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Sample records for fluid bilayer membranes

  1. Effect of intra-membrane C60 fullerenes on the modulus of elasticity and the mechanical resistance of gel and fluid lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jihan; Liang, Dehai; Contera, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Penetration and partition of C60 to the lipid bilayer core are both relevant to C60 toxicity, and useful to realise C60 biomedical potential. A key aspect is the effect of C60 on bilayer mechanical properties. Here, we present an experimental study on the mechanical effect of the incorporation of C60 into the hydrophobic core of fluid and gel phase zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipid bilayers. We demonstrate its incorporation inside the hydrophobic lipid core and the effect on the packing of the lipids and the vesicle size using a combination of infrared (IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laser light scattering. Using AFM we measured the Young's modulus of elasticity (E) of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) in the absence (presence) of intra-membranous C60 at 24.5 °C. E of fluid phase supported bilayers is not altered by C60, but E increases with incorporation of C60 in gel phase bilayers. The increase is higher for longer hydrocarbon chains: 1.6 times for DPPC and 2 times for DSPC. However the mechanical resistance of gel phase bilayers of curved bilayered structures decreases with the incorporation of C60. Our combined results indicate that C60 causes a decrease in gel phase lipid mobility, i.e. an increase in membrane viscosity.

  2. Finite element modeling of lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Feng; Klug, William S.

    2006-12-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented for the study of biological membranes composed of lipid bilayers based on the finite element method. The classic model for these membranes employs a two-dimensional-fluid-like elastic constitutive law which is sensitive to curvature, and subjects vesicles to physically imposed constraints on surface area and volume. This model is implemented numerically via the use of C1-conforming triangular Loop subdivision finite elements. The validity of the framework is tested by computing equilibrium shapes from previously-determined axisymmetric shape-phase diagram of lipid bilayer vesicles with homogeneous material properties. Some of the benefits and challenges of finite element modeling of lipid bilayer systems are discussed, and it is indicated how this framework is natural for future investigation of biologically realistic bilayer structures involving nonaxisymmetric geometries, binding and adhesive interactions, heterogeneous mechanical properties, cytoskeletal interactions, and complex loading arrangements. These biologically relevant features have important consequences for the shape mechanics of nonidealized vesicles and cells, and their study requires not simply advances in theory, but also advances in numerical simulation techniques, such as those presented here.

  3. PI3 kinase enzymology on fluid lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debjit; Pulsipher, Abigail; Luo, Wei; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-10-21

    We report the use of fluid lipid bilayer membrane as a model platform to study the influence of the bilayer microenvironment and composition on the enzymology in membrane. As a model system we determined the enzyme kinetics on membranes for the transformation of bilayers containing phosphoinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) to phosphoinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) by the enzyme phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) using radiolabeled ATP. The activity of the enzyme was monitored as a function of the radioactivity incorporated within the bilayer. The transformation of PI(4,5)P2 to PI(3,4,5)P3 was determined using a mass strip assay. The fluidity of the bilayer was confirmed by Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Kinetic simulations were performed based on Langmuir adsorption and Michaelis-Menton kinetics equations to generate the rate constants for the enzymatic reaction. The effect of cholesterol on the enzyme kinetics was studied by doping the bilayer with 1% cholesterol. This leads to significant reduction in reaction rate due to change in membrane microenvironment. This strategy provides a method to study the enzymology of various kinases and phosphatases occurring at the membrane and also how these reactions are affected by the membrane composition and surface microenvironment.

  4. Interaction of elaiophylin with model bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, J.; Dencheva-Zarkova, M.

    2017-01-01

    Elaiophylin is a new macrodiolide antibiotic, which is produced by the Streptomyces strains [1]. It displays biological activities against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. The mode of action of this antibiotic has been attributed to an alteration of the membrane permeability. When this antibiotic is inserted into the bilayer membranes destabilization of the membrane and formation of ion-penetrable channels is observed. The macrodiolide antibiotic forms stable cation selective ion channels in synthetic lipid bilayer membranes. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Elaiophylin with model bilayer membranes and to get information on the mechanical properties of lipid bilayers in presence of this antibiotic. Patch-clamp technique [2] were used in the study

  5. Biotechnology Applications of Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jackman, Joshua A.; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2012-01-01

    The importance of cell membranes in biological systems has prompted the development of model membrane platforms that recapitulate fundamental aspects of membrane biology, especially the lipid bilayer environment. Tethered lipid bilayers represent one of the most promising classes of model membranes and are based on the immobilization of a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support that enables characterization by a wide range of surface-sensitive analytical techniques. Moreover, as the result of molecular engineering inspired by biology, tethered bilayers are increasingly able to mimic fundamental properties of natural cell membranes, including fluidity, electrical sealing and hosting transmembrane proteins. At the same time, new methods have been employed to improve the durability of tethered bilayers, with shelf-lives now reaching the order of weeks and months. Taken together, the capabilities of tethered lipid bilayers have opened the door to biotechnology applications in healthcare, environmental monitoring and energy storage. In this review, several examples of such applications are presented. Beyond the particulars of each example, the focus of this review is on the emerging design and characterization strategies that made these applications possible. By drawing connections between these strategies and promising research results, future opportunities for tethered lipid bilayers within the biotechnology field are discussed.

  6. Polyelectrolyte multilayer-cushioned fluid lipid bilayers: a parachute model.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jingxin; Wen, Caixia; Xuan, Mingjun; Zhang, Hongyue; Frueh, Johannes; Wan, Mingwei; Gao, Lianghui; He, Qiang

    2017-01-18

    Lipid bilayer membranes supported on polyelectrolyte multilayers are widely used as a new biomembrane model that connects biological and artificial materials since these ultrathin polyelectrolyte supports may mimic the role of the extracellular matrix and cell skeleton in living systems. Polyelectrolyte multilayers were fabricated by a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. A quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation was used in real time to monitor the interaction between phospholipids and polyelectrolytes in situ on a planar substrate. The surface properties of polyelectrolyte films were investigated by the measurement of contact angles and zeta potential. Phospholipid charge, buffer pH and substrate hydrophilicity were proved to be essential for vesicle adsorption, rupture, fusion and formation of continuous lipid bilayers on the polyelectrolyte multilayers. The results clearly demonstrated that only the mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidic acid (4 : 1) resulted in fluid bilayers on chitosan and alginate multilayers with chitosan as a top layer at pH 6.5. A coarse-grained molecular simulation study elucidated that the exact mechanism of the formation of fluid lipid bilayers resembles a "parachute" model. As the closest model to the real membrane, polyelectrolyte multilayer-cushioned fluid lipid bilayers can be appropriate candidates for application in biomedical fields.

  7. Density functional approach to the description of fluids in contact with bilayers.

    PubMed

    Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S; Ilnyskyi, J; Sokołowska, Z

    2010-06-28

    We discuss an application of a density functional approach to describe a bilayer, or a simplified model of a membrane, that is built of tethered chain molecules. The bilayer integrity is maintained by tethering chain particles to two common sheets. We study the structure of a two-component mixture in contact with the bilayer, as well as the solvation force acting between two bilayers, immersed in a fluid. The fluid is a binary mixture involving the component that can cross freely the bilayer and the second impenetrable component. All the calculations are carried out for athermal system, in which only hard-core interactions are present.

  8. Engineering plant membranes using droplet interface bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, N. E.; Smpokou, E.; Macey, R.; Gould, I. R.; Turnbull, C.; Flemming, A. J.; Brooks, N. J.; Ces, O.; Barter, L. M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) have become widely recognised as a robust platform for constructing model membranes and are emerging as a key technology for the bottom-up assembly of synthetic cell-like and tissue-like structures. DIBs are formed when lipid-monolayer coated water droplets are brought together inside a well of oil, which is excluded from the interface as the DIB forms. The unique features of the system, compared to traditional approaches (e.g., supported lipid bilayers, black lipid membranes, and liposomes), is the ability to engineer multi-layered bilayer networks by connecting multiple droplets together in 3D, and the capability to impart bilayer asymmetry freely within these droplet architectures by supplying droplets with different lipids. Yet despite these achievements, one potential limitation of the technology is that DIBs formed from biologically relevant components have not been well studied. This could limit the reach of the platform to biological systems where bilayer composition and asymmetry are understood to play a key role. Herein, we address this issue by reporting the assembly of asymmetric DIBs designed to replicate the plasma membrane compositions of three different plant species; Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco, and oats, by engineering vesicles with different amounts of plant phospholipids, sterols and cerebrosides for the first time. We show that vesicles made from our plant lipid formulations are stable and can be used to assemble asymmetric plant DIBs. We verify this using a bilayer permeation assay, from which we extract values for absolute effective bilayer permeation and bilayer stability. Our results confirm that stable DIBs can be assembled from our plant membrane mimics and could lead to new approaches for assembling model systems to study membrane translocation and to screen new agrochemicals in plants. PMID:28396711

  9. Interaction of n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside with giant magnetic-fluid-loaded phosphatidylcholine vesicles: direct visualization of membrane curvature fluctuations as a function of surfactant partitioning between water and lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Ménager, Christine; Guemghar, Dihya; Cabuil, Valérie; Lesieur, Sylviane

    2010-10-05

    The present study deals with the morphological modifications of giant dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles (DOPC GUVs) induced by the nonionic surfactant n-octyl β,D-glucopyranoside at sublytic levels, i.e., in the first steps of the vesicle-to-micelle transition process, when surfactant inserts into the vesicle bilayer without disruption. Experimental conditions were perfected to exactly control the surfactant bilayer composition of the vesicles, in line with former work focused on the mechanical properties of the membrane of magnetic-fluid-loaded DOPC GUVs submitted to a magnetic field. The purpose here was to systematically examine, in the absence of any external mechanical constraint, the dynamics of giant vesicle shape and membrane deformations as a function of surfactant partitioning between the aqueous phase and the lipid membrane, beforehand established by turbidity measurements from small unilamellar vesicles.

  10. Fractional polymerization of a suspended planar bilayer creates a fluid, highly stable membrane for ion channel recordings.

    PubMed

    Heitz, Benjamin A; Jones, Ian W; Hall, Henry K; Aspinwall, Craig A; Saavedra, S Scott

    2010-05-26

    Suspended planar lipid membranes (or black lipid membranes (BLMs)) are widely used for studying reconstituted ion channels, although they lack the chemical and mechanical stability needed for incorporation into high-throughput biosensors and biochips. Lipid polymerization enhances BLM stability but is incompatible with ion channel function when membrane fluidity is required. Here, we demonstrate the preparation of a highly stable BLM that retains significant fluidity by using a mixture of polymerizable and nonpolymerizable phospholipids. Alamethicin, a voltage-gated peptide channel for which membrane fluidity is required for activity, was reconstituted into mixed BLMs prepared using bis-dienoyl phosphatidylcholine (bis-DenPC) and diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPhPC). Polymerization yielded BLMs that retain the fluidity required for alamethicin activity yet are stable for several days as compared to a few hours prior to polymerization. Thus, these polymerized, binary composition BLMs feature both fluidity and long-term stability.

  11. Photon correlation spectroscopy of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, J F; Earnshaw, J C

    1983-01-01

    Light scattering by thermal fluctuations on simple monoglyceride bilayer membranes has been used to investigate the viscoelastic properties of these structures. Spectroscopic analysis of these fluctuations (capillary waves) permits the nonperturbative measurement of the interfacial tension and a shear interfacial viscosity acting normal to the membrane plane. The methods were established by studies of solvent and nonsolvent bilayers of glycerol monooleate (GMO). Changes in the tension of GMO/n-decane membranes induced by altering the composition of the parent solution were detected and quantified. In a test of the reliability of the technique controlled variations of the viscosity of the aqueous bathing solution were accurately monitored. The technique was applied to solvent-free bilayers formed from dispersions of GMO in squalane. The lower tensions observed attested to the comparative absence of solvent in such bilayers. In contrast to the solvent case, the solvent-free membranes exhibited a significant transverse shear viscosity, indicative of the enhanced intermolecular interactions within the bilayer. PMID:6838962

  12. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. This includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.

  13. Bilayer membrane interactions with nanofabricated scaffolds

    DOE PAGES

    Collier, C. Patrick

    2015-07-29

    Membrane function is facilitated by lateral organization within the lipid bilayer, including phase-separation of lipids into more ordered domains (lipid rafts) and anchoring of the membrane to a cytoskeleton. These features have proven difficult to reproduce in model membrane systems such as black lipid membranes, unilamellar vesicles and supported bilayers. However, advances in micro/nanofabrication have resulted in more realistic synthetic models of membrane-cytoskeleton interactions that can help uncover the design rules responsible for biological membrane formation and organization. This review will focus on describing micro-/nanostructured scaffolds that can emulate the connections of a cellular membrane to an underlying “cytoskeleton”. Thismore » includes molecular-based scaffolds anchored to a solid substrate through surface chemistry, solid-state supports modified by material deposition, lithography and etching, the creation of micro/nanoporous arrays, integration with microfluidics, and droplet-based bilayers at interfaces. Lastly, model systems such as these are increasing our understanding of structure and organization in cell membranes, and how they result in the emergence of functionality at the nanoscale.« less

  14. Improved membrane fluidity of ionic polysaccharide bead-supported phospholipid bilayer membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Haratake, Mamoru; Takahira, Ekuko; Yoshida, Sakura; Osei-Asante, Samuel; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio

    2013-07-01

    Supported phospholipid bilayer membranes on polysaccharide-based cationic polymer beads (cationic group: -[OCH2CH(OH)CH2]2N(+)(CH3)3·X(-), 45-165 μm in diameter) were prepared using small unilamellar vesicles from mixtures of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). Confocal fluorescence microscopic observations with a fluorescent membrane probe (N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phosphatidylethanolamine) revealed that the phospholipid molecules in the phospholipid-bead complexes were along the outer surface of the beads. The fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer membranes in the PS/PC-bead complexes was investigated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) technique. The lateral diffusion coefficients (D) for the PS/PC-bead complexes were lower than that for the 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine giant unilamellar vesicles without solid supports. Such less fluid membranes in the complexes appeared to be due to the immobilization of the phospholipid bilayer membranes by electrostatic attractive forces between PS and the bead. The D values for the PS/PC-bead complexes were dependent on the phospholipid composition; the PS(100 mol%)/PC(0 mol%)-bead complex had the least fluid membranes among the PS/PC-bead complexes tested in this study. The phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the polysaccharide-based cationic polymer beads were much more fluid than those on a polystyrene-based one. Furthermore, such fluid phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the polysaccharide-based cationic polymer bead were maintained for 10 days, even though the complex sample was stood in plain buffer (pH 8.5) at ambient temperature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diffusion coefficients in leaflets of bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Seki, Kazuhiko; Mogre, Saurabh; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2014-02-01

    We study diffusion coefficients of liquid domains by explicitly taking into account the two-layered structure called leaflets of the bilayer membrane. In general, the velocity fields associated with each leaflet are different and the layers sliding past each other cause frictional coupling. We obtain analytical results of diffusion coefficients for a circular liquid domain in a leaflet, and quantitatively study their dependence on the interleaflet friction. We also show that the diffusion coefficients diverge in the absence of coupling between the bilayer and solvents, even when the interleaflet friction is taken into account. In order to corroborate our theory, the effect of the interleaflet friction on the correlated diffusion is examined.

  16. Mechanics of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas R.

    All cells have membranes. The plasma membrane encapsulates the cell's interior, acting as a barrier against the outside world. In cells with nuclei (eukaryotic cells), membranes also form internal compartments (organelles) which carry out specialized tasks, such as protein modification and sorting in the case of the Golgi apparatus, and ATP production in the case of mitochondria. The main components of membranes are lipids and proteins. The proteins can be channels, carriers, receptors, catalysts, signaling molecules, or structural elements, and typically contribute a substantial fraction of the total membrane dry weight. The equilibrium properties of pure lipid membranes are relatively well-understood, and will be the main focus of this article. The framework of elasticity theory and statistical mechanics that we will develop will serve as the foundation for understanding biological phenomena such as the nonequilibrium behavior of membranes laden with ion pumps, the role of membrane elasticity in ion channel gating, and the dynamics of vesicle fission and fusion. Understanding the mechanics of lipid membranes is also important for drug encapsulation and delivery.

  17. Ionic transport in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Bordi, F; Cametti, C; Naglieri, A

    1998-01-01

    The current-voltage relationships of model bilayer membranes have been measured in various phospholipid systems, under the influence of both a gradient of potential and an ionic concentration, in order to describe the ion translocation through hydrated transient defects (water channels) across the bilayer formed because of lipid structure fluctuations and induced by temperature. The results have been analyzed in the light of a statistical rate theory for the transport process across a lipid bilayer, recently proposed by Skinner et al. (1993). In order to take into account the observed I-V curves and in particular the deviation from an ohmic behavior observed at high potential values, the original model has been modified, and a new version has been proposed by introducing an additional kinetic process. In this way, a very good agreement with the experimental values has been obtained for all of the systems we have investigated (dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine bilayers and mixed systems composed by dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine mixtures and dimyristoylphosphatidyl ethanolamine/phosphatidic acid dipalmitoyl mixtures). The rate constants governing the reactions at the bilayer interfaces have been evaluated for K+ and Cl- ions, as a function of temperature, from 5 to 35 degrees C and bulk ionic concentrations from 0.02 to 0.2 M. Finally, a comparison between the original model of Skinner and the modified version is presented, and the advantages of this new formulation are briefly discussed. PMID:9512032

  18. Budding of domains in mixed bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Jean; Komura, Shigeyuki; Andelman, David

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model that accounts for the budding behavior of domains in lipid bilayers, where each of the bilayer leaflets has a coupling between its local curvature and the local lipid composition. The compositional asymmetry between the two monolayers leads to an overall spontaneous curvature. The membrane free energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free energy for a lateral phase separation. Within a mean-field treatment, we obtain various phase diagrams which contain fully budded, dimpled, and flat states. In particular, for some range of membrane parameters, the phase diagrams exhibit a tricritical behavior as well as a three-phase coexistence region. The global phase diagrams can be divided into three types and are analyzed in terms of the curvature-composition coupling parameter and domain size.

  19. Line tension of multicomponent bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehghan, Ashkan; Pastor, Kyle A.; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-02-01

    The line tension or edge energy of bilayer membranes self-assembled from binary amphiphilic molecules is studied using self-consistent-field theory (SCFT). Specifically, solutions of the SCFT equations corresponding to an infinite membrane with a circular pore, or an open membrane, are obtained for a coarse-grained model in which the amphiphilic species and hydrophilic solvents are represented by A B and E D diblock copolymers and C homopolymers, respectively. The edge energy of the membrane is extracted from the free energy of the open membranes. Results for membranes composed of mixtures of symmetric and cone- or inverse cone-shaped amphiphilic molecules with neutral and/or repulsive interactions are obtained and analyzed. It is observed that an increase in the concentration of the cone-shaped species leads to a decrease of the line tension. In contrast, adding inverse cone-shaped copolymers results in an increase of the line tension. Furthermore, the density profile of the copolymers reveals that the line tension is regulated by the distribution of the amphiphiles at the bilayer edge.

  20. Engineering Lipid Bilayer Membranes for Protein Studies

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shuja; Dosoky, Noura Sayed; Williams, John Dalton

    2013-01-01

    Lipid membranes regulate the flow of nutrients and communication signaling between cells and protect the sub-cellular structures. Recent attempts to fabricate artificial systems using nanostructures that mimic the physiological properties of natural lipid bilayer membranes (LBM) fused with transmembrane proteins have helped demonstrate the importance of temperature, pH, ionic strength, adsorption behavior, conformational reorientation and surface density in cellular membranes which all affect the incorporation of proteins on solid surfaces. Much of this work is performed on artificial templates made of polymer sponges or porous materials based on alumina, mica, and porous silicon (PSi) surfaces. For example, porous silicon materials have high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and photoluminescence, which allow them to be used both as a support structure for lipid bilayers or a template to measure the electrochemical functionality of living cells grown over the surface as in vivo. The variety of these media, coupled with the complex physiological conditions present in living systems, warrant a summary and prospectus detailing which artificial systems provide the most promise for different biological conditions. This study summarizes the use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data on artificial biological membranes that are closely matched with previously published biological systems using both black lipid membrane and patch clamp techniques. PMID:24185908

  1. Membrane fusion promoters and inhibitors have contrasting effects on lipid bilayer structure and undulations.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, T J; Kulkarni, K G; Simon, S A

    1999-01-01

    It has been established that the fusion of both biological membranes and phospholipid bilayers can be modulated by altering their lipid composition (Chernomordik et al., 1995 .J. Membr. Biol. 146:3). In particular, when added exogenously between apposing membranes, monomyristoylphosphatidylcholine (MMPC) inhibits membrane fusion, whereas glycerol monoleate (GMO), oleic acid (OA), and arachidonic acid (AA) promote fusion. This present study uses x-ray diffraction to investigate the effects of MMPC, GMO, OA, and AA on the bending and stability of lipid bilayers when bilayers are forced together with applied osmotic pressure. The addition of 10 and 30 mol% MMPC to egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) bilayers maintains the bilayer structure, even when the interbilayer fluid spacing is reduced to approximately 3 A, and increases the repulsive pressure between bilayers so that the fluid spacing in excess water increases by 5 and 15 A, respectively. Thus MMPC increases the undulation pressure, implying that the addition of MMPC promotes out-of-plane bending and decreases the adhesion energy between bilayers. In contrast, the addition of GMO has minor effects on the undulation pressure; 10 and 50 mol% GMO increase the fluid spacing of EPC in excess water by 0 and 2 A, respectively. However, x-ray diffraction indicates that, at small interbilayer separations, GMO, OA, or AA converts the bilayer to a structure containing hexagonally packed scattering units approximately 50 A in diameter. Thus GMO, OA, or AA destabilizes bilayer structure as apposing bilayers are brought into contact, which could contribute to their role in promoting membrane fusion. PMID:10096904

  2. Bilayer-thickness-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Osman; Koch, Peter D; Klug, William S; Haselwandter, Christoph A

    2016-04-01

    Hydrophobic thickness mismatch between integral membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer can produce lipid bilayer thickness deformations. Experiment and theory have shown that protein-induced lipid bilayer thickness deformations can yield energetically favorable bilayer-mediated interactions between integral membrane proteins, and large-scale organization of integral membrane proteins into protein clusters in cell membranes. Within the continuum elasticity theory of membranes, the energy cost of protein-induced bilayer thickness deformations can be captured by considering compression and expansion of the bilayer hydrophobic core, membrane tension, and bilayer bending, resulting in biharmonic equilibrium equations describing the shape of lipid bilayers for a given set of bilayer-protein boundary conditions. Here we develop a combined analytic and numerical methodology for the solution of the equilibrium elastic equations associated with protein-induced lipid bilayer deformations. Our methodology allows accurate prediction of thickness-mediated protein interactions for arbitrary protein symmetries at arbitrary protein separations and relative orientations. We provide exact analytic solutions for cylindrical integral membrane proteins with constant and varying hydrophobic thickness, and develop perturbative analytic solutions for noncylindrical protein shapes. We complement these analytic solutions, and assess their accuracy, by developing both finite element and finite difference numerical solution schemes. We provide error estimates of our numerical solution schemes and systematically assess their convergence properties. Taken together, the work presented here puts into place an analytic and numerical framework which allows calculation of bilayer-mediated elastic interactions between integral membrane proteins for the complicated protein shapes suggested by structural biology and at the small protein separations most relevant for the crowded membrane

  3. Thermotropic and barotropic phase transitions on diacylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Hitoshi; Endo, Shigeru; Sueyoshi, Ryosuke; Goto, Masaki; Tamai, Nobutake; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2017-07-01

    The bilayer phase transitions of four diacylphosphatidylethanolamines (PEs) with matched saturated acyl chains (Cn=12, 14, 16 and 18) and two PEs with matched unsaturated acyl chains containing a different kind of double bonds were observed by differential scanning calorimetry under atmospheric pressure and light-transmittance measurements under high pressure. The temperature-pressure phase diagrams for these PE bilayer membranes were constructed from the obtained phase-transition data. The saturated PE bilayer membranes underwent two different phase transitions related to the liquid crystalline (Lα) phase, the transition from the hydrated crystalline (Lc) phase and the chain melting (gel (Lβ) to Lα) transition, depending on the thermal history. Pressure altered the gel-phase stability of the bilayer membranes of PEs with longer chains at a low pressure. Comparing the thermodynamic quantities of the saturated PE bilayer membranes with those of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer membranes, the PE bilayer membranes showed higher phase-transition temperatures and formed more stable Lc phase, which originates from the strong interaction between polar head groups of PE molecules. On the other hand, the unsaturated PE bilayer membranes underwent the transition from the Lα phase to the inverted hexagonal (HII) phase at a high temperature and this transition showed a small transition enthalpy but high pressure-responsivity. It turned out that the kind of double bonds markedly affects both bilayer-bilayer and bilayer-nonbilayer transitions and the Lα/HII transition is a volume driven transition for the reconstruction of molecular packing. Further, the phase-transition behavior was explained by chemical potential curves of bilayer phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Phase transitions in planar bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    White, S H

    1975-01-01

    Temperature-dependent structural changes in planar bilayer membranes formed from glycerol monooleate (GMO) dispersed in various n-alkane solvents (C12-C17) have been studied using precise measurements of specific geometric capacitance (Cg). Cg generally increases as temperature (T) decreases. A change in the slope of Cg(T) occurs between 15 and 18 degrees C for all solvent systems examined. Measurements of the interfacial tension (gamma) of the bulk GMO-alkane dispersions against 0.1 M NaCl show that gamma generally decreases with decreasing temperature. The data can be fitted with two straight lines of different slope which intersect on the average at 17 degrees C. Pagano et al. (1973, Science (Wash. D.C.). 181:557) have shown using calorimetry that GMO has a phase transition at about 15 degrees C. Thus, the changes in Cg and gamma with temperature are likely to result from a GMO phase transition. A second structural change is observed to occur between 5 and 10 degrees C which has not been detected calorimetrically. Calculations of Cg based on various estimates of the hydrocarbon dielectric coefficient (epsilon-b) and/or hydrocarbon thickness (delta-b) leads to models for the structure of the bilayer above and below the phase transition temperature. PMID:1111634

  5. Asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes.

    PubMed

    Filippov, Anatoly N; Starov, Victor M; Kononenko, Natalia A; Berezina, Ninel P

    2008-06-22

    To reveal the reason of asymmetry of the diffusion permeability of bi-layer electrodialysis membranes the following problems have been solved using the model of "homogeneous porous membrane": - diffusion of non-electrolyte solutions across a bi-layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a non-charged bi-layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a charged single layer membrane; - diffusion of electrolyte solutions across a charged bi-layer membrane. It is shown that the main factor responsible for the asymmetry is the difference between absolute values of densities of fixed charges (or so called "exchange capacities") of different layers of a membrane under investigation. Only in this case the ratio of the thickness of the membrane layers as well as the ratio of ion diffusivities contributes also to the asymmetry of the diffusion permeability. In the present review we survey and generalize our previous investigations and propose a new theory of asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes. We have deduced explicit algebraic formulas for the degree of asymmetry of diffusion permeability of bi-layer membranes under consideration.

  6. Tuning Membrane Thickness Fluctuations in Model Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ashkar, Rana; Nagao, Michihiro; Butler, Paul D.; Woodka, Andrea C.; Sen, Mani K.; Koga, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    Membrane thickness fluctuations have been associated with a variety of critical membrane phenomena, such as cellular exchange, pore formation, and protein binding, which are intimately related to cell functionality and effective pharmaceuticals. Therefore, understanding how these fluctuations are controlled can remarkably impact medical applications involving selective macromolecule binding and efficient cellular drug intake. Interestingly, previous reports on single-component bilayers show almost identical thickness fluctuation patterns for all investigated lipid tail-lengths, with similar temperature-independent membrane thickness fluctuation amplitude in the fluid phase and a rapid suppression of fluctuations upon transition to the gel phase. Presumably, in vivo functions require a tunability of these parameters, suggesting that more complex model systems are necessary. In this study, we explore lipid tail-length mismatch as a regulator for membrane fluctuations. Unilamellar vesicles of an equimolar mixture of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and distearoylphosphatidylcholine molecules, with different tail-lengths and melting transition temperatures, are used as a model system for this next level of complexity. Indeed, this binary system exhibits a significant response of membrane dynamics to thermal variations. The system also suggests a decoupling of the amplitude and the relaxation time of the membrane thickness fluctuations, implying a potential for independent control of these two key parameters. PMID:26153707

  7. Liquid immiscibility in model bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veatch, Sarah L.

    There is growing evidence that cell plasma membranes are laterally organized into "raft" regions in which particular lipids and proteins are concentrated. These domains have sub-micron dimensions and have been implicated in vital cell functions. Similar liquid domains are observed in model bilayer membrane mixtures that mimick cellular lipid compositions. In model membranes, domains can be large (microns) and can readily form in the absence of proteins. This thesis presents studies of liquid immiscibility in model membrane systems using two experimental methods. By fluorescence microscopy, this thesis documents that miscibility transitions occur in a wide variety of ternary lipid mixtures containing high melting temperature (saturated) lipids, low melting temperature (usually unsaturated) lipids, and cholesterol. I have constructed detailed miscibility phase diagrams for three separate ternary lipid mixtures (DOPC/DPPC/Chol, DOPC/PSM/Chol, and POPC/PSM/Chol). Phase separation is also observed in membranes of lipids extracted from human erythrocytes. NMR experiments probe lipid order and verify the coexistence of a saturated lipid and cholesterol rich liquid ordered (Lo) phase with a more disordered, unsaturated lipid rich liquid crystalline (Lalpha) phase at low temperatures. These experiments also find multiple thermodynamic transitions and lipid organization on different length-scales. This complexity is revealed because fluorescence microscopy and NMR probe lipid order at different length-scales (>1mum vs. ˜100nm). NMR detects small domains (˜80nm) at temperatures just below the miscibility transition, even though micron-scale domains are observed by fluorescent microscopy. NMR does detect large-scale ("100nm) demixing, but at a lower temperature. In addition, it has long been known that >10nm length-scale structure is present in many lipid mixtures containing cholesterol and at least one additional lipid species, though it is shown here that only a subset of

  8. Transmembrane channel formation in rhodopsin-containing bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Montal, M; Darszon, A; Trissl, H W

    1977-05-19

    Rhodopsin has been incorporated into planar lipid bilayer membranes. The effect of light is to increase the bilayer permeability in a pattern consistent with the formation of a transmembrane channel of about 10 A diameter. A model of visual excitation based on a light-activated and voltage-sensitive channel is presented.

  9. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of tethered bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Valincius, Gintaras; Meškauskas, Tadas; Ivanauskas, Feliksas

    2012-01-10

    The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of tethered bilayer membranes (tBLMs) were analyzed, and the analytical solution for the spectral response of membranes containing natural or artificially introduced defects was derived. The analysis carried out in this work shows that the EIS features of an individual membrane defect cannot be modeled by conventional electrical elements. The primary reason for this is the complex nature of impedance of the submembrane ionic reservoir separating the phospholipid layer and the solid support. We demonstrate that its EIS response, in the case of radially symmetric defects, is described by the Hankel functions of a complex variable. Therefore, neither the impedance of the submembrane reservoir nor the total impedance of tBLMs can be modeled using the conventional elements of the equivalent electrical circuits of interfaces. There are, however, some limiting cases in which the complexity of the EIS response of the submembrane space reduces. In the high frequency limit, the EIS response of a submembrane space that surrounds the defect transforms into a response of a constant phase element (CPE) with the exponent (α) value of 0.5. The onset of this transformation is, beside other parameters, dependent on the defect size. Large-sized defects push the frequency limit lower, therefore, the EIS spectra exhibiting CPE behavior with α ≈ 0.5, can serve as a diagnostic criterion for the presence of such defects. In the low frequency limit, the response is dependent on the density of the defects, and it transforms into the capacitive impedance if the area occupied by a defect is finite. The higher the defect density, the higher the frequency edge at which the onset of the capacitive behavior is observed. Consequently, the presented analysis provides practical tools to evaluate the defect density in tBLMs, which could be utilized in tBLM-based biosensor applications. Alternatively, if the parameters of the defects, e.g., ion channels

  10. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  11. Mechanism of unassisted ion transport across membrane bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. A.; Pohorille, A.

    1996-01-01

    To establish how charged species move from water to the nonpolar membrane interior and to determine the energetic and structural effects accompanying this process, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of the transport of Na+ and Cl- across a lipid bilayer located between two water lamellae. The total length of molecular dynamics trajectories generated for each ion was 10 ns. Our simulations demonstrate that permeation of ions into the membrane is accompanied by the formation of deep, asymmetric thinning defects in the bilayer, whereby polar lipid head groups and water penetrate the nonpolar membrane interior. Once the ion crosses the midplane of the bilayer the deformation "switches sides"; the initial defect slowly relaxes, and a defect forms in the outgoing side of the bilayer. As a result, the ion remains well solvated during the process; the total number of oxygen atoms from water and lipid head groups in the first solvation shell remains constant. A similar membrane deformation is formed when the ion is instantaneously inserted into the interior of the bilayer. The formation of defects considerably lowers the free energy barrier to transfer of the ion across the bilayer and, consequently, increases the permeabilities of the membrane to ions, compared to the rigid, planar structure, by approximately 14 orders of magnitude. Our results have implications for drug delivery using liposomes and peptide insertion into membranes.

  12. Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jakob; Köper, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties. PMID:27249006

  13. Supported lipid bilayers as models for studying membrane domains.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Volker; Yang, Sung-Tae; Tamm, Lukas K

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have been in use for over 30 years. They have been employed to study the structure, composition, and dynamics of lipid bilayer phases, the binding and distribution of soluble, integral, and lipidated proteins in membranes, membrane fusion, and interactions of membranes with elements of the cytoskeleton. This review focuses on the unique ability of supported lipid bilayers to study liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains in membranes. We highlight methods to produce asymmetric lipid bilayers with lipid compositions that mimic those of the extracellular and cytoplasmic leaflets of cell membranes and the functional reconstitution of membrane proteins into such systems. Questions related to interleaflet domain coupling and membrane protein activation have been addressed and answered using advanced reconstitution and imaging procedures in symmetric and asymmetric supported membranes with and without coexisting lipid phase domains. Previously controversial topics regarding anomalous and anisotropic diffusion in membranes have been resolved by using supported membrane approaches showing that the propensity of certain lipid compositions to form "rafts" are important but overlaid with "picket-fence" interactions that are imposed by a subtended cytoskeletal network.

  14. Laurdan fluorescence senses mechanical strain in the lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Liang; Frangos, John A; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2006-09-01

    The precise molecular mechanisms by which cells transduce a mechanical stimulus into an intracellular biochemical response have not yet been established. Here, we show for the first time that the fluorescence emission of an environment-sensitive membrane probe Laurdan is modulated by mechanical strain of the lipid bilayer membrane. We have measured fluorescence emission of Laurdan in phospholipid vesicles of 30, 50, and 100 nm diameter to show that osmotically induced membrane tension leads to an increase in polarity (hydration depth) of the phospholipid bilayer interior. Our data indicate that the general polarization of Laurdan emission is linearly dependent on membrane tension. We also show that higher membrane curvature leads to higher hydration levels. We anticipate that the proposed method will facilitate future studies of mechanically induced changes in physical properties of lipid bilayer environment both in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Effect of Membrane Tension on the Electric Field and Dipole Potential of Lipid Bilayer Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Muellner, Michael J.; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2011-01-01

    The dipole potential of lipid bilayer membrane controls the difference in permeability of the membrane to oppositely charged ions. We have combined molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and experimental studies to determine changes in electric field and electrostatic potential of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer in response to applied membrane tension. MD simulations based on CHARMM36 force field showed that electrostatic potential of DOPC bilayer decreases by ~45 mV in the physiologically relevant range of membrane tension values (0 to 15 dyn/cm). The electrostatic field exhibits a peak (~0.8×109 V/m) near the water/lipid interface which shifts by 0.9 Å towards the bilayer center at 15 dyn/cm. Maximum membrane tension of 15 dyn/cm caused 6.4% increase in area per lipid, 4.7% decrease in bilayer thickness and 1.4% increase in the volume of the bilayer. Dipole-potential sensitive fluorescent probes were used to detect membrane tension induced changes in DOPC vesicles exposed to osmotic stress. Experiments confirmed that dipole potential of DOPC bilayer decreases at higher membrane tensions. These results are suggestive of a potentially new mechanosensing mechanism by which mechanically induced structural changes in the lipid bilayer membrane could modulate the function of membrane proteins by altering electrostatic interactions and energetics of protein conformational states. PMID:21722624

  16. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm.

  17. Anthrax toxin-induced rupture of artificial lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nablo, Brian J.; Panchal, Rekha G.; Bavari, Sina; Nguyen, Tam L.; Gussio, Rick; Ribot, Wil; Friedlander, Art; Chabot, Donald; Reiner, Joseph E.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Balijepalli, Arvind; Halverson, Kelly M.; Kasianowicz, John J.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally that anthrax toxin complexes rupture artificial lipid bilayer membranes when isolated from the blood of infected animals. When the solution pH is temporally acidified to mimic that process in endosomes, recombinant anthrax toxin forms an irreversibly bound complex, which also destabilizes membranes. The results suggest an alternative mechanism for the translocation of anthrax toxin into the cytoplasm. PMID:23947891

  18. Homopolymer vesicles with a gradient bilayer membrane as drug carriers.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lang; Lu, Hang; Zou, Kaidian; Chen, Jing; Du, Jianzhong

    2013-12-21

    We report an unusual homopolymer vesicle, which has a soft bilayer membrane composed of oligo(ethyleneoxy) side chains (OEs) with a gradually decreased packing density from the centre of the membrane to both margins, exhibiting thermo-responsive zeta potential and dispersibility and showing potential applications for anti-cancer drug delivery.

  19. Cyclic and Linear Monoterpenes in Phospholipid Membranes: Phase Behavior, Bilayer Structure, and Molecular Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Pham, Quoc Dat; Topgaard, Daniel; Sparr, Emma

    2015-10-13

    Monoterpenes are abundant in essential oils extracted from plants. These relatively small and hydrophobic molecules have shown important biological functions, including antimicrobial activity and membrane penetration enhancement. The interaction between the monoterpenes and lipid bilayers is considered important to the understanding of the biological functions of monoterpenes. In this study, we investigated the effect of cyclic and linear monoterpenes on the structure and dynamics of lipids in model membranes. We have studied the ternary system 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine-monoterpene-water as a model with a focus on dehydrated conditions. By combining complementary techniques, including differential scanning calorimetry, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, bilayer structure, phase transitions, and lipid molecular dynamics were investigated at different water contents. Monoterpenes cause pronounced melting point depression and phase segregation in lipid bilayers, and the extent of these effects depends on the hydration conditions. The addition of a small amount of thymol to the fluid bilayer (volume fraction of 0.03 in the bilayer) leads to an increased order in the acyl chain close to the bilayer interface. The findings are discussed in relation to biological systems and lipid formulations.

  20. Modulation of the bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes by membrane proteins rather than cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kakoli; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Warren, Graham; Engelman, Donald M.

    2004-03-01

    A biological membrane is conceptualized as a system in which membrane proteins are naturally matched to the equilibrium thickness of the lipid bilayer. Cholesterol, in addition to lipid composition, has been suggested to be a major regulator of bilayer thickness in vivo because measurements in vitro have shown that cholesterol can increase the thickness of simple phospholipid/cholesterol bilayers. Using solution x-ray scattering, we have directly measured the average bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes, which contain increasing amounts of cholesterol. The bilayer thickness of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, and the basolateral and apical plasma membranes, purified from rat hepatocytes, were determined to be 37.5 ± 0.4 Å, 39.5 ± 0.4 Å, 35.6 ± 0.6 Å, and 42.5 ± 0.3 Å, respectively. After cholesterol depletion using cyclodextrins, Golgi and apical plasma membranes retained their respective bilayer thicknesses whereas the bilayer thickness of the endoplasmic reticulum and the basolateral plasma membrane decreased by 1.0 Å. Because cholesterol was shown to have a marginal effect on the thickness of these membranes, we measured whether membrane proteins could modulate thickness. Protein-depleted membranes demonstrated changes in thickness of up to 5 Å, suggesting that (i) membrane proteins rather than cholesterol modulate the average bilayer thickness of eukaryotic cell membranes, and (ii) proteins and lipids are not naturally hydrophobically matched in some biological membranes. A marked effect of membrane proteins on the thickness of Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membranes, which do not contain cholesterol, was also observed, emphasizing the generality of our findings.

  1. Modulation of the bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes by membrane proteins rather than cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kakoli; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Taguchi, Tomohiko; Warren, Graham; Engelman, Donald M.

    2004-01-01

    A biological membrane is conceptualized as a system in which membrane proteins are naturally matched to the equilibrium thickness of the lipid bilayer. Cholesterol, in addition to lipid composition, has been suggested to be a major regulator of bilayer thickness in vivo because measurements in vitro have shown that cholesterol can increase the thickness of simple phospholipid/cholesterol bilayers. Using solution x-ray scattering, we have directly measured the average bilayer thickness of exocytic pathway membranes, which contain increasing amounts of cholesterol. The bilayer thickness of membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi, and the basolateral and apical plasma membranes, purified from rat hepatocytes, were determined to be 37.5 ± 0.4 Å, 39.5 ± 0.4 Å, 35.6 ± 0.6 Å, and 42.5 ± 0.3 Å, respectively. After cholesterol depletion using cyclodextrins, Golgi and apical plasma membranes retained their respective bilayer thicknesses whereas the bilayer thickness of the endoplasmic reticulum and the basolateral plasma membrane decreased by 1.0 Å. Because cholesterol was shown to have a marginal effect on the thickness of these membranes, we measured whether membrane proteins could modulate thickness. Protein-depleted membranes demonstrated changes in thickness of up to 5 Å, suggesting that (i) membrane proteins rather than cholesterol modulate the average bilayer thickness of eukaryotic cell membranes, and (ii) proteins and lipids are not naturally hydrophobically matched in some biological membranes. A marked effect of membrane proteins on the thickness of Escherichia coli cytoplasmic membranes, which do not contain cholesterol, was also observed, emphasizing the generality of our findings. PMID:15016920

  2. Modeling Nanoparticle Wrapping or Translocation in Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Emily M.; Bahrami, Amir H.; Weikl, Thomas R.; Hall, Carol K.

    2015-01-01

    The spontaneous wrapping of nanoparticles by membranes is of increasing interest as nanoparticles become more prevalent in consumer products and hence more likely to enter the human body. We introduce a simulations-based tool that can be used to visualize the molecular level interaction between nanoparticles and bilayer membranes. By combining LIME, an intermediate resolution, implicit solvent model for phospholipids, with discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD), we are able to simulate the wrapping or embedding of nanoparticles by 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. Simulations of hydrophilic nanoparticles with diameters from 10Å to 250Å show that hydrophilic nanoparticles with diameters greater than 20Å become wrapped while the nanoparticle with a diameter of 10Å does not . Instead this smaller particle became embedded in the bilayer surface where it could interact with the hydrophilic head groups of the lipid molecules. We also investigate the interaction between a DPPC bilayer and hydrophobic nanoparticles with diameters 10Å to 40Å. These nanoparticles do not undergo the wrapping process; instead they directly penetrate the membrane and embed themselves within the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayers. PMID:26260123

  3. Structure of sphingomyelin bilayers and complexes with cholesterol forming membrane rafts.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Peter J

    2013-07-30

    Sphingomyelin and cholesterol are of interest to biologists because they interact to form condensed structures said to be responsible for a variety of functions that membranes perform. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction methods have been used to investigate the structure of bilayers of D-erythro palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and complexes formed by palmitoyl- and egg-sphingomyelin with cholesterol in aqueous multibilayer dispersions. D-erythro palmitoyl sphingomyelin bilayers exist in two conformers that are distinguished by their lamellar repeat spacing, bilayer thickness, and polar group hydration. The distinction is attributed to hydrogen bonding to water or to intermolecular hydrogen bonds that are disrupted by the formation of ripple structure. The coexisting bilayer structures of pure palmitoyl sphingomyelin are observed in the presence of cholesterol-rich bilayers that are characterized by different bilayer parameters. The presence of cholesterol preferentially affects the conformer of D-erythro sphingomyelin with thicker, more hydrated bilayers. Coexisting bilayers of sphingomyelin and complexes with cholesterol are in register and remain coupled at temperatures at least up to 50 °C. Cholesterol forms a complex of 1.8 mols of sphingomyelin per cholesterol at 37 °C that coexists with bilayers of pure sphingomyelin up to 50 °C. Redistribution of the two lipids takes place on cooling below the fluid- to gel-phase transition temperature, resulting in the withdrawal of sphingomyelin into gel phase and the formation of coexisting bilayers of equimolar proportions of the two lipids. Cholesterol-rich bilayers fit a stripe model at temperatures less than 37 °C characterized by alternating rows of sphingomyelin and cholesterol molecules. A quasicrystalline array models the arrangement at higher temperatures in which each cholesterol molecule is surrounded by seven hydrocarbon chains, each of which is in contact with two cholesterol molecules. The thickness of bilayer

  4. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; ...

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of differentmore » lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.« less

  5. Lipid bilayer thickness determines cholesterol's location in model membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Greathouse, Denise V.; Koeppe, II, Roger E.; Standaert, Robert F.; Van Oosten, Brad J.; Harroun, Thad A.; Kinnun, Jacob J.; Williams, Justin A.; Wassall, Stephen R.; Katsaras, John

    2016-10-11

    Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule of animal cell membranes, and an important precursor for the biosynthesis of certain hormones and vitamins. It is also thought to play a key role in cell signaling processes associated with functional plasma membrane microdomains (domains enriched in cholesterol), commonly referred to as rafts. In all of these diverse biological phenomena, the transverse location of cholesterol in the membrane is almost certainly an important structural feature. Using a combination of neutron scattering and solid-state 2H NMR, we have determined the location and orientation of cholesterol in phosphatidylcholine (PC) model membranes having fatty acids of different lengths and degrees of unsaturation. The data establish that cholesterol reorients rapidly about the bilayer normal in all the membranes studied, but is tilted and forced to span the bilayer midplane in the very thin bilayers. The possibility that cholesterol lies flat in the middle of bilayers, including those made from PC lipids containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), is ruled out. Finally, these results support the notion that hydrophobic thickness is the primary determinant of cholesterol's location in membranes.

  6. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Rønnest, A K; Peters, G H; Hansen, F Y; Taub, H; Miskowiec, A

    2016-04-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 10(8)-10(9) V m(-1), which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ∼1 V (∼2 ⋅ 10(8) V m(-1)) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ∼1.4 V (∼2.8 ⋅ 10(8) V m(-1)) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3

  7. Structure and dynamics of water and lipid molecules in charged anionic DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rønnest, A. K.; Peters, G. H.; Hansen, F. Y.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2016-04-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the influence of the valency of counter-ions on the structure of freestanding bilayer membranes of the anionic 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipid at 310 K and 1 atm. At this temperature, the membrane is in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The diffusion constant of water as a function of its depth in the membrane has been determined from mean-square-displacement calculations. Also, calculated incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering functions have been compared to experimental results and used to determine an average diffusion constant for all water molecules in the system. On extrapolating the diffusion constants inferred experimentally to a temperature of 310 K, reasonable agreement with the simulations is obtained. However, the experiments do not have the sensitivity to confirm the diffusion of a small component of water bound to the lipids as found in the simulations. In addition, the orientation of the dipole moment of the water molecules has been determined as a function of their depth in the membrane. Previous indirect estimates of the electrostatic potential within phospholipid membranes imply an enormous electric field of 108-109 V m-1, which is likely to have great significance in controlling the conformation of translocating membrane proteins and in the transfer of ions and molecules across the membrane. We have calculated the membrane potential for DMPG bilayers and found ˜1 V (˜2 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the fluid phase with a monovalent counter-ion and ˜1.4 V (˜2.8 ṡ 108 V m-1) when in the gel phase with a divalent counter-ion. The number of water molecules for a fully hydrated DMPG membrane has been estimated to be 9.7 molecules per lipid in the gel phase and 17.5 molecules in the fluid phase, considerably smaller than inferred experimentally for 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DMPC

  8. Supported lipid bilayer membranes for water purification by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Yair; Berman, Amir; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2010-05-18

    Some biological plasma membranes pass water with a permeability and selectivity largely exceeding those of commercial membranes for water desalination using specialized trans-membrane proteins aquaporins. However, highly selective transport of water through aquaporins is usually driven by an osmotic rather mechanical pressure, which is not as attractive from the engineering point of view. The feasibility of adopting biomimetic membranes for water purification driven by a mechanical pressure, i.e., filtration is explored in this paper. Toward this goal, it is proposed to use a commercial nanofiltration (NF) membrane as a support for biomimetic lipid bilayer membranes to render them robust enough to withstand the required pressures. It is shown in this paper for the first time that by properly tuning molecular interactions supported phospholipid bilayers (SPB) can be prepared on a commercial NF membrane. The presence of SPB on the surface was verified and quantified by several spectroscopic and microscopic techniques, which showed morphology close to the desired one with very few defects. As an ultimate test it is shown that hydraulic permeability of the SPB supported on the NF membrane (NTR-7450) approaches the values deduced from the typical osmotic permeabilities of intact continuous bilayers. This permeability was unaffected by the trans-membrane flow of water and by repeatedly releasing and reapplying a 10 bar pressure. Along with a parallel demonstration that aquaporins could be incorporated in a similar bilayer on mica, this demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed approach. The prepared SPB structure may be used as a platform for preparing biomimetic filtration membranes with superior performance based on aquaporins. The concept of SPBs on permeable substrates of the present type may also be useful in the future for studying transport of various molecules through trans-membrane proteins.

  9. Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2016-04-27

    Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. In this paper, we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed of liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. Finally, however, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in-plane lipid

  10. Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; Cheng, Xiaolin

    2016-04-27

    Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. In this paper, we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed of liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. Finally, however, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in-plane lipid

  11. Partitioning of Homologous Nicotinic Acid Ester Prodrugs (Nicotinates) into Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Membrane Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ojogun, Vivian; Vyas, Sandhya M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Knutson, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of a series of perhydrocarbon nicotinic acid esters (nicotinates) between aqueous solution and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) membrane bilayers is investigated as a function of increasing alkyl chain length. The hydrocarbon nicotinates represent putative prodrugs, derivatives of the polar drug nicotinic acid, whose functionalization provides the hydrophobic character necessary for pulmonary delivery in a hydrophobic, fluorocarbon solvent, such as perfluorooctyl bromide. Independent techniques of differential scanning calorimetry and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5 hexatriene (DPH) fluorescence anisotropy measurements are used to analyze the thermotropic phase behavior and lipid bilayer fluidity as a function of nicotinate concentration. At increasing concentrations of nicotinates over the DPPC mole fraction range examined (XDPPC = 0.6 – 1.0), all the nicotinates (ethyl (C2H5); butyl (C4H9); hexyl (C6H13); and octyl (C8H17)) partition into the lipid bilayer at sufficient levels to eliminate the pretransition, and decrease and broaden the gel to fluid phase transition temperature. The concentration at which these effects occur is chain length-dependent; the shortest chain nicotinate, C2H5, elicits the least dramatic response. Similarly, the DPH anisotropy results demonstrate an alteration of the bilayer organization in the liposomes as a consequence of the chain length-dependent partitioning of the nicotinates into DPPC bilayers. The membrane partition coefficients (logarithm values), determined from the depressed bilayer phase transition temperatures, increase from 2.18 for C2H5 to 5.25 for C8H17. The DPPC membrane/water partitioning of the perhydrocarbon nicotinate series correlates with trends in the octanol/water partitioning of these solutes, suggesting that their incorporation into the bilayer is driven by increasing hydrophobicity. PMID:20227859

  12. The immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain exists as an integral part of phospholipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2011-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling methods were used to study the organization of cholesterol and phospholipids in membranes formed from Chol/POPS (cholesterol/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine) mixtures, with mixing ratios from 0 to 3. It was confirmed using the discrimination by oxygen transport and polar relaxation agent accessibility methods that the immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain (CBD) was present in all of the suspensions when the mixing ratio exceeded the cholesterol solubility threshold (CST) in the POPS membrane. The behavior of phospholipid molecules was monitored with phospholipid analogue spin labels (n-PCs), and the behavior of cholesterol was monitored with the cholesterol analogue spin labels CSL and ASL. Results indicated that phospholipid and cholesterol mixtures can form a membrane suspension up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Additionally, EPR spectra for n-PC, ASL, and CSL indicated that both phospholipids and cholesterol exist in these suspensions in the lipid-bilayer-like structures. EPR spectral characteristics of n-PCs (spin labels located in the phospholipid cholesterol bilayer, outside the CBD) change with increase in the cholesterol content up to and beyond the CST. These results present strong evidence that the CBD forms an integral part of the phospholipid bilayer when formed from a Chol/POPS mixture up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Interestingly, CSL in cholesterol alone (without phospholipids) when suspended in buffer does not detect formation of bilayer-like structures. A broad, single-line EPR signal is given, similar to that obtained for the dry film of cholesterol before addition of the buffer. This broad, single-line signal is also observed in suspensions formed for Chol/POPS mixtures (as a background signal) when the Chol/POPS ratio is much greater than 3. It is suggested that the EPR spin-labeling approach can discriminate and characterize the fraction of cholesterol that forms the CBD within the

  13. Effect of cholesterol on the lateral nanoscale dynamics of fluid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Clare L; Barrett, M; Heiss, Arno; Salditt, Tim; Katsaras, John; Shi, An-Chang; Rheinstadter, Maikel C

    2012-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to study the effect of 5 and 40 mol% cholesterol on the lateral nanoscale dynamics of phospholipid membranes. By measuring the excitation spectrum at several lateral q || values (up to q || = 3 1), complete dispersion curves were determined of gel, fluid and liquid-ordered phase bilayers. The inclusion of cholesterol had a distinct effect on the collective dynamics of the bilayer s hydrocarbon chains; specifically, we observed a pronounced stiffening of the membranes on the nanometer length scale in both gel and fluid bilayers, even though they were experiencing a higher degree of molecular disorder. Also, for the first time we determined the nanoscale dynamics in the high-cholesterol liquid-ordered phase of bilayers containing cholesterol. Namely, this phase appears to be softer than fluid bilayers, but better ordered than bilayers in the gel phase.

  14. Spontaneous curvature of bilayer membranes from molecular simulations: asymmetric lipid densities and asymmetric adsorption.

    PubMed

    Różycki, Bartosz; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-02-07

    Biomimetic and biological membranes consist of molecular bilayers with two leaflets which are typically exposed to different aqueous environments and may differ in their molecular density or composition. Because of these asymmetries, the membranes prefer to curve in a certain manner as quantitatively described by their spontaneous curvature. Here, we study such asymmetric membranes via coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. We consider two mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvature: (i) different lipid densities within the two leaflets and (ii) leaflets exposed to different concentrations of adsorbing particles. We focus on membranes that experience no mechanical tension and describe two methods to compute the spontaneous curvature. The first method is based on the detailed structure of the bilayer's stress profile which can hardly be measured experimentally. The other method starts from the intuitive view that the bilayer represents a thin fluid film bounded by two interfaces and reduces the complexity of the stress profile to a few membrane parameters that can be measured experimentally. For the case of asymmetric adsorption, we introduce a simulation protocol based on two bilayers separated by two aqueous compartments with different adsorbate concentrations. The adsorption of small particles with a size below 1 nm is shown to generate large spontaneous curvatures up to about 1/(24 nm). Our computational approach is quite general: it can be applied to any molecular model of bilayer membranes and can be extended to other mechanisms for the generation of spontaneous curvatures as provided, e.g., by asymmetric lipid composition or depletion layers of solute molecules.

  15. Mobility of water and selected atoms in DMPG lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, F. Y.; Roennest, A.; Peters, G. H.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2013-03-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the structure and mobility of water and selected atoms in dimyristoyl-phosphoglycerol (DMPG) lipids forming a fully hydrated free standing bilayer membrane at 310 K. The effect of the anionic headgroup in DMPG on structure and dynamics has been studied by comparison with simulation[2] and experimental[3] results for bilayer membranes of dimyristoyl-phosphorylcholine (DMPC) lipids, which have a neutral head group and the same aliphatic tails. The membrane is found to be in the fluid phase with monovalent sodium counter ions and in the gel phase with divalent calcium counter ions as evidenced by an area/lipid change and the NMR order parameter. The simulation results are compared with preliminary neutron scattering results. Supported by NSF Grant No. DGE-1069091

  16. Penetration of Cell Membranes and Synthetic Lipid Bilayers by Nanoprobes

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Matthew R.; Wang, Andrew; Thomas, Aman; Schaefer, Andreas T.; Melosh, Nicholas A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale devices have been proposed as tools for measuring and controlling intracellular activity by providing electrical and/or chemical access to the cytosol. Unfortunately, nanostructures with diameters of 50–500 nm do not readily penetrate the cell membrane, and rationally optimizing nanoprobes for cell penetration requires real-time characterization methods that are capable of following the process of membrane penetration with nanometer resolution. Although extensive work has examined the rupture of supported synthetic lipid bilayers, little is known about the applicability of these model systems to living cell membranes with complex lipid compositions, cytoskeletal attachment, and membrane proteins. Here, we describe atomic force microscopy (AFM) membrane penetration experiments in two parallel systems: live HEK293 cells and stacks of synthetic lipid bilayers. By using the same probes in both systems, we were able to clearly identify membrane penetration in synthetic bilayers and compare these events with putative membrane penetration events in cells. We examined membrane penetration forces for three tip geometries and 18 chemical modifications of the probe surface, and in all cases the median forces required to penetrate cellular and synthetic lipid bilayers with nanoprobes were greater than 1 nN. The penetration force was sensitive to the probe's sharpness, but not its surface chemistry, and the force did not depend on cell surface or cytoskeletal properties, with cells and lipid stacks yielding similar forces. This systematic assessment of penetration under various mechanical and chemical conditions provides insights into nanoprobe-cell interactions and informs the design of future intracellular nanoprobes. PMID:25418094

  17. Lipid Bilayer Vesicles with Numbers of Membrane-Linking Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ken-ichirou Akashi,; Hidetake Miyata,

    2010-06-01

    We report that phospholipid membranes spontaneously formed in aqueous medium giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) possessing many membranous wormhole-like structures (membrane-linking pores, MLPs). By phase contract microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy, the structures of the MLPs, consisting of lipid bilayer, were resolvable, and a variety of vesicular shapes having many MLPs (a high genus topology) were found. These vesicles were stable but easily deformed by micromanipulation with a microneedle. We also observed the size reduction of the MLPs with the increase in membrane tension, which was qualitatively consistent with a prediction from a simple dynamical model.

  18. Pore spanning lipid bilayers on silanised nanoporous alumina membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Jani, Abdul M.; Zhou, Jinwen; Nussio, Matthew R.; Losic, Dusan; Shapter, Joe G.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2008-12-01

    The preparation of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) on solid surfaces is important for many studies probing various important biological phenomena including the cell barrier properties, ion-channels, biosensing, drug discovery and protein/ligand interactions. In this work we present new membrane platforms based on suspended BLMs on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membranes. AAO membranes were prepared by electrochemical anodisation of aluminium foil in 0.3 M oxalic acid using a custom-built etching cell and applying voltage of 40 V, at 1oC. AAO membranes with controlled diameter of pores from 30 - 40 nm (top of membrane) and 60 -70 nm (bottom of membrane) were fabricated. Pore dimensions have been confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). AAO membranes were chemically functionalised with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES). Confirmation of the APTES attachment to the AAO membrane was achieved by means of infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of functionalised membranes show several peaks from 2800 to 3000 cm-1 which were assigned to symmetric and antisymmetric CH2 bands. XPS data of the membrane showed a distinct increase in C1s (285 eV), N1s (402 eV) and Si2p (102 eV) peaks after silanisation. The water contact angle of the functionalised membrane was 80o as compared to 20o for the untreated membrane. The formation of BLMs comprising dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine (DOPS) on APTESmodified AAO membranes was carried using the vesicle spreading technique. AFM imaging and force spectroscopy was used to characterise the structural and nanomechanical properties of the suspended membrane. This technique also confirmed the stability of bilayers on the nanoporous alumina support for several days. Fabricated suspended BLMs on nanoporous AAO hold promise for the construction of biomimetic membrane architectures with embedded

  19. The nonelectrolyte permeability of planar lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of lecithin bilayer membranes to nonelectrolytes is in reasonable agreement with Overton's rule. The is, Pd alpha DKhc, where/Pd is the permeability coefficient of a solute through the bilayer, Khc is its hydrocarbon:water partition coefficient, and D is its diffusion coefficient in bulk hydrocarbon. The partition coefficients are by far the major determinants of the relative magnitudes of the permeability coefficients; the diffusion coefficients make only a minor contribution. We note that the recent emphasis on theoretically calculated intramembranous diffusion coefficients (Dm'S) has diverted attention from the experimentally measurable and physiologically relevant permeability coefficients (Pd'S) and has obscured the simplicity and usefulness of Overton's rule. PMID:7381427

  20. Inducing morphological changes in lipid bilayer membranes with microfabricated substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fangjie; Collins, Liam F.; Ashkar, Rana; Heberle, Frederick A.; Srijanto, Bernadeta R.; Collier, C. Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Lateral organization of lipids and proteins into distinct domains and anchoring to a cytoskeleton are two important strategies employed by biological membranes to carry out many cellular functions. However, these interactions are difficult to emulate with model systems. Here we use the physical architecture of substrates consisting of arrays of micropillars to systematically control the behavior of supported lipid bilayers - an important step in engineering model lipid membrane systems with well-defined functionalities. Competition between attractive interactions of supported lipid bilayers with the underlying substrate versus the energy cost associated with membrane bending at pillar edges can be systematically investigated as functions of pillar height and pitch, chemical functionalization of the microstructured substrate, and the type of unilamellar vesicles used for assembling the supported bilayer. Confocal fluorescent imaging and AFM measurements highlight correlations that exist between topological and mechanical properties of lipid bilayers and lateral lipid mobility in these confined environments. This study provides a baseline for future investigations into lipid domain reorganization on structured solid surfaces and scaffolds for cell growth.

  1. Lipid Bilayer Membrane Perturbation by Embedded Nanopores: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Fandiño, Rebeca; Piñeiro, Ángel; Trick, Jemma L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-03-22

    A macromolecular nanopore inserted into a membrane may perturb the dynamic organization of the surrounding lipid bilayer. To better understand the nature of such perturbations, we have undertaken a systematic molecular dynamics simulation study of lipid bilayer structure and dynamics around three different classes of nanopore: a carbon nanotube, three related cyclic peptide nanotubes differing in the nature of their external surfaces, and a model of a β-barrel nanopore protein. Periodic spatial distributions of several lipid properties as a function of distance from the nanopore were observed. This was especially clear for the carbon nanotube system, for which the density of lipids, the bilayer thickness, the projection of lipid head-to-tail vectors onto the membrane plane, and lipid lateral diffusion coefficients exhibited undulatory behavior as a function of the distance from the surface of the channel. Overall, the differences in lipid behavior as a function of the nanopore structure reveal local adaptation of the bilayer structure and dynamics to different embedded nanopore structures. Both the local structure and dynamic behavior of lipids around membrane-embedded nanopores are sensitive to the geometry and nature of the outer surface of the macromolecule/molecular assembly forming the pore.

  2. Covalent attachment of functionalized lipid bilayers to planar waveguides for measuring protein binding to biomimetic membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Heyse, S.; Vogel, H.; Sänger, M.; Sigrist, H.

    1995-01-01

    A new method is presented for measuring sensitively the interactions between ligands and their membrane-bound receptors in situ using integrated optics, thus avoiding the need for additional labels. Phospholipid bilayers were attached covalently to waveguides by a novel protocol, which can in principle be used with any glass-like surface. In a first step, phospholipids carrying head-group thiols were covalently immobilized onto SiO2-TiO2 waveguide surfaces. This was accomplished by acylation of aminated waveguides with the heterobifunctional crosslinker N-succinimidyl-3-maleimidopropionate, followed by the formation of thioethers between the surface-grafted maleimides and the synthetic thiolipids. The surface-attached thiolipids served as hydrophobic templates and anchors for the deposition of a complete lipid bilayer either by fusion of lipid vesicles or by lipid self-assembly from mixed lipid/detergent micelles. The step-by-step lipid bilayer formation on the waveguide surface was monitored in situ by an integrated optics technique, allowing the simultaneous determination of optical thickness and one of the two refractive indices of the adsorbed organic layers. Surface coverages of 50-60% were calculated for thiolipid layers. Subsequent deposition of POPC resulted in an overall lipid layer thickness of 45-50 A, which corresponds to the thickness of a fluid bilayer membrane. Specific recognition reactions occurring at cell membrane surfaces were modeled by the incorporation of lipid-anchored receptor molecules into the supported bilayer membranes. (1) The outer POPC layer was doped with biotinylated phosphatidylethanolamine. Subsequent specific binding of streptavidin was optically monitored. (2) A lipopeptide was incorporated in the outer POPC monolayer. Membrane binding of monoclonal antibodies, which were directed against the peptide moiety of the lipopeptide, was optically detected. The specific antibody binding correlated well with the lipopepitde

  3. Hydrodynamics of bilayer membranes with diffusing transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Callan-Jones, Andrew; Durand, Marc; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-02-14

    We consider the hydrodynamics of lipid bilayers containing transmembrane proteins of arbitrary shape. This biologically-motivated problem is relevant to the cell membrane, whose fluctuating dynamics play a key role in phenomena ranging from cell migration, intercellular transport, and cell communication. Using Onsager's variational principle, we derive the equations that govern the relaxation dynamics of the membrane shape, of the mass densities of the bilayer leaflets, and of the diffusing proteins' concentration. With our generic formalism, we obtain several results on membrane dynamics. We find that proteins that span the bilayer increase the intermonolayer friction coefficient. The renormalization, which can be significant, is in inverse proportion to the protein's mobility. Second, we find that asymmetric proteins couple to the membrane curvature and to the difference in monolayer densities. For practically all accessible membrane tensions (σ > 10(-8) N m(-1)) we show that the protein density is the slowest relaxing variable. Furthermore, its relaxation rate decreases at small wavelengths due to the coupling to curvature. We apply our formalism to the large-scale diffusion of a concentrated protein patch. We find that the diffusion profile is not self-similar, owing to the wavevector dependence of the effective diffusion coefficient.

  4. NMR Structures of Membrane Proteins in Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Radoicic, Jasmina; Lu, George J.; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins have always presented technical challenges for structural studies because of their requirement for a lipid environment. Multiple approaches exist including X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy that can give significant insights into their structure and function. However, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is unique in that it offers the possibility of determining the structures of unmodified membrane proteins in their native environment of phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. Furthermore, NMR enables the characterization of the structure and dynamics of backbone and side chain sites of the proteins alone and in complexes with both small molecules and other biopolymers. The learning curve has been steep for the field as most initial studies were performed under non-native environments using modified proteins until ultimately progress in both techniques and instrumentation led to the possibility of examining unmodified membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. This review aims to provide an overview of the development and application of NMR to membrane proteins. It highlights some of the most significant structural milestones that have been reached by NMR spectroscopy of membrane proteins; especially those accomplished with the proteins in phospholipid bilayer environments where they function. PMID:25032938

  5. Intermonolayer Friction and Surface Shear Viscosity of Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    den Otter, W. K.; Shkulipa, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behavior of lipid bilayer membranes is characterized by a surface viscosity for in-plane shear deformations, and an intermonolayer friction coefficient for slip between the two leaflets of the bilayer. Both properties have been studied for a variety of coarse-grained double-tailed model lipids, using equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. For lipids with two identical tails, the surface shear viscosity rises rapidly with tail length, while the intermonolayer friction coefficient is less sensitive to the tail length. Interdigitation of lipid tails across the bilayer midsurface, as observed for lipids with two distinct tails, strongly enhances the intermonolayer friction coefficient, but hardly affects the surface shear viscosity. The simulation results are compared against the available experimental data. PMID:17468168

  6. Photoinduced Fusion of Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yui; Nagai, Ken H; Zinchenko, Anatoly; Hamada, Tsutomu

    2017-03-14

    We have developed a novel system for photocontrol of the fusion of lipid vesicles through the use of a photosensitive surfactant containing an azobenzene moiety (AzoTAB). Real-time microscopic observations clarified a change in both the surface area and internal volume of vesicles during fusion. We also determined the optimal cholesterol concentrations and temperature for inducing fusion. The mechanism of fusion can be attributed to a change in membrane tension, which is caused by the solubilization of lipids through the isomerization of AzoTAB. We used a micropipet technique to estimate membrane tension and discuss the mechanism of fusion in terms of membrane elastic energy. The obtained results regarding this novel photoinduced fusion could lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of membrane fusion in living cells and may also see wider applications, such as in drug delivery and biomimetic material design.

  7. The immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain exists as an integral part of phospholipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; Widomska, Justyna; Subczynski, Witold K

    2011-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling methods were used to study the organization of cholesterol and phospholipids in membranes formed from Chol/POPS (cholesterol/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine) mixtures, with mixing ratios from 0 to 3. It was confirmed using the discrimination by oxygen transport and polar relaxation agent accessibility methods that the immiscible cholesterol bilayer domain (CBD) was present in all of the suspensions when the mixing ratio exceeded the cholesterol solubility threshold (CST) in the POPS membrane. The behavior of phospholipid molecules was monitored with phospholipid analogue spin labels (n-PCs), and the behavior of cholesterol was monitored with the cholesterol analogue spin labels CSL and ASL. Results indicated that phospholipid and cholesterol mixtures can form a membrane suspension up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Additionally, EPR spectra for n-PC, ASL, and CSL indicated that both phospholipids and cholesterol exist in these suspensions in the lipid-bilayer-like structures. EPR spectral characteristics of n-PCs (spin labels located in the phospholipid cholesterol bilayer, outside the CBD) change with increase in the cholesterol content up to and beyond the CST. These results present strong evidence that the CBD forms an integral part of the phospholipid bilayer when formed from a Chol/POPS mixture up to a mixing ratio of ~2. Interestingly, CSL in cholesterol alone (without phospholipids) when suspended in buffer does not detect formation of bilayer-like structures. A broad, single-line EPR signal is given, similar to that obtained for the dry film of cholesterol before addition of the buffer. This broad, single-line signal is also observed in suspensions formed for Chol/POPS mixtures (as a background signal) when the Chol/POPS ratio is much greater than 3. It is suggested that the EPR spin-labeling approach can discriminate and characterize the fraction of cholesterol that forms the CBD within the

  8. Cholesterol stimulates and ceramide inhibits Sticholysin II-induced pore formation in complex bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Alm, Ida; García-Linares, Sara; Gavilanes, José G; Martínez-Del-Pozo, Álvaro; Slotte, J Peter

    2015-04-01

    The pore forming capacity of Sticholysin II (StnII; isolated from Stichodactyla helianthus) in bilayer membranes containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), palmitoylsphingomyelin (PSM) and either cholesterol or palmitoyl ceramide (PCer) has been examined. The aim of the study was to elucidate how the presence of differently ordered PSM domains affected StnII oligomerization and pore formation. Cholesterol is known to enhance pore formation by StnII, and our results confirmed this and provide kinetic information for the process. The effect of cholesterol on bilayer permeabilization kinetics was concentration-dependent. In the concentration regime used (2.5-10nmol cholesterol in POPC:PSM 80:20 by nmol), cholesterol also increased the acyl chain order in the fluid PSM domain and thus decreased bilayer fluidity, suggesting that fluidity per se was not responsible for cholesterol's effect. Addition of PCer (2.5-10nmol) to the POPC:PSM (80:20 by nmol) bilayers attenuated StnII-induced pore formation, again in a concentration-dependent fashion. This addition also led to the formation of a PCer-rich gel phase. Addition of cholesterol to PCer-containing membranes could partially reduce the inhibitory effect of PCer on StnII pore formation. We conclude that the physical state of PSM (as influenced by either cholesterol or PCer) affected StnII binding and pore formation under the conditions examined.

  9. Relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle containing highly viscous fluid.

    PubMed

    Sachin Krishnan, T V; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2016-12-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle with an asymmetry in the viscosity of the inner and outer fluid medium. First we explore the stability of the vesicle free energy which includes a coupling between the membrane curvature and the local density difference between the two monolayers. Two types of instabilities are identified: a small wavelength instability and a larger wavelength instability. Considering the bulk fluid viscosity and the inter-monolayer friction as the dissipation sources, we next employ Onsager's variational principle to derive the coupled equations both for the membrane and the bulk fluid. The three relaxation modes are coupled to each other due to the bilayer and the spherical structure of the vesicle. Most importantly, a higher fluid viscosity inside the vesicle shifts the crossover mode between the bending and the slipping to a larger value. As the vesicle parameters approach the unstable regions, the relaxation dynamics is dramatically slowed down, and the corresponding mode structure changes significantly. In some limiting cases, our general result reduces to the previously obtained relaxation rates.

  10. Relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle containing highly viscous fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachin Krishnan, T. V.; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2016-12-01

    We study the relaxation dynamics of a compressible bilayer vesicle with an asymmetry in the viscosity of the inner and outer fluid medium. First we explore the stability of the vesicle free energy which includes a coupling between the membrane curvature and the local density difference between the two monolayers. Two types of instabilities are identified: a small wavelength instability and a larger wavelength instability. Considering the bulk fluid viscosity and the inter-monolayer friction as the dissipation sources, we next employ Onsager's variational principle to derive the coupled equations both for the membrane and the bulk fluid. The three relaxation modes are coupled to each other due to the bilayer and the spherical structure of the vesicle. Most importantly, a higher fluid viscosity inside the vesicle shifts the crossover mode between the bending and the slipping to a larger value. As the vesicle parameters approach the unstable regions, the relaxation dynamics is dramatically slowed down, and the corresponding mode structure changes significantly. In some limiting cases, our general result reduces to the previously obtained relaxation rates.

  11. Electrochemical characterization of bilayer lipid membrane-semiconductor junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiao Kang; Baral, S.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-03-08

    Three different systems of glyceryl monooleate (GMO), bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) supported semiconductor particles have been prepared and characterized. A single composition of particulate semiconductor deposited only on one side of the BLM constituted system A, two different compositions of particulate semiconductors sequentially deposited on the same side of the BLM represented system B, and two different compositions of particulate semiconductors deposited on the opposite sides of the BLM made up system C.

  12. Protein-membrane interactions: blood clotting on nanoscale bilayers.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, J H; Pureza, V; Davis-Harrison, R L; Sligar, S G; Rienstra, C M; Kijac, A Z; Ohkubo, Y Z; Tajkhorshid, E

    2009-07-01

    The clotting cascade requires the assembly of protease-cofactor complexes on membranes with exposed anionic phospholipids. Despite their importance, protein-membrane interactions in clotting remain relatively poorly understood. Calcium ions are known to induce anionic phospholipids to cluster, and we propose that clotting proteins assemble preferentially on such anionic lipid-rich microdomains. Until recently, there was no way to control the partitioning of clotting proteins into or out of specific membrane microdomains, so experimenters only knew the average contributions of phospholipids to blood clotting. The development of nanoscale membrane bilayers (Nanodiscs) has now allowed us to probe, with nanometer resolution, how local variations in phospholipid composition regulate the activity of key protease-cofactor complexes in blood clotting. Furthermore, exciting new progress in solid-state NMR and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations allow structural insights into interactions between proteins and membrane surfaces with atomic resolution.

  13. Protein-membrane interactions: Blood clotting on nanoscale bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, J.H.; Pureza, V.; Davis-Harrison, R.L.; Sligar, S.G.; Rienstra, C.M.; Kijac, A.Z.; Ohkubo, Y. Z.; Tajkhorshid, E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The clotting cascade requires the assembly of protease-cofactor complexes on membranes with exposed anionic phospholipids. Despite their importance, protein-membrane interactions in clotting remain relatively poorly understood. Calcium ions are known to induce anionic phospholipids to cluster, and we propose that clotting proteins assemble preferentially on such anionic lipid-rich microdomains. Until recently, there was no way to control the partitioning of clotting proteins into or out of specific membrane microdomains, so experimenters only knew the average contributions of phospholipids to blood clotting. The development of nanoscale membrane bilayers (Nanodiscs) has now allowed us to probe, with nanometer resolution, how local variations in phospholipid composition regulate the activity of key protease-cofactor complexes in blood clotting. Furthermore, exciting new progress in solid-state NMR and large-scale molecular dynamics simulations are allowing structural insights into interactions between proteins and membrane surfaces with atomic resolution. PMID:19630793

  14. Diffusive dynamics of vesicles tethered to a fluid supported bilayer by single-particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Yoshina-Ishii, Chiaki; Chan, Yee-Hung M; Johnson, Joseph M; Kung, Li A; Lenz, Peter; Boxer, Steven G

    2006-06-20

    We recently introduced a method to tether intact phospholipid vesicles onto a fluid supported lipid bilayer using DNA hybridization (Yoshina-Ishii, C.; Miller, G. P.; Kraft, M. L; Kool, E. T.; Boxer, S. G. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 1356-1357). Once tethered, the vesicles can diffuse in two dimensions parallel to the supported membrane surface. The average diffusion coefficient, D, is typically 0.2 microm(2)/s; this is 3-5 times smaller than for individual lipid or DNA-lipid conjugate diffusion in supported bilayers. In this article, we investigate the origin of this difference in the diffusive dynamics of tethered vesicles by single-particle tracking under collision-free conditions. D is insensitive to tethered vesicle size from 30 to 200 nm, as well as a 3-fold change in the viscosity of the bulk medium. The addition of macromolecules such as poly(ethylene glycol) reversibly stops the motion of tethered vesicles without causing the exchange of lipids between the tethered vesicle and supported bilayer. This is explained as a depletion effect at the interface between tethered vesicles and the supported bilayer. Ca ions lead to transient vesicle-vesicle interactions when tethered vesicles contain negatively charged lipids, and vesicle diffusion is greatly reduced upon Ca ion addition when negatively charged lipids are present both in the supported bilayer and tethered vesicles. Both effects are interesting in their own right, and they also suggest that tethered vesicle-supported bilayer interactions are possible; this may be the origin of the reduction in D for tethered vesicles. In addition, the effects of surface defects that reversibly trap diffusing vesicles are modeled by Monte Carlo simulations. This shows that a significant reduction in D can be observed while maintaining normal diffusion behavior on the time scale of our experiments.

  15. Ethanol effects on binary and ternary supported lipid bilayers with gel/fluid domains and lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Marquês, Joaquim T; Viana, Ana S; De Almeida, Rodrigo F M

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol-lipid bilayer interactions have been a recurrent theme in membrane biophysics, due to their contribution to the understanding of membrane structure and dynamics. The main purpose of this study was to assess the interplay between membrane lateral heterogeneity and ethanol effects. This was achieved by in situ atomic force microscopy, following the changes induced by sequential ethanol additions on supported lipid bilayers formed in the absence of alcohol. Binary phospholipid mixtures with a single gel phase, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol, gel/fluid phase coexistence DPPC/dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and ternary lipid mixtures containing cholesterol, mimicking lipid rafts (DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol and DOPC/sphingomyelin/cholesterol), i.e., with liquid ordered/liquid disordered (ld/lo) phase separation, were investigated. For all compositions studied, and in two different solid supports, mica and silicon, domain formation or rearrangement accompanied by lipid bilayer thinning and expansion was observed. In the case of gel/fluid coexistence, low ethanol concentrations lead to a marked thinning of the fluid but not of the gel domains. In the case of ld/lo all the bilayer thins simultaneously by a similar extent. In both cases, only the more disordered phase expanded significantly, indicating that ethanol increases the proportion of disordered domains. Water/bilayer interfacial tension variation and freezing point depression, inducing acyl chain disordering (including opening and looping), tilting, and interdigitation, are probably the main cause for the observed changes. The results presented herein demonstrate that ethanol influences the bilayer properties according to membrane lateral organization.

  16. Microtubes and nanotubes of a phospholipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralj-Iglic, Veronika; Iglic, Ales; Gomiscek, Gregor; Sevsek, France; Arrigler, Vesna; Hägerstrand, Henry

    2002-02-01

    We propose a theory describing the stable structure of a phospholipid bilayer in pure water involving a spherical mother vesicle with long thin tubular protrusion. It is considered that the phospholipid molecules are in general anisotropic with respect to the axis normal to the membrane and can orient in the plane of the membrane if the curvature field is strongly anisotropic. Taking this into account, the membrane free energy is derived starting from a single-molecule energy and using methods of statistical mechanics. By linking the description on the microscopic level with the continuum theory of elasticity we recover the expression for the membrane bending energy and obtain an additional (deviatoric) contribution due to the orientational ordering of the phospholipid molecules. It is shown that the deviatoric contribution may considerably decrease the phospholipid vesicle membrane free energy if the vesicle involves regions where the difference between the two principal curvatures is large (thin cylindrical protrusions and/or thin finite necks) and thereby yields a possible explanation for the stability of the long thin tubular protrusions of the phospholipid bilayer vesicles. We report on the experiment exhibiting a stable shape of the spherical phospholipid vesicle with a long thin tubular protrusion in pure water.

  17. Nanometric Gap Structure with a Fluid Lipid Bilayer for the Selective Transport and Detection of Biological Molecules.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji; Tanabe, Masashi; Morigaki, Kenichi

    2016-08-09

    The biological membrane is a natural biosensing platform that can detect specific molecules with extremely high sensitivity. We developed a biosensing methodology by combining a model biological membrane and a nanometer-sized gap structure on a glass substrate. The model membrane comprised lithographically patterned polymeric and fluid lipid bilayers. The polymeric bilayer was bonded to a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sheet by using an adhesion layer with a defined thickness (lipid vesicles). Extruded lipid vesicles having a biotin moiety on the surface were used as the adhesion layer in conjunction with the biotin-streptavidin linkage. A gap structure was formed between the fluid bilayer and PDMS (nanogap junction). The thickness of the gap structure was several tens of nanometers, as determined by the thickness of the adhesion layer. The nanogap junction acted as a sensitive biosensing platform. From a mixture of proteins (cholera toxin and albumin), the target protein (cholera toxin) was selectively transported into the gap by the specific binding to a glycolipid (GM1) in the fluid bilayer and lateral diffusion. The target protein molecules were then detected with an elevated signal-to-noise ratio due to the reduced background noise in the nanometric gap. The combination of selective transport and reduced background noise drastically enhanced the sensitivity toward the target protein. The nanogap junction should have broad biomedical applications by realizing highly selective and sensitive biosensing in samples having diverse coexisting molecules.

  18. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs): interest and applications for biological membrane investigations.

    PubMed

    Rebaud, Samuel; Maniti, Ofelia; Girard-Egrot, Agnès P

    2014-12-01

    Biological membranes play a central role in the biology of the cell. They are not only the hydrophobic barrier allowing separation between two water soluble compartments but also a supra-molecular entity that has vital structural functions. Notably, they are involved in many exchange processes between the outside and inside cellular spaces. Accounting for the complexity of cell membranes, reliable models are needed to acquire current knowledge of the molecular processes occurring in membranes. To simplify the investigation of lipid/protein interactions, the use of biomimetic membranes is an approach that allows manipulation of the lipid composition of specific domains and/or the protein composition, and the evaluation of the reciprocal effects. Since the middle of the 80's, lipid bilayer membranes have been constantly developed as models of biological membranes with the ultimate goal to reincorporate membrane proteins for their functional investigation. In this review, after a brief description of the planar lipid bilayers as biomimetic membrane models, we will focus on the construction of the tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes, the most promising model for efficient membrane protein reconstitution and investigation of molecular processes occurring in cell membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Melittin-induced cholesterol reorganization in lipid bilayer membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2015-06-12

    The peptide melittin, a 26 amino acid, cationic peptide from honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom, disrupts lipid bilayer membranes in a concentration-dependent manner. Rather than interacting with a specific receptor, the peptide interacts directly with the lipid matrix of the membrane in a manner dependent on the lipid composition. Here, a small-angle neutron scattering study of the interaction of melittin with lipid bilayers made of mixtures of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and cholesterol (Chol) is presented. Through the use of deuterium-labeled DMPC, changes in the distribution of the lipid and cholesterol in unilamellar vesicles were observed for peptide concentrations below those thatmore » cause pores to form. In addition to disrupting the in-plane organization of Chol, melittin produces vesicles having inner and outer leaflet compositions that depend on the lipid–Chol molar ratio and on the peptide concentration. The changes seen at high cholesterol and low peptide concentration are similar to those produced by alamethicin (Qian, S. et al., J. Phys. Chem. B 2014, 118, 11200–11208), which points to an underlying physical mechanism driving the redistribution of Chol, but melittin displays an additional effect not seen with alamethicin. Furthermore, a model for how the peptide drives the redistribution of Chol is proposed. The results suggest that redistribution of the lipids in a target cell membrane by membrane active peptides takes places as a prelude to the lysis of the cell.« less

  20. Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A; Petruzielo, Robin S; Pan, Jianjun; Drazba, Paul; Kucerka, Norbert; Feigenson, Gerald; Katsaras, John

    2013-01-01

    The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

  1. Behavior of Bilayer Leaflets in Asymmetric Model Membranes: Atomistic Simulation Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Tian, Jianhui; Nickels, Jonathan; Katsaras, John; ...

    2016-04-27

    Spatial organization within lipid bilayers is an important feature for a range of biological processes. Leaflet compositional asymmetry and lateral lipid organization are just two of the ways in which membrane structure appears to be more complex than initially postulated by the fluid mosaic model. This raises the question of how the phase behavior in one bilayer leaflet may affect the apposing leaflet and how one begins to construct asymmetric model systems to investigate these interleaflet interactions. In this paper, we report on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (a total of 4.1 μs) of symmetric and asymmetric bilayer systems composed ofmore » liquid-ordered (Lo) or liquid-disordered (Ld) leaflets, based on the nanodomain-forming POPC/DSPC/cholesterol system. We begin by analyzing an asymmetric bilayer with leaflets derived from simulations of symmetric Lo and Ld bilayers. In this system, we observe that the properties of the Lo and Ld leaflets are similar to those of the Lo and Ld leaflets in corresponding symmetric systems. However, it is not obvious that mixing the equilibrium structures of their symmetric counterparts is the most appropriate way to construct asymmetric bilayers nor that these structures will manifest interleaflet couplings that lead to domain registry/antiregistry. We therefore constructed and simulated four additional asymmetric bilayer systems by systematically adding or removing lipids in the Ld leaflet to mimic potential density fluctuations. We find that the number of lipids in the Ld leaflet affects its own properties, as well as those of the apposing Lo leaflet. Collectively, the simulations reveal the presence of weak acyl chain interdigitation across bilayer leaflets, suggesting that interdigitation alone does not contribute significantly to the interleaflet coupling in nonphase-separated bilayers of this chemical composition. Finally, however, the properties of both leaflets appear to be sensitive to changes in in

  2. Modulating bilayer mechanical properties to promote the coupled folding and insertion of an integral membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Michaela; Danielczak, Bartholomäus; Textor, Martin; Klement, Jessica; Keller, Sandro

    2015-10-01

    Bilayer mechanical properties are not only of crucial importance to the mechanism of action of mechanosensation in lipid membranes but also affect preparative laboratory tasks such as membrane-protein refolding. We report this for coupled refolding and bilayer insertion of outer membrane phospholipase A (OmpLA), an integral membrane enzyme that catalyses the hydrolytic cleavage of glycerophospholipids. OmpLA can be refolded into a variety of detergent micelles and unilamellar vesicles composed of short-chain phospholipids but, in the absence of chemical or molecular chaperones, not into thicker membranes. Controlled modulation of bilayer mechanical properties by judicious use of subsolubilising concentrations of detergents induces monolayer curvature strain, acyl chain fluidisation, membrane thinning, and transient aqueous bilayer defects. This enables quantitative and functional refolding of OmpLA even into bilayer membranes composed of long-chain phospholipids to yield enzymatically active proteoliposomes without requiring membrane solubilisation.

  3. Formation and characterization of planar lipid bilayer membranes from synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Baba, T; Toshima, Y; Minamikawa, H; Hato, M; Suzuki, K; Kamo, N

    1999-09-21

    The formability, current-voltage characteristics and stability of the planar lipid bilayer membranes from the synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipids, 1, 3-di-O-phytanyl-2-O-(beta-glycosyl)glycerols (Glc(Phyt)(2), Mal(N)(Phyt)(2)) were studied. The single bilayer membranes were successfully formed from the glycolipid bearing a maltotriosyl group (Mal(3)(Phyt)(2)) by the folding method among the synthetic glycolipids examined. The membrane conductance of Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers in 100 mM KCl solution was significantly lower than that of natural phospholipid, soybean phospholipids (SBPL) bilayers, and comparable to that of 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC) bilayers. From the permeation measurements of lipophilic ions through Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) and DPhPC bilayers, it could be presumed that the carbonyl groups in glycerol backbone of the lipid molecule are not necessarily required for the total dipole potential barrier against cations in Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayer. The stability of Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers against long-term standing and external electric field change was rather high, compared with SBPL bilayers. Furthermore, a preliminary experiment over the functional incorporation of membrane proteins was demonstrated employing the channel proteins derived from octopus retina microvilli vesicles. The channel proteins were functionally incorporated into Mal(3)(Phyt)(2) bilayers in the presence of a negatively charged glycolipid. From these observations, synthetic phytanyl-chained glycolipid bilayers are promising materials for reconstitution and transport studies of membrane proteins.

  4. Absorption and folding of melittin onto lipid bilayer membranes via unbiased atomic detail microsecond molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Charles H; Wiedman, Gregory; Khan, Ayesha; Ulmschneider, Martin B

    2014-09-01

    Unbiased molecular simulation is a powerful tool to study the atomic details driving functional structural changes or folding pathways of highly fluid systems, which present great challenges experimentally. Here we apply unbiased long-timescale molecular dynamics simulation to study the ab initio folding and partitioning of melittin, a template amphiphilic membrane active peptide. The simulations reveal that the peptide binds strongly to the lipid bilayer in an unstructured configuration. Interfacial folding results in a localized bilayer deformation. Akin to purely hydrophobic transmembrane segments the surface bound native helical conformer is highly resistant against thermal denaturation. Circular dichroism spectroscopy experiments confirm the strong binding and thermostability of the peptide. The study highlights the utility of molecular dynamics simulations for studying transient mechanisms in fluid lipid bilayer systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Ceramide acyl chain length markedly influences miscibility with palmitoyl sphingomyelin in bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Bodil; Grandell, Pia-Maria; Isaksson, Y Jenny E; Slotte, J Peter

    2010-07-01

    Ceramides are precursors of major sphingolipids and can be important cellular effectors. The biological effects of ceramides have been suggested to stem from their biophysical effects on membrane structure affecting the lateral and transbilayer organization of other membrane components. In this study we investigated the effect of acyl chain composition in ceramides (C4-C24:1) on their miscibility with N-palmitoyl-sphingomyelin (PSM) using differential scanning calorimetry. We found that short-chain (C4 and C8) ceramides induced phase separation and lowered the T (m) and enthalpy of the PSM endotherm. We conclude that short-chain ceramides were more miscible in the fluid-phase than in the gel-phase PSM bilayers. Long-chain ceramides induced apparent heterogeneity in the bilayers. The main PSM endotherm decreased in cooperativity and enthalpy with increasing ceramide concentration. New ceramide-enriched components could be seen in the thermograms at all ceramide concentrations above X (Cer) = 0.05. These broad components had higher T (m) values than pure PSM. C24:1 ceramide exhibited complex behavior in the PSM bilayers. The miscibility of C24:1 ceramide with PSM at low (X (Cer) = 0.05-0.10) concentrations was exceptionally good according to the cooperativity of the transition. At higher concentrations, multiple components were detected, which might have arisen from interdigitated gel-phases formed by this very asymmetric ceramide. The results of this study indicate that short-chain and long-chain ceramides have very different effects on the sphingomyelin bilayers. There also seems to be a correlation between their miscibility in binary systems and the effect of ceramides of different hydrophobic length on sphingomyelin-rich domains in multicomponent membranes.

  6. Experimental evidence for hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    Hydrophobic matching, in which transmembrane proteins cause the surrounding lipid bilayer to adjust its hydrocarbon thickness to match the length of the hydrophobic surface of the protein, is a commonly accepted idea in membrane biophysics. To test this idea, gramicidin (gD) was embedded in 1, 2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC) and 1, 2-myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayers at the peptide/lipid molar ratio of 1:10. Circular dichroism (CD) was measured to ensure that the gramicidin was in the beta6.3 helix form. The bilayer thickness (the phosphate-to-phosphate distance, or PtP) was measured by x-ray lamellar diffraction. In the Lalpha phase near full hydration, PtP is 30.8 A for pure DLPC, 32.1 A for the DLPC/gD mixture, 35.3 A for pure DMPC, and 32.7 A for the DMPC/gD mixture. Gramicidin apparently stretches DLPC and thins DMPC toward a common thickness as expected by hydrophobic matching. Concurrently, gramicidin-gramicidin correlations were measured by x-ray in-plane scattering. In the fluid phase, the gramicidin-gramicidin nearest-neighbor separation is 26.8 A in DLPC, but shortens to 23.3 A in DMPC. These experiments confirm the conjecture that when proteins are embedded in a membrane, hydrophobic matching creates a strain field in the lipid bilayer that in turn gives rise to a membrane-mediated attractive potential between proteins. PMID:9929495

  7. Effect of membrane tension on the physical properties of DOPC lipid bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, A. Srinivas; Warshaviak, Dora Toledo; Chachisvilis, Mirianas

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) lipid bilayer were performed to explore its mechanosensitivity. Variations in the bilayer properties, such as area per lipid, volume, thickness, hydration depth (HD), hydration thickness (HT), lateral diffusion coefficient, and changes in lipid structural order were computed in the membrane tension range 0 to 15 dyn/cm. We determined that an increase in membrane tension results in a decrease in the bilayer thickness and HD of ∼5% and ∼5.7% respectively, whereas area per lipid, volume, and HT/HD increased by 6.8%, 2.4%, and 5% respectively. The changes in lipid conformation and orientation were characterized using orientational (S2) and deuterium (SCD) order parameters. Upon increase of membrane tension both order parameters indicated an increase in lipid disorder by 10– 20%, mostly in the tail end region of the hydrophobic chains. The effect of membrane tension on lipid lateral diffusion in the DOPC bilayer was analyzed on three different time scales corresponding to inertial motion, anomalous diffusion and normal diffusion. The results showed that lateral diffusion of lipid molecules is anomalous in nature due to the non-exponential distribution of waiting times. The anomalous and normal diffusion coefficients increased by 20% and 52% when the membrane tension changed from 0 to 15 dyn/cm, respectively. In conclusion, our studies showed that membrane tension causes relatively significant changes in the area per lipid, volume, polarity, membrane thickness, and fluidity of the membrane suggesting multiple mechanisms by which mechanical perturbation of the membrane could trigger mechanosensitive response in cells. PMID:22588133

  8. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Nickels, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-29

    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled. Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. Furthermore, we seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.

  9. Lateral organization, bilayer asymmetry, and inter-leaflet coupling of biological membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Cheng, Xiaolin; Nickels, Jonathan D.

    2015-07-29

    Understanding of cell membrane organization has evolved significantly from the classic fluid mosaic model. It is now recognized that biological membranes are highly organized structures, with differences in lipid compositions between inner and outer leaflets and in lateral structures within the bilayer plane, known as lipid rafts. These organizing principles are important for protein localization and function as well as cellular signaling. However, the mechanisms and biophysical basis of lipid raft formation, structure, dynamics and function are not clearly understood. One key question, which we focus on in this review, is how lateral organization and leaflet compositional asymmetry are coupled.more » Detailed information elucidating this question has been sparse because of the small size and transient nature of rafts and the experimental challenges in constructing asymmetric bilayers. Resolving this mystery will require advances in both experimentation and modeling. We discuss here the preparation of model systems along with experimental and computational approaches that have been applied in efforts to address this key question in membrane biology. Furthermore, we seek to place recent and future advances in experimental and computational techniques in context, providing insight into in-plane and transverse organization of biological membranes.« less

  10. Permeability of small nonelectrolytes through lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.; Gutknecht, J.

    1986-01-01

    Diffusion of small nonelectrolytes through planar lipid bilayer membranes (egg phosphatidylcholine-decane) was examined by correlating the permeability coefficients of 22 solutes with their partition coefficients between water and four organic solvents. High correlations were observed with hexadecane and olive oil (r = 0.95 and 0.93), but not octanol and ether (r = 0.75 and 0.74). Permeabilities of the seven smallest molecules (mol wt less than 50) (water, hydrofluoric acid, hydrochloric acid, ammonia, methylamine, formic acid and formamide) were 2- to 15-fold higher than the values predicted by the permeabilities of the larger molecules (50 less than mol wt less than 300). The extra permeabilities of the seven smallest molecules were not correlated with partition coefficients but were inversely correlated with molecular volumes. The larger solute permeabilities also decreased with increasing molecular volume, but the relationship was neither steep nor significant. The permeability pattern cannot be explained by the molecular volume dependence of partitioning into the bilayer or by the existence of transient aqueous pores. The molecular volume dependence of solute permeability suggests that the membrane barrier behaves more like a polymer than a liquid hydrocarbon. All the data are consistent with the solubility-diffusion model, which can explain both the hydrophobicity dependence and the molecular volume dependence of nonelectrolyte permeability.

  11. The effect of bilayer composition on calcium ion transport facilitated by fluid shear stress.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, T D; Yek, S H

    1995-10-04

    Passive calcium ion permeability across liposome bilayers is increased during exposure to fluid shear forces attainable in the mammalian vasculature. In this study, liposomes prepared from three different lipid mixtures (phosphatidylcholine alone; phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol; a mixture of anionic and cationic phospholipids plus cholesterol) are exposed to uniform shear stress in a rotational viscometer. Liposome permeability to calcium ion is estimated from continuous measurement of free intraliposome calcium ion concentration using a fluorescence technique. Calcium ion permeability in the absence of fluid force and susceptibility to shear-induced permeability modulation are positively correlated with estimated bilayer compressibility. Fluid shear forces are presumed to influence bilayer packing and modulate defect formation in proportion to bilayer compressibility. Bilayer defects produced by fluid forces may increase liposome permeability.

  12. Millimeter microwave effect on ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M C

    1995-01-01

    The effects of millimeter microwaves in the frequency range of 54-76 GHz on capacitance and conductance of lipid bilayer membranes (BLM) were studied. Some of the membranes were modified by gramicidin A and amphotericin B or by tetraphenylboron anions (TPhB-). The millimeter microwaves were pulse-modulated (PW) at repetition rates ranging from 1 to 100 pps, PW at 1000 pps, or unmodulated continuous waves (CW). The maximum output power at the waveguide outlet was 20 mW. It was found that CW irradiation decreased the unmodified BLM capacitance by 1.2% +/- 0.5%. At the same time, membrane current induced by TPhB- transport increased by 5% +/- 1%. The changes in conductance of ionic channels formed by gramicidin A and amphotericin B were small (0.6% +/- 0.4%). No "resonance-like" effects of mm-wave irradiation on membrane capacitance, ionic channel currents, or TPhB- transport were detected. All changes in membrane capacitance and currents were independent of the modulation employed and were equivalent to heating by approximately 1.1 degrees C.

  13. Electrostatics of phosphoinositide bilayer membranes. Theoretical and experimental results.

    PubMed Central

    Langner, M; Cafiso, D; Marcelja, S; McLaughlin, S

    1990-01-01

    We made fluorescence, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), electrophoretic mobility, and ionizing electrode measurements to study the effect of the monovalent lipid phosphatidylinositol (PI) and the trivalent lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the electrostatic potential adjacent to bilayer membranes. When the membranes were formed from mixtures of PI and the zwitterionic lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC), the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS) theory described adequately the dependence of potential on distance (0, 1, 2 nm) from the membrane, mole % negative lipid, and [KCI]. Furthermore, all EPR and fluorescence probes reported identical surface potentials with a PC/PI membrane. With PC/PIP2 membranes, however, the anionic (coion) probes reported less negative potentials than the cationic (counterion) probes; the deviations from the GCS theory were greater for the coions than the counterions. Discreteness-of-charge theories based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation incorrectly predict that deviations from the GCS theory should be greater for counterions than for coions. We discuss a consistent statistical mechanical theory that takes into account three effects ignored in the GCS theory: the finite size of the ions in the double layer, the electrical interaction between pairs of ions (correlation effects), and the mobile discrete nature of the surface charges. This theory correctly predicts that deviations from GCS theory should be negligible for monovalent lipids, significant for trivalent lipids, and greater for coions than for counterions. PMID:2156577

  14. Micrometer-Scale Membrane Transition of Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane Reconstituted with Cytosol of Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kei; Toyota, Taro

    2017-01-01

    Background: The transformation of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane by extracted cytosol from living resources, has recently drawn much attention. It enables us to address the question of whether the purified phospholipid SLB membrane, including lipids related to amoeba locomotion, which was discussed in many previous studies, exhibits membrane deformation in the presence of cytosol extracted from amoeba; Methods: In this report, a method for reconstituting a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane, composed of purified phospholipids and cytosol extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum, is described. This technique is a new reconstitution method combining the artificial constitution of membranes with the reconstitution using animate cytosol (without precise purification at a molecular level), contributing to membrane deformation analysis; Results: The morphology transition of a SLB membrane composed of phosphatidylcholines, after the addition of cytosolic extract, was traced using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope. As a result, pore formation in the SLB membrane was observed and phosphatidylinositides incorporated into the SLB membrane tended to suppress pore formation and expansion; Conclusions: The current findings imply that phosphatidylinositides have the potential to control cytoplasm activity and bind to a phosphoinositide-containing SLB membrane. PMID:28272354

  15. Micrometer-Scale Membrane Transition of Supported Lipid Bilayer Membrane Reconstituted with Cytosol of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kei; Toyota, Taro

    2017-03-07

    The transformation of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane by extracted cytosol from living resources, has recently drawn much attention. It enables us to address the question of whether the purified phospholipid SLB membrane, including lipids related to amoeba locomotion, which was discussed in many previous studies, exhibits membrane deformation in the presence of cytosol extracted from amoeba; Methods: In this report, a method for reconstituting a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membrane, composed of purified phospholipids and cytosol extracted from Dictyostelium discoideum, is described. This technique is a new reconstitution method combining the artificial constitution of membranes with the reconstitution using animate cytosol (without precise purification at a molecular level), contributing to membrane deformation analysis; Results: The morphology transition of a SLB membrane composed of phosphatidylcholines, after the addition of cytosolic extract, was traced using a confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscope. As a result, pore formation in the SLB membrane was observed and phosphatidylinositides incorporated into the SLB membrane tended to suppress pore formation and expansion; Conclusions: The current findings imply that phosphatidylinositides have the potential to control cytoplasm activity and bind to a phosphoinositide-containing SLB membrane.

  16. Detergent interaction with tethered bilayer lipid membranes for protein reconstitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broccio, Matteo; Zan Goh, Haw; Loesche, Mathias

    2009-03-01

    Tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) are self-assembled biomimetic structures in which the membrane is separated from a solid substrate by a nm-thick hydrated submembrane space. These model systems are being used in binding studies of peripheral proteins and exotoxins. Here we aim at their application for the reconstitution of water-insoluble integral membrane proteins. As an alternative to fusion of preformed proteoliposomes we study the direct reconstitution of such proteins for applications in biosensing and pharmaceutical screening. For reconstitution, highly insulating tBLMs (R˜10^5-10^6 φ) were temporarily incubated with a detergent to screen for conditions that keep the detergent-saturated membranestable and ready to incorporate detergent-solubilized proteins. We assess the electrical characteristics, i.e. specific resistance and capacitance, by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under timed incubation with decylmaltoside and dodecylmaltoside detergents in a regime around their critical micelle concentration, 1.8 mM and 0.17 mM respectively and demonstrate the restoration of the tBLM upon detergent removal. Thereby a range of concentration and incubation times was identified, that represents optimal conditions for the subsequent membrane protein reconstitution.

  17. Brownian dynamics simulations of lipid bilayer membrane with hydrodynamic interactions in LAMMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Szu-Pei; Young, Yuan-Nan; Peng, Zhangli; Yuan, Hongyan

    2016-11-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes have been extensively studied by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. Numerical efficiencies have been reported in the cases of aggressive coarse-graining, where several lipids are coarse-grained into a particle of size 4 6 nm so that there is only one particle in the thickness direction. Yuan et al. proposed a pair-potential between these one-particle-thick coarse-grained lipid particles to capture the mechanical properties of a lipid bilayer membrane (such as gel-fluid-gas phase transitions of lipids, diffusion, and bending rigidity). In this work we implement such interaction potential in LAMMPS to simulate large-scale lipid systems such as vesicles and red blood cells (RBCs). We also consider the effect of cytoskeleton on the lipid membrane dynamics as a model for red blood cell (RBC) dynamics, and incorporate coarse-grained water molecules to account for hydrodynamic interactions. The interaction between the coarse-grained water molecules (explicit solvent molecules) is modeled as a Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. We focus on two sets of LAMMPS simulations: 1. Vesicle shape transitions with varying enclosed volume; 2. RBC shape transitions with different enclosed volume. This work is funded by NSF under Grant DMS-1222550.

  18. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  19. Molecular dynamics study of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Yoshimichi; Aoki, Noriyuki; Okazaki, Susumu

    2016-02-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) calculations of lipid bilayers modeling the plasma membranes of normal mouse hepatocytes and hepatomas in water have been performed under physiological isothermal-isobaric conditions (310.15 K and 1 atm). The changes in the membrane properties induced by hepatic canceration were investigated and were compared with previous MD calculations included in our previous study of the changes in membrane properties induced by murine thymic canceration. The calculated model membranes for normal hepatocytes and hepatomas comprised 23 and 24 kinds of lipids, respectively. These included phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinositol, sphingomyelin, lysophospholipids, and cholesterol. We referred to previously published experimental values for the mole fraction of the lipids adopted in the present calculations. The calculated structural and dynamic properties of the membranes such as lateral structure, order parameters, lateral self-diffusion constants, and rotational correlation times all showed that hepatic canceration causes plasma membranes to become more ordered laterally and less fluid. Interestingly, this finding contrasts with the less ordered structure and increased fluidity of plasma membranes induced by thymic canceration observed in our previous MD study.

  20. Acyl chain composition and coexisting fluid phases in lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yongwen; Bradley, Miranda; Mitchell, Drake

    2011-10-01

    At room temperature phospholipid bilayers enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol may form a solid phase as well as two coexisting fluid phases. These are the standard fluid phase, or the liquid-disordered phase, ld, and the liquid-ordered phase, lo, which is commonly associated with lipid rafts. Ternary mixtures of palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphocholine (POPC; 16:0,18:1 PC), sphingomyelin (SPM), and cholesterol (Chol) form coexisting lo, ld and solid phases over a wide range of molar ratios. We are examining the ability of two fluorescent probes to detect these 2 phases: NBD linked to di-16:0 PE which partitions strongly into the lo phase and NBD linked to di-18:1 PE which partitions strongly into the ld phase. We are also examining the effect of the highly polyunsaturated phospholipid stearoyl-docosahexanoyl-phosphocholine (SDPC; 18:0, 22:6 PC) on the ternary phase diagram of POPC/SPM/Chol with particular focus on the functionally important lo/ld coexistence region. We report on the fluorescence lifetime and anisotropy decay dynamics of these two fluorescent probes.

  1. Membrane on a chip: a functional tethered lipid bilayer membrane on silicon oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Atanasov, Vladimir; Knorr, Nikolaus; Duran, Randolph S; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Köper, Ingo

    2005-09-01

    Tethered membranes have been proven during recent years to be a powerful and flexible biomimetic platform. We reported in a previous article on the design of a new architecture based on the self-assembly of a thiolipid on ultrasmooth gold substrates, which shows extremely good electrical sealing properties as well as functionality of a bilayer membrane. Here, we describe the synthesis of lipids for a more modular design and the adaptation of the linker part to silane chemistry. We were able to form a functional tethered bilayer lipid membrane with good electrical sealing properties covering a silicon oxide surface. We demonstrate the functional incorporation of the ion carrier valinomycin and of the ion channel gramicidin.

  2. Membrane on a Chip: A Functional Tethered Lipid Bilayer Membrane on Silicon Oxide Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Atanasov, Vladimir; Knorr, Nikolaus; Duran, Randolph S.; Ingebrandt, Sven; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Knoll, Wolfgang; Köper, Ingo

    2005-01-01

    Tethered membranes have been proven during recent years to be a powerful and flexible biomimetic platform. We reported in a previous article on the design of a new architecture based on the self-assembly of a thiolipid on ultrasmooth gold substrates, which shows extremely good electrical sealing properties as well as functionality of a bilayer membrane. Here, we describe the synthesis of lipids for a more modular design and the adaptation of the linker part to silane chemistry. We were able to form a functional tethered bilayer lipid membrane with good electrical sealing properties covering a silicon oxide surface. We demonstrate the functional incorporation of the ion carrier valinomycin and of the ion channel gramicidin. PMID:16127170

  3. Multiscale modeling of droplet interface bilayer membrane networks

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Eric C.; Farimani, Amir B.; Aluru, Narayana R.; Philen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayer (DIB) networks are considered for the development of stimuli-responsive membrane-based materials inspired by cellular mechanics. These DIB networks are often modeled as combinations of electrical circuit analogues, creating complex networks of capacitors and resistors that mimic the biomolecular structures. These empirical models are capable of replicating data from electrophysiology experiments, but these models do not accurately capture the underlying physical phenomena and consequently do not allow for simulations of material functionalities beyond the voltage-clamp or current-clamp conditions. The work presented here provides a more robust description of DIB network behavior through the development of a hierarchical multiscale model, recognizing that the macroscopic network properties are functions of their underlying molecular structure. The result of this research is a modeling methodology based on controlled exchanges across the interfaces of neighboring droplets. This methodology is validated against experimental data, and an extension case is provided to demonstrate possible future applications of droplet interface bilayer networks. PMID:26594262

  4. Dynamical Stabilization of Large Pores in Bilayer Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Philip

    1997-03-01

    I will review two recent results involving large stable pores in lipid bilayer membranes. Needham and Zhelev have created long-lived, dynamically stabilized pores in vesicles using micropipette suction. We explain the long lifetime of these pores, and their very sudden closure. (2) Bar-Ziv, Frisch, and Moses have induced vesicles to expel interior objects after irradiation with laser light. This process also involves the formation of a long-lived exit pore in the outer vesicle. We report new experimental results and sketch a theory to explain them. The main hypothesis is that the laser trap pulls in lipid and ejects it in the form of submicron objects, whose osmotic activity then drives the expulsion.

  5. Interaction between a rodlike inclusion and a supported bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiyi; Ma, Yuqiang

    2006-10-28

    The interactions between a rodlike inclusion and a supported copolymer bilayer membrane are investigated by using the self-consistent field theory. For different system parameters, physical observables, such as the interaction free energy, entropy, and translocation energy barrier, are obtained. Particular emphasis is put on the closely energetic and entropic analyses of the interaction. It shows that the interfacial energy provides a qualitative trend and dominates the basic shape of the interaction free energy curve; the combination of chemical potential energy and total entropy contribution is responsible for the translocation energy barrier and the weak attraction in the vicinity of upper monolayer surface. We also specify the nature, height, and shape of the energy barrier to translocation. Particularly, the height is roughly proportional to the rod radius.

  6. Fluorescence microscopic characterization of ionic polymer bead-supported phospholipid bilayer membrane systems.

    PubMed

    Haratake, Mamoru; Osei-Asante, Samuel; Fuchigami, Takeshi; Nakayama, Morio

    2012-12-01

    Supported phospholipid membrane structures on cationic organic polymer beads were prepared using mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylserine (PS) and egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC). Confocal fluorescence microscopic observations using a fluorescent membrane probe (N-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-phosphatidylethanolamine) revealed that the phospholipid molecules in the PS/PC-bead complexes were along the outer surface of the beads, but not inside the beads. The anionic PS on the most outer surface of the PS/PC-bead complexes was responsible for the binding of a positively charged macromolecule, rhodamine isothiocyanate dextran (M(w) 70,000) by electrostatic attractive forces. The fluidity of the membranes in the PS/PC-bead complexes was investigated by the fluorescence recovery after a photobleaching technique. The lateral diffusion coefficients (D) for the PS/PC-bead complexes were one-half or less than that for 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine giant unilamellar vesicles without solid supporting materials. Such a constrain of the phospholipid bilayer membrane in the complexes appeared to be due to its immobilization on the cationic polymer bead by electrostatic attractive forces between the PS and ammonium group on the surface of the bead. The D values for the complexes were dependent on the phospholipid composition; the PS(25 mol%)/PC(75 mol%)-bead complex produced a more fluid membrane than the PS(50 mol%)/PC(50 mol%)-bead one. Thus, the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer membranes formed on the cationic polymer beads was significantly affected by the anionic phospholipid fraction used for the preparation of the complexes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Force dynamique des membranes fluides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Evan; Heinrich, Volkmar

    2003-03-01

    Rupturing fluid membrane vesicles with a steady ramp of micropipette suction yields a tension distribution that images the kinetic process of membrane failure. When plotted on a log scale of tension loading rate, the distribution peaks (membrane strengths) define a dynamic tension spectrum with distinct regimes that reflect passage of prominent energy barriers along the pathway to rupture. Demonstrated here by tests on giant PC lipid vesicles over loading rates from 0.06-60 mN/m/s, the stochastic process of rupture can be modelled as a causal sequence of two thermally-activated transitions where each transition governs membrane strength on separate scales of loading rate. Under fast ramps of tension, a steep linear regime appears in each spectrum at high strengths which implies that failure requires nucleation of a rare nanoscale defect. The slope and projected intercept yield defect size and spontaneous production rate respectively. However, under slow ramps of loading, the spectrum crosses over to a shallow-curved regime at lower strength, which is consistent with the kinetic impedance to opening an unstable hole in a fluid film. The dependence of rupture tension on rate reveals hole edge energy and frequency scale for thermal fluctuations in size. To cite this article: E. Evans, V. Heinrich, C. R. Physique 4 (2003).

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of a microfabricated resonator using a graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Minhyuk; Lee, Eunho; Cho, Kilwon; Jeon, Sangmin

    2014-08-18

    A graphene layer was synthesized using chemical vapor deposition methods and a polystyrene solution was spin-cast onto the graphene film. The graphene-polystyrene bilayer membrane was attached between the two tines of a microfabricated quartz tuning fork (QTF). The modulus of the graphene-polystyrene bilayer was measured to be twice that of a pristine polystyrene membrane. Exposure of the membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor decreased the resonance frequency of the microresonator. The bilayer membrane-coated QTF produced a frequency change that was three times the change obtained using a polystyrene membrane-coated QTF, with a lower degree of degradation in the Q factor. The limit of detection of the bilayer membrane-coated QTF to ethanol vapor was determined to be 20 ppm.

  9. Mechanical properties of electrospun bilayer fibrous membranes as potential scaffolds for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Pu, Juan; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos

    2014-06-01

    Bilayer fibrous membranes of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) were fabricated by electrospinning, using a parallel-disk mandrel configuration that resulted in the sequential deposition of a layer with fibers aligned across the two parallel disks and a layer with randomly oriented fibers, both layers deposited in a single process step. Membrane structure and fiber alignment were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and two-dimensional fast Fourier transform. Because of the intricacies of the generated electric field, bilayer membranes exhibited higher porosity than single-layer membranes consisting of randomly oriented fibers fabricated with a solid-drum collector. However, despite their higher porosity, bilayer membranes demonstrated generally higher elastic modulus, yield strength and toughness than single-layer membranes with random fibers. Bilayer membrane deformation at relatively high strain rates comprised multiple abrupt microfracture events characterized by discontinuous fiber breakage. Bilayer membrane elongation yielded excessive necking of the layer with random fibers and remarkable fiber stretching (on the order of 400%) in the layer with fibers aligned in the stress direction. In addition, fibers in both layers exhibited multiple localized necking, attributed to the nonuniform distribution of crystalline phases in the fibrillar structure. The high membrane porosity, good mechanical properties, and good biocompatibility and biodegradability of PLLA (demonstrated in previous studies) make the present bilayer membranes good scaffold candidates for a wide range of tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Modified Phospholipid Bilayers on the Electrochemical Activity of a Membrane-Spanning Conjugated Oligoelectrolyte.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Justin P; Bazan, Guillermo C; Sumner, James J

    2015-10-27

    The incorporation and electrochemical activity of a conjugated oligoelectrolyte (COE) in model phospholipid bilayers have been characterized using cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis absorption measurements. Several other modifiers were also incorporated into the phospholipid membranes to alter properties such as charge and alkyl chain disorder. Using potassium ferricyanide to measure charge transport, it was observed that bilayers that contained cholic acid, a negatively charged additive that also promotes alkyl chain disorder, had higher COE uptake and charge permeability than unmodified bilayers. In contrast, when the positively charged choline was incorporated, charge permeability decreased and COE uptake was similar to that of unmodified bilayers. The incorporation of cholesterol at low concentrations within the phospholipid membranes was shown to enhance the COE's effectiveness at increasing membrane charge permeability without increasing the COE concentration in the bilayer. Higher concentrations of cholesterol reduce membrane fluidity and membrane charge permeability. Collectively, these results demonstrate that changes in phospholipid membrane charge permeability upon COE incorporation depend not only on the concentration in the membrane but also on interactions with the phospholipid bilayer and other additives present in the membranes. This approach of manipulating the properties of phospholipid membranes to understand COE interactions is applicable to understanding the behavior of a wide range of molecules that impart useful properties to phospholipid membranes.

  11. Thermal fluctuations and bending rigidity of bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Pedro; Chacón, Enrique; Bresme, Fernando

    2013-09-07

    We present a new scheme to estimate the elastic properties of biological membranes in computer simulations. The method analyzes the thermal fluctuations in terms of a coupled undulatory mode, which disentangle the mixing of the mesoscopic undulations and the high-q protrusions. This approach makes possible the accurate estimation of the bending modulus both for membranes under stress and in tensionless conditions; it also extends the applicability of the fluctuation analysis to the small membrane areas normally used in atomistic simulations. Also we clarify the difference between the surface tension imposed in simulations through a pressure coupling barostat, and the surface tension that can be extracted from the analysis of the low wave vector dependence of the coupled undulatory fluctuation spectrum. The physical analysis of the peristaltic mode is also refined, by separating the bulk and protrusions contributions. We illustrate the procedure by analyzing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers. The bending moduli obtained from our analysis, shows good agreement with available experiments.

  12. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine andmore » phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.« less

  13. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  14. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Durgesh K.; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T.

    2016-08-13

    We report that membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L = 1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L = 1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. Lastly, the results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes.

  15. The Interaction of Melittin with Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylcholine-Dimyristoyl Phosphatidylserine Lipid Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Rai, Durgesh K; Qian, Shuo; Heller, William T

    2016-11-01

    Membrane-active peptides (MAPs), which interact directly with the lipid bilayer of a cell and include toxins and host defense peptides, display lipid composition-dependent activity. Phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids are anionic lipids that are found throughout the cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms where they serve as both a functional component and as a precursor to phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The inner leaflet of the plasma membrane contains more PS than the outer one, and the asymmetry is actively maintained. Here, the impact of the MAP melittin on the structure of lipid bilayer vesicles made of a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine was studied. Small-angle neutron scattering of the MAP associated with selectively deuterium-labeled lipid bilayer vesicles revealed how the thickness and lipid composition of phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles change in response to melittin. The peptide thickens the lipid bilayer for concentrations up to P/L=1/500, but membrane thinning results when P/L=1/200. The thickness transition is accompanied by a large change in the distribution of DMPS between the leaflets of the bilayer. The change in composition is driven by electrostatic interactions, while the change in bilayer thickness is driven by changes in the interaction of the peptide with the headgroup region of the lipid bilayer. The results provide new information about lipid-specific interactions that take place in mixed composition lipid bilayer membranes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Particle-based simulations of bilayer membranes: self-assembly, structural analysis, and shock-wave damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinhauser, Martin O.; Schindler, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    We report on the results of particle-based, coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of amphiphilic lipid molecules in aqueous environment where the membrane structures at equilibrium are subsequently exposed to strong shock waves, and their damage is analyzed. The lipid molecules self-assemble from unbiased random initial configurations to form stable bilayer membranes, including closed vesicles. During self-assembly of lipid molecules, we observe several stages of clustering, starting with many small clusters of lipids, gradually merging together to finally form one single bilayer membrane. We find that the clustering of lipids sensitively depends on the hydrophobic interaction h_c of the lipid tails in our model and on temperature T of the system. The self-assembled bilayer membranes are quantitatively analyzed at equilibrium with respect to their degree of order and their local structure. We also show that—by analyzing the membrane fluctuations and using a linearized theory— we obtain area compression moduli K_A and bending stiffnesses κ _B for our bilayer membranes which are within the experimental range of in vivo and in vitro measurements of biological membranes. We also discuss the density profile and the pair correlation function of our model membranes at equilibrium which has not been done in previous studies of particle-based membrane models. Furthermore, we present a detailed phase diagram of our lipid model that exhibits a sol-gel transition between quasi-solid and fluid domains, and domains where no self-assembly of lipids occurs. In addition, we present in the phase diagram the conditions for temperature T and hydrophobicity h_c of the lipid tails of our model to form closed vesicles. The stable bilayer membranes obtained at equilibrium are then subjected to strong shock waves in a shock tube setup, and we investigate the damage in the membranes due to their interaction with shock waves. Here, we find a transition from self

  17. Analysis of the Torus Surrounding Planar Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen H.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the torus (annulus) surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes formed across a cylindrical aperture are analyzed using equations for the shape and volume of the annulus derived by the methods of variational calculus. The analysis leads to the following results: (a) Design criteria for the aperture can be established. (b) The transition region between thin film and thick annulus can be defined quantitatively and its effect on the measurement of specific capacitance determined. (c) At fixed annulus volume the diameter of the thin membrane is a function of the thin film-annulus contact angle. This suggests a new method for examining changes in free energy of the thin film, and explains why the area of thin film increases reversibly when potentials are present across the film. (d) In the absence of buoyant forces, the equations for the shape and volume of the annulus consist of incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds; however, the shape of the annulus in the transition region can be described with good accuracy by an approximate equation of greater simplicity. PMID:5019479

  18. Analysis of the torus surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    White, S H

    1972-04-01

    The characteristics and behavior of the torus (annulus) surrounding planar lipid bilayer membranes formed across a cylindrical aperture are analyzed using equations for the shape and volume of the annulus derived by the methods of variational calculus. The analysis leads to the following results: (a) Design criteria for the aperture can be established. (b) The transition region between thin film and thick annulus can be defined quantitatively and its effect on the measurement of specific capacitance determined. (c) At fixed annulus volume the diameter of the thin membrane is a function of the thin film-annulus contact angle. This suggests a new method for examining changes in free energy of the thin film, and explains why the area of thin film increases reversibly when potentials are present across the film. (d) In the absence of buoyant forces, the equations for the shape and volume of the annulus consist of incomplete elliptic integrals of the first and second kinds; however, the shape of the annulus in the transition region can be described with good accuracy by an approximate equation of greater simplicity.

  19. Fluid transport by active elastic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Lauga, Eric

    2011-09-01

    A flexible membrane deforming its shape in time can self-propel in a viscous fluid. Alternatively, if the membrane is anchored, its deformation will lead to fluid transport. Past work in this area focused on situations where the deformation kinematics of the membrane were prescribed. Here we consider models where the deformation of the membrane is not prescribed, but instead the membrane is internally forced. Both the time-varying membrane shape and the resulting fluid motion result then from a balance between prescribed internal active stresses, internal passive resistance, and external viscous stresses. We introduce two specific models for such active internal forcing: one where a distribution of active bending moments is prescribed, and one where active inclusions exert normal stresses on the membrane by pumping fluid through it. In each case, we asymptotically calculate the membrane shape and the fluid transport velocities for small forcing amplitudes, and recover our results using scaling analysis.

  20. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-28

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, d{sub m}, affects both q{sub dip} and q{sub peak} of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the q{sub dip} of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized q{sub peak} ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  1. Investigation of the effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on SANS/SAXS profile for short membrane wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Victor; Hawa, Takumi

    2013-09-01

    The effect of bilayer membrane structures and fluctuation amplitudes on small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) profile is investigated based on harmonic motions of the surfactant bilayers with bending as well as thickness fluctuation motions. In this study we consider the case in which the wavelength of the bilayer membrane is shorter than the thickness of the membrane. We find that the thickness of the surfactant bilayer membrane, dm, affects both qdip and qpeak of I(q,0) profile, and that the fluctuation amplitude, a, of the membrane changes the peak of I(q,0). A simple formula is derived to estimate the thickness of the bilayer based on the qdip of the profile obtained from the simulation. The resulting estimates of the thickness of the bilayer with harmonic motion showed accuracy within 1%. Moreover, the bilayer thicknesses estimated from the proposed formula show an excellent agreement with the SANS and SAXS experimental results available in the literatures. We also propose a curve fit model, which describes the relationship between the fluctuation amplitude and the normalized qpeak ratio. The present results show the feasibility of the simple formula to estimate the fluctuation amplitude based on the SANS and SAXS profiles.

  2. Prevention of Intra-Abdominal Adhesion by Bi-Layer Electrospun Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shichao; Wang, Wei; Yan, Hede; Fan, Cunyi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anti-adhesion efficacy of a bi-layer electrospun fibrous membrane consisting of hyaluronic acid-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous membrane as the inner layer and PCL fibrous membrane as the outer layer with a single-layer PCL electrospun fibrous membrane in a rat cecum abrasion model. The rat model utilized a cecal abrasion and abdominal wall insult surgical protocol. The bi-layer and PCL membranes were applied between the cecum and the abdominal wall, respectively. Control animals did not receive any treatment. After postoperative day 14, a visual semiquantitative grading scale was used to grade the extent of adhesion. Histological analysis was performed to reveal the features of adhesion tissues. Bi-layer membrane treated animals showed significantly lower adhesion scores than control animals (p < 0.05) and a lower adhesion score compared with the PCL membrane. Histological analysis of the bi-layer membrane treated rat rarely demonstrated tissue adhesion while that of the PCL membrane treated rat and control rat showed loose and dense adhesion tissues, respectively. Bi-layer membrane can efficiently prevent adhesion formation in abdominal cavity and showed a significantly decreased adhesion tissue formation compared with the control. PMID:23736693

  3. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation and, through the use of a saddle-point approximation, transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero-mode fluctuations of the membranes and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area S , we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the intermembrane separation d as d-2 for d ≪√{S } but crosses over to d-4 scaling for d ≫√{S } , whereas the zero-mode part of the steric potential always scales as d-2. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude σ , which becomes small at low temperatures T and/or large bending stiffnesses κ . Moreover, σ scales as d for d ≪√{S } but saturates at √{kBT S /κ } for d ≫√{S } . In addition, using variational Gaussian theory, we apply our self-consistent treatment to study intermembrane interactions subject to different types of potentials: (i) the Moreira-Netz potential for a pair of strongly charged membranes with an intervening solution of multivalent counterions, (ii) an attractive square well, (iii) the Morse potential, and (iv) a combination of hydration and van der Waals interactions.

  4. The Antimicrobial Peptide Gramicidin S Permeabilizes Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes Without Forming Discrete Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md.; Andersen, O. S.; McElhaney, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the permeabilization of lipid bilayers by the β-sheet, cyclic antimicrobial decapeptide gramicidin S (GS) in phospholipid bilayers formed either by mixtures of zwitterionic diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine and anionic diphytanoylphosphatidylglycerol or by single zwitterionic unsaturated phosphatidylcholines having various hydrocarbon chain lengths, with and without cholesterol. In the zwitterionic bilayers formed by the phosphatidylcholines, without or with cholesterol, the peptide concentrations and membrane potentials required to initiate membrane permeabilization vary little as function of bilayer thickness and cholesterol content. In all the systems tested, the GS-induced transient ion conductance events exhibit a broad range of conductances, which are little affected by the bilayer composition or thickness. In the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine bilayers, the effect of GS does not depend on the polarity of the transmembrane potential; however, in bilayers formed from mixtures of phosphatidylcholines and anionic phospholipids, the polarity of the transmembrane potential becomes important, with the GS-induced conductance events being much more frequent when the GS-containing solution is positive relative to the GS-free solution. Overall, these results suggest that GS does not form discrete, well-defined, channel-like structures in phospholipid bilayers, but rather induces a wide variety of transient, differently sized defects which serve to compromise the bilayer barrier properties for small electrolytes. PMID:18809374

  5. The antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S permeabilizes phospholipid bilayer membranes without forming discrete ion channels.

    PubMed

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Andersen, O S; McElhaney, R N

    2008-12-01

    We examined the permeabilization of lipid bilayers by the beta-sheet, cyclic antimicrobial decapeptide gramicidin S (GS) in phospholipid bilayers formed either by mixtures of zwitterionic diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine and anionic diphytanoylphosphatidylglycerol or by single zwitterionic unsaturated phosphatidylcholines having various hydrocarbon chain lengths, with and without cholesterol. In the zwitterionic bilayers formed by the phosphatidylcholines, without or with cholesterol, the peptide concentrations and membrane potentials required to initiate membrane permeabilization vary little as function of bilayer thickness and cholesterol content. In all the systems tested, the GS-induced transient ion conductance events exhibit a broad range of conductances, which are little affected by the bilayer composition or thickness. In the zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine bilayers, the effect of GS does not depend on the polarity of the transmembrane potential; however, in bilayers formed from mixtures of phosphatidylcholines and anionic phospholipids, the polarity of the transmembrane potential becomes important, with the GS-induced conductance events being much more frequent when the GS-containing solution is positive relative to the GS-free solution. Overall, these results suggest that GS does not form discrete, well-defined, channel-like structures in phospholipid bilayers, but rather induces a wide variety of transient, differently sized defects which serve to compromise the bilayer barrier properties for small electrolytes.

  6. Influence of the bilayer composition on the binding and membrane disrupting effect of Polybia-MP1, an antimicrobial mastoparan peptide with leukemic T-lymphocyte cell selectivity.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Cabrera, Marcia Perez; Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Gorjão, Renata; Leite, Natália Bueno; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Curi, Rui; Procopio, Joaquim; Ruggiero Neto, João; Palma, Mario Sérgio

    2012-06-19

    This study shows that MP-1, a peptide from the venom of the Polybia paulista wasp, is more toxic to human leukemic T-lymphocytes than to human primary lymphocytes. By using model membranes and electrophysiology measurements to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this selective action, the porelike activity of MP-1 was identified with several bilayer compositions. The highest average conductance was found in bilayers formed by phosphatidylcholine or a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylserine (70:30). The presence of cholesterol or cardiolipin substantially decreases the MP-1 pore activity, suggesting that the membrane fluidity influences the mechanism of selective toxicity. The determination of partition coefficients from the anisotropy of Trp indicated higher coefficients for the anionic bilayers. The partition coefficients were found to be 1 order of magnitude smaller when the bilayers contain cholesterol or a mixture of cholesterol and sphingomyelin. The blue shift fluorescence, anisotropy values, and Stern-Volmer constants are indications of a deeper penetration of MP-1 into anionic bilayers than into zwitterionic bilayers. Our results indicate that MP-1 prefers to target leukemic cell membranes, and its toxicity is probably related to the induction of necrosis and not to DNA fragmentation. This mode of action can be interpreted considering a number of bilayer properties like fluidity, lipid charge, and domain formation. Cholesterol-containing bilayers are less fluid and less charged and have a tendency to form domains. In comparison to healthy cells, leukemic T-lymphocyte membranes are deprived of this lipid, resulting in decreased peptide binding and lower conductance. We showed that the higher content of anionic lipids increases the level of binding of the peptide to bilayers. Additionally, the absence of cholesterol resulted in enhanced pore activity. These findings may drive the selective toxicity of MP-1 to Jurkat cells.

  7. Method of fabricating lipid bilayer membranes on solid supports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon (Inventor); Frank, Curtis W. (Inventor); Glenn, Jeffrey S. (Inventor); Cheong, Kwang Ho (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of producing a planar lipid bilayer on a solid support. With this method, a solution of lipid vesicles is first deposited on the solid support. Next, the lipid vesicles are destabilized by adding an amphipathic peptide solution to the lipid vesicle solution. This destabilization leads to production of a planar lipid bilayer on the solid support. The present invention also provides a supported planar lipid bilayer, where the planar lipid bilayer is made of naturally occurring lipids and the solid support is made of unmodified gold or titanium oxide. Preferably, the supported planar lipid bilayer is continuous. The planar lipid bilayer may be made of any naturally occurring lipid or mixture of lipids, including, but not limited to phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylinsitol, cardiolipin, cholesterol, and sphingomyelin.

  8. Evaluation and biological characterization of bilayer gelatin/chondroitin-6-sulphate/hyaluronic acid membrane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tzu-Wei; Sun, Jui-Sheng; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Huang, Yi-Chau; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2007-08-01

    A biodegradable polymer scaffold was developed using gelatin, chondroitin-6-sulphate, and hyaluronic acid in the form of bilayer network. The bilayer porous structure of gelatin-chondroitin-6-sulphate-hyaluronic acid (G-C6S-HA) membrane was fabricated using different freezing temperatures followed by lyophilization. 1-Ethyl-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide was used as crosslinking agent to improve the biological stability of the scaffold. The morphology, physical-chemical properties, and biocompatibility of bilayer G-C6S-HA membrane were evaluated in this study. The functional groups change in crosslinked G-C6S-HA scaffold was characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The retention of glycosaminoglycan contents and matrix degradation rate were also examined by p-dimethylamino benzaldehyde and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid, respectively. Water absorption capacity was carried out to study G-C6S-HA membrane water containing characteristics. The morphology of the bilayer G-C6S-HA membrane was investigated under scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. In vitro biocompatibility was conducted with MTT test, LDH assay, as well as histological analysis. The results showed that the morphology of bilayer G-C6S-HA membrane was well reserved. The physical-chemical properties were also adequate. With good biocompatibility, this bilayer G-C6S-HA membrane would be suitable as a matrix in the application of tissue engineering.

  9. Effect of glucosylceramide on the biophysical properties of fluid membranes.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana R P; Gonçalves da Silva, Amélia M P S; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Prieto, Manuel; Silva, Liana C

    2013-03-01

    Glucosylceramide (GlcCer), a relevant intermediate in the pathways of glycosphingolipid metabolism, plays key roles in the regulation of cell physiology. The molecular mechanisms by which GlcCer regulates cellular processes are unknown, but might involve changes in membrane biophysical properties and formation of lipid domains. In the present study, fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal microscopy and surface pressure-area (π-A) measurements were used to characterize the effect of GlcCer on the biophysical properties of model membranes. We show that C16:0-GlcCer has a high tendency to segregate into highly ordered gel domains and to increase the order of the fluid phase. Monolayer studies support the aggregation propensity of C16:0-GlcCer. π-A isotherms of single C16:0-GlcCer indicate that bilayer domains, or crystal-like structures, coexist within monolayer domains at the air-water interface. Mixtures with POPC exhibit partial miscibility with expansion of the mean molecular areas relative to the additive behavior of the components. Moreover, C16:0-GlcCer promotes morphological alterations in lipid vesicles leading to formation of flexible tubule-like structures that protrude from the fluid region of the bilayer. These results support the hypothesis that alterations in membrane biophysical properties induced by GlcCer might be involved in its mechanism of action.

  10. Field Theoretic Study of Bilayer Membrane Fusion. I. Hemifusion Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Katsov, K.; Müller, M.; Schick, M.

    2004-01-01

    Self-consistent field theory is used to determine structural and energetic properties of metastable intermediates and unstable transition states involved in the standard stalk mechanism of bilayer membrane fusion. A microscopic model of flexible amphiphilic chains dissolved in hydrophilic solvent is employed to describe these self-assembled structures. We find that the barrier to formation of the initial stalk is much smaller than previously estimated by phenomenological theories. Therefore its creation it is not the rate-limiting process. The relevant barrier is associated with the rather limited radial expansion of the stalk into a hemifusion diaphragm. It is strongly affected by the architecture of the amphiphile, decreasing as the effective spontaneous curvature of the amphiphile is made more negative. It is also reduced when the tension is increased. At high tension the fusion pore, created when a hole forms in the hemifusion diaphragm, expands without bound. At very low membrane tension, small fusion pores can be trapped in a flickering metastable state. Successful fusion is severely limited by the architecture of the lipids. If the effective spontaneous curvature is not sufficiently negative, fusion does not occur because metastable stalks, whose existence is a seemingly necessary prerequisite, do not form at all. However if the spontaneous curvature is too negative, stalks are so stable that fusion does not occur because the system is unstable either to a phase of stable radial stalks, or to an inverted-hexagonal phase induced by stable linear stalks. Our results on the architecture and tension needed for successful fusion are summarized in a phase diagram. PMID:15326031

  11. The influence of charge on phosphatidic acid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Eibl, H; Blume, A

    1979-06-02

    A complete titration of phosphatidic acid bilayer membranes was possible for the first time by the introduction of a new anaologue, 1,2-dihexadecyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoric acid, which has the advantage of a high chemical stability at extreme pH values. The synthesis of the phosphatidic acid is described and the phase transition behaviour in aqueous dispersions is compared with that of three ester phosphatidic acids; 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoric acid, 1,3-dimyristoylglycerol-2-phosphoric acid and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphoric acid. The phase transition temperatures (Tt) of aqueous phosphatidic acid dispersions at different degrees of dissociation were measured using fluorescence spectroscopy and 90 degrees light scattering. The Tt values are comparable to the melting points of the solid phosphatidic acids in the fully protonated states, but large differences exist for the charged states. The Tt vs. pH diagrams of the four phosphatidic acids are quite similar and of a characteristic shape. Increasing ionisation results in a maximum value for the transition temperatures at pH 3.5 (pK1). The regions between the first and the second pK of the phosphatidic acids are characterised by only small variations in the transition temperatures (extended plateau) in spite of the large changes occurring in the surface charge of the membranes. The slope of the plateau is very shallow with increasing ionisation. A further decrease in the H+ concentration results in an abrupt change of the transition temperature. The slope of the Tt vs. pH diagram beyond pK2 becomes very steep. This is the result of reduced hydrocarbon interaction energy, which was demonstrated by differential scanning calorimetry (Blume, A. and Eibl, H., unpublished data).

  12. Microfabrication of hybrid fluid membrane for microengines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chutani, R.; Formosa, F.; de Labachelerie, M.; Badel, A.; Lanzetta, F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the microfabrication and dynamic characterization of thick membranes providing a technological solution for microengines. The studied membranes are called hybrid fluid-membrane (HFM) and consist of two thin membranes that encapsulate an incompressible fluid. This work details the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scalable fabrication and characterization of HFMs. The membranes are composite structures based on Silicon spiral springs embedded in a polymer (RTV silicone). The anodic bonding of multiple stacks of Si/glass structures, the fluid filling and the sealing have been demonstrated. Various HFMs were successfully fabricated and their dynamic characterization demonstrates the agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  13. Lipid Bilayer Membrane Elasticity and Hydrodynamics : Insights from Dynamic Implicit-Solvent Coarse-Grained Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzberger, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes have been widely studied using fully atomistic molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics descriptions. To bridge this gap many mesoscale implicit-solvent models have been developed to capture at equilibrium essential features of lipid bilayer membrane formation and internal structure, while at the same time providing enough simplification in simulations to allow access to large spatial scales. To study dynamic processes in such implicit solvent models requires further advances to account for important kinetic effects mediated by the solvent. We discuss our recent progress on developing thermostats for dynamic processes based on continuum fluctuating hydrodynamics for implicit-solvent coarse-grained models of lipid bilayer membranes. We present results for vesicle bilayers making comparisons with explicit solvent simulations and continuum theory.

  14. Two-Phase Contiguous Supported Lipid Bilayer Model for Membrane Rafts via Polymer Blotting and Stenciling.

    PubMed

    Richards, Mark J; Daniel, Susan

    2017-02-07

    The supported lipid bilayer has been portrayed as a useful model of the cell membrane compatible with many biophysical tools and techniques that demonstrate its appeal in learning about the basic features of the plasma membrane. However, some of its potential has yet to be realized, particularly in the area of bilayer patterning and phase/composition heterogeneity. In this work, we generate contiguous bilayer patterns as a model system that captures the general features of membrane domains and lipid rafts. Micropatterned polymer templates of two types are investigated for generating patterned bilayer formation: polymer blotting and polymer lift-off stenciling. While these approaches have been used previously to create bilayer arrays by corralling bilayers patches with various types of boundaries impenetrable to bilayer diffusion, unique to the methods presented here, there are no physical barriers to diffusion. In this work, interfaces between contiguous lipid phases define the pattern shapes, with continuity between them allowing transfer of membrane-bound biomolecules between the phases. We examine effectors of membrane domain stability including temperature and cholesterol content to investigate domain dynamics. Contiguous patterning of supported bilayers as a model of lipid rafts expands the application of the SLB to an area with current appeal and brings with it a useful toolset for characterization and analysis. These combined tools should be helpful to researchers investigating lipid raft dynamics and function and biomolecule partitioning studies. Additionally, this patterning technique may be useful for applications such as bioseparations that exploit differences in lipid phase partitioning or creation of membranes that bind species like viruses preferentially at lipid phase boundaries, to name a few.

  15. Study of supported bilayer lipid membranes for use in chemo-electric energy conversion via active proton transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarles, Stephen A.; Sundaresan, Vishnu B.; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-09-01

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) have been studied extensively due to functional and structural similarities to cell membranes, fostering research to understand ion-channel protein functions, measure bilayer mechanical properties, and identify self-assembly mechanisms. BLMs have traditionally been formed across single pores in substrates such as PTFE (Teflon). The incorporation of ion-channel proteins into the lipid bilayer enables the selective transfer of ions and fluid through the BLM. Processes of this nature have led to the measurement of ion current flowing across the lipid membrane and have been used to develop sensors that signal the presence of a particular reactant (glucose, urea, penicillin), improve drug recognition in cells, and develop materials capable of creating chemical energy from light. Recent research at Virginia Tech has shown that the incorporation of proton transporters in a supported BLM formed across an array of pores can convert chemical energy available in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into electricity. Experimental results from this work show that the system-named Biocell-is capable of developing 2µW/cm2 of membrane area with 15μl of ATPase. Efforts to increase the power output and conversion efficiency of this process while moving toward a packaged device present a unique engineering problem. The bilayer, as host to the active proton transporters, must therefore be formed evenly across a porous substrate, remain stable and yet fluid-like for protein interaction, and exhibit a large seal resistance. This article presents the ongoing work to characterize the Biocell using impedance analysis. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to study the effect of adding ATPase proteins to POPS:POPE bilayer lipid membranes and correlate structural changes evident in the impedance data to the energy-conversion capability of various partial and whole Biocell assemblies. The specific membrane resistance of a pure BLM drops from 40-120k

  16. Erythrocyte Membrane Model with Explicit Description of the Lipid Bilayer and the Spectrin Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-01-01

    The membrane of the red blood cell (RBC) consists of spectrin tetramers connected at actin junctional complexes, forming a two-dimensional (2D) sixfold triangular network anchored to the lipid bilayer. Better understanding of the erythrocyte mechanics in hereditary blood disorders such as spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and especially, sickle cell disease requires the development of a detailed membrane model. In this study, we introduce a mesoscale implicit-solvent coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of the erythrocyte membrane that explicitly describes the phospholipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, by extending a previously developed two-component RBC membrane model. We show that the proposed model represents RBC membrane with the appropriate bending stiffness and shear modulus. The timescale and self-consistency of the model are established by comparing our results with experimentally measured viscosity and thermal fluctuations of the RBC membrane. Furthermore, we measure the pressure exerted by the cytoskeleton on the lipid bilayer. We find that defects at the anchoring points of the cytoskeleton to the lipid bilayer (as in spherocytes) cause a reduction in the pressure compared with an intact membrane, whereas defects in the dimer-dimer association of a spectrin filament (as in elliptocytes) cause an even larger decrease in the pressure. We conjecture that this finding may explain why the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of band-3 proteins are higher in elliptocytes than in spherocytes, and higher than in normal RBCs. Finally, we study the effects that possible attractive forces between the spectrin filaments and the lipid bilayer have on the pressure applied on the lipid bilayer by the filaments. We discover that the attractive forces cause an increase in the pressure as they diminish the effect of membrane protein defects. As this finding contradicts with experimental results, we conclude that the attractive forces are moderate and do

  17. Erythrocyte membrane model with explicit description of the lipid bilayer and the spectrin network.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2014-08-05

    The membrane of the red blood cell (RBC) consists of spectrin tetramers connected at actin junctional complexes, forming a two-dimensional (2D) sixfold triangular network anchored to the lipid bilayer. Better understanding of the erythrocyte mechanics in hereditary blood disorders such as spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and especially, sickle cell disease requires the development of a detailed membrane model. In this study, we introduce a mesoscale implicit-solvent coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model of the erythrocyte membrane that explicitly describes the phospholipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton, by extending a previously developed two-component RBC membrane model. We show that the proposed model represents RBC membrane with the appropriate bending stiffness and shear modulus. The timescale and self-consistency of the model are established by comparing our results with experimentally measured viscosity and thermal fluctuations of the RBC membrane. Furthermore, we measure the pressure exerted by the cytoskeleton on the lipid bilayer. We find that defects at the anchoring points of the cytoskeleton to the lipid bilayer (as in spherocytes) cause a reduction in the pressure compared with an intact membrane, whereas defects in the dimer-dimer association of a spectrin filament (as in elliptocytes) cause an even larger decrease in the pressure. We conjecture that this finding may explain why the experimentally measured diffusion coefficients of band-3 proteins are higher in elliptocytes than in spherocytes, and higher than in normal RBCs. Finally, we study the effects that possible attractive forces between the spectrin filaments and the lipid bilayer have on the pressure applied on the lipid bilayer by the filaments. We discover that the attractive forces cause an increase in the pressure as they diminish the effect of membrane protein defects. As this finding contradicts with experimental results, we conclude that the attractive forces are moderate and do

  18. Semiconductor particles in bilayer lipid membranes. Formation, characterization, and photoelectrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, X.K.; Baral, S.B.; Rolandi, R.; Fendler, J.H.

    1988-02-17

    Bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) have been formed from bovine brain phosphatidylserine (PS), glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and a ploymerizable surfactant, (n-C/sub 15/H/sub 31/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/))/sub 2/N/sup +/(CH/sub 3/)CH/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/CH==CH/sub 2/Cl/sup -/(STYRS). These BLMs were then used to provide matrices for the in situ generation of microcrystalline CdS, CuS, Cu/sub 2/S, PbS, ZnS, HgS, and In/sub 2/S/sub 3/. Semiconductors were formed by injecting appropriate metal ion precursors and H/sub 2/S into the bathing solutions on opposite sides of the BLM. Their presence was established by voltage-dependent capacitance measurements, absorption spectroscopy, and optical microscopy. Subsequent to the injection of H/sub 2/S, the first observable change was the appearance of fairly uniform white dots on the black film. These dots rapidly moved around and grew in size, forming islands that then merged with themselves and with a second generation of dots, which ultimately led to a continuous film that continued to grow in thickness. Film formation and growth were monitored by simultaneous optical thickness and capacitance measurements. These data were treated in terms of an equivalent R-C circuit and allowed for the assessment of the semiconductor penetration depth into the BLM. This value for a GMO-BLM-supported In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ film was determined to be 24 A. Bandgap excitation, by nanosecond-pulsed or continuous illumination of the BLM-supported semiconductor film, led to observable photoelectric effects. Visible light (lambda > 350 nm) excitation into STYRS-BLM-supported CdS led to polymerization of the styrene moiety of STYRS. BLM-supported semiconductors remained stable for days.

  19. Insertion and pore formation driven by adsorption of proteins onto lipid bilayer membrane-water interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Zuckermann, M J; Heimburg, T

    2001-01-01

    We describe the binding of proteins to lipid bilayers in the case for which binding can occur either by adsorption to the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface or by direct insertion into the bilayer itself. We examine in particular the case when the insertion and pore formation are driven by the adsorption process using scaled particle theory. The adsorbed proteins form a two-dimensional "surface gas" at the lipid bilayer membrane-water interface that exerts a lateral pressure on the lipid bilayer membrane. Under conditions of strong intrinsic binding and a high degree of interfacial converge, this pressure can become high enough to overcome the energy barrier for protein insertion. Under these conditions, a subtle equilibrium exists between the adsorbed and inserted proteins. We propose that this provides a control mechanism for reversible insertion and pore formation of proteins such as melittin and magainin. Next, we discuss experimental data for the binding isotherms of cytochrome c to charged lipid membranes in the light of our theory and predict that cytochrome c inserts into charged lipid bilayers at low ionic strength. This prediction is supported by titration calorimetry results that are reported here. We were furthermore able to describe the observed binding isotherms of the pore-forming peptides endotoxin (alpha 5-helix) and of pardaxin to zwitterionic vesicles from our theory by assuming adsorption/insertion equilibrium. PMID:11606262

  20. Partitioning of caffeine in lipid bilayers reduces membrane fluidity and increases membrane thickness.

    PubMed

    Khondker, Adree; Dhaliwal, Alexander; Alsop, Richard J; Tang, Jennifer; Backholm, Matilda; Shi, An-Chang; Rheinstädter, Maikel C

    2017-03-08

    Caffeine is a small amphiphilic molecule, which is widely consumed as a stimulant to prevent fatigue, but is also used as a common drug adjuvant in modern medicine. Here, we show that caffeine interacts with unsaturated lipid membranes made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC). By combining X-ray diffraction and molecular dynamics simulations, we present evidence that caffeine partitions in lipid membranes and locates at the head group-tail group interface of the bilayers. By attracting water molecules from neighboring lipid molecules, it leads to the formation of "water pockets", i.e., a local increase of water density at this interface. Through this mechanism, caffeine leads to an overall decrease of the gauche defect density in the membranes and an increase of membrane thickness, indicating a loss of membrane fluidity. These non-specific membrane interactions may increase the efficacy of analgesic drugs through changes in the bioavailability and rate of metabolism of these drugs.

  1. Spherical Nanoparticle Supported Lipid Bilayers for the Structural Study of Membrane Geometry-Sensitive Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward Y.; Briley, Nicole E.; Tyndall, Erin R.; Xu, Jie; Li, Conggang; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S.; Flanagan, John M.; Tian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Many essential cellular processes including endocytosis and vesicle trafficking require alteration of membrane geometry. These changes are usually mediated by proteins that can sense and/or induce membrane curvature. Using spherical nanoparticle supported lipid bilayers (SSLBs), we characterize how SpoVM, a bacterial development factor, interacts with differently curved membranes by magic angle spinning solid-state NMR. Our results demonstrate that SSLBs are an effective system for structural and topological studies of membrane geometry-sensitive molecules. PMID:26488086

  2. Close-up view of the modifications of fluid membranes due to phospholipase A(2).

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Ask F; Mouritsen, Ole G; Weiss, Matthias

    2005-11-30

    Phospholipases are a class of molecular machines that are involved in the active remodelling processes of biological membranes. These lipases are interfacially activated enzymes and in the specific case of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) the enzyme catalyses the hydrolysis of di-acyl phospholipids into products of lysolipids and fatty acids, that dramatically change the physical properties of lipid membrane substrates. Using dissipative particle dynamics simulations on a simple coarse-grained bead-spring model of a fluid lipid bilayer in water, the mechanical and diffusive properties of the bilayer in the pure state and after the action of PLA(2) have been calculated. It is found that, in response to hydrolysis, the lipid membrane becomes mechanically softened and the various in-plane and trans-bilayer diffusional modes become enhanced. The results compare favourably with available experimental data.

  3. Hydrodynamic coupling between two fluid membranes.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sanoop; Komura, Shigeyuki

    2011-02-23

    The coupled in-plane diffusion dynamics between point-particles embedded in stacked fluid membranes is investigated. We calculate the contributions to the coupling longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients due to particle motion within the different as well as the same membranes. The stacked geometry leads to a hydrodynamic coupling between the two membranes.

  4. Progression of NMR studies of membrane-active peptides from lipid bilayers to live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, M.-A.; Separovic, F.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the structure of membrane-active peptides faces many challenges associated with the development of appropriate model membrane systems as the peptide structure depends strongly on the lipid environment. This perspective provides a brief overview of the approach taken to study antimicrobial and amyloid peptides in phospholipid bilayers using oriented bilayers and magic angle spinning techniques. In particular, Boltzmann statistics REDOR and maximum entropy analysis of spinning side bands are used to analyse systems where multiple states of peptide or lipid molecules may co-exist. We propose that in future, rather than model membranes, structural studies in whole cells are feasible.

  5. Evaluating the mechanical integrity of bilayer lipid membranes using a high-precision pressurization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, David; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    A new methodology has been developed to measure the mechanical integrity of a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) formed over porous substrates. A custom test fixture was fabricated in which a stepper motor linear actuator drives a piston in order to apply pressure to a BLM in very fine increments. The pressure, monitored with a pressure transducer, is observed to increase until the BLM reaches its failure pressure, and then drop. This experiment was performed on 1-Stearoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (SOPC) lipid bilayers formed over porous polycarbonate substrates with various pore sizes ranging from 0.05 - 10 μm in diameter. A trend of increasing failure pressure with decreasing pore size was observed. The same set of experiments was repeated for BLMs that were formed from a mixture of SOPC and cholesterol (CHOL) at a cholesterol concentration of 50 mol%. The presence of cholesterol was found to increase the failure pressure of the BLMs by 1.5 times on average. A model of the characteristic pressure curve from this experiment was developed based on an initially closed fluid system in which pressure increases as it is loaded by a moving piston, and which upon reaching a critical failure pressure allows pressure to decrease as fluid escapes through a porous medium. Since the BLM is formed over many pores, this model assumes that the failure pressure for each micro-BLM follows a normal distribution over all pores. The model is able to accurately predict the major trends in the pressurization curves by curve-fitting a few statistical parameters.

  6. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOEpatents

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1992-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the perselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  7. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOEpatents

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  8. Composite membranes for fluid separations

    DOEpatents

    Blume, Ingo; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Pinnau, Ingo; Wijmans, Johannes G.

    1990-01-01

    A method for designing and making composite membranes having a microporous support membrane coated with a permselective layer. The method involves calculating the minimum thickness of the permselective layer such that the selectivity of the composite membrane is close to the intrinsic selectivity of the permselective layer. The invention also provides high performance membranes with optimized properties.

  9. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate alters synaptotagmin 1 membrane docking and drives opposing bilayers closer together.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Weiwei; Herrick, Dawn Z; Cafiso, David S

    2011-04-05

    Synaptotagmin 1 (syt1) is a synaptic vesicle-anchored membrane protein that acts as the calcium sensor for the synchronous component of neuronal exocytosis. Using site-directed spin labeling, the position and membrane interactions of a fragment of syt1 containing its two C2 domains (syt1C2AB) were assessed in bilayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)). Addition of 1 mol % PIP(2) to a lipid mixture of PC and PS results in a deeper membrane penetration of the C2A domain and alters the orientation of the C2B domain so that the polybasic face of C2B comes into the proximity of the bilayer interface. The C2B domain is found to contact the membrane interface in two regions, the Ca(2+)-binding loops and a region opposite the Ca(2+)-binding loops. This suggests that syt1C2AB is configured to bridge two bilayers and is consistent with a model generated previously for syt1C2AB bound to membranes of PC and PS. Point-to-plane depth restraints, obtained by progressive power saturation, and interdomain distance restraints, obtained by double electron-electron resonance, were obtained in the presence of PIP(2) and used in a simulated annealing routine to dock syt1C2AB to two membrane interfaces. The results yield an average structure different from what is found in the absence of PIP(2) and indicate that bilayer-bilayer spacing is decreased in the presence of PIP(2). The results indicate that PIP(2), which is necessary for bilayer fusion, alters C2 domain orientation, enhances syt1-membrane electrostatic interactions, and acts to drive vesicle and cytoplasmic membrane surfaces closer together.

  10. Elastic Properties of Polymerised and Fluid Membranes Under Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shillcock, Julian Charles

    The stability of a living cell relies on the properties and interrelations of its constituent parts. The fluid bilayer surrounding the cell separates the cytoplasm inside the cell from the extracellular environment. A cross-linked network of proteins within the cytoplasm supports the fluid bilayer and contributes to the cell's elasticity. Three properties relating to the behaviour of a model fluid bilayer and polymerised network are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation: the phase behaviour of a system of discotic liquid crystal molecules, the elastic properties of a model polymerised network, and the stability and rupture of a model fluid membrane. The isotropic to nematic transition induced by hydrostatic pressure in a system of discotic liquid cystal molecules in three dimensions is presented. The study concentrates on the phase behaviour resulting from the anisotropy of the disks. The transition is present for disks whose thickness to radius ratio is less than 40%, but is absent for thicker disks. A more specialised model of disks restricted to intersect a planar interface between two immiscible fluids is investigated, but has no isotropic -nematic phase transition at finite temperature. The elastic properties of a two-dimensional, triangulated network of Hookean springs are investigated as a function of temperature and applied tension. The compression modulus decreases, and the shear modulus increases, as the tension on the network is increased. The elastic properties of self-avoiding networks at low temperature are well described by a mean field theory. When the self-avoidance constraint is removed, the network undergoes a phase transition to a collapsed state of small area as the tension is reduced to zero. Both types of network show an unstable expansion of their area when the stretching tension exceeds a specified value. Both networks also have the unusual property (referred to as a negative Poisson ratio) of expanding transversely when stretched

  11. Influence of membrane surface charge on adsorption of complement proteins onto supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Yorulmaz, Saziye; Jackman, Joshua A; Hunziker, Walter; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-12-01

    The complement system is an important part of the innate immune response, and there is great interest in understanding how complement proteins interact with lipid membrane interfaces, especially in the context of recognizing foreign particulates (e.g., liposomal nanomedicines). Herein, a supported lipid bilayer platform was employed in order to investigate the effect of membrane surface charge (positive, negative, or neutral) on the adsorption of three complement proteins. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) experiments measured the real-time kinetics and total uptake of protein adsorption onto supported lipid bilayers. The results demonstrate that all three proteins exhibit preferential, mainly irreversible adsorption onto negatively charged lipid bilayers, yet there was also significant variation in total uptake and the relative degree of adsorption onto negatively charged bilayers versus neutral and positively charged bilayers. The total uptake was also observed to strongly depend on the bulk protein concentration. Taken together, our findings contribute to a broader understanding of the factors which influence adsorption of complement proteins onto lipid membranes and offer guidance towards the design of synthetic lipid bilayers with immunocompetent features.

  12. Bipolar membranes with fluid distribution passages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitchens, G. Duncan (Inventor); Archer, Shivaun (Inventor); Tennakoon, Charles L. (Inventor); Gonzalez-Martin, Anuncia (Inventor); Cisar, Alan J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides a bipolar membrane and methods for making and using the membrane. The bipolar membrane comprises a cation-selective region, an anion-selective region, an interfacial region between the anion-selective region and the cation-selective region, and means for delivering fluid directly into the interfacial region. The means for delivering fluid includes passages that may comprise a fluid-permeable material, a wicking material, an open passage disposed within the membrane or some combination thereof. The passages may be provided in many shapes, sizes and configurations, but preferably deliver fluid directly to the interfacial region so that the rate of electrodialysis is no longer limited by the diffusion of fluid through the cation- or anion-selective regions to the interfacial region.

  13. Anisotropic solvent model of the lipid bilayer. 2. Energetics of insertion of small molecules, peptides and proteins in membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lomize, Andrei L.; Pogozheva, Irina; Mosberg, Henry I

    2011-01-01

    A new computational approach to calculating binding energies and spatial positions of small molecules, peptides and proteins in the lipid bilayer has been developed. The method combines an anisotropic solvent representation of the lipid bilayer and universal solvation model, which predicts transfer energies of molecules from water to an arbitrary medium with defined polarity properties. The universal solvation model accounts for hydrophobic, van der Waals, hydrogen-bonding, and electrostatic solute-solvent interactions. The lipid bilayer is represented as a fluid anisotropic environment described by profiles of dielectric constant (ε), solvatochromic dipolarity parameter (π*), and hydrogen bonding acidity and basicity parameters (α and β). The polarity profiles were calculated using published distributions of quasi-molecular segments of lipids determined by neutron and X-ray scattering for DOPC bilayer and spin-labeling data that define concentration of water in the lipid acyl chain region. The model also accounts for the preferential solvation of charges and polar groups by water and includes the effect of the hydrophobic mismatch for transmembrane proteins. The method was tested on calculations of binding energies and preferential positions in membranes for small-molecules, peptides and peripheral membrane proteins that have been experimentally studied. The new theoretical approach was implemented in a new version (2.0) of our PPM program and applied for the large-scale calculations of spatial positions in membranes of more than 1000 peripheral and integral proteins. The results of calculations are deposited in the updated OPM database (http://opm.phar.umich.edu). PMID:21438606

  14. The Influence of Hydrogen Bonding on Sphingomyelin/Colipid Interactions in Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomokazu; Al Sazzad, Md. Abdullah; Jäntti, Niklas Z.; Pentikäinen, Olli T.; Slotte, J. Peter

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipid acyl chain composition and order, the hydrogen bonding, and properties of the phospholipid headgroup all influence cholesterol/phospholipid interactions in hydrated bilayers. In this study, we examined the influence of hydrogen bonding on sphingomyelin (SM) colipid interactions in fluid uni- and multilamellar vesicles. We have compared the properties of oleoyl or palmitoyl SM with comparable dihydro-SMs, because the hydrogen bonding properties of SM and dihydro-SM differ. The association of cholestatrienol, a fluorescent cholesterol analog, with oleoyl sphingomyelin (OSM) was significantly stronger than its association with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, in bilayers with equal acyl chain order. The association of cholestatrienol with dihydro-OSM, which lacks a trans double bond in the sphingoid base, was even stronger than the association with OSM, suggesting an important role for hydrogen bonding in stabilizing sterol/SM interactions. Furthermore, with saturated SM in the presence of 15 mol % cholesterol, cholesterol association with fluid dihydro-palmitoyl SM bilayers was stronger than seen with palmitoyl SM under similar conditions. The different hydrogen bonding properties in OSM and dihydro-OSM bilayers also influenced the segregation of palmitoyl ceramide and dipalmitoylglycerol into an ordered phase. The ordered, palmitoyl ceramide-rich phase started to form above 2 mol % in the dihydro-OSM bilayers but only above 6 mol % in the OSM bilayers. The lateral segregation of dipalmitoylglycerol was also much more pronounced in dihydro-OSM bilayers than in OSM bilayers. The results show that hydrogen bonding is important for sterol/SM and ceramide/SM interactions, as well as for the lateral segregation of a diglyceride. A possible molecular explanation for the different hydrogen bonding in SM and dihydro-SM bilayers is presented and discussed. PMID:26789766

  15. A Bilayered Structure Comprised of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for Desalination by Membrane Distillation.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, Madhuleena; Roy, Sagar; Mitra, Somenath

    2016-08-03

    The development of a novel carbon nanotube (CNT) immobilized membrane comprised of a double-layer structure is presented for water desalination by membrane distillation. The bilayered structure is comprised of CNTs functionalized with a hydrophobic octadecyl amine group on the feed side and carboxylated CNTs on the permeate side. The latter is more hydrophilic. The hydrophobic CNTs provide higher water vapor permeation, while the hydrophilic CNTs facilitate the condensation of water vapor. Together, these led to superior performance, and flux in a direct contact membrane distillation mode was found to be as high as 121 kg/m(2)h at 80 °C. The bilayered membrane represented an enhancement of 70% over the unmodified membrane and 37% over a membrane which had a monolayered structure where only the feed side was CNT-modified.

  16. Magnetically aligned phospholipid bilayers with positive ordering: a new model membrane system.

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, R S; Hwang, J S; Vold, R R

    1998-01-01

    A stable smectic phospholipid bilayer phase aligned with the director parallel to the magnetic field can be generated by the addition of certain trivalent paramagnetic lanthanide ions to a bicellar solution of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC) in water. Suitable lanthanide ions are those with positive anisotropy of their magnetic susceptibility, namely Eu3+, Er3+, Tm3+, and Yb3+. For samples doped with Tm3+, this phase extends over a wide range of Tm3+ concentrations (6-40 mM) and temperatures (35-90 degrees C) and appears to undergo a transition from a fluid nematic discotic to a fluid, but highly ordered, smectic phase at a temperature that depends on the thulium concentration. As a membrane mimetic, these new, positively ordered phospholipid phases have high potential for structural studies using a variety of techniques such as magnetic resonance (EMR and NMR), small-angle x-ray and neutron diffraction, as well as optical and infrared spectroscopy. PMID:9591667

  17. Ceramides in phospholipid membranes: effects on bilayer stability and transition to nonlamellar phases.

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, M P; Arrondo, J L; Goñi, F M; Alonso, A

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ceramides of natural origin on the gel-fluid and lamellar-inverted hexagonal phase transitions of phospholipids (mainly dielaidoylphosphatidylethanolamine) have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, with additional support from infrared and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In the lamellar phase, ceramides do not mix ideally with phospholipids, giving rise to the coexistence of domains that undergo the gel-fluid transition at different temperatures. The combination of differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy, together with the use of deuterated lipids, allows the demonstration of independent melting temperatures for phospholipid and ceramide in the mixtures. In the lamellar-hexagonal phase transitions, ceramides (up to 15 mol %) decrease the transition temperature, without significantly modifying the transition enthalpy, thus facilitating the inverted hexagonal phase formation. 31P-NMR indicates the coexistence, within a certain range of temperatures, of lamellar and hexagonal phases, or hexagonal phase precursors. Ceramides from egg or from bovine brain are very similar in their effects on the lamellar-hexagonal transition. They are also comparable to diacylglycerides in this respect, although ceramides are less potent. These results are relevant in the interpretation of certain forms of interfacial enzyme activation and in the regulation and dynamics of the bilayer structure of cell membranes. PMID:9876146

  18. Mechanisms of interaction of pesticides with the lipid bilayer in cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubev, V. N.

    1993-07-01

    The available information about the mechanisms of the interaction of pesticides having different chemical structures with the lipid bilayer in cell membranes is presented. It is shown that, depending on the degree of lipophilicity, the molecular dipole moment, and certain other characteristics of the pesticide compound, its interaction with the lipid bilayer generally takes place via one of the three main mechanisms involving the incorporation of the pesticide molecules in the hydrocarbon region within the bilayer, the adsorption of these molecules in the zone of the polar membrane phospholipids, or the incorporation of the amphiphilic pesticide compounds in both the non-polar and polar regions of the membrane. The bibliography includes 109 references.

  19. Application of self-consistent field theory to self-assembled bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping-Wen; Shi, An-Chang

    2015-12-01

    Bilayer membranes self-assembled from amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants, and block copolymers are ubiquitous in biological and physiochemical systems. The shape and structure of bilayer membranes depend crucially on their mechanical properties such as surface tension, bending moduli, and line tension. Understanding how the molecular properties of the amphiphiles determine the structure and mechanics of the self-assembled bilayers requires a molecularly detailed theoretical framework. The self-consistent field theory provides such a theoretical framework, which is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical parameters of self-assembled bilayer membranes. In this mini review we summarize the formulation of the self-consistent field theory, as exemplified by a model system composed of flexible amphiphilic chains dissolved in hydrophilic polymeric solvents, and its application to the study of self-assembled bilayer membranes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11421101 and 21274005) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada.

  20. Grafting Charged Species to Membrane-Embedded Scaffolds Dramatically Increases the Rate of Bilayer Flipping

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The cell membrane is a barrier to the passive diffusion of charged molecules due to the chemical properties of the lipid bilayer. Surprisingly, recent experiments have identified processes in which synthetic and biological charged species directly transfer across lipid bilayers on biologically relevant time scales. In particular, amphiphilic nanoparticles have been shown to insert into lipid bilayers, requiring the transport of charged species across the bilayer. The molecular factors facilitating this rapid insertion process remain unknown. In this work, we use atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the free energy barrier associated with “flipping” charged species across a lipid bilayer for species that are grafted to a membrane-embedded scaffold, such as a membrane-embedded nanoparticle. We find that the free energy barrier for flipping a grafted ligand can be over 7 kcal/mol lower than the barrier for translocating an isolated, equivalent ion, yielding a 5 order of magnitude decrease in the corresponding flipping time scale. Similar results are found for flipping charged species grafted to either nanoparticle or protein scaffolds. These results reveal new mechanistic insight into the flipping of charged macromolecular components that might play an important, yet overlooked, role in signaling and charge transport in biological settings. Furthermore, our results suggest guidelines for the design of synthetic materials capable of rapidly flipping charged moieties across the cell membrane. PMID:28386596

  1. Theoretical analysis of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated interactions in lipid bilayers containing gramicidin.

    PubMed Central

    Harroun, T A; Heller, W T; Weiss, T M; Yang, L; Huang, H W

    1999-01-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrophobic matching and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions exhibited by gramicidin embedded in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) bilayers (Harroun et al., 1999. Biophys. J. 76:937-945). Incorporating gramicidin, at 1:10 peptide/lipid molar ratio, decreases the phosphate-to-phosphate (PtP) peak separation in the DMPC bilayer from 35.3 A without gramicidin to 32.7 A. In contrast, the same molar ratio of gramicidin in DLPC increases the PtP from 30.8 A to 32.1 A. Concurrently, x-ray in-plane scattering showed that the most probable nearest-neighbor separation between gramicidin channels was 26.8 A in DLPC, but reduced to 23.3 A in DMPC. In this paper we review the idea of hydrophobic matching in which the lipid bilayer deforms to match the hydrophobic surface of the embedded proteins. We use a simple elasticity theory, including thickness compression, tension, and splay terms to describe the membrane deformation. The energy of membrane deformation is compared with the energy cost of hydrophobic mismatch. We discuss the boundary conditions between a gramicidin channel and the lipid bilayer. We used a numerical method to solve the problem of membrane deformation profile in the presence of a high density of gramicidin channels and ran computer simulations of 81 gramicidin channels to find the equilibrium distributions of the channels in the plane of the bilayer. The simulations contain four parameters: bilayer thickness compressibility 1/B, bilayer bending rigidity Kc, the channel-bilayer mismatch Do, and the slope of the interface at the lipid-protein boundary s. B, Kc, and Do were experimentally measured; the only free parameter is s. The value of s is determined by the requirement that the theory produces the experimental values of bilayer thinning by gramicidin and the shift in the peak position of the in-plane scattering due to membrane-mediated channel

  2. Reparameterization of all-atom dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine lipid parameters enables simulation of fluid bilayers at zero tension.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Jacob; Jensen, Morten Ø; Hansen, Flemming Y; Hemmingsen, Lars; Peters, Günther H

    2007-06-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers using the CHARMM27 force field in the tensionless isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble give highly ordered, gel-like bilayers with an area per lipid of approximately 48 A(2). To obtain fluid (L(alpha)) phase properties of DPPC bilayers represented by the CHARMM energy function in this ensemble, we reparameterized the atomic partial charges in the lipid headgroup and upper parts of the acyl chains. The new charges were determined from the electron structure using both the Mulliken method and the restricted electrostatic potential fitting method. We tested the derived charges in molecular dynamics simulations of a fully hydrated DPPC bilayer. Only the simulation with the new restricted electrostatic potential charges shows significant improvements compared with simulations using the original CHARMM27 force field resulting in an area per lipid of 60.4 +/- 0.1 A(2). Compared to the 48 A(2), the new value of 60.4 A(2) is in fair agreement with the experimental value of 64 A(2). In addition, the simulated order parameter profile and electron density profile are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. Thus, the biologically more interesting fluid phase of DPPC bilayers can now be simulated in all-atom simulations in the NPT ensemble by employing our modified CHARMM27 force field.

  3. A comparative differential scanning calorimetry study of the effects of cholesterol and various oxysterols on the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2016-02-01

    We have carried out a comparative differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study of the effects of cholesterol (C) and the eight most physiologically relevant oxysterols on the thermotropic phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. The structures of these oxysterols differ from that of C by the presence of additional hydroxyl, keto or epoxy groups on the steroid ring system or by the presence of a hydroxyl group in the alkyl side chain. In general, the progressive incorporation of these oxysterols reduces the temperature, cooperativity and enthalpy of the pretransition of DPPC to a greater extent than C, indicating that their presence thermally destabilizes and disorders the gel states of DPPC bilayers to a greater extent than C. Similarly, the incorporation of these oxysterols either increases the temperature of the broad component of the main phase transition to a smaller extent than C or actually decreases it. Again, this indicates that the presence of these compounds is less effective at thermally stabilizing and ordering the sterol-rich domains of DPPC bilayers than is C itself. Moreover, the incorporation of these oxysterols decrease the cooperativity and enthalpy of the main phase transition of DPPC to a smaller extent than C, indicating that they are somewhat less miscible in fluid DPPC bilayers than is C. Particularly notable in this regard is 25-hydroxycholesterol, which exhibits a markedly reduced miscibility in both gel and fluid DPPC bilayers compared to C itself. In general, the effectiveness of these oxysterols in stabilizing and ordering DPPC bilayers decreases as their rate of interbilayer exchange and the polarity of the oxysterol increases. We close by providing a tentative molecular explanation for the results of our DSC studies and of those of previous biophysical studies of the effects of various oxysterol on lipid bilayer model membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lysolipid incorporation in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes enhances the ion permeability and drug release rates at the membrane phase transition.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jeffrey K; Needham, David

    2005-10-15

    The enhanced permeability of lipid bilayer membranes at their gel-to-liquid phase transition has been explained using a "bilayer lipid heterogeneity" model, postulating leaky interfacial regions between still solid and melting liquid phases. The addition of lysolipid to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayers dramatically enhances the amount of, and speed at which, encapsulated markers or drugs are released at this, already leaky, phase transition through these interfacial regions. To characterize and attempt to determine the mechanism behind lysolipid-generated permeability enhancement, dithionite permeability and doxorubicin release were measured for lysolipid and non-lysolipid, containing membranes. Rapid release of contents from lysolipid-containing membranes appears to occur through lysolipid-stabilized pores rather than a simple enhancement due to increased drug solubility in the bilayer. A dramatic enhancement in the permeability rate constant begins about two degrees below the calorimetric peak of the thermal transition, and extends several degrees past it. The maximum permeability rate constant coincides exactly with this calorimetric peak. Although some lysolipid desorption from liquid state membranes cannot be dismissed, dialyzation above T(m) and mass spectrometry analysis indicate lysolipid must, and can, remain in the membrane for the permeability enhancement, presumably as lysolipid stabilized pores in the grain boundary regions of the partially melted solid phase.

  5. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-28

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  6. Strong influence of periodic boundary conditions on lateral diffusion in lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camley, Brian A.; Lerner, Michael G.; Pastor, Richard W.; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Saffman-Delbrück hydrodynamic model for lipid-bilayer membranes is modified to account for the periodic boundary conditions commonly imposed in molecular simulations. Predicted lateral diffusion coefficients for membrane-embedded solid bodies are sensitive to box shape and converge slowly to the limit of infinite box size, raising serious doubts for the prospects of using detailed simulations to accurately predict membrane-protein diffusivities and related transport properties. Estimates for the relative error associated with periodic boundary artifacts are 50% and higher for fully atomistic models in currently feasible simulation boxes. MARTINI simulations of LacY membrane protein diffusion and LacY dimer diffusion in DPPC membranes and lipid diffusion in pure DPPC bilayers support the underlying hydrodynamic model.

  7. Measuring Membrane Protein Dimerization Equilibrium in Lipid Bilayers by Single-Molecule Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chadda, R; Robertson, J L

    2016-01-01

    Dimerization of membrane protein interfaces occurs during membrane protein folding and cell receptor signaling. Here, we summarize a method that allows for measurement of equilibrium dimerization reactions of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, by measuring the Poisson distribution of subunit capture into liposomes by single-molecule photobleaching analysis. This strategy is grounded in the fact that given a comparable labeling efficiency, monomeric or dimeric forms of a membrane protein will give rise to distinctly different photobleaching probability distributions. These methods have been used to verify the dimer stoichiometry of the Fluc F(-) ion channel and the dimerization equilibrium constant of the ClC-ec1 Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter in lipid bilayers. This approach can be applied to any membrane protein system provided it can be purified, fluorescently labeled in a quantitative manner, and verified to be correctly folded by functional assays, even if the structure is not yet known.

  8. Cholesterol-rich Fluid Membranes Solubilize Ceramide Domains

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Bruno M.; Silva, Liana C.; Fedorov, Alexander; de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Prieto, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    A uniquely sensitive method for ceramide domain detection allowed us to study in detail cholesterol-ceramide interactions in lipid bilayers with low (physiological) ceramide concentrations, ranging from low or no cholesterol (a situation similar to intracellular membranes, such as endoplasmic reticulum) to high cholesterol (similar to mammalian plasma membrane). Diverse fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy experiments were conducted showing that for low cholesterol amounts ceramide segregates into gel domains that disappear upon increasing cholesterol levels. This was observed in different raft (sphingomyelin/cholesterol-containing) and non-raft (sphingomyelin-absent) membranes, i.e. mimicking different types of cell membranes. Cholesterol-ceramide interactions have been described mainly as raft sphingomyelin-dependent. Here sphingomyelin independence is demonstrated. In addition, ceramide-rich domains re-appear when either cholesterol is converted by cholesterol oxidase to cholestenone or the temperature is decreased. Ceramide is more soluble in cholesterol-rich fluid membranes than in cholesterol-poor ones, thereby increasing the chemical potential of cholesterol. Ceramide solubility depends on the average gel-fluid transition temperature of the remaining membrane lipids. The inability of cholestenone-rich membranes to dissolve ceramide gel domains shows that the cholesterol ordering and packing properties are fundamental to the mixing process. We also show that the solubility of cholesterol in ceramide domains is low. The results are rationalized by a ternary phospholipid/ceramide/cholesterol phase diagram, providing the framework for the better understanding of biochemical phenomena modulated by cholesterol-ceramide interactions such as cholesterol oxidase activity, lipoprotein metabolism, and lipid targeting in cancer therapy. It also suggests that the lipid compositions of different organelles are such that ceramide gel domains are not formed unless a

  9. A Hybrid Model for Erythrocyte Membrane: A Single Unit of Protein Network Coupled with Lipid Bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Vera, Carlos; Asaro, Robert J.; Sche, Paul; Sung, L. Amy

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the nanomechanics of the erythrocyte membrane we developed a hybrid model that couples the actin-spectrin network to the lipid bilayer. This model features a Fourier space Brownian dynamics model of the bilayer, a Brownian dynamics model of the actin protofilament, and a modified wormlike-chain model of the spectrin (including a cable-dynamics model to predict the oscillation in tension). This model enables us to predict the nanomechanics of single or multiple units of the protein network, the lipid bilayer, and the effect of their interactions. The present work is focused on the attitude of the actin protofilament at the equilibrium states coupled with the elevations of the lipid bilayer through their primary linkage at the suspension complex in deformations. Two different actin-spectrin junctions are considered at the junctional complex. With a point-attachment junction, large pitch angles and bifurcation of yaw angles are predicted. Thermal fluctuations at bifurcation may lead to mode-switching, which may affect the network and the physiological performance of the membrane. In contrast, with a wrap-around junction, pitch angles remain small, and the occurrence of bifurcation is greatly reduced. These simulations suggest the importance of three-dimensional molecular junctions and the lipid bilayer/protein network coupling on cell membrane mechanics. PMID:17449663

  10. Energetics of peptide (pHLIP) binding to and folding across a lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Reshetnyak, Yana K; Andreev, Oleg A; Segala, Michael; Markin, Vladislav S; Engelman, Donald M

    2008-10-07

    The pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP) serves as a model system for peptide insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer. It has three general states: (I) soluble in water or (II) bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and (III) inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric alpha-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the interactions of pHLIP with a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer and to calculate the transition energies between states. We found that the Gibbs free energy of binding to a POPC surface at low pHLIP concentration (state I-state II transition) at 37 degrees C is approximately -7 kcal/mol near neutral pH and that the free energy of insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer at low pH (state II-state III transition) is nearly -2 kcal/mol. We discuss a number of related thermodynamic parameters from our measurements. Besides its fundamental interest as a model system for the study of membrane protein folding, pHLIP has utility as an agent to target diseased tissues and translocate molecules through the membrane into the cytoplasm of cells in environments with elevated levels of extracellular acidity, as in cancer and inflammation. The results give the amount of energy that might be used to move cargo molecules across a membrane.

  11. Energetics of peptide (pHLIP) binding to and folding across a lipid bilayer membrane

    PubMed Central

    Reshetnyak, Yana K.; Andreev, Oleg A.; Segala, Michael; Markin, Vladislav S.; Engelman, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    The pH low-insertion peptide (pHLIP) serves as a model system for peptide insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer. It has three general states: (I) soluble in water or (II) bound to the surface of a lipid bilayer as an unstructured monomer, and (III) inserted across the bilayer as a monomeric α-helix. We used fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry to study the interactions of pHLIP with a palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine (POPC) lipid bilayer and to calculate the transition energies between states. We found that the Gibbs free energy of binding to a POPC surface at low pHLIP concentration (state I–state II transition) at 37°C is approximately −7 kcal/mol near neutral pH and that the free energy of insertion and folding across a lipid bilayer at low pH (state II–state III transition) is nearly −2 kcal/mol. We discuss a number of related thermodynamic parameters from our measurements. Besides its fundamental interest as a model system for the study of membrane protein folding, pHLIP has utility as an agent to target diseased tissues and translocate molecules through the membrane into the cytoplasm of cells in environments with elevated levels of extracellular acidity, as in cancer and inflammation. The results give the amount of energy that might be used to move cargo molecules across a membrane. PMID:18829441

  12. Lipid Clustering Correlates with Membrane Curvature as Revealed by Molecular Simulations of Complex Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Koldsø, Heidi; Shorthouse, David; Hélie, Jean; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes are complex multicomponent systems, which are highly heterogeneous in the lipid distribution and composition. To date, most molecular simulations have focussed on relatively simple lipid compositions, helping to inform our understanding of in vitro experimental studies. Here we describe on simulations of complex asymmetric plasma membrane model, which contains seven different lipids species including the glycolipid GM3 in the outer leaflet and the anionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphophate (PIP2), in the inner leaflet. Plasma membrane models consisting of 1500 lipids and resembling the in vivo composition were constructed and simulations were run for 5 µs. In these simulations the most striking feature was the formation of nano-clusters of GM3 within the outer leaflet. In simulations of protein interactions within a plasma membrane model, GM3, PIP2, and cholesterol all formed favorable interactions with the model α-helical protein. A larger scale simulation of a model plasma membrane containing 6000 lipid molecules revealed correlations between curvature of the bilayer surface and clustering of lipid molecules. In particular, the concave (when viewed from the extracellular side) regions of the bilayer surface were locally enriched in GM3. In summary, these simulations explore the nanoscale dynamics of model bilayers which mimic the in vivo lipid composition of mammalian plasma membranes, revealing emergent nanoscale membrane organization which may be coupled both to fluctuations in local membrane geometry and to interactions with proteins. PMID:25340788

  13. Lipid clustering correlates with membrane curvature as revealed by molecular simulations of complex lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Koldsø, Heidi; Shorthouse, David; Hélie, Jean; Sansom, Mark S P

    2014-10-01

    Cell membranes are complex multicomponent systems, which are highly heterogeneous in the lipid distribution and composition. To date, most molecular simulations have focussed on relatively simple lipid compositions, helping to inform our understanding of in vitro experimental studies. Here we describe on simulations of complex asymmetric plasma membrane model, which contains seven different lipids species including the glycolipid GM3 in the outer leaflet and the anionic lipid, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphophate (PIP2), in the inner leaflet. Plasma membrane models consisting of 1500 lipids and resembling the in vivo composition were constructed and simulations were run for 5 µs. In these simulations the most striking feature was the formation of nano-clusters of GM3 within the outer leaflet. In simulations of protein interactions within a plasma membrane model, GM3, PIP2, and cholesterol all formed favorable interactions with the model α-helical protein. A larger scale simulation of a model plasma membrane containing 6000 lipid molecules revealed correlations between curvature of the bilayer surface and clustering of lipid molecules. In particular, the concave (when viewed from the extracellular side) regions of the bilayer surface were locally enriched in GM3. In summary, these simulations explore the nanoscale dynamics of model bilayers which mimic the in vivo lipid composition of mammalian plasma membranes, revealing emergent nanoscale membrane organization which may be coupled both to fluctuations in local membrane geometry and to interactions with proteins.

  14. Thermally induced proliferation of pores in a model fluid membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shillcock, J C; Seifert, U

    1998-01-01

    The growth of thermally induced pores in a two-dimensional model fluid membrane is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation. Holes appear in the membrane via an activated process, and their subsequent growth is controlled by an edge energy per unit length or line tension. The barrier height and line tension, together with a lateral tension, are the independent parameters of the model. In the resulting phase diagram, a rupture transition separates an intact membrane from a disintegrated state. The approach to the ruptured state shows distinct regimes. Reducing the barrier height at large line tension produces multiple, quasi-independent, small holes whose behavior is dominated by their edge energy, whereas at lower line tensions shape fluctuations of the holes facilitate their coalescence into a single large hole. At a small value of line tension and large barrier height, a single hole spontaneously permeabilizes the membrane in an entropically driven phase transition. Entropy dominates pore growth for line tensions not far below those measured for artificial vesicles. Permeabilization of lipid bilayers by certain peptides involves perturbing lipid-lipid cohesive energies, and our simulations show that at small line tensions the entropy of hole shape fluctuations destroys the model membrane's stability. PMID:9545038

  15. [Effect of microwaves on bilayer lipid membranes: role of a membrane-forming hole in the Teflon film].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, S I; Ziskin, M S; Fesenko, E E

    2009-01-01

    The distributions of specific abcorption rate (SAR) and E-field in a membrane-forming hole of Teflon film and surrounding electrolyte were calculated for 0.9 GHz exposure. It was found that the specific absorption rate in the membrane-forming hole increased greatly with increasing thickness of the Teflon film, and electrolyte concentration and decreasing diameter of the hole. The previously demonstrated significant changes in the conductivity of modified bilayer lipid membranes induced by microwave exposure can be explained by a local increase in specific absorption rate and subsequent elevation of temperature in the membrane-forming hole of the Teflon film.

  16. Membrane phospholipid bilayer as a determinant of monoacylglycerol lipase kinetic profile and conformational repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mahmoud L; Shi, Xiaomeng; Bowman, Anna L; Johnson, Michael; Zvonok, Nikolai; Janero, David R; Vemuri, V Kiran; Wales, Thomas E; Engen, John R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    The membrane-associated serine hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), is a well-recognized therapeutic target that regulates endocannabinoid signaling. Crystallographic studies, while providing structural information about static MGL states, offer no direct experimental insight into the impact of MGL's membrane association upon its structure–function landscape. We report application of phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs as biomembrane models with which to evaluate the effect of a membrane system on the catalytic properties and conformational dynamics of human MGL (hMGL). Anionic and charge-neutral phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs enhanced hMGL's kinetic properties [apparent maximum velocity (Vmax) and substrate affinity (Km)]. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX MS) was used as a conformational analysis method to profile experimentally the extent of hMGL–nanodisc interaction and its impact upon hMGL structure. We provide evidence that significant regions of hMGL lid-domain helix α4 and neighboring helix α6 interact with the nanodisc phospholipid bilayer, anchoring hMGL in a more open conformation to facilitate ligand access to the enzyme's substrate-binding channel. Covalent modification of membrane-associated hMGL by the irreversible carbamate inhibitor, AM6580, shielded the active site region, but did not increase solvent exposure of the lid domain, suggesting that the inactive, carbamylated enzyme remains intact and membrane associated. Molecular dynamics simulations generated conformational models congruent with the open, membrane-associated topology of active and inhibited, covalently-modified hMGL. Our data indicate that hMGL interaction with a phospholipid membrane bilayer induces regional changes in the enzyme's conformation that favor its recruiting lipophilic substrate/inhibitor from membrane stores to the active site via the lid, resulting in enhanced hMGL catalytic activity and substrate affinity. PMID:23553709

  17. Membrane phospholipid bilayer as a determinant of monoacylglycerol lipase kinetic profile and conformational repertoire.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mahmoud L; Shi, Xiaomeng; Bowman, Anna L; Johnson, Michael; Zvonok, Nikolai; Janero, David R; Vemuri, V Kiran; Wales, Thomas E; Engen, John R; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2013-06-01

    The membrane-associated serine hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), is a well-recognized therapeutic target that regulates endocannabinoid signaling. Crystallographic studies, while providing structural information about static MGL states, offer no direct experimental insight into the impact of MGL's membrane association upon its structure-function landscape. We report application of phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs as biomembrane models with which to evaluate the effect of a membrane system on the catalytic properties and conformational dynamics of human MGL (hMGL). Anionic and charge-neutral phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs enhanced hMGL's kinetic properties [apparent maximum velocity (Vmax) and substrate affinity (Km)]. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HX MS) was used as a conformational analysis method to profile experimentally the extent of hMGL-nanodisc interaction and its impact upon hMGL structure. We provide evidence that significant regions of hMGL lid-domain helix α4 and neighboring helix α6 interact with the nanodisc phospholipid bilayer, anchoring hMGL in a more open conformation to facilitate ligand access to the enzyme's substrate-binding channel. Covalent modification of membrane-associated hMGL by the irreversible carbamate inhibitor, AM6580, shielded the active site region, but did not increase solvent exposure of the lid domain, suggesting that the inactive, carbamylated enzyme remains intact and membrane associated. Molecular dynamics simulations generated conformational models congruent with the open, membrane-associated topology of active and inhibited, covalently-modified hMGL. Our data indicate that hMGL interaction with a phospholipid membrane bilayer induces regional changes in the enzyme's conformation that favor its recruiting lipophilic substrate/inhibitor from membrane stores to the active site via the lid, resulting in enhanced hMGL catalytic activity and substrate affinity. © 2013 The Protein Society.

  18. Holographic interferometry of ultrasmall-pressure-induced curvature changes of bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, G.; Schneider-Henriquez, J.E.; Fendler, J.H. )

    1990-01-25

    Two-exposure interferometric holograms have been shown to sensitively report ultrasmall-pressure (10 natm)-induced curvature changes in glyceryl monooleate (GMO) bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). The number of concentric fringes observed, and hence the lateral distance between the plane of the Teflon and the BLM, increased linearly with increasing transmembrane pressure and led to a value of 1.1 {plus minus} 0.05 dyn/cm for the surface tension of the BLM. BLMs with appreciable Plateau-Gibbs borders have been shown to undergo nonuniform deformation; the bilayer portion is distorted less than the surrounding Plateau-Gibbs border upon the application of a transmembrane pressure gradient.

  19. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    PubMed

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; p<0.05) over the same temperature range, suggesting a more uniform maintenance of lipid dynamics despite the presence of cholesterol. These data indicate that EPA and DHA had different effects on membrane bilayer width, membrane fluidity, and cholesterol crystalline domain formation; suggesting omega-3 fatty acids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published

  20. Aqueous-filled polymer microcavity arrays: versatile & stable lipid bilayer platforms offering high lateral mobility to incorporated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Basit, Hajra; Gaul, Vinnie; Maher, Sean; Forster, Robert J; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-05-07

    A key prerequisite in an ideal supported lipid bilayer based cell membrane model is that the mobility of both the lipid matrix and its components are unhindered by the underlying support. This is not trivial and with the exception of liposomes, many of even the most advanced approaches, although accomplishing lipid mobility, fail to achieve complete mobility of incorporated membrane proteins. This is addressed in a novel platform comprising lipid bilayers assembled over buffer-filled, arrays of spherical cap microcavities formed from microsphere template polydimethoxysilane. Prior to bilayer assembly the PDMS is rendered hydrophilic by plasma treatment and the lipid bilayer prepared using Langmuir Blodgett assembly followed by liposome/proteoliposome fusion. Fluorescence Lifetime Correlation Spectroscopy confirmed the pore suspended lipid bilayer exhibits diffusion coefficients comparable to free-standing vesicles in solution. The bilayer modified arrays are highly reproducible and stable over days. As the bilayers are suspended over deep aqueous reservoirs, reconstituted membrane proteins experience an aqueous interface at both membrane interfaces and attain full lateral mobility. Their utility as membrane protein platforms was exemplified in two case studies with proteins of different dimensions in their extracellular and cytoplasmic domains reconstituted into DOPC lipid bilayers; Glycophorin A, and Integrin αIIbβ3. In both cases, the proteins exhibited 100% mobility with high lateral diffusion coefficients.

  1. Interaction between bending and tension forces in bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Secomb, T W

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented of the bending mechanics of a membrane consisting of two tightly-coupled leaflets, each of which shears and bends readily but strongly resists area changes. Structures of this type have been proposed to model biological membranes such as red blood cell membrane. It is shown that when such a membrane is bent, anisotropic components of resultant membrane tension (shear stresses) are induced, even when the tension in each leaflet is isotropic. The induced shear stresses increase as the square of the membrane curvature, and become significant for moderate curvatures (when the radius of curvature is much larger than the distance between the leaflets). This effect has implications for the analysis of shape and deformation of freely suspended and flowing red blood cells. PMID:3224154

  2. Lipid domains control myelin basic protein adsorption and membrane interactions between model myelin lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Woog; Banquy, Xavier; Kristiansen, Kai; Kaufman, Yair; Boggs, Joan M; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2014-02-25

    The surface forces apparatus and atomic force microscope were used to study the effects of lipid composition and concentrations of myelin basic protein (MBP) on the structure of model lipid bilayers, as well as the interaction forces and adhesion between them. The lipid bilayers had a lipid composition characteristic of the cytoplasmic leaflets of myelin from "normal" (healthy) and "disease-like" [experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE)] animals. They showed significant differences in the adsorption mechanism of MBP. MBP adsorbs on normal bilayers to form a compact film (3-4 nm) with strong intermembrane adhesion (∼0.36 mJ/m(2)), in contrast to its formation of thicker (7-8 nm) swelled films with weaker intermembrane adhesion (∼0.13 mJ/m(2)) on EAE bilayers. MBP preferentially adsorbs to liquid-disordered submicron domains within the lipid membranes, attributed to hydrophobic attractions. These results show a direct connection between the lipid composition of membranes and membrane-protein adsorption mechanisms that affects intermembrane spacing and adhesion and has direct implications for demyelinating diseases.

  3. Fluorescent molecular probes based on excited state prototropism in lipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Monalisa; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2012-03-01

    Excited state prototropism (ESPT) is observed in molecules having one or more ionizable protons, whose proton transfer efficiency is different in ground and excited states. The interaction of various ESPT molecules like naphthols and intramolecular ESPT (ESIPT) molecules like hydroxyflavones etc. with different microheterogeneous media have been studied in detail and excited state prototropism as a probe concept has been gaining ground. The fluorescence of different prototropic forms of such molecules, on partitioning to an organized medium like lipid bilayer membrane, often show sensitive response to the local environment with respect to the local structure, physical properties and dynamics. Our recent work using 1-naphthol as an ESPT fluorescent molecular probe has shown that the incorporation of monomeric bile salt molecules into lipid bilayer membranes composed from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, a lung surfactant) and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), in solid gel and liquid crystalline phases, induce appreciable wetting of the bilayer up to the hydrocarbon core region, even at very low (<= 1 mM) concentrations of the bile salts. The incorporation and location of fisetin, an ESIPT molecule having antioxidant properties, in lipid bilayer membrane has been sensitively monitored from its intrinsic fluorescence behaviour.

  4. Control of membrane permeability in air-stable droplet interface bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Polizos, Georgios; Datskos, Panos G.; ...

    2015-03-19

    Air-stable droplet interface bilayers (airDIBs) on oil-infused surfaces are versatile model membranes for synthetic biology applications, including biosensing of airborne species. However, air-DIBs are subject to evaporation, which can, over time, destabilize them and reduce their useful lifetime compared to traditional DIBs that are fully submerged in oil. Here, we show that lifetimes of air-DIBs can be extended by as much as an order of magnitude by maintaining them at a temperature just above the dew point. We find that raising the temperature from near the dew point (7 C at 38.5 % relative humidity) to room temperature results inmore » loss of water molecules of hydration from the polar head groups of the lipid bilayer membrane due to evaporation in an irreversible process that increases the overall entropy of the system. This dehydration transition affects primarily the bilayer resistance, by increasing ion permeability through the increasingly disordered polar head group region of the bilayer. Temperature and/or relative humidity are conveniently tunable parameters for controlling the stability and composition of air-DIBs membranes, while still allowing for operation in ambient environments.« less

  5. Control of membrane permeability in air-stable droplet interface bilayers.

    PubMed

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Polizos, Georgios; Datskos, Panos G; Taylor, Graham; Sarles, Stephen A; Boreyko, Jonathan B; Hayes, Douglas G; Collier, C Patrick

    2015-04-14

    Air-stable droplet interface bilayers (airDIBs) on oil-infused surfaces are versatile model membranes for synthetic biology applications, including biosensing of airborne species. However, airDIBs are subject to evaporation, which can, over time, destabilize them and reduce their useful lifetime compared to traditional DIBs that are fully submerged in oil. Here, we show that the lifetimes of airDIBs can be extended by as much as an order of magnitude by maintaining the temperature just above the dew point. We find that raising the temperature from near the dew point (which was 7 °C at 38.5% relative humidity and 22 °C air temperature) to 20 °C results in the loss of hydrated water molecules from the polar headgroups of the lipid bilayer membrane due to evaporation, resulting in a phase transition with increased disorder. This dehydration transition primarily affects the bilayer electrical resistance by increasing the permeability through an increasingly disordered polar headgroup region of the bilayer. Temperature and relative humidity are conveniently tunable parameters for controlling the stability and composition of airDIB membranes while still allowing for operation in ambient environments.

  6. Control of membrane permeability in air-stable droplet interface bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya; Polizos, Georgios; Datskos, Panos G.; Taylor, Graham; Sarles, Stephen A.; Boreyko, Jonathan; Hayes, Douglas G.; Collier, Pat

    2015-03-19

    Air-stable droplet interface bilayers (airDIBs) on oil-infused surfaces are versatile model membranes for synthetic biology applications, including biosensing of airborne species. However, air-DIBs are subject to evaporation, which can, over time, destabilize them and reduce their useful lifetime compared to traditional DIBs that are fully submerged in oil. Here, we show that lifetimes of air-DIBs can be extended by as much as an order of magnitude by maintaining them at a temperature just above the dew point. We find that raising the temperature from near the dew point (7 C at 38.5 % relative humidity) to room temperature results in loss of water molecules of hydration from the polar head groups of the lipid bilayer membrane due to evaporation in an irreversible process that increases the overall entropy of the system. This dehydration transition affects primarily the bilayer resistance, by increasing ion permeability through the increasingly disordered polar head group region of the bilayer. Temperature and/or relative humidity are conveniently tunable parameters for controlling the stability and composition of air-DIBs membranes, while still allowing for operation in ambient environments.

  7. Structural and functional characterization of the integral membrane protein VDAC-1 in lipid bilayer nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Thomas; Hiller, Sebastian; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Rice, Amanda J; Walz, Thomas; Wagner, Gerhard

    2009-12-16

    Biophysical studies of membrane proteins are often impeded by the requirement for a membrane mimicking environment. Detergent micelles are the most common choice, but the denaturing properties make them unsatisfactory for studies of many membrane proteins and their interactions. In the present work, we explore phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs as membrane mimics and employ electron microscopy and solution NMR spectroscopy to characterize the structure and function of the human voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC-1) as an example of a polytopic integral membrane protein. Electron microscopy reveals the formation of VDAC-1 multimers, an observation that is consistent with results obtained in native mitochondrial outer membranes. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy demonstrates a well folded VDAC-1 protein and native NADH binding functionality. The observed chemical shift changes upon addition of the native ligand NADH to nanodisc-embedded VDAC-1 resemble those of micelle-embedded VDAC-1, indicating a similar structure and function in the two membrane-mimicking environments. Overall, the ability to study integral membrane proteins at atomic resolution with solution NMR in phospholipid bilayers, rather than in detergent micelles, offers exciting novel possibilities to approach the biophysical properties of membrane proteins under nondenaturing conditions, which makes this technology particular suitable for protein-protein interactions and other functional studies.

  8. Stochastic transport through carbon nanotubes in lipid bilayers and live cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Geng, Jia; Kim, Kyunghoon; Zhang, Jianfei; Escalada, Artur; Tunuguntla, Ramya; Comolli, Luis R; Allen, Frances I; Shnyrova, Anna V; Cho, Kang Rae; Munoz, Dayannara; Wang, Y Morris; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Frolov, Vadim A; Noy, Aleksandr

    2014-10-30

    There is much interest in developing synthetic analogues of biological membrane channels with high efficiency and exquisite selectivity for transporting ions and molecules. Bottom-up and top-down methods can produce nanopores of a size comparable to that of endogenous protein channels, but replicating their affinity and transport properties remains challenging. In principle, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) should be an ideal membrane channel platform: they exhibit excellent transport properties and their narrow hydrophobic inner pores mimic structural motifs typical of biological channels. Moreover, simulations predict that CNTs with a length comparable to the thickness of a lipid bilayer membrane can self-insert into the membrane. Functionalized CNTs have indeed been found to penetrate lipid membranes and cell walls, and short tubes have been forced into membranes to create sensors, yet membrane transport applications of short CNTs remain underexplored. Here we show that short CNTs spontaneously insert into lipid bilayers and live cell membranes to form channels that exhibit a unitary conductance of 70-100 picosiemens under physiological conditions. Despite their structural simplicity, these 'CNT porins' transport water, protons, small ions and DNA, stochastically switch between metastable conductance substates, and display characteristic macromolecule-induced ionic current blockades. We also show that local channel and membrane charges can control the conductance and ion selectivity of the CNT porins, thereby establishing these nanopores as a promising biomimetic platform for developing cell interfaces, studying transport in biological channels, and creating stochastic sensors.

  9. Direct detection of the gel-fluid phase transition of a single supported phospholipid bilayer using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wargenau, Andreas; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2014-08-19

    Supported phospholipid bilayers (SPBs) are valuable models for fundamental studies of biological membranes and their interaction with biologically relevant solutes or particles. Herein, we demonstrate the capability of the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) to directly detect the gel-fluid phase transition of a SPB. The approach involves comparison of the frequency response of a bare and a bilayer-coated QCM-D crystal during linear temperature variation. Phase transition results in a change of the resonance frequency that coincides directly with the accompanied change in bilayer thickness detected by ellipsometry. Experiments performed at different heating rates further demonstrate the use of dissipation monitoring to determine the phase transition temperature based on the temperature-induced viscosity changes of the ambient medium in the immediate environment of the bilayer. Unlike other methods, the proposed approach enables precise determination of the phase transition of a SPB without the need for thermal equilibration of the measurement chamber and, thus, has great potential for sensitive detection of structural and/or compositional changes of the bilayer.

  10. Photoelectric signals generated by bovine rod outer segment disk membranes attached to a lecithin bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, P J; Bamberg, E; Fahr, A

    1984-01-01

    Purified bovine rod outer segment disk membranes were attached to a lecithin bilayer membrane. After photoexcitation with a 500-nm flash delivered by a dye laser, a negative photovoltage was observed on the bilayer under normal ionic strengths (100 mM KCl), which had a rise phase of 1-3 ms at 20 degrees C. The photoresponse was obviously due to bleaching of rhodopsin as it decreased for successive flashes of light. It originated most probably during the metarhodopsin-I metarhodopsin-II (meta-I-II) transition of rhodopsin because it was pH dependent at 2 degrees C but not at 20 degrees C. At 10 mM KCl, i.e., under hypotonic conditions, a positive photovoltage with slower kinetics than at high salt was observed. As the disk membranes were merely attached to the bilayer membrane, the photovoltage was apparently due to a light-induced transmembrane potential change in the disk membranes. Possible electrogenic mechanisms underlying the photosignal will be discussed. PMID:6743754

  11. Protein-induced membrane disorder: a molecular dynamics study of melittin in a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Bachar, M; Becker, O M

    2000-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation of melittin in a hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer was performed. The 19, 000-atom system included a 72-DPPC phospholipid bilayer, a 26-amino acid peptide, and more than 3000 water molecules. The N-terminus of the peptide was protonated and embedded in the membrane in a transbilayer orientation perpendicular to the surface. The simulation results show that the peptide affects the lower (intracellular) layer of the bilayer more strongly than the upper (extracellular) layer. The simulation results can be interpreted as indicating an increased level of disorder and structural deformation for lower-layer phospholipids in the immediate vicinity of the peptide. This conclusion is supported by the calculated deuterium order parameters, the observed deformation at the intracellular interface, and an increase in fractional free volume. The upper layer was less affected by the embedded peptide, except for an acquired tilt relative to the bilayer normal. The effect of melittin on the surrounding membrane is localized to its immediate vicinity, and its asymmetry with respect to the two layers may result from the fact that it is not fully transmembranal. Melittin's hydrophilic C-terminus anchors it at the extracellular interface, leaving the N-terminus "loose" in the lower layer of the membrane. In general, the simulation supports a role for local deformation and water penetration in melittin-induced lysis. As for the peptide, like other membrane-embedded polypeptides, melittin adopts a significant 25 degree tilt relative to the membrane normal. This tilt is correlated with a comparable tilt of the lipids in the upper membrane layer. The peptide itself retains an overall helical structure throughout the simulation (with the exception of the three N-terminal residues), adopting a 30 degree intrahelical bend angle. PMID:10692322

  12. Immobilized fluid membranes for gas separation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Canfield, Nathan L; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xiaohong Shari; Zhang, Jiguang

    2014-03-18

    Provided herein are immobilized liquid membranes for gas separation, methods of preparing such membranes and uses thereof. In one example, the immobilized membrane includes a porous metallic host matrix and an immobilized liquid fluid (such as a silicone oil) that is immobilized within one or more pores included within the porous metallic host matrix. The immobilized liquid membrane is capable of selective permeation of one type of molecule (such as oxygen) over another type of molecule (such as water). In some examples, the selective membrane is incorporated into a device to supply oxygen from ambient air to the device for electrochemical reactions, and at the same time, to block water penetration and electrolyte loss from the device.

  13. Interaction of long-chain n-alcohols with fluid DOPC bilayers: a neutron diffraction study.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Viktor I; Klacsova, Maria; Beskrovnyy, Anatoly I; Uhrikova, Daniela; Balgavy, Pavol

    2010-12-01

    Lamellar phases composed of fluid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers containing alkan-1-ols (CnOH, n = 8, 10, 14, 16, 18 is the number of carbon atoms) at CnOH : DOPC = 0.3 molar ratio and hydrated with heavy water at 20.2 ≥ D2O : DOPC ≥ 14.4 molar ratio were studied by neutron diffraction. The bilayer thickness d(L) and the bilayer surface area A(L) per DOPC at the bilayer-water interface were obtained from the lamellar repeat period d using molecular volumes of DOPC, CnOH and D2O, and the Luzatti's method. Both the d(L) and A(L) increase with the CnOH chain length n at CnOH : DOPC = 0.3 molar ratio: d(L) = (3.888 ± 0.066) + (0.016 ± 0.005)·n (in nm), A(L) = (0.6711 ± 0.0107) + (0.0012 ± 0.0008)·n (in nm²).

  14. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  15. NMR structural studies of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmpX in oriented lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan; Franzin, Carla M; Choi, Jungyuen; Marassi, Francesca M

    2007-12-01

    The beta-barrels found in the outer membranes of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms constitute an important functional class of proteins. Here we present solid-state NMR spectra of the bacterial outer membrane protein OmpX in oriented lipid bilayer membranes. We show that OmpX is folded in both glass-supported oriented lipid bilayers and in lipid bicelles that can be magnetically oriented with the membrane plane parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. The presence of resolved peaks in these spectra demonstrates that OmpX undergoes rotational diffusion around an axis perpendicular to the membrane surface. A tightly hydrogen-bonded domain of OmpX resists exchange with D2O for days and is assigned to the transmembrane beta-barrel, while peaks at isotropic resonance frequencies that disappear rapidly in D2O are assigned to the extracellular and periplasmic loops. The two-dimensional 1H/15N separated local field spectra of OmpX have several resolved peaks, and agree well with the spectra calculated from the crystal structure of OmpX rotated with the barrel axis nearly parallel (5 degrees tilt) to the direction of the magnetic field. The data indicate that it will be possible to obtain site-specific resonance assignments and to determine the structure, tilt, and rotation of OmpX in membranes using the solid-state NMR methods that are currently being applied to alpha-helical membrane proteins.

  16. Model cell membranes: Techniques to form complex biomimetic supported lipid bilayers via vesicle fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Gregory J.; Nayak, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Vesicle fusion has long provided an easy and reliable method to form supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) from simple, zwitterionic vesicles on siliceous substrates. However, for complex compositions, such as vesicles with high cholesterol content and multiple lipid types, the energy barrier for the vesicle-to-bilayer transition is increased or the required vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-substrate interactions are insufficient for vesicle fusion. Thus, for vesicle compositions that more accurately mimic native membranes, vesicle fusion often fails to form SLBs. In this paper, we review three approaches to overcome these barriers to form complex, biomimetic SLBs via vesicle fusion: (i) optimization of experimental conditions (e.g., temperature, buffer ionic strength, osmotic stress, cation valency, and buffer pH), (ii) α-helical (AH) peptide-induced vesicle fusion, and (iii) bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion. AH peptide-induced vesicle fusion can form complex SLBs on multiple substrate types without the use of additional equipment. Bilayer edge-induced vesicle fusion uses microfluidics to form SLBs from vesicles with complex composition, including vesicles derived from native cell membranes. Collectively, this review introduces vesicle fusion techniques that can be generalized for many biomimetic vesicle compositions and many substrate types, and thus will aid efforts to reliably create complex SLB platforms on a range of substrates. PMID:24031164

  17. Structure of Functional Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin Channels in Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Frank; Valincius, Gintaras; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Robertson, Joseph W. F.; Ignatjev, Ilja; Kasianowicz, John J.; Loesche, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate the functional reconstitution of the Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin channel in membranes tethered to gold. Electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements show that the pores have essentially the same properties as those formed in free-standing bilayer lipid membranes. Neutron reflectometry (NR) provides high-resolution structural information on the interaction between the channel and the disordered membrane, and validates predictions based on the channel x-ray crystal structure. NR also shows that the proximity of the solid interface does not affect the molecular architecture of the protein-membrane complex. The results suggest that this technique could be used to elucidate molecular details about the association of other proteins with membranes. It also may provide structural information on domain organization and stimuli-responsive reorganization for transmembrane proteins in membrane mimics.

  18. Conformational analysis of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hebling, Christine M.; Morgan, Christopher R.; Stafford, Darrel W.; Jorgenson, James W.; Rand, Kasper D.; Engen, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The study of membrane protein structure and enzymology has traditionally been hampered by the inherent insolubility of membrane proteins in aqueous environments and experimental challenges in emulating an in vivo lipid environment. Phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs have recently been shown to be of great use for the study of membrane proteins since they offer a controllable, stable, and monodisperse model membrane with a native-like lipid bilayer. Here we report the integration of nanodiscs with hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) experiments, thereby allowing for analysis of the native conformation of membrane proteins. Gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), an ~94 kDa transmembrane protein, was inserted into nanodiscs and labeled with deuterium oxide under native conditions. Analytical parameters including sample-handling and chromatographic separation were optimized to measure the incorporation of deuterium into GGCX. Coupling nanodisc technology with HX MS offers an effective approach for investigating the conformation and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native environment and is therefore capable of providing much needed insight into the function of membrane proteins. PMID:20518534

  19. Fabrication of Au-Nanoparticle-Embedded Lipid Bilayer Membranes Supported on Solid Substrates.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Naotoshi; Kimura, Yasuo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Ogino, Toshio

    2017-05-04

    We fabricated gold nanoparticle (Au-NP)-embedded supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) by two methods. In the vesicle-vesicle fusion method, vesicles with hydrophobized Au-NPs are ruptured and fused on SiO2/Si substrates. In the vesicle-membrane fusion method, SLBs without Au-NPs were preformed on the substrate and then vesicles with Au-NPs were fused into the preformed membranes. In the former method, Au-NP incorporation into the SLBs was observed as an increase in the membrane thickness in atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and directly observed by transmission electron microscopy. In the latter method, fusion of vesicles into the preformed membranes was confirmed by the fluorescent color change in the preformed membranes, and Au-NP incorporation was also confirmed by an increase in the membrane thickness in the AFM images. Key techniques for the successful vesicle-membrane fusion are hydrophobization of Au-NPs, approach control of vesicles by mixing the charged lipids, and destabilization of the lipid bilayers by adding lipids with a small polar headgroup.

  20. Conformational analysis of membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hebling, Christine M; Morgan, Christopher R; Stafford, Darrel W; Jorgenson, James W; Rand, Kasper D; Engen, John R

    2010-07-01

    The study of membrane protein structure and enzymology has traditionally been hampered by the inherent insolubility of membrane proteins in aqueous environments and experimental challenges in emulating an in vivo lipid environment. Phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs have recently been shown to be of great use for the study of membrane proteins since they offer a controllable, stable, and monodisperse model membrane with a nativelike lipid bilayer. Here we report the integration of nanodiscs with hydrogen exchange (HX) mass spectrometry (MS) experiments, thereby allowing for analysis of the native conformation of membrane proteins. gamma-Glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), an approximately 94 kDa transmembrane protein, was inserted into nanodiscs and labeled with deuterium oxide under native conditions. Analytical parameters including sample-handling and chromatographic separation were optimized to measure the incorporation of deuterium into GGCX. Coupling nanodisc technology with HX MS offers an effective approach for investigating the conformation and dynamics of membrane proteins in their native environment and is therefore capable of providing much needed insight into the function of membrane proteins.

  1. Structure and location of amiodarone in a membrane bilayer as determined by molecular mechanics and quantitative x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, M; Chester, D W; Moring, J; Rhodes, D; Herbette, L G

    1988-09-01

    Amiodarone is a drug used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and is believed to have a persistent interaction with cellular membranes. This study sought to examine the structure and location of amiodarone in a membrane bilayer. Amiodarone has a high membrane partition coefficient on the order of 10(6). Small angle x-ray diffraction was used to determine the position of the iodine atoms of amiodarone in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers under conditions of low temperature and hydration where the DPPC bilayer is in the gel state. The time-averaged position of the iodine atoms was determined to be approximately 6 A from the center (terminal methyl region) of the lipid bilayer. A dielectric constant of kappa = 2, which approximates that of the bilayer hydrocarbon core region, was used in calculating a minimum energy structure for membrane-bound amiodarone. This calculated structure when compared with the crystal structure of amiodarone demonstrated that amiodarone could assume a conformation in the bilayer significantly different from that in the crystal. The results reported here are an attempt to correlate the position of a membrane-active drug in a lipid bilayer with its time-averaged conformation. This type of analysis promises to be of great use in the design of drugs with greater potency and higher specificity.

  2. Structure and location of amiodarone in a membrane bilayer as determined by molecular mechanics and quantitative x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Trumbore, M; Chester, D W; Moring, J; Rhodes, D; Herbette, L G

    1988-01-01

    Amiodarone is a drug used in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and is believed to have a persistent interaction with cellular membranes. This study sought to examine the structure and location of amiodarone in a membrane bilayer. Amiodarone has a high membrane partition coefficient on the order of 10(6). Small angle x-ray diffraction was used to determine the position of the iodine atoms of amiodarone in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers under conditions of low temperature and hydration where the DPPC bilayer is in the gel state. The time-averaged position of the iodine atoms was determined to be approximately 6 A from the center (terminal methyl region) of the lipid bilayer. A dielectric constant of kappa = 2, which approximates that of the bilayer hydrocarbon core region, was used in calculating a minimum energy structure for membrane-bound amiodarone. This calculated structure when compared with the crystal structure of amiodarone demonstrated that amiodarone could assume a conformation in the bilayer significantly different from that in the crystal. The results reported here are an attempt to correlate the position of a membrane-active drug in a lipid bilayer with its time-averaged conformation. This type of analysis promises to be of great use in the design of drugs with greater potency and higher specificity. PMID:3207838

  3. Poly-l-lysines and poly-l-arginines induce leakage of negatively charged phospholipid vesicles and translocate through the lipid bilayer upon electrostatic binding to the membrane.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Marcel; Schwieger, Christian; Meister, Annette; Karlsson, Göran; Blume, Alfred

    2009-09-01

    Poly-l-lysines (PLL) and poly-l-arginines (PLA) of different polymer chain lengths interact strongly with negatively charged phospholipid vesicles mainly due to their different electrical charges. 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DPPG) and their mixtures (1/1 mol/mol) with the respective phosphatidylcholines of equivalent chain length were chosen as model membrane systems that form at room temperature either the fluid L(alpha) or the gel phase L(beta) lipid bilayer membranes, respectively. Leakage experiments revealed that the fluid POPG membranes are more perturbed compared to the gel phase DPPG membranes upon peptide binding. Furthermore, it was found that pure PG membranes are more prone to release the vesicle contents as a result of pore formation than the lipid mixtures POPG/POPC and DPPG/DPPC. For the longer polymers (>or=44 amino acids) maximal dye-release was observed when the molar ratio of the concentrations of amino acid residues to charged lipid molecules reached a value of R(P)=0.5, i.e. when the outer membrane layer was theoretically entirely covered by the polymer. At ratios lower or higher than 0.5 leakage dropped significantly. Furthermore, PLL and PLA insertions and/or translocations through lipid membranes were analyzed by using FITC-labeled polymers by monitoring their fluorescence intensity upon membrane binding. Short PLL molecules and PLA molecules of all lengths seemed to translocate through both fluid and gel phase lipid bilayers. Comparison of the PLL and PLA fluorescence assay results showed that PLA interacts stronger with phospholipid membranes compared to PLL. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements were performed to give further insight into these mechanisms and to support the findings obtained by fluorescence assays. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) was used to visualize changes in the vesicles' morphology after addition of the

  4. Molecular Structures of Fluid Phosphatidylethanolamine Bilayers Obtained from Simulation-to-Experiment Comparisons and Experimental Scattering Density Profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Kučerka, Norbert; van Oosten, Brad; Pan, Jianjun; ...

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, following our previous efforts in determining the structures of commonly used PC, PG, and PS bilayers, we continue our studies of fully hydrated, fluid phase PE bilayers. The newly designed parsing scheme for PE bilayers was based on extensive MD simulations, and is utilized in the SDP analysis of both X-ray and neutron (contrast varied) scattering measurements. Obtained experimental scattering form factors are directly compared to our simulation results, and can serve as a benchmark for future developed force fields. Among the evaluated structural parameters, namely, area per lipid A, overall bilayer thickness DB, and hydrocarbon regionmore » thickness 2DC, the PE bilayer response to changing temperature is similar to previously studied bilayers with different headgroups. On the other hand, the reduced hydration of PE headgroups, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding between PE headgroups, dramatically affects lateral packing within the bilayer. Despite sharing the same glycerol backbone, a markedly smaller area per lipid distinguishes PE from other bilayers (i.e., PC, PG, and PS) studied to date. Finally and overall, our data are consistent with the notion that lipid headgroups govern bilayer packing, while hydrocarbon chains dominate the bilayer’s response to temperature changes.« less

  5. Molecular Structures of Fluid Phosphatidylethanolamine Bilayers Obtained from Simulation-to-Experiment Comparisons and Experimental Scattering Density Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kučerka, Norbert; van Oosten, Brad; Pan, Jianjun; Heberle, Frederick A.; Harroun, Thad A.; Katsaras, John

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, following our previous efforts in determining the structures of commonly used PC, PG, and PS bilayers, we continue our studies of fully hydrated, fluid phase PE bilayers. The newly designed parsing scheme for PE bilayers was based on extensive MD simulations, and is utilized in the SDP analysis of both X-ray and neutron (contrast varied) scattering measurements. Obtained experimental scattering form factors are directly compared to our simulation results, and can serve as a benchmark for future developed force fields. Among the evaluated structural parameters, namely, area per lipid A, overall bilayer thickness DB, and hydrocarbon region thickness 2DC, the PE bilayer response to changing temperature is similar to previously studied bilayers with different headgroups. On the other hand, the reduced hydration of PE headgroups, as well as the strong hydrogen bonding between PE headgroups, dramatically affects lateral packing within the bilayer. Despite sharing the same glycerol backbone, a markedly smaller area per lipid distinguishes PE from other bilayers (i.e., PC, PG, and PS) studied to date. Finally and overall, our data are consistent with the notion that lipid headgroups govern bilayer packing, while hydrocarbon chains dominate the bilayer’s response to temperature changes.

  6. 1H NMR Shows Slow Phospholipid Flip-Flop in Gel and Fluid Bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A.; Miti, Tatiana; ...

    2017-01-20

    We measured the transbilayer diffusion of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) in large unilamellar vesicles, in both the gel (Lβ') and fluid (Lα) phases. The choline resonance of headgroup-protiated DPPC exchanged into the outer leaflet of headgroup-deuterated DPPC-d13 vesicles was monitored using 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with the addition of a paramagnetic shift reagent. This allowed us to distinguish between the inner and outer bilayer leaflet of DPPC, to determine the flip-flop rate as a function of temperature. Flip-flop of fluid-phase DPPC exhibited Arrhenius kinetics, from which we determined an activation energy of 122 kJ mol–1. In gel-phase DPPC vesicles, flip-flop was notmore » observed over the course of 250 h. Here, our findings are in contrast to previous studies of solid-supported bilayers, where the reported DPPC translocation rates are at least several orders of magnitude faster than those in vesicles at corresponding temperatures. Finally, we reconcile these differences by proposing a defect-mediated acceleration of lipid translocation in supported bilayers, where long-lived, submicron-sized holes resulting from incomplete surface coverage are the sites of rapid transbilayer movement.« less

  7. The Effect of Lidocaine · HCl on the Fluidity of Native and Model Membrane Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Seop; Jung, Tae-Sang; Noh, Yang-Ho; Kim, Woo-Sung; Park, Won-Ick; Kim, Young-Soo; Chung, In-Kyo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Bae, Soo-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigated the mechanism of pharmacological action of local anesthetic and provide the basic information about the development of new effective local anesthetics. Fluorescent probe techniques were used to evaluate the effect of lidocaine·HCl on the physical properties (transbilayer asymmetric lateral and rotational mobility, annular lipid fluidity and protein distribution) of synaptosomal plasma membrane vesicles (SPMV) isolated from bovine cerebral cortex, and liposomes of total lipids (SPMVTL) and phospholipids (SPMVPL) extracted from the SPMV. An experimental procedure was used based on selective quenching of 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) by trinitrophenyl groups, and radiationless energy transfer from the tryptophans of membrane proteins to Py-3-Py. Lidocaine·HCl increased the bulk lateral and rotational mobility of neuronal and model membrane lipid bilayes, and had a greater fluidizing effect on the inner monolayer than the outer monolayer. Lidocaine·HCl increased annular lipid fluidity in SPMV lipid bilayers. It also caused membrane proteins to cluster. The most important finding of this study is that there is far greater increase in annular lipid fluidity than that in lateral and rotational mobilities by lidocaine·HCl. Lidocaine·HCl alters the stereo or dynamics of the proteins in the lipid bilayers by combining with lipids, especially with the annular lipids. In conclusion, the present data suggest that lidocaine, in addition to its direct interaction with proteins, concurrently interacts with membrane lipids, fluidizing the membrane, and thus inducing conformational changes of proteins known to be intimately associated with membrane lipid. PMID:23269904

  8. Cyclotides insert into lipid bilayers to form membrane pores and destabilize the membrane through hydrophobic and phosphoethanolamine-specific interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Conan K; Wacklin, Hanna P; Craik, David J

    2012-12-21

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived circular proteins with potential therapeutic applications arising from their remarkable stability, broad sequence diversity, and range of bioactivities. Their membrane-binding activity is believed to be a critical component of their mechanism of action. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we studied the binding of the prototypical cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 (and various mutants) to dodecylphosphocholine micelles and phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid bilayers. Although binding is predominantly an entropy-driven process, suggesting that hydrophobic forces contribute significantly to cyclotide-lipid complex formation, specific binding to the phosphoethanolamine-lipid headgroup is also required, which is evident from the enthalpic changes in the free energy of binding. In addition, using a combination of dissipative quartz crystal microbalance measurements and neutron reflectometry, we elucidated the process by which cyclotides interact with bilayer membranes. Initially, a small number of cyclotides bind to the membrane surface and then insert first into the outer membrane leaflet followed by penetration through the membrane and pore formation. At higher concentrations of cyclotides, destabilization of membranes occurs. Our results provide significant mechanistic insight into how cyclotides exert their bioactivities.

  9. Cyclotides Insert into Lipid Bilayers to Form Membrane Pores and Destabilize the Membrane through Hydrophobic and Phosphoethanolamine-specific Interactions*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Conan K.; Wacklin, Hanna P.; Craik, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of plant-derived circular proteins with potential therapeutic applications arising from their remarkable stability, broad sequence diversity, and range of bioactivities. Their membrane-binding activity is believed to be a critical component of their mechanism of action. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we studied the binding of the prototypical cyclotides kalata B1 and kalata B2 (and various mutants) to dodecylphosphocholine micelles and phosphoethanolamine-containing lipid bilayers. Although binding is predominantly an entropy-driven process, suggesting that hydrophobic forces contribute significantly to cyclotide-lipid complex formation, specific binding to the phosphoethanolamine-lipid headgroup is also required, which is evident from the enthalpic changes in the free energy of binding. In addition, using a combination of dissipative quartz crystal microbalance measurements and neutron reflectometry, we elucidated the process by which cyclotides interact with bilayer membranes. Initially, a small number of cyclotides bind to the membrane surface and then insert first into the outer membrane leaflet followed by penetration through the membrane and pore formation. At higher concentrations of cyclotides, destabilization of membranes occurs. Our results provide significant mechanistic insight into how cyclotides exert their bioactivities. PMID:23129773

  10. Photoelectric Effects in Lipid Bilayer Membranes. A Pedagogical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides information appropriate for introductory lectures on photoelectric effects in membranes. Describes the apparatus and supplies required for laboratory exercises. Outlines typical laboratory exercises. Identifies the chromophores known to induce photoelectric effects. Concludes that this topic can provide useful subjects for undergraduate…

  11. Photoelectric Effects in Lipid Bilayer Membranes. A Pedagogical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Jay S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Provides information appropriate for introductory lectures on photoelectric effects in membranes. Describes the apparatus and supplies required for laboratory exercises. Outlines typical laboratory exercises. Identifies the chromophores known to induce photoelectric effects. Concludes that this topic can provide useful subjects for undergraduate…

  12. Membrane order parameters for interdigitated lipid bilayers measured via polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ngo, An T; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Lu, Zhengfang; Joós, Béla; Morris, Catherine E; Johnston, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    Incorporating ethanol in lipid membranes leads to changes in bilayer structure, including the formation of an interdigitated phase. We have used polarized total-internal-reflection fluorescence microscopy (pTIRFM) to measure the order parameter for Texas Red DHPE incorporated in the ethanol-induced interdigitated phase (LβI) formed from ternary lipid mixtures comprising dioleoylphosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and egg sphingomyelin or dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine. These lipid mixtures have 3 co-existing phases in the presence of ethanol: liquid-ordered, liquid-disordered and LβI. pTIRFM using Texas Red DHPE shows a reversal in fluorescence contrast between the LβI phase and the surrounding disordered phase with changes in the polarization angle. The contrast reversal is due to changes in the orientation of the dye, and provides a rapid method to identify the LβI phase. The measured order parameters for the LβI phase are consistent with a highly ordered membrane environment, similar to a gel phase. An acyl-chain labeled BODIPY-FL-PC was also tested for pTIRFM studies of ethanol-treated bilayers; however, this probe is less useful since the order parameters of the interdigitated phase are consistent with orientations that are close to random, either due to local membrane disorder or to a mixture of extended and looping conformations in which the fluorophore is localized in the polar headgroup region of the bilayer. In summary, we demonstrate that order parameter measurements via pTIRFM using Texas Red-DHPE can rapidly identify the interdigitated phase in supported bilayers. We anticipate that this technique will aid further research in the effects of alcohols and other additives on membranes.

  13. Bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic cyclodextrins: host membranes that recognize guest molecules.

    PubMed

    Falvey, Patrick; Lim, Choon Woo; Darcy, Raphael; Revermann, Tobias; Karst, Uwe; Giesbers, Marcel; Marcelis, Antonius T M; Lazar, Adina; Coleman, Anthony W; Reinhoudt, David N; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2005-02-04

    A family of amphiphilic cyclodextrins (6, 7) has been prepared through 6-S-alkylation (alkyl=n-dodecyl and n-hexadecyl) of the primary side and 2-O-PEGylation of the secondary side of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-cyclodextrins (PEG=poly(ethylene glycol)). These cyclodextrins form nonionic bilayer vesicles in aqueous solution. The bilayer vesicles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, dye encapsulation, and capillary electrophoresis. The molecular packing of the amphiphilic cyclodextrins was investigated by using small-angle X-ray diffraction of bilayers deposited on glass and pressure-area isotherms obtained from Langmuir monolayers on the air-water interface. The bilayer thickness is dependent on the chain length, whereas the average molecular surface area scales with the cyclodextrin ring size. The alkyl chains of the cyclodextrins in the bilayer are deeply interdigitated. Molecular recognition of a hydrophobic anion (adamantane carboxylate) by the cyclodextrin vesicles was investigated by using capillary electrophoresis, thereby exploiting the increase in electrophoretic mobility that occurs when the hydrophobic anions bind to the nonionic cyclodextrin vesicles. It was found that in spite of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) substituents, the beta-cyclodextrin vesicles retain their characteristic affinity for adamantane carboxylate (association constant K(a)=7.1 x 10(3) M(-1)), whereas gamma-cyclodextrin vesicles have less affinity (K(a)=3.2 x 10(3) M(-1)), and alpha-cyclodextrin or non-cyclodextrin, nonionic vesicles have very little affinity (K(a) approximately 100 M(-1)). Specific binding of the adamantane carboxylate to beta-cyclodextrin vesicles was also evident in competition experiments with beta-cyclodextrin in solution. Hence, the cyclodextrin vesicles can function as host bilayer membranes that recognize small guest molecules by specific noncovalent interaction.

  14. A solvent model for simulations of peptides in bilayers. II. Membrane-spanning alpha-helices.

    PubMed Central

    Efremov, R G; Nolde, D E; Vergoten, G; Arseniev, A S

    1999-01-01

    We describe application of the implicit solvation model (see the first paper of this series), to Monte Carlo simulations of several peptides in bilayer- and water-mimetic environments, and in vacuum. The membrane-bound peptides chosen were transmembrane segments A and B of bacteriorhodopsin, the hydrophobic segment of surfactant lipoprotein, and magainin2. Their conformations in membrane-like media are known from the experiments. Also, molecular dynamics study of surfactant lipoprotein with different explicit solvents has been reported (Kovacs, H., A. E. Mark, J. Johansson, and W. F. van Gunsteren. 1995. J. Mol. Biol. 247:808-822). The principal goal of this work is to compare the results obtained in the framework of our solvation model with available experimental and computational data. The findings could be summarized as follows: 1) structural and energetic properties of studied molecules strongly depend on the solvent; membrane-mimetic media significantly promote formation of alpha-helices capable of traversing the bilayer, whereas a polar environment destabilizes alpha-helical conformation via reduction of solvent-exposed surface area and packing; 2) the structures calculated in a membrane-like environment agree with the experimental ones; 3) noticeable differences in conformation of surfactant lipoprotein assessed via Monte Carlo simulation with implicit solvent (this work) and molecular dynamics in explicit solvent were observed; 4) in vacuo simulations do not correctly reproduce protein-membrane interactions, and hence should be avoided in modeling membrane proteins. PMID:10233063

  15. Formation and fluidity measurement of supported lipid bilayer on polyvinyl chloride membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Takuji; Kono, Akiteru; Futagawa, Masato; Sawada, Kazuaki; Tero, Ryugo

    2014-02-01

    We prepared an artificial lipid bilayer on a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane on a Si3N4 layer deposited on a Si wafer. We optimized the experimental condition for the fabrication of the PVC membrane, and obtained a PVC membrane with a flat and uniform surface on the scale of several hundreds of micrometer suitable for a substrate for supported lipid bilayers (SLBs). The SLB of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) was formed on the PVC membrane by the vesicle fusion method. The observation with a conventional epi-fluorescence microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope gave geometrically uniform images of the SLB on the PVC membrane. The fluidity and the mobile fraction of the SLB was evaluated by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching method, and compared with that on a thermally oxidized SiO2/Si substrate. The SLB on the PVC membrane contained immobile fraction ˜30%, but the diffusion in the mobile fraction was two times faster than that in the SLB on SiO2/Si, which had little immobile fraction.

  16. A New Method for Measuring Edge Tensions and Stability of Lipid Bilayers: Effect of Membrane Composition

    PubMed Central

    Portet, Thomas; Dimova, Rumiana

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel and facile method for measuring edge tensions of lipid membranes. The approach is based on electroporation of giant unilamellar vesicles and analysis of the pore closure dynamics. We applied this method to evaluate the edge tension in membranes with four different compositions: egg phosphatidylcholine (eggPC), dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), and mixtures of DOPC with cholesterol and dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Our data confirm previous results for eggPC and DOPC. The addition of 17 mol % cholesterol to the DOPC membrane causes an increase in the membrane edge tension. On the contrary, when the same fraction of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine is added to the membrane, a decrease in the edge tension is observed, which is an unexpected result considering the inverted-cone shape geometry of the molecule. It is presumed that interlipid hydrogen bonding is the origin of this behavior. Furthermore, cholesterol was found to lower the lysis tension of DOPC bilayers. This behavior differs from that observed on bilayers made of stearoyloleoylphosphatidylcholine, suggesting that cholesterol influences the membrane mechanical stability in a lipid-specific manner. PMID:21081074

  17. Lanthanide Chelates as Bilayer Alignment Tools in NMR Studies of Membrane-Associated Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, R. S.; Bryant, H.; Bryant, R. G.; Vold, Regitze R.

    1999-12-01

    Theequimolar complex, consisting of the lipid-like, amphiphilic chelating agent 1,11-bis[distearylamino]-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA-18) and Tm3+, is shown by deuterium (2H) NMR to be useful in aligning bicelle-like model membranes, consisting of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dihexanoylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC). As shown previously (1996, R. S. Prosser et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118, 269-270), in the absence of chelate, the lanthanide ions bind loosely with the lipid phosphate groups and confer the membrane with a sufficient positive magnetic anisotropy to result in parallel alignment (i.e., average bilayer normal along the field). Apparently, DTPA-18 sequesters the lanthanide ions and inserts into the phospholipid bilayer in such a manner that bilayer morphology is preserved over a wide temperature range (35-70°C). The inherent paramagnetic shifts and line broadening effects are illustrated by 2H NMR spectra of the membrane binding peptide, Leu-enkephalin (Lenk-d2, Tyr-(Gly-d2)-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH), in the presence of varying concentrations of Tm3+, and upon addition of DTPA-18. Two conclusions could be drawn from this study: (1) The addition of Tm3+ to the bicelle system is consistent with a conformational change in the surface associated peptide, and this effect is shown to be reversed by addition of the chelate, and (2) The paramagnetic shifts are shown to be significantly reduced by addition of chelate.

  18. Raman Imaging in Cell Membranes, Lipid-Rich Organelles, and Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Syed, Aleem; Smith, Emily A

    2017-06-12

    Raman-based optical imaging is a promising analytical tool for noninvasive, label-free chemical imaging of lipid bilayers and cellular membranes. Imaging using spontaneous Raman scattering suffers from a low intensity that hinders its use in some cellular applications. However, developments in coherent Raman imaging, surface-enhanced Raman imaging, and tip-enhanced Raman imaging have enabled video-rate imaging, excellent detection limits, and nanometer spatial resolution, respectively. After a brief introduction to these commonly used Raman imaging techniques for cell membrane studies, this review discusses selected applications of these modalities for chemical imaging of membrane proteins and lipids. Finally, recent developments in chemical tags for Raman imaging and their applications in the analysis of selected cell membrane components are summarized. Ongoing developments toward improving the temporal and spatial resolution of Raman imaging and small-molecule tags with strong Raman scattering cross sections continue to expand the utility of Raman imaging for diverse cell membrane studies.

  19. Lipid Bilayer-Bound Conformation of an Integral Membrane Beta Barrel Protein by Multidimensional MAS NMR

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Matthew T.; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms 2-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5–0.3 ppm for 13C line width and less than 0.5 ppm 15N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  20. Lipid bilayer-bound conformation of an integral membrane beta barrel protein by multidimensional MAS NMR.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew T; Su, Yongchao; Silvers, Robert; Andreas, Loren; Clark, Lindsay; Wagner, Gerhard; Pintacuda, Guido; Emsley, Lyndon; Griffin, Robert G

    2015-04-01

    The human voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC) is a 32 kDa β-barrel integral membrane protein that controls the transport of ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane. Despite the determination of VDAC solution and diffraction structures, a structural basis for the mechanism of its function is not yet fully understood. Biophysical studies suggest VDAC requires a lipid bilayer to achieve full function, motivating the need for atomic resolution structural information of VDAC in a membrane environment. Here we report an essential step toward that goal: extensive assignments of backbone and side chain resonances for VDAC in DMPC lipid bilayers via magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR). VDAC reconstituted into DMPC lipid bilayers spontaneously forms two-dimensional lipid crystals, showing remarkable spectral resolution (0.5-0.3 ppm for (13)C line widths and <0.5 ppm (15)N line widths at 750 MHz). In addition to the benefits of working in a lipid bilayer, several distinct advantages are observed with the lipid crystalline preparation. First, the strong signals and sharp line widths facilitated extensive NMR resonance assignments for an integral membrane β-barrel protein in lipid bilayers by MAS NMR. Second, a large number of residues in loop regions were readily observed and assigned, which can be challenging in detergent-solubilized membrane proteins where loop regions are often not detected due to line broadening from conformational exchange. Third, complete backbone and side chain chemical shift assignments could be obtained for the first 25 residues, which comprise the functionally important N-terminus. The reported assignments allow us to compare predicted torsion angles for VDAC prepared in DMPC 2D lipid crystals, DMPC liposomes, and LDAO-solubilized samples to address the possible effects of the membrane mimetic environment on the conformation of the protein. Concluding, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the reported

  1. Control of a redox reaction on lipid bilayer surfaces by membrane dipole potential.

    PubMed

    Alakoskela, J I; Kinnunen, P K

    2001-01-01

    Nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) group is a widely used, environment-sensitive fluorescent probe. The negatively charged dithionite rapidly reduces the accessible NBD-labeled lipids in liposomes to their corresponding nonfluorescent derivatives. In this study both the phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain NBD-labeled L-alpha-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-[N-(4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-ethanolamine] (DPPN) and 1-acyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC), respectively, were employed. The correlation of both the rate coefficient k(1) of the redox reaction and the fluorescence properties of the two probes with the membrane dipole potential Psi in fluid dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes is demonstrated. When Psi of the bilayer was varied (decreased by phloretin or increased by 6-ketocholestanol), the value for k1 decreased for both DPPN and NBD-PC with increasing Psi. For both fluorophores a positive correlation to Psi was evident for the relative fluorescence emission intensity (RFI, normalized to the emission of the fluorophore in a DPPC matrix). The relative changes in emission intensity as a function of Psi were approximately equal for both NBD derivatives. Changes similar to those caused by phloretin were seen when dihexadecylglycerophosphocholine (DHPC) was added to DPPC liposomes, in keeping with the lower dipole potential for the former lipid compound compared with DPPC. These effects of Psi on NBD fluorescence should be taken into account when interpreting data acquired using NBD-labeled lipids as fluorescent probes.

  2. Control of a redox reaction on lipid bilayer surfaces by membrane dipole potential.

    PubMed Central

    Alakoskela, J I; Kinnunen, P K

    2001-01-01

    Nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl (NBD) group is a widely used, environment-sensitive fluorescent probe. The negatively charged dithionite rapidly reduces the accessible NBD-labeled lipids in liposomes to their corresponding nonfluorescent derivatives. In this study both the phospholipid headgroup and acyl chain NBD-labeled L-alpha-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-[N-(4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)-ethanolamine] (DPPN) and 1-acyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC), respectively, were employed. The correlation of both the rate coefficient k(1) of the redox reaction and the fluorescence properties of the two probes with the membrane dipole potential Psi in fluid dipalmitoylglycerophosphocholine (DPPC) liposomes is demonstrated. When Psi of the bilayer was varied (decreased by phloretin or increased by 6-ketocholestanol), the value for k1 decreased for both DPPN and NBD-PC with increasing Psi. For both fluorophores a positive correlation to Psi was evident for the relative fluorescence emission intensity (RFI, normalized to the emission of the fluorophore in a DPPC matrix). The relative changes in emission intensity as a function of Psi were approximately equal for both NBD derivatives. Changes similar to those caused by phloretin were seen when dihexadecylglycerophosphocholine (DHPC) was added to DPPC liposomes, in keeping with the lower dipole potential for the former lipid compound compared with DPPC. These effects of Psi on NBD fluorescence should be taken into account when interpreting data acquired using NBD-labeled lipids as fluorescent probes. PMID:11159402

  3. Preserved transmembrane protein mobility in polymer-supported lipid bilayers derived from cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Pace, Hudson; Simonsson Nyström, Lisa; Gunnarsson, Anders; Eck, Elizabeth; Monson, Christopher; Geschwindner, Stefan; Snijder, Arjan; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-09-15

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have contributed invaluable information about the physiochemical properties of cell membranes, but their compositional simplicity often limits the level of knowledge that can be gained about the structure and function of transmembrane proteins in their native environment. Herein, we demonstrate a generic protocol for producing polymer-supported lipid bilayers on glass surfaces that contain essentially all naturally occurring cell-membrane components of a cell line while still retaining transmembrane protein mobility and activity. This was achieved by merging vesicles made from synthetic lipids (PEGylated lipids and POPC lipids) with native cell-membrane vesicles to generate hybrid vesicles which readily rupture into a continuous polymer-supported lipid bilayer. To investigate the properties of these complex hybrid SLBs and particularly the behavior of their integral membrane-proteins, we used total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to study a transmembrane protease, β-secretase 1 (BACE1), whose ectoplasmic and cytoplasmic domains could both be specifically targeted with fluorescent reporters. By selectively probing the two different orientations of BACE1 in the resulting hybrid SLBs, the role of the PEG-cushion on transmembrane protein lateral mobility was investigated. The results reveal the necessity of having the PEGylated lipids present during vesicle adsorption to prevent immobilization of transmembrane proteins with protruding domains. The proteolytic activity of BACE1 was unadulterated by the sonication process used to merge the synthetic and native membrane vesicles; importantly it was also conserved in the SLB. The presented strategy could thus serve both fundamental studies of membrane biophysics and the production of surface-based bioanalytical sensor platforms.

  4. The Influence of Short-Chain Alcohols on Interfacial Tension, Mechanical Properties, Area/Molecule, and Permeability of Fluid Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hung V.; Longo, Marjorie L.

    2004-01-01

    We used micropipette aspiration to directly measure the area compressibility modulus, bending modulus, lysis tension, lysis strain, and area expansion of fluid phase 1-stearoyl, 2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (SOPC) lipid bilayers exposed to aqueous solutions of short-chain alcohols at alcohol concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 9.8 M. The order of effectiveness in decreasing mechanical properties and increasing area per molecule was butanol>propanol>ethanol>methanol, although the lysis strain was invariant to alcohol chain-length. Quantitatively, the trend in area compressibility modulus follows Traube's rule of interfacial tension reduction, i.e., for each additional alcohol CH2 group, the concentration required to reach the same area compressibility modulus was reduced roughly by a factor of 3. We convert our area compressibility data into interfacial tension values to: confirm that Traube's rule is followed for bilayers; show that alcohols decrease the interfacial tension of bilayer-water interfaces less effectively than oil-water interfaces; determine the partition coefficients and standard Gibbs adsorption energy per CH2 group for adsorption of alcohol into the lipid headgroup region; and predict the increase in area per headgroup as well as the critical radius and line tension of a membrane pore for each concentration and chain-length of alcohol. The area expansion predictions were confirmed by direct measurements of the area expansion of vesicles exposed to flowing alcohol solutions. These measurements were fitted to a membrane kinetic model to find membrane permeability coefficients of short-chain alcohols. Taken together, the evidence presented here supports a view that alcohol partitioning into the bilayer headgroup region, with enhanced partitioning as the chain-length of the alcohol increases, results in chain-length-dependent interfacial tension reduction with concomitant chain-length-dependent reduction in mechanical moduli and membrane thickness. PMID

  5. Variation of thermal conductivity of DPPC lipid bilayer membranes around the phase transition temperature

    PubMed Central

    Youssefian, Sina; Lambert, Christopher R.; Van Dessel, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Given their amphiphilic nature and chemical structure, phospholipids exhibit a strong thermotropic and lyotropic phase behaviour in an aqueous environment. Around the phase transition temperature, phospholipids transform from a gel-like state to a fluid crystalline structure. In this transition, many key characteristics of the lipid bilayers such as structure and thermal properties alter. In this study, we employed atomistic simulation techniques to study the structure and underlying mechanisms of heat transfer in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers around the fluid–gel phase transformation. To investigate this phenomenon, we performed non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations for a range of different temperature gradients. The results show that the thermal properties of the DPPC bilayer are highly dependent on the temperature gradient. Higher temperature gradients cause an increase in the thermal conductivity of the DPPC lipid bilayer. We also found that the thermal conductivity of DPPC is lowest at the transition temperature whereby one lipid leaflet is in the gel phase and the other is in the liquid crystalline phase. This is essentially related to a growth in thermal resistance between the two leaflets of lipid at the transition temperature. These results provide significant new insights into developing new thermal insulation for engineering applications. PMID:28539484

  6. Tunable Surface Hydrophobicity and Fluid Transport through Nanoporous Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Joseph H. J.

    There are more than three billion people across the globe that struggle to obtain clean drinkable water. One of the most promising avenues for generating potable water is through reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. Both solutions require a semipermeable membrane that prohibits passage of unwanted solute particles but allows passage of the solvent. Atomically thin two-dimensional membranes based on porous graphene show great promise as semipermeable materials, but modeling fluid flow on length scales between the microscopic (nanometer and smaller) and macroscopic (micron and larger) regimes presents formidable challenges. This thesis explores both equilibrium and nonequilibrium aspects of this problem and develops new methodology for simulating systems away from thermal equilibrium. First, we hypothesize that there is a wetting penalty for water as it tries to breach a sheet of graphene that should be naturally hydrophobic. By using equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the hydrophobicity depends sensitively on the degree of electrical doping, offering an opportunity to tune the hydrophobic effect of graphene using small amounts of doping. The wetting contact angle, a measure of hydrophobicity, changes dramatically with the voltage applied to single layer graphene. We find that the sensitivity of the hydrophobic effect to voltage depends not on hydrogen bonding motifs at the interface between graphene and water, but instead on a phenomenon known as electrowetting. The theory of electrowetting predicts that the difference in surface tensions that defines the contact angle is quartic in the voltage, rather than quadratic, as it would be in bilayer graphene or in a two-dimensional metal. To explore the nonequilibrium aspects of fluid passage through atomically thin membranes, we developed a molecular dynamics methodology for simulating fluid flow at constant flux based on Gauss's principle of least constraint. This method develops microscopic

  7. Fluid bilayer structure determination: Joint refinement in composition space using X-ray and neutron diffraction data

    SciTech Connect

    White, S.H.; Wiener, M.C.

    1994-12-31

    Experimentally-determined structural models of fluid lipid bilayers are essential for verifying molecular dynamics simulations of bilayers and for understanding the structural consequences of peptide interactions. The extreme thermal motion of bilayers precludes the possibility of atomic-level structural models. Defining {open_quote}the structure{close_quote} of a bilayer as the time-averaged transbilayer distribution of the water and the principal lipid structural groups such as the carbonyls and double-bonds (quasimolecular fragments), one can represent the bilayer structure as a sum of Gaussian functions referred to collectively as the quasimolecular structure. One method of determining the structure is by neutron diffraction combined with exhaustive specific deuteration. This method is impractical because of the expense of the chemical syntheses and the limited amount of neutron beam time currently available. We have therefore developed the composition space refinement method for combining X-ray and minimal neutron diffraction data to arrive at remarkably detailed and accurate structures of fluid bilayers. The composition space representation of the bilayer describes the probability of occupancy per unit length across the width of the bilayer of each quasimolecular component and permits the joint refinement of X-ray and neutron lamellar diffraction data by means of a single quasimolecular structure that is fitted simultaneously to both data sets. Scaling of each component by the appropriate neutron or X-ray scattering length maps the composition-space profile to the appropriate scattering length space for comparison to experimental data. The difficulty with the method is that fluid bilayer structures are generally only marginally determined by the experimental data. This means that the space of possible solutions must be extensively explored in conjunction with a thorough analysis of errors.

  8. Interaction of alpha-latroinsectotoxin from Latrodectus mactans venom with bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Shatursky OYa; Pashkov, V N; Bulgacov, O V; Grishin, E V

    1995-01-26

    alpha-Latroinsectotoxin (LIT) from Latrodectus mactans venom increased the conductance of bilayer lipid membranes (BLM) by inducing channel like activity. The channels formed had a maximal single channel conductance of 5 pS in 10 mM CaCl2 solution. This process occurred more rapidly in symmetrical 10 mM CaCl2 solution than in equimolar KCl or NaCl. The LIT induced conductance showed pronounced rectification, that was dependent upon the face of the BLM to which the LIT was applied. This suggests that the LIT molecules incorporate into the bilayer lipid membrane in an oriented manner. The ion channels formed in bilayer phospholipid membrane by LIT are cation selective. The permeability of divalent cations decreased in the order Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+ (Zn2+ and Cd2+ blocked effectively LIT channels with the ratio of Ca2+trans and Cd2+cis or Zn2+cis of 1:1). Selectivity of LIT to monovalent cations was not high and was Ca2+ sensitive. Our data suggest that LIT has at least two Ca(2+)-binding sites, a high affinity site and low one (pK of binding is 2.4). As a result, the binding kinetics of Ca2+ with the toxin shows a high positive cooperativity (Hill coefficient, (h) = 5.95) and that dimerization might be a prerequisite to channel formation. Temperature dependence of conductance of LIT treated lipid bilayers in 100 mM KCl and 10 mM CaCl2 solutions was also determined: 18.9 +/- 2.11 kJ/mol and 28.537 +/- 1.678 kJ/mol, respectively.

  9. Nanopore-spanning lipid bilayers on silicon nitride membranes that seal and selectively transport ions.

    PubMed

    Korman, Christopher E; Megens, Mischa; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Horsley, David A

    2013-04-09

    We report the formation of POPC lipid bilayers that span 130 nm pores in a freestanding silicon nitride film supported on a silicon substrate. These solvent-free lipid membranes self-assemble on organosilane-treated Si3N4 via the fusion of 200 nm unilamellar vesicles. Membrane fluidity is verified by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and membrane resistance in excess of 1 GΩ is demonstrated using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). An array of 40,000 membranes maintained high impedance over 72 h, followed by rupture of most of the membranes by 82 h. Membrane incorporation of gramicidin, a model ion channel, resulted in increased membrane conductance. This membrane conductance was diminished when the gramicidin channels were blocked with CaCl2, indicating that the change in membrane conductance results from gramicidin-mediated ion transport. These very stable, biologically functional pore-spanning membranes open many possibilities for silicon-based ion-channel devices for applications such as biosensors and high-throughput drug screening.

  10. Diffusion of water and selected atoms in DMPC lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, F. Y.; Peters, G. H.; Taub, H.; Miskowiec, A.

    2012-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to determine the diffusion of water molecules as a function of their position in a fully hydrated freestanding 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (DMPC) bilayer membrane at 303 K and 1 atm. The diffusion rate of water in a ˜10 Å thick layer just outside the membrane surface is reduced on average by a factor of ˜2 relative to bulk. For water molecules penetrating deeper into the membrane, there is an increasing reduction in the average diffusion rate with up to one order of magnitude decrease for those deepest in the membrane. A comparison with the diffusion rate of selected atoms in the lipid molecules shows that ˜6 water molecules per lipid molecule move on the same time scale as the lipids and may therefore be considered to be tightly bound to them. The quasielastic neutron scattering functions for water and selected atoms in the lipid molecule have been simulated and compared to observed quasielastic neutron scattering spectra from single-supported bilayer DMPC membranes.

  11. Defining the free-energy landscape of curvature-inducing proteins on membrane bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Tourdot, Richard W.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Curvature-sensing and curvature-remodeling proteins, such as Amphiphysin, Epsin, and Exo70, are known to reshape cell membranes, and this remodeling event is essential for key biophysical processes such as tubulation, exocytosis, and endocytosis. Curvature-inducing proteins can act as curvature sensors; they aggregate to membrane regions matching their intrinsic curvature; as well as induce curvature in cell membranes to stabilize emergent high curvature, nonspherical, structures such as tubules, discs, and caveolae. A definitive understanding of the interplay between protein recruitment and migration, the evolution of membrane curvature, and membrane morphological transitions is emerging but remains incomplete. Here, within a continuum framework and using the machinery of Monte Carlo simulations, we introduce and compare three free-energy methods to delineate the free-energy landscape of curvature-inducing proteins on bilayer membranes. We demonstrate the utility of the Widom test particle (or field) insertion methodology in computing the excess chemical potentials associated with curvature-inducing proteins on the membrane—in particular, we use this method to track the onset of morphological transitions in the membrane at elevated protein densities. We validate this approach by comparing the results from the Widom method with those of thermodynamic integration and Bennett acceptance ratio methods. Furthermore, the predictions from the Widom method have been tested against analytical calculations of the excess chemical potential at infinite dilution. Our results are useful in precisely quantifying the free-energy landscape, and also in determining the phase boundaries associated with curvature-induction, curvature-sensing, and morphological transitions. This approach can be extended to studies exploring the role of thermal fluctuations and other external (control) variables, such as membrane excess area, in shaping curvature-mediated interactions on bilayer

  12. Defining the free-energy landscape of curvature-inducing proteins on membrane bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tourdot, Richard W.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2014-08-01

    Curvature-sensing and curvature-remodeling proteins, such as Amphiphysin, Epsin, and Exo70, are known to reshape cell membranes, and this remodeling event is essential for key biophysical processes such as tubulation, exocytosis, and endocytosis. Curvature-inducing proteins can act as curvature sensors; they aggregate to membrane regions matching their intrinsic curvature; as well as induce curvature in cell membranes to stabilize emergent high curvature, nonspherical, structures such as tubules, discs, and caveolae. A definitive understanding of the interplay between protein recruitment and migration, the evolution of membrane curvature, and membrane morphological transitions is emerging but remains incomplete. Here, within a continuum framework and using the machinery of Monte Carlo simulations, we introduce and compare three free-energy methods to delineate the free-energy landscape of curvature-inducing proteins on bilayer membranes. We demonstrate the utility of the Widom test particle (or field) insertion methodology in computing the excess chemical potentials associated with curvature-inducing proteins on the membrane—in particular, we use this method to track the onset of morphological transitions in the membrane at elevated protein densities. We validate this approach by comparing the results from the Widom method with those of thermodynamic integration and Bennett acceptance ratio methods. Furthermore, the predictions from the Widom method have been tested against analytical calculations of the excess chemical potential at infinite dilution. Our results are useful in precisely quantifying the free-energy landscape, and also in determining the phase boundaries associated with curvature-induction, curvature-sensing, and morphological transitions. This approach can be extended to studies exploring the role of thermal fluctuations and other external (control) variables, such as membrane excess area, in shaping curvature-mediated interactions on bilayer

  13. Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: Advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency.

    PubMed

    Oh, K S; Poh, P E; Chong, M N; Chan, E S; Lau, E V; Saint, C P

    2016-09-05

    Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Binding of lysozyme to phospholipid bilayers: evidence for protein aggregation upon membrane association.

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, Galyna P; Ioffe, Valeriya M; Kinnunen, Paavo K J

    2007-07-01

    Biological functions of lysozyme, including its antimicrobial, antitumor, and immune-modulatory activities have been suggested to be largely determined by the lipid binding properties of this protein. To gain further insight into these interactions on a molecular level the association of lysozyme to liposomes composed of either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or its mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-phosphatidylserine, or bovine heart cardiolipin was studied by a combination of fluorescence techniques. The characteristics of the adsorption of lysozyme to lipid bilayers were investigated using fluorescein 5'-isothiocyanate labeled protein, responding to membrane association by a decrease in fluorescence. Upon increasing the content of anionic phospholipids in lipid vesicles, the binding isotherms changed from Langmuir-like to sigmoidal. Using adsorption models based on scaled particle and double-layer theories, this finding was rationalized in terms of self-association of the membrane-bound protein. The extent of quenching of lysozyme tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide decreased upon membrane binding, revealing a conformational transition for the protein upon its surface association, resulting in a diminished access of the fluorophore to the aqueous phase. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of bilayer-incorporated probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was measured at varying lipid-to-protein molar ratios. Lysozyme was found to increase acyl-chain order for liposomes with the content of acidic phospholipid exceeding 10 mol %. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic protein-lipid interactions can be concluded to modulate the aggregation behavior of lysozyme when bound to lipid bilayers. Modulation of lysozyme aggregation propensity by membrane binding may have important implications for protein fibrillogenesis in vivo. Disruption of membrane integrity by the aggregated

  15. Binding of Lysozyme to Phospholipid Bilayers: Evidence for Protein Aggregation upon Membrane Association

    PubMed Central

    Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Ioffe, Valeriya M.; Kinnunen, Paavo K. J.

    2007-01-01

    Biological functions of lysozyme, including its antimicrobial, antitumor, and immune-modulatory activities have been suggested to be largely determined by the lipid binding properties of this protein. To gain further insight into these interactions on a molecular level the association of lysozyme to liposomes composed of either 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine or its mixtures with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-glycerol, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-rac-phosphatidylserine, or bovine heart cardiolipin was studied by a combination of fluorescence techniques. The characteristics of the adsorption of lysozyme to lipid bilayers were investigated using fluorescein 5′-isothiocyanate labeled protein, responding to membrane association by a decrease in fluorescence. Upon increasing the content of anionic phospholipids in lipid vesicles, the binding isotherms changed from Langmuir-like to sigmoidal. Using adsorption models based on scaled particle and double-layer theories, this finding was rationalized in terms of self-association of the membrane-bound protein. The extent of quenching of lysozyme tryptophan fluorescence by acrylamide decreased upon membrane binding, revealing a conformational transition for the protein upon its surface association, resulting in a diminished access of the fluorophore to the aqueous phase. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of bilayer-incorporated probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene was measured at varying lipid-to-protein molar ratios. Lysozyme was found to increase acyl-chain order for liposomes with the content of acidic phospholipid exceeding 10 mol %. Both electrostatic and hydrophobic protein-lipid interactions can be concluded to modulate the aggregation behavior of lysozyme when bound to lipid bilayers. Modulation of lysozyme aggregation propensity by membrane binding may have important implications for protein fibrillogenesis in vivo. Disruption of membrane integrity by the aggregated

  16. Reparameterized United Atom Model for Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Gel and Fluid Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Tjörnhammar, Richard; Edholm, Olle

    2014-12-09

    A new united atom parametrization of diacyl lipids like dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) has been constructed based on ab initio calculations to obtain fractional charges and the dihedral potential of the hydrocarbon chains, while the Lennard-Jones parameters of the acyl chains were fitted to reproduce the properties of liquid hydrocarbons. The results have been validated against published experimental X-ray and neutron scattering data for fluid and gel phase DPPC. The derived charges of the lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC) headgroup are shown to yield dipole components in the range suggested by experiments. The aim has been to construct a new force field that retains and improves the good agreement for the fluid phase and at the same time produces a gel phase at low temperatures, with properties coherent with experimental findings. The gel phase of diacyl-PC lipids forms a regular triangular lattice in the hydrocarbon region. The global bilayer tilt obtains an azimuthal value of 31° and is aligned between lattice vectors in the bilayer plane. We also show that the model yields a correct heat of melting as well as decent heat capacities in the fluid and gel phase of DPPC.

  17. Membrane skeleton-bilayer interaction is not the major determinant of membrane phospholipid asymmetry in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gudi, S R; Kumar, A; Bhakuni, V; Gokhale, S M; Gupta, C M

    1990-03-30

    Transbilayer phospholipid distribution, membrane skeleton dissociation/association, and spectrin structure have been analysed in human erythrocytes after subjecting them to heating at 50 degrees C for 15 min. The membrane skeleton dissociation/association was determined by measuring the Tris-induced dissociation of Triton-insoluble membrane skeletons (Triton shells), the spectrin-actin extractability under low ionic conditions, and the binding of spectrin-actin with normal erythrocyte membrane inside-out vesicles (IOVs). The spectrin structure was ascertained by measuring the spectrin dimer-to-tetramer ratio as well as the spectrin tryptophan fluorescence. Both the Tris-induced Triton shell dissociation and the spectrin-actin extractability under low ionic conditions were considerably reduced by the heat treatment. Also, the binding of heated erythrocyte spectrin-actin to IOVs was significantly smaller than that observed with the normal cell spectrin-actin. Further, the quantity of spectrin dimers was appreciably increased in heat-treated erythrocytes as compared to the normal cells. This change in the spectrin dimer-to-tetramer ratio was accompanied by marked changes in the spectrin tryptophan fluorescence. In spite of these heat-induced alterations in structure and bilayer interactions of the membrane skeleton, the inside-outside glycerophospholipid distribution remained virtually unaffected in the heat-treated cells, as judged by employing bee venom and pancreatic phospholipase A2, fluorescamine and Merocyanine 540 as the external membrane probes. These results strongly indicate that membrane bilayer-skeleton interaction is not the major factor in determining the transbilayer phospholipid asymmetry in human erythrocyte membrane.

  18. Interactions of the baicalin and baicalein with bilayer lipid membranes investigated by cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xuejing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Miao; Han, Xiaojun

    2014-02-01

    The baicalin and baicalein are the major flavonoids found in Radix Scutellariae, an essential herb in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands of years. The interactions of the baicalin and baicalein with lipid bilayer membranes were studied using cyclic voltammetry and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The thickness d of supported bilayer lipid membranes was calculated as d=4.59(±0.36) nm using AC impedance spectroscopy. The baicalein interacted with egg PC bilayer membranes in a dose-dependent manner. The responses of K3Fe(CN)6 on lipid bilayer membrane modified Pt electrode linearly increased in a concentration range of baicalein from 6.25μM to 25μM with a detection limit of 0.1μM and current-concentration sensitivity of 0.11(±0.01) μA/μM, and then reached a plateau from 25μM to 50μM. However the baicalin showed much weaker interactions with egg PC bilayer membranes. UV-Vis spectroscopy also confirmed that the baicalein could interact with egg PC membranes noticeably, but the interaction of baicalin with membranes was hard to be detected. The results provide useful information on understanding the mechanism of action of Radix Scutellariae in vivo.

  19. Impact of Ciprofloxacin and Chloramphenicol on the Lipid Bilayer of Staphylococcus aureus: Changes in Membrane Potential

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Paulina L.; Becerra, María C.; Albesa, Inés

    2013-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the interaction of ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol with bacterial membranes in a sensitive and in a resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus by using 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS). The binding of this probe to the cell membrane depends on the surface potential, which modulates the binding constant to the membrane. We observed that these antibiotics interacted with the bilayer, thus affecting the electrostatic surface potential. Alterations caused by antibiotics on the surface of the bacteria were accompanied by a reduction in the number of binding sites and an increase in the ANS dissociation constant in the sensitive strain, whereas in the ciprofloxacin-resistant strain no significant changes were detected. The changes seen in the electrostatic surface potential generated in the membrane of S. aureus by the antibiotics provide new aspects concerning their action on the bacterial cell. PMID:23762834

  20. Using supported bilayers to study the spatiotemporal organization of membrane bound proteins

    PubMed Central

    Field, Christine M.; Groen, Aaron C.; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Cell division in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is commonly initiated by the well-controlled binding of proteins to the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane. However, a precise characterization of the spatiotemporal dynamics of membrane-bound proteins is often difficult to achieve in vivo. Here, we present protocols for the use of supported lipid bilayers to rebuild the cytokinetic machineries of cells with greatly different dimensions: the bacterium Escherichia coli and eggs of the vertebrate Xenopus laevis. Combined with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, these experimental setups allow for precise quantitative analyses of membrane-bound proteins. The protocols described to obtain glass-supported membranes from bacterial and vertebrate lipids can be used as starting points for other reconstitution experiments. We believe that similar biochemical assays will be instrumental to study the biochemistry and biophysics underlying a variety of complex cellular tasks, such as signaling, vesicle trafficking and cell motility. PMID:25997350

  1. Membrane-Protein Interactions in a Generic Coarse-Grained Model for Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    West, Beate; Brown, Frank L.H.; Schmid, Friederike

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We study membrane-protein interactions and membrane-mediated protein-protein interactions by Monte Carlo simulations of a generic coarse-grained model for lipid bilayers with cylindrical hydrophobic inclusions. The strength of the hydrophobic force and the hydrophobic thickness of the proteins are systematically varied. The results are compared with analytical predictions of two popular analytical theories: The Landau-de Gennes theory and the elastic theory. The elastic theory provides an excellent description of the fluctuation spectra of pure membranes and successfully reproduces the deformation profiles of membranes around single proteins. However, its prediction for the potential of mean force between proteins is not compatible with the simulation data for large distances. The simulations show that the lipid-mediated interactions are governed by five competing factors: direct interactions; lipid-induced depletion interactions; lipid bridging; lipid packing; and a smooth long-range contribution. The mechanisms leading to hydrophobic mismatch interactions are critically analyzed. PMID:18835907

  2. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  3. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  4. The Bilayer Enhances Rhodopsin Kinetic Stability in Bovine Rod Outer Segment Disk Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Scott C.; Sprangers, Peter; Albert, Arlene D.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodopsin is a kinetically stable protein constituting >90% of rod outer segment disk membrane protein. To investigate the bilayer contribution to rhodopsin kinetic stability, disk membranes were systematically disrupted by octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside. Rhodopsin kinetic stability was examined under subsolubilizing (rhodopsin in a bilayer environment perturbed by octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside) and under fully solubilizing conditions (rhodopsin in a micelle with cosolubilized phospholipids). As determined by DSC, rhodopsin exhibited a scan-rate-dependent irreversible endothermic transition at all stages of solubilization. The transition temperature (Tm) decreased in the subsolubilizing stage. However, once the rhodopsin was in a micelle environment there was little change of the Tm as the phospholipid/rhodopsin ratio in the mixed micelles decreased during the fully solubilized stage. Rhodopsin thermal denaturation is consistent with the two-state irreversible model at all stages of solubilization. The activation energy of denaturation (Eact) was calculated from the scan rate dependence of the Tm and from the rate of rhodopsin thermal bleaching at all stages of solubilization. The Eact as determined by both techniques decreased in the subsolubilizing stage, but remained constant once fully solubilized. These results indicate the bilayer structure increases the Eact to rhodopsin denaturation. PMID:21689528

  5. Continuity of Monolayer-Bilayer Junctions for Localization of Lipid Raft Microdomains in Model Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Yong-Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng-Hun; Lee, Sang-Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang-Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2016-01-01

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates. PMID:27230411

  6. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; ...

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed betweenmore » the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.« less

  7. Continuity of monolayer-bilayer junctions for localization of lipid raft microdomains in model membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Yong -Sang; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Suh, Jeng -Hun; Lee, Sang -Wook; Sohn, Youngjoo; Oh, Sang -Hyun; Parikh, Atul N.; Lee, Sin -Doo

    2016-05-27

    We show that the selective localization of cholesterol-rich domains and associated ganglioside receptors prefer to occur in the monolayer across continuous monolayer-bilayer junctions (MBJs) in supported lipid membranes. For the MBJs, glass substrates were patterned with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) oligomers by thermally-assisted contact printing, leaving behind 3 nm-thick PDMS patterns. The hydrophobicity of the transferred PDMS patterns was precisely tuned by the stamping temperature. Lipid monolayers were formed on the PDMS patterned surface while lipid bilayers were on the bare glass surface. Due to the continuity of the lipid membranes over the MBJs, essentially free diffusion of lipids was allowed between the monolayer on the PDMS surface and the upper leaflet of the bilayer on the glass substrate. The preferential localization of sphingomyelin, ganglioside GM1 and cholesterol in the monolayer region enabled to develop raft microdomains through coarsening of nanorafts. Furthermore, our methodology provides a simple and effective scheme of non-disruptive manipulation of the chemical landscape associated with lipid phase separations, which leads to more sophisticated applications in biosensors and as cell culture substrates.

  8. Bilayer membrane permeability of ionic liquid-filled block copolymer vesicles in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhifeng; Zhao, Bin; Lodge, Timothy P

    2012-07-19

    The bilayer membrane permeability of block copolymer vesicles ("polymersomes") with ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water is quantified using fluorescence quenching. Poly((1,2-butadiene)-b-ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) block copolymer vesicles in water with their interiors filled with a common hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, were prepared containing a hydrophobic dye, Nile Red, by intact migration of dye-encapsulated vesicles from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature. A small quencher molecule, dichloroacetamide, was added to the aqueous solution of the dye-loaded vesicles, and the permeation of the quencher passing through the membrane into the interior was determined from the fluorescence quenching kinetics. Rapid permeation of the quencher across the nanoscale membrane was observed, consistent with the high fluidity of the liquid polybutadiene membrane. Two different PB-PEO copolymers were employed, in order to vary the thickness of the solvophobic membrane. A significant increase in membrane permeability was also observed with decreasing membrane thickness, which is tentatively attributable to differences in quencher solubility in the membranes. Quantitative migration of the vesicles from the aqueous phase back to an ionic liquid phase was achieved upon heating. These microscopically heterogeneous and thermoresponsive vesicles with permeable and robust membranes have potential as recyclable nanoreactors, in which the high viscosity and capital expense of an ionic liquid reaction medium can be mitigated, while retaining the desirable features of ionic liquids as reaction media, and facile catalyst recovery.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of compositional interface fluctuations in planar lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Haataja, Mikko

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive analysis of line tension-driven compositional interface fluctuations in planar lipid bilayer membranes. Our starting point is the advective Cahn-Hilliard equation for the local lipid composition in symmetric membranes, which explicitly incorporates both advective and diffusive lipid transport processes, and which is coupled to the continuum hydrodynamic equations governing the flow behavior of the membrane and surrounding solvent with finite subphase thickness. In order to extract the interface dynamics from the continuum phase-field formalism, we first derive the appropriate sharp-interface limit equations. We then carry out a linear perturbation analysis for the relaxational dynamics of small-amplitude sinusoidal interface fluctuations to yield the general dispersion relation ωk as a function of perturbation wave number k. The resulting expression incorporates the effects of diffusive and advective lipid transport processes within the membrane, viscous or viscoelastic membrane properties, coupling between membrane and solvent, and inertial effects within the membrane and solvent. It is shown that previously considered scenarios naturally emerge as limiting cases of the general result. Furthermore, we discuss two additional scenarios amenable to analysis, one in which the inertia of the solvent is relevant, and another one in which the membrane displays significant viscoelastic properties. Finally, we numerically evaluate the general dispersion relation for three representative model membrane systems.

  10. Exploring the local elastic properties of bilayer membranes using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Pieffet, Gilles; Botero, Alonso; Peters, Günther H; Forero-Shelton, Manu; Leidy, Chad

    2014-11-13

    Membrane mechanical elastic properties regulate a variety of cellular processes involving local membrane deformation, such as ion channel function and vesicle fusion. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations to estimate the local elastic properties of a membrane. For this, we calculated the energy needed to extract a DOPE lipid molecule, modified with a linker chain, from a POPC bilayer membrane using the umbrella sampling technique. Although the extraction energy entails several contributions related not only to elastic deformation but also to solvation, careful analysis of the potential of mean force (PMF) allowed us to dissect the elastic contribution. With this information, we calculated an effective linear spring constant of 44 ± 4 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1) for the DOPC membrane, in agreement with experimental estimates. The membrane deformation profile was determined independently during the stretching process in molecular detail, allowing us to fit this profile to a previously proposed continuum elastic model. Through this approach, we calculated an effective membrane spring constant of 42 kJ·nm(-2)·mol(-1), which is in good agreement with the PMF calculation. Furthermore, the solvation energy we derived from the data is shown to match the solvation energy estimated from critical micelle formation constants. This methodology can be used to determine how changes in lipid composition or the presence of membrane modifiers can affect the elastic properties of a membrane at a local level.

  11. Quantitative optical microscopy and micromanipulation studies on the lipid bilayer membranes of giant unilamellar vesicles.

    PubMed

    Bagatolli, Luis A; Needham, David

    2014-07-01

    This manuscript discusses basic methodological aspects of optical microscopy and micromanipulation methods to study membranes and reviews methods to generate giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs). In particular, we focus on the use of fluorescence microscopy and micropipet manipulation techniques to study composition-structure-property materials relationships of free-standing lipid bilayer membranes. Because their size (∼5-100 μm diameter) that is well above the resolution limit of regular light microscopes, GUVs are suitable membrane models for optical microscopy and micromanipulation experimentation. For instance, using different fluorescent reporters, fluorescence microscopy allows strategies to study membrane lateral structure/dynamics at the level of single vesicles of diverse compositions. The micropipet manipulation technique on the other hand, uses Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy and allows studies on the mechanical, thermal, molecular exchange and adhesive-interactive properties of compositionally different membranes under controlled environmental conditions. The goal of this review is to (i) provide a historical perspective for both techniques; (ii) present and discuss some of their most important contributions to our understanding of lipid bilayer membranes; and (iii) outline studies that would utilize both techniques simultaneously on the same vesicle thus bringing the ability to characterize structure and strain responses together with the direct application of well-defined stresses to a single membrane or observe the effects of adhesive spreading. Knowledge gained by these studies has informed several applications of lipid membranes including their use as lung surfactants and drug delivery systems for cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Critical particle sizes for the engulfment of nanoparticles by membranes and vesicles with bilayer asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Agudo-Canalejo, Jaime; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion and engulfment of nanoparticles by biomembranes is essential for many processes such as biomedical imaging, drug delivery, nanotoxicity, and viral infection. Many studies have shown that both surface chemistry, which determines the adhesive strength of the membrane-particle interactions, and particle size represent key parameters for these processes. Here, we show that the asymmetry between the two leaflets of a bilayer membrane provides another key parameter for the engulfment of nanoparticles. The asymmetric membrane prefers to curve in a certain manner as quantitatively described by its spontaneous curvature. We derive two general relationships between particle size, adhesive strength, and spontaneous curvature that determine the instabilities of (i) the nonadhering or free state and (ii) the completely engulfed state of the particle. For model membranes such as lipid or polymer bilayers with a uniform composition, the two relationships lead to two critical particle sizes that determine four distinct engulfment regimes, both for the endocytic and for the exocytic engulfment process. For strong adhesion, the critical particle sizes are on the order of 10 nm, while they are on the order of 1000 nm for weak or ultraweak adhesion. Our theoretical results are therefore accessible to both experimental studies and computer simulations of model membranes. In order to address the more complex process of receptor-mediated endocytosis, we take the adhesion-induced segregation of membrane components into account and consider bound and unbound membrane segments that differ in their spontaneous curvatures. To model protein coats as formed during clathrin-dependent endocytosis, we focus on the case in which the bound membrane segments have a large spontaneous curvature compared to the unbound ones. We derive explicit expressions for the engulfment rate and the uptake of nanoparticles, which both depend on the particle size in a nonmonotonic manner, and provide a

  13. Magnesium-induced lipid bilayer microdomain reorganizations: implications for membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Zachary D; Pazos, Ileana M; McNeil-Watson, Fraser K; Lewis, E Neil; Levin, Ira W

    2009-07-23

    Interactions between dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylserine (DPPS), combined both as binary lipid bilayer assemblies and separately, under the influence of divalent Mg2+, a membrane bilayer fusogenic agent, are reported. Infrared vibrational spectroscopic analyses of the lipid acyl chain methylene symmetric stretching modes indicate that aggregates of the two phospholipid components exist as domains heterogeneously distributed throughout the binary bilayer system. In the presence of Mg2+, DPPS maintains an ordered orthorhombic subcell gel phase structure through the phase transition temperature, while the DPPC component is only minimally perturbed with respect to the gel to liquid crystalline phase change. The addition of Mg2+ induces a reorganization of the lipid domains in which the gel phase acyl chain planes rearrange from a hexagonal configuration toward a triclinic, parallel chain subcell. Examination of the acyl chain methylene deformation modes at low temperatures allows a determination of DPPS microdomain sizes, which decrease upon the addition of DPPC-d62 in the absence of Mg2+. On adding Mg2+, a uniform DPPS domain size is observed in the binary mixtures. In either the presence or absence of Mg2+, DPPC-d62 aggregates remain in a configuration for which microdomain sizes are not spectroscopically measurable. Analysis of the acyl chain methylene deformation modes for DPPC-d62 in the binary system suggests that clusters of the deuterated lipids are distributed throughout the DPPS matrix. Light scattering and fluorescence measurements indicate that Mg2+ induces both the aggregation and the fusion of the lipid assemblies as a function of the ratio of DPPS to DPPC. The structural reorganizations of the lipid microdomains within the DPPS-DPPC bilayer are interpreted in the context of current concepts regarding lipid bilayer fusion.

  14. Membrane fusion-competent virus-like proteoliposomes and proteinaceous supported bilayers made directly from cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Costello, Deirdre A; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Millet, Jean K; Porri, Teresa; Daniel, Susan

    2013-05-28

    Virus-like particles are useful materials for studying virus-host interactions in a safe manner. However, the standard production of pseudovirus based on the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) backbone is an intricate procedure that requires trained laboratory personnel. In this work, a new strategy for creating virus-like proteoliposomes (VLPLs) and virus-like supported bilayers (VLSBs) is presented. This strategy uses a cell blebbing technique to induce the formation of nanoscale vesicles from the plasma membrane of BHK cells expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) fusion protein of influenza X-31. These vesicles and supported bilayers contain HA and are used to carry out single particle membrane fusion events, monitored using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. The results of these studies show that the VLPLs and VLSBs contain HA proteins that are fully competent to carry out membrane fusion, including the formation of a fusion pore and the release of fluorophores loaded into vesicles. This new strategy for creating spherical and planar geometry virus-like membranes has many potential applications. VLPLs could be used to study fusion proteins of virulent viruses in a safe manner, or they could be used as therapeutic delivery particles to transport beneficial proteins coexpressed in the cells to a target cell. VLSBs could facilitate high throughput screening of antiviral drugs or pathogen-host cell interactions.

  15. Immobilization and activity assay of cytochrome P450 on patterned lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Morigaki, Kenichi . E-mail: morigaki-kenichi@aist.go.jp; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Yumoto, Noboru; Imaishi, Hiromasa . E-mail: himaish@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2007-04-20

    We report on a methodology for immobilizing cytochrome P450 on the surface of micropatterned lipid bilayer membranes and measuring the enzymatic activity. The patterned bilayer comprised a matrix of polymeric lipid bilayers and embedded fluid lipid bilayers. The polymeric lipid bilayer domains act as a barrier to confine fluid lipid bilayers in defined areas and as a framework to stabilize embedded membranes. The fluid bilayer domains, on the other hand, can contain lipid compositions that facilitate the fusion between lipid membranes, and are intended to be used as the binding agent of microsomes containing rat CYP1A1. By optimizing the membrane compositions of the fluid bilayers, we could selectively immobilize microsomal membranes on these domains. The enzymatic activity was significantly higher on lipid bilayer substrates compared with direct adsorption on glass. Furthermore, competitive assay experiment between two fluorogenic substrates demonstrated the feasibility of bioassays based on immobilized P450s.

  16. Fabrication and photoelectric properties of self-assembled bilayer lipid membranes on conducting glass.

    PubMed

    Gao, H; Luo, G A; Feng, J; Ottova, A L; Tien, H T

    2000-12-01

    Supported bilayer lipid membranes (s-BLMs with and without the doping of fullerene C60) self-assembled on indium-tin oxide (ITO) glass were fabricated and characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a three-electrode system. The photoelectric properties of the ITO supported planar lipid bilayers were studied. Light intensity of irradiation, bias voltage, and concentration of donors have been found to be limiting factors of the transmembrane photocurrent. The facilitation effect of C60 doping in s-BLMs on the photoinduced electron transfer across s-BLM is discussed. This novel self-assembled ITO/s-BLM system may provide a simple and mechanically stable model for the study of the photoelectric and photodynamic properties of biomembranes.

  17. Lipid Bilayer Composition Can Influence the Orientation of Proteorhodopsin in Artificial Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Tunuguntla, Ramya; Bangar, Mangesh; Kim, Kyunghoon; Stroeve, Pieter; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M.; Noy, Aleksandr

    2013-01-01

    Artificial membrane systems allow researchers to study the structure and function of membrane proteins in a matrix that approximates their natural environment and to integrate these proteins in ex vivo devices such as electronic biosensors, thin-film protein arrays, or biofuel cells. Given that most membrane proteins have vectorial functions, both functional studies and applications require effective control over protein orientation within a lipid bilayer. In this work, we explored the role of the bilayer surface charge in determining transmembrane protein orientation and functionality during formation of proteoliposomes. We reconstituted a model vectorial ion pump, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes of opposite charges and varying charge densities and determined the resultant protein orientation. Antibody-binding assay and proteolysis of proteoliposomes showed physical evidence of preferential orientation, and functional assays verified the vectorial nature of ion transport in this system. Our results indicate that the manipulation of lipid composition can indeed control orientation of an asymmetrically charged membrane protein, proteorhodopsin, in liposomes. PMID:24047990

  18. Investigation of transmembrane protein fused in lipid bilayer membranes supported on porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Tantawi, Khalid Hasan; Cerro, Ramon; Berdiev, Bakhrom; Martin, M Elena Diaz; Montes, Francisco Javier; Patel, Darayas; Williams, John D

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates a device made from a porous silicon structure supporting a lipid bilayer membrane (LBM)fused with Epithelial Sodium Channel protein. The electrochemically-fabricated porous silicon template had pore diameters in the range 0.2~2 µm. Membranes were composed of two synthetic phospholipids: 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoserine and 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine. The LBMwas formed by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett and Langmuir-Schaefer techniques, at a monolayer surface tension of 26 m Nm(-1) in room temperature and on a deionized water subphase, which resulted in an average molecular area of 0.68-0.73 nm(2). Fusion of transmembrane protein was investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy. Initial atomic force microscopy results demonstrate the ability to support lipid bilayers fused with transmembrane proteins across a porous silicon substrate. However, more control of the membrane's surface tension using traditional membrane fusion techniques is required to optimize protein incorporation.

  19. Voltage-sensitive styryl dyes as singlet oxygen targets on the surface of bilayer lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, V S; Gavrilchik, A N; Kulagina, A O; Meshkov, I N; Pohl, P; Gorbunova, Yu G

    2016-08-01

    Photosensitizers are widely used as photodynamic therapeutic agents killing cancer cells by photooxidation of their components. Development of new effective photosensitive molecules requires profound knowledge of possible targets for reactive oxygen species, especially for its singlet form. Here we studied photooxidation of voltage-sensitive styryl dyes (di-4-ANEPPS, di-8-ANEPPS, RH-421 and RH-237) by singlet oxygen on the surface of bilayer lipid membranes commonly used as cell membrane models. Oxidation was induced by irradiation of a photosensitizer (aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate) and monitored by the change of dipole potential on the surface of the membrane. We studied the drop of the dipole potential both in the case when the dye molecules were adsorbed on the same side of the lipid bilayer as the photosensitizer (cis-configuration) and in the case when they were adsorbed on the opposite side (trans-configuration). Based on a simple model, we determined the rate of oxidation of the dyes from the kinetics of change of the potential during and after irradiation. This rate is proportional to steady-state concentration of singlet oxygen in the membrane under irradiation. Comparison of the oxidation rates of various dyes reveals that compounds of ANEPPS series are more sensitive to singlet oxygen than RH type dyes, indicating that naphthalene group is primarily responsible for their oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on lipid bilayer membranes. I. Influence on membrane thickness and activation volumes of lipophilic ion transport.

    PubMed Central

    Benz, R; Conti, F

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of membrane capacitance, Cm, were performed on lipid bilayers of different lipidic composition (diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine PPhPC, dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine DOPE, glycerylmonooleate GMO) and containing n-decane as solvent. In the same membranes, the absorption of the lipophilic ions dipicrylamine (DPA-) and tetraphenylborate (TPhB-), and the kinetics of their translocation between the two membrane faces have been studied. The data were obtained from charge pulse relaxation measurements. Upon increasing pressure the specific capacity Cm increased in a fully reversible and reproducible way reflecting a thinning of the membrane that is attributed to extrusion of n-decane from the black membrane area. High pressure decreased the rate constant, ki, for lipophilic ion translocation. After correcting for changes in the height of the energy barrier for translocation due to membrane thinning the pressure dependence of ki yields an apparent activation volume for translocation of approximately 14 cm3/mol both for DPA- and TPhB-. Changes in lipophilic ion absorption following a step of pressure developed with a rather slow time course due to diffusion limitations in solution. The stationary concentration of membrane absorbed lipophilic ions increased with pressure according to an apparent volume of absorption of about -10 cm3/mol. The relevance of the results for the interpretation of the effects of pressure on nerve membrane physiology is discussed. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3730509

  1. A calorimetric and spectroscopic comparison of the effects of cholesterol and its sulfur-containing analogs thiocholesterol and cholesterol sulfate on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Benesch, Matthew G K; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2016-02-01

    We performed differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies of the effects of cholesterol (Chol), thiocholesterol (tChol) and cholesterol sulfate (CholS) on the thermotropic phase behavior and organization of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer membranes. Our DSC results indicate that Chol and tChol incorporation produce small temperature increases in the main phase transition broad component while CholS markedly decreases it, but Chol decreases cooperativity and enthalpy more strongly than CholS and especially tChol. Hence, Chol and tChol thermally stabilize fluid DPPC bilayer sterol-rich domains while CholS markedly destabilizes them, and CholS and particularly tChol are less miscible in such domains. Our FTIR spectroscopic results indicate that Chol incorporation increases the rotational conformational order of fluid DPPC bilayers to a slightly and somewhat greater degree than tChol and CholS, respectively, consistent with our DSC findings. Also, Chol and CholS produce comparable degrees of H-bonding (hydration) of the DPPC ester carbonyls in fluid bilayers, whereas tChol increases H-bonding. At low temperatures, Chol is fully soluble in gel-state DPPC bilayers, whereas tChol and CholS are not. Thus tChol and CholS incorporation can produce considerably different effects on DPPC bilayers. In particular, the tChol thiol group markedly reduces its lateral miscibility and increases DPPC carbonyl H-bonding without significantly affecting the other characteristic effects of Chol itself, while the CholS sulfate group significantly reduces its ability to thermally stabilize and order fluid DPPC membranes. This latter result suggests that the molecular basis for the purported ability of CholS to "stabilize" various biological membranes should be re-examined.

  2. A bilayer-couple model of bacterial outer membrane vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schertzer, Jeffrey W; Whiteley, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria naturally produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that arise through bulging and pinching off of the outer membrane. OMVs have several biological functions for bacteria, most notably as trafficking vehicles for toxins, antimicrobials, and signaling molecules. While their biological roles are now appreciated, the mechanism of OMV formation has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the signaling molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) is required for OMV biogenesis in P. aeruginosa. We hypothesized that PQS stimulates OMV formation through direct interaction with the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. To test this hypothesis, we employed a red blood cell (RBC) model that has been used extensively to study small-molecule-membrane interactions. Our results revealed that addition of PQS to RBCs induced membrane curvature, resulting in the formation of membrane spicules (spikes), consistent with small molecules that are inserted stably into the outer leaflet of the membrane. Radiotracer experiments demonstrated that sufficient PQS was inserted into the membrane to account for this curvature and that curvature induction was specific to PQS structure. These data suggest that a low rate of interleaflet flip-flop forces PQS to accumulate in and expand the outer leaflet relative to the inner leaflet, thus inducing membrane curvature. In support of PQS-mediated outer leaflet expansion, the PQS effect was antagonized by chlorpromazine, a molecule known to be preferentially inserted into the inner leaflet. Based on these data, we propose a bilayer-couple model to describe P. aeruginosa OMV biogenesis and suggest that this is a general mechanism for bacterial OMV formation. Despite the ubiquity and importance of outer membrane vesicle (OMV) production in Gram-negative bacteria, the molecular details of OMV biogenesis are not fully understood. Early experiments showed that 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) induces OMV formation

  3. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide on Dynamics of Phosphocholine Membrane. Role of Cholesterol and Physical State of Bilayer

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, Veerendra K; Mamontov, Eugene; Anunciado, Divina B; ...

    2015-06-24

    Antimicrobial peptides are universal in all forms of life and are well known for their strong interaction with the cell membrane. This makes them a popular target for investigation of peptide-lipid interactions. Here we report the effect of melittin, an important antimicrobial peptide, on the dynamics of membranes based on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid in both the solid gel and fluid phases. To probe the phase transition, elastic neutron intensity temperature scans have been carried out on DMPC-based unilamellar vesicles (ULV) with and without melittin. We have found that addition of a small amount (0.2 mol%) melittin eliminates the steep fallmore » in the elastic intensity at 296 K associated with the solid gel to fluid phase transition, which is observed for pure DMPC vesicles. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments have been carried out on DMPC ULV in the solid gel and fluid phases with and without 0.2 mol % melittin. The data analysis invariably shows the presence of lateral and internal motions of the DMPC molecule. We found that melittin does have a profound effect on the dynamics of lipid molecules, especially on the lateral motion, and affects it in a different way, depending on the phase of the bilayers. In the solid gel phase, it acts as a plasticizer, enhancing the lateral motion of DMPC. However, in the fluid phase it acts as a stiffening agent, restricting the lateral motion of the lipid molecules. These observations are consistent with the mean squared displacements extracted from the elastic intensity temperature scans. Cholesterol is a vital component of eukaryotic membrane, which is a natural target for melittin. To investigate the effect of melittin on vesicles supplemented with cholesterol, QENS experiments have also been carried out on DMPC ULV with 20 mol% cholesterol in the presence and absence of 0.2 mol% melittin. Remarkably, the effects of melittin on the membrane dynamics disappear in the presence

  4. Effect of antimicrobial peptide on dynamics of phosphocholine membrane: role of cholesterol and physical state of bilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Veerendra K.; Mamontov, Eugene; Anunciado, Divina B.; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Urban, Volker S.

    2015-06-24

    Antimicrobial peptides are universal in all forms of life and are well known for their strong interaction with the cell membrane. This makes them a popular target for investigation of peptide-lipid interactions. Here we report the effect of melittin, an important antimicrobial peptide, on the dynamics of membranes based on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid in both the solid gel and fluid phases. To probe the phase transition, elastic neutron intensity temperature scans have been carried out on DMPC-based unilamellar vesicles (ULV) with and without melittin. We have found that addition of a small amount (0.2 mol%) melittin eliminates the steep fall in the elastic intensity at 296 K associated with the solid gel to fluid phase transition, which is observed for pure DMPC vesicles. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) experiments have been carried out on DMPC ULV in the solid gel and fluid phases with and without 0.2 mol % melittin. The data analysis invariably shows the presence of lateral and internal motions of the DMPC molecule. We found that melittin does have a profound effect on the dynamics of lipid molecules, especially on the lateral motion, and affects it in a different way, depending on the phase of the bilayers. In the solid gel phase, it acts as a plasticizer, enhancing the lateral motion of DMPC. However, in the fluid phase it acts as a stiffening agent, restricting the lateral motion of the lipid molecules. These observations are consistent with the mean squared displacements extracted from the elastic intensity temperature scans. Cholesterol is a vital component of eukaryotic membrane, which is a natural target for melittin. To investigate the effect of melittin on vesicles supplemented with cholesterol, QENS experiments have also been carried out on DMPC ULV with 20 mol% cholesterol in the presence and absence of 0.2 mol% melittin. Remarkably, the effects of melittin on the membrane dynamics disappear in the presence of 20 mol

  5. Self-assembly of single integral membrane proteins into soluble nanoscale phospholipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Bayburt, Timothy H.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2003-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges in pharmaceutical research is obtaining integral membrane proteins in a functional, solubilized, and monodisperse state that provides a native-like environment that maintains the spectrum of in vivo activities. Many of these integral membrane proteins are receptors, enzymes, or other macromolecular assemblies that are important drug targets. An example is the general class of proteins composed of seven-transmembrane segments (7-TM) as exemplified by the G-protein–coupled receptors. In this article, we describe a simple system for self-assembling bacteriorhodopsin, as a model protein containing 7-TM helices, with phospholipids to form a nanometer-scale soluble bilayer structure encircled by a 200 amino acid scaffold protein. The result is the single molecule incorporation of an integral membrane protein target into a soluble and monodisperse structure that allows the structural and functional tools of solution biochemistry to be applied. PMID:14573860

  6. Protein-fluctuation-induced water-pore formation in ion channel voltage-sensor translocation across a lipid bilayer membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajapaksha, Suneth P.; Pal, Nibedita; Zheng, Desheng; Lu, H. Peter

    2015-11-01

    We have applied a combined fluorescence microscopy and single-ion-channel electric current recording approach, correlating with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, to study the mechanism of voltage-sensor domain translocation across a lipid bilayer. We use the colicin Ia ion channel as a model system, and our experimental and simulation results show the following: (1) The open-close activity of an activated colicin Ia is not necessarily sensitive to the amplitude of the applied cross-membrane voltage when the cross-membrane voltage is around the resting potential of excitable membranes; and (2) there is a significant probability that the activation of colicin Ia occurs by forming a transient and fluctuating water pore of ˜15 Å diameter in the lipid bilayer membrane. The location of the water-pore formation is nonrandom and highly specific, right at the insertion site of colicin Ia charged residues in the lipid bilayer membrane, and the formation is intrinsically associated with the polypeptide conformational fluctuations and solvation dynamics. Our results suggest an interesting mechanistic pathway for voltage-sensitive ion channel activation, and specifically for translocation of charged polypeptide chains across the lipid membrane under a transmembrane electric field: the charged polypeptide domain facilitates the formation of hydrophilic water pore in the membrane and diffuses through the hydrophilic pathway across the membrane; i.e., the charged polypeptide chain can cross a lipid membrane without entering into the hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane but entirely through the aqueous and hydrophilic environment to achieve a cross-membrane translocation. This mechanism sheds light on the intensive and fundamental debate on how a hydrophilic and charged peptide domain diffuses across the biologically inaccessible high-energy barrier of the hydrophobic core of a lipid bilayer: The peptide domain does not need to cross the hydrophobic core to move across a

  7. Soluble Amyloid β-Oligomers Affect Dielectric Membrane Properties by Bilayer Insertion and Domain Formation: Implications for Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Valincius, Gintaras; Heinrich, Frank; Budvytyte, Rima; Vanderah, David J.; McGillivray, Duncan J.; Sokolov, Yuri; Hall, James E.; Lösche, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that Alzheimer's amyloid β-peptides reduce the membrane barrier to ion transport. The prevailing model ascribes the resulting interference with ion homeostasis to the formation of peptide pores across the bilayer. In this work, we examine the interaction of soluble prefibrillar amyloid β (Aβ1–42)-oligomers with bilayer models, observing also dramatic increases in ion current at micromolar peptide concentrations. We demonstrate that the Aβ-induced ion conductances across free-standing membranes and across substrate-supported “tethered” bilayers are quantitatively similar and depend on membrane composition. However, characteristic signatures of the molecular transport mechanism were distinctly different from ion transfer through water-filled pores, as shown by a quantitative comparison of the membrane response to Aβ-oligomers and to the bacterial toxin α-hemolysin. Neutron reflection from tethered membranes showed that Aβ-oligomers insert into the bilayer, affecting both membrane leaflets. By measuring the capacitance of peptide-free membranes, as well as their geometrical thicknesses, the dielectric constants in the aliphatic cores of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers were determined to be ɛ = 2.8 and 2.2, respectively. The magnitude of the Aβ-induced increase in ɛ indicates that Aβ-oligomers affect membranes by inducing lateral heterogeneity in the bilayers, but an increase in the water content of the bilayers was not observed. The activation energy for Aβ-induced ion transport across the membrane is at least three times higher than that measured for membranes reconstituted with α-hemolysin pores, Ea = 36.8 vs. 9.9 kJ/mol, indicating that the molecular mechanisms underlying both transport processes are fundamentally different. The Aβ-induced membrane conductance shows a nonlinear dependence on the peptide concentration in the membrane. Moreover, Ea depends on

  8. Membrane cholesterol modulates the fluid shear stress response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes via its effects on membrane fluidity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Hurng, Jonathan; Rateri, Debra L.; Daugherty, Alan; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous exposure of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) to circulatory hemodynamics points to fluid flow as a biophysical regulator of their activity. Specifically, fluid flow-derived shear stresses deactivate leukocytes via actions on the conformational activities of proteins on the cell surface. Because membrane properties affect activities of membrane-bound proteins, we hypothesized that changes in the physical properties of cell membranes influence PMNL sensitivity to fluid shear stress. For this purpose, we modified PMNL membranes and showed that the cellular mechanosensitivity to shear was impaired whether we increased, reduced, or disrupted the organization of cholesterol within the lipid bilayer. Notably, PMNLs with enriched membrane cholesterol exhibited attenuated pseudopod retraction responses to shear that were recovered by select concentrations of benzyl alcohol (a membrane fluidizer). In fact, PMNL responses to shear positively correlated (R2 = 0.96; P < 0.0001) with cholesterol-related membrane fluidity. Moreover, in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet (a hypercholesterolemia model), PMNL shear-responses correlated (R2 = 0.5; P < 0.01) with blood concentrations of unesterified (i.e., free) cholesterol. In this regard, the shear-responses of PMNLs gradually diminished and eventually reversed as free cholesterol levels in blood increased during 8 wk of the high-fat diet. Collectively, our results provided evidence that cholesterol is an important component of the PMNL mechanotransducing capacity and elevated membrane cholesterol impairs PMNL shear-responses at least partially through its impact on membrane fluidity. This cholesterol-linked perturbation may contribute to dysregulated PMNL activity (e.g., chronic inflammation) related to hypercholesterolemia and causal for cardiovascular pathologies (e.g., atherosclerosis). PMID:21525434

  9. Chemically-activatable alkyne-tagged probe for imaging microdomains in lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Matsushita, Taku; Izuta, Shin; Katada, Sumika; Ura, Manami; Ikeda, Taro; Hayashi, Gosuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Kobayashi, Koya; Tokunaga, Kyoya; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2017-01-01

    A chemically-activatable alkynyl steroid analogue probe has been synthesized for visualizing the lipid raft membrane domains by Raman microscopy. The Raman probe, in which ring A of its steroid backbone is replaced with an alkynyl group, was designed to enable activation of the alkyne signal through the Eschenmoser-Tanabe fragmentation reaction of the oxidized cholesterol precursor in lipid bilayer membranes. The alkynyl steroid analogue was observed to form liquid-ordered raft-like domains on a model giant-liposome system in a similar manner as cholesterol, and the large alkyne signal of the accumulated probe at 2120 cm−1 was mapped on the microdomains with a Raman microscope. The alkyne moiety of the probe was confirmed to be converted from the α,β-epoxy ketone group of its precursor by reaction with p-toluensulfonyl hydrazine under a mild condition. Through the reaction, the alkyne signal of the probe was activated on the lipid bilayer membrane of liposomes. Furthermore, the signal activation of the probe was also detected on living cells by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. The ring-A-opened alkyne steroid analogue, thus, provides a first chemically-activatable Raman probe as a promising tool for potentially unravelling the intracellular formation and trafficking of cholesterol-rich microdomains. PMID:28117375

  10. Conformational transitions in the membrane scaffold protein of phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Christopher R; Hebling, Christine M; Rand, Kasper D; Stafford, Darrel W; Jorgenson, James W; Engen, John R

    2011-09-01

    Phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs are model membrane systems that provide an environment where membrane proteins are highly stable and monodisperse without the use of detergents or liposomes. Nanodiscs consist of a discoidal phospholipid bilayer encircled by two copies of an amphipathic alpha helical membrane scaffold protein, which is modeled from apolipoprotein A-1. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry was used to probe the structure and dynamics of the scaffold protein in the presence and absence of lipid. On nanodisc self-assembly, the entire scaffold protein gained significant protection from exchange, consistent with a large, protein-wide, structural rearrangement. This protection was short-lived and the scaffold protein was highly deuterated within 2 h. Several regions of the scaffold protein, in both the lipid-free and lipid-associated states, displayed EX1 unfolding kinetics. The rapid deuteration of the scaffold protein and the presence of correlated unfolding events both indicate that nanodiscs are dynamic rather than rigid bodies in solution. This work provides a catalog of the expected scaffold protein peptic peptides in a nanodisc-hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry experiment and their deuterium uptake signatures, data that can be used as a benchmark to verify correct assembly and nanodisc structure. Such reference data will be useful control data for all hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry experiments involving nanodiscs in which transmembrane or lipid-associated proteins are the primary molecule(s) of interest.

  11. Polyelectrolyte-Mediated Transport of Doxorubicin Through the Bilayer Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Kitaeva, Marina V.; Melik-Nubarov, Nikolay S.; Menger, Frederic M.

    A model is developed for the effect of ionic polymers on the transport of doxorubicin, an antitumor drug, through a bilayer membrane. Accordingly, a protonated (cationic) form of doxorubicin binds to an anionic polymer, poly(acrylic acid), the resulting complex being several hundred nanometers in size. Nevertheless, large complex species associate with neutral egg lecithin liposomes by means of hydrophobic attraction between the doxorubicin and the liposome bilayer. Then, the doxorubicin enters the liposome interior which has been imparted with an acidic buffer to protonate the doxorubicin. The rate of transmembrane Dox permeation decreases when elevating the polyacid-to-doxorubicin ratio. A cationic polymer, polylysine, being coupled with liposomes containing the negative lipid cardiolipin, accelerates membrane transport of doxorubicin with the maximum rate at a complete neutralization of the membrane charge by an interacting polycation. The effect of a polycation on doxorubicin transport becomes more pronounced as small negative liposomes (60-80 nm in diameter) are changed to larger ones (approx. 600 nm in diameter). An opportunity thus opens up for the manipulation of the kinetics of drug uptake by cells and, ultimately, the control of the pharmaceutical action of drugs.

  12. Impact of monoolein on aquaporin1-based supported lipid bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhining; Wang, Xida; Ding, Wande; Wang, Miaoqi; Qi, Xin; Gao, Congjie

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membranes have attracted considerable attention for their potential water purification applications. In this paper, AQP1 incorporated biomimetic membranes were prepared and characterized. The morphology and structure of the biomimetic membranes were characterized by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The nanofiltration performance of the AQP1 incorporated membranes was investigated at 4 bar by using 2 g l−1 NaCl as feed solution. Lipid mobility plays an important role in the performance of the AQP1 incorporated supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membranes. We demonstrated that the lipid mobility is successfully tuned by the addition of monoolein (MO). Through in situ AFM and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) measurements, the membrane morphology and the molecular mobility were studied. The lipid mobility increased in the sequence DPPC < DPPC/MO (RMO = 5/5) < DOPC/MO (RMO = 5/5) < DOPC, which is consistent with the flux increment and salt rejection. This study may provide some useful insights for improving the water purification performance of biomimetic membranes. PMID:27877825

  13. An Analysis of Unstirred Layers in Series with "Tight" and "Porous" Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Thomas E.; Troutman, Susan L.

    1971-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to evaluate the effective thickness of the unstirred layers in series with native and porous (i.e., in the presence of amphotericin B) lipid bilayer membranes and, concomitantly, the respective contributions of membranes and unstirred layers to the observed resistances to the diffusion of water and nonelectrolytes between aqueous phases. The method depended on measuring the tracer permeability coefficients for the diffusion of water and nonelectrolytes (PDDi, cm sec-1) when the aqueous phase viscosity (η) was increased with solutes having a unity reflection coefficient, such as sucrose or dextran. The effective thickness of the unstirred layers (αt, cm) and the true, or membrane, permeability coefficients for diffusion of water and nonelectrolytes (Pmmi, cm sec-1) were computed from, respectively, the slope and intercept of the linear regression of 1/PDDi on η. In both the native and porous membranes, αt was approximately 110 x 10-4 cm. The ratio of Pf, the osmotic water permeability coefficient (cm sec-1) to PmmH2O was 1.22 in the native membranes and 3.75 in the porous membranes. For the latter, the effective pore radius, computed from Poiseuille's law, was approximately 5.6 A. A comparison of Pmmi and PDDi, indicated that the porous membranes accounted for 16, 25, and 66% of the total resistance to the diffusion of, respectively, H2O, urea, and glycerol, while the remainder was referable to the unstirred layers. PMID:5549099

  14. Impact of monoolein on aquaporin1-based supported lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhining; Wang, Xida; Ding, Wande; Wang, Miaoqi; Qi, Xin; Gao, Congjie

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membranes have attracted considerable attention for their potential water purification applications. In this paper, AQP1 incorporated biomimetic membranes were prepared and characterized. The morphology and structure of the biomimetic membranes were characterized by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and contact angle measurements. The nanofiltration performance of the AQP1 incorporated membranes was investigated at 4 bar by using 2 g l-1 NaCl as feed solution. Lipid mobility plays an important role in the performance of the AQP1 incorporated supported lipid bilayer (SLB) membranes. We demonstrated that the lipid mobility is successfully tuned by the addition of monoolein (MO). Through in situ AFM and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) measurements, the membrane morphology and the molecular mobility were studied. The lipid mobility increased in the sequence DPPC < DPPC/MO (RMO = 5/5) < DOPC/MO (RMO = 5/5) < DOPC, which is consistent with the flux increment and salt rejection. This study may provide some useful insights for improving the water purification performance of biomimetic membranes.

  15. Analytical and computational studies of compositional lipid microdomains in bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao

    In this dissertation, we both analytically and computationally investigate several dynamic problems related to compositional lipid microdomains in model bilayer membranes. We utilize continuum diffuse-interface methods as the computational framework, and develop the corresponding sharp interface limit equations to facilitate analytical derivations. The model possesses a complicated coupling structure, which involves not only the thermodynamic and frictional coupling between the two leaflets of the membrane, but also between the membrane itself and the solvent outside. In the compositional domain registration project, we investigate interleaflet thermodynamic and frictional coupling effects on both the recurrence of domain registration and shear flow driven domain de-registration dynamics. Analytical predictions for the approaching speed and threshold flow velocity are provided, accounting for both diffusive and advective transport mechanisms. It is proposed that these results would enable an experimental measurement of the interleaflet coupling strength. In the compositional interface fluctuation relaxation project, we consider the frictional coupling between both the two leaflets and between the membrane and solvent outside. For symmetric membranes, a general dispersion relation between decay rate versus wavenumber is derived. Various factors are incorporated in the analysis, including diffusive and advective lipid transport processes, inertia and viscosity of both membrane and solvent, and finite thickness of solvent. All previously considered scenarios naturally emerge as limiting cases of our more general result, and two new scenarios are obtained as well, which are solvent inertia dominated and membrane viscoelasticity dominated cases, respectively. For asymmetric membranes, a new scaling behavior is derived, due to the interleaflet friction effect. Finally, we explore the phase behaviors in spherical vesicles, under the thermodynamic coupling between membrane

  16. Bilayer porous scaffold based on poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) nanofibrous membrane and gelatin sponge for favoring cell proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yang; Chen, Yiwang; Nie, Huarong; Wang, Yang; Li, Fan; Zheng, Yan

    2011-12-01

    Electrospun poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibers has been widely used in the medical prosthesis. However, poor hydrophilicity and the lack of natural recognition sites for covalent cell-recognition signal molecules to promote cell attachment have limited its utility as tissue scaffolds. In this study, Bilayer porous scaffolds based on PCL electrospun membranes and gelatin (GE) sponges were fabricated through soft hydrolysis of PCL electrospun followed by grafting gelatin onto the fiber surface, through crosslinking and freeze drying treatment of additional gelatin coat and grafted gelatin surface. GE sponges were stably anchored on PCL membrane surface with the aid of grafted GE molecules. The morphologies of bilayer porous scaffolds were observed through SEM. The contact angle of the scaffolds was 0°, the mechanical properties of scaffolds were measured by tensile test, Young's moduli of PCL scaffolds before and after hydrolysis are 66-77.3 MPa and 62.3-75.4 MPa, respectively. Thus, the bilayer porous scaffolds showed excellent hydrophilic surface and desirable mechanical strength due to the soft hydrolysis and GE coat. The cell culture results showed that the adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells did more favor to adhere and grow on the bilayer porous scaffolds than on PCL electrospun membranes. The better cell affinity of the final bilayer scaffolds not only attributed to the surface chemistry but also the introduction of bilayer porous structure.

  17. Bilayer registry in a multicomponent asymmetric membrane: Dependence on lipid composition and chain length

    SciTech Connect

    Polley, Anirban; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan E-mail: madan@ncbs.res.in

    2014-08-14

    A question of considerable interest to cell membrane biology is whether phase segregated domains across an asymmetric bilayer are strongly correlated with each other and whether phase segregation in one leaflet can induce segregation in the other. We answer both these questions in the affirmative, using an atomistic molecular dynamics simulation to study the equilibrium statistical properties of a 3-component asymmetric lipid bilayer comprising an unsaturated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl-choline, a saturated sphingomyelin, and cholesterol with different composition ratios. Our simulations are done by fixing the composition of the upper leaflet to be at the coexistence of the liquid ordered (l{sub o})-liquid disordered (l{sub d}) phases, while the composition of the lower leaflet is varied from the phase coexistence regime to the mixed l{sub d} phase, across a first-order phase boundary. In the regime of phase coexistence in each leaflet, we find strong transbilayer correlations of the l{sub o} domains across the two leaflets, resulting in bilayer registry. This transbilayer correlation depends sensitively upon the chain length of the participating lipids and possibly other features of lipid chemistry, such as degree of saturation. We find that the l{sub o} domains in the upper leaflet can induce phase segregation in the lower leaflet, when the latter is nominally in the mixed (l{sub d}) phase.

  18. Functions of Cholesterol and the Cholesterol Bilayer Domain Specific to the Fiber-Cell Plasma Membrane of the Eye Lens

    PubMed Central

    Subczynski, Witold K.; Raguz, Marija; Widomska, Justyna; Mainali, Laxman; Konovalov, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    The most unique feature of the eye lens fiber-cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content. Cholesterol saturates the bulk phospholipid bilayer and induces formation of immiscible cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) within the membrane. Our results (based on EPR spin-labeling experiments with lens-lipid membranes), along with a literature search, have allowed us to identify the significant functions of cholesterol specific to the fiber-cell plasma membrane, which are manifest through cholesterol-membrane interactions. The crucial role is played by the CBD. The presence of the CBD ensures that the surrounding phospholipid bilayer is saturated with cholesterol. The saturating cholesterol content in fiber-cell membranes keeps the bulk physical properties of lens-lipid membranes consistent and independent of changes in phospholipid composition. Thus, the CBD helps to maintain lens-membrane homeostasis when the membrane phospholipid composition changes significantly. The CBD raises the barrier for oxygen transport across the fiber-cell membrane, which should help to maintain a low oxygen concentration in the lens interior. It is hypothesized that the appearance of the CBD in the fiber-cell membrane is controlled by the phospholipid composition of the membrane. Saturation with cholesterol smoothes the phospholipid-bilayer surface, which should decrease light scattering and help to maintain lens transparency. Other functions of cholesterol include formation of hydrophobic and rigidity barriers across the bulk phospholipid-cholesterol domain and formation of hydrophobic channels in the central region of the membrane for transport of small, nonpolar molecules parallel to the membrane surface. In this review, we will provide data supporting these hypotheses. PMID:22207480

  19. Photo-osmosis through liquid membrane bilayers generated by [beta]-carotene coupled with bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Madamwar, D.B.; Jain, N. )

    1992-11-01

    [beta]-carotene, a photosynthetic pigment isolated from the blue green algae Anabeana variabilis has been shown to exhibit the phenomenon of photo-osmosis through liquid membrane bilayers. In the authors search for new pigments that could show this phenomenon, they found [beta]-carotene also. When [beta]-carotene was combined with bacteriorhodopsin extracted from the extreme halophile Halobacterium halobium, the rate of photo-osmotic velocity was much higher than for either of these pigments independently. The rate of light induced volume flux depends on temperature, intensity, and wavelength of incident light and the nature and concentration of electron donors and acceptors. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. The intermediate scattering function for lipid bilayer membranes: From nanometers to microns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Max C.; Peng, Yonggang; Zheng, Yujun; Brown, Frank L. H.

    2011-11-01

    A numerical scheme based upon established hydrodynamic and elastic considerations is introduced and used to predict the intermediate scattering function for lipid bilayer membranes. The predictions span multiple wavelength regimes, including those studied by dynamic light scattering (DLS; microns) and neutron spin-echo (NSE) spectroscopy (10-100 nm). The results validate a recent theory specific to the NSE regime and expose slight inaccuracies associated with the theoretical results available in the DLS regime. The assumptions that underlie both our numerical methods and the related theoretical predictions are reviewed in detail to explain when certain results can be applied to experiment and where caution must be exercised.

  1. Formation of an ordered phase by ceramides and diacylglycerols in a fluid phosphatidylcholine bilayer--Correlation with structure and hydrogen bonding capacity.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Peik; Maula, Terhi; Yamaguchi, Shou; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Nyholm, Thomas K M; Katsumura, Shigeo; Slotte, J Peter

    2015-10-01

    Ceramides and diacylglycerols are lipids with a large hydrophobic part (acyl chains and long-chain base) whereas their polar function (hydroxyl group) is small. They need colipids with large head groups to coexist in bilayer membranes. In this study, we have determined how saturated and unsaturated ceramides and acyl-chain matched diacylglycerols form ordered domains in 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers as a function of bilayer concentration. The formation of ordered domains was determined from lifetime analysis of trans-parinaric acid. Ceramides formed ordered domains with equal average tPA lifetime at lower bilayer concentration when compared to acyl-chain matched diacylglycerols. This was true for both saturated (16:0) and mono-unsaturated (18:1) species. This finding suggested that hydrogen bonding among ceramides contributed to their more efficient ordered phase formation, since diacylglycerols do not form similar hydrogen bonding networks. The role of hydrogen bonding in ordered domain formation was further verified by using palmitoyl ceramide analogs with 2N and 3OH methylated long-chain bases. These analogs do not form hydrogen bonds from the 2NH or the 3OH, respectively. While methylation of the 3OH did not affect ordered phase formation compared to native palmitoyl ceramide, 2NH methylation markedly attenuated ceramide ordered phase formation. We conclude that in addition to acyl chain length, saturation, molecular order, and lack of large head group, also hydrogen bonding involving the 2NH is crucial for efficient formation of ceramide-rich domains in fluid phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

  2. Fluid physics of a rotating membrane separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akonur, Alp

    Rotating membrane separation is a powerful dynamic filtration technique used in separation and filtration of suspensions. Rotating membrane separation is superior compared to the conventional filtration techniques owing to the special character of the flow field, namely the supercritical cylindrical Couette flow, observed in the form of nonwavy and wavy toroidal vortices. The underlying physics are investigated by extending the previous particle image velocity (PIV) measurements performed in a radial-axial plane to a radial-azimuthal plane for nonwavy Taylor Couette flow and wavy cylindrical Couette flow. These measurements are matched to previous measurements to obtain the first time- resolved, three-dimensional, three-component velocity field for cylindrical Couette flow. The nonwavy toroidal vortices of Taylor-Couette flow become stronger with increasing Taylor number. The azimuthal velocity varies axially due to the redistribution of the azimuthal momentum by the vortical motion, which results in a substantial increase in the angular momentum at outflow regions and a decrease at inflow regions. For wavy vortex flow, the waviness of the vortices results in a variation of the azimuthal velocity in any given latitudinal place. Streams of axial flow carry fluid along the length of the annulus winding around the vortices radially from the inner cylinder to the outer cylinder, and azimuthally about one-half wavelength. The azimuthal velocity near the centers of the vortices is similar to the velocity of the traveling azimuthal wave. Large shear stresses occur near the inner and outer cylinders especially at the high Taylor numbers. In the middle of the annulus, the shear stress is substantially less. In filtration flow, where radial and axial flows are imposed on cylindrical Couette flow, simultaneous use of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) provides fluid and particle velocities. Results indicate no major differences in the

  3. A Study of Lipid Bilayer Membrane Stability Using Precise Measurements of Specific Capacitance

    PubMed Central

    White, Stephen H.

    1970-01-01

    A method is described for measuring the specific capacitance (Cm) of lipid bilayer membranes with an estimated experimental error of only 1%. The gross capacitance was measured with an AC Wheatstone bridge and a photographic technique was used to determine the area of thin membrane. The results of measurements on oxidized cholesterol-decane membranes formed in 1 × 10-2 M KCl show that Cm depends upon temperature, voltage, time, and the age of the bulk membrane solutions. For a freshly thinned membrane (from 5 week old solution), Cm increases exponentially from an initial value of 0.432 ±0.021 (SD) μF/cm2 with a time constant of ∼15 min. A 100 mv potential applied across the membrane for 10-20 min prior to making measurements eliminated this time dependence and produced final-state membranes. Cm of final-state membranes depends upon applied voltage (Va) and obeys the equation Cm = C0 + βVa2 where Va ≃ VDC + VrmsAC. C0 and β depend upon temperature; C0 decreases linearly with temperature while β increases linearly. At 20°C, C0 = 0.559 ±0.01 (SD) μF/cm2 and β = 0.0123 ±0.0036 (SD) (μF/cm2)/(mv2) and at 34°C, C0 = 0.472 ±0.01 and β = 0.0382 ±0.0039. These variations in Cm are interpreted as resulting from thickness changes. The possibility that they result from diffuse layer and/or membrane dielectric phenomena is discussed and found to be unlikely. The results are discussed in terms of membrane stability by constructing hypothetical potential energy vs. thickness curves. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:5489777

  4. Gel-to-fluid phase transformations in solid-supported phospholipid bilayers assembled by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique: effect of the Langmuir monolayer phase state and molecular density.

    PubMed

    Ramkaran, Mohini; Badia, Antonella

    2014-08-14

    Planar-supported phospholipid bilayers are increasingly used as synthetic membranes for scientific and practical applications. The thermotropic phase properties of supported bilayers are important for recreating biologically relevant situations. Unlike free-standing lipid membranes that undergo one gel-to-fluid or main phase transition, mica-supported single bilayers have been found to undergo two separate leaflet transitions. Although the distinctive nature of the main transition in mica-supported bilayers has been attributed to different effects, determining their relevance has been problematic because vesicle fusion, the technique most widely used to prepare solid-supported bilayer membranes, does not allow one to readily control the lipid surface coverage and molecular density. To circumvent the limitations of the vesicle fusion method and systematically investigate the effects on the individual leaflet transitions of the lipid phase state and molecular density before deposition on the substrate, mica-supported single bilayers of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) were prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The gel-to-fluid transitions of the bilayer leaflets were tracked by controlled-temperature atomic force microscopy to determine the relative fractions of the gel and fluid phases as a function of temperature. The fraction of solid versus temperature data was fit to the van't Hoff equation to determine the leaflet melting temperatures and transition enthalpies. The phase state and molecular density of the Langmuir monolayer precursor at the transfer pressure of 35 mN m(-1) was found to have a greater effect on the main transition temperature and width of the distal (upper) leaflet than that of the proximal (lower) one. The contributions of substrate-mediated condensation, asymmetric lipid densities, and surface area available for thermal expansion of the bilayer are addressed

  5. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan

    2016-09-21

    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously.

  6. Translocation mechanism(s) of cell-penetrating peptides: biophysical studies using artificial membrane bilayers.

    PubMed

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Chassaing, Gérard; Swiecicki, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-20

    The ability of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) to cross cell membranes has found numerous applications in the delivery of bioactive compounds to the cytosol of living cells. Their internalization mechanisms have been questioned many times, and after 20 years of intense debate, it is now widely accepted that both energy-dependent and energy-independent mechanisms account for their penetration properties. However, the energy-independent mechanisms, named "direct translocation", occurring without the requirement of the cell internalization machinery, remain to be fully rationalized at the molecular level. Using artificial membrane bilayers, recent progress has been made toward the comprehension of the direct translocation event. This review summarizes our current understanding of the translocation process, starting from the adsorption of the CPP on the membrane to the membrane crossing itself. We describe the different key steps occurring before direct translocation, because each of them can promote and/or hamper translocation of the CPP through the membrane. We then dissect the modification to the membranes induced by the presence of the CPPs. Finally, we focus on the latest studies describing the direct translocation mechanisms. These results provide an important framework within which to design new CPPs and to rationalize an eventual selectivity of CPPs in their penetration ability.

  7. Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Philip P.; Weisgerber, Alan W.; Feuerbach, Alec M.; Knowles, Michelle K.

    2017-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE) and hexadecanoic acid (HDA), using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed. PMID:28294967

  8. Orientation of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protein OmpX in Phospholipid Bilayer Membranes Determined by Solid-State NMR†

    PubMed Central

    Mahalakshmi, Radhakrishnan; Marassi, Francesca M.

    2010-01-01

    The solid-state NMR orientation-dependent frequencies measured for membrane proteins in macroscopically oriented lipid bilayers provide precise orientation restraints for structure determination in membranes. Here we show that this information can also be used to supplement crystallographic structural data to establish the orientation of a membrane protein in the membrane. This is achieved by incorporating a few orientation restraints, measured for the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein OmpX in magnetically oriented lipid bilayers (bicelles), in a simulated annealing calculation with the coordinates of the OmpX crystal structure. The 1H–15N dipolar couplings measured for the seven Phe residues of OmpX in oriented bilayers can be assigned by back-calculation of the NMR spectrum from the crystal structure and are sufficient to establish the three-dimensional orientation of the protein in the membrane, while the 15N chemical shifts provide a measure of cross-validation for the analysis. In C14 lipid bilayers, OmpX adopts a transmembrane orientation with a 7° tilt of its β-barrel axis relative to the membrane normal, matching the hydrophobic thickness of the barrel with that of the membrane. PMID:18512961

  9. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes. PMID:26015293

  10. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    DOE PAGES

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; ...

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when usedmore » in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.« less

  11. Exploiting lipopolysaccharide-induced deformation of lipid bilayers to modify membrane composition and generate two-dimensional geometric membrane array patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Peter G.; Swingle, Kirstie L.; Paxton, Walter F.; Nogan, John J.; Stromberg, Loreen R.; Firestone, Millicent A.; Mukundan, Harshini; Montaño, Gabriel A.

    2015-05-27

    Supported lipid bilayers have proven effective as model membranes for investigating biophysical processes and in development of sensor and array technologies. The ability to modify lipid bilayers after their formation and in situ could greatly advance membrane technologies, but is difficult via current state-of-the-art technologies. Here we demonstrate a novel method that allows the controlled post-formation processing and modification of complex supported lipid bilayer arrangements, under aqueous conditions. We exploit the destabilization effect of lipopolysaccharide, an amphiphilic biomolecule, interacting with lipid bilayers to generate voids that can be backfilled to introduce desired membrane components. We further demonstrate that when used in combination with a single, traditional soft lithography process, it is possible to generate hierarchically-organized membrane domains and microscale 2-D array patterns of domains. Significantly, this technique can be used to repeatedly modify membranes allowing iterative control over membrane composition. This approach expands our toolkit for functional membrane design, with potential applications for enhanced materials templating, biosensing and investigating lipid-membrane processes.

  12. Alginate/chitosan based bi-layer composite membrane as potential sustained-release wound dressing containing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Dong, Yang; Song, Aihua; Yin, Ran; Li, Sanming

    2014-08-01

    The aims of this research were to develop and evaluate a novel ciprofloxacin hydrochloride loaded bi-layer composite membrane based on alginate and chitosan. In vitro antimicrobial activity, drug permeation study, morphology, cytotoxicity, primary skin irritation and in vivo pharmacodynamics were investigated. Results showed that the membranes could inhibit the growth of microorganisms for longer than 7 days. And there was no significant decrease in the metabolic activity of the Hacat fibroblasts cells were treated with the membranes. No edema and erythema were observed after administration of membranes on the rabbit skin after 14 days. Moreover, the results of pharmacodynamics showed that the membranes were more effective in improving the wound healing process. In conclusion, a novel bi-layer composite membrane was developed and results suggested that it could be exploited as sustained-release wound dressings.

  13. Synthetic ion channels via self-assembly: a route for embedding porous polyoxometalate nanocapsules in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Carr, Rogan; Weinstock, Ira A; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Müller, Achim; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2008-11-01

    Porous polyoxometalate nanocapsules of Keplerate type are known to exhibit the functionality of biological ion channels; however, their use as an artificial ion channel is tempered by the high negative charge of the capsules, which renders their spontaneous incorporation into a lipid bilayer membrane unlikely. In this Letter we report coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations that demonstrate a route for embedding negatively charged nanocapsules into lipid bilayer membranes via self-assembly. A homogeneous mixture of water, cationic detergent, and phospholipid was observed to spontaneously self-assemble around the nanocapsule into a layered, liposome-like structure, where the nanocapsule was enveloped by a layer of cationic detergent followed by a layer of phospholipid. Fusion of such a layered liposome with a lipid bilayer membrane was observed to embed the nanocapsule into the lipid bilayer. The resulting assembly was found to remain stable even after the surface of the capsule was exposed to electrolyte. In the latter conformation, water was observed to flow into and out of the capsule as Na(+) cations entered, suggesting that a polyoxometalate nanocapsule can form a functional synthetic ion channel in a lipid bilayer membrane.

  14. Synthetic Ion Channels via Self-Assembly: a Route for Embedding Porous Polyoxometalate Nanocapsules in Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Rogan; Weinstock, Ira A.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Müller, Achim; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2010-01-01

    Porous polyoxometalate nanocapsules of Keplerate type are known to exhibit the functionality of biological ion channels, however, their use as artificial ion channel is tempered by the high negative charge of the capsules, which renders their spontaneous incorporation into a lipid bilayer membrane unlikely. In this letter we report coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations that demonstrate a route for embedding negatively charged nanocapsules into lipid bilayer membranes via self-assembly. A homogeneous mixture of water, cationic detergent, and phospholipid was observed to spontaneously self-assemble around the nanocapsule into a layered, liposome-like structure, where the nanocapsule was enveloped by a layer of cationic detergent followed by a layer of phospholipid. Fusion of such a layered liposome with a lipid bilayer membrane was observed to embed the nanocapsule into the lipid bilayer. The resulting assembly was found to remain stable even after the surface of the capsule was exposed to electrolyte. In the latter conformation, water was observed to flow into and out of the capsule as Na+ cations entered, suggesting that a polyoxometalate nanocapsule can form a functional synthetic ion channel in a lipid bilayer membrane. PMID:18844424

  15. Chemotherapy Drugs Thiocolchicoside and Taxol Permeabilize Lipid Bilayer Membranes by Forming Ion Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Duszyk, M.; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    We report ion channel formation by chemotherapy drugs: thiocolchicoside (TCC) and taxol (TXL) which primarily target tubulin but not only. For example, TCC has been shown to interact with GABAA, nuclear envelope and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. TXL interferes with the normal breakdown of microtubules inducing mitotic block and apoptosis. It also interacts with mitochondria and found significant chemotherapeutic applications for breast, ovarian and lung cancer. In order to better understand the mechanisms of TCC and TXL actions, we examined their effects on phospholipid bilayer membranes. Our electrophysiological recordings across membranes constructed in NaCl aqueous phases consisting of TCC or TXL under the influence of an applied transmembrane potential (V) indicate that both molecules induce stable ion flowing pores/channels in membranes. Their discrete current versus time plots exhibit triangular shapes which is consistent with a spontaneous time-dependent change of the pore conductance in contrast to rectangular conductance events usually induced by ion channels. These events exhibit conductance (~0.01-0.1 pA/mV) and lifetimes (~5-30 ms) within the ranges observed in e.g., gramicidin A and alamethicin channels. The channel formation probability increases linearly with TCC/TXL concentration and V and is not affected by pH (5.7 - 8.4). A theoretical explanation on the causes of chemotherapy drug induced ion pore formation and the pore stability has also been found using our recently discovered binding energy between lipid bilayer and the bilayer embedded ion channels using gramicidin A channels as tools. This picture of energetics suggests that as the channel forming agents approach to the lipids on bilayer the localized charge properties in the constituents of both channel forming agents (e.g., chemotherapy drugs in this study) and the lipids determine the electrostatic drug-lipid coupling energy through screened Coulomb interactions between the drug

  16. Self-assembly of azobenzene bilayer membranes in binary ionic liquid-water nanostructured media.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tejwant Singh; Ishiba, Keita; Morikawa, Masa-aki; Kimizuka, Nobuo

    2014-03-11

    Anionic azobenzene-containing amphiphile 1 (sodium 4-[4-(N-methyl-N-dodecylamino)phenylazo]benzenesulfonate) forms ordered bilayer membranes in binary ionic liquid (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethyl sulfate, [C2mim][C2OSO3])-water mixtures. The binary [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water mixture is macroscopically homogeneous at any mixing ratio; however, it possesses fluctuating nanodomains of [C2mim][C2OSO3] molecules as observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). These nanodomains show reversible heat-induced mixing behavior with water. Although the amphiphile 1 is substantially insoluble in pure water, it is dispersible in the [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water mixtures. The concentration of [C2mim][C2OSO3] and temperature exert significant influences on the self-assembling characteristics of 1 in the binary media, as shown by DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, and zeta-potential measurements. Bilayer membranes with rod- or dotlike nanostructures were formed at a lower content of [C2mim][C2OSO3] (2-30 v/v %), in which azobenzene chromophores adopt parallel molecular orientation regardless of temperature. In contrast, when the content of [C2mim][C2OSO3] is increased above 60 v/v %, azobenzene bilayers showed thermally reversible gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition. The self-assembly of azobenzene amphiphiles is tunable depending on the volume fraction of [C2mim][C2OSO3] and temperature, which are associated with the solvation by nanoclusters in the binary [C2mim][C2OSO3]-water media. These observations clearly indicate that mixtures of water-soluble ionic liquids and water provide unique and valiant environments for ordered molecular self-assembly.

  17. Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Matrix Protein: Dependence on Bilayer Composition and Protein Lipidation

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Marilia; Nanda, Hirsh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT By assembling in a protein lattice on the host's plasma membrane, the retroviral Gag polyprotein triggers formation of the viral protein/membrane shell. The MA domain of Gag employs multiple signals—electrostatic, hydrophobic, and lipid-specific—to bring the protein to the plasma membrane, thereby complementing protein-protein interactions, located in full-length Gag, in lattice formation. We report the interaction of myristoylated and unmyristoylated HIV-1 Gag MA domains with bilayers composed of purified lipid components to dissect these complex membrane signals and quantify their contributions to the overall interaction. Surface plasmon resonance on well-defined planar membrane models is used to quantify binding affinities and amounts of protein and yields free binding energy contributions, ΔG, of the various signals. Charge-charge interactions in the absence of the phosphatidylinositide PI(4,5)P2 attract the protein to acidic membrane surfaces, and myristoylation increases the affinity by a factor of 10; thus, our data do not provide evidence for a PI(4,5)P2 trigger of myristate exposure. Lipid-specific interactions with PI(4,5)P2, the major signal lipid in the inner plasma membrane, increase membrane attraction at a level similar to that of protein lipidation. While cholesterol does not directly engage in interactions, it augments protein affinity strongly by facilitating efficient myristate insertion and PI(4,5)P2 binding. We thus observe that the isolated MA protein, in the absence of protein-protein interaction conferred by the full-length Gag, binds the membrane with submicromolar affinities. IMPORTANCE Like other retroviral species, the Gag polyprotein of HIV-1 contains three major domains: the N-terminal, myristoylated MA domain that targets the protein to the plasma membrane of the host; a central capsid-forming domain; and the C-terminal, genome-binding nucleocapsid domain. These domains act in concert to condense Gag into a membrane

  18. A Bilayer-Couple Model of Bacterial Outer Membrane Vesicle Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schertzer, Jeffrey W.; Whiteley, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gram-negative bacteria naturally produce outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that arise through bulging and pinching off of the outer membrane. OMVs have several biological functions for bacteria, most notably as trafficking vehicles for toxins, antimicrobials, and signaling molecules. While their biological roles are now appreciated, the mechanism of OMV formation has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated that the signaling molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS) is required for OMV biogenesis in P. aeruginosa. We hypothesized that PQS stimulates OMV formation through direct interaction with the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. To test this hypothesis, we employed a red blood cell (RBC) model that has been used extensively to study small-molecule–membrane interactions. Our results revealed that addition of PQS to RBCs induced membrane curvature, resulting in the formation of membrane spicules (spikes), consistent with small molecules that are inserted stably into the outer leaflet of the membrane. Radiotracer experiments demonstrated that sufficient PQS was inserted into the membrane to account for this curvature and that curvature induction was specific to PQS structure. These data suggest that a low rate of interleaflet flip-flop forces PQS to accumulate in and expand the outer leaflet relative to the inner leaflet, thus inducing membrane curvature. In support of PQS-mediated outer leaflet expansion, the PQS effect was antagonized by chlorpromazine, a molecule known to be preferentially inserted into the inner leaflet. Based on these data, we propose a bilayer-couple model to describe P. aeruginosa OMV biogenesis and suggest that this is a general mechanism for bacterial OMV formation. PMID:22415005

  19. Photosensitizer binding to lipid bilayers as a precondition for the photoinactivation of membrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Rokitskaya, T I; Block, M; Antonenko, Y N; Kotova, E A; Pohl, P

    2000-01-01

    The photodynamic activity of sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanines (AlPcS(n), 1 membrane lipids. Adsorbing to the surface of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs), aluminum phthalocyanine disulfonate induced the highest changes in their electrophoretic mobility. AlPcS(2) was also most efficient in mediating photoinactivation of gramicidin channels, as revealed by measurements of the electric current across planar lipid bilayers. The increase in the degree of sulfonation of phthalocyanine progressively reduced its affinity for the lipid bilayer as well as its potency of sensitizing gramicidin channel photoinactivation. The portion of photoinactivated gramicidin channels, alpha, increased with rising photosensitizer concentration up to some optimum. The concentration at which alpha was at half-maximum amounted to 80 nM, 30 nM, 200 nM, and 2 microM for AlPcS(1), AlPcS(2), AlPcS(3), and AlPcS(4), respectively. At high concentrations alpha was found to decrease, which was attributed to quenching of reactive oxygen species and self-quenching of the photosensitizer triplet state by its ground state. Fluoride anions were observed to inhibit both AlPcS(n) (2 membrane lipids is a prerequisite for the photodynamic inactivation of gramicidin channels. PMID:10777753

  20. Model for the dynamic responses of taste receptor cells to salty stimuli. I. Function of lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Naito, M; Fuchikami, N; Sasaki, N; Kambara, T

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic response of the lipid bilayer membrane is studied theoretically using a microscopic model of the membrane. The time courses of membrane potential variations due to monovalent salt stimulation are calculated explicitly under various conditions. A set of equations describing the time evolution of membrane surface potential and diffusion potential is derived and solved numerically. It is shown that a rather simple membrane such as lipid bilayer has functions capable of reproducing the following properties of dynamic response observed in gustatory receptor potential. Initial transient depolarization does not occur under Ringer adaptation but does under water. It appears only for comparatively rapid flows of stimuli, the peak height of transient response is expressed by a power function of the flow rate, and the membrane potential gradually decreases after reaching its peak under long and strong stimulation. The dynamic responses in the present model arise from the differences between the time dependences in the surface potential phi s and the diffusion potential phi d across a membrane. Under salt stimulation phi d cannot immediately follow the variation in phi s because of the delay due to the charging up of membrane capacitance. It is suggested that lipid bilayer in the apical membrane is the most probable agency producing the initial phasic response to the stimulation. PMID:1873461

  1. Drunken Membranes: Short-Chain Alcohols Alter Fusion of Liposomes to Planar Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Jason; Hunt, Brady; Hallan, David; Zarbock, Samuel R; Woodbury, Dixon J

    2017-01-10

    Although the effects of ethanol on protein receptors and lipid membranes have been studied extensively, ethanol's effect on vesicles fusing to lipid bilayers is not known. To determine the effect of alcohols on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay to measure fusion of liposomes to a planar lipid bilayer (BLM). The addition of ethanol excited fusion when applied on the cis (vesicle) side, and inhibited fusion on the trans side. Other short-chain alcohols followed a similar pattern. In general, the inhibitory effect of alcohols (trans) occurs at lower doses than the excitatory (cis) effect, with a decrease of 29% in fusion rates at the legal driving limit of 0.08% (w/v) ethanol (IC50 = 0.2% v/v, 34 mM). Similar inhibitory effects were observed with methanol, propanol, and butanol, with ethanol being the most potent. Significant variability was observed with different alcohols when applied to the cis side. Ethanol and propanol enhanced fusion, butanol also enhanced fusion but was less potent, and low doses of methanol mildly inhibited fusion. The inhibition by trans addition of alcohols implies that they alter the planar membrane structure and thereby increase the activation energy required for fusion, likely through an increase in membrane fluidity. The cis data are likely a combination of the above effect and a proportionally greater lowering of the vesicle lysis tension and hydration repulsive pressure that combine to enhance fusion. Alternate hypotheses are also discussed. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on liposome-membrane fusion is large enough to provide a possible biophysical explanation of compromised neuronal behavior.

  2. Bilayer lipid membranes supported on Teflon filters: a functional environment for ion channels.

    PubMed

    Phung, Thai; Zhang, Yanli; Dunlop, James; Dalziel, Julie

    2011-03-15

    Many ion channel proteins have binding sites for toxins and pharmaceutical drugs and therefore have much promise as the sensing entity in high throughput technologies and biosensor devices. Measurement of ionic conductance changes through ion channels requires a robust biological membrane with sufficient longevity for practical applications. The conventional planar BLM is 100-300 μm in diameter and typically contains fewer than a dozen channels whereas pharmaceutical screening methods in cells use current recordings for many ion channels. We present a new, simple method for the fabrication of a disposable porous-supported bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) ion channel biosensor using hydrated Teflon (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) filter material (pore size 5 μm, filter diameter=1 mm). The lipid layer was monitored for its thickness and mechanical stability by electrical impedance spectroscopy. The results showed membrane capacitances of 1.8±0.2 nF and membrane resistances of 25.9±4.1 GΩ, indicating the formation of lipid bilayers. The current level increased upon addition of the pore-forming peptide gramicidin. Following addition of liposomes containing voltage-gated sodium channels, small macroscopic sodium currents (1-80 pA) could be recorded. By preloading the porous Teflon with sodium channel proteoliposomes, prior to BLM formation, currents of 1-10 nA could be recorded in the presence of the activator veratridine that increased with time, and were inhibited by tetrodotoxin. A lack of rectification suggests that the channels incorporated in both orientations. This work demonstrates that PTFE filters can support BLMs that provide an environment in which ion channels can maintain their functional activity relevant for applications in drug discovery, toxin detection, and odour sensing.

  3. Coupling of Solute and Solvent Flows in Porous Lipid Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Thomas E.; Schafer, James A.; Troutman, Susan L.

    1971-01-01

    The present experiments were designed to evaluate coupling of water and nonelectrolyte flows in porous lipid bilayer membranes (i.e., in the presence of amphotericin B) in series with unstirred layers. Alterations in solute flux during osmosis, with respect to the flux in the absence of net water flow, could be related to two factors: first, changes in the diffusional component of solute flux referable to variations in solute concentrations at the membrane interfaces produced by osmotic flow through the unstirred layers; and second, coupling of solute and solvent flows within the membrane phase. Osmotic water flow in the same direction as solute flow increased substantially the net fluxes of glycerol and erythritol through the membranes, while osmotic flow in the opposite direction to glycerol flow reduced the net flux of that solute. The observed effects of osmotic water flow on the fluxes of these solutes were in reasonable agreement with predictions based on a model for coupling of solute and solvent flows within the membrane phase, and considerably in excess of the prediction for a diffusion process alone. PMID:5549100

  4. Optimized phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs facilitate high-resolution structure determination of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Hagn, Franz; Etzkorn, Manuel; Raschle, Thomas; Wagner, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    Structural studies of membrane proteins are still hampered by difficulties of finding appropriate membrane-mimicking media that maintain protein structure and function. Phospholipid nanodiscs seem promising to overcome the intrinsic problems of detergent-containing environments. While nanodiscs can offer a near-native environment, the large particle size complicates their routine use in the structural analysis of membrane proteins by solution NMR. Here, we introduce nanodiscs assembled from shorter ApoA-I protein variants that are of markedly smaller diameter and show that the resulting discs provide critical improvements for the structure determination of membrane proteins by NMR. Using the bacterial outer-membrane protein OmpX as an example, we demonstrate that the combination of small nanodisc size, high deuteration levels of protein and lipids, and the use of advanced non-uniform NMR sampling methods enable the NMR resonance assignment as well as the high-resolution structure determination of polytopic membrane proteins in a detergent-free, near-native lipid bilayer setting. By applying this method to bacteriorhodopsin, we show that our smaller nanodiscs can also be beneficial for the structural characterization of the important class of seven-transmembrane helical proteins. Our set of engineered nanodiscs of subsequently smaller diameters can be used to screen for optimal NMR spectral quality for small to medium-sized membrane proteins while still providing a functional environment. In addition to their key improvements for de novo structure determination, due to their smaller size these nanodiscs enable the investigation of interactions between membrane proteins and their (soluble) partner proteins, unbiased by the presence of detergents that might disrupt biologically relevant interactions.

  5. Controlled Co-reconstitution of Multiple Membrane Proteins in Lipid Bilayer Nanodiscs Using DNA as a Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Raschle, Thomas; Lin, Chenxiang; Jungmann, Ralf; Shih, William M; Wagner, Gerhard

    2015-11-20

    Nanodiscs constitute a tool for the solubilization of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer, thus offering a near-native membrane environment. Many membrane proteins interact with other membrane proteins; however, the co-reconstitution of multiple membrane proteins in a single nanodisc is a random process that is adversely affected by several factors, including protein aggregation. Here, we present an approach for the controlled co-reconstitution of multiple membrane proteins in a single nanodisc. The temporary attachment of designated oligonucleotides to individual membrane proteins enables the formation of stable, detergent-solubilized membrane protein complexes by base-pairing of complementary oligonucleotide sequences, thus facilitating the insertion of the membrane protein complex into nanodiscs with defined stoichiometry and composition. As a proof of principle, nanodiscs containing a heterodimeric and heterotrimeric membrane protein complex were reconstituted using a fluorescently labeled voltage-gated anion channel (VDAC) as a model system.

  6. Controlled co-reconstitution of multiple membrane proteins in lipid bilayer nanodiscs using DNA as a scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Thomas; Lin, Chenxiang; Jungmann, Ralf; Shih, William M.; Wagner, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiscs constitute a tool for the solubilization of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer, thus offering a near-native membrane environment. Many membrane proteins interact with other membrane proteins, however, the co-reconstitution of multiple membrane proteins in a single nanodisc is a random process that is adversely affected by several factors, including protein aggregation. Here, we present an approach for the controlled co-reconstitution of multiple membrane proteins in a single nanodisc. The temporary attachment of designated oligonucleotides to individual membrane proteins enables the formation of stable, detergent-solubilized membrane protein complexes by base-pairing of complementary oligonucleotide sequences, thus facilitating the insertion of the membrane protein complex into nanodiscs with defined stoichiometry and composition. As a proof of principle, nanodiscs containing a hetero-dimeric and hetero-trimeric membrane protein complex were reconstituted using fluorescently-labeled voltage-gated anion channel (VDAC) as a model system. PMID:26356202

  7. Perturbed voltage-gated channel activity in perturbed bilayers: implications for ectopic arrhythmias arising from damaged membrane.

    PubMed

    Morris, Catherine E; Juranka, Peter F; Joós, Béla

    2012-01-01

    The ceaseless opening and closing of the voltage-gated channels (VGCs) underlying cardiac rhythmicity is controlled, in each VGC, by four mobile voltage sensors embedded in bilayer. Every action potential necessitates extensive packing/repacking of voltage sensor domains with adjacent interacting lipid molecules. This renders VGC activity mechanosensitive (MS), i.e., energetically sensitive to the bilayer's mechanical state. Irreversible perturbations of sarcolemmal bilayer such as those associated with ischemia, reperfusion, inflammation, cortical-cytoskeleton abnormalities, bilayer-disrupting toxins, diet aberrations, etc, should therefore perturb VGC activity. Disordered/fluidized bilayer states that facilitate voltage sensor repacking, and thus make VGC opening too easy could, therefore, explain VGC-leakiness in these conditions. To study this in membrane patches we impose mechanical blebbing injury during pipette aspiration-induced membrane stretch, a process that modulates VGC activity irreversibly (plastic regime) and then, eventually, reversibly (elastic regime). Because of differences in sensor-to-gate coupling among different VGCs, their responses to stretch fall into two major categories, MS-Speed, MS-Number, exemplified by Nav and Cav channels. For particular VGCs in perturbed bilayers, leak mechanisms depend on whether or not the rate-limiting voltage-dependent step is MS. Mode-switch transitions might also be mechanosensitive and thus play a role. Incorporated mathematically in axon models, plastic-regime Nav responses elicit ectopic firing behaviors typical of peripheral neuropathies. In cardiomyocytes with mild bleb damage, Nav and/or Cav leaks from irreversible MS modulation (MS-Speed, MS-Number, respectively) could, similarly, foster ectopic arrhythmias. Where pathologically leaky VGCs reside in damaged bilayer, peri-channel bilayer disorder/fluidity conditions could be an important "target feature" for anti-arrhythmic VGC drugs.

  8. Solubilization of Membrane Proteins into Functional Lipid-Bilayer Nanodiscs Using a Diisobutylene/Maleic Acid Copolymer.

    PubMed

    Oluwole, Abraham Olusegun; Danielczak, Bartholomäus; Meister, Annette; Babalola, Jonathan Oyebamiji; Vargas, Carolyn; Keller, Sandro

    2017-02-06

    Once removed from their natural environment, membrane proteins depend on membrane-mimetic systems to retain their native structures and functions. To this end, lipid-bilayer nanodiscs that are bounded by scaffold proteins or amphiphilic polymers such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers have been introduced as alternatives to detergent micelles and liposomes for in vitro membrane-protein research. Herein, we show that an alternating diisobutylene/maleic acid (DIBMA) copolymer shows equal performance to SMA in solubilizing phospholipids, stabilizes an integral membrane enzyme in functional bilayer nanodiscs, and extracts proteins of various sizes directly from cellular membranes. Unlike aromatic SMA, aliphatic DIBMA has only a mild effect on lipid acyl-chain order, does not interfere with optical spectroscopy in the far-UV range, and does not precipitate in the presence of low millimolar concentrations of divalent cations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Creating Biological Membranes on the Micron Scale: Forming Patterned Lipid Bilayers Using a Polymer Lift-Off Technique

    PubMed Central

    Orth, R. N.; Kameoka, J.; Zipfel, W. R.; Ilic, B.; Webb, W. W.; Clark, T. G.; Craighead, H. G.

    2003-01-01

    We present a new method for creating patches of fluid lipid bilayers with conjugated biotin and other compounds down to 1 μm resolution using a photolithographically patterned polymer lift-off technique. The patterns are realized as the polymer is mechanically peeled away in one contiguous piece in solution. The functionality of these surfaces is verified with binding of antibodies and avidin on these uniform micron-scale platforms. The biomaterial patches, measuring 1 μm–76 μm on edge, provide a synthetic biological substrate for biochemical analysis that is ∼100× smaller in width than commercial printing technologies. 100 nm unilamellar lipid vesicles spread to form a supported fluid lipid bilayer on oxidized silicon surface as confirmed by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements of DiI (1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC18(3))) stained bilayer patches yielded an average diffusion coefficient of 7.54 ± 1.25 μm2 s−1, equal to or slightly faster than typically found in DiI stained cells. This diffusion rate is ∼3× faster than previous values for bilayers on glass. This method provides a new means to form functionalized fluid lipid bilayers as micron-scale platforms to immobilize biomaterials, capture antibodies and biotinylated reagents from solution, and form antigenic stimuli for cell stimulation. PMID:14581207

  10. Creating biological membranes on the micron scale: forming patterned lipid bilayers using a polymer lift-off technique.

    PubMed

    Orth, R N; Kameoka, J; Zipfel, W R; Ilic, B; Webb, W W; Clark, T G; Craighead, H G

    2003-11-01

    We present a new method for creating patches of fluid lipid bilayers with conjugated biotin and other compounds down to 1 microm resolution using a photolithographically patterned polymer lift-off technique. The patterns are realized as the polymer is mechanically peeled away in one contiguous piece in solution. The functionality of these surfaces is verified with binding of antibodies and avidin on these uniform micron-scale platforms. The biomaterial patches, measuring 1 micro m-76 microm on edge, provide a synthetic biological substrate for biochemical analysis that is approximately 100x smaller in width than commercial printing technologies. 100 nm unilamellar lipid vesicles spread to form a supported fluid lipid bilayer on oxidized silicon surface as confirmed by fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Fluorescence photobleaching recovery measurements of DiI (1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiIC(18)(3))) stained bilayer patches yielded an average diffusion coefficient of 7.54 +/- 1.25 microm(2) s(-1), equal to or slightly faster than typically found in DiI stained cells. This diffusion rate is approximately 3x faster than previous values for bilayers on glass. This method provides a new means to form functionalized fluid lipid bilayers as micron-scale platforms to immobilize biomaterials, capture antibodies and biotinylated reagents from solution, and form antigenic stimuli for cell stimulation.

  11. Fluid-membrane tethers: Minimal surfaces and elastic boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas R.; Huber, Greg; Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2002-04-01

    Thin cylindrical tethers are common lipid bilayer membrane structures, arising in situations ranging from micromanipulation experiments on artificial vesicles to the dynamic structure of the Golgi apparatus. We study the shape and formation of a tether in terms of the classical soap-film problem, which is applied to the case of a membrane disk under tension subject to a point force. A tether forms from the elastic boundary layer near the point of application of the force, for sufficiently large displacement. Analytic results for various aspects of the membrane shape are given.

  12. Genomic Analysis Indicates the Presence of an Asymmetric Bilayer Outer Membrane in Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia

    PubMed Central

    Speth, Daan R.; van Teeseling, Muriel C. F.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria of the phylum Planctomycetes are of special interest for the study of compartmental cellular organization. Members of this phylum share a very unusual prokaryotic cell plan, featuring several membrane-bound compartments. Recently, it was shown that this cellular organization might extend to certain members of the phylum Verrucomicrobia. The Planctomycete cell plan has been defined as featuring a proteinaceous cell wall, a cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the paryphoplasm, and an intracytoplasmic membrane defining the riboplasm. So far it was presumed that Planctomycetes did not have an asymmetric bilayer outer membrane as observed in Gram-negative bacteria. However, recent work on outer membrane biogenesis has provided several marker genes in the outer membrane protein (OMP) assembly and the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) insertion complexes. Additionally, advances in computational prediction of OMPs provided new tools to perform more accurate genomic screening for such proteins. Here we searched all 22 Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia genomes available in GenBank, plus the recently published genome of “Candidatus Scalindua profunda,” for markers of outer membrane biogenesis and OMPs. We were able to identify the key components of LPS insertion, OMP assembly and at least eight OMPs in all genomes tested. Additionally, we have analyzed the transcriptome and proteome data of the Planctomycetes “Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis” and “Ca. S. profunda” and could confirm high expression of several predicted OMPs, including the biomarkers of outer membrane biogenesis. These analyses provide a strong indication that an asymmetrical outer membrane may be present in bacteria of both phyla. However, previous experiments have made obvious that the cell envelope of Planctomycetes is clearly divergent from both the Gram-negative and Gram-positive cell types. Thus, the functional implications of the presence of an outer membrane for the Planctomycete cell plan

  13. Tetra- and Penta-Cyclic Triterpenes Interaction with Lipid Bilayer Membrane: A Structural Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Rola; Charcosset, Catherine; Greige-Gerges, Hélène

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracyclic (cortisol, prednisolone, and 9-fluorocortisol acetate) and pentacyclic (uvaol and erythrodiol) triterpenes (TTPs) on the fluidity of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) liposome membrane was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH). Liposomes were prepared in the absence and presence of TTPs at molar ratios DPPC:TTP 100:1, 100:2.5, and 100:10. All the studied TTPs abolished the pre-transition and modified the intensity of the Raman peak at 715 cm(-1) proving the interaction of TTP molecules with the choline head group of phospholipids. An increase in the Raman height intensity ratios of the peaks I 2935/2880, I 2844/2880, and I 1090/1130, giving information about the ratio disorder/order of the alkyl chains, and a decrease of the main transition temperature demonstrated the interaction of TTPs with the alkyl chains. The tetracyclic TTPs produced broadening of the phase transition profile. Besides, a scarcely splitting of the main transition peak was obtained with prednisolone and 9-fluorocortisol acetate. The results of fluorescence depolarization of DPH showed that the studied molecules fluidized the liposomal membrane at 25, 41, and 50 °C. Pentacyclic TTPs, being more hydrophobic than tetracyclic ones, demonstrated higher fluidizing effect than tetracyclic TTPs in the liquid crystalline phase suggesting a deeper incorporation in the lipid bilayer. The presence of a free polar head group at the ring D seems to control the TTP incorporation in the bilayer and consequently its effect on the membrane fluidity.

  14. Tethered bilayer membranes as a complementary tool for functional and structural studies: The pyolysin case.

    PubMed

    Preta, Giulio; Jankunec, Marija; Heinrich, Frank; Griffin, Sholeem; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Valincius, Gintaras

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate the use of tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) as an experimental platform for functional and structural studies of membrane associated proteins by electrochemical techniques. The reconstitution of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) pyolysin (PLO) from Trueperella pyogenes into tBLMs was followed in real-time by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Changes of the EIS parameters of the tBLMs upon exposure to PLO solutions were consistent with the dielectric barrier damage occurring through the formation of water-filled pores in membranes. Parallel experiments involving a mutant version of PLO, which is able to bind to the membranes but does not form oligomer pores, strengthen the reliability of this methodology, since no change in the electrochemical impedance was observed. Complementary atomic force microscopy (AFM) and neutron reflectometry (NR) measurements revealed structural details of the membrane bound PLO, consistent with the structural transformations of the membrane bound toxins found for other cholesterol dependent cytolysins. In this work, using the tBLMs platform we also observed a protective effect of the dynamin inhibitor Dynasore against pyolysin as well as pneumolysin. An effect of Dynasore in tBLMs, which was earlier observed in experiments with live cells, confirms the biological relevance of the tBLMs models, as well as demonstrates the potential of the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to quantify membrane damage by the pore forming toxins. In conclusion, tBLMs are a reliable and complementary method to explore the activity of CDCs in eukaryotic cells and to develop strategies to limit the toxic effects of CDCs.

  15. MPM Simulations of Fluid-Membrane Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulsky, Deborah; York, Allen; Schreyer, Howard

    1998-11-01

    The material-point method (MPM) uses unconnected, Lagrangian material points to discretize solids, fluids, or membranes. All variables in the solution to continuum equations are associated with these points; so for example, they carry mass, velocity, stress and strain. A background Eulerian mesh is used to solve the momentum equation. Data mapped from the material points is used to initialize variables on the background mesh. In the case of multiple materials, the stress from each material contributes to internal forces at nearby mesh points, so the solution of the momentum equation includes all materials. The material-point variables are updated from the mesh solution. This simple algorithm treats all materials in a uniform manner, avoids complicated mesh construction, and automatically applies a no slip contact algorithm at no additional cost. Several examples demonstrate the method, including simulation of a pressurized membrane, with complicated geometry, expanding to its equilibrium, circular shape, and simulation of the impact of a probe with a pre-inflated airbag.

  16. The self-crosslinked ufasome of conjugated linoleic acid: investigation of morphology, bilayer membrane and stability.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ye; Fang, Yun; Ma, Lin

    2014-11-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid liposomes (Ufasomes) have attracted interests because of the ready availability of unsaturated fatty acids and the simple assembly strategy. However, the colloidal instability of the ufasomes hinders them from applying in the fields of drug delivery and food additives. In the present work, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) with triple activities of bioactive, assembling and crosslinking was employed as a new molecular building block to construct ufasome and afterwards crosslinked ufasome. First, CLA ufasome was self-assembled from CLA molecules in response to pH variation, and the suitable CLA concentrations and pH ranges were determined by surface tension measurement and acid-base titration. Subsequently, the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome was prepared by intra-ufasomal crosslinking of conjugated double bonds in the CLA molecules. The morphologies of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasomes were imaged using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), from which the size of 20-50 nm and the bilayer thickness of 2.7±0.5 nm were detected. Most importantly, based on the comparison of the bilayer thicknesses of the different fatty acids, the molecular arrangement in the bilayer membrane of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome is named "side-by-side" model contrary to the ordinary "tail-to-tail" model. The pH stability of the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome was examined in virtue of dynamic light scattering tests. Finally, in vitro release results of 5-fluorouracil from the self-crosslinked CLA ufasome showed that the process was slow and sustainable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Field Theoretic Study of Bilayer Membrane Fusion: II. Mechanism of a Stalk-Hole Complex

    PubMed Central

    Katsov, K.; Müller, M.; Schick, M.

    2006-01-01

    We use self-consistent field theory to determine structural and energetic properties of intermediates and transition states involved in bilayer membrane fusion. In particular, we extend our original calculations from those of the standard hemifusion mechanism, which was studied in detail in the first article of this series, to consider a possible alternative to it. This mechanism involves non-axial stalk expansion, in contrast to the axially symmetric evolution postulated in the classical mechanism. Elongation of the initial stalk facilitates the nucleation of holes and leads to destabilization of the fusing membranes via the formation of a stalk-hole complex. We study properties of this complex in detail, and show how transient leakage during fusion, previously predicted and recently observed in experiment, should vary with lipid architecture and tension. We also show that the barrier to fusion in the alternative mechanism is lower than that of the standard mechanism by a few kBT over most of the relevant region of system parameters, so that this alternative mechanism is a viable alternative to the standard pathway. We emphasize that any mechanism, such as this alternative one, which affects, even modestly, the line tension of a hole in a membrane, affects greatly the ability of that membrane to undergo fusion. PMID:16272437

  18. Computer simulations of the diffusion of Na+ and Cl- ions across POPC lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Rangeen; Matthai, C. C.

    2017-03-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations using NAMD to study the diffusivity of Na and Cl ions across a POPC lipid bilayer membrane. We show that an imbalance of positively and negatively charged ions on either side of the membrane leads to the diffusion of ions and water molecules. We considered the cases of both weak and very strong charge imbalance across the membrane. The diffusion coefficients of the ions have been determined from the mean square displacements of the particles as a function of time. We find that for strong electrochemical gradients, both the Na and Cl ions diffuse rapidly through pores in the membrane with diffusion coefficients up to ten times larger than in water. Rather surprisingly, we found that although the Na ions are the first to begin the permeation process due to the lower potential barrier that they experience compared to the Cl ions, the latter complete the permeation across the barrier more quickly due to their faster diffusion rates.

  19. Separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips coated with supported bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kottegoda, Sumith; Kang, Kyung Mo; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid microchannels composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and glass were coated with supported bilayer membranes (SBMs) by the process of vesicle fusion. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of zwitterionic, positively charged, and negatively charged phospholipid membranes was measured over a 4 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings in an electric field. Coated microchips with a simple cross design were used to separate the fluorescent dyes fluorescein and Oregon Green. Migration time reproducibility was better than 5% RSD over 70 min of continuous separations. Separation of Oregon Green and fluorescein in channels coated with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes yielded efficiencies of 611,000 and 499,000 plates/m and a resolution of 2.4 within 2 s. Both zwitterionic and negatively charged membranes were used to separate peptide substrates from their phosphorylated analogues with efficiencies of 200,000-400,000 plates/m. Notably, separations of fluorescently labeled ABL substrate peptide from its phosphorylated counterpart were achieved using a high-salt physiological buffer with near-baseline resolution in 10 s. PC-coated devices were used to successfully separate enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from a fusion protein (eGFP-Crakl) with an efficiency of 358,000 and 278,000 plates/m respectively in less than 12 s. These SBM-based coatings may enable the separation of a broad range of analytes and may be ideal in biological applications for microfluidics.

  20. High coverage fluid-phase floating lipid bilayers supported by ω-thiolipid self-assembled monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Arwel V.; Holt, Stephen A.; Daulton, Emma; Soliakov, Andrei; Charlton, Timothy R.; Roser, Steven J.; Lakey, Jeremy H.

    2014-01-01

    Large area lipid bilayers, on solid surfaces, are useful in physical studies of biological membranes. It is advantageous to minimize the interactions of these bilayers with the substrate and this can be achieved via the formation of a floating supported bilayer (FSB) upon either a surface bound phospholipid bilayer or monolayer. The FSB's independence is enabled by the continuous water layer (greater than 15 Å) that remains between the two. However, previous FSBs have had limited stability and low density. Here, we demonstrate by surface plasmon resonance and neutron reflectivity, the formation of a complete self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold surfaces by a synthetic phosphatidylcholine bearing a thiol group at the end of one fatty acyl chain. Furthermore, a very dense FSB (more than 96%) of saturated phosphatidylcholine can be formed on this SAM by sequential Langmuir–Blodgett and Langmuir–Schaefer procedures. Neutron reflectivity used both isotopic and magnetic contrast to enhance the accuracy of the data fits. This system offers the means to study transmembrane proteins, membrane potential effects (using the gold as an electrode) and even model bacterial outer membranes. Using unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, which have previously failed to form stable FSBs, we achieved a coverage of 73%. PMID:25030385

  1. Structure determination of membrane proteins in their native phospholipid bilayer environment by rotationally aligned solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Opella, Stanley J

    2013-09-17

    One of the most important topics in experimental structural biology is determining the structures of membrane proteins. These structures represent one-third of all of the information expressed from a genome, distinguished by their locations within the phospholipid bilayer of cells, organelles, or enveloped viruses. Their highly hydrophobic nature and insolubility in aqueous media means that they require an amphipathic environment. They have unique functions in transport, catalysis, channel formation, and signaling. Researchers are particularly interested in G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) because they modulate many biological processes, and about half of the approximately 800 of these proteins within the human genome are or can be turned into drug receptors that affect a wide range of diseases. Because of experimental difficulties, researchers have studied membrane proteins using a wide variety of artificial media that mimic membranes, such as mixed organic solvents or detergents. More sophisticated mimics include bilayer discs (bicelles) and the lipid cubic phase (LCP), but both of these contain a very large detergent component, which can disrupt the stability and function of membrane proteins. To have confidence in the resulting structures and their biological functions and to avoid disrupting these delicate proteins, the structures of membrane proteins should be determined in their native environment of liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers under physiological conditions. This Account describes a recently developed general method for determining the structures of unmodified membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Because it relies on the natural, rapid rotational diffusion of these proteins about the bilayer normal, this method is referred to as rotationally aligned (RA) solid-state NMR. This technique elaborates on oriented sample (OS) solid-state NMR, its complementary predecessor. These methods exploit the power of

  2. Incorporation of antimicrobial peptides in nanostructured lipid membrane mimetic bilayer cubosomes.

    PubMed

    Meikle, Thomas G; Zabara, Alexandru; Waddington, Lynne J; Separovic, Frances; Drummond, Calum J; Conn, Charlotte E

    2017-04-01

    The inverse bicontinuous lipidic cubic phase offers a simple and robust membrane mimetic with the ability to encapsulate peptides, potentially increasing bioavailability, while also offering a platform from which functionalized, targeted nanoparticles can be developed. Herein we have investigated the use of a number of cubic phase nanoparticle systems with encapsulated antimicrobial peptides gramicidin A', melittin, and alamethicin. The optimal peptide loading ranges, over which cubic symmetry was retained, were determined using small angle X-ray scattering. A large variation in peptide loading capability of different cubosome formulations was confirmed using circular dichroism. Observations are supported by particle sizing using dynamic light scattering as well as by direct visualization of nanoparticle morphology using cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The results are discussed in relation to bilayer properties such as the hydrophobic mismatch between bilayer and peptide, intrinsic surface curvature, and lateral pressure profile of each lipid system. The findings of this study should be of use in the further development of lipid-based peptide encapsulation systems, particularly in the field of drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Smart polymer brush nanostructures guide the self-assembly of pore-spanning lipid bilayers with integrated membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmina de Groot, G.; Demarche, Sophie; Santonicola, M. Gabriella; Tiefenauer, Louis; Vancso, G. Julius

    2014-01-01

    Nanopores in arrays on silicon chips are functionalized with pH-responsive poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes and used as supports for pore-spanning lipid bilayers with integrated membrane proteins. Robust platforms are created by the covalent grafting of polymer brushes using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), resulting in sensor chips that can be successfully reused over several assays. His-tagged proteins are selectively and reversibly bound to the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) functionalization of the PMAA brush, and consequently lipid bilayer membranes are formed. The enhanced membrane resistance as determined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and free diffusion of dyed lipids observed as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching confirmed the presence of lipid bilayers. Immobilization of the His-tagged membrane proteins on the NTA-modified PMAA brush near the pore edges is characterized by fluorescence microscopy. This system allows us to adjust the protein density in free-standing bilayers, which are stabilized by the polymer brush underneath. The potential application of the integrated platform for ion channel protein assays is demonstrated.

  4. Studies of the interaction of gravity with biological membranes using alamethicin doped planar lipid bilayers as a model system.

    PubMed

    Hanke, W

    1996-01-01

    Gravity interacts with biological systems on different levels of complexity. For the understanding of the action of gravity on such systems at higher degrees of organisation, the investigation of interactions on the membrane and even on the molecular level is crucial. To do such studies, planar lipid bilayers with incorporated transport mediating molecules, i.e. membranes of defined biochemical composition, are close to perfect model systems. In our experiments we have used painted planar lipid bilayers doped with alamethicin. Alamethicin is especially suitable for such studies because of its high sensitivity to applied external forces, which is a result of its special pore forming mechanism. Additional, different to most other transport mediating molecules, a big amount of data from the literature is available about the dependency of alamethicin pores on physical and chemical membrane parameters. We found that the conductance of alamethicin doped bilayers is dependent on the angle of the bilayer with the gravitational vector and that it furthermore can be reduced significantly under hyper gravity conditions in a centrifuge. The effect of gravity here is not an effect on the pore conductance or the membrane-aqueous solution interface, but it is due to an interaction of gravity with the pore forming mechanism, as can be shown by investigating the dependency of the alamethicin pore kinetics on the applied forces.

  5. Micro-patterning of ionic reservoirs within a double bilayer lipid membrane to fabricate a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Sansinena, J. M.; Yee, C. K.; Sapuri, A.; Swanson, Basil I.; Redondo, A.; Parikh, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    We present a simple approach for the design of ionic reservoir arrays within a double phospholipid bilayer to ultimately develop a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors. As a first step, a primary bilayer lipid membrane is deposited onto an array of electrodes patterned onto a substrate surface. Subsequently, an array of microvoids is created within the bilayer by a wet photolithographic patterning of phospholipid bilayers using a deep UV light source and a quartz/chrome photomask. To ensure registry, the photomask used to pattern bilayers is designed to match up the microvoids within the primary bilayer with the array of electrodes on the substrate surface. The deposition of a secondary bilayer lipid membrane onto the primary bilayer that spans across the patterned microvoids leads to the formation of the array of ionic reservoirs within the double phospholipid bilayer. This is accomplished using giant unilamellar vesicles and by exploiting membrane electrostatics. The use of ion-channels incorporated into the secondary bilayer that covers the individual ionic reservoirs allows the construction of a 2D array of ion-channel switch based electrochemical biosensors that are able to recognize different target-agents simultaneously.

  6. Dynamics of a bilayer membrane coupled to a two-dimensional cytoskeleton: Scale transfers of membrane deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the dynamics of a floating lipid bilayer membrane coupled with a two-dimensional cytoskeleton network, taking into account explicitly the intermonolayer friction, the discrete lattice structure of the cytoskeleton, and its prestress. The lattice structure breaks lateral continuous translational symmetry and couples Fourier modes with different wave vectors. It is shown that within a short time interval a long-wavelength deformation excites a collection of modes with wavelengths shorter than the lattice spacing. These modes relax slowly with a common renormalized rate originating from the long-wavelength mode. As a result, and because of the prestress, the slowest relaxation is governed by the intermonolayer friction. Conversely, and most interestingly, forces applied at the scale of the cytoskeleton for a sufficiently long time can cooperatively excite large-scale modes.

  7. Membrane fluidity and the surface properties of the lipid bilayer: ESR experiment and computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Man, Dariusz; Olchawa, Ryszard; Kubica, Krystian

    2010-09-01

    Penetration of the liposome membranes formed in the gel phase from DPPC (DPPC liposomes) and in the liquid-crystalline phase from egg yolk lecithin (EYL liposomes) by the TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) and 16 DOXYL (2-ethyl-2-(15-methoxy-oxopentadecyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxy) spin probes has been investigated. The penetration process was followed by 120 hours at 24(0)C, using the electron spin resonance (ESR) method. The investigation of the kinetics of the TEMPO probe building into the membranes of both types of liposomes revealed differences appearing 30 minutes after the start of the experiment. The number of TEMPO particles built into the EYL liposome membranes began to clearly rise, aiming asymptotically to a constant value after about 100 minutes, whereas the number of the TEMPO particles built into the DPPC liposome membranes was almost constant in time. The interpretation of the obtained experimental results was enriched with those of computer simulation, following the behavior of the polar heads (dipoles) of the lipid particles forming a lipid layer due to the change in the value of the model parameter, k, determining the mobility of the dipoles. The possibility of the formation of an irregular ordering of the polar part of lipid membranes was proved, which leads to the appearance of spaces filled with of water for k > 0.4. The appearance of these defects enables the penetration of the bilayer by the TEMPO particles. The limited mobility of lipid polar heads (k < 0.2) prevents the appearance of such areas facilitating the penetration of the lipid membrane by alien particles in the gel phase.

  8. Thermodynamic free energy methods to investigate shape transitions in bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Tourdot, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    The conformational free energy landscape of a system is a fundamental thermodynamic quantity of importance particularly in the study of soft matter and biological systems, in which the entropic contributions play a dominant role. While computational methods to delineate the free energy landscape are routinely used to analyze the relative stability of conformational states, to determine phase boundaries, and to compute ligand-receptor binding energies its use in problems involving the cell membrane is limited. Here, we present an overview of four different free energy methods to study morphological transitions in bilayer membranes, induced either by the action of curvature remodeling proteins or due to the application of external forces. Using a triangulated surface as a model for the cell membrane and using the framework of dynamical triangulation Monte Carlo, we have focused on the methods of Widom insertion, thermodynamic integration, Bennett acceptance scheme, and umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis. We have demonstrated how these methods can be employed in a variety of problems involving the cell membrane. Specifically, we have shown that the chemical potential, computed using Widom insertion, and the relative free energies, computed using thermodynamic integration and Bennett acceptance method, are excellent measures to study the transition from curvature sensing to curvature inducing behavior of membrane associated proteins. The umbrella sampling and WHAM analysis has been used to study the thermodynamics of tether formation in cell membranes and the quantitative predictions of the computational model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, we also present a method based on WHAM and thermodynamic integration to handle problems related to end-point-catastrophe that are common in most free energy methods. PMID:27616867

  9. Thermodynamic free energy methods to investigate shape transitions in bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, N; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    The conformational free energy landscape of a system is a fundamental thermodynamic quantity of importance particularly in the study of soft matter and biological systems, in which the entropic contributions play a dominant role. While computational methods to delineate the free energy landscape are routinely used to analyze the relative stability of conformational states, to determine phase boundaries, and to compute ligand-receptor binding energies its use in problems involving the cell membrane is limited. Here, we present an overview of four different free energy methods to study morphological transitions in bilayer membranes, induced either by the action of curvature remodeling proteins or due to the application of external forces. Using a triangulated surface as a model for the cell membrane and using the framework of dynamical triangulation Monte Carlo, we have focused on the methods of Widom insertion, thermodynamic integration, Bennett acceptance scheme, and umbrella sampling and weighted histogram analysis. We have demonstrated how these methods can be employed in a variety of problems involving the cell membrane. Specifically, we have shown that the chemical potential, computed using Widom insertion, and the relative free energies, computed using thermodynamic integration and Bennett acceptance method, are excellent measures to study the transition from curvature sensing to curvature inducing behavior of membrane associated proteins. The umbrella sampling and WHAM analysis has been used to study the thermodynamics of tether formation in cell membranes and the quantitative predictions of the computational model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, we also present a method based on WHAM and thermodynamic integration to handle problems related to end-point-catastrophe that are common in most free energy methods.

  10. [The action of week inorganic acids and lower carboxylic acids on the conductivity of bilayer lipid membranes].

    PubMed

    Kilivnik, K E; Khmarskaia, L A; Ksenzhek, O S

    2009-01-01

    The ability of weak inorganic acids (H2S, HCN) and lower carboxylic acids to interact with bilayer lipid membranes, change their conductivity, and act as protonophores has been investigated. The mechanism of changes in BLM conductivity was studied. Factors influencing the interaction of acids with model lipid membranes were determined. Maximum changes in conductivity were observed at pH values equal to the dissociation constants of weak acids and depend on the coefficients of distribution "octanol-water".

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Folding and Insertion of the Ebola Virus Fusion Peptide into a Membrane Bilayer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    constitute the family Filoviridae. The most pathogenic strain ( Zaire ) of Ebola virus causes a severe form of hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman...in the membrane-fusion process. Very recently, a NMR structure was reported of a 16-residue Zaire Ebola virus fusion peptide (Ebo-16) of GP2 [1...Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Folding and Insertion of the Ebola Virus Fusion Peptide into a Membrane Bilayer Mark A. Olson1, In

  12. Tubular lipid membranes pulled from vesicles: Dependence of system equilibrium on lipid bilayer curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golushko, I. Yu.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Conditions of joint equilibrium and stability are derived for a spherical lipid vesicle and a tubular lipid membrane (TLM) pulled from this vesicle. The obtained equations establish relationships between the geometric and physical characteristics of the system and the external parameters, which have been found to be controllable in recent experiments. In particular, the proposed theory shows that, in addition to the pressure difference between internal and external regions of the system, the variable spontaneous average curvature of the lipid bilayer (forming the TLM) also influences the stability of the lipid tube. The conditions for stability of the cylindrical phase of TLMs after switching off the external force that initially formed the TLM from a vesicle are discussed. The loss of system stability under the action of a small axial force compressing the TLM is considered.

  13. Bax and Bif-1 proteins interact on Bilayer Lipid Membrane and form pore.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Ghosh, Subhendu

    2015-08-07

    Bax and Bax interacting factor-1(Bif-1) are cytosolic proteins, which translocate towards mitochondria during mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Bif-1 has been identified to co-immunoprecipitate with Bax in apoptotic cells. We have studied the interaction of Bax and Bif-1 on Bilayer Lipid Membrane (BLM) through electrophysiological experiments. It has been observed that Bax-Bif-1 equimolar mixture can form a pore. The pore conductance is in the range of 4.96-5.41 nS. It also displays a sub-state with a conductance of 2.6 nS. No pore activity is observed on BLM when monomeric Bax and Bif-1 proteins are tested independently. The above-mentioned pore forming activity could be relevant in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of the hybrid bilayer membrane method for immobilization of avidin on quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Mun, Saem; Choi, Suk-Jung

    2009-04-15

    Hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM), comprising a lipid monolayer fused to a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer (SAM), has a potential capability to provide a convenient tool for the preparation of functionalized sensor surfaces. In this work, the HBM approach was optimized for the preparation of avidin-containing quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor chip which would be available for immobilization of biotinylated molecules. Lipid layer of HBM was composed of background lipid such as egg phosphatidyl choline and biotinylated lipid to which avidin was attached. Highest performance was obtained at 1:1 ratio of the biotinylated lipid and the background lipid, and sensitivity and stability of the resulting sensor chip was comparable to a sensor chip prepared by the conventional carbodiimide reaction. By utilizing the HBM method, construction of a stable avidin sensor chip was achieved within 40 min without any chemical steps. Thus the HBM method was proven to be a convenient and efficient way to immobilize avidin on sensor surfaces.

  15. Tubular lipid membranes pulled from vesicles: Dependence of system equilibrium on lipid bilayer curvature

    SciTech Connect

    Golushko, I. Yu. Rochal, S. B.

    2016-01-15

    Conditions of joint equilibrium and stability are derived for a spherical lipid vesicle and a tubular lipid membrane (TLM) pulled from this vesicle. The obtained equations establish relationships between the geometric and physical characteristics of the system and the external parameters, which have been found to be controllable in recent experiments. In particular, the proposed theory shows that, in addition to the pressure difference between internal and external regions of the system, the variable spontaneous average curvature of the lipid bilayer (forming the TLM) also influences the stability of the lipid tube. The conditions for stability of the cylindrical phase of TLMs after switching off the external force that initially formed the TLM from a vesicle are discussed. The loss of system stability under the action of a small axial force compressing the TLM is considered.

  16. Bilayer Membrane Modulation of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Structure and Proteolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cerofolini, Linda; Amar, Sabrina; Lauer, Janelle L.; Martelli, Tommaso; Fragai, Marco; Luchinat, Claudio; Fields, Gregg B.

    2016-01-01

    Cell surface proteolysis is an integral yet poorly understood physiological process. The present study has examined how the pericellular collagenase membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) and membrane-mimicking environments interplay in substrate binding and processing. NMR derived structural models indicate that MT1-MMP transiently associates with bicelles and cells through distinct residues in blades III and IV of its hemopexin-like domain, while binding of collagen-like triple-helices occurs within blades I and II of this domain. Examination of simultaneous membrane interaction and triple-helix binding revealed a possible regulation of proteolysis due to steric effects of the membrane. At bicelle concentrations of 1%, enzymatic activity towards triple-helices was increased 1.5-fold. A single mutation in the putative membrane interaction region of MT1-MMP (Ser466Pro) resulted in lower enzyme activation by bicelles. An initial structural framework has thus been developed to define the role(s) of cell membranes in modulating proteolysis. PMID:27405411

  17. Biodegradable, Tethered Lipid Bilayer-Microsphere Systems with Membrane-Integrated α-Helical Peptide Anchors.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eric S; Luchan, Joshua; Gilchrist, M Lane

    2016-04-12

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are ideally suited for the study of biomembrane-biomembrane interactions and for the biomimicry of cell-to-cell communication, allowing for surface ligand displays that contain laterally mobile elements. However, the SLB paradigm does not include three-dimensionality and biocompatibility. As a way to bypass these limitations, we have developed a biodegradable form of microsphere SLBs, also known as proteolipobeads (PLBs), using PLGA microspheres. Microspheres were synthesized using solvent evaporation and size selected with fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Biomembranes were covalently tethered upon fusion to microsphere supports via short-chain PEG spacers connecting membrane-integrated α-helical peptides and the microsphere surface, affecting membrane diffusivity and mobility as indicated by confocal FRAP analysis. Membrane heterogeneities, which are attributed to PLGA hydrophobicity and rough surface topography, are curtailed by the addition of PEG tethers. This method allows for the presentation of tethered, laterally mobile biomembranes in three dimensions with functionally embedded attachment peptides for mobile ligand displays.

  18. Characterisation of channels induced in planar bilayer membranes by detergent solubilised Escherichia coli porins.

    PubMed

    Lakey, J H; Watts, J P; Lea, E J

    1985-07-25

    Purified OmpF, OmpC, NmpC, PhoE and Lc (Protein 2) porins from the Escherichia coli outer membrane were incorporated into planar phospholipid bilayer membranes and the permeability properties of the pores studied. Triton X-100 solubilised porin samples showed large and reproducible increases in membrane conductivity composed of discreet single-channel events. The magnitude of the cation selectivity found for the porins was in the order OmpC greater than OmpF greater than NmpC = Lc; PhoE was anion selective. For the cation selective porins the cation/anion permeability ratios in a variety of solutes ranged from 6 to 35. Further information on the internal structure of the porins was obtained by examination of the single-channel conductance and this was used to interpret macroscopic observations and to estimate single-channel diameters. The same porins solubilised in SDS exhibited slight conductance increase with no observable single-channel activity. Use of on-line microcomputer techniques confirmed the ohmic current vs. voltage behaviour for all the single porin channels examined.

  19. Effects of interleaflet coupling on the morphologies of multicomponent lipid bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funkhouser, Chloe M.; Mayer, Michael; Solis, Francisco J.; Thornton, K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate dynamical and stationary compositional and surface morphologies in macroscopically phase-separating multicomponent lipid bilayer membranes using a computational model. We employ a phase-field method for the description of the coexisting phases and treat the two leaflets individually while including interleaflet interactions. The compositional evolution of the two leaflets is coupled to the shape evolution of the membrane via a Helfrich free energy with a composition-dependent spontaneous curvature. We investigate the effects of the interleaflet interaction on the dynamics and stationary states of a system favoring nonzero spontaneous curvatures. Morphological phase diagrams are mapped in composition space using three different interleaflet coupling strengths. We find that characteristics sensitive to the coupling strength include the time required to develop regions of fully separated phases, the prevalence of a stripe morphology, and the shifting of phase compositions to accommodate energetically favorable interactions across leaflets. Characteristics found to be robust with respect to coupling strength include (1) the stripe morphology is favored at nearly equal mixtures and (2) phase separation is prevented in systems where a pair of phases that preferentially interact across leaflets together occupy nearly all or none of the membrane.

  20. Bovine F1Fo ATP synthase monomers bend the lipid bilayer in 2D membrane crystals

    PubMed Central

    Jiko, Chimari; Davies, Karen M; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Mills, Deryck J; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Gerle, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    We have used a combination of electron cryo-tomography, subtomogram averaging, and electron crystallographic image processing to analyse the structure of intact bovine F1Fo ATP synthase in 2D membrane crystals. ATPase assays and mass spectrometry analysis of the 2D crystals confirmed that the enzyme complex was complete and active. The structure of the matrix-exposed region was determined at 24 Å resolution by subtomogram averaging and repositioned into the tomographic volume to reveal the crystal packing. F1Fo ATP synthase complexes are inclined by 16° relative to the crystal plane, resulting in a zigzag topology of the membrane and indicating that monomeric bovine heart F1Fo ATP synthase by itself is sufficient to deform lipid bilayers. This local membrane curvature is likely to be instrumental in the formation of ATP synthase dimers and dimer rows, and thus for the shaping of mitochondrial cristae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06119.001 PMID:25815585

  1. Molecular Insight into the Line Tension of Bilayer Membranes Containing Hybrid Polyunsaturated Lipids.

    PubMed

    Rosetti, Carla M; Montich, Guillermo G; Pastorino, Claudio

    2017-02-23

    Line tension (γ) is a key parameter for the structure and dynamics of membrane domains. It was proposed that hybrid lipids, with mixed saturated and unsaturated acyl chains, participate in the relaxation of γ through different mechanisms. In this work, we used molecular dynamics simulations of the coarse-grained MARTINI model to measure γ in liquid-ordered-liquid-disordered (Lo-Ld) membranes, with increasingly larger relative proportion of the hybrid polyunsaturated lipid PAPC (4:0-5:4PC) to DAPC (di5:4PC) (i.e., XH). We also calculated an elastic contribution to γ by the Lo-Ld thickness mismatch, tilt moduli, and bending moduli, as predicted by theory. We found that an increase in XH decreased the overall γ value and the elastic contribution to line tension. The effect on the elastic line tension is driven by a reduced hydrophobic mismatch. Changes in the elastic constants of the phases due to an increase in XH produced a slightly larger elastic γ term. In addition to this elastic energy, other major contributions to γ are found in these model membranes. Increasing XH decreases both elastic and nonelastic contributions to γ. Finally, PAPC also behaves as a linactant, relaxing γ through an interfacial effect, as predicted by theoretical results. This study gives insight into the actual contribution of distinct energy terms to γ in bilayers containing polyunsaturated hybrid lipids.

  2. Permeabilisation and solubilisation of soybean phosphatidylcholine bilayer vesicles, as membrane models, by polysorbate, Tween 80.

    PubMed

    Simões, S I; Tapadas, J M; Marques, C M; Cruz, M E M; Martins, M B F; Cevc, G

    2005-11-01

    To understand better the wide-spread pharmaceutical use of non-ionic surfactant Tween 80 (TW), the colloidal properties of the surfactant alone and in combinations with the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine (PC), were studied. Static and dynamic light scattering revealed that TW solubilises PC at TW/PC approximately 2.75/1 mol/mol and that TW micelle disintegration occurs on time-scale of 2.5 min, independent of amphipath concentration. This is up to nearly 300-times faster than the TW caused dissolution of PC containing unilamellar vesicles. The apparent dissolution time of TW/PC mixed aggregates, in contrast, decelerates from >700 min to <5 min upon increasing starting total amphipath concentration, with thermal activation energy > or =24 (< or =80) kJ mol(-1). The aggregate dissolution rate in highly concentrated TW/PC suspensions reflects the dissolved polysorbate-aggregate exchange rate (approximately 6.7 x 10(-3)s(-1)) rather than TW flip-flop rate across a bilayer (>0.2 min(-1)). PC solubilisation proceeds linearly with the square-root of time, and is kinetically governed by the speed of surfactant diffusion through the bulk (D approximately 2.8 x 10(-11)m2 s(-1)). Creation of small Tween-phosphatidylcholine mixed micelles is typically preceded by pre-solubilisation structures, first in the form of deformable, strongly fluctuating, bilayer vesicles and then of elongated, presumably thread-like, mixed micelles. TW/PC mixed micelles become smaller with growing surfactant/lipid molar ratio, whereas TW/PC mixed vesicles become more and more leaky with increasing surfactant concentration. Our results highlight the molecular and kinetic aspects of polysorbate-membrane interactions and provide a rationale for the popularity of Tween surfactants in pharmaceutical products: such surfactants can solubilise fatty molecules and bilayer membranes but need quite a long time for this, which is available in pharmaceutical preparations but normally not in vivo; this

  3. Dissipative dynamics of fluid lipid membranes enriched in cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Arriaga, Laura R; Rodríguez-García, Ruddi; Moleiro, Lara H; Prévost, Sylvain; López-Montero, Iván; Hellweg, Thomas; Monroy, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    Cholesterol is an intriguing component of fluid lipid membranes: It makes them stiffer but also more fluid. Despite the enormous biological significance of this complex dynamical behavior, which blends aspects of membrane elasticity with viscous friction, their mechanical bases remain however poorly understood. Here, we show that the incorporation of physiologically relevant contents of cholesterol in model fluid membranes produces a fourfold increase in the membrane bending modulus. However, the increase in the compression rigidity that we measure is only twofold; this indicates that cholesterol increases coupling between the two membrane leaflets. In addition, we show that although cholesterol makes each membrane leaflet more fluid, it increases the friction between the membrane leaflets. This dissipative dynamics causes opposite but advantageous effects over different membrane motions: It allows the membrane to rearrange quickly in the lateral dimension, and to simultaneously dissipate out-of-plane stresses through friction between the two membrane leaflets. Moreover, our results provide a clear correlation between coupling and friction of membrane leaflets. Furthermore, we show that these rigid membranes are optimal to resist slow deformations with minimum energy dissipation; their optimized stability might be exploited to design soft technological microsystems with an encoded mechanics, vesicles or capsules for instance, useful beyond classical applications as model biophysical systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Probing the Huntingtin 1-17 membrane anchor on a phospholipid bilayer by using all-atom simulations.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sébastien; Binette, Vincent; Salnikov, Evgeniy S; Bechinger, Burkhard; Mousseau, Normand

    2015-03-10

    Mislocalization and aggregation of the huntingtin protein are related to Huntington's disease. Its first exon-more specifically the first 17 amino acids (Htt17)-is crucial for the physiological and pathological functions of huntingtin. It regulates huntingtin's activity through posttranslational modifications and serves as an anchor to membrane-containing organelles of the cell. Recently, structure and orientation of the Htt17 membrane anchor were determined using a combined solution and solid-state NMR approach. This prompted us to refine this model by investigating the dynamics and thermodynamics of this membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer using all-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics and Hamiltonian replica exchange. Our simulations are combined with various experimental measurements to generate a high-resolution atomistic model for the huntingtin Htt17 membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer. More precisely, we observe that the single α-helix structure is more stable in the phospholipid membrane than the NMR model obtained in the presence of dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles. The resulting Htt17 monomer has its hydrophobic plane oriented parallel to the bilayer surface. Our results further unveil the key residues interacting with the membrane in terms of hydrogen bonds, salt-bridges, and nonpolar contributions. We also observe that Htt17 equilibrates at a well-defined insertion depth and that it perturbs the physical properties-order parameter, thickness, and area per lipid-of the bilayer in a manner that could favor its dimerization. Overall, our observations reinforce and refine the NMR measurements on the Htt17 membrane anchor segment of huntingtin that is of fundamental importance to its biological functions.

  5. Probing the Huntingtin 1-17 Membrane Anchor on a Phospholipid Bilayer by Using All-Atom Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Sébastien; Binette, Vincent; Salnikov, Evgeniy S.; Bechinger, Burkhard; Mousseau, Normand

    2015-01-01

    Mislocalization and aggregation of the huntingtin protein are related to Huntington’s disease. Its first exon—more specifically the first 17 amino acids (Htt17)—is crucial for the physiological and pathological functions of huntingtin. It regulates huntingtin’s activity through posttranslational modifications and serves as an anchor to membrane-containing organelles of the cell. Recently, structure and orientation of the Htt17 membrane anchor were determined using a combined solution and solid-state NMR approach. This prompted us to refine this model by investigating the dynamics and thermodynamics of this membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer using all-atom, explicit solvent molecular dynamics and Hamiltonian replica exchange. Our simulations are combined with various experimental measurements to generate a high-resolution atomistic model for the huntingtin Htt17 membrane anchor on a POPC bilayer. More precisely, we observe that the single α-helix structure is more stable in the phospholipid membrane than the NMR model obtained in the presence of dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles. The resulting Htt17 monomer has its hydrophobic plane oriented parallel to the bilayer surface. Our results further unveil the key residues interacting with the membrane in terms of hydrogen bonds, salt-bridges, and nonpolar contributions. We also observe that Htt17 equilibrates at a well-defined insertion depth and that it perturbs the physical properties—order parameter, thickness, and area per lipid—of the bilayer in a manner that could favor its dimerization. Overall, our observations reinforce and refine the NMR measurements on the Htt17 membrane anchor segment of huntingtin that is of fundamental importance to its biological functions. PMID:25762330

  6. Triglyceride Blisters in Lipid Bilayers: Implications for Lipid Droplet Biogenesis and the Mobile Lipid Signal in Cancer Cell Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Khandelia, Himanshu; Duelund, Lars; Pakkanen, Kirsi I.; Ipsen, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Triglycerides have a limited solubility, around 3%, in phosphatidylcholine lipid bilayers. Using millisecond-scale course grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the model lipid bilayer can accommodate a higher concentration of triolein (TO) than earlier anticipated, by sequestering triolein molecules to the bilayer center in the form of a disordered, isotropic, mobile neutral lipid aggregate, at least 17 nm in diameter, which forms spontaneously, and remains stable on at least the microsecond time scale. The results give credence to the hotly debated existence of mobile neutral lipid aggregates of unknown function present in malignant cells, and to the early biogenesis of lipid droplets accommodated between the two leaflets of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The TO aggregates give the bilayer a blister-like appearance, and will hinder the formation of multi-lamellar phases in model, and possibly living membranes. The blisters will result in anomalous membrane probe partitioning, which should be accounted for in the interpretation of probe-related measurements. PMID:20877640

  7. Organic fluid permeation through fluoropolymer membranes

    DOEpatents

    Nemser, Stuart M.; Kosaraju, Praveen; Bowser, John

    2015-07-14

    Separation of the components of liquid mixtures is achieved by contacting a liquid mixture with a nonporous membrane having a fluoropolymer selectively permeable layer and imposing a pressure gradient across the membrane from feed side to permeate side. Unusually high transmembrane flux is obtained when the membrane is subjected to one or more process conditions prior to separation. These include (a) leaving some residual amount of membrane casting solvent in the membrane, and (b) contacting the membrane with a component of the mixture to be separated for a duration effective to saturate the membrane with the component.

  8. Solubilization of Membrane Proteins into Functional Lipid‐Bilayer Nanodiscs Using a Diisobutylene/Maleic Acid Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Oluwole, Abraham Olusegun; Danielczak, Bartholomäus; Meister, Annette; Babalola, Jonathan Oyebamiji; Vargas, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Once removed from their natural environment, membrane proteins depend on membrane‐mimetic systems to retain their native structures and functions. To this end, lipid‐bilayer nanodiscs that are bounded by scaffold proteins or amphiphilic polymers such as styrene/maleic acid (SMA) copolymers have been introduced as alternatives to detergent micelles and liposomes for in vitro membrane‐protein research. Herein, we show that an alternating diisobutylene/maleic acid (DIBMA) copolymer shows equal performance to SMA in solubilizing phospholipids, stabilizes an integral membrane enzyme in functional bilayer nanodiscs, and extracts proteins of various sizes directly from cellular membranes. Unlike aromatic SMA, aliphatic DIBMA has only a mild effect on lipid acyl‐chain order, does not interfere with optical spectroscopy in the far‐UV range, and does not precipitate in the presence of low millimolar concentrations of divalent cations. PMID:28079955

  9. On the freezing behavior and diffusion of water in proximity to single-supported zwitterionic and anionic bilayer lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miskowiec, A.; Buck, Z. N.; Brown, M. C.; Kaiser, H.; Hansen, F. Y.; King, G. M.; Taub, H.; Jiji, R.; Cooley, J. W.; Tyagi, M.; Diallo, S. O.; Mamontov, E.; Herwig, K. W.

    2014-07-01

    We compare the freezing/melting behavior of water hydrating single-supported bilayers of a zwitterionic lipid DMPC with that of an anionic lipid DMPG. For both membranes, the temperature dependence of the elastically scattered neutron intensity indicates distinct water types undergoing translational diffusion: bulk-like water probably located above the membrane and two types of confined water closer to the lipid head groups. The membranes differ in the greater width \\Delta T of the water freezing transition near the anionic DMPG bilayer (\\Delta T \\sim 70\\ \\text{K}) compared to zwitterionic DMPC (\\Delta T \\sim 20\\ \\text{K}) as well as in the abruptness of the freezing/melting transitions of the bulk-like water.

  10. Drug binding and mobility relating to the thermal fluctuation in fluid lipid membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Emiko; Yoshii, Noriyuki

    2008-12-01

    Drug binding and mobility in fluid lipid bilayer membranes are quantified in situ by using the multinuclear solution NMR combined with the pulsed-field-gradient technique. One-dimensional and pulsed-field-gradient F19 and H1 NMR signals of an anticancer drug, 5-fluorouracil (5FU) are analyzed at 283-313 K in the presence of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) as model cell membranes. The simultaneous observation of the membrane-bound and free 5FU signals enables to quantify in what amount of 5FU is bound to the membrane and how fast 5FU is moving within the membrane in relation to the thermal fluctuation of the soft, fluid environment. It is shown that the mobility of membrane-bound 5FU is slowed down by almost two orders of magnitude and similar to the lipid movement in the membrane, the movement closely related to the intramembrane fluidity. The mobility of 5FU and EPC is, however, not similar at 313 K; the 5FU movement is enhanced in the membrane as a result of the loose binding of 5FU in the lipid matrices. The membrane-bound fraction of 5FU is ˜0.1 and almost unaltered over the temperature range examined. It is also independent of the 5FU concentration from 2 to 30 mM with respect to the 40-50 mM LUV. The free energy of the 5FU binding is estimated at -4 to -2 kJ/mol, the magnitude always close to the thermal fluctuation, 2.4-2.6 kJ/mol.

  11. Evidence for Leaflet-Dependent Redistribution of Charged Molecules in Fluid Supported Phospholipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Shreve, Andrew P.; Howland, Michael C.; Sapuri-Butti, Annapoorna R.; Allen, Toby W.; Parikh, Atul N.

    2009-01-01

    The asymmetric distribution of charged molecules between the leaflets of solid-substrate-supported phospholipid bilayers is studied using imaging ellipsometry, fluorescence microscopy, and numerical solutions of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Experiments are facilitated by the use of patterned substrates that allow for side-by-side comparison of lipid monolayers and supported bilayers. On silica surfaces, negatively charged lipid components are shown to be enriched in the outer leaflet of a supported bilayer system at modest salt concentrations. The approaches developed provide a general means for determining asymmetries of charged components in supported lipid bilayers. PMID:19007257

  12. Lipid Bilayers in the Gel Phase Become Saturated by Triton X-100 at Lower Surfactant Concentrations Than Those in the Fluid Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Collado, M. Isabel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Felix M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been repeatedly observed that lipid bilayers in the gel phase are solubilized by lower concentrations of Triton X-100, at least within certain temperature ranges, or other nonionic detergents than bilayers in the fluid phase. In a previous study, we showed that detergent partition coefficients into the lipid bilayer were the same for the gel and the fluid phases. In this contribution, turbidity, calorimetry, and 31P-NMR concur in showing that bilayers in the gel state (at least down to 13–20°C below the gel-fluid transition temperature) become saturated with detergent at lower detergent concentrations than those in the fluid state, irrespective of temperature. The different saturation may explain the observed differences in solubilization. PMID:22713566

  13. Order Parameters of a Transmembrane Helix in a Fluid Bilayer: Case Study of a WALP Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrea; Rougier, Léa; Réat, Valérie; Jolibois, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Killian, J. Antoinette; Milon, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies and 13C-15N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides (2H, 13C, and 15N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21° was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5° previously determined from 2H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied to any transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error. PMID:20441750

  14. Microparticles as biomarkers of lung disease: enumeration in biological fluids using lipid bilayer microspheres.

    PubMed

    McVey, Mark J; Spring, Christopher M; Semple, John W; Maishan, Mazharul; Kuebler, Wolfgang M

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles, specifically microparticles (MPs), are rapidly gaining attention for their capacity to act as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, or responsiveness to therapy in lung disease, in keeping with the concept of precision medicine. However, MP analysis by high-sensitivity flow cytometry (FCM) is complicated by a lack of accurate means for MP enumeration. To address this gap, we report here an enhanced FCM MP gating and enumeration technique based on the use of novel engineered lipid bilayer microspheres (LBMs). By comparison of LBM-based MP enumeration with conventional bead- or fluorescent-based FCM enumeration techniques and a gravimetric consumption gold standard, we found LBMs to be superior to commercial bead preparations, showing the smallest fixed bias and limits of agreement in Bland Altman analyses. LBMs had simultaneous capacity to aid FCM enumeration of MPs in plasma, BAL, and cell culture supernatants. LBM enumeration detected differences in MP counts in mice exposed to intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide or saline. LBMs provided for 1) higher sensitivity for gating MPs populations, 2) reduced background within MP gates, 3) more appropriate size, and 4) an inexpensive alternative amenable to different fluorescent tags. LBM-based MP enumeration was useful for a series of different FCM systems assessed, whereas LBM gating benefited high- but not low-sensitivity FCM systems compared with fluorescence gating. By offering exclusive advantages over current means of gating and enumerating MPs, LBMs are uniquely suited to realizing the potential of MPs as biomarkers in biological lung fluids and facilitating precision medicine in lung disease.

  15. Modulation of folding and assembly of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin by intermolecular forces within the lipid bilayer.

    PubMed

    Curran, A R; Templer, R H; Booth, P J

    1999-07-20

    Three different lipid systems have been developed to investigate the effect of physicochemical forces within the lipid bilayer on the folding of the integral membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin. Each system consists of lipid vesicles containing two lipid species, one with phosphatidylcholine and the other with phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups, but the same hydrocarbon chains: either L-alpha-1, 2-dioleoyl, L-alpha-1,2-dipalmitoleoyl, or L-alpha-1,2-dimyristoyl. Increasing the mole fraction of the phosphatidylethanolamine lipid increases the desire of each monolayer leaflet in the bilayer to curve toward water. This increases the torque tension of such monolayers, when they are constrained to remain flat in the vesicle bilayer. Consequently, the lateral pressure in the hydrocarbon chain region increases, and we have used excimer fluorescence from pyrene-labeled phosphatidylcholine lipids to probe these pressure changes. We show that bacteriorhodopsin regenerates to about 95% yield in vesicles of 100% phosphatidylcholine. The regeneration yield decreases as the mole fraction of the corresponding phosphatidylethanolamine component is increased. The decrease in yield correlates with the increase in lateral pressure which the lipid chains exert on the refolding protein. We suggest that the increase in lipid chain pressure either hinders insertion of the denatured state of bacterioopsin into the bilayer or slows a folding step within the bilayer, to the extent that an intermediate involved in bacteriorhodopsin regeneration is effectively trapped.

  16. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    SciTech Connect

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.

    2015-06-24

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM {sup 14}N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  17. Atomic detail peptide-membrane interactions: molecular dynamics simulation of gramicidin S in a DMPC bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Mihailescu, D; Smith, J C

    2000-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed of the sequence-symmetric cyclic decapeptide antibiotic gramicidin S (GS), in interaction with a hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer, and the results compared with a "control" simulation of the system in the absence of GS. Following experimental evidence, the GS was initially set in a single antiparallel beta-sheet conformation with two Type II' beta-turns in an amphiphilic interaction with the membrane. This conformation and position remained in the 6.5 ns simulation. Main-chain dihedrals are on average approximately 26 degrees from those determined by NMR experiment on GS in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution. Sequence-symmetric main-chain and side-chain dihedral angle pairs converge to within approximately 5 degrees and approximately 10 degrees, respectively. The area per lipid, lipid tail order parameters, and quadrupole spin-lattice relaxation times of the control simulation are mostly in good agreement with corresponding experiments. The GS has little effect on the membrane dipole potential or water permeability. However, it is found to have a disordering effect (in agreement with experiment) and a fluidifying effect on lipids directly interacting with it, and an ordering effect on those not directly interacting. PMID:11023880

  18. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakumari, V.; Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Hyodo, Fuminori; Jawahar, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2015-06-01

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM 14N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  19. Exchange diffusion of dopamine induced in planar lipid bilayer membranes by the ionophore X537A

    PubMed Central

    Holz, RW

    1977-01-01

    The ionophore X537A causes a large increase in the [(14)C]dopamine (a catecholamine) permeability of planar bilayer membranes. Dopamine transport increases linearly with the ionophore concentration. At relatively high concentrations in the presence of dopamine, the ionophore omdices a conductance which is nearly ideally selective for the dopamine cation. However, the total dopamine flux as determined in tracer experiments is not affected by an electric field and is over 10(5) times larger than predicted from the estimated dopamine conductance. Increasing the dopamine concentration on the side containing radioactive dopamine (the cis side) saturates the dopamine transport. This saturation is relieved by trans addition of nonradioactive dopamine, tyramine, H(+), or K(+). With unequal concentrations of dopamine cis and trans (49 and 12.5 mM), the unidirectional dopamine fluxes are equal. Increasing H(+) cis and trans decreases dopamine transport. It is concluded that at physiological pH, the X537A-induced transport of dopamine occurs via an electrically silent exchange diffusion of dopamine cation with another cation (e.g., dopamine(+), H(+), or K(+)). X537A induces a Ca(++)-independent release of catecholamines from sympathetic nerves by interfering with intracellular storage within storage vesicles (R.W. Holz. 1975. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 375:138-152). It is suggested that X537A causes an exchange of intravesicular catecholamine with a cytoplasmic cation (perhaps K(+) or H(+)) across the storage vesicle membrane. PMID:16982

  20. Concentration Fluctuation in a Two-Component Fluid Membrane Surrounded with Three-Dimensional Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaura, Keiichiro; Fujitani, Youhei

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the relaxation rate of the critical concentration fluctuation in a two-component fluid membrane by considering hydrodynamics of the surrounding fluids. Results are compared with the previous results obtained by Seki, Komura, and Imai (2007), who treated the momentum flux from the membrane to its environments using the friction coefficient.

  1. Tethered bilayer lipid membranes studied by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Erbe, Andreas; Bushby, Richard J.; Evans, Stephen D.; Jeuken, Lars J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of tethered lipid bilayer membranes (tBLMs) from unilamelar vesicles of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EggPC) on mixed self–assembled monolayers (SAMs) from varying ratios of 6-mercaptohexanol and EO3Cholesteryl on gold has been monitored by simultaneous attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The influence of the lipid orientation (and hence the anisotropy) of lipids on a gold film on the dichroic ratio was studied by simulations of spectra with a matrix method for anisotropic layers. It is shown that for certain tilt angles of the dielectric tensor of the adsorbed anisotropic layer dispersive and negative absorption bands are possible. The experimental data indicates that the structure of the assemblies obtained varies with varying SAM composition. On SAMs with a high content of EO3Cholesteryl, tBLMs with reduced fluidity are formed. For SAMs with high content of 6-mercaptohexanol, the results are consistent with the adsorption of flattened vesicles, while spherical vesicles have been found in a small range of surface compositions. The kinetics of the adsorption process is consistent with the assumption of spherical vesicles as long–living intermediates for surfaces of high 6-mercaptohexanol content. No long–living spherical vesicles have been detected for surfaces with large fraction of EO3Cholesteryl tethers. The observed differences between the surfaces suggest that for the formation of tBLMs (unlike supported BLMs) no critical surface coverage of vesicles is needed prior to lipid bilayer formation. PMID:17388505

  2. Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738

  3. Compression-triggered instabilities of multi-layer systems: From thin elastic membranes to lipid bilayers on flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Howard A.

    2013-03-01

    Instabilities are triggered when elastic materials are subjected to compression. We explore new features of two distinct systems of this type. First, we describe a two-layer polymeric system under biaxial compressive stress, which exhibits a repetitive wrinkle-to-fold transition that subsequently generates a hierarchical network of folds during reorganization of the stress field. The folds delineate individual domains, and each domain subdivides into smaller ones over multiple generations. By modifying the boundary conditions and geometry, we demonstrate control over the final network morphology. Some analogies to the venation pattern of leaves are indicated. Second, motivated by the confined configurations common to cells, which are wrapped in lipid bilayer membranes, we study a lipid bilayer, coupled to an elastic sheet, and demonstrate that, upon straining, the confined lipid membrane is able to passively regulate its area. In particular, by stretching the elastic support, the bilayer laterally expands without rupture by fusing adhered lipid vesicles; upon compression, lipid tubes grow out of the membrane plane, thus reducing its area. These transformations are reversible, as we show using cycles of expansion and compression, and closely reproduce membrane processes found in cells during area regulation. The two distinct systems illustrate the influence of the substrate on finite amplitude shape changes, for which we describe the time-dependent shape evolution as the stress relaxes. This talk describes joint research with Manouk Abkarian, Marino Arroyo, Pilnam Kim, Mohammad Rahimi and Margarita Staykova.

  4. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayer membranes in water.

    PubMed

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Walther, Jens H; Kawano, Satoyuki; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We study shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayers immersed in water using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The shear imposed by the flow of the water induces initially microscopic structural changes of the membrane, starting with tilting of the molecules in the direction of the shear. The tilting propagates in the spanwise direction when the shear rate exceeds a critical value and the membrane undergoes a bucklinglike deformation in the direction perpendicular to the shear. The bucklinglike undulation continues until a localized Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability leads to membrane rupture. We study the different modes of membrane undulation using membranes of different geometries and quantify the relative importance of the bucklinglike bending and the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability of the membrane.

  5. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayer membranes in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanasaki, Itsuo; Walther, Jens H.; Kawano, Satoyuki; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    We study shear-induced instabilities of lipid bilayers immersed in water using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The shear imposed by the flow of the water induces initially microscopic structural changes of the membrane, starting with tilting of the molecules in the direction of the shear. The tilting propagates in the spanwise direction when the shear rate exceeds a critical value and the membrane undergoes a bucklinglike deformation in the direction perpendicular to the shear. The bucklinglike undulation continues until a localized Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability leads to membrane rupture. We study the different modes of membrane undulation using membranes of different geometries and quantify the relative importance of the bucklinglike bending and the Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability of the membrane.

  6. Effect of vesicle size on the prodan fluorescence in diheptadecanoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane under atmospheric and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Goto, Masaki; Sawaguchi, Hiroshi; Tamai, Nobutake; Matsuki, Hitoshi; Kaneshina, Shoji

    2010-08-17

    The bilayer phase behavior of diheptadecanoylphosphatidylcholine (C17PC) with different vesicle sizes (large multilamellar vesicle (LMV) and giant multilamellar vesicle (GMV)) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy using a polarity-sensitive fluorescent probe Prodan under atmospheric and high pressures. The difference in phase transitions and thermodynamic quantities of the transition was hardly observed between LMV and GMV used here. On the contrary, the Prodan fluorescence in the bilayer membranes changed depending on the size of vesicles as well as on the phase states. From the second derivative of fluorescence spectra, the three-dimensional image plots in which we can see the location of Prodan in the bilayer membrane as blue valleys were constructed for LMV and GMV under atmospheric pressure. The following characteristic behavior was found: (1) the Prodan molecules in GMV can be distributed to not only adjacent glycerol backbone region, but also near bulk-water region in the lamellar gel or ripple gel phase; (2) the blue valleys of GMV became deeper than those of LMV because of the greater surface density of the Prodan molecules per unit area of GMV than LMV; (3) the liquid crystalline phase of the bilayer excludes the Prodan molecules to a more hydrophilic region at the membrane surface with an increase in vesicle size; (4) the accurate information as to the phase transitions is gradually lost with increasing vesicle size. Under the high-pressure condition, the difference in Prodan fluorescence between LMV and GMV was essentially the same as the difference under atmospheric pressure except for the existence of the pressure-induced interdigitated gel phase. Further, we found that Prodan fluorescence spectra in the interdigitated gel phase were especially affected by the size of vesicles. This study revealed that the Prodan molecules can move around the headgroup region by responding not only to the phase state but also to the vesicle size, and they

  7. Computer Simulations of Small Molecules in Membranes: Insights from Computer Simulations into the Interactions of Small Molecules with Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; New, Michael H.; Schweighofer, Karl; Wilson, Michael A.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Two of Ernest Overton's lasting contributions to biology are the Meyer-Overton relationship between the potency of an anesthetic and its solubility in oil, and the Overton rule which relates the permeability of a membrane to the oil-water partition coefficient of the permeating molecule. A growing body of experimental evidence, however, cannot be reconciled with these theories. In particular, the molecular nature of membranes, unknown to Overton, needs to be included in any description of these phenomena. Computer simulations are ideally suited for providing atomic-level information about the behavior of small molecules in membranes. The authors discuss simulation studies relevant to Overton's ideas. Through simulations it was found that anesthetics tend to concentrate at interfaces and their anesthetic potency correlates better with solubility at the water-membrane interface than with solubility in oil. Simulation studies of membrane permeation revealed the anisotropic nature of the membranes, as evidenced, for example, by the highly nonuniform distribution of free volume in the bilayer. This, in turn, influences the diffusion rates of solutes, which increase with the depth in the membrane. Small solutes tend to move by hopping between voids in the bilayer, and this hopping motion may be responsible for the deviation from the Overton rule of the permeation rates of these molecules.

  8. Investigating Sterol and Redox Regulation of the Ion Channel Activity of CLIC1 Using Tethered Bilayer Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Al Khamici, Heba; Hossain, Khondker R.; Cornell, Bruce A.; Valenzuela, Stella M.

    2016-01-01

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six conserved proteins in humans. These are a group of enigmatic proteins, which adopt both a soluble and membrane bound form. CLIC1 was found to be a metamorphic protein, where under specific environmental triggers it adopts more than one stable reversible soluble structural conformation. CLIC1 was found to spontaneously insert into cell membranes and form chloride ion channels. However, factors that control the structural transition of CLIC1 from being an aqueous soluble protein into a membrane bound protein have yet to be adequately described. Using tethered bilayer lipid membranes and electrical impedance spectroscopy system, herein we demonstrate that CLIC1 ion channel activity is dependent on the type and concentration of sterols in bilayer membranes. These findings suggest that membrane sterols play an essential role in CLIC1’s acrobatic switching from a globular soluble form to an integral membrane form, promoting greater ion channel conductance in membranes. What remains unclear is the precise nature of this regulation involving membrane sterols and ultimately determining CLIC1’s membrane structure and function as an ion channel. Furthermore, our impedance spectroscopy results obtained using CLIC1 mutants, suggest that the residue Cys24 is not essential for CLIC1’s ion channel function. However Cys24 does appear important for optimal ion channel activity. We also observe differences in conductance between CLIC1 reduced and oxidized forms when added to our tethered membranes. Therefore, we conclude that both membrane sterols and redox play a role in the ion channel activity of CLIC1. PMID:27941637

  9. Investigating Sterol and Redox Regulation of the Ion Channel Activity of CLIC1 Using Tethered Bilayer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Al Khamici, Heba; Hossain, Khondher R; Cornell, Bruce A; Valenzuela, Stella M

    2016-12-08

    The Chloride Intracellular Ion Channel (CLIC) family consists of six conserved proteins in humans. These are a group of enigmatic proteins, which adopt both a soluble and membrane bound form. CLIC1 was found to be a metamorphic protein, where under specific environmental triggers it adopts more than one stable reversible soluble structural conformation. CLIC1 was found to spontaneously insert into cell membranes and form chloride ion channels. However, factors that control the structural transition of CLIC1 from being an aqueous soluble protein into a membrane bound protein have yet to be adequately described. Using tethered bilayer lipid membranes and electrical impedance spectroscopy system, herein we demonstrate that CLIC1 ion channel activity is dependent on the type and concentration of sterols in bilayer membranes. These findings suggest that membrane sterols play an essential role in CLIC1's acrobatic switching from a globular soluble form to an integral membrane form, promoting greater ion channel conductance in membranes. What remains unclear is the precise nature of this regulation involving membrane sterols and ultimately determining CLIC1's membrane structure and function as an ion channel. Furthermore, our impedance spectroscopy results obtained using CLIC1 mutants, suggest that the residue Cys24 is not essential for CLIC1's ion channel function. However Cys24 does appear important for optimal ion channel activity. We also observe differences in conductance between CLIC1 reduced and oxidized forms when added to our tethered membranes. Therefore, we conclude that both membrane sterols and redox play a role in the ion channel activity of CLIC1.

  10. Cholesterol in Bilayers of Sphingomyelin or Dihydrosphingomyelin at Concentrations Found in Ocular Lens Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Epand, Richard M.

    2003-01-01

    Membranes of the lens of the eye of mammals have two particular characteristics, high concentrations of sphingomyelin, and dihydrosphingomyelin and cholesterol. We have studied the miscibility of cholesterol with both egg sphingomyelin and with dihydrosphingomyelin made by hydrogenation of egg sphingomyelin. At a cholesterol mol fraction of 0.5 and lower, crystallites of cholesterol are not present with either form of sphingomyelin, as observed by differential scanning calorimetry and by 13C CP/MAS NMR. However, in the range of 0.6 to 0.8 mol fraction of cholesterol increasing amounts of crystallites form, with the amount of anhydrous cholesterol crystals formed being somewhat greater with dihyrosphingomyelin compared with sphingomyelin. Interestingly, cholesterol monohydrate crystallites formed in these two phospholipids exhibit a temperature of dehydration higher than that of pure cholesterol monohydrate crystals. These cholesterol monohydrate crystals form more rapidly and in greater amounts with the unmodified form of sphingomyelin. This difference is likely a consequence of differences at the membrane interface. The chemical shift of the 13C of the carbonyl group, as measured by CP/MAS NMR, shows that there are differences between the two phospholipids in both the presence and absence of cholesterol. The bilayers with dihydrosphingomyelin are more hydrogen bonded. Cholesterol crystallites are known to be present in the lens of the eye. Our studies show that the ratio of sphingomyelin to dihydrosphingomyelin can affect the rate of formation of these cholesterol crystallites and thus play a role in the membrane of cells of the lens, affecting ocular function. PMID:12719240

  11. Lateral Diffusion of Peripheral Membrane Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers Is Controlled by the Additive Frictional Drags of 1) Bound Lipids and 2) Protein Domains Penetrating into the Bilayer Hydrocarbon Core

    PubMed Central

    Ziemba, Brian P.; Falke, Joseph J.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2-D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1 to 3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2-D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both 1) individual bound lipids and 2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2-D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the

  12. Modeling of Fluid-Membrane Interaction in Cellular Microinjection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karzar-Jeddi, Mehdi; Diaz, Jhon; Olgac, Nejat; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    2009-11-01

    Cellular microinjection is a well-accepted method to deliver matters such as sperm, nucleus, or macromolecules into biological cells. To improve the success rate of in vitro fertilization and to establish the ideal operating conditions for a novel computer controlled rotationally oscillating intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) technology, we investigate the fluid-membrane interactions in the ICSI procedure. The procedure consists of anchoring the oocyte (a developing egg) using a holding pipette, penetrating oocyte's zona pellucida (the outer membrane) and the oolemma (the plasma or inner membrane) using an injection micropipette, and finally to deliver sperm into the oocyte for fertilization. To predict the large deformation of the oocyte membranes up to the piercing of the oolemma and the motion of fluids across both membranes, the dynamic fluid-pipette-membrane interactions are formulated by the coupled Stokes' equations and the continuum membrane model based on Helfrich's energy theory. A boundary integral model is developed to simulate the transient membrane deformation and the local membrane stress induced by the longitudinal motion of the injection pipette. The model captures the essential features of the membranes shown on optical images of ICSI experiments, and is capable of suggesting the optimal deformation level of the oolemma to start the rotational oscillations for piercing into the oolemma.

  13. Gramicidin Peptides Alter Global Lipid Compositions and Bilayer Thicknesses of Coexisting Liquid-Ordered and Liquid-Disordered Membrane Domains.

    PubMed

    Hassan-Zadeh, Ebrahim; Hussain, Fazle; Huang, Juyang

    2017-04-04

    Effects of adding 1 mol % of gramicidin-A on the biochemical properties of coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered (Lo + Ld) membrane domains were investigated. Quaternary giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) of di18:1PC(DOPC)/di18:0PC(DSPC)/cholesterol/gramicidin-A were prepared using our recently developed damp-film method. The phase boundary of Lo + Ld coexisting region was determined using video fluorescence microscopy. Through fitting Nile Red fluorescence emission spectra, the thermodynamic tie-lines in the Lo + Ld two-phase region were determined. We found that at 1 mol % (i.e., ∼7% of membrane area), gramicidin peptides alter the phase boundary and thermodynamic tie-lines. Gramicidin abolishes the coexisting phases at some lipid compositions but induces phase separation at others. Previous studies of gramicidin emphasize the local perturbation of bilayer thickness adjacent to the protein through the interaction of "hydrophobic mismatch". For the first time, it becomes clear that adding gramicidin produces significant long-range and global effects on the structure of membrane domains: it alters the overall lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of coexisting Lo and Ld domains. We also found that gramicidin partitions favorably into the Ld phase. Adding gramicidin decreases cholesterol in the Ld phase and increases cholesterol in the Lo phase. Those compositional changes broaden the bilayer thickness difference between Lo and Ld domains and facilitate preferential partition of gramicidin into thinner Ld domains. Our results demonstrate that membrane proteins play significant roles in determining lipid compositions and bilayer thicknesses of biomembrane domains.

  14. Determining the pivotal plane of fluid lipid membranes in simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Deserno, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Each leaflet of a curved lipid membrane contains a surface at which the area strain vanishes, the so-called pivotal plane. Its distance z0 from the bilayer's midplane arises in numerous contexts, for instance the connection between monolayer and bilayer moduli, stress-profile moments, or area-difference elasticity theories. Here, we propose two precise methods for determining the location of the pivotal plane in computer simulations, both of which rely on monitoring the lipid imbalance across a curved bilayer. The first method considers the ratio of lipid number between the two leaflets of cylindrical or spherical vesicles; it hence requires lipid flip-flop for equilibration. The second method looks at the leaflet difference across local sections cut out from a buckled membrane; this observable equilibrates even in the absence of flip-flop. We apply our methods to two different coarse-grained lipid models, the generic three-bead solvent-free Cooke model and a ten-bead representation of dimyristoylphosphocholine with the explicit solvent MARTINI model. The Cooke model is amenable to both methods and gives results that agree at the percent level. Using it, we also show that the pivotal plane moves outward as lipid curvature becomes more positive. The MARTINI model can only be analyzed with the buckling method; the obtained value z0 = 0.850(11) nm lies about 0.4 nm inwards of the glycerol backbone and is hence unexpectedly small. We attribute this to limitations of the coarse-grained description, suggesting that the location of the pivotal plane might be a good indicator for how well lipid models capture the microscopic origins of curvature elasticity. Finally, we also show that the pivotal plane position itself moves as the membrane is bent. The leading correction is linear in curvature, dependent on the Poisson ratio, and can matter when analyzing experimental results obtained from highly curved inverse hexagonal phases.

  15. Micromanipulation of adhesion of a Jurkat cell to a planar bilayer membrane containing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 molecules

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays a fundamental role in the organization of cells in differentiated organs, cell motility, and immune response. A novel micromanipulation method is employed to quantify the direct contribution of surface adhesion receptors to the physical strength of cell adhesion. In this technique, a cell is brought into contact with a glass-supported planar membrane reconstituted with a known concentration of a given type of adhesion molecules. After a period of incubation (5-10 min), the cell is detached from the planar bilayer by pulling away the pipette holding the cell in the direction perpendicular to the glass-supported planar bilayer. In particular, we investigated the adhesion between a Jurkat cell expressing CD2 and a glass-supported planar bilayer containing either the glycosyl- phosphatidylinositol (GPI) or the transmembrane (TM) isoform of the counter-receptor lymphocyte function-associated antigen 3 (LFA-3) at a concentration of 1,000 molecules/microns 2. In response to the pipette force the Jurkat cells that adhered to the planar bilayer containing the GPI isoform of LFA-3 underwent extensive elongation. When the contact radius was reduced by approximately 50%, the cell then detached quickly from its substrate. The aspiration pressure required to detach a Jurkat cell from its substrate was comparable to that required to detach a cytotoxic T cell from its target cell. Jurkat cells that had been separated from the substrate again adhered strongly to the planar bilayer when brought to proximity by micromanipulation. In experiments using the planar bilayer containing the TM isoform of LFA-3, Jurkat cells detached with little resistance to micromanipulation and without changing their round shape. PMID:1370839

  16. [An NMR study of the temperature dependence of the coefficient of water self-diffusion through lipid bilayer membranes].

    PubMed

    Khakimova, A M; Rudakova, M A; Doroginitskiĭ, M M; Filippov, A V

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the coefficient of water self-diffusion through plane-parallel lipid multilayers of the phospholipid dioleoylphosphatidylcholine oriented on a glass support has been studied in the temperature range of 20-60 degrees C by the method of NMR with magnetic field pulse gradient. The values of the coefficients of transbilayer water diffusion are by four orders of magnitude less than for bulky water and ten times less than the coefficients of lateral diffusion of the lipid under the same conditions. The temperature dependence of the coefficient of water diffusion is described by the Arrhenius law with an apparent activation energy of about 41 kJ/mol, which far exceeds the activation energy for the diffusion of bulky water (18 kJ/mol). The experimental data were analyzed using a "dissolving-diffusion" model, by simulating the passage of water through membrane channels, and by analyzing the exchange of water molecules in states with different modes of translation mobility, including pore channels and bilayer "defects". Each of the approaches used made it possible to take the significance of bilayer permeability for the apparent energy of activation of water diffusion into account and estimate the energies of activation of water diffusion in the hydrophobic moiety of the bilayer, which were found to be close to the values for bulky water. The coefficients of water diffusion in the system under examination and the coefficients of permeation of water through the bilayer were estimated, and the effect of bilayer "defects" on the coefficients of water diffusion along and across bilayers was studied.

  17. Fluid Mosaic Membranes and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the fluid mosaic membrane structure and light reactions of photosynthesis as exemplified by the Hill and Bendall "Z-scheme"; (2) the arrangement of light-harvesting pigments, electron transport components, and ATP synthesis on chloroplast membranes; and (3) how these topics are treated in A-level textbooks. (JN)

  18. Fluid Mosaic Membranes and the Light Reactions of Photosynthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannay, Jack

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the fluid mosaic membrane structure and light reactions of photosynthesis as exemplified by the Hill and Bendall "Z-scheme"; (2) the arrangement of light-harvesting pigments, electron transport components, and ATP synthesis on chloroplast membranes; and (3) how these topics are treated in A-level textbooks. (JN)

  19. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Model Trans-Membrane Peptides in Lipid Bilayers: A Systematic Investigation of Hydrophobic Mismatch

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Senthil K.; Larson, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch, which is the difference between the hydrophobic length of trans-membrane segments of a protein and the hydrophobic width of the surrounding lipid bilayer, is known to play a role in membrane protein function. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of trans-membrane KALP peptides (sequence: GKK(LA)nLKKA) in phospholipid bilayers to investigate hydrophobic mismatch alleviation mechanisms. By varying systematically the length of the peptide (KALP15, KALP19, KALP23, KALP27, and KALP31) and the lipid hydrophobic length (DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC), a wide range of mismatch conditions were studied. Simulations of durations of 50–200 ns show that under positive mismatch, the system alleviates the mismatch predominantly by tilting the peptide and to a smaller extent by increased lipid ordering in the immediate vicinity of the peptide. Under negative mismatch, alleviation takes place by a combination of local bilayer bending and the snorkeling of the lysine residues of the peptide. Simulations performed at a higher peptide/lipid molar ratio (1:25) reveal slower dynamics of both the peptide and lipid relative to those at a lower peptide/lipid ratio (1:128). The lysine residues have favorable interactions with specific oxygen atoms of the phospholipid headgroups, indicating the preferred localization of these residues at the lipid/water interface. PMID:16428278

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of model trans-membrane peptides in lipid bilayers: a systematic investigation of hydrophobic mismatch.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Senthil K; Larson, Ronald G

    2006-04-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch, which is the difference between the hydrophobic length of trans-membrane segments of a protein and the hydrophobic width of the surrounding lipid bilayer, is known to play a role in membrane protein function. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of trans-membrane KALP peptides (sequence: GKK(LA)nLKKA) in phospholipid bilayers to investigate hydrophobic mismatch alleviation mechanisms. By varying systematically the length of the peptide (KALP15, KALP19, KALP23, KALP27, and KALP31) and the lipid hydrophobic length (DLPC, DMPC, and DPPC), a wide range of mismatch conditions were studied. Simulations of durations of 50-200 ns show that under positive mismatch, the system alleviates the mismatch predominantly by tilting the peptide and to a smaller extent by increased lipid ordering in the immediate vicinity of the peptide. Under negative mismatch, alleviation takes place by a combination of local bilayer bending and the snorkeling of the lysine residues of the peptide. Simulations performed at a higher peptide/lipid molar ratio (1:25) reveal slower dynamics of both the peptide and lipid relative to those at a lower peptide/lipid ratio (1:128). The lysine residues have favorable interactions with specific oxygen atoms of the phospholipid headgroups, indicating the preferred localization of these residues at the lipid/water interface.

  1. [Lipid oxidation in bilayer lipid membranes linked with the reaction of oxidation of NAD.H by atmospheric oxygen].

    PubMed

    Shchipumov, Iu A; Sokolov, V S; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Boguslavskiĭ, L I

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that along with NAD.H oxidation with air oxygen peroxide oxidation of lipids forming the membrane takes place in bilayer lipid membranes modified with ubiquinone. During nicotin amide oxidation proton absorption takes place. Peroxide oxidation of lipids results in the liberation of H+ ions, which in its turn brings about the formation of protone-deficient or enriched (against aqueous solution) layers adjacent to the membrane. The potential value on the membrane is shown to depend on nicotine amide and oxygen concentration, on ubiquinone presence and lipid composition of the membrane. It has been also indicated that the transmembrane potential difference is initiated with a sharp change of aqueous solution pH by 0.05--0.4 units.

  2. Sensitivity and directionality of lipid bilayer mechanotransduction studied using a revised, highly durable membrane-based hair cell sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaddoni, Nima; Freeman, Eric C.; Sarles, Stephen A.

    2015-06-01

    A bioinspired, membrane-based hair cell sensor consists of a planar lipid bilayer formed between two lipid-coated water droplets that connect to an artificial hair. This assembly enables motion of the hair caused by mechanical stimuli to vibrate the bilayer and produce a capacitive current. In this work, the mechanoelectrical transduction mechanism and sensing performance is experimentally characterized for a more-durable, revised hair cell embodiment that includes a cantilevered hair rooted firmly in the surrounding solid substrate. Specifically, this study demonstrates that the revised membrane-based hair cell sensor produces higher time rates of change in capacitance (0.8-6.0 nF s-1) in response to airflow across the hair compared to the original sensor (45-60 pF s-1) that did not feature a cantilevered hair. The 10-fold to 100-fold increase in the time rate change of capacitance corresponds to greater membrane bending and, thus, higher sensing currents. Membranes in the revised sensor exhibit changes in area due to bending on the order of 0.2-2.0%, versus 0.02% for the original sensor. Experiments also reveal that the bilayer displays highest sensitivity to mechanical perturbations normal to the plane of the bilayer, a membrane can transduce hair motion at frequencies below the hair’s characteristic frequency, and bilayers formed between polymerized hydrogel volumes exhibit a higher sensing currents than those formed between liquid aqueous volumes. Finally, measurements of sensitivity (5-35 pA m-1 s-1) and minimum (4.0-0.6 m s-1) and maximum (28-13 m s-1) sensing thresholds to airflow are performed for the first time, and we observe maximum electrical power (˜65 pW) in the membrane occurs for combinations of slower airflow and higher voltage. These results highlight that along with the dimensions of the hair and the compositions of the aqueous volumes, sensing performance can be tuned with applied voltage.

  3. Formation and characterization of microcrystalline semiconductor particles on bilayer lipid membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Baral, S.; Zhao, X.K.; Rolandi, R.; Fendler, J.H.

    1987-05-21

    Microcrystalline cadmium, indium, copper, and zinc sulfides were generated in situ on the surface of bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) prepared from bovine-brain phosphatidylserine (PS), glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and a synthetic, polymerizable surfactant (n-C/sub 15/H/sub 31/CO/sub 2/(CH/sub 2/)/sub 2/)/sub 2/N/sup +/(CH/sub 3/)CH/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/CH double bond CH/sub 2/, Cl/sup -/ (STYRS). Semiconductor-containing BLMs remained stable for days. Semiconductor formation on the BLM surface was monitored by optical microscopy, voltage-dependent capacitance measurements, and absorption and intracavity-laser-absorption spectroscopy. Band gap excitation of GMO- BLM-incorporated CdS resulted in the development of photovoltage. Irradiation of CdS incorporated into BLMs formed from STYRS (using a 350-nm cutoff filter) led to absorption losses due to the styrene moiety in the surfactant. Apparently, CdS sensitized the photopolymerization of STRYS BLMs.

  4. Supramolecular effects and molecular discrimination by macrocyclic hosts embedded in synthetic bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Y; Hayashida, O

    1993-01-01

    Hybrid assemblies were prepared in combinations of a synthetic lipid, involving an L-alanine residue interposed between an anionic head group and a hydrophobic double-chain segment, with cage-type cyclophanes having a three-dimensionally extended hydrophobic cavity. Incorporation behavior of the cage-type hosts into the multi- and single-walled vesicules was characterized by highly sensitive differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic light-scattering measurements as well as by gel-filtration chromatography and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Both hosts were found to be completely incorporated into a relatively polar domain close to the vesicular surface. Anionic guest molecules, such as naphthol yellow S, dimethylsulfonazo III, bromopyrogallol red, and orange G, were effectively incorporated into the hydrophobic cavities provided by the cage-type cyclophanes embedded in the single-walled bilayer membrane, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy; the formation constants for 1:1 host-guest complexes were in the order of 10(4)-10(5) mol.dm-3. This means that the binding affinities of the cage-type hosts are largely retained even when the hosts are incorporated into the vesicle. Moreover, the pyridinium moieties bound to the chiral L-valine residues in the bridging components of the hosts underwent conformational changes upon inclusion of the guest, as confirmed by circular dichroism spectroscopy and molecular mechanics and dynamics calculations. Images PMID:8433975

  5. Influence of inhalation anesthetics on ion transport across a planar bilayer lipid membrane.

    PubMed

    Hichiri, Kei; Shirai, Osamu; Kano, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Ion transport from one aqueous phase (W1) to another (W2) across a planar bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) in the presence of inhalation anesthetics was electrochemically investigated. In the absence of inhalation anesthetics in the BLM system, no ion transport current flowed between W1 and W2 across the BLM. When inhalation anesthetics such as halothane, chloroform, diethyl ether and trichloroethylene were added to the two aqueous phases or the BLM, the ion transport current quite clearly appeared. When the ratio of the concentration of KCl or NaCl in W1 to that in W2 was varied, the zero current potential across the BLM was shifted. By considering the magnitude of the potential shift, we concluded that the ion transport current can be predominantly ascribed to the transport of Cl(-) across the BLM. Since the dielectric constants of these anesthetics are larger than that of the inner hydrophobic domain of the BLM, the concentration of hydrophilic electrolyte ions in the BLM increases with the increase in the dielectric constant of the inner hydrophobic domain caused by addition of these anesthetics. These situations lead to an increase in the ion permeability coefficient.

  6. Curvature–undulation coupling as a basis for curvature sensing and generation in bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Ryan P.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We present coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of the epsin N-terminal homology domain interacting with a lipid bilayer and demonstrate a rigorous theoretical formalism and analysis method for computing the induced curvature field in varying concentrations of the protein in the dilute limit. Our theory is based on the description of the height–height undulation spectrum in the presence of a curvature field. We formulated an objective function to compare the acquired undulation spectrum from the simulations to that of the theory. We recover the curvature field parameters by minimizing the objective function even in the limit where the protein-induced membrane curvature is of the same order as the amplitude due to thermal undulations. The coupling between curvature and undulations leads to significant predictions: (i) Under dilute conditions, the proteins can sense a site of spontaneous curvature at distances much larger than their size; (ii) as the density of proteins increases the coupling focuses and stabilizes the curvature field to the site of the proteins; and (iii) the mapping of the protein localization and the induction of a stable curvature is a cooperative process that can be described through a Hill function. PMID:27531962

  7. The Flip-Flop Diffusion Mechanism across Lipids in a Hybrid Bilayer Membrane.

    PubMed

    Barile, Christopher J; Tse, Edmund C M; Li, Ying; Gewargis, John P; Kirchschlager, Nicholas A; Zimmerman, Steven C; Gewirth, Andrew A

    2016-06-07

    In this study, we examine the mechanism of flip-flop diffusion of proton carriers across the lipid layer of a hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM). The HBM consists of a lipid monolayer appended on top of a self-assembled monolayer containing a Cu-based O2 reduction catalyst on a Au electrode. The flip-flop diffusion rates of the proton carriers dictate the kinetics of O2 reduction by the electrocatalyst. By varying both the tail lengths of the proton carriers and the lipids, we find the combinations of lengths that maximize the flip-flop diffusion rate. These experimental results combined with biophysical modeling studies allow us to propose a detailed mechanism for transmembrane flip-flop diffusion in HBM systems, which involves the bending of the alkyl tail of the proton carrier as the rate-determining step. Additional studies with an unbendable proton carrier further validate these mechanistic findings. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduction in lateral lipid mobility of lipid bilayer membrane by atmospheric pressure plasma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Tero, Ryugo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Yusa, Kota; Takikawa, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Plasma medicine is an emerging research field in which various applications of electrical discharge, especially in the form of nonequilibrium plasma at atmospheric pressure, are examined, for example, the application of plasma to biological targets for various purposes such as selective killing of tumor cells and blood stanching. We have focused on the behavior of an artificial cell membrane system at the solid-liquid interface. To evaluate the lateral lipid mobility, we measured the diffusion coefficient of the supported lipid bilayer (SLB) composed of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the diffusion coefficient was decreased by plasma irradiation and that the diffusion coefficient decreasing rate proceeded with increasing plasma power. We investigated the effects of stimulation with an equilibrium chemical, H2O2, on the SLB and confirmed that the diffusion coefficient did not change at least up to a H2O2 concentration of 5 mM. These results indicate that transient active species generated by plasma play critical roles in the reduction in SLB fluidity. The effects of the two generated major oxidized lipid species, hydroxyl- or hydroperoxy-phosphatidylcholine (PC) and acyl-chain-truncated PCs terminated with aldehyde or carboxyl group, on lateral lipid mobility are discussed.

  9. Nanosized CaP-silk fibroin-PCL-PEG-PCL/PCL based bilayer membranes for guided bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Türkkan, Sibel; Pazarçeviren, A Engin; Keskin, Dilek; Machin, Nesrin E; Duygulu, Özgür; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2017-11-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) concept has been developed to prevent the formation of non-functional scar tissue layer on defect site by undertaking barrier role. In this study, a new bilayer membrane which consisted of one layer of electrospun silk fibroin/PCL-PEG-PCL incorporating nanocalcium phosphate (SPCA)(1) and one layer of PCL membrane was developed for GBR. To improve the osteoconductivity of membranes, nanosized calcium phosphate particles synthesized by Flame Spray Pyrolysis method were incorporated into membranes at 10% (wt) (SPCA10) and 20% (wt) (SPCA20) of the polymer content. The structural and chemical analyses revealed the well-integrated two layers of membranes with a total thickness of ca 100μm. In the regenerative layer, the highly porous mesh structure had a thickness of 12.6μm with randomly oriented fibers having diameters around 760nm, and nanoparticles dispersed homogenously. The mechanical test results showed remarkable improvement on the tensile strength of membranes with incorporation of nanoparticles. Higher water affinity of nanoCaP included membranes was proved by lower contact angle values and higher percent water uptake capacity. Biomineralization assay revealed that nucleation and growth of apatites around fibers of SPCA10 and SPCA20 were apparent while on SPCA0 apatite minerals were barely detected after 10days. Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were seeded on electrospun layer of the bilayer membranes for biocompatibility and osteo-compatibility study. Increasing nanoCaP amount resulted in higher cell adhesion, proliferation, ALP activity and calcium deposition on membranes. These overall results confirmed the biocompatibility and potential applicability of proposed membranes for GBR treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Diffusion and spectroscopy of water and lipids in fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Calero, C.; Martí, J.

    2014-03-01

    Microscopic structure and dynamics of water and lipids in a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid lipid bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase have been analyzed with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations based on the recently parameterized CHARMM36 force field. The diffusive dynamics of the membrane lipids and of its hydration water, their reorientational motions as well as their corresponding spectral densities, related to the absorption of radiation, have been considered for the first time using the present force field. In addition, structural properties such as density and pressure profiles, a deuterium-order parameter, surface tension, and the extent of water penetration in the membrane have been analyzed. Molecular self-diffusion, reorientational motions, and spectral densities of atomic species reveal a variety of time scales playing a role in membrane dynamics. The mechanisms of lipid motion strongly depend on the time scale considered, from fast ballistic translation at the scale of picoseconds (effective diffusion coefficients of the order of 10-5 cm2/s) to diffusive flow of a few lipids forming nanodomains at the scale of hundreds of nanoseconds (diffusion coefficients of the order of 10-8 cm2/s). In the intermediate regime of sub-diffusion, collisions with nearest neighbors prevent the lipids to achieve full diffusion. Lipid reorientations along selected directions agree well with reported nuclear magnetic resonance data and indicate two different time scales, one about 1 ns and a second one in the range of 2-8 ns. We associated the two time scales of reorientational motions with angular distributions of selected vectors. Calculated spectral densities corresponding to lipid and water reveal an overall good qualitative agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. Our simulations indicate a blue-shift of the low frequency spectral bands of hydration water as a result of its interaction with lipids

  11. Diffusion and spectroscopy of water and lipids in fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Martí, J.; Calero, C.

    2014-03-14

    Microscopic structure and dynamics of water and lipids in a fully hydrated dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine phospholipid lipid bilayer membrane in the liquid-crystalline phase have been analyzed with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations based on the recently parameterized CHARMM36 force field. The diffusive dynamics of the membrane lipids and of its hydration water, their reorientational motions as well as their corresponding spectral densities, related to the absorption of radiation, have been considered for the first time using the present force field. In addition, structural properties such as density and pressure profiles, a deuterium-order parameter, surface tension, and the extent of water penetration in the membrane have been analyzed. Molecular self-diffusion, reorientational motions, and spectral densities of atomic species reveal a variety of time scales playing a role in membrane dynamics. The mechanisms of lipid motion strongly depend on the time scale considered, from fast ballistic translation at the scale of picoseconds (effective diffusion coefficients of the order of 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s) to diffusive flow of a few lipids forming nanodomains at the scale of hundreds of nanoseconds (diffusion coefficients of the order of 10{sup −8} cm{sup 2}/s). In the intermediate regime of sub-diffusion, collisions with nearest neighbors prevent the lipids to achieve full diffusion. Lipid reorientations along selected directions agree well with reported nuclear magnetic resonance data and indicate two different time scales, one about 1 ns and a second one in the range of 2–8 ns. We associated the two time scales of reorientational motions with angular distributions of selected vectors. Calculated spectral densities corresponding to lipid and water reveal an overall good qualitative agreement with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. Our simulations indicate a blue-shift of the low frequency spectral bands of hydration water as a result of

  12. Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) for MAS solid-state NMR of rotationally aligned membrane proteins in phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Bibhuti B.; Zhang, Hua; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-05-01

    A method for making resonance assignments in magic angle spinning solid-state NMR spectra of membrane proteins that utilizes the range of heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies in combination with conventional chemical shift based assignment methods is demonstrated. The Dipolar Assisted Assignment Protocol (DAAP) takes advantage of the rotational alignment of the membrane proteins in liquid crystalline phospholipid bilayers. Improved resolution is obtained by combining the magnetically inequivalent heteronuclear dipolar frequencies with isotropic chemical shift frequencies. Spectra with both dipolar and chemical shift frequency axes assist with resonance assignments. DAAP can be readily extended to three- and four-dimensional experiments and to include both backbone and side chain sites in proteins.

  13. Channels Formed by Botulinum, Tetanus, and Diphtheria Toxins in Planar Lipid Bilayers: Relevance to Translocation of Proteins across Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoch, David H.; Romero-Mira, Miryam; Ehrlich, Barbara E.; Finkelstein, Alan; Dasgupta, Bibhuti R.; Simpson, Lance L.

    1985-03-01

    The heavy chains of both botulinum neurotoxin type B and tetanus toxin form channels in planar bilayer membranes. These channels have pH-dependent and voltage-dependent properties that are remarkably similar to those previously described for diphtheria toxin. Selectivity experiments with anions and cations show that the channels formed by the heavy chains of all three toxins are large; thus, these channels could serve as ``tunnel proteins'' for translocation of active peptide fragments. These findings support the hypothesis that the active fragments of botulinum neurotoxin and tetanus toxin, like that of diphtheria toxin, are translocated across the membranes of acidic vesicles.

  14. Interaction of cholesterol with galactocerebroside and galactocerebroside-phosphatidylcholine bilayer membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruocco, M J; Shipley, G G

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of the galactocerebroside, N-palmitoylgalactosylsphingosine (NPGS), with cholesterol has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and x-ray diffraction. Thermal and structural studies demonstrate complex behavior characterized by two endothermic transitions: transition I (TI approximately equal to 50-60 degrees C) corresponding to an NPGS-cholesterol bilayer gel----bilayer liquid crystal transition II (TII where TI less than TII less than TNPGS) corresponding to an NPGS bilayer crystal (stable E form)----bilayer liquid crystal transition. For mixtures containing from 6 to 80 mol % cholesterol, x-ray diffraction studies at 22 degrees C (T less than TI) indicate two separate lamellar phases; an NPGS crystal bilayer phase and a cholesterol monohydrate phase. For cholesterol concentrations less than 50 mol % at TI less than T less than TII, NPGS-cholesterol liquid crystal bilayer and excess NPGS crystal bilayer phases are observed. For greater than 50 mol % cholesterol concentrations at these temperatures, an excess cholesterol monohydrate phase coexists with the NPGS-cholesterol liquid crystal bilayers. At T greater than TII, complete NPGS-cholesterol miscibility is only observed for less than 50 mol % cholesterol concentrations, whereas at greater than 50 mol % cholesterol an excess cholesterol phase is present. The solid phase immiscibility of cerebroside and cholesterol at low temperatures is suggested to result from preferential NPGS-NPGS associations via hydrogen bonding. The unique thermal and structural behavior of NPGS-cholesterol dispersions is contrasted with the behavior of cholesterol-phosphatidycholine and cholesterol-sphingomyelin bilayers. Thermal and structural studies of NPGS in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/cholesterol (1:1, molar ratio) bilayers have been performed. For dispersions containing less than 20 mol % NPGS at 22 degrees C there are no observable calorimetric transitions and x-ray diffraction studies

  15. The Modulating Effect of Mechanical Changes in Lipid Bilayers Caused by ApoE-Containing Lipoproteins on Aβ Induced Membrane Disruption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A major feature of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, is the ordered aggregation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) into fibrils that comprise extracellular neuritic plaques found in the disease brain. One of many potential pathways for Aβ toxicity may be modulation of lipid membrane function. Here, we show by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) that astrocyte secreted lipoprotein particles (ASLPs) containing different isoforms of apolipoprotein E (apoE), of which the apoE4 allele is a major risk factor for the development of AD, can protect total brain lipid extract bilayers from Aβ1–40 induced disruption. The apoE4 allele was less effective in protecting lipid bilayers from disruption compared with apoE3. Size analysis of apoE-containing ASLPs and mechanical studies of bilayer properties revealed that apoE-containing ASLPs modulate the mechanical properties of bilayers by acquiring some bilayer components (most likely cholesterol and/or oxidatively damaged lipids). Measurement of bilayer mechanical properties was accomplished with scanning probe acceleration microscopy (SPAM). These measurements demonstrated that apoE4 was also less effective in modulating mechanical properties of bilayers in comparison with apoE3. This ability of apoE to alter the mechanical properties of lipid membranes may represent a potential mechanism for the suppression of Aβ1–40 induced bilayer disruption. PMID:22125665

  16. Oxidation of Membrane Curvature-Regulating Phosphatidylethanolamine Lipid Results in Formation of Bilayer and Cubic Structures.

    PubMed

    Sankhagowit, Shalene; Lee, Ernest Y; Wong, Gerard C L; Malmstadt, Noah

    2016-03-15

    Oxidation is associated with conditions related to chronic inflammations and aging. Cubic structures have been observed in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial membranes of cells under oxidative stress (e.g., tumor cells and virus-infected cells). It has been previously suspected that oxidation can result in the rearrangement of lipids from a fluid lamellar phase to a cubic structure in organelles containing membranes enriched with amphiphiles that have nonzero intrinsic curvature, such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cardiolipin. This study focuses on the oxidation of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE), a lipid that natively forms an inverted hexagonal phase at physiological conditions. The oxidized samples contain an approximately 3:2 molar ratio of nonoxidized to oxidized DOPE. Optical microscopy images collected during the hydration of this mixture from a dried film suggest that the system evolves into a coexistence of a stable fluid lamellar phase and transient square lattice structures with unit cell sizes of 500-600 nm. Small-angle X-ray scattering of the same lipid mixture yielded a body-centered Im3m cubic phase with the lattice parameter of 14.04 nm. On average, the effective packing parameter of the oxidized DOPE species was estimated to be 0.657 ± 0.069 (standard deviation). This suggests that the oxidation of PE leads to a group of species with inverted molecular intrinsic curvature. Oxidation can create amphiphilic subpopulations that potently impact the integrity of the membrane, since negative Gaussian curvature intrinsic to cubic phases can enable membrane destabilization processes.

  17. Human cannabinoid 1 GPCR C-terminal domain interacts with bilayer phospholipids to modulate the structure of its membrane environment.

    PubMed

    Tiburu, Elvis K; Tyukhtenko, Sergiy; Zhou, Han; Janero, David R; Struppe, Jochem; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2011-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical physiological and therapeutic roles. The human cannabinoid 1 GPCR (hCB1) is a prime pharmacotherapeutic target for addiction and cardiometabolic disease. Our prior biophysical studies on the structural biology of a synthetic peptide representing the functionally significant hCB1 transmembrane helix 7 (TMH7) and its cytoplasmic extension, helix 8 (H8), [hCB1(TMH7/H8)] demonstrated that the helices are oriented virtually perpendicular to each other in membrane-mimetic environments. We identified several hCB1(TMH7/H8) structure-function determinants, including multiple electrostatic amino-acid interactions and a proline kink involving the highly conserved NPXXY motif. In phospholipid bicelles, TMH7 structure, orientation, and topology relative to H8 are dynamically modulated by the surrounding membrane phospholipid bilayer. These data provide a contextual basis for the present solid-state NMR study to investigate whether intermolecular interactions between hCB1(TMH7/H8) and its phospholipid environment may affect membrane-bilayer structure. For this purpose, we measured (1)H-(13)C heteronuclear dipolar couplings for the choline, glycerol, and acyl-chain regions of dimyristoylphosphocholine in a magnetically aligned hCB1(TMH7/H8) bicelle sample. The results identify discrete regional interactions between hCB1(TMH7/H8) and membrane lipid molecules that increase phospholipid motion and decrease phospholipid order, indicating that the peptide's partial traversal of the bilayer alters membrane structure. These data offer new insight into hCB1(TMH7/H8) properties and support the concept that the membrane bilayer itself may serve as a mechanochemical mediator of hCB1/GPCR signal transduction. Since interaction with its membrane environment has been implicated in hCB1 function and its modulation by small-molecule therapeutics, our work should help inform hCB1 pharmacology and the design of hCB1-targeted drugs.

  18. Experimental Investigations of Direct and Converse Flexoelectric Effect in Bilayer Lipid Membranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Angelio Todorov

    Flexoelectric coefficients (direct and converse), electric properties (capacitance and resistivity) and mechanical properties (thickness and elastic coefficients) have been determined for bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) prepared from egg yolk lecithin (EYL), glycerol monoleate (GMO), phosphatidyl choline (PC) and phosphatidyl serine (PS) as a function of frequency, pH and surface charge modifiers. Direct flexoelectric effect manifested itself in the development of microvolt range a.c. potential (U_{f}) upon subjecting one side of a BLM to an oscillating hydrostatic pressure, in the 100-1000 Hz range. Operationally, the flexoelectric coefficient (f) is expressed by the ratio between U_{f} and the change of curvature (c) which accompanied the flexing of the membrane. Membrane curvature was determined by means of either the electric method (capacitance microphone effect) or by the newly developed method of stroboscopic interferometry. Real-time stroboscopic interferometry coupled with simultaneous electric measurements, provided a direct method for the determination of f. Two different frequency regimes of f were recognized. At low frequencies (<300 Hz), associated with free mobility of the surfactant, f-values of 24.1 times 10^{-19} and 0.87 times 10^ {-19} Coulombs were obtained for PC and GMO BLMs. At high frequencies (>300 Hz), associated with blocked mobility of the surfactant, f-values of 16.5 times 10^ {-19} and 0.30 times 10^{-19} Coulombs were obtained for PC and GMO BLMs. The theoretically calculated value for the GMO BLM oscillating at high frequency (0.12 times 10^{-19 } Coulombs) agreed well with that determined experimentally (0.3 times 10 ^{-19} Coulombs). For charged bovine brain PS BLM the observed flexocoefficient was f = 4.0 times 10^{ -18} Coulombs. Converse flexoelectric effect manifested itself in voltage-induced BLM curvature. Observations were carried out on uranyl acetate (UA) stabilized PS BLM under a.c. excitation. Frequency dependence of f

  19. Fundamental Studies of Assembly and Mechanical Properties of Lipid Bilayer Membranes and Unilamellar Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xi

    This dissertation work focuses on: (i) obtaining a phospholipid bilayer membrane (LBM)/conducting electrode system with low defect density and optimized rigidity; (ii) investigating vesicle stability and mechanical properties. LBM is a simplified yet representative cell membrane model. LBMs assembled on conductive surfaces can probe protein-LBM interactions activities electrochemically. Sterically stabilized vesicles could be used as cell models or for drug delivery. The main challenges for LBM assembly on gold are vesicles do not spontaneously rupture to form LBMs on gold and the roughness of the gold substrate has considerable influence on molecular film defect density. In this study, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) vesicles were functionalized with 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine- N-poly(ethylene glycol)-2000-N-[3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate] (DSPE-PEG-PDP) to yield stable LBMs on gold without surface modification. A template-stripping method was used to obtain atomically flat and pristine gold surfaces. The critical force to initiate vesicle rupture decreases with increasing DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration, indicating that gold-thiolate bonding between DSPE-PEG-PDP and gold substrates promotes LBM formation. Mechanical properties of LBMs and vesicles were investigated as a function of DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration via Atomic Force Microscopy. The elastic moduli of LBMs were determined with DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration ranging from 0mol% to 24mol% and were found to depend on PEG chain conformation. Incorporating DSPE-PEG-PDP molecules with PEG in mushroom conformation results in a decrease of LBM rigidity, while incorporating PEG in brush conformation leads to LBM stiffening. Contrarily, mechanical properties of functionalized vesicles did not vary significantly by varying DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration. LBM with tunable rigidity by adjusting DSPE-PEG-PDP concentration provides a versatile cell membrane model for studying protein or

  20. Binding of protofibrillar Aβ trimers to lipid bilayer surface enhances Aβ structural stability and causes membrane thinning.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xuewei; Sun, Yunxiang; Wei, Guanghong; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2017-10-05

    Alzheimer's disease, a common neurodegenerative disease, is characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. The interactions of Aβ with membranes cause changes in membrane morphology and ion permeation, which are responsible for its neurotoxicity and can accelerate fibril growth. However, the Aβ-lipid interactions and how these induce membrane perturbation and disruption at the atomic level and the consequences for the Aβ organization are not entirely understood. Here, we perform multiple atomistic molecular dynamics simulations on three protofibrillar Aβ9-40 trimers. Our simulations show that, regardless of the morphologies and the initial orientations of the three different protofibrillar Aβ9-40 trimers, the N-terminal β-sheet of all trimers preferentially binds to the membrane surface. The POPG lipid bilayers enhance the structural stability of protofibrillar Aβ trimers by stabilizing inter-peptide β-sheets and D23-K28 salt-bridges. The interaction causes local membrane thinning. We found that the trimer structure related to Alzheimer's disease brain tissue () is the most stable both in water solution and at membrane surface, and displays slightly stronger membrane perturbation capability. These results provide mechanistic insights into the membrane-enhanced structural stability of protofibrillar Aβ oligomers and the first step of Aβ-induced membrane disruption at the atomic level.

  1. Cell membrane causes the lipid bilayers to behave as variable capacitors: A resonance with self-induction of helical proteins.

    PubMed

    Monajjemi, Majid

    2015-12-01

    Cell membrane has a unique feature of storing biological energies in a physiologically relevant environment. This study illustrates a capacitor model of biological cell membrane including DPPC structures. The electron density profile models, electron localization function (ELF) and local information entropy have been applied to study the interaction of proteins with lipid bilayers in the cell membrane. The quantum and coulomb blockade effects of different thicknesses in the membrane have also been specifically investigated. It has been exhibited the quantum effects can appear in a small region of the free space within the membrane thickness due to the number and type of phospholipid layers. In addition, from the viewpoint of quantum effects by Heisenberg rule, it is shown the quantum tunneling is allowed in some micro positions while it is forbidden in other forms of membrane capacitor systems. Due to the dynamical behavior of the cell membrane, its capacitance is not fixed which results a variable capacitor. In presence of the external fields through protein trance membrane or ions, charges exert forces that can influence the state of the cell membrane. This causes to appear the charge capacitive susceptibility that can resonate with self-induction of helical coils; the resonance of which is the main reason for various biological pulses.

  2. Influence of lysophospholipid hydrolysis by the catalytic domain of neuropathy target esterase on the fluidity of bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Aaron J; Richardson, Rudy J; Worden, R Mark; Ofoli, Robert Y

    2010-08-01

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is an integral membrane protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum in neurons. Irreversible inhibition of NTE by certain organophosphorus compounds produces a paralysis known as organophosphorus compound-induced delayed neuropathy. In vitro, NTE has phospholipase/lysophospholipase activity that hydrolyses exogenously added single-chain lysophospholipids in preference to dual-chain phospholipids, and NTE mutations have been associated with motor neuron disease. NTE's physiological role is not well understood, although recent studies suggest that it may control the cytotoxic accumulation of lysophospholipids in membranes. We used the NTE catalytic domain (NEST) to hydrolyze palmitoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (p-lysoPC) to palmitic acid in bilayer membranes comprising 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and the fluorophore 1-oleoyl-2-[12-[(7-nitro-2-1,3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl)amino]dodecanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBD-PC). Translational diffusion coefficients (D(L)) in supported bilayer membranes were measured by fluorescence recovery after pattern photobleaching (FRAPP). The average D(L) for DOPC/p-lysoPC membranes without NEST was 2.44 microm(2)s(-1)+/-0.09; the D(L) for DOPC/p-lysoPC membranes containing NEST and diisopropylphosphorofluoridate, an inhibitor, was nearly identical at 2.45+/-0.08. By contrast, the D(L) for membranes comprising NEST, DOPC, and p-lysoPC was 2.28+/-0.07, significantly different from the system with inhibited NEST, due to NEST hydrolysis. Likewise, a system without NEST containing the amount of palmitic acid that would have been produced by NEST hydrolysis of p-lysoPC was identical at 2.26+/-0.06. These results indicate that NTE's catalytic activity can alter membrane fluidity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Covalent attachment of lipid vesicles to a fluid supported bilayer allows observation of DNA-mediated vesicle interactions

    PubMed Central

    van Lengerich, Bettina; Rawle, Robert J.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    Specific membrane interactions such as lipid vesicle docking and fusion can be mediated by synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates as a model for the protein-driven processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Here we present a method of tethering vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer that allows simultaneous deposition of cognate vesicle partners displaying complementary DNA, resulting in well-mixed populations of tethered vesicles that are laterally mobile. Vesicles are covalently attached to a supporting lipid bilayer using a DNA-templated click reaction; then DNA-mediated interactions between tethered vesicles are triggered by spiking the salt concentration. These interactions, such as docking and fusion, can then be observed for individual vesicles as they collide on the surface. The architecture of this new system also permits control over the number of lipid anchors that tether the vesicle to the supporting bilayer. The diffusion coefficient of tethered vesicles anchored by two lipids is approximately 1.6-fold slower than that of vesicles anchored only with a single lipid, consistent with a simple physical model. PMID:20180548

  4. Covalent attachment of lipid vesicles to a fluid-supported bilayer allows observation of DNA-mediated vesicle interactions.

    PubMed

    van Lengerich, Bettina; Rawle, Robert J; Boxer, Steven G

    2010-06-01

    Specific membrane interactions such as lipid vesicle docking and fusion can be mediated by synthetic DNA-lipid conjugates as a model for the protein-driven processes that are ubiquitous in biological systems. Here we present a method of tethering vesicles to a supported lipid bilayer that allows the simultaneous deposition of cognate vesicle partners displaying complementary DNA, resulting in well-mixed populations of tethered vesicles that are laterally mobile. Vesicles are covalently attached to a supporting lipid bilayer using a DNA-templated click reaction; then DNA-mediated interactions between tethered vesicles are triggered by spiking the salt concentration. These interactions, such as docking and fusion, can then be observed for individual vesicles as they collide on the surface. The architecture of this new system also permits control over the number of lipid anchors that tether the vesicle to the supporting bilayer. The diffusion coefficient of tethered vesicles anchored by two lipids is approximately 1.6-fold slower than that of vesicles anchored only with a single lipid, consistent with a simple physical model.

  5. Labeled Protein Recognition at a Membrane Bilayer Interface by Embedded Synthetic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Self-folding deep cavitands embedded in a supported lipid bilayer are capable of recognizing suitably labeled proteins at the bilayer interface. The addition of a choline derived binding “handle” to a number of different proteins allows their selective noncovalent recognition, with association constants on the order of 105 M–1. The proteins are displayed at the water:bilayer interface, and a single binding handle allows recognition of the large, charged protein by a small molecule synthetic receptor via complementary shape and charge interactions. PMID:25130415

  6. Localization and interaction of hydroxyflavones with lipid bilayer model membranes: a study using DSC and multinuclear NMR.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ragini; Joshi, Akshada; Joshi, Urmila J; Srivastava, Sudha; Govil, Girjesh

    2014-06-10

    The localization and interaction of six naturally occurring flavones (FLV, 5HF, 6HF, 7HF, CHY and BLN) in DPPC bilayers were studied using DSC and multi-nuclear NMR. DSC results indicate that FLV and 6HF interact with alkyl chains. The (1)H NMR shows interaction of flavones with the sn-glycero region. Ring current induced chemical shifts indicate that 6HF and BLN acquire parallel orientation in bilayers. 2D NOESY spectra indicate partitioning of the B-ring into the alkyl chain region. The DSC, NMR and binding studies indicate that 5HF and 7HF are located near head group region, while 6HF, CHY and BLN are located in the vicinity of sn-glycero region, and FLV is inserted deepest in the membrane.

  7. Coupling neutron reflectivity with cell-free protein synthesis to probe membrane protein structure in supported bilayers

    DOE PAGES

    Soranzo, Thomas; Martin, Donald K.; Lenormand, Jean -Luc; ...

    2017-06-13

    Here, the structure of the p7 viroporin, an oligomeric membrane protein ion channel involved in the assembly and release of the hepatitis C virus, was determined from proteins expressed and inserted directly into supported model lipid membranes using cell-free protein expression. Cell-free protein expression allowed (i) high protein concentration in the membrane, (ii) control of the protein’s isotopic constitution, and (iii) control over the lipid environment available to the protein. Here, we used cell-free protein synthesis to directly incorporate the hepatitis C virus (HCV) p7 protein into supported lipid bilayers formed from physiologically relevant lipids (POPC or asolectin) for bothmore » direct structural measurements using neutron reflectivity (NR) and conductance measurements using electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). We report that HCV p7 from genotype 1a strain H77 adopts a conical shape within lipid bilayers and forms a viroporin upon oligomerization, confirmed by EIS conductance measurements. This combination of techniques represents a novel approach to the study of membrane proteins and, through the use of selective deuteration of particular amino acids to enhance neutron scattering contrast, has the promise to become a powerful tool for characterizing the protein conformation in physiologically relevant environments and for the development of biosensor applications.« less

  8. Spin-label studies on the anchoring and lipid-protein interactions of avidin with N-biotinylphosphatidylethanolamines in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Swamy, M J; Marsh, D

    1997-06-17

    The specific binding of hen egg white avidin to phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes containing spin-labeled N-biotinylphosphatidylethanolamines (biotin-PESLs) was investigated by using ESR spectroscopy. Spin-labeled biotin-PEs were prepared with the nitroxide group at position C-5, C-8, C-10, C-12, or C-14 of the sn-2 chain and were incorporated at 1 mol % in lipid bilayer membranes of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. Binding of avidin produced a strong and selective restriction of the biotin-PE lipid mobility at all positions of chain labeling, as shown by the ESR spectra recorded in the fluid lipid phase. The spectral components of the fraction of the biotin-PESLs that were not complexed by avidin indicated that the mobility of the bulk membrane lipids was unperturbed by binding avidin, as demonstrated by difference spectroscopy. Comparison of the positional profiles and temperature dependences of the outer hyperfine splittings from the biotin-PESLs suggests that the C-12 and C-14 positions of the avidin-bound biotin-PEs are in register with the C-5 and C-7/C-6 positions, respectively, of the chains of the bulk membrane lipids. This indicates that the biotin-PEs are partially withdrawn from the membrane, with a vertical displacement of ca. 7-8 A, on complexation with avidin. In addition, the specific lipid-protein interaction with avidin results in a selective reduction in the rates of lipid chain motion, as shown by the increased ESR line widths. These data define the way in which avidin is anchored to lipid membranes containing biotin-PEs.

  9. Electrostatics of cell membrane recognition: structure and activity of neutral and cationic rigid push-pull rods in isoelectric, anionic, and polarized lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, N; Gerard, D; Matile, S

    2001-03-21

    Design, synthesis, and structural and functional studies of rigid-rod ionophores of different axial electrostatic asymmetry are reported. The employed design strategy emphasized presence of (a) a rigid scaffold to minimize the conformational complexity, (b) a unimolecular ion-conducting pathway to minimize the suprastructural complexity and monitor the function, (c) an extended fluorophore to monitor structure, (d) variable axial rod dipole, and (e) variable terminal charges to create axial asymmetry. Studies in isoelectric, anionic, and polarized bilayer membranes confirmed a general increase in activity of uncharged rigid push-pull rods in polarized bilayers. The similarly increased activity of cationic rigid push-pull rods with an electrostatic asymmetry comparable to that of alpha-helical bee toxin melittin (positive charge near negative axial dipole terminus) is shown by fluorescence-depth quenching experiments to originate from the stabilization of transmembrane rod orientation by the membrane potential. The reduced activity of rigid push-pull rods having an electrostatic asymmetry comparable to that in alpha-helical natural antibiotics (a positive charge near the positive axial dipole terminus) is shown by structural studies to originate from rod "ejection" by membrane potentials comparable to that found in mammalian plasma membranes. This structural evidence for cell membrane recognition by asymmetric rods is unprecedented and of possible practical importance with regard to antibiotic resistance.

  10. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic studies of the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, R N; Prenner, E J; Kondejewski, L H; Flach, C R; Mendelsohn, R; Hodges, R S; McElhaney, R N

    1999-11-16

    We have utilized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to study the interaction of the antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) with lipid micelles and with lipid monolayer and bilayer membranes as a function of temperature and of the phase state of the lipid. Since the conformation of GS does not change under the experimental conditions employed in this study, we could utilize the dependence of the frequency of the amide I band of the central beta-sheet region of this peptide on the polarity and hydrogen-bonding potential of its environment to probe GS interaction with and location in these lipid model membrane systems. We find that the GS is completely or partially excluded from the gel states of all of the lipid bilayers examined in this study but strongly partitions into lipid micelles, monolayers, or bilayers in the liquid-crystalline state. Moreover, in general, the penetration of GS into zwitterionic and uncharged lipid bilayer coincides closely with the gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition of the lipid. However, GS begins to penetrate into the gel-state bilayers of anionic phospholipids prior to the actual chain-melting phase transition, while in cationic lipid bilayers, GS does not partition strongly into the liquid-crystalline bilayer until temperatures well above the chain-melting phase transition are reached. In the liquid-crystalline state, the polarity of the environment of GS indicates that this peptide is located primarily at the polar/apolar interfacial region of the bilayer near the glycerol backbone region of the lipid molecule. However, the depth of GS penetration into this interfacial region can vary somewhat depending on the structure and charge of the lipid molecule. In general, GS associates most strongly with and penetrates most deeply into more disordered bilayers with a negative surface charge, although the detailed chemical structure of the lipid molecule and physical organization of the lipid aggregate (micelle versus monolayer

  11. Study of pH (low) insertion peptides (pHLIPs) interaction with lipid bilayer of membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerakkody, Dhammika

    The pH-dependent interactions of pHLIPsRTM (pH (Low) Insertion Peptides) with lipid bilayer of membrane provides an opportunity to study and address fundamental questions of protein folding/insertion into membrane and unfolding/exit, as well as develop novel approach to target acidic diseased tissue such as cancer, ischemic myocardium, infection and others. The main goal of the work presented here is to answer the following questions: - What is the molecular mechanism of spontaneous insertion and folding of a peptide in a lipid bilayer of membrane; - What is the molecular mechanism of unfolding and exit of a peptide from a lipid bilayer of membrane; - How polar cargo attached to a peptide's inserting end might affect the process of insertion into a lipid bilayer of membrane; How sequence variation will affect a peptide's interactions with a lipid bilayer of membrane (partitioning into bilayer at neutral and low pH; apparent pK of insertion) with the main goal to identify the best pHLIP variants for imaging and therapy of pathological states such as cancer and others. It has been demonstrated that pHLIP insertion into a membrane is associated with the protonation of Asp/Glu residues, which leads to an increase of hydrophobicity that triggers the folding and insertion of the peptide across a lipid bilayer. The insertion of the pHLIP is unidirectional and it is accompanied by the release of energy. Therefore, the energy of membrane associated-folding can be used to favor the movement of cell-impermeable polar cargo molecules across the hydrophobic membrane bilayer when they are attached to the inserting end of pHLIP. Both pH-targeting behavior and molecular translocation have been demonstrated in cultured cells and in vivo. Thus, there is an opportunity to develop a novel concept in drug delivery, which is based on the use of a monomeric, pH-sensitive peptide molecular transporter, to deliver agents that are significantly more polar than conventional drugs

  12. Metastability and polymorphism in the gel and fluid bilayer phases of dilauroylphosphatidylethanolamine. Two crystalline forms in excess water.

    PubMed

    Seddon, J M; Harlos, K; Marsh, D

    1983-03-25

    The phase behavior of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DLPE) in excess water has been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray diffraction. In addition to the usual gel phase L beta of lamellar periodicity 5.07 nm and the fluid bilayer phase L alpha of periodicity 4.5 nm, two distinct crystalline forms may also be spontaneously adopted. The L beta phase is only produced by cooling from L alpha and is metastable, relaxing to one of the crystalline forms on incubation. One crystalline polymorph, designated beta 2, has a lamellar periodicity of 4.55 nm and corresponds to the structure of DLPE crystallized from a variety of organic solvents. The other crystalline polymorph, designated beta 1, has a lamellar periodicity of 3.78 nm, which implies that in this form the hydrocarbon chains are tilted at approximately 40 degrees to the bilayer normal. The beta 2 polymorph is obtained on dispersing crystalline DLPE directly in water at T less than 43 degrees C, on incubation in the L alpha phase at 30 degrees C less than T less than 43 degrees C, or on heating the beta 1 form slowly to T greater than 35 degrees C. The beta 1 polymorph is obtained on incubating the L beta phase at T less than 30 degrees C. By calorimetry, the L beta phase undergoes an endothermic transition (delta H = 15.5 kJ X mol-1 (3.7 kcal X mol-1)) at 30.6 degrees C to the fluid bilayer phase L alpha. The beta 1 phase undergoes an endothermic transition (delta H congruent to 50 kJ X mol-1 (12 kcal X mol-1)) to L alpha at 35 degrees C. The beta 2 phase undergoes an endothermic transition (delta H = 57 kJ X mol-1 (13.7 kcal X mol-1)) to L alpha at 43 degrees C.

  13. A numerical method for interaction problems between fluid and membranes with arbitrary permeability for fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyauchi, Suguru; Takeuchi, Shintaro; Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-09-01

    We develop a numerical method for fluid-membrane interaction accounting for permeation of the fluid using a non-conforming mesh to the membrane shape. To represent the permeation flux correctly, the proposed finite element discretization incorporates the discontinuities in the velocity gradient and pressure on the membrane surface with specially selected base functions. The discontinuities are represented with independent variables and determined to satisfy the governing equations including the interfacial condition on the permeation. The motions of the fluid, membrane and permeation flux are coupled monolithically and time-advanced fully-implicitly. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by several two-dimensional fluid-membrane interaction problems of Stokes flows by comparing with the analytical models and numerical results obtained by other methods. The reproduced sharp discontinuities are found to be essential to suppress the non-physical permeation flux. Further, combined with the numerical treatment for the solute concentration across the membrane, the proposed method is applied to a fluid-structure interaction problem including the osmotic pressure difference.

  14. Architecture of a single membrane spanning cytochrome P450 suggests constraints that orient the catalytic domain relative to a bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Brian C.; Tomasiak, Thomas M.; Keniya, Mikhail V.; Huschmann, Franziska U.; Tyndall, Joel D. A.; O’Connell, Joseph D.; Cannon, Richard D.; McDonald, Jeffrey G.; Rodriguez, Andrew; Finer-Moore, Janet S.; Stroud, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Bitopic integral membrane proteins with a single transmembrane helix play diverse roles in catalysis, cell signaling, and morphogenesis. Complete monospanning protein structures are needed to show how interaction between the transmembrane helix and catalytic domain might influence association with the membrane and function. We report crystal structures of full-length Saccharomyces cerevisiae lanosterol 14α-demethylase, a membrane monospanning cytochrome P450 of the CYP51 family that catalyzes the first postcyclization step in ergosterol biosynthesis and is inhibited by triazole drugs. The structures reveal a well-ordered N-terminal amphipathic helix preceding a putative transmembrane helix that would constrain the catalytic domain orientation to lie partly in the lipid bilayer. The structures locate the substrate lanosterol, identify putative substrate and product channels, and reveal constrained interactions with triazole antifungal drugs that are important for drug design and understanding drug resistance. PMID:24613931

  15. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yachong; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A.

    2014-05-01

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  16. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A.; Pogodin, Sergey

    2014-05-07

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  17. General model of phospholipid bilayers in fluid phase within the single chain mean field theory.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yachong; Pogodin, Sergey; Baulin, Vladimir A

    2014-05-07

    Coarse-grained model for saturated phospholipids: 1,2-didecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC), 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) and unsaturated phospholipids: 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 1,2- dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) is introduced within the single chain mean field theory. A single set of parameters adjusted for DMPC bilayers gives an adequate description of equilibrium and mechanical properties of a range of saturated lipid molecules that differ only in length of their hydrophobic tails and unsaturated (POPC, DOPC) phospholipids which have double bonds in the tails. A double bond is modeled with a fixed angle of 120°, while the rest of the parameters are kept the same as saturated lipids. The thickness of the bilayer and its hydrophobic core, the compressibility, and the equilibrium area per lipid correspond to experimentally measured values for each lipid, changing linearly with the length of the tail. The model for unsaturated phospholipids also fetches main thermodynamical properties of the bilayers. This model is used for an accurate estimation of the free energies of the compressed or stretched bilayers in stacks or multilayers and gives reasonable estimates for free energies. The proposed model may further be used for studies of mixtures of lipids, small molecule inclusions, interactions of bilayers with embedded proteins.

  18. Lipid Bilayer Membrane in a Silicon Based Micron Sized Cavity Accessed by Atomic Force Microscopy and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Shuja; Dosoky, Noura Sayed; Patel, Darayas; Weimer, Jeffrey; Williams, John Dalton

    2017-07-05

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are widely used in biophysical research to probe the functionality of biological membranes and to provide diagnoses in high throughput drug screening. Formation of SLBs at below phase transition temperature (Tm) has applications in nano-medicine research where low temperature profiles are required. Herein, we report the successful production of SLBs at above-as well as below-the Tm of the lipids in an anisotropically etched, silicon-based micro-cavity. The Si-based cavity walls exhibit controlled temperature which assist in the quick and stable formation of lipid bilayer membranes. Fusion of large unilamellar vesicles was monitored in real time in an aqueous environment inside the Si cavity using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the lateral organization of the lipid molecules was characterized until the formation of the SLBs. The stability of SLBs produced was also characterized by recording the electrical resistance and the capacitance using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Analysis was done in the frequency regime of 10(-2)-10⁵ Hz at a signal voltage of 100 mV and giga-ohm sealed impedance was obtained continuously over four days. Finally, the cantilever tip in AFM was utilized to estimate the bilayer thickness and to calculate the rupture force at the interface of the tip and the SLB. We anticipate that a silicon-based, micron-sized cavity has the potential to produce highly-stable SLBs below their Tm. The membranes inside the Si cavity could last for several days and allow robust characterization using AFM or EIS. This could be an excellent platform for nanomedicine experiments that require low operating temperatures.

  19. An investigation of the effect of membrane curvature on transmembrane-domain dependent protein sorting in lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Fossati, Matteo; Goud, Bruno; Borgese, Nica; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins within the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells is a complex process involving discrete sorting signals as well as physico-chemical properties of the transmembrane domain (TMD). Previous work demonstrated that tail-anchored (TA) protein sorting at the interface between the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is exquisitely dependent on the length and hydrophobicity of the transmembrane domain, and suggested that an imbalance between TMD length and bilayer thickness (hydrophobic mismatch) could drive long TMD-containing proteins into curved membrane domains, including ER exit sites, with consequent export of the mismatched protein out of the ER. Here, we tested a possible role of curvature in TMD-dependent sorting in a model system consisting of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) from which narrow membrane tubes were pulled by micromanipulation. Fluorescent TA proteins differing in TMD length were incorporated into GUVs of uniform lipid composition or made of total ER lipids, and TMD-dependent sorting and diffusion, as well as the bending rigidity of bilayers made of microsomal lipids, were investigated. Long and short TMD-containing constructs were inserted with similar orientation, diffused equally rapidly in GUVs and in tubes pulled from GUVs, and no difference in their final distribution between planar and curved regions was detected. These results indicate that curvature alone is not sufficient to drive TMD-dependent sorting at the ER-Golgi interface, and set the basis for the investigation of the additional factors that must be required. PMID:25210649

  20. The pathway of ligand entry from the membrane bilayer to a lipid G protein-coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Nathaniel; Pardo, Leonardo; Fabritiis, Gianni De

    2016-01-01

    The binding process through the membrane bilayer of lipid-like ligands to a protein target is an important but poorly explored recognition process at the atomic level. In this work we succeeded in resolving the binding of the lipid inhibitor ML056 to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1R) using unbiased molecular dynamics simulations with an aggregate sampling of over 800 μs. The binding pathway is a multi-stage process consisting of the ligand diffusing in the bilayer leaflet to contact a “membrane vestibule” at the top of TM 7, subsequently moving from this lipid-facing vestibule to the orthosteric binding cavity through a channel formed by TMs 1 and 7 and the N-terminal of the receptor. Unfolding of the N-terminal alpha-helix increases the volume of the channel upon ligand entry, helping to reach the crystallographic pose that also corresponds to the predicted favorable pose. The relaxation timescales of the binding process show that the binding of the ligand to the “membrane vestibule” is the rate-limiting step in the multi microseconds timescale. We comment on the significance and parallels of the binding process in the context of other binding studies. PMID:26940769

  1. The pathway of ligand entry from the membrane bilayer to a lipid G protein-coupled receptor.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nathaniel; Pardo, Leonardo; Fabritiis, Gianni De

    2016-03-04

    The binding process through the membrane bilayer of lipid-like ligands to a protein target is an important but poorly explored recognition process at the atomic level. In this work we succeeded in resolving the binding of the lipid inhibitor ML056 to the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1R) using unbiased molecular dynamics simulations with an aggregate sampling of over 800 μs. The binding pathway is a multi-stage process consisting of the ligand diffusing in the bilayer leaflet to contact a "membrane vestibule" at the top of TM 7, subsequently moving from this lipid-facing vestibule to the orthosteric binding cavity through a channel formed by TMs 1 and 7 and the N-terminal of the receptor. Unfolding of the N-terminal alpha-helix increases the volume of the channel upon ligand entry, helping to reach the crystallographic pose that also corresponds to the predicted favorable pose. The relaxation timescales of the binding process show that the binding of the ligand to the "membrane vestibule" is the rate-limiting step in the multi microseconds timescale. We comment on the significance and parallels of the binding process in the context of other binding studies.

  2. Formation of Cholesterol Bilayer Domains Precedes Formation of Cholesterol Crystals in Cholesterol/Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine Membranes: EPR and DSC Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2013-01-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol%. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogs it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol% cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol% cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol% is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol% cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals. PMID:23834375

  3. An investigation of the effect of membrane curvature on transmembrane-domain dependent protein sorting in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Fossati, Matteo; Goud, Bruno; Borgese, Nica; Manneville, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-01-01

    Sorting of membrane proteins within the secretory pathway of eukaryotic cells is a complex process involving discrete sorting signals as well as physico-chemical properties of the transmembrane domain (TMD). Previous work demonstrated that tail-anchored (TA) protein sorting at the interface between the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and the Golgi complex is exquisitely dependent on the length and hydrophobicity of the transmembrane domain, and suggested that an imbalance between TMD length and bilayer thickness (hydrophobic mismatch) could drive long TMD-containing proteins into curved membrane domains, including ER exit sites, with consequent export of the mismatched protein out of the ER. Here, we tested a possible role of curvature in TMD-dependent sorting in a model system consisting of Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) from which narrow membrane tubes were pulled by micromanipulation. Fluorescent TA proteins differing in TMD length were incorporated into GUVs of uniform lipid composition or made of total ER lipids, and TMD-dependent sorting and diffusion, as well as the bending rigidity of bilayers made of microsomal lipids, were investigated. Long and short TMD-containing constructs were inserted with similar orientation, diffused equally rapidly in GUVs and in tubes pulled from GUVs, and no difference in their final distribution between planar and curved regions was detected. These results indicate that curvature alone is not sufficient to drive TMD-dependent sorting at the ER-Golgi interface, and set the basis for the investigation of the additional factors that must be required.

  4. Guided periodontal regeneration using bilayered collagen membranes and bovine bone mineral in fenestration defects in the canine.

    PubMed

    Tal, Haim; Artzi, Zvi; Moses, Ofer; Nemcovsky, Carlos; Kozlovsky, Avital

    2005-10-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of deproteinized bovine porous bone mineral (BBM) and BBM-collagen (BBMC) used alone or in combination with a bilayer collagen membrane in guided periodontal regeneration. In 12 dogs, contralateral surgical circular fenestration defects 5 mm in diameter were produced at the midbuccal aspect of the alveolar bone in 24 maxillary canines. Bone, periodontal ligament, and cementum were completely removed. Experimental sites were filled with BBM or BBMC. Bilayered collagen membranes covered half the experimental sites (BBM+M and BBMC+M), and the other half were left uncovered. Control sites remained empty; half were covered with collagen membranes (cont+M) and the underlying space spontaneously filled with blood, and half were left uncovered (cont). Three months postsurgery, undecalcified sections were prepared. Measurements were made using a caliper on a projection microscope, and the surface area of new bone and BBM particles within the healed surgical defect was evaluated using the point-counting method. In the experimental defects, new cementum covered 31% to 67% of the exposed dentin, with a significant difference between defects covered with membranes and defects that were not covered (P < .05). New cementum in the control (unfilled) defects also differed significantly between covered and uncovered defects. New bone growth presented a pattern similar to the cementum. There was no statistical difference between defects treated with BBM and BBMC, within both covered and uncovered groups. There was less connective tissue in the covered defects than in the uncovered defects (P < .05). The defects were filled with new bone, new connective tissue/bone marrow, and bovine bone particles. New bone area fraction was 23.4% to 25.2% in defects filled with BBMC and BBM, respectively (P = NS). Bone fraction area in membrane-covered defects ranged from 34.4% to 36.8% in experimental defects (P = NS). All membrane-treated defects

  5. Formation of lipid bilayer membrane in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip integrated with a stacked polycarbonate membrane support and an on-site nanoinjector.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wei; Ban, Changill; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a new and facile approach for the formation of pore-spanning bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device. Commercially, readily available polycarbonate (PC) membranes are employed for the support of BLMs. PC sheets with 5 μm, 2 μm, and 0.4 μm pore diameters, respectively, are thermally bonded into a multilayer-stack, reducing the pore density of 0.4 μm-pore PC by a factor of 200. The BLMs on this support are considerably stable (a mean lifetime: 17 h). This multilayer-stack PC (MSPC) membrane is integrated into the PDMS chip by an epoxy bonding method developed to secure durable bonding under the use of organic solvents. The microchip has a special channel for guiding a micropipette in the proximity of the MSPC support. With this on-site injection technique, tens to hundreds of nanoliters of solutions can be directly dispensed to the support. Incorporating gramicidin ion channels into BLMs on the MSPC support has confirmed the formation of single BLMs, which is based on the observation from current signals of 20 pS conductance that is typical to single channel opening. Based on the bilayer capacitance (1.4 pF), about 15% of through pores across the MSPC membrane are estimated to be covered with BLMs.

  6. Formation of lipid bilayer membrane in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip integrated with a stacked polycarbonate membrane support and an on-site nanoinjector

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Ban, Changill; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new and facile approach for the formation of pore-spanning bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device. Commercially, readily available polycarbonate (PC) membranes are employed for the support of BLMs. PC sheets with 5 μm, 2 μm, and 0.4 μm pore diameters, respectively, are thermally bonded into a multilayer-stack, reducing the pore density of 0.4 μm-pore PC by a factor of 200. The BLMs on this support are considerably stable (a mean lifetime: 17 h). This multilayer-stack PC (MSPC) membrane is integrated into the PDMS chip by an epoxy bonding method developed to secure durable bonding under the use of organic solvents. The microchip has a special channel for guiding a micropipette in the proximity of the MSPC support. With this on-site injection technique, tens to hundreds of nanoliters of solutions can be directly dispensed to the support. Incorporating gramicidin ion channels into BLMs on the MSPC support has confirmed the formation of single BLMs, which is based on the observation from current signals of 20 pS conductance that is typical to single channel opening. Based on the bilayer capacitance (1.4 pF), about 15% of through pores across the MSPC membrane are estimated to be covered with BLMs. PMID:26015832

  7. The Fusobacterium nucleatum major outer-membrane protein (FomA) forms trimeric, water-filled channels in lipid bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Kleivdal, H; Benz, R; Jensen, H B

    1995-10-01

    The pore-forming activity of the major outer-membrane protein FomA of the anaerobic Fusobacterium nucleatum was studied in artificial lipid bilayer membranes. FomA was isolated from F. nucleatum strains Fev1, ATCC 10953, and ATCC 25586 by extraction with lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium chloride and had an apparent molecular mass of about 40 kDa. When solubilized at low temperatures, the protein ran with an apparent molecular mass of about 62 kDa on SDS/PAGE. Cross-linking experiments and two-dimensional SDS/PAGE gave evidence that the 62-kDa protein band represented the trimeric form of FomA. The protein trimers were susceptible to SDS and temperature. The stability of the porin trimers varied among the strains. The properties of the FomA channels were studied in reconstitution experiments with black lipid bilayer membranes. The F. nucleatum porins formed channels with single-channel conductances in the range 0.66-1.30 nS in M KCl. The single-channel conductance was a function of the mobilities of the ions present in the aqueous solution bathing the bilayer membrane. This means that FomA forms general diffusion channels since (a) the conductance showed a linear dependence on the salt concentration, (b) the ion selectivity was small and varied for the three strains, and (c) the channels did not exhibit any binding site for maltotriose or triglycine. The water-filled channel was voltage dependent, and conductance decrements were observed at transmembrane potentials of +/- 50 mV. The conductance decrement steps were about one-third of the total conductance of a functional unit in its fully 'open' state. This strongly suggests that the trimer is the functional unit of the porin.

  8. Mesoscale computational studies of membrane bilayer remodeling by curvature-inducing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Biological membranes constitute boundaries of cells and cell organelles. These membranes are soft fluid interfaces whose thermodynamic states are dictated by bending moduli, induced curvature fields, and thermal fluctuations. Recently, there has been a flood of experimental evidence highlighting active roles for these structures in many cellular processes ranging from trafficking of cargo to cell motility. It is believed that the local membrane curvature, which is continuously altered due to its interactions with myriad proteins and other macromolecules attached to its surface, holds the key to the emergent functionality in these cellular processes. Mechanisms at the atomic scale are dictated by protein-lipid interaction strength, lipid composition, lipid distribution in the vicinity of the protein, shape and amino acid composition of the protein, and its amino acid contents. The specificity of molecular interactions together with the cooperativity of multiple proteins induce and stabilize complex membrane shapes at the mesoscale. These shapes span a wide spectrum ranging from the spherical plasma membrane to the complex cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. Mapping the relation between the protein-induced deformations at the molecular scale and the resulting mesoscale morphologies is key to bridging cellular experiments across various length scales. In this review, we focus on the theoretical and computational methods used to understand the phenomenology underlying protein-driven membrane remodeling. Interactions at the molecular scale can be computationally probed by all atom and coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD, CGMD), as well as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, which we only describe in passing. We choose to focus on several continuum approaches extending the Canham-Helfrich elastic energy model for membranes to include the effect of curvature-inducing proteins and explore the conformational phase space of such systems. In this description, the

  9. Mesoscale computational studies of membrane bilayer remodeling by curvature-inducing proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, N.; Sunil Kumar, P. B.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Biological membranes constitute boundaries of cells and cell organelles. These membranes are soft fluid interfaces whose thermodynamic states are dictated by bending moduli, induced curvature fields, and thermal fluctuations. Recently, there has been a flood of experimental evidence highlighting active roles for these structures in many cellular processes ranging from trafficking of cargo to cell motility. It is believed that the local membrane curvature, which is continuously altered due to its interactions with myriad proteins and other macromolecules attached to its surface, holds the key to the emergent functionality in these cellular processes. Mechanisms at the atomic scale are dictated by protein-lipid interaction strength, lipid composition, lipid distribution in the vicinity of the protein, shape and amino acid composition of the protein, and its amino acid contents. The specificity of molecular interactions together with the cooperativity of multiple proteins induce and stabilize complex membrane shapes at the mesoscale. These shapes span a wide spectrum ranging from the spherical plasma membrane to the complex cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. Mapping the relation between the protein-induced deformations at the molecular scale and the resulting mesoscale morphologies is key to bridging cellular experiments across the various length scales. In this review, we focus on the theoretical and computational methods used to understand the phenomenology underlying protein-driven membrane remodeling. Interactions at the molecular scale can be computationally probed by all atom and coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD, CGMD), as well as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, which we only describe in passing. We choose to focus on several continuum approaches extending the Canham - Helfrich elastic energy model for membranes to include the effect of curvature-inducing proteins and explore the conformational phase space of such systems. In this

  10. Mesoscale computational studies of membrane bilayer remodeling by curvature-inducing proteins.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, N; Sunil Kumar, P B; Radhakrishnan, Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Biological membranes constitute boundaries of cells and cell organelles. These membranes are soft fluid interfaces whose thermodynamic states are dictated by bending moduli, induced curvature fields, and thermal fluctuations. Recently, there has been a flood of experimental evidence highlighting active roles for these structures in many cellular processes ranging from trafficking of cargo to cell motility. It is believed that the local membrane curvature, which is continuously altered due to its interactions with myriad proteins and other macromolecules attached to its surface, holds the key to the emergent functionality in these cellular processes. Mechanisms at the atomic scale are dictated by protein-lipid interaction strength, lipid composition, lipid distribution in the vicinity of the protein, shape and amino acid composition of the protein, and its amino acid contents. The specificity of molecular interactions together with the cooperativity of multiple proteins induce and stabilize complex membrane shapes at the mesoscale. These shapes span a wide spectrum ranging from the spherical plasma membrane to the complex cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. Mapping the relation between the protein-induced deformations at the molecular scale and the resulting mesoscale morphologies is key to bridging cellular experiments across the various length scales. In this review, we focus on the theoretical and computational methods used to understand the phenomenology underlying protein-driven membrane remodeling. Interactions at the molecular scale can be computationally probed by all atom and coarse grained molecular dynamics (MD, CGMD), as well as dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations, which we only describe in passing. We choose to focus on several continuum approaches extending the Canham - Helfrich elastic energy model for membranes to include the effect of curvature-inducing proteins and explore the conformational phase space of such systems. In this

  11. Ferrocene embedded in an electrode-supported hybrid lipid bilayer membrane: a model system for electrocatalysis in a biomimetic environment.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Ali; Collman, James P; Devadoss, Anando; Williams, Genevieve Y; Barile, Christopher J; Eberspacher, Todd A

    2010-11-16

    An electrode-supported system in which ferrocene molecules are embedded in a hybrid bilayer membrane (HBM) has been prepared and characterized. The redox properties of the ferrocene molecules were studied by varying the lipid and alkanethiol building blocks of the HBM. The midpoint potential and electron transfer rate of the embedded ferrocene were found to be dependent on the hydrophobic nature of the electrolyte and the distance at which the ferrocene was positioned in the HBM relative to the electrode and the solution. Additionally, the ability of the lipid-embedded ferrocenium ions to oxidize solution phase ascorbic acid was evaluated and found to be dependent on the nature of the counterion.

  12. Microfabricated Teflon Membranes for Low-Noise Recordings of Ion Channels in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Michael; Kriebel, Jennah K.; Tosteson, Magdalena T.; Whitesides, George M.

    2003-01-01

    We present a straightforward, accessible method for the fabrication of micropores with diameters from 2 to 800 μm in films of amorphous Teflon (Teflon AF). Pores with diameters ≤40 μm made it possible to record ion fluxes through ion channels in planar bilayers with excellent signal characteristics. These pores afforded: i), stable measurements at transmembrane voltages up to 460 mV; ii), recordings at low noise levels (0.4 pA rms at 4.3 kHz bandwidth); iii), recordings at high effective bandwidth (10.7 kHz); and iv), formation of multiple planar lipid bilayers in parallel. Microfabricated pores in films of Teflon AF made it possible to examine, experimentally and theoretically, the influence of the pore diameter on the current noise in planar bilayer recordings. Reducing the pore diameter below 40 μm mainly increased the stability of the planar bilayers, but had only a small effect on the level of the current noise. The low-noise properties of bilayer recordings on micropores in Teflon AF films were exploited to record the smallest conductance state of alamethicin (24 pS) at an unprecedentedly high bandwidth of 10.7 kHz. PMID:14507731

  13. Ion channel behavior of amphotericin B in sterol-free and cholesterol- or ergosterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes investigated by electrochemistry and spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weimin; Zhang, Zheling; Han, Xiaojun; Tang, Jilin; Wang, Jianguo; Dong, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang

    2002-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is a popular drug frequently applied in the treatment of systemic fungal infections. In the presence of ruthenium (II) as the maker ion, the behavior of AmB to form ion channels in sterol-free and cholesterol- or ergosterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes were studied by cyclic votammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy, and UV/visible absorbance spectroscopy. Different concentrations of AmB ranging from a molecularly dispersed to a highly aggregated state of the drug were investigated. In a fixed cholesterol or ergosterol content (5 mol %) in glassy carbon electrode-supported model membranes, our results showed that no matter what form of AmB, monomeric or aggregated, AmB could form ion channels in supported ergosterol-containing phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. However, AmB could not form ion channels in its monomeric form in sterol-free and cholesterol-containing supported model membranes. On the one hand, when AmB is present as an aggregated state, it can form ion channels in cholesterol-containing supported model membranes; on the other hand, only when AmB is present as a relatively highly aggregated state can it form ion channels in sterol-free supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. The results showed that the state of AmB played an important role in forming ion channels in sterol-free and cholesterol-containing supported phosphatidylcholine bilayer model membranes. PMID:12496093

  14. Specific volume and compressibility of bilayer lipid membranes with incorporated Na,K-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Hianik, Tibor; Rybár, Peter; Krivánek, Roland; Petríková, Mária; Roudna, Milena; Apell, Hans Jürgen

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasound velocimetry and densitometry methods were used to study the interactions of the Na,K-ATPase with the lipid bilayer in large unilamellar liposomes composed of dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC). The ultrasound velocity increased and the specific volume of the phospholipids decreased with increasing concentrations of protein. These experiments allowed us to determine the reduced specific apparent compressibility of the lipid bilayer, which decreased by approx. 11% with increasing concentrations of the Na,K-ATPase up to an ATPase/DOPC molar ratio = 2 × 10⁻⁴. Assuming that ATPase induces rigidization of the surrounding lipid molecules one can obtain from the compressibility data that 3.7 to 100 times more lipid molecules are affected by the protein in comparison with annular lipids. However, this is in contradiction with the current theories of the phase transitions in lipid bilayers. It is suggested that another physical mechanisms should be involved for explanation of observed effect.

  15. Temporomandibular joint biomechanical restrictions: the fluid and synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Cascone, P; Vetrano, S; Nicolai, G; Fabiani, F