of pneumonia as a source of infection
Vallés, Jordi; Palomar, Mercedes; Alvárez-Lerma, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Blanco, Armando; Garnacho-Montero, José; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio
In recent years, outcomes for critically ill patients with severe sepsis have improved; however, no data have been reported about the outcome of patients admitted for community-acquired bacteremia. We aimed to analyze the changes in the prevalence, characteristics, and outcome of critically ill patients with community-acquired bacteremia over the past 15 yrs. A secondary analysis of prospective cohort studies in critically ill patients in three annual periods (1993, 1998, and 2007). Forty-seven ICUs at secondary and tertiary care hospitals. All adults admitted to the participating ICUs with at least one true-positive blood culture finding within the first 48 hrs of admission. None. A total of 829 patients was diagnosed with community-acquired bacteremia during the study periods (148, 196, and 485 in the three periods). The prevalence density rate of community-acquired bacteremia increased from nine per 1000 ICU admissions in 1993 to 24.4 episodes per 1,000 ICU admissions in 2007 (p < 0.001). The prevalence of septic shock also increased from 4.6 episodes/1,000 admissions in 1993 to 14.6 episodes/1,000 admissions in 2007 (p < 0.001). Patients with community-acquired bacteremia were significantly older and had more comorbidities. No significant differences were observed in the presence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative micro-organisms among the three study periods. Mortality related to community-acquired bacteremia decreased over the three study periods: 42%, 32.2%, and 22.9% in 1993, 1998, and 2007, respectively (p < 0.01). The occurrence of septic shock and the number of comorbidities were independently associated with worse outcome. Appropriate antibiotic therapy and development of community-acquired bacteremia in 1998 and 2007 were independently associated with better survival. The prevalence of community-acquired bacteremia in ICU patients has increased. Despite a higher percentage of more severe and older patients, the mortality associated with community
Álvarez, R; Viñas-Castillo, L; Lepe-Jiménez, J A; García-Cabrera, E; Cisneros-Herreros, J M
The time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures has been associated with increased mortality in bacteremia caused by several microorganisms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between TTP and prognosis, clinical presentation and extended spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-production in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia. This is a retrospective observational study involving 226 adult patients with E. coli bacteremia. Data collected included underlying diseases, clinical presentation, prognosis factors, TTP, ESBL-production and outcome. Thirty-one (14%) patients had severe sepsis and 29 (13%) septic shock at presentation. Thirty-three (14%) strains were ESBL-producers. Thirty-nine (17%) patients died during admission and 17 (7.5%) within 48 hours. The median TTP was 8.3 hours (range, 0.42–76.5). It was significantly shorter in patients with septic shock (6.23 h, range 1.12–47.29 h vs. 8.51 h, range 0.42–76.50 h; p = 0.018). Rapid growth of E. coli, Pitt index >1.5, non-urinary source and Charlson score >2 were selected as independent risk factors of in-hospital mortality by the multivariate analysis. ESBL-production was not associated with modifications in TTP. Lower TTP is an independent risk factor for septic shock and poor outcome in episodes of E. coli bacteremia. The TTP in E. coli bacteremia is not significantly modified by ESBL-production.
Armbruster, Chelsie E.; Smith, Sara N.; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L. T.
Background. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. Methods. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Results. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. Conclusions. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI. PMID:24280366
Rautanen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Mills, Tara C; Rockett, Kirk A; Strange, Amy; Ndungu, Anne W; Naranbhai, Vivek; Gilchrist, James J; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Band, Gavin; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Edkins, Sarah; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard D; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Macharia, Alex W; Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne; Mturi, Neema; Njuguna, Patricia; Mohammed, Shebe; Berkley, James A; Mwangi, Isaiah; Mwarumba, Salim; Kitsao, Barnes S; Lowe, Brett S; Morpeth, Susan C; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Chapman, Stephen J; Donnelly, Peter; Hill, Adrian V S; Spencer, Chris C A
Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study. We identified an association between polymorphisms in a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (AC011288.2) and pneumococcal bacteremia and replicated the results in the same population (p combined = 1.69 × 10(-9); OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.84-3.31). The susceptibility allele is African specific, derived rather than ancestral, and occurs at low frequency (2.7% in control subjects and 6.4% in case subjects). Our further studies showed AC011288.2 expression only in neutrophils, a cell type that is known to play a major role in pneumococcal clearance. Identification of this novel association will further focus research on the role of lincRNAs in human infectious disease.
Julián-Jiménez, A; Gutiérrez-Martín, P; Lizcano-Lizcano, A; López-Guerrero, M A; Barroso-Manso, Á; Heredero-Gálvez, E
The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the capacity of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate and leukocytes to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Observational, retro-prospective analytical study of adult patients (≥15 years) diagnosed with UTI in an emergency department from August 2012 to January 2013. The study included 328 patients diagnosed with UTI, with a mean age of 52±22 years, 74% of whom were women. Of these, 43 (13.1%) had bacteremia. For predicting bacteremia, PCT achieved the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) at .993 (95% CI .987-1; P<.001). A cutoff≥1.16ng/mL achieves a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 97%, a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Lactate achieved an ROC-AUC of .844, and CRP achieved only .534. The mean values when comparing PCT levels in patients with UTIs with and without bacteremia were 8.08±16.37 and .34±.37ng/mL, respectively (P<.001). For patients with UTIs in the emergency department, PCT achieves considerable diagnostic performance for suspecting bacteremia, a performance greater than that of lactate, CRP and leukocytes. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Armbruster, Chelsie E; Smith, Sara N; Yep, Alejandra; Mobley, Harry L T
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CaUTIs) are the most common hospital-acquired infections worldwide and are frequently polymicrobial. The urease-positive species Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii are two of the leading causes of CaUTIs and commonly co-colonize catheters. These species can also cause urolithiasis and bacteremia. However, the impact of coinfection on these complications has never been addressed experimentally. A mouse model of ascending UTI was utilized to determine the impact of coinfection on colonization, urolithiasis, and bacteremia. Mice were infected with P. mirabilis or a urease mutant, P. stuartii, or a combination of these organisms. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess growth dynamics and impact of co-culture on urease activity. Coinfection resulted in a bacterial load similar to monospecies infection but with increased incidence of urolithiasis and bacteremia. These complications were urease-dependent as they were not observed during coinfection with a P. mirabilis urease mutant. Furthermore, total urease activity was increased during co-culture. We conclude that P. mirabilis and P. stuartii coinfection promotes urolithiasis and bacteremia in a urease-dependent manner, at least in part through synergistic induction of urease activity. These data provide a possible explanation for the high incidence of bacteremia resulting from polymicrobial CaUTI.
Hess, Aaron S; Kleinberg, Michael; Sorkin, John D; Netzer, Giora; Johnson, Jennifer K; Shardell, Michelle; Thom, Kerri A; Harris, Anthony D; Roghmann, Mary-Claire
We hypothesized that prior colonization with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is associated with increased risk of subsequent antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia among cancer patients. We performed a matched case-control study. Cases were cancer patients with a blood culture positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Controls were cancer patients with a blood culture not positive for antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was defined as any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in surveillance or non-sterile-site cultures obtained 2-365 days before the bacteremia. Thirty-two (37%) of 86 cases and 27 (8%) of 323 matched controls were previously colonized by any antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Prior colonization was strongly associated with antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia (odds ratio [OR] 7.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.5-14.7) after controlling for recent treatment with piperacillin-tazobactam (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). In these patients with suspected bacteremia, prior cultures may predict increased risk of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rigorous scientific assessment of educational technologies typically lags behind the availability of the technologies by years because of the lack of validated instruments and benchmarks. Even when the appropriate assessment instruments are available, they may not be applied because of time and monetary constraints. Work in augmented reality, instrumented mannequins, serious gaming, and similar promising educational technologies that haven't undergone timely, rigorous evaluation, highlights the need for assessment methodologies that address the limitations of traditional approaches. The most promising augmented assessment solutions incorporate elements of rapid prototyping used in the software industry, simulation-based assessment techniques modeled after methods used in bioinformatics, and object-oriented analysis methods borrowed from object oriented programming.
Day, Michael W; Jackson, Lydgia A; Akins, Darrin R; Dyer, David W; Chavez-Bueno, Susana
Neonatal bacteremia Escherichia coli strains commonly belong to the K1 capsular type. Their ability to cause invasive neonatal disease appears to be determined by other virulence factors that have yet to be identified. We report here the genome sequences of four E. coli neonatal bacteremia isolates, including that of the archetypal strain RS218.
Riu, Marta; Chiarello, Pietro; Terradas, Roser; Sala, Maria; Garcia-Alzorriz, Enric; Castells, Xavier; Grau, Santiago; Cots, Francesc
Abstract To estimate the incremental cost of nosocomial bacteremia according to the causative focus and classified by the antibiotic sensitivity of the microorganism. Patients admitted to Hospital del Mar in Barcelona from 2005 to 2012 were included. We analyzed the total hospital costs of patients with nosocomial bacteremia caused by microorganisms with a high prevalence and, often, with multidrug-resistance. A control group was defined by selecting patients without bacteremia in the same diagnosis-related group. Our hospital has a cost accounting system (full-costing) that uses activity-based criteria to estimate per-patient costs. A logistic regression was fitted to estimate the probability of developing bacteremia (propensity score) and was used for propensity-score matching adjustment. This propensity score was included in an econometric model to adjust the incremental cost of patients with bacteremia with differentiation of the causative focus and antibiotic sensitivity. The mean incremental cost was estimated at €15,526. The lowest incremental cost corresponded to bacteremia caused by multidrug-sensitive urinary infection (€6786) and the highest to primary or unknown sources of bacteremia caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (€29,186). This is one of the first analyses to include all episodes of bacteremia produced during hospital stays in a single study. The study included accurate information about the focus and antibiotic sensitivity of the causative organism and actual hospital costs. It provides information that could be useful to improve, establish, and prioritize prevention strategies for nosocomial infections. PMID:28445264
Scola, A; Gebhard, F; Röderer, G
The treatment of osteoporotic fractures is still a challenge. The advantages of augmentation with respect to primary in vitro stability and the clinical use for the proximal humerus are presented in this article. In this study six paired human humeri were randomized into an augmented and a non-augmented group. Osteosynthesis was performed with a PHILOS plate (Synthes®). In the augmented group the two screws finding purchase in the weakest cancellous bone were augmented. The specimens were tested in a 3-part fracture model in a varus bending test. The augmented PHILOS plates withstood significantly more load cycles until failure. The correlation to bone mineral density (BMD) showed that augmentation could partially compensate for low BMD. The augmentation of the screws in locked plating in a proximal humerus fracture model is effective in improving the primary stability in a cyclic varus bending test. The targeted augmentation of two particular screws in a region of low bone quality within the humeral head was almost as effective as four screws with twice the amount of bone cement. Screw augmentation combined with a knowledge of the local bone quality could be more effective in enhancing the primary stability of a proximal humerus locking plate because the effect of augmentation can be exploited more effectively limiting it to the degree required. The technique of augmentation is simple and can be applied in open and minimally invasive procedures. When the correct procedure is used, complications (cement leakage into the joint) can be avoided.
Huttunen, Reetta; Hurme, Mikko; Laine, Janne; Eklund, Carita; Vuento, Risto; Aittoniemi, Janne; Huhtala, Heini; Syrjänen, Jaana
Nitric oxide (NO) as a vasoactive substance is a crucial element in the pathogenesis of sepsis. Endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) is, in turn, a key regulator of vascular NO production. The eNOS gene polymorphism at position 894 (G>T, Glu298Asp) resulting in T allele has been studied in the context of vascular diseases, but its role in sepsis has not yet been explored. We here studied the effect of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism on the clinical course of the disease in patients with bacteremia. The study comprised 147 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, or Escherichia coli. Laboratory findings and clinical data were registered on admission and during 6 consecutive days. The polymorphism of eNOS gene, G894T, was genotyped. Carriage of the T allele was associated with low MAP (P = 0.004) and high Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (P = 0.001) in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The effect on blood pressure was most prominent in the early stage of the disease (MAP on admission = 52 mmHg in T-allele carriers vs. 91 mmHg in noncarriers; P < 0.001). However, the same was not detected in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism (S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, or beta-hemolytic streptococci). The Glu298Asp polymorphism had no effect on case fatality in any pathogen. Carriage of the T allele of the eNOS gene is a risk factor for hypotension in patients with E. coli bacteremia but not in bacteremia caused by a gram-positive organism.
Background Information is sparse regarding the association between international travel and hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion, risk factors and outcomes of travel-related non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. Methods We conducted a 10-year population-based cohort study of all patients hospitalized with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia in three Danish counties (population 1.6 million). We used denominator data on Danish travellers to assess the risk per 100,000 travellers according to age and travel destination. We used patients contemporaneously diagnosed with travel-related Salmonella gastroenteritis as reference patients to estimate the relative risk of presenting with travel-related bacteremia as compared with gastroenteritis. To evaluate clinical outcomes, we compared patients with travel-related bacteremia and patients with domestically acquired bacteremia in terms of length of hospital stay, number of extraintestinal focal infections and mortality after 30 and 90 days. Results We identified 311 patients hospitalized with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia of whom 76 (24.4%) had a history of international travel. The risk of travel-related bacteremia per traveller was highest in the age groups 15-24 years (0.8/100,000 travellers) and 65 years and above (1.2/100,000 travellers). The sex- and age-adjusted relative risk of presenting with bacteremia was associated with travel to Sub-Saharan Africa (odds ratio 18.4; 95% confidence interval [6.9-49.5]), the Middle East (10.6; [2.1-53.2]) and South East Asia (4.0; [2.2-7.5]). We found high-risk countries in the same three regions when estimating the risk per traveller according to travel destination. Patients hospitalized with travel-related bacteremia had better clinical outcomes than patients with domestically acquired bacteremia, they had a shorter length of hospital stay (8 vs. 11 days), less extraintestinal focal infections (5 vs
Asturias, E.J.; Corral, J.E.; Quezada, J.
Febrile neutropenia is a well-known entity in children with cancer, being responsible for the high risk for infection that characterizes this population. For this reason, cancer patients are hospitalized so that they can receive prophylactic care. Risk factors have been used to classify patients at a high risk for developing bacteremia. The present study evaluates whether those risk factors (C-reactive protein, hypotension, leukemia as the cancer type, thrombocytopenia, recent chemotherapy, and acute malnutrition) apply to patients at the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica. We evaluated 102 episodes in 88 patients, in whom risk factors and blood cultures were tested. We observed no statistical relationship between the six risk factors and bacteremia. There was also no relationship between bacteremia and the simultaneous presence of two, three, or more risk factors. A significant relationship of C-reactive protein and platelet count with other outcome factors was observed. PMID:20404980
Pusic, Andrea L; Reavey, Patrick L; Klassen, Anne F; Scott, Amie; McCarthy, Colleen; Cano, Stefan J
The Breast-Q Augmentation module is a new and unique questionnaire for measuring patient-reported outcomes following breast augmentation. It has undergone a rigorous development and validation process and is currently the only questionnaire for breast augmentation that meets international and federal standards for questionnaire development. The Breast-Q Augmentation module covers a comprehensive set of concerns of breast augmentation patients, including satisfaction with breasts and impact on quality of life. With its excellent psychometric properties, the Breast-Q Augmentation module can provide clinicians and researchers with a wealth of essential data to improve the field of breast augmentation from the perspectives of both surgeons and patients.
Alexopoulou, Alexandra; Vasilieva, Larisa; Agiasotelli, Danai; Siranidi, Kyriaki; Pouriki, Sophia; Tsiriga, Athanasia; Toutouza, Marina; Dourakis, Spyridon P
AIM: To evaluate the epidemiology and outcomes of culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) and spontaneous bacteremia (SB) in decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS: We prospectively collected clinical, laboratory characteristics, type of administered antibiotic, susceptibility and resistance of bacteria to antibiotics in one hundred thirty cases (68.5% males) with positive ascitic fluid and/or blood cultures during the period from January 1, 2012 to May 30, 2014. All patients with SBP had polymorphonuclear cell count in ascitic fluid > 250/mm3. In patients with SB a thorough study did not reveal any other cause of bacteremia. The patients were followed-up for a 30-d period following diagnosis of the infection. The final outcome of the patients was recorded in the end of follow-up and comparison among 3 groups of patients according to the pattern of drug resistance was performed. RESULTS: Gram-positive-cocci (GPC) were found in half of the cases. The most prevalent organisms in a descending order were Escherichia coli (33), Enterococcus spp (30), Streptococcus spp (25), Klebsiella pneumonia (16), S. aureus (8), Pseudomanas aeruginosa (5), other Gram-negative-bacteria (GNB) (11) and anaerobes (2). Overall, 20.8% of isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR) and 10% extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Health-care-associated (HCA) and/or nosocomial infections were present in 100% of MDR/XDR and in 65.5% of non-DR cases. Meropenem was the empirically prescribed antibiotic in HCA/nosocomial infections showing a drug-resistance rate of 30.7% while third generation cephalosporins of 43.8%. Meropenem was ineffective on both XDR bacteria and Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium). All but one XDR were susceptible to colistin while all GPC (including E. faecium) and the 86% of GNB to tigecycline. Overall 30-d mortality was 37.7% (69.2% for XDR and 34.2% for the rest of the patients) (log rank, P = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, factors adversely affecting outcome included
Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi
Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value. PMID:27165120
Zeng, Yanjun; Wu, Weihua; Yu, Hongmei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Guangshen
During the past six years, we have treated 406 patients with classical silicon augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation were examined and discussed. We proposed that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. In order to improve our operation and prove our hypothesis, we performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 cases with satisfactory results. At the same time, we investigated the biomechanical properties of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, stress-strain relationship and stress relaxation characters under uniaxial tension. Although less elastic, the periosteum has more tensile strength than fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher, and stiffer than fascia, thus more suitable for covering silicon implants.
Zeng, Yanjun; Wu, Weihua; Yu, Hongmei; Yang, Jian; Chen, Guangshen
During the past 6 years the authors have treated 406 patients with classic silicone augmentation rhinoplasty. The types and incidence of complications after subcutaneous or subfascial implantation are examined and discussed. They propose that most complications are related to the depth of the implant and the character of the tissues. To improve their operation and to prove their hypothesis, they performed subperiosteal augmentation rhinoplasty in 22 patients with satisfactory results. At the same time, they investigated the biomechanical properties of human nasal periosteum and fascia, including tensile strength, the stress-strain relationship, and stress relaxation characteristics under uniaxial tension. Although it has less failure strain, the periosteum has more tensile strength than fascia. So, in the view of biomechanics, the periosteum is thicker, tougher, and stiffer than fascia, and thus more suitable for covering silicone implants.
Brackney, Larry J.
A method (700) for providing an augmented reality operations tool to a mobile client (642) positioned in a building (604). The method (700) includes, with a server (660), receiving (720) from the client (642) an augmented reality request for building system equipment (612) managed by an energy management system (EMS) (620). The method (700) includes transmitting (740) a data request for the equipment (612) to the EMS (620) and receiving (750) building management data (634) for the equipment (612). The method (700) includes generating (760) an overlay (656) with an object created based on the building management data (634), which may be sensor data, diagnostic procedures, or the like. The overlay (656) is configured for concurrent display on a display screen (652) of the client (642) with a real-time image of the building equipment (612). The method (700) includes transmitting (770) the overlay (656) to the client (642).
Wang, Jinjian; Yu, Xinghuo; Stone, Lewi
Networks science plays an enormous role in many aspects of modern society from distributing electrical power across nations to spreading information and social networking amongst global populations. While modern networks constantly change in size, few studies have sought methods for the difficult task of optimising this growth. Here we study theoretical requirements for augmenting networks by adding source or sink nodes, without requiring additional driver-nodes to accommodate the change i.e., conserving structural controllability. Our “effective augmentation” algorithm takes advantage of clusters intrinsic to the network topology, and permits rapidly and efficient augmentation of a large number of nodes in one time-step. “Effective augmentation” is shown to work successfully on a wide range of model and real networks. The method has numerous applications (e.g. study of biological, social, power and technological networks) and potentially of significant practical and economic value.
Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.
Heckler, Gregory W.; Gramling, Cheryl; Valdez, Jennifer; Baldwin, Philip
In 2015, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) reinvigorated the development of the TDRSS Augmentation Service for Satellites (TASS). TASS is a global, space-based, communications and navigation service for users of Global Navigation Satellite Systems(GNSS) and the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). TASS leverages the existing TDRSS to provide an S-band beacon radio navigation and messaging source to users at orbital altitudes 1400 km and below.
NOTES book chapter in Handbook of Augmented Reality, 2011. 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...real ob- jects by simply not rendering graphics where they are computed to be hidden from view; this is a standard property of the depth buffer in...Adam Lederer, Jason Jerald, Erik Tomlin, Eric Burns, Donald Char- ity, Joshua Eliason, Jesus Arango, and Scott Frees. In addition, the authors would like
Ooms, Matthew D.; Dinh, Cao Thang; Sargent, Edward H.; Sinton, David
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are some of nature's finest examples of solar energy conversion systems, effortlessly transforming inorganic carbon into complex molecules through photosynthesis. The efficiency of energy-dense hydrocarbon production by photosynthetic organisms is determined in part by the light collected by the microorganisms. Therefore, optical engineering has the potential to increase the productivity of algae cultivation systems used for industrial-scale biofuel synthesis. Herein, we explore and report emerging and promising material science and engineering innovations for augmenting microalgal photosynthesis.
Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.
Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.
Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.
Wang, Kung-Ching; Liu, Meei-Fang; Lin, Chin-Fu; Shi, Zhi-Yuan
The susceptibility breakpoints of cephalosporins for Enterobacteriaceae were revised by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) in 2010 and 2011. The clinical outcome and susceptibility data were analyzed to evaluate the impact of revised CLSI cefazolin breakpoints on the treatment of Escherichia coli bacteremia. Forty-three bacteremic Escherichia coli isolates from Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, during the period from January 2013 to December 2013, were selected to analyze the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of cefazolin and the correlated clinical responses to cefazolin therapy. The modal cefazolin MIC among the 43 isolates was 1 μg/mL and accounted for 18 (42%) isolates. The cumulative percentage for MICs ≤ 2 μg/mL was 79%. The conventional dosing regimens achieved clinical cure in 33 (97%) of 34 patients with bacteremia due to E. coli with a cefazolin MIC ≤ 2 μg/mL, in all of the six patients with a cefazolin MIC of 4 μg/mL, and all of the three patients with a cefazolin MIC of 8 μg/mL. The microbiological data support the revised CLSI breakpoints of cefazolin. The conventional cefazolin dosing regimens can still achieve satisfactory clinical cure rates for bacteremia of E. coli with a cefazolin MIC ≤ 2 μg/mL in patients without severe septic shock. Before the approval of the efficacy of cefazolin for the treatment of E. coli isolates with a cefazolin MIC of 4 μg/mL, it is prudent to use cefazolin only when a high drug level can be achieved in the infection site, such as the urinary tract. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Boel, J; Søgaard, M; Andreasen, V; Jarløv, J O; Arpi, M
When introducing new antibiotic guidelines for empirical treatment of bacteremia, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of the new guideline. We examined the utility of administrative data to evaluate the effect of new antibiotic guidelines and the prognostic impact of appropriate empirical treatment. We categorized 2,008 adult patients diagnosed with bacteremia between 2010 and 2012 according to whether they received cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones (old regimen) or not (new regimen). We used administrative data to extract individual level data on mortality, readmission, and appropriateness of treatment, and computed adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for 30-day mortality and post-discharge readmission by regimen and appropriateness of treatment. In total, 945 (47.1%) were treated by the old regimen and 1,063 (52.9%) by the new. The median length of stay (8 days) did not differ by regimen and neither did the proportion of those receiving appropriate empirical treatment (84.1% vs. 85.5%). However, fewer patients with the new regimen were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; 3.8% vs. 12.0%) and they had lower 30-day mortality (16.4% vs. 23.4%). The adjusted 30-day mortality HR for appropriate versus inappropriate treatment was 0.79 (95% CI 0.62-1.01) and 0.83 (95% CI 0.66-1.05) for the new versus the old regimen. The HR for 30-day readmission for appropriate versus inappropriate treatment was 0.91 (95% CI 0.73-1.13) and 1.05 (95% CI 0.87-1.25) for the new versus the old regimen. This study demonstrates that administrative data can be useful for evaluating the effect and quality of new bacteremia treatment guidelines.
Takeshima, Taro; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maki, Nobuyuki; Gibo, Koichiro; Tsugihashi, Yukio; Doi, Asako; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Kajii, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Objectives (1) To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with bacteremia, using only information that is readily available in the emergency room (ER) of community hospitals, and (2) to test the validity of that rule with a separate, independent set of data. Design Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Setting To derive the clinical prediction rule we used data from 3 community hospitals in Japan (derivation). We tested the rule using data from one other community hospital (validation), which was not among the three “derivation” hospitals. Participants Adults (age ≥ 16 years old) who had undergone blood-culture testing while in the ER between April 2011 and March 2012. For the derivation data, n = 1515 (randomly sampled from 7026 patients), and for the validation data n = 467 (from 823 patients). Analysis We analyzed 28 candidate predictors of bacteremia, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and basic laboratory data. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to derive an integer risk score (the “ID-BactER” score). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., the AUC) were computed. Results There were 241 cases of bacteremia in the derivation data. Eleven candidate predictors were used in the ID-BactER score: age, chills, vomiting, mental status, temperature, systolic blood pressure, abdominal sign, white blood-cell count, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and C-reactive protein. The AUCs was 0.80 (derivation) and 0.74 (validation). For ID-BactER scores ≥ 2, the sensitivities for derivation and validation data were 98% and 97%, and specificities were 20% and 14%, respectively. Conclusions The ID-BactER score can be computed from information that is readily available in the ERs of community hospitals. Future studies should focus on developing a score with a higher specificity while maintaining the desired sensitivity
Kellie, Susan M; Timmins, Anne; Brown, Carlene
Infection control guidelines recommend multiple concurrent interventions to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. A quasi-experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of an infection control collaborative conducted from July 1, 2008, through June 30, 2009, to decrease the rate of hospital-onset bacteremias by 40%. An MRSA curriculum was developed and delivered during three learning sessions. Guidelines, key literature, policies, and educational tools were disseminated. Teams were surveyed at the end of the collaborative and again 18 months later. Teams were recruited from 12 acute care hospitals and 1 long-term acute care hospital, with capacities ranging from 22 to 623 licensed beds. Hospital intervention teams reported 44 hospital-onset, 18 health care-associated, and 122 community-onset MRSA bacteremias in the baseline year, yielding a hospital-onset rate of 0.79 per 10,000 patient-days. By the second six months of the intervention, this rate fell to 0.41, representing an aggregate 48% decline--but a nonsignificant result. Rates of health care-associated and community-onset bacteremias were unchanged. At baseline, 4 hospitals routinely performed active surveillance testing (AST) on 241 beds, which increased to 7 hospitals and 369 beds by July 2009. A follow-up survey completed by 11 hospitals indicated that barriers were similar for large and small facilities. A final survey performed 18 months postcollaborative indicated that 2 additional hospitals had initiated AST, 5 had expanded the use of AST, and only 1 had discontinued AST. A collaborative model was successfully used to engage a diverse group of hospitals in a rural state to produce measurable improvement and sustained changes in processes of care.
Namekata, David Y; Kasten, Rickie W; Boman, Dawn A; Straub, Mary H; Siperstein-Cook, Laurie; Couvelaire, Karen; Chomel, Bruno B
Cats are the main reservoirs of zoonotic Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae, transmitted among cats by cat fleas. No study has investigated the presence of Bartonella in the saliva of bacteremic and non-bacteremic cats to correlate it to the level of bacteremia and the presence or absence of oral lesions. Shelter cats from northern California (n=130) and Michigan (n=50) were tested for Bartonella bacteremia by blood culture, presence of Bartonella antibodies and Bartonella DNA in oral swabs. Bacteremia was detected in 45 (25%) cats, mainly from northern California (n=40), which were highly flea infested and were 4 times more likely to be bacteremic than the non-flea-infested cats from Michigan. Overall, 69 (38.3%) cats had Bartonella PCR positive oral swabs. Bacteremic cats were almost 3 times (P=0.003) more likely to have PCR positive oral swabs (59%, 26/44) than non-bacteremic cats (32.5%, 44/135). However, there was no correlation between cats being bacteremic and having oral lesions. Antibody prevalences for B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae were 30% and 42.8%. B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae seropositive cats were almost 4 times (P=0.0001) and 3 times (P=0.003) more likely to have oral lesions than seronegative cats. Despite a higher prevalence (odds ratio=1.73; 95% confidence interval=0.88-3.38) of oral lesions in cats with oral swabs testing PCR positive, no statistical association could be demonstrated in this cat population.
Takeshima, Taro; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Maki, Nobuyuki; Gibo, Koichiro; Tsugihashi, Yukio; Doi, Asako; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamazaki, Shin; Kajii, Eiji; Fukuhara, Shunichi
(1) To develop a clinical prediction rule to identify patients with bacteremia, using only information that is readily available in the emergency room (ER) of community hospitals, and (2) to test the validity of that rule with a separate, independent set of data. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. To derive the clinical prediction rule we used data from 3 community hospitals in Japan (derivation). We tested the rule using data from one other community hospital (validation), which was not among the three "derivation" hospitals. Adults (age ≥ 16 years old) who had undergone blood-culture testing while in the ER between April 2011 and March 2012. For the derivation data, n = 1515 (randomly sampled from 7026 patients), and for the validation data n = 467 (from 823 patients). We analyzed 28 candidate predictors of bacteremia, including demographic data, signs and symptoms, comorbid conditions, and basic laboratory data. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to derive an integer risk score (the "ID-BactER" score). Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (i.e., the AUC) were computed. There were 241 cases of bacteremia in the derivation data. Eleven candidate predictors were used in the ID-BactER score: age, chills, vomiting, mental status, temperature, systolic blood pressure, abdominal sign, white blood-cell count, platelets, blood urea nitrogen, and C-reactive protein. The AUCs was 0.80 (derivation) and 0.74 (validation). For ID-BactER scores ≥ 2, the sensitivities for derivation and validation data were 98% and 97%, and specificities were 20% and 14%, respectively. The ID-BactER score can be computed from information that is readily available in the ERs of community hospitals. Future studies should focus on developing a score with a higher specificity while maintaining the desired sensitivity.
Lee, Ji-Yong; Kang, Cheol-In; Ko, Jae-Hoon; Lee, Woo Joo; Seok, Hye-Ri; Park, Ga Eun; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Lee, Nam Yong; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon
With the increasing use of carbapenems, carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria have become a major concern in health care-associated infections. The present study was performed to evaluate the clinical and microbiological features of breakthrough Gram-negative bacteremia (GNB) during carbapenem therapy and to assess risk factors for development of breakthrough GNB. A case-control study was performed at a tertiary hospital from 2005 to 2014. Case patients were defined as individuals whose blood cultures grew Gram-negative bacteria while the patients were receiving carbapenems for at least 48 h before breakthrough GNB. Age-, sex-, and date-matched controls were selected from patients who received carbapenem for at least 48 h and did not develop breakthrough GNB during carbapenem treatment. A total of 101 cases of breakthrough GNB were identified and compared to 100 controls. The causative microorganisms for breakthrough GNB were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (n = 33), Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 32), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 21), and others (n = 15). Approximately 90% of S. maltophilia isolates were susceptible to levofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The most common infection types were primary bacteremia (38.6%) and respiratory infections (35.6%). More than half of the patients died within a week after bacteremia, and the 30-day mortality rate was 70.3%. In a multivariate analysis, a longer hospital stay, hematologic malignancy, persistent neutropenia, immunosuppressant use, and previous colonization by causative microorganisms were significantly associated with breakthrough GNB. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa are the major pathogens of breakthrough GNB during carbapenem therapy, in association with a longer hospital stay, hematologic malignancy, persistent neutropenia, immunosuppressant use, and previous colonization. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Marchaim, D; Zaidenstein, R; Lazarovitch, T; Karpuch, Y; Ziv, T; Weinberger, M
Increased resistance among isolates causing bacteremia constitutes a major challenge to medical practitioners and institutions. Variability between institutes is substantial, and requires the individual analysis of local trends. An eight-year (1997-2004) surveillance study of episodes of bacteremia was conducted in an 850-bed university hospital in central Israel. Trends of incidence, resistance, age, and mortality were analyzed. We studied 6,096 patient-unique episodes of bacteremia, of which, 2,722 (45.3%) were nosocomial and 523 (9.2%) involved children less than 18 years of age. The overall incidence of bacteremia episodes has increased over the study years by 39% and the patient mean age by 7.5 years. Gram-negative organisms accounted for 72% of hospital-acquired cases and 69% of community-acquired cases. There was a substantial increase in the incidence of nosocomial episodes, predominantly due to Gram-negative isolates, mainly Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli. Increased resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics was noted among Gram-negative organisms, including quinolones (in K. pneumoniae), imipenem (A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa), piperacillin-tazobactam (K. pneumoniae), and amikacin (A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa). Increased resistance to oxacillin among coagulase-negative staphylococci was also noted. The all-cause mortality rates showed a significant rise. The patient age, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and hospital acquisition were independently associated with mortality. We describe an increase in the incidence and resistance of Gram-negative organisms causing bacteremia and concomitant ageing of the patients with bacteremia. Similar patterns have been reported from other localities, and are of real concern.
Papadimitriou-Olivgeri, I; Giormezis, N; Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, M; Zotou, A; Kolonitsiou, F; Koutsileou, K; Fligou, F; Marangos, M; Anastassiou, E D; Spiliopoulou, I
The significance of the number of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS)-positive blood cultures remains obscure in regards to determining true bacteremia versus contamination. The goal of this study was to determine the predictors of real CNS bloodstream infection among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. ICU patients with at least one CNS-positive blood culture were identified from the microbiology database. Biofilm formation was tested by glass tube and microtiter plate assay. mecA gene, ica operon genes (icaA, icaB, icaD), and adhesin genes (aap, bap, atlE, fbe, fnbA) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CNS were recovered from 120 septic episodes, 20 of which were true CNS bacteremias, whereas from the remaining 100 episodes, the isolated CNS were characterized as contaminants. The number of positive blood cultures was significantly associated with true CNS bacteremia. Nineteen true bacteremic Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were compared to 38 contaminants. Biofilm synthesis was documented in 37 isolates associated with the presence of the ica operon (p = 0.048). There were 39, 26, 38, 21, and 10 strains positive for the presence of atlE, bap, fbe, aap, and fnbA genes, respectively. Rifampicin resistance, absence of severe sepsis, number of S. epidermidis-positive blood cultures, and absence of the bap gene were independently associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia as compared to contaminant strains. The number of positive blood cultures is associated with true CNS bacteremia. The presence of adhesin genes may play a role in differentiating true infection from contamination, whereas absence of the bap gene is associated with true S. epidermidis bacteremia.
Kohler, Philipp P; Volling, Cheryl; Green, Karen; Uleryk, Elizabeth M; Shah, Prakesh S; McGeer, Allison
BACKGROUND Mortality associated with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is higher than mortality due to carbapenem-sensitive pathogens. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between mortality from bacteremia caused by carbapenem-resistant (CRKP) and carbapenem-sensitive Klebsiella pneumoniae (CSKP) and to assess the impact of appropriate initial antibiotic therapy (IAT) on mortality. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Wiley Cochrane databases through August 31, 2016, for observational studies reporting mortality among adult patients with CRKP and CSKP bacteremia. Search terms were related to Klebsiella, carbapenem-resistance, and infection. Studies including fewer than 10 patients per group were excluded. A random-effects model and meta-regression were used to assess the relationship between carbapenem-resistance, appropriateness of IAT, and mortality. RESULTS Mortality was higher in patients who had CRKP bacteremia than in patients with CSKP bacteremia (15 studies; 1,019 CRKP and 1,148 CSKP patients; unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-2.6; I2=0). Mortality was lower in patients with appropriate IAT than in those without appropriate IAT (7 studies; 658 patients; unadjusted OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; I2=36%). CRKP patients (11 studies; 1,326 patients; 8-year period) were consistently less likely to receive appropriate IAT (unadjusted OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7; I2=43%). Our meta-regression analysis identified a significant association between the difference in appropriate IAT and mortality (OR per 10% difference in IAT, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6). CONCLUSIONS Appropriateness of IAT is an important contributor to the observed difference in mortality between patients with CRKP bacteremia and patients with CSKP bacteremia. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-10.
Blumenthal, Kimberly G; Shenoy, Erica S; Huang, Mingshu; Kuhlen, James L; Ware, Winston A; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P
Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is a morbid infection with mortality benefit from receipt of parenteral β-lactam therapy. A substantial portion of MSSA bacteremia patients report penicillin allergy, but infrequently have true allergy. To determine the frequency and predictors of optimal and adequate therapy in patients with MSSA bacteremia. Retrospective cohort. Adult inpatients with MSSA bacteremia, January 2009 through October 2013. The primary measure was a trial of optimal therapy (OT), defined as ≥3 inpatient days or discharge on any first-line agents (nafcillin, oxacillin, cefazolin, or penicillin G, if susceptible). The secondary measure was completion of adequate therapy (AT), defined as ≥10 inpatient days or discharge on an agent appropriate for MSSA bacteremia. Data were electronically gathered with key variables manually validated through chart review. Log-binomial regression models were used to determine the frequency and predictors of outcomes. Of 456 patients, 346 (76%) received a trial of OT. Patients reporting penicillin allergy (13%) were less likely to receive OT trial than those without penicillin allergy (47% vs. 80%, p <0.001). Adjusting for other factors, penicillin allergy was the largest negative predictor of OT trial (RR 0.64 [0.49, 0.83]). Infectious Disease (ID) consultation was the largest positive predictor of OT trial across all patients (RR 1.34 [1.14, 1.57]). Allergy/Immunology consultation was the single most important predictor of OT trial among patients reporting penicillin allergy (RR 2.33 [1.44, 3.77]). Of 440 patients, 391 (89%) completed AT, with ID consultation the largest positive predictor of the outcome (RR 1.28 [1.15, 1.43]). Nearly 25% of patients with MSSA bacteremia did not receive OT trial and about 10% did not receive AT completion. Reported penicillin allergy reduced, and ID consult increased, the likelihood of OT. Allergy evaluation, coupled with ID consultation, may improve
Reis, Luciana C; Rôças, Isabela N; Siqueira, José F; de Uzeda, Milton; Lacerda, Vane S; Domingues, Regina M C P; Moraes, Saulo R; Saraiva, Roberto M
Infective endocarditis (IE) is still associated with high mortality, and antibiotic prophylaxis strategies are under intense debate. We evaluated the incidence of bacteremia after root canal preparation in teeth with necrotic pulps and apical periodontitis. Blood samples were taken before and 5 and 30 minutes after endodontic treatment in teeth with apical periodontitis from individuals at high (n = 21) or no risk (n = 11) for IE. The former received prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Bacteriologic samples were taken from root canals before chemomechanical preparation to confirm pulp infection. Samples were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic culture and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the latter to determine the total bacterial and streptococcal levels. Culture revealed no bacteremia in all individuals. Analysis by qPCR showed that bacterial DNA occurred in all root canal samples. qPCR showed a similar incidence of bacteremia between patients who received or did not receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy (P > .05). In blood samples taken 5 minutes after endodontic procedures, bacteria were detected in 2 of 11 (18%) individuals not taking antibiotics and in 4 of 21 (19%) patients under prophylaxis. After 30 minutes, the incidence of bacteremia decreased to 2 of 21 (10%) in patients taking antibiotics and was undetectable in patients at no risk of IE. The incidence of bacteremia by streptococci was identical as that for total bacteria. No detectable bacteremia was evident by culture after treatment of infected root canals. Molecular analysis revealed bacterial DNA and streptococci in blood from some patients without a significant difference between individuals receiving or not receiving antibiotic prophylaxis. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rocha, Fabio Lopes; Hara, Claudia
A significant number of patients with unipolar depression fail to achieve remission after one or a series of antidepressants. We present the results of a retrospective chart review of the efficacy and tolerability of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug in treatment-resistant unipolar depression. A previous absence of a response was defined as the clinically significant presence of depressive symptomatology after 6 weeks of treatment with an antidepressant, with at least 3 weeks at the maximum dose tolerated by the patient. The patients were rated retrospectively using the Clinical Global Impression rating scale. Seventy-six percent of the patients improved. Gender, age, basal severity of the episode and degree of previous non response were not statistically significantly associated with response to lamotrigine augmentation. Comorbidity showed a tendency to be negatively related with response to lamotrigine. Three patients abandoned the treatment with lamotrigine due to side-effects. Complaints were excessive somnolence, headache, dizziness, nausea and malaise. Data suggest that lamotrigine is a promising drug for treatment-refractory unipolar depression. Double-blind studies are necessary to confirm its use as an augmentation agent.
These are video microscope images of magnetorheological (MR) fluids, illuminated with a green light. Those on Earth, left, show the MR fluid forming columns or spikes structures. On the right, the fluids in microgravity aboard the International Space Station (ISS), formed broader columns.
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)
Ezpeleta Baquedano, C; Uriarte Asteinza, E; Sota Busselo, M; García Jiménez, N; De Miguel de la Villa, F; Cisterna Cáncer, R
Corynebacterium striatum is a Gram-positive pleomorphic bacillus that has been regarded as a saprophyte of mucous membranes and skin. There are certain difficulties in identifying the Corynebacteria species in the laboratory and it is often necessary to resort to techniques which are not available in all laboratories. Over recent years, C. striatum has shown itself to be a potential pathogen generally in weakened or immunodepressed individuals, in relation with intravenous catheters and in intensive care units. We report a case of bacteremia by C. striatum and neutrocytic ascites probably related to that microorganism, and, in view of the rarity of this isolement, we have reviewed the cases published on this subject.
Goel, Noopur; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar
Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.
Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided.
Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients. PMID:27433362
Tartof, Sara Y; Gounder, Prabhu; Weiss, Don; Lee, Lillian; Cassiday, Pamela K; Clark, Thomas A; Briere, Elizabeth C
We describe the first report of temporally related cases of Bordetella holmesii bacteremia. Demographic and clinical data were collected through chart abstraction and case-patient interviews. Twenty-two cases were identified from 6 states. Symptom onset dates ranged from April 2010 to January 2011. Median age of patients was 17.1 years and 64% had functional or anatomic asplenia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of a sample of isolates were identical. These cases occurred during a peak in pertussis outbreaks with documented cases of B. holmesii/Bordetella pertussis respiratory coinfection; whether there is a link between B. holmesii respiratory and bloodstream infection is unknown.
Yamagami, Keiko; Miyashita, Tomoko; Nakamura, Tomoyuki; Shirano, Michinori; Nakamura, Tadahiro; Kameda, Kazuaki; Nishijima, Masayoshi; Imanishi, Masahiro; Yang, Xi; Kanegane, Hirokazu
A 24-year-old man presented with fever and pleural effusion predominantly containing lymphocytes. Cultures of the pleural effusion and blood revealed Campylobacter fetus, and laboratory studies showed a low serum level of immunoglobulin. The patient was diagnosed with C. fetus pleuritis, bacteremia and primary hypogammaglobulinemia, and subsequent treatment with meropenem and immunoglobulin improved his condition. Although the underlying cause of the primary hypogammaglobulinemia remains unclear, the patient's status improved under immunoglobulin replacement therapy. C. fetus pleuritis is a rare infectious disease usually observed in immunocompromised hosts. We herein describe the first report of C. fetus pleuritis in a young adult with primary hypogammaglobulinemia.
Kitten, Todd; Munro, Cindy L; Zollar, Nicai Q; Lee, Sehmi P; Patel, Resham D
Oral streptococci have been associated with systemic diseases, including infective endocarditis and neutropenic bacteremia. We analyzed 58 recent oral streptococcal bloodstream isolates, and we obtained clinical and demographic data for source patients. The sodA gene was found to be a better target than the 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer for DNA sequence-based species identification. Together, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis were significantly more likely than the 12 combined remaining species to be isolated from neutropenic patients.
During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.
Badiaga, Sékéné; Brouqui, Philippe; Raoult, Didier
Trench fever, a louse-borne disease caused by Bartonella quintana, is reemerging in homeless persons. Epidemic typhus is another life-threatening louse-borne disease caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and known to occur in conditions of war, famine, refugee camps, cold weather, poverty, or lapses in public health. We report the first case of seroconversion to R. prowazekii in a homeless person of Marseilles, France. This was associated with B. quintana bacteremia. Although no outbreaks of typhus have been notified yet in the homeless population, this disease is likely to reemerge in such situation.
Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J.; Jakubiec, Wesley; Brecher, Stephen; Campbell, Sheldon
Mycobacterium canariasense is a recently described late-pigmenting, rapidly growing mycobacterium linked to bacteremia in patients with underlying malignant diseases. We report a case of M. canariasense infection in a patient from Massachusetts with underlying diffuse B cell lymphoma, which was identified both by multilocus sequence typing and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). To our knowledge, this is the first description after its original identification in Spain and the first report of this opportunistic pathogen in the Americas. PMID:24740075
Patzkowski, Jeanne C; Hurst, Frank P; Neff, Robert T; Abbott, Kevin C
Proper management of infected tunneled-cuffed catheters (TCC) is essential in order to avoid catastrophic consequences for the patient. Hematogenous dissemination of infection can result in serious secondary infections, including infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and epidural abscess. Pelvic osteomyelitis is an extremely rare condition in adults with no reported cases of infection localized to more than one pelvic bone at a time. We present a case of a hemodialysis patient who developed osteomyelitis of the entire right hemipelvis due to MRSA bacteremia after repeated attempts at TCC salvage. PMID:21694913
Carvalho, Vania M; Osugui, Lika; Setzer, Ariela P; Lopez, Rodrigo P G; Pestana de Castro, Antonio F; Irino, Kinue; Catão-Dias, José L
Diseases caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) in wild felids are rarely reported. Although urinary tract infections are infrequently reported in domestic cats, such infections when present are commonly caused by ExPEC. The present work characterized ExPEC strains isolated from 2 adult felines, a snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and a black leopard (Panthera pardus melas), that died from secondary bacteremia associated with urinary tract infections. Isolates from both animals were classified into the B2 phylogenetic group and expressed virulence genotypes that allowed them to cause severe disease. In addition, strains from the black leopard showed multidrug resistance.
Tartof, Sara Y.; Gounder, Prabhu; Weiss, Don; Lee, Lillian; Cassiday, Pamela K.; Clark, Thomas A.; Briere, Elizabeth C.
We describe the first report of temporally related cases of Bordetella holmesii bacteremia. Demographic and clinical data were collected through chart abstraction and case-patient interviews. Twenty-two cases were identified from 6 states. Symptom onset dates ranged from April 2010 to January 2011. Median age of patients was 17.1 years and 64% had functional or anatomic asplenia. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles of a sample of isolates were identical. These cases occurred during a peak in pertussis outbreaks with documented cases of B. holmesii/Bordetella pertussis respiratory coinfection; whether there is a link between B. holmesii respiratory and bloodstream infection is unknown. PMID:24092805
Asimaki, E; Nolte, O; Overesch, G; Strahm, C
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod that occurs widely in nature and is best known in veterinary medicine for causing swine erysipelas. In humans, infections are rare and mainly considered as occupationally acquired zoonosis. A case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia most likely associated with home freshwater aquarium handling is reported. The route of transmission was probably a cut with the dorsal fin of a dead pet fish. A short review of clinical presentations, therapeutic considerations and pitfalls of E. rhusiopathiae infections in humans is presented.
Julián-Jiménez, Agustín; Timón Zapata, Jesús; Laserna Mendieta, Emilio José; Parejo Miguez, Raquel; Flores Chacartegui, Manuel; Gallardo Schall, Pablo
To analyze the usefulness and ability of procalcitonin (PCT) to predict the presence of bacteremia in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) or other bacteria. This is an observational, prospective and descriptive study involving patients who were diagnosed with CAP in our Emergency Department. Data collected included socio-demographic and comorbidity variables, Charlson index, stage in the Pneumonia Severity Index and criteria of severe NAC, microbiologic studies and biomarker determinations (PCT and C reactive protein). The follow-up was carried out during 30 days to calculate the predictive power and the diagnostic performance for bacteremia caused or not by S. pneumoniae. Four hundred and seventy-four patients were finally included in the study. Blood cultures were positive in 85 individuals (17.9%) and S. pneumoniae was identified as the responsible pathogen in 75 of them (88.4%) (in 5 cases together with another agent). The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve for PCT to predict bacteremia (caused by S. pneumoniae or not) was 0.988 (95% confidence interval 0.908-0.995; P<.001) and, considering a cut-off value≥0.95ng/mL, the negative predictive value and the positive likelihood ratio were>98% and>10, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of S. pneumoniae were 19A, 7F, 1 and 3. The highest mean levels of PCT were found in serotypes 7F, 19A, 3 and 1, which showed statistically significant differences with regard to the others serotypes considered (P=.008). Serotypes associated with the highest percentage of severe sepsis-septic shock, 30-days mortality and multi-lobe or bilateral affection were 3, 1 and 19A; 1, 3 and 19A; and 3, 19A and 6A, respectively. PCT had a remarkable diagnostic ability to discard or suspect bacteremia and to guide the etiology of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae. Serotypes 1, 3, 19A and 7F showed greater frequency, systemic inflammatory response
Nolte, F S; Arnold, K E; Sweat, H; Winton, E F; Funke, G
A 39-year-old male with acute myelogenous leukemia and concomitant porphyria cutanea tarda was admitted to the hospital for consolidation chemotherapy of his leukemia. During his hospitalization, he developed cellulitis of the left hand and persistent bacteremia with a yellow-pigmented, nonfermenting coryneform bacterium that was identified as Aureobacterium sp. The portal of entry for the Aureobacterium infection was probably through the skin lesions due to porphyria cutanea tarda. The infection developed while the patient was receiving vancomycin prophylaxis, and the vancomycin MIC for the isolate was 32 micrograms/ml. PMID:8818896
Uwamino, Yoshifumi; Sugita, Kayoko; Iwasaki, Eisuke; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Tomoyasu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi
We herein report a case of acute cholangitis and bacteremia caused by a commensal Neisseria species, Neisseria subflava, in an 82-year-old man with cholangiocarcinoma. Emergency endoscopic nasobiliary drainage and cefoperazone/sulbactam therapy were effective. Gram negative coccobacilli were isolated from both blood and bile cultures on 5% sheep blood agar. The isolate was identified as N. subflava biovar perflava by mass spectrometry, a sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, and biochemical testing. Although biliary infections due to commensal Neisseria are extremely rare, this case demonstrates the possibility of its occurrence in patients undergoing bile duct treatment. PMID:28090057
Rasmussen, Rasmus V.; Fowler, Vance G.; Skov, Robert; Bruun, Niels E.
Summary Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to grow. Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention are required for this serious, common cause of human infection. PMID:21162635
Issa, Hussain; Shorman, Mahmoud; Bseiso, Bahaa; Al-Salem, Ahmed H.
Vibrio cholerae are Gram-negative bacteria that are differentiated into O1/O139 and non-O1/non-O139 serogroups depending on their ability to agglutinate with specific antiserum. In contrast to non-O1/non-0139 Vibrio cholerae, which are more prone to invade the bloodstream, Vibrio cholerae O1 is rarely the cause of bacteremia. We report a case of O1 Vibrio cholera bacteremia and primary peritonitis in a patient with liver cirrhosis. The literature on the subject is also reviewed. PMID:27990208
Basile, Filipe Volpe; Basile, Arthur Volpe; Basile, Antonio Roberto
One known but not fully understood complication after breast augmentation is the new onset of stretch marks (striae distensae) on the surgically treated breast. To date, all publications on this subject have been case reports. No report has fully described the actual incidence, risk factors, or management of striae distensae after breast surgery. This study prospectively followed patients who underwent primary breast augmentation using silicone implants in a single group practice from 2007 to 2011. New-onset striae distensae were actively investigated. Time from surgery to the moment of striae onset, patient age, nulliparity, use of oral contraceptives, overweight, personal history of stretch marks, and other variables were evaluated. A total of 409 patients were included in the study. In 19 cases (4.6%), new-onset striae distensae after breast augmentation were observed. The population with striae distensae was significantly younger than the total population (29.56 vs 20.91 years; p=0.012). Striae distensae also were more common in nulliparous than in multiparous women (8.29 vs 0.52%; p=0.006), overweight women (17.77 vs 3.02%; p=0.016), women using oral contraceptives (7.89 vs 0.55%; p=0.008), and women with a personal history of stretch marks (8.97 vs 3.36%; p=0.031). No relation was shown regarding implant pocket type, size, or profile. Striae distensae may be a common but underreported complication after breast augmentation. In this series, striae distensae developed in 4.6% of the patients within 1 year after breast augmentation. Severity may vary from inconspicuous small marks (classifications 1 and 2) to wide red and active striae rubra (classifications 3 and 4). Nulliparity, use of oral contraceptives, overweight, personal history of stretch marks, and younger age were related to a higher incidence of striae distensae. The increased rates in these groups may be associated with their exposure to higher estrogen levels and the important role of this hormone
Wind Energy is becoming a significant source of energy throughout the world. This ever increasing field will potentially reach the limit of availability and practicality with the wind farm sites and size of the turbine itself. Therefore, it is necessary to develop innovative wind capturing devices that can produce energy in the locations where large conventional horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWTs) are too impractical to install and operate. A diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) is one such innovation. DAWTs increase the power output of the rotor by increasing the wind speed into the rotor using a duct. Currently, developing these turbines is an involved process using time consuming Computational Fluid Dynamics codes. A simple and quick design tool is necessary for designers to develop efficient energy capturing devices. This work lays out the theory for a quick analysis tool for DAWTs using an axisymmetric surface vorticity method. This method allows for quick analysis of duct, hubs and rotors giving designers a general idea of the power output of the proposed hub, blade and duct geometry. The method would be similar to the way blade element momentum theory is used to design conventional HAWTs. It is determined that the presented method is viable for preliminary design of DAWTs.
Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig
Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.
Adolf, D.; Anderson, R.; Garino, T.; Halsey, T.C.; Hance, B.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.
An Electrorheological fluid is normally a low-viscosity colloidal suspension, but when an electric field is applied, the fluid undergoes a reversible transition to a solid, being able to support considerable stress without yield. Commercial possibilities for such fluids are enormous, including clutches, brakes, valves,shock absorbers, and stepper motors. However, performance of current fluids is inadequate for many proposed applications. Our goal was to engineer improved fluids by investigating the key technical issues underlying the solid-phase yield stress and the liquid to solid switching time. Our studies focused on field-induced interactions between colloidal particles that lead to solidification, the relation between fluid structure and performance (viscosity, yield stress), and the time evolution of structure in the fluid as the field is switched on or off.
Esposito, Susanna; Marchisio, Paola; Capaccio, Pasquale; Bellasio, Marta; Semino, Margherita; Dusi, Elisa; Colombo, Rosaria; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Principi, Nicola
To evaluate the incidence and persistence of bacteremia in children undergoing adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy for different medical reasons. We enrolled 130 children scheduled for adenoidectomy because of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM, 15) or persistent otitis media with effusion (pOME, 33), or for adenotonsillectomy because of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS, 41) or recurrent tonsillopharyngitis (rTF, 41). Nasopharyngeal aspirates taken just before surgery, swabs of the ablated central adenoidal and tonsillar tissues, and blood samples taken within the first 30s of beginning the operation and 20min after its end were used for bacterial cultures. The incidence of positive blood cultures after the beginning of the operation was significantly higher in the children who underwent adenotonsillectomy than in those who underwent adenoidectomy, and in those with rAOM or rTF than in those with pOME or OSAS. Children with nasopharyngeal colonisation were significantly more likely to have a positive blood culture than those without. Twenty of the 25 children with a positive blood culture (80.0%), had the same bacteria in their nasopharyngeal and adenoidal/tonsillar tissues. Our results show that bacteremia is significantly more frequently associated with adenotonsillectomy than with adenoidectomy, and significantly more frequent in patients with a history of rAOM or rTF.
Lee, Shinwon; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Sang-Won; Kim, Hong Bin; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Wan Beom; Oh, Myoung-don
About 20% of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) isolates have a substantial inoculum effect with cefazolin, suggesting that cefazolin treatment may be associated with clinical failure for serious MSSA infections. There are no well-matched controlled studies comparing cefazolin with nafcillin for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. A retrospective propensity-score-matched case-control study was performed from 2004 to 2009 in a tertiary care hospital where nafcillin was unavailable from August 2004 to August 2006. The cefazolin group (n = 49) included MSSA-bacteremic patients treated with cefazolin during the period of nafcillin unavailability, while the nafcillin group (n = 84) comprised those treated with nafcillin. Treatment failure was defined as a composite outcome of a change of antibiotics due to clinical failure, relapse, and mortality. Of 133 patients, 41 patients from each group were matched by propensity scores. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the matched groups. The treatment failure rates were not significantly different at 4 or 12 weeks (10% [4/41] versus 10% [4/41] at 4 weeks [P > 0.99] and 15% [6/41] versus 15% [6/41] at 12 weeks [P > 0.99]). Cefazolin treatment was interrupted less frequently than nafcillin treatment due to drug adverse events (0% versus 17%; P = 0.02). Cefazolin had clinical efficacy similar to that of nafcillin and was more tolerable than nafcillin for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. PMID:21825299
Zárate, Mariela S; Giannico, Marina; Colombrero, Cecilia; Smayevsky, Jorgelina
Non-O1, and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae is an infrequent cause of bacteremia. There are no reports of such bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients. This work describes the case of a chronic hemodialysis patient that had an episode of septicemia associated with dialysis. Blood cultures were obtained and treatment was begun with vancomycin and ceftazidime. After 6.5 hours of incubation in the Bact/Alert system there is evidence of gram-negative curved bacilli that were identified as Vibrio cholerae by conventional biochemical tests, API 20 NE and the VITEK 2 system. This microorganism was sent to the reference laboratory for evaluation of serogroup and virulence factors and was identified as belonging to the non-O1 and non-O139 serogroup. The cholera toxin, colonization factor and heat-stable toxin were not detected. The isolate was susceptible to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, ceftazidime and cefotaxime by the disk diffusion method and the VITEK 2 system. The patient received intravenous ceftazidime for a 14 day- period and had a favorable outcome.
Livingston, Lachara V; Perez-Colon, Elimarys
Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group of bacteria. This group is part of the normal flora of the oropharynx, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal tracts; however, they have been known to cause a variety of purulent infections including meningitis, endocarditis, and abscesses, even in immunocompetent hosts. In particular, S. intermedius has been associated with the development of liver and brain abscesses. There have been several case reports of S. intermedius liver abscesses with active periodontal infection. To our knowledge, however, there has not been a case following a routine dental procedure. In fact, the development of liver abscesses secondary to dental procedures is very rare in general, and there are only a few case reports in the literature describing this in relation to any pathogen. We present a rare case of S. intermedius bacteremia and liver abscess following a dental cleaning. This case serves to further emphasize that even routine dental procedures can place a patient at risk of the development of bacteremia and liver abscesses. For this reason, the clinician must be sure to perform a detailed history and careful examination. Timely diagnosis of pyogenic liver abscesses is vital, as they are typically fatal if left untreated.
Nishioka, Hiroaki; Kozuki, Tomohiro; Kamei, Hiroki
Capnocytophaga canimorsus is part of normal gingival flora of dogs and cats. The organism can cause septicemia, meningitis, and endocarditis in humans after contact with dogs or cats. In spite of the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in C. canimorsus infection patients, specific gastrointestinal disease or clinical images have not been reported. We report a case of C. canimorsus bacteremia presenting with acute cholecystitis in elderly woman. She suffered from general fatigue and right upper abdominal pain. She had leukocytosis and abnormal liver function tests. She showed abnormal findings of the gallbladder by abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography. She was diagnosed with acute cholecystitis without gallstones and was administered with antibiotics. C. canimorsus was isolated from blood cultures. A history of an insignificant wound secondary to a dog bite was elicited. She recovered completely with antibiotic treatment. This case revealed that C. canimorsus bacteremia can be presented with acute cholecystitis, suggesting that C. canimorsus could cause cholecystitis. And this cholecystitis can be treated with antibiotics without operation. Physicians seeing patients with acute cholecysitis should ask questions regarding animal contact.
Turel, Ozden; Kavuncuoglu, Sultan; Hosaf, Emine; Ozbek, Sibel; Aldemir, Esin; Uygur, Turkan; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Siraneci, Rengin
We report an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans at a neonatal intensive care unit. We aimed to present clinical, laboratory and treatment data of the patients. All consecutive episodes of bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans at our neonatal intensive care unit, beginning with the index case detected at November 2009 until cessation of the outbreak in April 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. Thirty-four episodes of bacteremia occurred in 22 neonates during a 6-month period. Among the affected, 90% were preterm newborns with gestational age of 32 weeks or less and 60% had birth weight of 1000g or less. Endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheter use, total parenteral nutrition and prolonged antibiotic therapy were the predisposing conditions. Presenting features were abdominal distention, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. The mortality rate was 13.6% and the majority of isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, and resistant to gentamycin. More than half were breakthrough infections. Despite intensive efforts to control the outbreak by standard methods of hand hygiene, patient screening and isolation, containment could be achieved only after the neonatal intensive care unit was relocated. The investigation was not able to single out the source of the outbreak. A. xylosoxidans has the potential to cause serious infections in premature babies. More studies are needed to determine the importance of different sources of infection in hospital units. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Velusamy, Senthil Kumar; Fine, Daniel H; Velliyagounder, Kabilan
Streptococcus mutans is the primary agent of dental caries, which is often detected in transient bacteremia. Lactoferrin is a multifunctional glycoprotein showing antibacterial activities against several Streptococcus species. We reported here the prophylactic effect of human lactoferrin (hLF) in a lactoferrin knockout mouse (LFKO-/-) bacteremic model. The hLF treatment significantly cleared S. mutans from the blood and organs of bacteremic mice when compared to the non-hLF treated mice. Further, analysis of serum cytokines, spleen and liver cytokine mRNA levels revealed that hLF prophylaxis modulates their release differently when compared to the non-hLF treated group. C-reactive protein level (P = 0.003) also decreased following hLF prophylaxis in S. mutans induced bacteremic mice. Additional quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that hLF prophylaxis significantly decreased the expression level of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MPO and iNOS in spleen and liver. These results suggested that the hLF protects the host against S. mutans-induced experimental bacteremia.
Gulen, Tugba Arslan; Guner, Rahmet; Celikbilek, Nevreste; Keske, Siran; Tasyaran, Mehmet
A. baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen associated with high mortality, morbidity and medical cost. The aim of this study was to investigate risk factors for MDR A. baumannii bacteremia and also evaluate cost of hospitalization of these patients. Study was conducted in Ankara Atatürk Training and Research Hospital. Patients who were hospitalized in ICU and diagnosed for nosocomial blood stream infection (BSI) between January 2007 and December 2010 were checked retrospectively. Patients with nosocomial BSI caused by multidrug resistant A. baumannii were compared with the patients who had BSI caused by other Gram-negative microorganisms in terms of risk factors, mortality and medical costs. In multivariate analysis previous use of carbapenem, quinolone and metronidazole, and SAPS II score were found as independent risk factors. In case group; immunosupression, SAPS II score, and hospital stay until infection were independently associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that the occurrence of MDR A.baumannii bacteremia was related with the usage of the wide spectrum antibiotics, and mortality rates were increased in patients that high SAPS II scores, long term hospitalization. Infection control procedures and limited antibiotic usage are very important for prevent nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Döring, Gerd; Bragonzi, Alessandra; Paroni, Moira; Aktürk, Firdevs-Fatma; Cigana, Cristina; Schmidt, Annika; Gilpin, Deirdre; Heyder, Susanne; Born, Torsten; Smaczny, Christina; Kohlhäufl, Martin; Wagner, Thomas O F; Loebinger, Michael R; Bilton, Diana; Tunney, Michael M; Elborn, J Stuart; Pier, Gerald B; Konstan, Michael W; Ulrich, Martina
A clinical study to investigate the leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-receptor antagonist BIIL 284 in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients was prematurely terminated due to a significantly increased risk of adverse pulmonary events. We aimed to establish the effect of BIIL284 in models of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, thereby contributing to a better understanding of what could have led to adverse pulmonary events in CF patients. P. aeruginosa DNA in the blood of CF patients during and after acute pulmonary exacerbations and in stable patients with non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and healthy individuals was assessed by PCR. The effect of BIIL 284 treatment was tested in an agar bead murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. Bacterial count and inflammation were evaluated in lung and other organs. Most CF patients (98%) and all patients with NCFB and healthy individuals had negative P. aeruginosa DNA in their blood. Similarly, the P. aeruginosa-infected mice showed bacterial counts in the lung but not in the blood or spleen. BIIL 284 treatment decreased pulmonary neutrophils and increased P. aeruginosa numbers in mouse lungs leading to significantly higher bacteremia rates and lung inflammation compared to placebo treated animals. Decreased airway neutrophils induced lung proliferation and severe bacteremia in a murine model of P. aeruginosa lung infection. These data suggest that caution should be taken when administering anti-inflammatory compounds to patients with bacterial infections. © 2013.
Bruhn, Kevin W.; Pantapalangkoor, Paul; Nielsen, Travis; Tan, Brandon; Junus, Justin; Hujer, Kristine M.; Wright, Meredith S.; Bonomo, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Chen, Wangxue; Spellberg, Brad
Background. Acinetobacter baumannii is one of the most antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Defining mechanisms driving pathogenesis is critical to enable new therapeutic approaches. Methods. We studied virulence differences across a diverse panel of A. baumannii clinical isolates during murine bacteremia to elucidate host-microbe interactions that drive outcome. Results. We identified hypervirulent strains that were lethal at low intravenous inocula and achieved very high early, and persistent, blood bacterial densities. Virulent strains were nonlethal at low inocula but lethal at 2.5-fold higher inocula. Finally, relatively avirulent (hypovirulent) strains were nonlethal at 20-fold higher inocula and were efficiently cleared by early time points. In vivo virulence correlated with in vitro resistance to complement and macrophage uptake. Depletion of complement, macrophages, and neutrophils each independently increased bacterial density of the hypovirulent strain but insufficiently to change lethality. However, disruption of all 3 effector mechanisms enabled early bacterial densities similar to hypervirulent strains, rendering infection 100% fatal. Conclusions. The lethality of A. baumannii strains depends on distinct stages. Strains resistant to early innate effectors are able to establish very high early bacterial blood density, and subsequent sustained bacteremia leads to Toll-like receptor 4–mediated hyperinflammation and lethality. These results have important implications for translational efforts to develop therapies that modulate host-microbe interactions. PMID:25378635
Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Oliva, Glòria; Ferrer, Joan M; Riera, Alba; Palomar, Mercedes
The nationwide Bacteremia Zero (BZ) Project consists in the simultaneous implementation of measures to prevent central venous catheter-related bacteremia (CVC-B) in critically ill patients and in the development of an integral safety plan. The objective is to present the results obtained after the implementation of the BZ project in the ICUs of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia, Spain. All patients admitted to ICUs in Catalonia participating in the ENVIN-HELICS registry between January 2009 and June 2010 were included. Information was provided by 36 (92.3%) of the total possible 39 ICUs. A total of 281 episodes of CVC-B were diagnosed (overall rate of 2.53 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). The rates have varied significantly between ICUs that participated in the project for more or less than 12 months (2.17 vs. 4.27 episodes per 1000 days of CVC, respectively; p<.0001). The implementation of the BZ Project in Catalonia has been associated with a decrease greater than 40% in the CVC-B rates in the ICUs of this community, which is much higher than the initial objective of 4 episodes per 1000 days of CVC). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.
Cheguirián, M L; Carvajal, L R; Ledesma, E M; Enrico, M C; Reale, A L; Culasso, C; Bertoni, L
The purpose of our research was to know the frequency of microorganisms causing bacteremia and/or fungemia in oncology patients from Hospital de Niños de Córdoba, as well as to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of bacteria isolated from January 2006 to April 2007. A total of 59 bacteremia and fungemia cases in 44 patients were studied. From the total number of isolations, 45.8% were gram-negative bacilli, 35.6% were gram-positive cocci, and 18.6% were yeasts. The global distribution of the most prevalent microorganisms was the following: Klebsiella spp. 15.3%; Staphylococcus aureus and Candida parapsilosis 11.9%; coagulase-negative staphylococci 10.2%; Escherichia coli 8.5%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 6.8%. More than 40% (41.2%) of enterobacteria showed an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase phenotype, and 20.0% of non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli were multi-resistant to tested antibiotics, while 38.5% of Staphylococcus spp. were methicillin-resistant. In conclusion, the most prevalent microorganisms were gram-negative bacilli, and within this group, enterobacteria evidenced a higher percentage of resistance to tested antibiotics.
Turnidge, John D.; Munckhof, Wendy J.; Robinson, J. Owen; Korman, Tony M.; O'Sullivan, Matthew V. N.; Anderson, Tara L.; Roberts, Sally A.; Warren, Sanchia J. C.; Coombs, Geoffrey W.; Tan, Hui-Leen; Gao, Wei; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Howden, Benjamin P.
An elevated vancomycin MIC is associated with poor outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) and is reported in patients with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) bacteremia in the absence of vancomycin treatment. Here, using DNA microarray and phenotype analysis, we investigated the genetic predictors and accessory gene regulator (agr) function and their relationship with elevated vancomycin MIC using blood culture isolates from a multicenter binational cohort of patients with SAB. Specific clonal complexes were associated with elevated (clonal complex 8 [CC8] [P < 0.001]) or low (CC22 [P < 0.001], CC88 [P < 0.001], and CC188 [P = 0.002]) vancomycin MIC. agr dysfunction (P = 0.014) or agr genotype II (P = 0.043) were also associated with an elevated vancomycin MIC. Specific resistance and virulence genes were also linked to an elevated vancomycin MIC, including blaZ (P = 0.002), sea (P < 0.001), clfA (P < 0.001), splA (P = 0.001), and the arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) locus (P = 0.02). These data suggest that inherent organism characteristics may explain the link between elevated vancomycin MICs and poor outcomes in patients with SAB, regardless of the antibiotic treatment received. A consideration of clonal specificity should be included in future research when attempting to ascertain treatment effects or clinical outcomes. PMID:25031442
Kim, Youie; Shin, Ju Ae; Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han
Although some cases of recurrent bacteremia due to Campylobacter jejuni have been reported in immunocompromised patients, antibiotic treatment strategies to eradicate C. jejuni and prevent recurrent infections in immunocompromised patients have not been established. Authors' experience of such rare cases should be shared for improving patients' outcomes. An 18-year-old boy with hypogammaglobulinemia, who received intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy every 3 weeks, was admitted to hospital repeatedly due to recurrent diarrhea and cellulitis of the leg. The patient was admitted 6 times, and among them, C. jejuni was isolated from blood cultures 4 times and stool cultures 2 times. The patient experienced recurrent C. jejuni enteritis and bacteremia 5 times despite macrolide therapy. Doxycycline was administered for 3 months after the fifth admission. Ten months after the completion of doxycycline therapy for 3 months, C. jejuni enteritis relapsed; however, since then, recurrent infection has not occurred for 10 months. Immunocompromised patients can experience recurrent C. jejuni infection despite prolonged antibiotic therapy. Further studies to establish appropriate antibiotic therapy for eradicating colonized C. jejuni and preventing recurrent infection are needed.
Taniyama, Daisuke; Abe, Yoshihiko; Sakai, Tetsuya; Kikuchi, Takahide; Takahashi, Takashi
Streptococcus canis (Sc) is a zoonotic pathogen that is transferred mainly from companion animals to humans. One of the major virulence factors in Sc is the M-like protein encoded by the scm gene, which is involved in anti-phagocytic activities, as well as the recruitment of plasminogen to the bacterial surface in cooperation with enolase, and the consequent enhancement of bacterial transmigration and survival. This is the first reported human case of uncomplicated bacteremia following a dog bite, caused by Streptococcus canis harboring the scm gene. The similarity of the 16S rRNA from the infecting species to that of the Sc type strain, as well as the amplification of the species-specific cfg gene, encoding a co-hemolysin, was used to confirm the species identity. Furthermore, the isolate was confirmed as sequence type 9. The partial scm gene sequence harbored by the isolate was closely related to those of other two Sc strains. While this isolate did not possess the erm(A), erm(B), or mef(A), macrolide/lincosamide resistance genes, it was not susceptible to azithromycin: its susceptibility was intermediate. Even though human Sc bacteremia is rare, clinicians should be aware of this microorganism, as well as Pasteurella sp., Prevotella sp., and Capnocytophaga sp., when examining and treating patients with fever who maintain close contact with companion animals.
Ahn, Sangchul; Ko, Heedong; Yoo, Byounghyun
This paper presents a content structure for building mobile augmented reality (AR) applications in HTML5 to achieve a clean separation of the mobile AR content and the application logic for scaling as on the Web. We propose that the content structure contains the physical world as well as virtual assets for mobile AR applications as document object model (DOM) elements and that their behaviour and user interactions are controlled through DOM events by representing objects and places with a uniform resource identifier. Our content structure enables mobile AR applications to be seamlessly developed as normal HTML documents under the current Web eco-system.
Finger, T; Schaumann, A; Schulz, M; Thomale, Ulrich-W
Individual planning of the entry point and the use of navigation has become more relevant in intraventricular neuroendoscopy. Navigated neuroendoscopic solutions are continuously improving. We describe experimentally measured accuracy and our first experience with augmented reality-enhanced navigated neuroendoscopy for intraventricular pathologies. Augmented reality-enhanced navigated endoscopy was tested for accuracy in an experimental setting. Therefore, a 3D-printed head model with a right parietal lesion was scanned with a thin-sliced computer tomography. Segmentation of the tumor lesion was performed using Scopis NovaPlan navigation software. An optical reference matrix is used to register the neuroendoscope's geometry and its field of view. The pre-planned ROI and trajectory are superimposed in the endoscopic image. The accuracy of the superimposed contour fitting on endoscopically visualized lesion was acquired by measuring the deviation of both midpoints to one another. The technique was subsequently used in 29 cases with CSF circulation pathologies. Navigation planning included defining the entry points, regions of interests and trajectories, superimposed as augmented reality on the endoscopic video screen during intervention. Patients were evaluated for postoperative imaging, reoperations, and possible complications. The experimental setup revealed a deviation of the ROI's midpoint from the real target by 1.2 ± 0.4 mm. The clinical study included 18 cyst fenestrations, ten biopsies, seven endoscopic third ventriculostomies, six stent placements, and two shunt implantations, being eventually combined in some patients. In cases of cyst fenestrations postoperatively, the cyst volume was significantly reduced in all patients by mean of 47%. In biopsies, the diagnostic yield was 100%. Reoperations during a follow-up period of 11.4 ± 10.2 months were necessary in two cases. Complications included one postoperative hygroma and one insufficient
Soler, José M.; Williams, Arthur R.
Results are presented that demonstrate the effectiveness of a calculational method of electronic-structure theory. The method combines the power (tractable basis-set size) and flexibility (transition and first-row elements) of the augmented-plane-wave method with the computational efficiency of the Car-Parrinello method of molecular dynamics and total-energy minimization. Equilibrium geometry and vibrational frequencies in agreement with experiment are presented for Si, to demonstrate agreement with existing methods and for Cu, N2, and H2O to demonstrate the broader applicability of the approach.
Maguire, Patrick J; Power, Karen A; Downey, Andrew F; O'Higgins, Amy C; Sheehan, Sharon R; Turner, Michael J
To examine, in the setting of maternal bacteremia, the implications for the diagnosis of maternal sepsis of customizing the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria for physiologic changes of pregnancy. Women with maternal bacteremia in a tertiary maternity hospital during 2009-2014 were identified. Records were retrospectively reviewed to determine whether they fulfilled the criteria for diagnosis of sepsis based on either the standard SIRS parameters derived from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign or SIRS parameters customized for pregnancy. Diagnosis of sepsis was based on the presence of two or more SIRS criteria, in conjunction with infection, during the hour before and the 6 hours after phlebotomy for blood culture. Of 93 women with bacteremia, 61 (66%) would have been diagnosed with sepsis based on standard criteria compared with 52 (56%) based on customized criteria (P=0.18). Seventeen women had a diagnosis of sepsis based on the standard but not the customized criteria, while eight women had sepsis based on the customized but not the standard criteria. In maternal bacteremia, customized SIRS criteria do not increase the rate of diagnosis of sepsis. Prospective studies should investigate whether the introduction of customized SIRS criteria can improve clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Julius; Echevarria, Kelly L; Traugott, Kristi A
Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bacteremia is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) have been considered the agents of choice for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. Vancomycin has been demonstrated to have poorer outcomes in several studies and is only recommended for patients with severe penicillin allergies. Although cefazolin is considered as an alternative to the ASPs for patients with nonsevere penicillin allergies, cefazolin offers several pharmacologic advantages over ASPs, such as more convenient dosing regimens, and antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly using cefazolin as the preferential agent for MSSA infections as part of cost-saving initiatives. Concerns about susceptibility to hydrolysis by type A β-lactamases, particularly at high inocula seen in deep-seated infections such as endocarditis; selective pressures from unnecessary gram-negative coverage; and lack of comparative clinical data have precluded recommending cefazolin as a first-line therapy for MSSA bacteremia. Recent clinical studies, however, have suggested similar clinical efficacy but better tolerability, with lower rates of discontinuation due to adverse drug reactions, of cefazolin compared with ASPs. Other variables, such as adequate source control (e.g., intravascular catheter removal, debridement, or drainage) and enhanced pharmacodynamics through aggressive cefazolin dosing, may mitigate the role of cefazolin inoculum effect and factor into determining improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we highlight the utility of cefazolin versus ASPs in the treatment of MSSA bacteremia with a focus on clinical efficacy and safety. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.