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Sample records for fluid cortisol levels

  1. Utility of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in acute bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anish; Mahale, Rohan R.; Sudhir, Uchil; Javali, Mahendra; Srinivasa, Rangasetty

    2015-01-01

    Background: Meningitis remains a serious clinical problem in developing as well as developed countries. Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. The role and levels of intrathecal endogenous cortisol is not known. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels and to evaluate its role as a diagnostic and therapeutic marker in acute bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with acute bacterial meningitis with no prior treatment were evaluated. Cortisol levels were compared with 20 patients with aseptic (viral) meningitis and 25 control subjects. Results: Mean CSF cortisol level was 13.85, 3.47, and 1.05 in bacterial meningitis, aseptic meningitis, and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in bacterial meningitis was significantly higher as compared to controls (P < 0.001). There was significant difference in CSFcortisol levels in bacterial and aseptic meningitis (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Cortisol levels in CSF are highly elevated in patients with acute bacterial meningitis. This suggests that intrathecalcortisol may serve as a valuable, rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic marker in discriminatingbetween bacterial and aseptic meningitis. This helps in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. PMID:26019421

  2. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahale, Rohan R.; Mehta, Anish; Uchil, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Background: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in tuberculosis is around 5–10%. Of the various manifestations of CNS tuberculosis, meningitis is the most common (70–80%). Delay in diagnosis and treatment results in significant morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cortisol levels in tubercular meningitis and compare the levels with controls. Methods: Cross-sectional, prospective, observational, hospital-based study done in 20 patients of tubercular meningitis, 20 patients of aseptic meningitis (AM) and 25 control subjects without any preexisting neurological disorders who have undergone lumbar puncture for spinal anesthesia. Results: Cortisol was detected in all 40 CSF samples of patients (100%). Mean CSF cortisol level was 8.82, 3.47 and 1.05 in tubercular meningitis, AM and controls, respectively. Mean CSF cortisol level in tubercular meningitis was significantly higher as compared to AM and controls (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Cortisol level estimation in CSF is one of the rapid, relatively inexpensive diagnostic markers in early identification of tubercular meningitis along with CSF findings of elevated proteins, hypoglycorrhachia and lymphocytic pleocytosis. This aids in earlier institution of appropriate treatment and thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. This is the first study on the estimation of CSF cortisol level in tuberculous meningitis. PMID:26752900

  3. Cortisol level

    MedlinePlus

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism , in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... disease Cushing disease Cushing syndrome Ectopic Cushing syndrome Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  4. Interferon-gamma and cortisol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and its relationship to the etiology of aseptic meningoencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Holub, M; Beran, O; Lacinová, Z; Cinek, O; Chalupa, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the concentrations of Th1/Th2 cytokines and cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis (AM). The study enrolled 37 patients with AM and 11 control subjects. CSF concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha were analyzed using cytokine bead array and flow cytometry; CSF cortisol concentrations were measured by a RIA method. Cortisol was detected in 37 CSF samples (100%) from patients with AM, and it was significantly elevated in comparison to control subjects. IFN-gamma was detected in 32 CSF samples (86.5%) and IL-10 was detectable in 9 CSF samples (24.3%). The CSF cortisol levels correlated negatively with the duration of AM. The intrathecal concentration of IFN-gamma correlated positively with CSF numbers of leukocytes and lymphocytes, and negatively with the duration of AM. The etiology of AM influenced the CSF cortisol concentration, which was significantly higher in patients with tick-borne encephalitis when compared to persons with AM of unknown origin and control subjects. The results indicate that the prevailing intrathecal immune reaction during AM is shifted to a Th1-like response, whereas anti-inflammatory response in the brain is executed by the effect of cortisol.

  5. Immunosensor with fluid control mechanism for salivary cortisol analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Matsuda, Yohei; Sasaki, Shohei; Sasaki, Makoto; Kadoma, Yoshihiro; Imai, Yoshikatsu; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2013-03-15

    The purpose of this research is to demonstrate a new design for a cortisol immunosensor for the noninvasive and quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol. We propose a cortisol immunosensor with a fluid control mechanism which has both a vertical flow and a lateral flow. The detected current resulting from a competitive reaction between the sample cortisol and a glucose oxidase (GOD)-labeled cortisol conjugate was found to be inversely related to the concentration of cortisol in the sample solution. A calibration curve using the relative detected current showed a R(2)=0.98 and CV=14% for a range of standard cortisol solutions corresponding to the concentrations of native salivary cortisol (0.1-10 ng/ml). The measurement could be accomplished within 35 min and the cortisol immunosensor could be reused. These results show promise for realizing an on-site and easy-to-use biosensor for cortisol. Used for evaluation of human salivary cortisol levels, the cortisol immunosensor measurement corresponded closely with commercially available ELISA method (R(2)=0.92). Our results indicate the promise of the new cortisol immunosensor for noninvasive, point of care measurement of human salivary cortisol levels.

  6. [Cortisol levels in blood and urine of trotting horses].

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, H W; Schulz, R

    1997-12-01

    Statistical analysis of normally occurring cortisol levels in serum and urine of horses served to recommend thresholds for this corticosteroid in these body fluids, as application of exogenous cortisol as well as ACTH may elevate the cortisol concentrations above the proposed threshold. The present study contributes to the general issue of how to establish thresholds for trotting horses upon sportive examination. 100 randomly selected post competition serum and urine samples, respectively, were submitted to cortisol analysis by means of HPLC. Concentrations of the endogenous corticosteroid in serum and urine followed a log-normal distribution with mean values of 61 and 49 ng/ml, respectively. The probability was 1: 100,000 to exceed concentration limits of 230 (serum) and 394 ng/ml (urine). Designation of thresholds for cortisol has proven problematic and is discussed here.

  7. MATERNAL SELF-REPORTED DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND MATERNAL CORTISOL LEVELS INTERACT TO PREDICT INFANT CORTISOL LEVELS.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Jennifer E; Gonzalez, Andrea; Levitan, Robert; Masellis, Mario; Basile, Vincenzo; Atkinson, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Three basic findings have emerged from research on maternal depressive symptoms and offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning: (a) Mothers' depressive symptoms are positively associated with their offsprings' cortisol stress response, (b) numerous individual and interpersonal maternal characteristics moderate this association, and (c) maternal and infant cortisol levels are highly correlated. In combination, these findings have suggested that maternal cortisol levels may moderate the relation between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol responsivity; the current study assessed this hypothesis. Participants were 297 mother-infant dyads who were recruited from the community. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed via self-report. Dyads participated in two differentially stressful infant challenges when infants were 16 and 17 months old. Mother and infant salivary cortisol was collected before and after challenges. Results indicate that maternal cortisol levels moderated associations between maternal depressive symptoms and infant cortisol levels across both challenges. Infants showed higher cortisol levels if their mothers had both higher depressive symptoms and higher cortisol levels, as compared to infants of mothers with higher depressive symptoms and lower cortisol, and to infants of mothers with lower depressive symptoms and either higher or lower cortisol levels. We discuss findings in relation to environmental and biological factors that may contribute to the intergenerational transmission of depressive symptoms. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  8. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  9. Cortisol Levels and Longitudinal Cortisol Change as Predictors of Anxiety in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Virginia L.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested cortisol-emotion relationships, little is known regarding the effect of anxiety type on cortisol levels or relationships between anxiety and longitudinal cortisol change in adolescents. The authors examine the differential relationship of cortisol levels with generalized and social anxiety and relationships…

  10. Saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid does not affect salivary cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Camilla; Dahlqvist, Per; Nilsson, Leif; Naredi, Silvana

    2014-08-01

    In critically ill patients with hypotension, who respond poorly to fluids and vasoactive drugs, cortisol insufficiency may be suspected. In serum over 90% of cortisol is protein-bound, thus routine measures of total serum cortisol may yield 'false lows' due to hypoproteinaemia. Thus, the occurrence of cortisol insufficiency could be overestimated in critically ill patients. Salivary cortisol can be used as a surrogate for free serum cortisol, but in critically ill patients saliva production is decreased, and insufficient volume of saliva for analysis is a common problem. The aim of this study was to investigate if a cotton-tipped applicator with glycerine and citric acid could be used for saliva stimulation without affecting salivary cortisol levels. Prospective, observational study. Thirty-six volunteers (six males, 30 females), age 49 ± 9 years, without known oral mucus membrane rupture in the mouth. Forty-two pairs of saliva samples (22 paired morning samples, 20 paired evening samples) were obtained before and after saliva stimulation with glycerine and citric acid. Salivary cortisol was analysed using Spectria Cortisol RIA (Orion Diagnostica, Finland). The paired samples correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) and there was no significant difference between un-stimulated and stimulated salivary cortisol levels. Saliva stimulation with a cotton-tipped applicator containing glycerine and citric acid did not significantly influence salivary cortisol levels in healthy volunteers. This indicates that salivary cortisol measurement after saliva stimulation may be a useful complement when evaluating cortisol status in critically ill patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Katagata, Hiroki; Tezuka, Yuki; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min). The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG) polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R2, and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications. PMID:26543818

  12. Automated-immunosensor with centrifugal fluid valves for salivary cortisol measurement.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Katagata, Hiroki; Tezuka, Yuki; Niwa, Daisuke; Shetty, Vivek

    2014-08-01

    Point-of-care measurement of the stress hormone cortisol will greatly facilitate the timely diagnosis and management of stress-related disorders. We describe an automated salivary cortisol immunosensor, incorporating centrifugal fluid valves and a disposable disc-chip that allows for truncated reporting of cortisol levels (<15 min). The performance characteristics of the immunosensor are optimized through select blocking agents to prevent the non-specific adsorption of proteins; immunoglobulin G (IgG) polymer for the pad and milk protein for the reservoirs and the flow channels. Incorporated centrifugal fluid valves allow for rapid and repeat washings to remove impurities from the saliva samples. An optical reader and laptop computer automate the immunoassay processes and provide easily accessible digital readouts of salivary cortisol measurements. Linear regression analysis of the calibration curve for the cortisol immunosensor showed 0.92 of coefficient of multiple determination, R(2), and 38.7% of coefficient of variation, CV, for a range of salivary cortisol concentrations between 0.4 and 11.3 ng/mL. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of human saliva samples indicate potential utility for discriminating stress disorders and underscore potential application of the biosensor in stress disorders. The performance of our salivary cortisol immunosensor approaches laboratory based tests and allows noninvasive, quantitative, and automated analysis of human salivary cortisol levels with reporting times compatible with point-of-care applications.

  13. Maternal antenatal anxiety and amniotic fluid cortisol and testosterone: possible implications for foetal programming.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, P; Bergman, K; O'Connor, T G; Glover, V

    2008-04-01

    Both animal and human studies have shown that maternal stress or anxiety during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of disturbance in offspring neurodevelopment and behaviour. In animal models, increased foetal exposure to glucocorticoids has been found to be one mechanism for such foetal programming. Little is understood of the mediating mechanisms in humans, and one aim of our research programme is to investigate this further. This review presents a synopsis of some of our recent results. We aimed to test the hypothesis that maternal anxiety was associated with raised maternal cortisol, and that this in turn was related to increased foetal exposure to cortisol. We studied this by recruiting women at amniocentesis, obtained their Spielberger State Anxiety scores, and assessed maternal plasma cortisol and amniotic fluid cortisol. We also examined maternal plasma and amniotic fluid testosterone levels. Awaiting amniocentesis was in general anxiogenic, but with a wide range of anxiety scores. Maternal anxiety was significantly associated with plasma cortisol before 17 weeks, albeit of modest magnitude (r = 0.0.23), and not after 17 weeks of gestation. This is probably due to the known attenuation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with increasing gestation. We found a strong correlation between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid cortisol levels, which increased with gestation and became robust after 18 weeks. This correlation increased with maternal anxiety, suggesting a possible effect of maternal mood on placental function. There was a positive correlation between cortisol and testosterone in amniotic fluid, in both male and female foetuses independent of maternal anxiety, plasma testosterone, gestational age, and time of collection. Foetal stress may be associated with increased foetal exposure to testosterone. However, maternal anxiety did not predict amniotic fluid cortisol or testosterone level. Thus, the role of these hormones in

  14. Salivary and serum cortisol levels in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Forclaz, María V; Moratto, Eduardo; Pennisi, Alicia; Falco, Silvina; Olsen, Graciela; Rodríguez, Patricia; Papazian, Regina; Bergadá, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Given that serum cortisol level interpretation in newborn infants (NBIs) is hard, the objective of this study was to correlate baseline salivary and serum cortisol levels and to describe salivary cortisol levels in the first month of life. Descriptive, prospective, longitudinal, and correlational study. Term NBIs were selected from the Division of Neonatology of Hospital Nacional Profesor Alejandro Posadas in 2014. Cortisol was measured in saliva specimens while cortisol, cortisol-binding globulin, and albumin were measured in blood specimens. A linear correlation was performed to relate serum and salivary cortisol levels; Friedman test was conducted to compare cortisol levels during the first month of life, and the difference was used to analyze the performance of values equal to or lower than the first quartile. Fifty-five NBIs were studied. Serum cortisol: 7.65 (1.0-18.1 gg/dL); salivary cortisol: 35.88 (5.52-107.64 mmol/L); cortisol-binding globulin: 22.07 (16.5-33.0 gg/mL), expressed as median and range. The correlation coefficient between serum and salivary cortisol was 0.54, P = 0.001. Cortisol performance during the first month of life showed no statistically significant differences, and the difference between the second and the first specimen of values equal to or lower than the first quartile increased in 10 out of 12 patients. The measurement of cortisol in saliva reflects serum cortisol levels in normal NBIs. Some patients had low levels of cortisol at 36 hours of life and showed a trend towards a spontaneous increase during the first month of life.

  15. Huggable communication medium decreases cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Sumioka, Hidenobu; Nakae, Aya; Kanai, Ryota; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-10-23

    Interpersonal touch is a fundamental component of social interactions because it can mitigate physical and psychological distress. To reproduce the psychological and physiological effects associated with interpersonal touch, interest is growing in introducing tactile sensations to communication devices. However, it remains unknown whether physical contact with such devices can produce objectively measurable endocrine effects like real interpersonal touching can. We directly tested this possibility by examining changes in stress hormone cortisol before and after a conversation with a huggable communication device. Participants had 15-minute conversations with a remote partner that was carried out either with a huggable human-shaped device or with a mobile phone. Our experiment revealed significant reduction in the cortisol levels for those who had conversations with the huggable device. Our approach to evaluate communication media with biological markers suggests new design directions for interpersonal communication media to improve social support systems in modern highly networked societies.

  16. Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: Comparison to salivary cortisol

    PubMed Central

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Ross, Randal G.; Natvig, Crystal L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal/child outcomes. One potential biomarker of the maternal stress response is cortisol, a product of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study evaluated cortisol levels in hair throughout pregnancy as a marker of total cortisol release. Cortisol levels in hair have been shown to be easily quantifiable and may be representative of total cortisol release more than single saliva or serum measures. Hair cortisol provides a simple way to monitor total cortisol release over an extended period of time. Hair cortisol levels were determined from each trimester (15, 26 and 36 wks gestation) and 3 months postpartum. Hair cortisol levels were compared to diurnal salivary cortisol collected over 3 days (3 times/day) at 14, 18, 23, 29, and 34 wks gestational age and 6 wks postpartum from 21 pregnant women. Both salivary and hair cortisol levels rose during pregnancy as expected. Hair cortisol and diurnal salivary cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) were also correlated throughout pregnancy. Levels of cortisol in hair are a valid and useful tool to measure long-term cortisol activity. Hair cortisol avoids methodological problems associated with collection other cortisol measures such as plasma, urine, or saliva and is a reliable metric of HPA activity throughout pregnancy reflecting total cortisol release over an extended period. PMID:21397617

  17. Daily variations in cortisol levels and binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Sitton, Sarah; Porn, Patricia M; Shaeffer, Stephanie

    2002-12-01

    Morning and afternoon levels of cortisol for 73 volunteers (67 women and 6 men) were compared in relation to their Binge Eating Disorder scores, Body Mass Indexes, and self-reports of mood and hunger. Cortisol level was not significantly correlated with binge eating or mood or hunger for either time period. However, it was inversely related to body mass, with lower cortisol levels associated with greater body mass.

  18. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cortisol and Progesterone Profiles and Outcomes Prognostication after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santarsieri, Martina; Niyonkuru, Christian; McCullough, Emily H.; Dobos, Julie A.; Dixon, C. Edward; Berga, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Despite significant advances in the management of head trauma, there remains a lack of pharmacological treatment options for traumatic brain injury (TBI). While progesterone clinical trials have shown promise, corticosteroid trials have failed. The purpose of this study was to (1) characterize endogenous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) progesterone and cortisol levels after TBI, (2) determine relationships between CSF and serum profiles, and (3) assess the utility of these hormones as predictors of long-term outcomes. We evaluated 130 adults with severe TBI. Serum samples (n=538) and CSF samples (n=746) were collected for 6 days post-injury, analyzed for cortisol and progesterone, and compared with healthy controls (n=13). Hormone data were linked with clinical data, including Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores at 6 and 12 months. Group based trajectory (TRAJ) analysis was used to develop temporal hormone profiles delineating distinct subpopulations. Compared with controls, CSF cortisol levels were significantly and persistently elevated during the first week after TBI, and high CSF cortisol levels were associated with poor outcome. As a precursor to cortisol, progesterone mediated these effects. Serum and CSF levels for both cortisol and progesterone were strongly correlated after TBI relative to controls, possibly because of blood–brain barrier disruption. Also, differentially impaired hormone transport and metabolism mechanisms after TBI, potential de novo synthesis of steroids within the brain, and the complex interplay of cortisol and pro-inflammatory cytokines may explain these acute hormone profiles and, when taken together, may help shed light on why corticosteroid trials have previously failed and why progesterone treatment after TBI may be beneficial. PMID:24354775

  19. Term neonates with infection and shock display high cortisol precursors despite low levels of normal cortisol.

    PubMed

    Khashana, Abdelmoneim; Ojaniemi, Marja; Leskinen, Markku; Saarela, Timo; Hallman, Mikko

    2016-02-01

    Neonatal therapy-resistant septic shock is a common problem in middle and low-income countries. We investigated whether newborn infants with infection and therapy-resistant hypotension showed evidence of abnormal levels of cortisol or cortisol precursors. A total of 60 term or near term neonates with evidence of infection were enrolled after informed consent. Of these, 30 had an infection and refractory shock and 30 had an infection without shock. There were no detectable differences between the groups in the length of gestation, birth weight or gender distribution. Serum was obtained during days four and 14 after birth. Cortisol and cortisol precursor concentrations were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The cortisol concentrations were low considering the expected responses to stress and they did not differ between the groups. The infants with infection and shock had higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels than those without shock (319.0 ± 110.3 μg/dL, versus 22.3 ± 18.3 μg/dL; p < 0.0001) and they also had higher 17-hydroxy-pregnenolone, pregnenolone and progesterone concentrations. There were no detectable differences in the levels of 17-hydroxy-progesterone, 11-deoxy-cortisol, cortisol or cortisone. Septic newborn infants with therapy-resistant hypotension had very high DHEA levels, suggesting that 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity limited the rate of cortisol synthesis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  1. Cortisol Levels and Conduct Disorder in Adolescent Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azar, Rima; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel; Quiros, Elsa; Baltzer, Franziska; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between cortisol levels and conduct disorder (CD) in adolescent mothers. Past research has shown that low levels of cortisol were associated with CD, particularly with its aggressive symptoms. The authors tested the hypothesis that adolescent mothers with CD would show lower levels of salivary cortisol…

  2. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  3. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art…

  4. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: Data from two preliminary studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaffey, Allison E.; Wirth, Michelle M.; Hoks, Roxanne M.; Jahn, Allison L.; Abercrombie, Heather C.

    2014-01-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants’ cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 hours. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 hours. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC vs. women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group. PMID:24773147

  5. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  6. CSF 5-HIAA, cortisol and DHEAS levels in suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Hellström, Christer; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2013-10-01

    The serotonin system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in the biological vulnerability to suicidal behaviour. Altered levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate ester DHEAS have been reported in neuropsychiatric conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate CSF levels of 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and CSF and plasma levels of cortisol and DHEAS in 28 medication free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers. Another aim was to investigate the relationship between neuroendocrine measures and childhood trauma in suicide attempters. As the study design includes a longitudinal part, we investigated whether CSF cortisol, 5-HIAA or DHEAS would predict subsequent suicide. We hypothesized higher cortisol levels in suicide attempters and lower CSF 5-HIAA levels and higher cortisol levels in suicide victims. Suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma cortisol levels compared to healthy volunteers. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF DHEAS levels and female suicide attempters had lower CSF 5-HIAA levels compared to male and female healthy volunteers respectively. Exposure to interpersonal violence as a child showed a negative correlation with CSF cortisol/DHEAS ratio adjusted for age, gender and depression severity in a regression analysis. Suicide victims tended to have low CSF 5-HIAA and high CSF cortisol. Abused suicide victims had higher CSF cortisol compared to suicide victims with low exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The results underlie the important role of the serotonergic system and HPA axis in suicidal behaviour and suggest that CSF DHEAS may be elevated in male suicide attempters.

  7. Deconvolution of serum cortisol levels by using compressed sensing.

    PubMed

    Faghih, Rose T; Dahleh, Munther A; Adler, Gail K; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Brown, Emery N

    2014-01-01

    The pulsatile release of cortisol from the adrenal glands is controlled by a hierarchical system that involves corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary, and cortisol from the adrenal glands. Determining the number, timing, and amplitude of the cortisol secretory events and recovering the infusion and clearance rates from serial measurements of serum cortisol levels is a challenging problem. Despite many years of work on this problem, a complete satisfactory solution has been elusive. We formulate this question as a non-convex optimization problem, and solve it using a coordinate descent algorithm that has a principled combination of (i) compressed sensing for recovering the amplitude and timing of the secretory events, and (ii) generalized cross validation for choosing the regularization parameter. Using only the observed serum cortisol levels, we model cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands using a second-order linear differential equation with pulsatile inputs that represent cortisol pulses released in response to pulses of ACTH. Using our algorithm and the assumption that the number of pulses is between 15 to 22 pulses over 24 hours, we successfully deconvolve both simulated datasets and actual 24-hr serum cortisol datasets sampled every 10 minutes from 10 healthy women. Assuming a one-minute resolution for the secretory events, we obtain physiologically plausible timings and amplitudes of each cortisol secretory event with R (2) above 0.92. Identification of the amplitude and timing of pulsatile hormone release allows (i) quantifying of normal and abnormal secretion patterns towards the goal of understanding pathological neuroendocrine states, and (ii) potentially designing optimal approaches for treating hormonal disorders.

  8. Cortisol Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... cortisol, or to help diagnose adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , conditions associated with deficient cortisol. Cortisol is a ... a low level of cortisol, adrenal insufficiency or Addison disease , such as: Weight loss Muscle weakness Fatigue Low ...

  9. Prostate Cancer, High Cortisol Levels and Complex Hormonal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Grosman, Halina; Gonzalez, Diego; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Repetto, Esteban M; Mesch, Viviana; Lopez, Miguel Angel; Mazza, Osvaldo; Berg, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common diseases in men. It is important to assess prognostic factors and whether high cortisol levels and complex hormonal interactions could be responsible for PCa development. We evaluated the relationship between cortisol, leptin and estrogens in 141 men, 71 with PCa and the remaining 70 constituting a low risk group (LRG). They were recruited for this study from a total of 2906 middleaged men (ages 4570 years) who completed an evaluation for prostatic diseases at the Urology Division, Hospital de Clinicas "Jose de San Martin", University of Buenos Aires, in May 2009. In this cross sectional study, cortisol, PSA, totaltestosterone, freetestosterone, bioavailable testosterone, LH and estradiol were measured in serum. We observed increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG cases (p=0.004,). Leptin and estradiol levels were also higher in PCa patients (p=0.048; p<0.0001, respectively). Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum cortisol (OR: 1.110 (95% CI 1.0161.213), p=0.022), estradiol (OR: 1.044 (95% CI 1.0081.081), p=0.016) and leptin (OR: 1.248 (95% CI 1.0481.487), p=0.013) explained 27% of the variance of dependent variables, even after adjusting for age, smoking, BMI and waist circumference. We found increased cortisol levels in PCa patients as compared to LRG, as well as an altered circulating hormonal profile.

  10. Cortisol levels in hair of East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S

    2011-01-15

    To demonstrate the ability to assess long-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity in polar bears (Ursus maritimus), a pilot study was conducted in which cortisol concentrations was analyzed in hair from 7 female (3-19 years) and 10 male (6-19 years) East Greenland polar bears sampled in 1994-2006. The hair was chosen as matrix as it is non-invasive, seasonally harmonized, and has been validated as an index of long-term changes in cortisol levels. The samples were categorized according to contamination: eight were clean (2 females, 6 males), 5 had been contaminated with bear blood (2 F, 3 M), and 4 with bear fat (3 F, 1 M). There was no significant difference in cortisol concentration between the three categories after external contamination was removed. However, contaminated hair samples should be cleaned before cortisol determination. Average hair cortisol concentration was 8.90 pg/mg (range: 5.5 to 16.4 pg/mg). There was no significant correlation between cortisol concentration and age (p=0.81) or sampling year (p=0.11). However, females had higher mean cortisol concentration than males (females mean: 11.0 pg/mg, males: 7.3 pg/mg; p=0.01). The study showed that polar bear hair contains measurable amounts of cortisol and that cortisol in hair may be used in studies of long-term stress in polar bears. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Lanling; Sheng, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children’s BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). Material/Methods We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4–5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. Results Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. Conclusions Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children’s overweight or obesity. PMID:28179618

  12. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  13. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  14. Cortisol levels and suicidal behavior: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Ferguson, Eamonn; Green, Jessica A; O'Carroll, Ronan E; O'Connor, Rory C

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is a major cause of death worldwide, responsible for 1.5% of all mortality. The causes of suicidal behavior are not fully understood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, as measured by cortisol levels, is one potential risk factor. This meta-analytic review aimed (i) to estimate the strength and variability of the association between naturally fluctuating cortisol levels and suicidal behavior and (ii) to identify moderators of this relationship. A systematic literature search identified 27 studies (N=2226; 779 suicide attempters and 1447 non-attempters) that met the study eligibility criteria from a total of 417 unique records initially examined. Estimates of effect sizes (r) obtained from these studies were analysed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis. In these analyses, we compared participants identified as having a past history of suicide attempt(s) to those with no such history. Study quality, mean age of sample and percentage of male participants were examined as potential moderators. Overall, there was no significant effect of suicide group on cortisol. However, significant associations between cortisol and suicide attempts were observed as a function of age. In studies where the mean age of the sample was below 40 years the association was positive (i.e., higher cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=.234, p<.001), and where the mean age was 40 or above the association was negative (i.e., lower cortisol was associated with suicide attempts; r=-.129, p<.001). These findings confirm that HPA axis activity, as indicated by age-dependent variations in cortisol levels, is associated with suicidal behavior. The challenge for theory and clinical practice is to explain the complete reversal of the association with age and to identify its clinical implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Nilsson, Kent W; Nyberg, Fred; Hogmark, Asa; Lindblad, Frank

    2012-11-01

    Regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and its end product cortisol differs among persons with certain psychiatric disorders when compared with controls. Some reports concern Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) but findings are inconclusive. In this study we collected four saliva samples during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with ADHD (n = 201) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221). Saliva cortisol was measured with radioimmunoassay technique. Clinical data were collected for diagnostic information. Subtypes and severity of symptoms were determined using parental rating scales. Children with ADHD had lower saliva cortisol levels than comparisons at waking up Median = 9.1 versus 12.7 nmol/L (p < .001), 30 min later Median = 15.8 versus 20.1 nmol/L (p < .001) and before going to bed Median = 0.8 versus 1.0 nmol/L (p = .015). No difference was found for the afternoon sample. When the study group was split into three different age groups similar results were found only for children above 10 years of age. Subtype of ADHD or co-occurring symptoms did not affect the cortisol levels. Degree of severity of ADHD symptoms was not associated with cortisol levels in the study group, other than a weak negative correlation between the afternoon sample and hyperactivity symptoms. The low cortisol levels in children with ADHD may indicate a dysregulation of the HPA-axis, for instance a down-regulation or a phase delay of the diurnal curve. The low levels may be related to the under-arousal possibly underlying several of the core symptoms of ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide, cortisol and fluid balance in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, U M; Riskilä, P; Roihankorpi, M T; Soveri, T

    2001-01-01

    Circadian variation of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), cortisol and fluid balance was studied in ten adult female goats. The concentrations of plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), electrolytes, creatinine and total protein, as well as plasma and urine osmolalities and renal electrolyte excretion and clearances (Cosm, CH2O, Ccrea), were used to evaluate fluid balance. At 3-h intervals, urine was collected from five goats and venous blood samples from all ten goats. Urethral catheterization had no effect on the results. Besides the lower plasma creatinine level in the dark than in daylight, no other changes were observed in relation to luminousness. Plasma concentrations of ANP, ADH, total protein and K, urine flow rate and osmolality, urine concentrations of Na, K and creatinine, renal Na and K excretion, Cosm, CH2O and Ccrea, and haematocrit showed no circadian variation. Circadian variation was observed in plasma osmolality (P < 0.05) and the concentrations of Na (P < 0.05) and creatinine (P < 0.05), with achrophases around 16:00 hours and nadirs between 01:00 and 07:00 hours. Changes in osmolality and Na followed the feeding schedule. There was a small elevation in plasma cortisol levels in six goats after midnight, which may be the consequence of circadian rhythm. In conclusion, the results suggest that in plasma ANP no circadian rhythm exists.

  17. Cortisol levels in central adrenal insufficiency: light and shade.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf; Yassin, Mohamed; Garofalo, Piernicola

    2015-03-01

    Evaluating children or adolescents with central adrenal insufficiency (CAI) is a difficult task in clinical practice, especially in subjects with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases and partial ACTH deficiency, or in those with recent pituitary surgery or brain irradiation when the adrenal cortex may still be responsive to stress. In 2008, a meta-analysis reported a three-step approach for evaluating patients at risk for CAI with no acute illness. In particular, the authors recommended the evaluation of morning cortisol, a low dose ACTH test (LDST) and the "gold standard" insulin tolerance test or metyrapone test if the low LDCT was not diagnostic. Cortisol and ACTH secretion exhibit significant fluctuation throughout the day. The reference ranges supplied by labs are so wide that they only flag up extremely low cortisol levels. Interpreting the results correctly can be difficult for a physician without an experience in adrenal dysfunctions. The lack of uniformity in these cut-off levels could in part be attributed to differences in study populations, variability of dynainic tests, the use of different serum cortisol assays and dissimilar cut-off peak serum cortisol response indicative of a normal axis response and the difference in the clinical context in which the studies were done. Therefore, Laboratories have to advertise the need to establish reference values for given populations, both for basal or stimulated hormone levels. Failure to apply this rule may elicit false-positive and more critically, false-negative results. LDST (1 pg synthetic ACTH as iv bolus with measurement of serum cortisol) has been proposed as a sensitive test for the diagnosis of CAl. However, the advantage of LDST compared with the high dose test may be offset by the technical difficulties inherent to dilution of 250 pg ampoules. Clinical judgment remains imperative especially regarding the use of glucocorticoid supplementation during extreme stress.

  18. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  19. Reduction of Cortisol Levels and Participants' Responses Following Art Making

    PubMed Central

    Kaimal, Girija; Ray, Kendra; Muniz, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of visual art making on the cortisol levels of 39 healthy adults. Participants provided saliva samples to assess cortisol levels before and after 45 minutes of art making. Participants also provided written responses about the experience at the end of the session. Results indicate that art making resulted in statistically significant lowering of cortisol levels. Participants' written responses indicated that they found the art-making session to be relaxing, enjoyable, helpful for learning about new aspects of self, freeing from constraints, an evolving process of initial struggle to later resolution, and about flow/losing themselves in the work. They also reflected that the session evoked a desire to make art in the future. There were weak associations between changes in cortisol level and age, time of day, and participant responses related to learning about one's self and references to an evolving process in art making. There were no significant differences in outcomes based on prior experiences with art making, media choice, or gender. PMID:27695158

  20. Cortisol Levels and Children's Orientation in Day Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reunamo, Jyrki; Sajaniemi, Nina; Suhonen, Eira; Kontu, Elina

    2012-01-01

    Children's stress in day care is related to the stressful qualities of the environment and to children's orientations in that environment. The study involved 55 children in five day centres in Finland. Baseline saliva samples for measuring cortisol (stress) levels were collected five times during the day. Children were interviewed to measure their…

  1. Osho Dynamic Meditation's Effect on Serum Cortisol Level.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish; Seth, Vikas

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1(st) March 2015 to 21(st) March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21(st) day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21(st) day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas. Thus, dynamic meditation could be recommended for

  2. Osho Dynamic Meditation’s Effect on Serum Cortisol Level

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anuj; Mittal, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic meditation is one of the most popular active meditation, introduced by an Indian mystic Osho in 1970. This one hour meditation consists of five stages: Deep fast chaotic breathing, catharsis, using a mantra "Hoo", silence, and dancing. A previous study observed that Osho dynamic meditation causes decrease in several psychopathological variables such as aggressive behaviour, anxiety and depression. However, it is not objectively established that the dynamic meditation has an anti-stress effect. Aim To find out the effect of Osho dynamic meditation on the serum cortisol levels (cortisol is an indicator of stress) and therefore to observe whether it has any anti-stress effect. Materials and Methods An experimental study was planned doing the dynamic meditation empty stomach in morning at 6 to 7 am every day for 21 days from 1st March 2015 to 21st March 2015 at Lucknow. Twenty healthy volunteers between 20 to 50 years (14 males and 6 females) participated in the study. Serum cortisol level was estimated from the blood samples collected in the morning one day prior (baseline) and post-meditation on the 21st day of the study. The difference between mean cortisol levels of the baseline and post-meditation groups were tested for significance by applying the paired t-test. Results Sixteen volunteers out of the 20 completed the study while four dropped out due to their health and personal reasons. The serum cortisol levels were decreased in all the 16 participants on 21st day as compared to the baseline levels and the decline in the mean cortisol level was highly significant (p<0.001). Conclusion The results of the study showed a significant reduction in plasma cortisol levels when the participants were tested after 21 days of meditation; it can be concluded that the Osho dynamic meditation produces anti-stress effects. The mechanism of action could primarily be attributed to the release of repressed emotions and psychological inhibitions and traumas

  3. Endogenous cortisol levels influence exposure therapy in spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Michael, Tanja

    2014-09-01

    Previous research in patients with phobia showed that the administration of glucocorticoids reduces fear in phobic situations and enhances exposure therapy. Glucocorticoids underlie a daily cycle with a peak in the morning and low levels during the evening and night. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure is more effective when conducted in the morning when endogenous cortisol levels are high. Sixty patients meeting DSM IV criteria for specific phobia (animal type) were randomly assigned to one-session exposure treatment either at 08.00 a.m. (high cortisol group) or at 06.00 p.m. (low cortisol group). Participants returned for a posttreatment assessment one week after therapy and a follow-up assessment three months after therapy. Both groups showed good outcome, but patients treated in the morning exhibited significantly less fear of spiders in the behavioral approach test (BAT) and a trend for lower scores on the Fear of Spiders Questionnaire (FSQ) than patients treated in the evening. This effect was present at posttreatment and follow-up. Our findings indicate that exposure therapy is more effective in the morning than in the evening. We suggest that this may be due to higher endogenous cortisol levels in the morning group that enhance extinction memory.

  4. Fifteen-month-old infants' cortisol levels decrease after a 30-min-warm-up procedure.

    PubMed

    Zmyj, Norbert; Schneider, Silvia; Seehagen, Sabine

    2017-02-01

    Stress-induction procedures designed to increase cortisol levels in infants have been ineffective in many studies. One reason might be that infants did not have sufficient time to settle into the laboratory environment prior to the start of the stress induction, and thus already had high baseline levels of cortisol. In this study we investigate whether an extended warm-up period reduces infants' (N=22) cortisol levels. Fifteen-month-old infants' saliva cortisol was measured upon arrival at the laboratory. Then, they were allowed to play with their parent. After 30min, cortisol was measured again. There was a decrease in cortisol after 30min of free play. Our study suggests that infants' cortisol levels decrease when infants have the opportunity to acclimatize to the test environment. An extended warm-up phase prior to stress induction procedures might be necessary to reliably increase cortisol levels in infants.

  5. Hair Analysis Provides a Historical Record of Cortisol Levels in Cushing’s Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, S.; Koren, G.; Fraser, L.-A.; Rieder, M.; Friedman, T. C.; Van Uum, S. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    The severity of Cushing’s Syndrome (CS) depends on the duration and extent of the exposure to excess glucocorticoids. Current measurements of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine reflect systemic cortisol levels at the time of sample collection, but cannot assess past cortisol levels. Hair cortisol levels may be increased in patients with CS, and, as hair grows about 1 cm/month, measurement of hair cortisol may provide historical information on the development of hypercortisolism. We attempted to measure cortisol in hair in relation to clinical course in six female patients with CS and in 32 healthy volunteers in 1 cm hair sections. Hair cortisol content was measured using a commercially available salivary cortisol immune assay with a protocol modified for use with hair. Hair cortisol levels were higher in patients with CS than in controls, the medians (ranges) were 679 (279–2500) and 116 (26–204) ng/g respectively (P <0.001). Segmental hair analysis provided information for up to 18 months before time of sampling. Hair cortisol concentrations appeared to vary in accordance with the clinical course. Based on these data, we suggest that hair cortisol measurement is a novel method for assessing dynamic systemic cortisol exposure and provides unique historical information on variation in cortisol, and that more research is required to fully understand the utility and limits of this technique. PMID:19609841

  6. Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans

    PubMed Central

    Nepomnaschy, Pablo A.; Welch, Kathleen B.; McConnell, Daniel S.; Low, Bobbi S.; Strassmann, Beverly I.; England, Barry G.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress is commonly cited as an important risk factor for spontaneous abortion. For humans, however, there is little physiological evidence linking miscarriage to stress. This lack of evidence may be attributable to a paucity of research on maternal stress during the earliest gestational stages. Most human studies have focused on “clinical” pregnancy (>6 weeks after the last menstrual period). The majority of miscarriages, however, occur earlier, within the first 3 weeks after conception (≈5 weeks after the last menstrual period). Studies focused on clinical pregnancy thus miss the most critical period for pregnancy continuance. We examined the association between miscarriage and levels of maternal urinary cortisol during the first 3 weeks after conception. Pregnancies characterized by increased maternal cortisol during this period (within participant analyses) were more likely to result in spontaneous abortion (P < 0.05). This evidence links increased levels in this stress marker with a higher risk of early pregnancy loss in humans. PMID:16495411

  7. Continuous fluid level detector

    SciTech Connect

    LeVert, F.E.

    1989-02-21

    A fluid level detector is described which consists of: a junctionless thermocouple cable consisting of two thermoelectric elements enclosed in a metallic sheath wherein a negative resistance temperature coefficient insulant is interpositioned between the thermoelectric elements and the inner surface of the metallic sheath thereby providing electrical insulation and thermal energy transfer between the thermoelectric elements; a metallic sheathed resistance heater, which is used to input thermal energy to the fluid level detector; an outer metallic cylindrical tube capable of being sealed on one end, into which the juctionless thermocouple cable and resistance heater are inserted and held in place by mechanically swaging or drawing, to reduce the outer diameter of the metallic cylindrical tube; separate means for supplying electric currents to the thermoelectric elements and to the resistance heater; and electronic and computing means for measuring the loop resistance of the thermoelectric elements with a temporary junction.

  8. Aldosterone-cortisol imbalance immediately after fontan operation with implications for abnormal fluid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Saiki, Hirofumi; Kuwata, Seiko; Kurishima, Clara; Iwamoto, Yoichi; Ishido, Hirotaka; Masutani, Satoshi; Senzaki, Hideaki

    2014-11-15

    Abnormal water metabolism is frequently observed after Fontan surgery. We hypothesized that patients' adrenal hormones show unique responses immediately after Fontan operation and that such a hormonal profile is related to postoperative hemodynamics and water imbalance. Twenty-eight patients who underwent a Fontan operation (n = 16) or a non-Fontan type operation (n = 12; controls) under cardiopulmonary bypass were studied. Postoperative urine cortisol and aldosterone levels were measured daily to minimize the influence of circadian rhythms and temporal hemodynamic variations. Cortisol excretion was markedly elevated on postoperative day (POD) 0 in controls, consistent with a stress-induced cortisol response. Cortisol excretion was not high on POD 0 in Fontan patients and was markedly lower than that in the controls (444 ± 150 vs 34 ± 6 μg/m(2)/day, p <0.05), indicating an adrenal insufficiency status. Conversely, aldosterone levels were significantly higher in Fontan patients than in controls immediately after surgery and remained so thereafter. The cortisol-to-aldosterone ratio was significantly lower in Fontan patients on POD 0 (p <0.05 vs controls); low cortisol-to-aldosterone ratios were associated with a longer pleural drainage duration and intensive care unit stay. Daily cortisol and aldosterone levels were significantly associated with postoperative hemodynamics; low cortisol levels correlated with low cardiac and urine outputs, whereas high aldosterone levels correlated with low cardiac output and increased blood pressure and central venous pressure. Thus, aldosterone-to-cortisol imbalance occurred specifically after the Fontan operation. This unique hormonal profile significantly affected patients' postoperative water balance and hemodynamics. Modulation of the adrenal hormone could be useful for reducing postoperative complications after the Fontan operation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dental anxiety and salivary cortisol levels before urgent dental care.

    PubMed

    Kanegane, Kazue; Penha, Sibele S; Munhoz, Carolina D; Rocha, Rodney G

    2009-12-01

    Dental anxiety is still prevalent, despite advances in treatment, and affects the utilization of health care services. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine if patients with different degrees of dental anxiety and pain undergoing emergency dental care have different stress reactions as measured by salivary cortisol. Seventy three patients completed the modified dental anxiety scale (MDAS), and described any previous dental traumatic experience. Their socio-demographic characteristics were also recorded. They also rated pain intensity on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS). A saliva sample was collected before the procedure, and analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Thirty patients were dentally anxious and forty one complained of pain. In this sample, dental anxiety was not related to gender, age, educational level and family income; however, a previous traumatic event was related to dental anxiety. There was no association between salivary cortisol concentrations and gender or dental anxiety. Patients with pain showed higher cortisol levels. When gathering patient information, the dentist should note patients' negative dental experiences in order to provide more effective, less traumatic treatment.

  10. Associations between psychiatric symptoms and cortisol levels in Nicaraguan young school-age children.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Högberg, Ulf; Valladares, Eliette; Lindblad, Frank

    2016-06-30

    The regulation of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with its end product cortisol seems to be affected in several psychiatric disorders. Although findings are not conclusive, internalizing symptoms have primarily been associated with higher diurnal cortisol levels and externalizing symptoms with lower cortisol levels. In this study on nine-year-olds in Nicaragua (n=111), we investigated associations between child psychiatric symptoms, using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL), and saliva cortisol levels collected in the morning and afternoon, also adjusting for potential confounders. In line with previous findings, internalizing symptoms were significantly associated with higher morning, but not afternoon cortisol levels. Surprisingly, externalizing symptoms were also significantly associated with higher morning cortisol levels. Possibly, this association between externalizing symptoms and cortisol levels may be characteristic of early ages, representing a higher exposure to external stressors. The study highlights the need for prospective studies, following the development of the HPA-axis and its association with psychiatric symptoms.

  11. Hot flashes and midlife symptoms in relation to levels of salivary cortisol.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Linda M; Sievert, Lynnette L; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and hot flashes during midlife. Previous studies have shown that cortisol levels increase with hot flashes in the laboratory, and higher cortisol levels have been associated with more severe hot flashes. Salivary cortisol levels were also examined in relation to total number of midlife symptoms. Women aged 40-60 years (n=109) reported the presence or absence of 23 symptoms, including hot flashes, during the previous 2 weeks. Salivary samples were collected at waking, 30min after waking, 1h before bedtime, and at bedtime. The cortisol awakening response (CAR), cortisol daily decline (CDD), log transformed salivary cortisol levels at each time point, and mean cortisol levels were compared by hot flash report using t-tests. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between each cortisol measure and the presence or absence of hot flashes, after controlling for potential covariates. Salivary cortisol levels were not significantly associated with hot flashes or sum of symptoms. Hot flash report did not differentiate women who had a positive CAR from those who did not, or women who showed strong CDD from those who did not. Symptomatic women - defined by hot flash report or symptom total - were not found to have higher salivary cortisol levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salivary alpha amylase and salivary cortisol response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, PJ; Kazial, KA

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine salivary biomarker response to fluid consumption in exercising athletes. Exercise induces stress on the body and salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol are useful biomarkers for activity in the sympathoadrenal medullary system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which are involved in the stress response. Fifteen college students were given 150 ml and 500 ml of water on different days and blinded to fluid condition. The exercise protocol was identical for both fluid conditions using absolute exercise intensities ranging from moderate to high. Saliva was collected prior to exercise, post moderate and post high intensities and analyzed by Salimetrics assays. Exercise was significant for sAA with values different between pre-exercise (85 ± 10 U · ml−1) and high intensity (284 ± 30 U · ml−1) as well as between moderate intensity (204 ± 32 U · ml−1) and high intensity. There was no difference in sAA values between fluid conditions at either intensity. Exercise intensity and fluid condition were each significant for cortisol. Cortisol values were different between pre-exercise (0.30 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) and high intensity (0.45 ± 0.05 ug · dL−1) as well as between moderate intensity (0.33 ± 0.04 ug · dL−1) and high intensity. Moderate exercise intensity cortisol was lower in the 500 ml condition (0.33 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1) compared with the 150 ml condition (0.38 ± 0.03 ug · dL−1). This altered physiological response due to fluid consumption could influence sport performance and should be considered. In addition, future sport and exercise studies should control for fluid consumption. PMID:26681828

  13. Elevated glucose levels in early puerperium, and association with high cortisol levels during parturition.

    PubMed

    Risberg, Anitha; Sjöquist, Mats; Wedenberg, Kaj; Larsson, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Background Gestational diabetes is one of the commonest metabolic problems associated with pregnancy and an accurate diagnosis is critical for the care. Research has shown that pregnant women have high levels of cortisol during the last stage of parturition. As cortisol is a diabetogenic hormone causing increased glucose levels, we wanted to study the association between cortisol and glucose levels during parturition. Materials and methods Glucose and cortisol were analyzed during parturition in 50 females divided according to slow (n = 11) and normal labors (n = 39). Blood samples were analyzed three times during the parturition and four times in the first day after delivery. Glucose levels were also measured once in each trimester. Results In the normal group, the glucose concentration increased from 6.2 (IQR 5.6-8.0) mmol/L in the latency phase to 11.6 (10.0-13.3) mmol/L at aftercare (p < 0.05). After parturition the glucose concentrations decreased gradually. There were significant Spearman rank correlations between glucose and cortisol values. Conclusions The changes associated with birth cause significant elevations of cortisol and glucose around parturition.

  14. Sources of variation in fecal cortisol levels in howler monkeys in Belize.

    PubMed

    Behie, Alison M; Pavelka, Mary S M; Chapman, Colin A

    2010-06-01

    High cortisol levels are known to cause low fecundity and increased mortality; thus, the prospect of using cortisol as a measure of population health is an exciting one. However, because so many factors can interact to influence cortisol release, it can be difficult to interpret what exactly is creating changes to cortisol levels. This study investigates variation in fecal cortisol levels in a population of black howlers (Alouatta pigra) from 350 fecal samples collected from 33 individuals in more than 4 years. A general linear mixed model revealed that cortisol varied significantly with fruit availability and contact with tourists. When fruit availability was low, cortisol increased, likely because when fruit availability is low monkeys eat less fruit, thus obtaining less sugar. This result may simply reflect cortisol's metabolic function of mobilizing glucose. It also indicates that these monkeys may be experiencing periods of food stress throughout the year, which was earlier thought to be minimal for a primarily folivorous species. Presence of tourists was the only other factor found to lead to high cortisol; with exposure to tourists increasing stress levels. These results highlight the importance of understanding how physiological factors can influence cortisol, making it easier to interpret results and determine the external social or ecological stressors that may increase cortisol.

  15. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    PubMed

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P <0.0001, correlation coefficient between 0.61 and 0.94). There was no difference in CBG levels across the sampling period. An oral dose of hydrocortisone 20 mg is supraphysiological for routine maintenance, while stress doses above 50 mg 6-hourly would rarely be necessary in managing acute illness. Salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and clinical disease progression in MCI and dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Popp, Julius; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Heuser, Isabella; Peters, Oliver; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Lewczuk, Piotr; Schneider, Anja; Jahn, Holger; Luckhaus, Christian; Perneczky, Robert; Frölich, Lutz; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Wiltfang, Jens; Kornhuber, Johannes; Jessen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Increased peripheral and central nervous system cortisol levels have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect dysfunction of cerebral components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, brain exposure to high cortisol concentrations may also accelerate disease progression and cognitive decline. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether HPA-axis dysregulation occurs at early clinical stages of AD and whether plasma and CSF cortisol levels are associated with clinical disease progression. Morning plasma and CSF cortisol concentrations were obtained from the subjects with AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment of AD type (MCI-AD), MCI of other type (MCI-O), and controls with normal cognition included in a multicenter study from the German Dementia Competence Network. A clinical and neuropsychological follow-up was performed in a subgroup of participants with MCI-AD, MCI-O, and AD dementia. CSF cortisol concentrations were increased in the subjects with AD dementia or MCI-AD compared with subjects with MCI-O or normal cognition. After controlling for possible confounders including CSF measures of amyloid beta1-42 and total tau, higher baseline CSF cortisol levels were associated with faster clinical worsening and cognitive decline in MCI-AD. The findings suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation occurs at the MCI stage of AD and may accelerate disease progression and cognitive decline.

  17. Social behavior, cortisol, and sIgA levels in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Martin, J R; Cardas, J; Ahedo, L; Fano, E; Echebarria, A; Azpiroz, A

    2001-04-01

    This study aims to explore the possible existence of behavioral states in early stages of development, which are associated with specific cortisol production profiles and consequently with changes in the immune response [secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA)]. The subjects were 27 boys and 21 girls of preschool age whose behavior was videotaped in free play interactions. Their behavior was then evaluated using an ethogram of the social behavior of the child. Cortisol levels were measured using a radioimmunoassay in saliva samples, and sIgA levels were measured by means of an ELISA, also in saliva samples. No correlation between cortisol and sIgA levels was found. Variance analysis revealed that the only behavioral pattern, which showed significant differences with regard to cortisol levels, was isolation. There seems to be a connection between cortisol levels and isolation behavior; we found no relation between high cortisol levels and a lower sIgA secretion.

  18. Cortisol Levels and Risk for Psychosis: Initial Findings from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Elaine F.; Trotman, Hanan; Pearce, Brad D.; Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Heinssen, Robert; Mathalon, Dan H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Woods, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of biomarkers of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity indicate that psychotic disorders are associated with elevated cortisol. This study examined cortisol levels in healthy controls and individuals who meet clinical high risk (CHR) criteria for psychosis. It was hypothesized that cortisol levels would be; a) elevated in the CHR group relative to controls, b) positively correlated with symptom severity, and c) most elevated in CHR patients who transition to psychotic level severity. Methods Baseline assessments were conducted at eight centers in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). The present CHR sample included 256 individuals meeting Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) criteria, and 141 controls, all of whom underwent baseline assessment and measurement of salivary cortisol. Results Consistent with previous reports, there was an effect of age on cortisol, with increases through the adolescent/early adult years. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed a main effect of diagnostic group, with the CHR group showing higher cortisol. There were modest, positive correlations of cortisol with baseline symptom severity, and ANCOVA revealed higher baseline cortisol in those who transitioned to psychotic level symptoms when compared to healthy controls and CHR subjects who remitted. Conclusions The present findings add to accumulating evidence of heightened cortisol secretion in CHR individuals. The findings also indicate nonspecific associations between cortisol levels and symptom severity, as well as symptom progression. The role of HPA activity in prediction of conversion to psychosis, and its relation with other biomarkers of risk, should receive attention in future research. PMID:23562006

  19. Cortisol and corticosterone in the songbird immune and nervous systems: local vs. systemic levels during development.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kim L; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have profound effects on the immune and nervous systems during development. However, circulating GC levels are low neonatally and show little response to stressors. This paradox could be resolved if immune and neural tissues locally synthesize GCs. Here, we measured baseline corticosterone and cortisol levels in plasma, immune organs, and brain regions of developing zebra finches. Steroids were extracted using solid phase-extraction and quantified using specific immunoassays. As expected, corticosterone was the predominant GC in plasma and increased with age. In contrast, cortisol was the predominant GC in immune tissues (bursa of Fabricius, thymus, spleen) and decreased with age. Cortisol levels in immune tissues were higher than cortisol levels in plasma. In the brain, corticosterone and cortisol levels were similarly low, providing little evidence for local synthesis of GCs in the brain. This is the first study to measure 1) cortisol in the plasma of songbirds, 2) corticosterone or cortisol in the brain of songbirds, and 3) corticosterone or cortisol in the immune system of any species. Despite the prevailing dogma that corticosterone is the primary GC in birds, these results indicate that cortisol is the predominant GC in the immune system of developing zebra finches. These results raise the hypothesis that cortisol is synthesized de novo from cholesterol in the immune system as an "immunosteroid," analogous to neurosteroids synthesized in the brain. Local production of GCs in immune tissues may allow GCs to regulate lymphocyte selection while avoiding the costs of high systemic GCs during development.

  20. Suppression of cortisol levels in subordinate female marmosets: reproductive and social contributions.

    PubMed

    Saltzman, W; Schultz-Darken, N J; Wegner, F H; Wittwer, D J; Abbott, D H

    1998-02-01

    Socially subordinate female common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) have markedly lower plasma cortisol levels than dominant females. Subordinate females also undergo hypoestrogenemic anovulation, and estrogen can elevate glucocorticoid levels. Therefore, we previously hypothesized that this cortisol difference is mediated by rank-related differences in reproductive hormones, probably estradiol. To test this possibility, we characterized the effects of the ovarian cycle and ovariectomy on plasma cortisol concentrations. Beginning in the early follicular phase, basal blood samples were collected from seven cycling female marmosets daily for 16 days and at 2- to 3-day intervals for another 16 days. Samples were collected identically from seven anovulatory subordinate females and seven long-term ovariectomized females. Cortisol levels changed reliably across the ovarian cycle, with levels in the mid- to late follicular, peri-ovulatory, and early luteal phases higher than those in the remainder of the cycle. Cortisol levels of cycling females were significantly higher than those of subordinates at all parts of the cycle, but were significantly higher than those of ovariectomized females only during the midcycle elevation. Unexpectedly, subordinates had significantly lower cortisol levels than ovariectomized females, as well as higher estradiol and estrone levels and lower progesterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. These results confirm that circulating cortisol concentrations are modulated by reproductive function in female marmosets but also indicate that low cortisol levels in subordinate females cannot be attributed simply to hypoestrogenemia. Instead, other factors, such as direct effects of social subordination or suppression of LH levels, contribute to suppression of cortisol in subordinates.

  1. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Barugh, Amanda Jayne; Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords "cortisol" and "stroke" and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity.

  2. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  3. Patterns of salivary cortisol levels can manifest work stress in emergency care providers.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yasushi; Takahashi, Takayuki; Shetty, Vivek; Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2012-05-01

    To develop objective assessments of work fatigue, we investigated the patterns of changes in salivary cortisol levels in emergency care providers working extended work shifts. Fourteen subjects, comprising seven physicians and seven physician assistants, provided unstimulated saliva samples at regular intervals over the course of a 24-h work shift and over their subsequent free day. There was a significant time effect, with early morning cortisol levels being significantly attenuated following the work shift. Native diurnal variations varied by gender, with the female subjects manifesting greater cortisol levels. Physicians also had higher cortisol profiles even though their wake-rest cycles were similar to those of the physician assistants. Our results suggest that temporal changes, as well as diurnal similarities, in the salivary cortisol patterns can reflect work-related stress and recovery. In particular, early morning cortisol levels may manifest individual reactivity to work stressors as well as sleep deprivation.

  4. Associations between endogenous cortisol levels and emotional memory in young women: influence of encoding instructions.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Diana; Schoofs, Daniela; Wolf, Oliver T

    2009-09-01

    The stress hormone cortisol is known to influence memory. Elevated cortisol levels as a consequence of stress or as a consequence of cortisol administration have been repeatedly shown to enhance encoding and consolidation of (emotional) memory. Whether similar associations exist between basal cortisol levels and emotional memory remains to be established. The present study therefore evaluated if resting cortisol levels are correlated with memory for emotionally arousing and neutral pictures in a sample of young healthy females (n = 56). A second aim of the study was to explore if the relationship between basal cortisol levels and memory might be modulated by encoding instructions (intentional vs. incidental encoding). A significant positive correlation between basal salivary cortisol levels and memory for emotionally arousing pictures in a 24 h delayed free recall test was found. Further analyses revealed that this association only occurred in the group receiving intentional encoding instructions. Results indicate that basal cortisol levels, similarly to stress induced cortisol levels, are associated with emotional memory formation. Moreover this effect seems to be modulated by encoding instructions, suggesting a role of focussed attention or arousal induced by testing in this relationship.

  5. Cumulative duration of breast-feeding influences cortisol levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lankarani-Fard, A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; Goodman-Gruen, D

    2001-09-01

    Cortisol levels dramatically increase during pregnancy, peak at birth, and subsequently decline. However, all previous studies examined women during pregnancy and early postpartum. None examined the long-term association of parity and lactation with cortisol levels. We examined the relation of reproductive history to cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Subjects were 749 women, aged 50-89, who were not using estrogen in 1984-1987 when morning cortisol was measured. Parity was not significantly associated with cortisol. However, women who breast-fed for >12 months had significantly higher cortisol levels than women who breast-fed for shorter durations or not at all (p = 0.003). This association was stronger among women with three or more births. Duration of breast-feeding is a determinant of cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Because both increased cortisol and increased duration of breast-feeding may play protective roles in certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, we suggest that the beneficial effect of lactation on the course of these diseases may be mediated by cortisol.

  6. Association of blood glucose, blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, muscle metabolites, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits.

    PubMed

    Choe, J H; Kim, B C

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of blood glucose levels with blood lactate, serum cortisol levels, postmortem muscle glycogen and lactate content, muscle fiber type composition, and pork quality traits. Compared to pigs with lower blood glucose levels, pigs with higher blood glucose levels showed higher blood lactate and serum cortisol levels at exsanguination, and they had lower residual glycogen and higher lactate content in the muscle at 45min postmortem. In addition, pigs with higher blood glucose levels had higher type IIB and lower type I area composition and finally exhibited lower muscle pH, paler color, and excessive loss of fluid on surface. These results imply that measuring blood glucose levels at exsanguination can be useful to indicate early glycolytic rates during postmortem and thus may be of value in the identification of pork with undesirable quality traits.

  7. Prenatal cortisol exposure predicts infant cortisol response to acute stress.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2013-03-01

    Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure.

  8. Cortisol levels and the severity and outcomes of acute stroke: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Paul; Shenkin, Susan Deborah; MacLullich, Alasdair Maurice Joseph; Mead, Gillian Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Studies in non-stroke patients have shown an association between dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and morbidity and mortality. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate cortisol levels in acute stroke and their associations with outcome. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles up to April 2013 and PsychINFO for articles up to July 2013, using the keywords “cortisol” and “stroke” and associated terms or synonyms. We included studies published in peer-reviewed journals that recruited 10 or more participants and measured cortisol at least once in the first year following stroke. Data were extracted regarding cortisol levels, including changes over time and their relationship to stroke severity, and outcome. Of 11,240 abstracts, 101 full texts were obtained and 48 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Cortisol levels were high in the first week after stroke in the majority of studies (26 studies, n = 1,340). Higher cortisol was associated with dependency (8/11 studies, n = 822), delirium (5/6 studies, n = 269) depression (3/5 studies n = 117) and mortality (8/10 studies, n = 856). Five studies adjusted for stroke severity; one found an association between higher cortisol and dependency, and three found an association between higher cortisol and mortality. Cortisol levels are high for at least 7 days after stroke. Elevated cortisol after stroke is associated with dependency, morbidity, and mortality; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that these relationships are independent of stroke severity. PMID:24477489

  9. The influence of childhood abuse on cortisol levels and the cortisol awakening response in depressed and nondepressed older adults.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, Ilse; Schaakxs, Roxanne; Comijs, Hannie C; Stek, Max L; Rhebergen, Didi

    2017-01-25

    Childhood abuse has been associated with depression in later life. This may be related to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Therefore we aimed to examine the impact of childhood abuse and its interaction with depression on cortisol levels in older adults. Data from 418 participants (mean age 70.8 years) in the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO) were used; 187 participants experienced childhood abuse; 309 participants had a diagnosis of depression. Diurnal cortisol levels were determined using six saliva samples from every participant. Multiple regression analyses were performed. Significant negative associations between childhood abuse and morning cortisol levels were found. In nondepressed persons, both psychological and sexual abuse were associated with greater dynamics of the HPA axis in response to awakening. Childhood abuse is associated with lower basal cortisol levels at awakening irrespective of major depressive disorder (MDD). Higher reactivity of the HPA axis during the hour after awakening was found in nondepressed participants only, which might suggest that late-life depression modifies the effect of childhood abuse on the HPA axis. Older adults with a history of childhood abuse may be more negatively affected by stress or stressful events and this is reflected in dysregulation of the HPA axis.

  10. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  11. Elevated Trajectories of Externalizing Problems Are Associated with Lower Awakening Cortisol Levels in Midadolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haltigan, John D.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of research suggesting a negative association between basal levels of cortisol and persistent antisocial behavior has emerged. The present study examined relations between awakening cortisol levels and antisocial trajectories from ages 5 to 15 years among individuals in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development…

  12. Sex Differences in Cortisol Level and Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Children of Substance Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Gardner, William; Kirillova, Galina P.; Vanyukov, Michael M.

    2001-01-01

    Determines the extent to which cortisol level covaries with psychological dysregulation. Results indicated that dysregulation was higher and cortisol level lower in boys compared to girls. Concludes that boys and girls differ with respect to biochemical indicators of stress reactivity underlying psychological dysregulation, a putative phenotype…

  13. Cortisol level measurements in fingernails as a retrospective index of hormone production.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Miki, Keiichi; Tsuchiya, Masao; Mitani, Takeshi; Midorikawa, Toru; Fuchu, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Taiki; Togo, Fumiharu

    2015-04-01

    The cortisol level in fingernails may reflect the hormone's cumulative production over a long period, but the notions have not been fully established. In this study, we investigated the association of cortisol in fingernails with cortisol accumulation over a long period (hair cortisol) and over a relatively short period (salivary cortisol). In study 1, hair and fingernail samples were collected from 58 middle-aged and elderly men. The cortisol level in hair samples was moderately associated with the level in fingernail samples (r = 0.29, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.36, p < 0.01). In study 2, 37 workers provided 4 saliva samples over the course of one day (at awakening, 30 min after awakening, before lunch, and after work) and another set a month later. Further, the workers were asked to provide fingernail samples during a six-month period. We found that the cortisol level in saliva over the whole day (area under the curve for cortisol) was moderately associated with the cortisol level measured in fingernail samples that were collected 4 months (r = 0.43, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.50, p < 0.01) and 5 months later (r = 0.45, p < 0.05 and rs = 0.53, p < 0.01). These results indicated that the cortisol level in fingernail samples might retrospectively represent hormone production during a given period. The cortisol level in fingernail samples may be useful in the investigation of the link between psychosocial stress and health.

  14. Morning Cortisol Levels in Preschool-Aged Foster Children: Differential Effects of Maltreatment Type

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Pears, Katherine C.; Levine, Seymour

    2008-01-01

    Maltreated foster children are subjected to a range of early adverse experiences, including neglect, abuse, and multiple caregiver disruptions. Research suggests that such disturbances alter the development and subsequent functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. The current study was designed to investigate morning cortisol levels in 117 foster children and 60 low-income, nonmaltreated children. Maltreatment and foster care placement experiences were coded from official records. Analyses revealed that the foster children were significantly more likely than the nonmaltreated children to have low morning cortisol levels. Additionally, specific maltreatment experiences were significantly associated with the foster children’s morning cortisol levels. Foster children with low morning cortisol levels experienced more severe physical neglect than the other foster children. In contrast, foster children with high morning cortisol levels experienced more severe emotional maltreatment. These results suggest that specific early adverse experiences have differential effects on the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system. PMID:18720365

  15. Cortisol and Politics: Variance in Voting Behavior is Predicted by Baseline Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    French, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kevin B.; Alford, John R.; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K.; Hibbing, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity. PMID:24835544

  16. Cortisol and politics: variance in voting behavior is predicted by baseline cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    French, Jeffrey A; Smith, Kevin B; Alford, John R; Guck, Adam; Birnie, Andrew K; Hibbing, John R

    2014-06-22

    Participation in electoral politics is affected by a host of social and demographics variables, but there is growing evidence that biological predispositions may also play a role in behavior related to political involvement. We examined the role of individual variation in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress axis parameters in explaining differences in self-reported and actual participation in political activities. Self-reported political activity, religious participation, and verified voting activity in U.S. national elections were collected from 105 participants, who were subsequently exposed to a standardized (nonpolitical) psychosocial stressor. We demonstrated that lower baseline salivary cortisol in the late afternoon was significantly associated with increased actual voting frequency in six national elections, but not with self-reported non-voting political activity. Baseline cortisol predicted significant variation in voting behavior above and beyond variation accounted for by traditional demographic variables (particularly age of participant in our sample). Participation in religious activity was weakly (and negatively) associated with baseline cortisol. Our results suggest that HPA-mediated characteristics of social, cognitive, and emotional processes may exert an influence on a trait as complex as voting behavior, and that cortisol is a better predictor of actual voting behavior, as opposed to self-reported political activity.

  17. Effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health in servicemen.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong-Tao; Sun, Xin-Yang; Yang, Ting-Shu; Zhang, Li-Yi; Yang, Jia-Lin; Bai, Jing

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on serum cortisol level and mental health and explore the correlations between them in servicemen. A total of 149 out of the 207 Chinese servicemen were randomly selected to go through 24hour sleep deprivation, leaving the rest (58) as the control group, before and after which their blood samples were drawn for cortisol measurement. Following the procedure, all the participants were administered the Military Personnel Mental Disorder Prediction Scale, taking the military norm as baseline. The results revealed that the post-deprivation serum cortisol level was positively correlated with the factor score of mania in the sleep deprivation group (rSp=0.415, p<0.001). Sleep deprivation could significantly increase serum cortisol level and may affect mental health in servicemen. The increase of serum cortisol level is significantly related to mania disorder during sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Mathew A.; Cox, Simon R.; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood – as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability – upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies. PMID:28140738

  19. Stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, and cortisol levels in older age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-02-21

    The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45 min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.

  20. Effect of giving birth on the cortisol level in a bonobo groups' (Pan paniscus) saliva.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Clauss, Wolfgang; Hachenburger, Katja; Kuchar, Alexandra; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter

    2009-04-01

    This study documents the cortisol levels in the saliva of a bonobo group, especially that of a bonobo female which had given birth for the first time. During a long study in Zoological Garden Frankfurt, Germany, a bonobo baby was born on 3 August 2007. Due to the fission-fusion keeping system employed, the bonobos were divided into two groups on this day. Their behavior was observed regularly and saliva was also collected. The bonobos had been trained to chew cotton wool and to give back the samples. The cortisol response was tested twice a day before birth and three times on the day of parturition. Before birth, no observable indication behavior was seen, but an increase in the cortisol concentration of the expectant mother was found. Parturition occurred at 8 pm. The next morning, the group with the newborn was visibly more active, which correlated with the fact that their cortisol levels were increased in the morning in comparison to the second group. During the day, cortisol decreased in both groups, only it was higher throughout the day in the new mother. In the evening, the two groups showed nearly the same cortisol levels. These data indicate that there is indeed a relation between observable behavior and the cortisol level in bonobo saliva. Therefore, the cortisol level can be regarded as a suitable indicator for verifying behavioral events.

  1. The role of early cortisol level in the assessment of the radicality of resection in central Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Masopust, Vaclav; Netuka, David; Horinek, Daniel; Kosak, Mikulas; Hana, Vaclav; Krsek, Michal

    2016-07-01

    To increase radicality and avoid surgical complications new treatment options are under investigation. One of the promising possibilities is to assess early morning cortisol levels on the first and second postoperative day. We enrolled 34 patients (9 males, 25 females) diagnosed with Cushing's disease. Blood samples to determine cortisol level were taken always at 06:00 and sent to the lab. The samples were taken on the first and second postoperative day. For all patients, standard four-handed, a bi-nostril endoscopic endonasal technique was used. Endocrinological follow-up (6-34 months) was performed using morning cortisol sampling. In total, 36 patients (88%) were disease-free post-surgery. In the group with early postoperative levels of morning cortisol of less than 463 nmol/L, only 2 of 29 patients (7%) exceeded the final morning level of cortisol at follow-up. In patients with early postoperative cortisol levels between 17 nmol/l and 234 nmol/l all subjects showed normal postoperative cortisol levels. In 30 of 34 patients (88%), the level of cortisol was within normal limits. The prediction importance of early measurement of cortisol is 93% for patients with early postoperative cortisol levels of less than 463 nmol/L. The prediction importance of early measurement of cortisol is 100% for patients with early postoperative cortisol levels from 17 to 234 nmol/L. The monitoring of early morning cortisol levels seems to be an important tool in the management of central Cushing's disease.

  2. Effects of long-term cortisol treatments on gonadal development, sex steroids levels and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso.

    PubMed

    Poursaeid, Samaneh; Falahatkar, Bahram; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Van Der Kraak, Glen

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cortisol implantations on gonadal development, sex steroid levels, and ovarian cortisol content in cultured great sturgeon Huso huso. Three groups of 5 fish for each treatment were considered. The experimental groups included: control (capsules containing cocoa butter alone), low cortisol (C(5); 5mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter) and, high cortisol (C(50); 50mg cortisol/kg body mass+cocoa butter). The capsules containing hormones and cocoa butter were intraperitoneally implanted into 3-year-old female fish at pre-vitellogenic stage (mean initial body mass 6809.7 ± 73 g) every 6 weeks over a 6-month period from January to June. The serum levels of cortisol, glucose, cholesterol and sex steroids (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) were determined at the initial time and three weeks after each implantation. Oocyte histological characteristics (the diameter and area of the oocyte, the diameter and area of the nucleus and the ratio of the nucleus area to the oocyte area) were measured at the end of the experiment and compared to those at the initial time. Ovarian cortisol content was measured at the end of the experiment. The results showed that serum cortisol levels varied in a dose-independent manner, so that the highest cortisol concentrations were observed in C(5)-treated fish throughout the experiment. Serum glucose levels were significantly higher in cortisol-treated groups than those in the control group. The high dose of cortisol elicited a significant constant increase in serum cholesterol concentrations. Fish implanted with the high cortisol dose showed significant declines in serum testosterone and 17β-estradiol concentrations throughout the experiment. No significant differences were found in oocyte histological characteristics among experimental groups. The cortisol implants elicited a dose-dependent increase in ovarian cortisol content. At the end of trial, body-growth indices were the lowest in

  3. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  5. Salivary cortisol levels and the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Vreeburg, Sophie A; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; DeRijk, Roel H; van Dyck, Richard; Smit, Johannes H; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-09-01

    Depression and anxiety disorders have been associated with hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. However, lower cortisol levels have also been observed in depressed patients. Whether cortisol level predicts the course of these disorders has not been examined in detail. We examined whether salivary cortisol indicators predict the 2-year course of depression and anxiety disorders. Longitudinal data are obtained from 837 participants of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, with a DSM-IV based depressive and/or anxiety disorder at baseline. At baseline, seven saliva samples were obtained, including the 1-h cortisol awakening response, evening cortisol level and a 0.5mg dexamethasone suppression test. At follow-up, DSM-IV based diagnostic interviews and Life Chart Interview integrating diagnostic and symptom trajectories over 2 years were administered to determine an unfavorable course. 41.5% of the respondents had a 2-year unfavorable course trajectory without remission longer than 3 months. Adjusted analyses showed that a lower awakening response was associated with an unfavorable course (RR=0.83, p=0.03). No associations were found between evening cortisol or cortisol suppression after dexamethasone ingestion and an unfavorable course trajectory. Among patients with depressive or anxiety disorders, a lower cortisol awakening response - which may be indicative of underlying exhaustion of the HPA axis - predicted an unfavorable course trajectory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The predictive value of cortisol levels on 2-year course of depression in older persons.

    PubMed

    Kabia, Fatima M; Rhebergen, Didi; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders in older persons are associated with an altered functioning of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA)-axis. In adults, a lower cortisol awakening response is a predictor of a worse prognosis of depression, but to date longitudinal studies in older depressed persons are lacking. We hypothesised that a lower cortisol awakening response is also associated with poorer course of depression in later life. Data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO). Participants with a 6-month Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), who provided 2-year follow-up data, were included (n=246). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between diurnal cortisol levels and depressive status at 2-year follow-up. Both lower (OR=3.54; 95% CI=1.59-7.89) and higher evening cortisol levels (OR=2.41; 95% CI=1.09-5.35) at baseline were associated with poorer prognosis of MDD. Low dexamethasone suppression was associated with poorer course (OR=2.37; 95% CI=1.09-5.16), but failed to reach significance after additional adjustment for severity and chronicity of MDD (OR=1.98; 95% CI=0.89-4.42). Cortisol awakening response was not significantly associated with course. Since smoking has a great impact on cortisol levels, we conducted post-hoc analyses including non-smokers only, indicating that lower evening cortisol levels (OR=2.83, 95% CI=1.31-6.13) predicted unfavourable course. This first longitudinal study on cortisol and prognosis of depression in older persons demonstrates that in particular lower evening cortisol levels may predict poorer course in MDD. This finding may have clinical implications. Evening cortisol values may serve as a marker to identify persons at risk for an unfavourable course. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of adrenocortical insufficiency after pituitary adenoma surgery using postoperative basal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hána, V; JeŽková, J; Kosák, M; Kršek, M; Marek, J; Netuka, D; Hill, M; Hána, V

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to analyze the correlation of early postoperative cortisol levels in patients after transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma surgery compared to the standard dose ACTH test and Insulin tolerance test (ITT) several months later. We retrospectively reviewed data from 94 patients operated for pituitary adenoma in years 2009-2012. The comparison of day 7 (median) postoperative basal cortisol levels and 3.6 months (median) after pituitary adenoma surgery stimulation test - standard dose 250 microg 1-24ACTH test in 83 patients or ITT in 11 patients were performed. All 16 patients with early postoperative cortisol levels >500 nmol/l proved a sufficient response in the stimulation tests. At basal cortisol levels of 370-500 nmol/l the sufficient response was found in 96 % (27/28) of patients. In the postoperative basal cortisol levels 200-370 nmol/l we found a preserved corticotroph axis later on in 88 % (28/32) of cases. Patients with basal cortisol levels 100-200 nmol/l had a maintained corticotroph axis function in 8/11 cases - 73 %. All patients with an early postoperative basal cortisol level above 500 nmol/l proved in the stimulation tests a preserved corticotroph axis function. The interval 370-500 nmol/l showed a minimal risk of postoperative adrenal insufficiency.

  8. Association of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels in serum with periodontal status in older Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ishisaka, Aiko; Ansai, Toshihiro; Soh, Inho; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi; Awano, Shuji; Yoshida, Akihiro; Hamasaki, Tomoko; Sonoki, Kazuo; Takata, Yutaka; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Takehara, Tadamichi

    2008-10-01

    The associations between periodontitis and stress-related steroid hormone levels released by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the association between levels of the stress-related steroid hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) and periodontitis in elderly subjects. A total of 467 subjects participated in this study. Serum cortisol and DHEAS levels were determined, and a medical questionnaire regarding medical conditions and lifestyle was administered. In addition, clinical examinations including probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were conducted. The subjects were divided into tertiles on the basis of periodontitis severity. When the analysis was stratified by smoking status, we found that cortisol levels were significantly higher in those with severe CAL among subjects who had never smoked. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis showed that a higher level of cortisol was significantly associated with greater numbers of sites with severe CAL only in those who had never smoked, while a somewhat weaker association was also observed regarding cortisol/DHEAS ratio. In contrast, the level of DHEAS in serum was not associated with periodontitis. There were significant associations between serum cortisol level, including cortisol/DHEAS ratio, and periodontitis severity in elderly subjects who had never smoked.

  9. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  10. Changes in salivary cortisol levels in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome after adenotonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Guilleminault, Christian; Park, Chan-Soon; Son, Hye-Lim; Lee, Heung-Ku; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Choi, Yong-Sug

    2014-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) activates the stress response system, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The salivary cortisol, as an index of free circulating cortisol levels, may be used as a measure of HPA axis activity. We examined the change in the salivary cortisol level in pediatric OSAS patients before and after adenotonsillectomy (AT). Forty-eight subjects from 80 subjects suspicious of having OSAS were diagnosed with OSAS by overnight PSG, 34 of 48 OSAS patients undergoing AT, and 13 of 34 OSAS patients were finally enrolled prospectively for this study. Before and three months after the AT, the saliva was collected at night before PSG (n-sCor) and in the early morning after PSG (m-sCor) for the measurements of the salivary cortisol level. Children in the study population (n=13) were divided into mild (1< or = AHI <5, n=5), moderate (5 < or = AHI <10, n=3), and severe (AHI > or =10, n=5) OSAS groups. The mean preoperative AHI in the children was 14.7, and the mean postoperative AHI was 0.33. The percentage of children with AHI <1 after AT was 92.3%. Postoperative m-sCor, the difference of cortisol level (sub-sCor: m-sCor minus n-sCor), and the ratio of cortisol level (r-sCor: m-sCor/n-sCor) showed significant difference postoperatively. AT was associated with improvements in PSG and subjective symptoms in pediatric OSAS patients. In addition, these improvements were significantly related to normalization of salivary cortisol level after AT. Although further study on salivary cortisol levels needs to be done, the measurement of salivary cortisol level before and after AT may predict the outcome of AT as a treatment of OSAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo; Chambrone, Leandro

    2013-04-01

    Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP.

  12. Association among stress, salivary cortisol levels, and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Refulio, Zoila; Rocafuerte, Marco; de la Rosa, Manuel; Mendoza, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Chronic periodontitis (CP) seems to be associated with stress and depression, but little information on this possible association is available in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the association among stress, the salivary cortisol level (SCL), and CP. Methods Seventy systemically healthy subjects were included in the study from January to September 2011. Full medical and dental histories were obtained, and the following measurements were recorded: 1) probing depth; 2) clinical attachment level; 3) bleeding on probing; and 4) tooth mobility. Saliva samples were collected for the evaluation of SCL (via a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassay), and all subjects also answered a questionnaire (i.e., the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale). The odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated, and one way analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer method were performed. Results A total of 36 subjects with CP (51.4%) and 34 without CP were evaluated. Of them, all of the subjects with CP and one periodontally healthy subject were diagnosed with depression. Subjects with moderate CP had statistically significantly higher levels of SCL than subjects with a diagnosis of slight CP (P=0.006). Also, subjects with severe CP showed the same outcome when compared to those with slight CP (P=0.012). In addition, 46 subjects presented high SCL whereas 24 had a normal level. CP was found to be correlated with the SCL, with an OR of 4.14 (95% CI, 1.43 to 12.01). Conclusions Subjects with a high SCL and depression may show an increased risk for CP. PMID:23678393

  13. Is there an association between fibromyalgia and below-normal levels of urinary cortisol?

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo–Álvarez, Silvia; Bocos–Terraz, Julia Pilar; Bancalero–Flores, Jose Luis; Pavón–Romero, Lenin; Serrano–Ostariz, Enrique; de Miquel, Cayetano Alegre

    2008-01-01

    Background Adynamia in fibromyalgia (FM) may be an expression of a functional deficit of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and be associated with below-normal levels of urinary cortisol. Our aim was to demonstrate that urinary cortisol was lower in patients with FM than in healthy subjects. Findings We measured urinary cortisol levels for a sample of 47 women aged 29 to 64 years (mean age 53 years), diagnosed with FM 2–3 years previously, and compared the results with those for a control sample of 58 healthy women of a similar age. Samples of 24-hour urine were appropriately collected and levels of urinary cortisol were measured using the fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The mean cortisol value for the women with FM was 65.40 ± 27.10 μg/L, significantly lower than the mean cortisol level for the control group, at 90.83 ± 38.17 μg/L (p < 0.001). Conclusion Our study confirms that women with FM have significantly lower urinary cortisol levels than healthy women. PMID:19102778

  14. Elevated repetitive behaviors are associated with lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gabriels, Robin L; Agnew, John A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Holt, Katherine D; Reynolds, Ann; Laudenslager, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    Previously, we reported a subgroup of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) had consistently high rates of repetitive behaviors (RBs) with abnormal sensory sensitivity. Given evidence of lower cortisol levels in response to stress and associated sensory sensitivity in the ASD population, this pilot study evaluates whether the presence of RBs reflects an underlying pathophysiology related to cortisol regulation. Diurnal salivary cortisol from 21 children with ASD and high versus low occurrence RBs were collected at four time points over three consecutive days. Although a typical decline in salivary cortisol was observed, participants in the high RB group showed 36% lower diurnal salivary cortisol than the low RB group. Age, IQ, RB type, and sleep quality were unrelated to observed differences. These findings suggest that RBs may serve to mitigate distress or that the glucocorticoid system has been down regulated in association with prolonged distress in this sample population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Familial Longevity Is Marked by Lower Diurnal Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Maier, Andrea B.; Pijl, Hanno; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; van der Grond, Jeroen; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Heemst, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background Reported findings are inconsistent whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) signaling becomes hyperactive with increasing age, resulting in increasing levels of cortisol. Our previous research strongly suggests that offspring from long-lived families are biologically younger. In this study we assessed whether these offspring have a lower HPA axis activity, as measured by lower levels of cortisol and higher cortisol feedback sensitivity. Methods Salivary cortisol levels were measured at four time points within the first hour upon awakening and at two time points in the evening in a cohort comprising 149 offspring and 154 partners from the Leiden Longevity Study. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed as a measure of cortisol feedback sensitivity. Age, gender and body mass index, smoking and disease history (type 2 diabetes and hypertension) were considered as possible confounding factors. Results Salivary cortisol secretion was lower in offspring compared to partners in the morning (Area Under the Curve = 15.6 versus 17.1 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.048) and in the evening (Area Under the Curve = 3.32 versus 3.82 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.024). Salivary cortisol levels were not different after dexamethasone (0.5 mg) suppression between offspring and partners (4.82 versus 5.26 nmol/L, respectively; p = 0.28). Conclusion Offspring of nonagenarian siblings are marked by a lower HPA axis activity (reflected by lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels), but not by a difference in cortisol feedback sensitivity. Further in-depth studies aimed at characterizing the HPA axis in offspring and partners are needed. PMID:22348049

  16. Enhanced memory for emotional material following stress-level cortisol treatment in humans.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, T W; Lovallo, W R

    2001-04-01

    Memory tends to be better for emotionally arousing information than for neutral information. Evidence from animal studies indicates that corticosteroids may be necessary for this memory enhancement to occur. We extend these findings to human memory performance. Following administration of cortisol (20 mg) or placebo, participants were exposed to pictures varying in emotional arousal. Incidental memory for the pictures was assessed one week later. We show that elevated cortisol levels during memory encoding enhances the long-term recall performance of emotionally arousing pictures relative to neutral pictures. These results extend previous work on corticosteroid enhancement of memory and suggest that high cortisol levels during arousing events result in enhanced memory in humans.

  17. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  18. Effects of Anosognosia on Perceived Stress and Cortisol Levels in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arsenault-Lapierre, Genevieve; Whitehead, Victor; Lupien, Sonia; Chertkow, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Anosognosia, or unawareness of one's own cognitive deficits, may cause issues when measuring perceived stress and cortisol levels in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The goal of this study was to examine the effects of anosognosia on perceived stress and salivary cortisol levels in normal elderly (NE) adults, MCI individuals, newly diagnosed AD patients, and long-lasting AD patients, suspected to show more anosognosia. An anosognosia index for perceived stress was computed by subtracting the score on the Perceived Stress Scale measured in the participants and their relative. Cortisol levels were measured four times a day over two nonconsecutive days. Greater anosognosia for dementia correlated with greater anosognosia for perceived stress in the group as a whole. However, no correlation between cortisol levels and either anosognosia for dementia or perceived stress was observed. Our results suggest that measuring perceived stress in AD patients may be influenced by anosognosia. PMID:22500245

  19. Low cortisol levels and the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency.

    PubMed

    van Honk, Jack; Schutter, Dennis J L G; Hermans, Erno J; Putman, Peter

    2003-10-27

    The neuro-endocrinological basis of psychopathy, a disorder characterized by lack of fear, is relatively unknown. However, low levels of cortisol may result in fearlessness and have been observed in individuals with psychopathic tendencies. Low fear models state that psychopaths are not motivated to avoid punishment, especially when reward is pending. In agreement, disadvantageous decision making on the IOWA gambling task in psychopaths and psychopathic analogous, indicates low punishment sensitivity and high reward dependency. Here, it was investigated whether low basal cortisol levels predicted the balance between punishment sensitivity and reward dependency in the same manner. As hypothesized, the most disadvantageous pattern of decision making was found in the subjects with the lowest cortisol levels. These findings suggest that low levels of cortisol may set the balance between the sensitivity for punishment and reward dependency towards a pre-disposition for psychopathy.

  20. Cognitive ability across the life course and cortisol levels in older age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Mathew A; Cox, Simon R; Brett, Caroline E; Deary, Ian J; MacLullich, Alasdair M J

    2017-11-01

    Elevated cortisol levels have been hypothesized to contribute to cognitive aging, but study findings are inconsistent. In the present study, we examined the association between salivary cortisol in older age and cognitive ability across the life course. We used data from 370 members of the 36-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947, who underwent cognitive testing at age 11 years and were then followed up at around age 78 years, completing further cognitive tests and providing diurnal salivary cortisol samples. We hypothesized that higher cortisol levels would be associated with lower cognitive ability in older age and greater cognitive decline from childhood to older age but also lower childhood cognitive ability. Few of the tested associations were significant, and of those that were, most suggested a positive relationship between cortisol and cognitive ability. Only 1 cognitive measure showed any sign of cortisol-related impairment. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no results remained significant. These findings suggest that cortisol may not play an important role in cognitive aging across the life course. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Cortisol levels, binding, and properties of corticosteroid-binding globulin in the serum of primates.

    PubMed

    Klosterman, L L; Murai, J T; Siiteri, P K

    1986-01-01

    New World primates have exceptionally high plasma levels of cortisol and other steroid hormones when compared with humans and other primates. It has been suggested that this difference can be explained by either low affinity or concentration of cellular steroid receptors. We have assessed cortisol availability in serum from several species of New and Old World primates under physiological conditions (whole serum at 37 degrees C). Measurements were made of total and free cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding capacity and affinity for cortisol, distribution of cortisol in serum, and its binding to albumin. In agreement with earlier reports, plasma free cortisol levels in Old World primates, prosimians, and humans range from 10-300 nM. However, very high total plasma cortisol together with low CBG binding capacity and affinity result in free cortisol concentrations of 1-4 microM in some New World primates (squirrel monkey and marmosets) but not in others such as the titi and capuchin. In squirrel monkeys, free cortisol levels are far greater than might be predicted from the affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor estimated in cultured skin fibroblasts. In addition to low affinity, CBG from squirrel monkeys and other New World primates exhibits differences in electrophoretic mobility and sedimentation behavior in sucrose density ultracentrifugation, suggestive of a molecular weight that is approximately twice that of CBG from other species. Together with other data these results indicate that the apparent glucocorticoid resistance found in New World primates is a complex phenomenon that is not easily explained by present concepts of glucocorticoid action.

  2. Oral midazolam reduces cortisol levels during local anaesthesia in children: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Heloisa Sousa; Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Paiva, Saul Martins; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas; Batista, Aline Carvalho; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.

  3. Early psychosocial adversity and cortisol levels in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Nilsson, Kent W; Lindblad, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest a different regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) with lower diurnal cortisol levels, especially in the morning, in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with controls. Since exposure to foetal and childhood psychosocial adversity has been associated with both ADHD and HPA-axis functioning, such exposures may explain these low cortisol levels in ADHD via early programming of the HPA-axis. Thus, our main aim was to retrospectively study foetal and early childhood exposures to psychosocial adversity in children with ADHD and to relate these exposures to cortisol levels. Saliva samples were collected during a regular weekday in children, 6-17 years old, with clinically confirmed ADHD (n = 197) and non-affected comparisons (n = 221) for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol. Parental rating scales were used for categorising subtypes of ADHD and degree of exposure to adversity. Children with ADHD had more reports of at least one rated foetal adversity (p = 0.041) and childhood adversity (p < 0.001) than comparisons. The association between low morning cortisol levels and ADHD-symptoms remained when analyses were adjusted for adversities, age, sex, sampling time and symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder. No relation was found between exposures to foetal/childhood adversity and cortisol levels except for a positive relation between childhood adversity and cortisol morning increase in children with ADHD. The hypothesis that early adversity may influence the HPA-axis, leading to lower cortisol levels in children with ADHD, was not supported by our findings.

  4. Hair as a Meaningful Measure of Baseline Cortisol Levels over Time in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Heather M; Adams, Amanda G; Invik, Rosemary M; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Smits, Judit EG

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol measurements of hair are becoming a valuable tool in monitoring chronic stress. To further validate this approach in domestic dogs, we compared the variability of cortisol immunoreactivity in hair with that in saliva and feces of dogs housed under constant social and physical conditions. Fecal (n = 268), and hair (n = 21) samples were collected over 3 mo from 7 dogs housed in a kennel and kept for training veterinary students in minimally invasive procedures. Salivary samples (n = 181) were collected 3 times daily twice weekly during the last month of the study. Hair and salivary samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay and feces by radioimmunoassay. HPLC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to confirm the presence of cortisol in 3 hair samples. Variability of cortisol was compared across sample types by using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by paired t tests. Within dogs, cortisol immunoreactivity was less variable in hair than in saliva or feces. Averaged over time, the variability of fecal samples approached that of hair when feces were collected at least 4 times monthly. As predicted, the stable social and environmental condition of the dogs maintained repeatability over time and supported the hypothesis that data from hair samples reflect baseline cortisol levels. These findings indicate that determining cortisol immunoreactivity in hair is a more practical approach than is using samples of saliva or feces in monitoring the effects of long-term stressors such as social or physical environments and disease progression. PMID:23562104

  5. [Stress among nurses: an examination of salivary cortisol levels on work and day off].

    PubMed

    Pires da Rocha, Maria Cecília; Figueiredo de Martino, Milva Maria; Grassi-Kassisse, Dora Maria; Luiz de Souza, Aglécio

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluates the use of salivary cortisol concentration as a physiological index of the stress level among nurses on their work day and day off and correlates it with the questionnaire used to measure occupational stress in nurses (Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros - IEE). This is a comparative, cross-sectional descriptive study in which sociodemographic data, IEE results and salivary cortisol levels were used. Fifty-seven nurses participated in the study (80.7% females and a mean age of 37.1 years old). The IEE average score was 124.5. The average cortisol level was 564.1 ng/m on work day and 354.1 ng/mL on day off. Nurses who had double workdays presented high values of salivary cortisol during the work day (638.1 ng/mL). In conclusion, salivary cortisol identified the nurses' stress level, and differences were found between a work day and day off. On the nurses' day off, their salivary cortisol levels and stress scores were lower.

  6. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. Methods During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Results Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Conclusions Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. PMID:26219886

  7. Childhood abuse is associated with increased hair cortisol levels among urban pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Ritz, Thomas; Gennings, Chris; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-12-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is known to be altered following events such as childhood abuse. However, despite potential adverse consequences for the offspring of women who have experienced abuse, very little is known about altered HPA axis activity during pregnancy. During pregnancy, 180 women from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds reported on their exposure to emotional, physical and/or sexual abuse before the age of 11, and general post-traumatic stress symptoms (ie, not limited to childhood years or abuse experiences). Around delivery, they provided hair samples for the assessment of cortisol levels during pregnancy. Hair cortisol was assessed for each pregnancy trimester. The effect of childhood abuse on hair cortisol was assessed using mixed-effects analyses of covariance models allowing for within-subject correlated observations, and were first performed in the entire sample and subsequently stratified by race/ethnicity. Controlling for post-traumatic stress symptoms, hair cortisol levels varied by history of child abuse, F(2,166)=3.66, p=0.028. Childhood physical and/or sexual abuse was associated with greater hair cortisol levels, t(166)=2.65, p=0.009, compared with no history of abuse. Because childhood rates of abuse and hair cortisol levels varied by race/ethnicity, analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity. The associations between history of abuse and cortisol levels were only significant among black women, F(2,23)=5.37, p=0.012. Childhood abuse, especially physical and/or sexual abuse, is associated with differences in cortisol production during pregnancy, particularly among black women. Future research should investigate how these differences impact physical and mental health outcomes among offspring of affected women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Circulating maternal cortisol levels during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Stjernholm, Ylva Vladic; Nyberg, Annie; Cardell, Monica; Höybye, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    Maternal S-cortisol levels increase throughout pregnancy and peak in the third trimester. Even higher levels are seen during the physical stress of delivery. Since analgesia for women in labor has improved, it is possible that maternal stress during labor is reduced. The aim of this study was to compare maternal S-cortisol during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section. Twenty healthy women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and healthy women (n = 20) undergoing elective cesarean section were included in the study. S-cortisol was measured during three stages of spontaneous vaginal delivery (tvd1, tvd2 and tvd3), as well as before and after elective cesarean section (tcs1 and tcs2). In the vaginal delivery group, mean S-cortisol at tvd1 was 1325 ± 521 nmol/L, at tvd2 1559 ± 591 nmol/L and at tvd3 1368 ± 479 nmol/L. In the cesarean section group, mean S-cortisol at tcs1 was 906 ± 243 nmol/L and at tcs2 831 ± 257 nmol/L. S-cortisol was higher in the vaginal delivery group at the onset of labor as compared to the cesarean section preoperative group (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences between S-cortisol levels postpartum as compared to postoperatively (p < 0.001). Maternal S-cortisol was higher during vaginal delivery compared to elective cesarean section, indicating higher stress levels. A reduction in the hydrocortisone dose at childbirth in women with adrenal insufficiency should be considered, particularly in women undergoing an elective cesarean section.

  9. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  10. Level Sensor for Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, N. E.; Schroff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Hot wire sensor combined with voltage-comparator circuit monitors liquid level in cryogenic-fluid storage tanks. Sensor circuit adaptable to different liquids and sensors. Constant-current source drives current through sensing probe and fixed resistor. Voltage comparator circuits interpret voltage drops to tell whether probe is immersed in liquid and is current in probe.

  11. Born to yawn? Understanding yawning as a warning of the rise in cortisol levels: randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon Bn; Bishop, Phil

    2012-09-20

    Yawning consistently poses a conundrum to the medical profession and neuroscientists. Despite neurological evidence such as parakinesia brachialis oscitans in stroke patients and thermo-irregulation in multiple sclerosis patients, there is considerable debate over the reasons for yawning with the mechanisms and hormonal pathways still not fully understood. Cortisol is implicated during yawning and may link many neurological disorders. Evidence was found in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that proposes cortisol levels are elevated during yawning just as they tend to rise during stress and fatigue. To investigate whether saliva cortisol levels rise during yawning and, therefore, support the Thompson cortisol hypothesis. We exposed 20 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 53 years to conditions that provoked a yawning response in a randomized controlled trial. Saliva samples were collected at the start and again after the yawning response, or at the end of the stimuli presentations if the participant did not yawn. In addition, we collected electromyographic data of the jaw muscles to determine rest and yawning phases of neural activity. Yawning susceptibility scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and demographic and health details were also collected from each participant. A comprehensive data set allowed comparison between yawners and nonyawners, as well as between rest and yawning phases. Collecting electromyographic data from the yawning phase is novel, and we hope this will provide new information about neuromuscular activity related to cortisol levels. Exclusion criteria included chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart conditions, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. We compared data between and within participants. In the yawning group, there was a significant difference between saliva cortisol samples (t10 = -3.071, P = .01). Power and effect size were

  12. Born to Yawn? Understanding Yawning as a Warning of the Rise in Cortisol Levels: Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Background Yawning consistently poses a conundrum to the medical profession and neuroscientists. Despite neurological evidence such as parakinesia brachialis oscitans in stroke patients and thermo-irregulation in multiple sclerosis patients, there is considerable debate over the reasons for yawning with the mechanisms and hormonal pathways still not fully understood. Cortisol is implicated during yawning and may link many neurological disorders. Evidence was found in support of the Thompson cortisol hypothesis that proposes cortisol levels are elevated during yawning just as they tend to rise during stress and fatigue. Objectives To investigate whether saliva cortisol levels rise during yawning and, therefore, support the Thompson cortisol hypothesis. Methods We exposed 20 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 53 years to conditions that provoked a yawning response in a randomized controlled trial. Saliva samples were collected at the start and again after the yawning response, or at the end of the stimuli presentations if the participant did not yawn. In addition, we collected electromyographic data of the jaw muscles to determine rest and yawning phases of neural activity. Yawning susceptibility scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, General Health Questionnaire, and demographic and health details were also collected from each participant. A comprehensive data set allowed comparison between yawners and nonyawners, as well as between rest and yawning phases. Collecting electromyographic data from the yawning phase is novel, and we hope this will provide new information about neuromuscular activity related to cortisol levels. Exclusion criteria included chronic fatigue, diabetes, fibromyalgia, heart conditions, high blood pressure, hormone replacement therapy, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. We compared data between and within participants. Results In the yawning group, there was a significant difference between saliva cortisol samples (t 10 = –3

  13. [Blood serum cortisol level in children with palatine and pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy].

    PubMed

    Soboczyński, A; Grzegorowski, M; Ryglewicz, M; Wesołowski, Z

    1979-01-01

    Because the etiopathogenesis of the Waldeyer's ring hypertrophy is not fully recognized, evaluation of adrenal cortex function in this disorders was made. Serum cortisol level was determined by sulfuric acid fluorescence under resting conditions and 3 hours after ACTH injection. Investigations were performed on 20 children, aged 5-9 years, in all of them a marked hypertrophy of palatine and pharyngeal tonsils was found. These children were divided into two groups, the first one included 11 children with frequent angina and the second group consisted of 9 children with serious difficulties in breathing, but without angina. In these groups serum cortisol levels were estimated before and 3-4 months post tonsilectomy or adenotomy. 11 healthy children of the similar age were included into a control group. It was found that in the first group (hypertrophy and frequent angina) initial resting and ACTH stimulated cortisol levels were statistically significantly higher than in the control group. In the same group 3-4 months post surgery serum cortisol levels were lower and similar to those found in control group. On the contrary, in children of the second group (hypertrophy without angina) the resting and ACTH stimulated serum cortisol levels were lower than in control group and these levels did not change 3-4 months after surgery.

  14. Effect of Self-Management Intervention on Cortisol and Daily Stress Levels in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Deechakawan, Wimon; Cain, Kevin C.; Jarrett, Monica E.; Burr, Robert L.; Heitkemper, Margaret M.

    2013-01-01

    Self-management programs that include cognitive behavioral strategies have been shown to improve gastrointestinal symptoms, psychological distress, and quality of life in persons with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, less is known about the physiological impact of such a change. As part of a randomized controlled trial using a Comprehensive Self-Management (CSM) intervention (n = 126) compared to Usual Care (UC) (n = 62), cortisol levels were measured in four weekly first morning urine samples at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 month follow-up. In addition, diary (28 days) ratings of stress were recorded at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The omnibus test of all three outcome times showed no differences in urine cortisol levels between CSM and UC groups (p = .400); however, at 3 months the CSM group had significantly higher cortisol levels than the UC group (p = .012). The CSM group reported lower daily stress levels (p = .046 from omnibus test of all three time points) than UC, with the effect getting stronger over time. Despite marked improvements in reported stress and previously reported gastrointestinal and psychological distress symptoms at later follow-ups, the CSM program did not reduce urine cortisol levels in adults with IBS. These results suggest that the first void urine cortisol levels are not reflective of self reported daily stress in this patient population. PMID:21765120

  15. Linking Plasma Cortisol Levels to Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Charlotte A.C.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Corsi-Travali, Stefani; Neumeister, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent confirmatory factor analytic studies of the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that this disorder may be best characterized by five symptom dimensions—re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in PTSD and has been attributed to enhanced glucocorticoid responsiveness. However, little is known about how altered HPA-axis function is related to this contemporary phenotypic model of PTSD. Methods We compared morning plasma cortisol levels of drug-free civilian adults with PTSD (N=29) to trauma-exposed (TC; N=12) and non trauma-exposed healthy controls (HC; N=23). We then examined the relation between cortisol levels and a contemporary 5-factor ‘dysphoric arousal’ model of PTSD symptoms among individuals with PTSD. Results After adjustment for white race/ethnicity, education, lifetime alcohol use disorder, and current smoking status, the PTSD (Cohen’s d=1.1) and TC (Cohen’s d=1.3) groups had significantly lower cortisol levels than the HC group; cortisol levels did not differ between the TC and PTSD groups. Except for age (r=−.46), none of the other demographic, trauma-related, or clinical variables, including lifetime mood/anxiety disorder and severity of current depressive and anxiety symptoms, were associated with cortisol levels. In a stepwise linear regression analysis, age (β= −.44) and severity of emotional numbing symptoms (β= −.35) were independently associated with cortisol levels in the PTSD group; none of the other PTSD symptom clusters or depression symptoms were significant. Post-hoc analyses revealed that severity of the emotional numbing symptom of restricted range of affect (i.e., unable to have loving feelings) was independently related to cortisol levels (β= −.35). Conclusion These results suggest that trauma-exposed civilian adults with and without PTSD have significantly lower cortisol

  16. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with reduced childhood IQ

    PubMed Central

    LeWinn, Kaja Z; Stroud, Laura R; Molnar, Beth E; Ware, James H; Koenen, Karestan C; Buka, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    Background In animal models, there is evidence to suggest a causal link between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and offspring outcomes; however, evidence for this relationship in humans is inconclusive. We address important confounders of this association by estimating the relationship between maternal cortisol levels in late pregnancy and childhood IQ in a birth cohort and in a subsample of siblings. Methods This study included 832 children who were members of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Maternal serum collected between 1959 and 1966 during the third trimester of pregnancy was analysed for free cortisol. We investigated the relationship between maternal cortisol in quintiles and full, verbal and performance scale scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7 years, adjusting for prenatal and family characteristics. We repeated this analysis among 74 discordant sibling pairs using a fixed effects approach, which adjusts for shared family characteristics. Results Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to full-scale IQ, an effect driven by verbal IQ scores. Compared with those in the lowest quintile of cortisol exposure, the verbal IQ of children in the highest quintile of exposure was 3.83 points lower [95% confidence interval (CI): −6.44 to −1.22]. Within sibling pairs, being in the highest quintile of exposure was associated with verbal IQ scores 5.5 points lower (95% CI: −11.24 to 0.31) compared with the other quintiles. Conclusion These findings are consistent with prior human and animal studies, and suggest that exposure to high levels of maternal cortisol during pregnancy may be negatively related to offspring cognitive skills independently of family attributes that characterize the postnatal environment. PMID:19423658

  17. Prenatal and Postpartum Evening Salivary Cortisol Levels in Association with Peripartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iliadis, Stavros I.; Comasco, Erika; Sylvén, Sara; Hellgren, Charlotte; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2015-01-01

    Background The biology of peripartum depression remains unclear, with altered stress and the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal axis response having been implicated in its pathophysiology. Methods The current study was undertaken as a part of the BASIC project (Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging, Cognition), a population-based longitudinal study of psychological wellbeing during pregnancy and the postpartum period in Uppsala County, Sweden, in order to assess the association between evening salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptoms in the peripartum period. Three hundred and sixty-five pregnant women from the BASIC cohort were recruited at pregnancy week 18 and instructed to complete a Swedish validated version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at the 36th week of pregnancy as well as the sixth week after delivery. At both times, they were also asked to provide evening salivary samples for cortisol analysis. A comprehensive review of the relevant literature is also provided. Results Women with postpartum EPDS score ≥ 10 had higher salivary evening cortisol at six weeks postpartum compared to healthy controls (median cortisol 1.19 vs 0.89 nmol/L). A logistic regression model showed a positive association between cortisol levels and depressive symptoms postpartum (OR = 4.1; 95% CI 1.7–9.7). This association remained significant even after controlling for history of depression, use of tobacco, partner support, breastfeeding, stressful life events, and sleep problems, as possible confounders (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.5–14.1). Additionally, women with postpartum depressive symptoms had higher postpartum cortisol levels compared to both women with depressive symptoms antenatally and controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusions Women with depressive symptoms postpartum had higher postpartum cortisol levels, indicating an altered response of the HPA-axis in postpartum depression. PMID:26322643

  18. Medical Clowns and Cortisol levels in Children Undergoing Venipuncture in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rimon, Ayelet; Shalom, Shelly; Wolyniez, Ido; Gruber, Alejandro; Schachter-Davidov, Anita; Glatstein, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Medical clowns are increasingly used for diminishing pain and anxiety during painful procedures being performed on children in the hospital setting. Cortisol levels rise as a response to emotional distress. To investigate whether medical clown-assisted interventions to reduce child's distress during venipuncture have an effect on cortisol levels. During a 1 year period, children requiring blood work or intravenous access in the pediatric emergency department were prospectively randomized to either the presence or absence of a medical clown during the procedure. The child's distress was evaluated using the Faces Pain Scale - revised (FPS-R) for the 4-7 year age group and the visual analog scales (VAS) for those aged 8-15 years. Serum cortisol levels were measured in blood samples obtained by venipuncture. Fifty-three children aged 2-15 years were randomly assigned to the study group (with medical clown, n=29) or to the control group (without medical clown, n=24). Combined pain scores of the study group and control group were 2.2 and 7.5 respectively (P < 0.001). No difference in mean cortisol levels was found between the study group and the control group at all ages (16.4 µg/dl vs. 18.3 µg/dl, P = 0.65). In this pilot study, medical clowns reduced the distress from venipuncture in children. No effect on cortisol levels was observed.

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms, Salivary Cortisol and Cytokine Levels in Young Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Cloak, Christine C; Alicata, Daniel; Ernst, Thomas M; Chang, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Psychological maturation continues into young adulthood when substance abuse and several psychiatric disorders often emerge. Marijuana is the most common illicit drug abused by youths, typically preceding other illicit substances. We aimed to evaluate the complex and poorly studied relationships between marijuana use, psychiatric symptoms, and cortisol levels in young marijuana users. Psychiatric symptoms and salivary cortisol were measured in 122 youths (13-23 years old) with and without marijuana use. Psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Symptom-Checklist-90-R and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Mid-day salivary cortisol levels were measured. Additionally, salivary cytokine levels were measured in a subset of participants. Although the cortisol levels and salivary cytokine levels were similar, the young marijuana users had more self-reported and clinician rated psychiatric symptoms than controls, especially anxiety-associated symptoms. Moreover, marijuana users with earlier age of first use had more symptoms, while those with longer abstinence had fewer symptoms. Greater cumulative lifetime marijuana use was also associated with greater psychiatric symptoms. The discordant anxiety (feeling stressed or anxious despite normal cortisol) in the marijuana users, as well as symptom exacerbations with early and continued marijuana use in young marijuana users suggest that marijuana use may contribute to an aberrant relationship between stress response and psychiatric symptoms. The greater symptomatology, especially in those with earlier initiation and greater marijuana usage, emphasize the need to intervene for substance use and perceived anxiety in this population. PMID:25875137

  20. Daily or thrice weekly handling of eland antelope (Taurotragus oryx): effects on serum cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Pennington, P M; Pope, C E; MacLean, R A; Galiguis, J; Gentry, L R; Godke, R A; Wirtu, G

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the cortisol response of adult female eland (n=8) that were handled in hydraulic chute daily or 3×/week. Females were divided into two groups and each group (n=4) successively received two estrous cycle synchronization treatments: (1) two injections of prostaglandin (PG-PG) F2α at 11 day intervals and (2) oral administration of altrenogest for 7 days and an injection of PGF2α on day 7 (Alt-PG). Blood samples were collected 3×/week during the synchronization (Synch) and expected luteal phase (Nonintensive) periods, and daily during the expected time of induced (Intensive 1) or natural (Intensive 2) estrus. Overall, mean cortisol levels were highest during Intensive 1, followed by Intensive 2, Synch and Nonintensive periods. Individual eland were the most significant source of variation for cortisol level. The frequency of handling and the synchronization treatment significantly affected cortisol levels in 3/8 and 4/8 females, respectively. In conclusion, in response to increased frequency of handling, eland cortisol levels rose transiently and returned to baseline within few days after more intensive handling. Thus, the eland females were tolerant to and recovered from the effects of repeated daily handling.

  1. Influence of chewing and clenching on salivary cortisol levels as an indicator of stress.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Yasuaki; Sakurai, Kaoru; Ando, Tomohiko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chewing and clenching on salivary cortisol levels as an indicator of stress. Seventeen healthy dentulous subjects were given arithmetic exercises to perform within a 20-minute time limit in order to elicit stress (stress loading). In the first experiment (chewing), after stress loading, the subjects were asked to chew a paraffin wax while reading printed material (books, magazines, etc.) in silence for 10 minutes. The same procedure was then carried out again for control purposes, but this time the subjects were not required to chew wax. In the second experiment (light clenching), after stress loading, the subjects were required to carry out 5 seconds of light clenching followed by 5 seconds of rest repeatedly over a 3-minute period. The whole 3-minute process was repeated a total of three times. The control data for this second experiment consisted of measurements taken during the rest periods. Saliva specimens were collected in both experiments both before stress loading and after each procedure during 1-minute intervals to measure cortisol levels. In the chewing experiment, salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced by chewing, compared with those in the controls (p < 0.05). This reduction in salivary cortisol was observed during chewing over a 10-minute period following stress loading. In the clenching experiment, salivary cortisol levels also showed a significant reduction during clenching, compared with those in the controls (p < 0.05). These results suggest that chewing and clenching promote relaxation in subjects under stress.

  2. Comparison of Serum Cortisol and Testosterone Levels in Acute and Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Natung, Tanie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the levels of serum cortisol and testosterone in acute and chronic central serous chorio-retinopathy (CSC). Methods Serum cortisol and testosterone levels in 30 patients with either acute or chronic CSC were evaluated using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Results The mean age was 42.43 ± 6.37 years (range, 32 to 56 years). The mean 8:00 to 9.00 a.m. serum cortisol level was 12.61 ± 4.74 µg/dL (range, 6.58 to 27.42 µg/dL). The mean serum testosterone level was 5.88 ± 1.57 ng/dL (range, 2.81 to 9.94 ng/dL). The mean visual acuity was 20 / 65.07 ± 40.56 (range, 20 / 25 to 20 / 200). There was no statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases (p > 0.05), but there was a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in the two groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions All except one patient in the acute group had normal levels of serum cortisol. Testosterone levels were within the normal range in both the acute and chronic cases of CSC. There is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference in the mean levels of serum cortisol and testosterone between the acute and chronic cases, but there may be a statistically significant difference in the mean presenting visual acuity in these groups. PMID:26635454

  3. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH.

    PubMed

    Schedlowski, M; Wiechert, D; Wagner, T O; Tewes, U

    1992-01-01

    The effects of acute stress during a parachute jump on hormonal responses were studied in 12 experienced and 11 inexperienced military parachutists. Each subject performed two jumps. Prior to and immediately after each jump blood samples were drawn and analysed for plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin, thyrotropin (TSH), somatotropin (STH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). While there was a significant increase in cortisol, prolactin and TSH levels after both jumps, no alterations could be observed in STH and LH levels. Stress-induced hormonal responses were not affected by jump experience. There was also no association between the endocrine variables and anxiety scores.

  4. Early deprivation and home basal cortisol levels: a study of internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Kertes, Darlene A; Gunnar, Megan R; Madsen, Nicole J; Long, Jeffrey D

    2008-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that early deprivation impairs regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, potentially increasing vulnerability to stressors throughout life. To examine early deprivation effects on basal HPA axis activity in humans, basal cortisol levels were examined in 164 internationally adopted children who had experienced varying degrees of preadoption deprivation. Duration of institutional care, age at adoption, and parent ratings of preadoption neglect indexed a latent factor of Deprived Care. Adoption measures of height and weight standardized to World Health Organisation norms indexed a latent factor of Growth Delay that was viewed as another reflection of deprivation. Cortisol samples were collected 3.3-11.6 years postadoption (Md = 7.3 years) at home on 3 days approximately 30 min after wakeup and before bedtime. Both early a.m. levels and the decrease in cortisol across the day were examined. A structural equation model revealed that preadoption Deprived Care predicted Growth Delay at adoption and Growth Delay predicted higher morning cortisol levels and a larger diurnal cortisol decrease.

  5. Cortisol levels six-years after participation in the Family Bereavement Program.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S; Wolchik, Sharlene A

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies have found short-term adrenocortical benefits of early interventions for at-risk children. The current study evaluated the effects of the Family Bereavement Program on cortisol levels six years after the program. Parentally bereaved children were randomly assigned to the 12-week preventive intervention (n=78) or a self-study control (n=61) condition. Six years later (mean age 17.5), salivary cortisol levels were measured before and after a conflict discussion task conducted in late afternoon/early evening. The intervention group had significantly higher cortisol levels across the task compared to the control group, and lower cortisol was associated with higher externalizing symptoms. The group effect did not differ by age at the time of death, and the group difference remained significant after adjustment for pre-intervention mental health and current mental health symptoms. Results suggest that a family-focused intervention for parentally bereaved youth may have prevented the development of attenuated cortisol secretion suggestive of dysregulation and associated with externalizing problems.

  6. Changes in salivary cortisol levels as a prognostic predictor in children with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Ikuhiko; Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Okamura, Hisayoshi; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ozono, Shuichi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in children with anorexia nervosa (AN) before and after inpatient treatment. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to ascertain whether changes in the HPA axis activity following therapeutic intervention could be applicable as a prognostic predictor. This study comprised 21 females with AN and 22 control subjects. Saliva was collected at 2-hour intervals from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. before and after inpatient treatment. The concentrations for areas under the curve (AUC) were compared with physical parameters, eating attitude score, profile of mood states (POMS), and prognostic factors. Mean salivary cortisol levels at all points and mean AUC cortisol levels in subjects with AN before therapy were significantly higher than those in controls, but returned to control levels after inpatient treatment. Higher AUC cortisol levels were associated with lower standard deviation for weight in AN. A significant positive correlation between the AUC cortisol level and POMS subscale of "Fatigue" was apparent in the control group, but not in the AN group. The increased change values of AUC cortisol level before and after inpatient treatment correlated with increased body weight gain ratio just after treatment, but not with the ratio after one year. The present study indicated that HPA axis activity could reflect severity of illness, but did not show an accurate neuroendocrine response for mood states. Changes in HPA axis activity following treatment could therefore be used to predict prognosis and particularly in the short term. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early family and child-care antecedents of awakening cortisol levels in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Roisman, Glenn I; Susman, Elizabeth; Barnett-Walker, Kortnee; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Belsky, Jay; Bradley, Robert H; Houts, Renate; Steinberg, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    This study examined early observed parenting and child-care experiences in relation to functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis over the long term. Consistent with the attenuation hypothesis, individuals (n = 863) who experienced: (a) higher levels of maternal insensitivity and (b) more time in child-care centers in the first 3 years of life had lower awakening cortisol levels at age 15. Associations were small in magnitude. Nonetheless, results were (a) additive in that both higher levels of maternal insensitivity and more experience with center-based care uniquely (but not interactively) predicted lower awakening cortisol, (b) not accounted for by later caregiving experiences measured concurrently with awakening cortisol at age 15 or by early demographic variables, and (c) not moderated by sex or by difficult temperament.

  8. Cortisol levels in hair reflect behavioural reactivity of dogs to acoustic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, M; McFarlane, J R; Kauter, K G; Quaranta, A; Rogers, L J

    2013-02-01

    Cortisol levels in hair samples were examined in fourteen domestic dogs and related to the dogs' responses to different acoustic stimuli. Stimuli were playbacks of species-typical vocalizations recorded during three different situations ("disturbance", "isolation" and "play" barks) and the sounds of a thunderstorm. Hair samples were collected at 9:00 h and 17:00 h two weeks after the behavioural tests. Results showed that behavioural reactivity to playback of the various stimuli correlates with cortisol levels in hair samples collected at 9:00 h, and the same was the case for the separate measures of behaviour (i.e. hiding, running away, seeking attention from the tester, panting and lowering of the body posture). Hence, levels of cortisol in hair appear to reflect the dog's chronic state of emotional reactivity, or temperament.

  9. Child abuse, disruptive behavior disorders, depression, and salivary cortisol levels among institutionalized and community-residing boys in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Hruschka, Daniel J; Kohrt, Holbrook E; Carrion, Victor G; Waldman, Irwin D; Worthman, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity is related to childhood disruptive behavior disorders and to exposure to abuse and neglect. This study explores the relationship of diurnal salivary cortisol levels with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and caregiver attitudes toward physical punishment among boys in Mongolia. Salivary cortisol was collected in the home or institution 4 times daily for 4 days from 46 boys, aged 4-10 years, in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Caregivers rated child disruptive behavior symptoms, attitudes toward physical punishment, and community violence exposures. Mixed effects models were used to estimate the association of psychopathology and caregiver attitudes with salivary cortisol levels. Boys meeting criteria for ODD displayed consistently lower diurnal salivary cortisol levels compared to boys without ODD diagnoses. Controlling for ODD diagnosis, boys with depression showed higher cortisol levels throughout the day. No other diagnosis was associated with cortisol levels. Psychiatric diagnosis accounted for 17% of between individual variations in cortisol levels unexplained by the covariates. In a separate model, caregivers' beliefs regarding physical punishment accounted for 11% of between individual differences: boys with caregivers who stated physical punishment was necessary for discipline displayed hypocortisolism. Institutionalization did not associate with cortisol levels. Salivary cortisol data from a non-Western naturalistic setting support an association of reduced basal HPA activity with disruptive behavior disorders and caregiver attitudes toward discipline. These findings suggest HPA functioning may be a reflection of or mediate disruptive behavior disorders in children across ethnic and cultural settings. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Association between Higher Serum Cortisol Levels and Decreased Insulin Secretion in a General Population

    PubMed Central

    Kamba, Aya; Daimon, Makoto; Murakami, Hiroshi; Otaka, Hideyuki; Matsuki, Kota; Sato, Eri; Tanabe, Jutaro; Takayasu, Shinobu; Matsuhashi, Yuki; Yanagimachi, Miyuki; Terui, Ken; Kageyama, Kazunori; Tokuda, Itoyo; Takahashi, Ippei; Nakaji, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are well known to induce insulin resistance. However, the effect of GCs on insulin secretion has not been well characterized under physiological conditions in human. We here evaluated the effect of GCs on insulin secretion/ß-cell function precisely in a physiological condition. A population-based study of 1,071 Japanese individuals enrolled in the 2014 Iwaki study (390 men, 681 women; aged 54.1 ± 15.1 years), those excluded individuals taking medication for diabetes or steroid treatment, were enrolled in the present study. Association between serum cortisol levels and insulin resistance/secretion assessed by homeostasis model assessment using fasting blood glucose and insulin levels (HOMA-R and HOMA-ß, respectively) were examined. Univariate linear regression analyses showed correlation of serum cortisol levels with HOMA-ß (ß = -0.134, p <0.001) but not with HOMA-R (ß = 0.042, p = 0.172). Adjustments for age, gender, and the multiple clinical characteristics correlated with HOMA indices showed similar results (HOMA-ß: ß = -0.062, p = 0.025; HOMA-R: ß = -0.023, p = 0.394). The correlation between serum cortisol levels and HOMA-ß remained significant after adjustment for HOMA- R (ß = -0.057, p = 0.034). When subjects were tertiled based on serum cortisol levels, the highest tertile was at greater risk of decreased insulin secretion (defined as lower one third of HOMA-ß (≤70)) than the lowest tertile, after adjustment for multiple factors including HOMA- R (odds ratio 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.03–1.54). In conclusion, higher serum cortisol levels are significantly associated with decreased insulin secretion in the physiological cortisol range in a Japanese population. PMID:27861636

  11. [Hormone replacement therapy with transdermal estradiol lowers insulin-cortisol and lipoproteins levels in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Basurto, Lourdes; Saucedo, Renata; Ochoa, Raquel; Hernández, Marcelino; Zárate, Arturo

    2002-10-01

    Increased levels of circulating insulin and cortisol, interpreted as part of aging process, have been associated with an increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Because estrogens affect insulin balance, hypoestrogenism in menopausal women may lead to elevations in both insulin and cortisol. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of transdermal estradiol administration on the insulin-cortisol binomial. A prospective study was carried out in 30 menopausal women aged 48 to 55 yr, receiving transdermal estradiol 50 micrograms/day during three months. Ten healthy menopausal women (49 to 58 yr) were the control group. Serum levels of cortisol, insulin, lipoproteins, and leptin were quantified by specific assays before and after 3 months of transdermal estradiol therapy. Baseline cortisol levels decreased significantly from 143.4 +/- 10.6 ng/mL to 110.2 +/- 6.7 ng/mL (M +/- SE) (p < 0.001) after 3 months of transdermal estradiol. In parallel, augmented baseline insulin levels diminished significantly from 26.1 +/- 2.0 microlitersU/mL to 21.7 +/- 1.2; (M +/- SE) (p < 0.05). Glucose level were unaffected by this therapy, but it was restored to normal the augmented baseline levels of both triglycerides and low-density cholesterol. Total cholesterol and high-density-cholesterol as well as circulating leptin were unchanged. Transdermal estrogen induced-decrease in circulating cortisol, insulin, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol to normal values may have a beneficial metabolic effect in menopausal women.

  12. Associations between suicide attempts and elevated bedtime salivary cortisol levels in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Masoud; Saunders, Erika F.H.; Prossin, Alan R.; Brucksch, Christine B.; Harrington, Gloria J.; Langenecker, Scott A.; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis abnormalities have been reported in bipolar disorder and also in suicidal behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between suicidal behaviors and the HPA axis function in bipolar disorder, attending to and minimizing confounding factors. We compare HPA axis activity in bipolar individuals with and without suicidal behavior and unaffected healthy controls through measurement of salivary cortisol. Method Salivary cortisol was collected for three consecutive days in 29 controls, 80 bipolar individuals without a history of suicide and 56 bipolar individuals with a past history of suicide. Clinical factors that affect salivary cortisol were also examined. Results A past history of suicide was associated with a 7.4% higher bedtime salivary cortisol level in bipolar individuals. There was no statistical difference between non-suicidal bipolar individuals and controls in bedtime salivary cortisol and awakening salivary cortisol was not different between the three groups. Limitations The measure of salivary cortisol was a home based collection by the study subjects and the retrospective clinical data was primarily based on their historical account. Conclusions Bipolar individuals with a past history of suicidal behavior exhibit hyperactivity in the HPA axis. This biological marker remains significant regardless of demographic factors, mood state, severity and course of illness. This finding in bipolar disorder is consistent with the evidence for altered HPA axis functioning in suicide and mood disorders and is associated with a clinical subgroup of bipolar patients at elevated risk for suicide based on their history, and in need of further attention and study. PMID:22154566

  13. Maternal Age at Holocaust Exposure and Maternal PTSD Independently Influence Urinary Cortisol Levels in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Heather N.; Bierer, Linda M.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parental traumatization has been associated with increased risk for the expression of psychopathology in offspring, and maternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase the risk for the development of offspring PTSD. In this study, Holocaust-related maternal age of exposure and PTSD were evaluated for their association with offspring ambient cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression. Method: Ninety-five Holocaust offspring and Jewish comparison subjects received diagnostic and psychological evaluations, and 24 h urinary cortisol was assayed by RIA. Offspring completed the parental PTSD questionnaire to assess maternal PTSD status. Maternal Holocaust exposure was identified as having occurred in childhood, adolescence, or adulthood and examined in relation to offspring psychobiology. Results: Urinary cortisol levels did not differ for Holocaust offspring and comparison subjects but differed significantly in offspring based on maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD status. Increased maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were each associated with lower urinary cortisol in offspring, but did not exhibit a significant interaction. In addition, offspring PTSD-associated symptom severity increased with maternal age at exposure and PTSD diagnosis. A regression analysis of correlates of offspring cortisol indicated that both maternal age of exposure and maternal PTSD were significant predictors of lower offspring urinary cortisol, whereas childhood adversity and offspring PTSD symptoms were not. Conclusion: Offspring low cortisol and PTSD-associated symptom expression are related to maternal age of exposure, with the greatest effects associated with increased age at exposure. These effects are relatively independent of the negative consequences of being raised by a trauma survivor. These observations highlight the importance of maternal age of exposure in determining a psychobiology in offspring that is consistent with increased

  14. Development of a label-free immunosensor system for detecting plasma cortisol levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Hibi, Kyoko; Ren, Huifeng; Endo, Hideaki

    2016-02-01

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. In the present study, we describe a novel label-free immunosensor for detecting plasma cortisol levels. The method is based on immunologic reactions and amperometric measurement using cyclic voltammetry. For the immobilization of the antibody on the surface of sensing electrode, we used a self-assembled monolayer of thiol-containing compounds. Using this electrode, we detect the CV signal change caused by the generation of antigen-antibody complex. The immunosensor showed a response to cortisol levels, and the anodic peak value linearly decreased with a correlation coefficient of 0.990 in diluted plasma. The specificity of the label-free immunosensor system was investigated using other steroid hormones, such as 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, progesterone, estriol, estradiol, and testosterone. The specific detection of cortisol was suggested by a minimal change from -0.32 to 0.51 μA in the anodic peak value of the other steroid hormones. The sensor system was used to determine the plasma cortisol levels in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), and the results were compared with those of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). A good correlation was obtained between values determined using both methods (correlation coefficient 0.993). These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish plasma samples.

  15. Energetics of stress: linking plasma cortisol levels to metabolic rate in mammals.

    PubMed

    Haase, Catherine G; Long, Andrea K; Gillooly, James F

    2016-01-01

    Physiological stress may result in short-term benefits to organismal performance, but also long-term costs to health or longevity. Yet, we lack an understanding of the variation in stress hormone levels (i.e. glucocorticoids) that exist within and across species. Here, we present comparative analyses that link the primary stress hormone in most mammals (i.e. cortisol) to metabolic rate. We show that baseline concentrations of plasma cortisol vary with mass-specific metabolic rate among cortisol-dominant mammals, and both baseline and elevated concentrations scale predictably with body mass. The results quantitatively link a classical measure of physiological stress to whole-organism energetics, providing a point of departure for cross-species comparisons of stress levels among mammals.

  16. Morning cortisol levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Girshkin, Leah; Matheson, Sandra L; Shepherd, Alana M; Green, Melissa J

    2014-11-01

    Increased peripheral levels of morning cortisol have been reported in people with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but findings are inconsistent and few studies have conducted direct comparisons of these disorders. We undertook a meta-analysis of studies examining single measures of morning cortisol (before 10 a.m.) levels in SZ or BD, compared to controls, and to each other; we also sought to examine likely moderators of any observed effects by clinical and demographic variables. Included studies were obtained via systematic searches conducted using Medline, BIOSIS Previews and Embase databases, as well as hand searching. The decision to include or exclude studies, data extraction and quality assessment was completed in duplicate by LG, SM and AS. The initial search revealed 1459 records. Subsequently, 914 were excluded on reading the abstract because they did not meet one or more of the inclusion criteria; of the remaining 545 studies screened in full, included studies were 44 comparing SZ with controls, 19 comparing BD with controls, and 7 studies directly comparing schizophrenia with bipolar disorder. Meta-analysis of SZ (N=2613, g=0.387, p=0.001) and BD (N=704, g=0.269, p=0.004) revealed moderate quality evidence of increased morning cortisol levels in each group compared to controls, but no difference between the two disorders (N=392, g=0.038, p=0.738). Subgroup analyses revealed greater effect sizes for schizophrenia samples with an established diagnosis (as opposed to 'first-episode'), those that were free of medication, and those sampled in an inpatient setting (perhaps reflecting an acute illness phase). In BD, greater morning cortisol levels were found in outpatient and non-manic participants (as opposed to those in a manic state), relative to controls. Neither age nor sex affected cortisol levels in any group. However, earlier greater increases in SZ morning cortisol were evident in samples taken before 8 a.m. (relative to those taken after

  17. Stress-induced cortisol level elevations are associated with reduced negative affect after stress: indications for a mood-buffering cortisol effect.

    PubMed

    Het, Serkan; Schoofs, Daniela; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-01-01

    Stress is associated with increased negative affect and activation of the sympathetic nervous system and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the relationship between these stress systems and negative affect is incompletely understood. We therefore investigated positive and negative affects in relationship with salivary cortisol and salivary α-amylase (sAA) levels in a large sample of participants exposed to a psychosocial stressor or a control condition. Cortisol and sAA levels from five studies with a total sample size of 232 participants were reanalyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. In these studies, we measured affective responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and its control condition (placebo TSST) with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. An inverse relationship between cortisol and negative affect was observed across all participants (β(06) = -0.13, p = .002). Higher level of negative affect was associated with lower mean cortisol levels 10 minutes after the TSST or the control condition. When the two conditions were tested separately, the effect was significant in the stress condition (β(06) = -0.05, p = .02) but not in the control condition (β(06) = -0.0008, p > .05). In contrast to the results for cortisol, a positive relationship was found between sAA and negative affect within the stress condition (β(06) = 0.10, p = .005). The present findings suggest that cortisol is associated with an attenuated negative emotional arousal in response to acute stress, whereas sAA levels seem to reflect the degree of negative emotional arousal. Together with previous pharmacological studies, these data seem to support the hypothesis of mood-buffering effects of cortisol.

  18. Basal cortisol and DHEA levels in women with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Jogems-Kosterman, Bea J M; de Knijff, Dirk W W; Kusters, Ron; van Hoof, Jacques J M

    2007-12-01

    Previous research suggests that in borderline personality disorder (BPD) normal stress regulation, with a main role for cortisol, is disturbed. However, most studies were confounded by their lack of attention to co-morbidity. Relevant patient characteristics such as depression, childhood abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and copying styles were not systematically examined. Moreover, none of the studies incorporated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a hormone that can antagonize the effects of cortisol. Hence, the present pilot study investigates the basic levels of cortisol and DHEA and the ratio (CDR) between the two hormones in BPD patients. Twenty-two women with BPD and 22 healthy female controls provided two diurnal (8 a.m./8 p.m.) salivary samples. Overall cortisol levels were not significantly increased in the patient group as a whole but only in those patients diagnosed with co-morbid PTSD and a history of childhood abuse. The patients' cortisol secretions decreased relatively less steep during the day than it did in the controls. Surprisingly, morning DHEA levels were significantly higher in the patients than in the controls. Moreover, the CDR showed a significantly larger and less favourable increase in the BPD group during the day. In the patients lower levels of DHEA in the evening proved significantly related to a stronger tendency to avoid active problem solving and a lowered inclination to seek social support. The current findings underline the relevance of cortisol and DHEA assessments and the need for further scrutiny of their interplay to foster our understanding of the biological basis of stress regulation in BPD.

  19. Maternal salivary cortisol levels during pregnancy are positively associated with overweight children.

    PubMed

    Hohwü, Lena; Henriksen, Tine B; Grønborg, Therese K; Hedegaard, Morten; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Obel, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Animal and human studies suggest that programing of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may be involved in the development of obesity, but human studies of biological indicators of HPA axis activity are lacking. We studied the association between levels of the stress hormone cortisol during pregnancy and overweight offspring during childhood into adolescence. Salivary samples from 655 Danish pregnant women with singleton pregnancies (1989-1991) were collected once in the morning and once in the evening in their second and third trimester. We followed the offspring from two to 16 years of age with at least one measurement of height and weight, and classified their body mass index into overweight and normal weight. The adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol (with 95% confidence interval (CI)) during pregnancy (the four samples), in second and third trimester (morning and evening samples) between overweight and normal weight offspring was estimated. Furthermore, the adjusted median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was estimated for normal weight and overweight children. All the analyses were stratified into the equal age groups: 2-6, 7-11, and 12-16 years. We found non-significant higher maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy in offspring that were overweight at the age of 2-6, 7-11 and 12-16 years than in normal weight peers; adjusted relative difference in median salivary cortisol 11% (95% CI: -2; 25), 6% (95% CI: -7; 20), and 9% (95% CI: -4; 24), respectively. A statistically significantly higher level of maternal cortisol was found in the second trimester in 2-6-year-old and 12-16-year-old overweight offspring; relative difference 19% (95% CI: 3; 37), and 20% (95% CI: 3; 41), respectively. The median ratio between morning and evening maternal salivary cortisol level was similar for overweight and normal weight children; e.g. at age 2-6 years in third trimester 4.31 (95% CI: 4.05; 4.60)nmol/l and 4

  20. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the "hormone of affiliation" and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as well as

  1. Effects of the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System on Oxytocin and Cortisol Blood Levels in Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Schury, Katharina; Doyen-Waldecker, Cornelia; Hulbert, Anna-Lena; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Gündel, Harald; Waller, Christiane; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin, a small neuropeptide of nine amino acids, has been characterized as the “hormone of affiliation” and is stimulated, for instance, in mothers when interacting with their offspring. Variations in maternal oxytocin levels were reported to predict differences in the quality of care provided by mothers. In this study, the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP) as a valid measure to assess attachment representations was used as an activating attachment-related stimulus. We investigated whether the AAP induces a release of oxytocin in mothers with a secure attachment representation and a stress-related cortisol response in mothers with an insecure attachment representation. Therefore, pre-post effects of AAP administration on plasma oxytocin and serum cortisol levels were investigated in n = 44 mothers 3 months after parturition. Oxytocin levels increased from pre to post in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004) and cortisol decreased in the significant majority of 73% participants (p = 0.004). Interestingly, no association between alterations in oxytocin and cortisol were found; this suggests taking a model of two independent processes into considerations. These results show that the AAP test procedure induces an oxytocin response. Concerning the results within the four AAP representation subgroups, our hypothesis of a particularly strong increase in oxytocin in secure mothers was not confirmed; however, in secure mothers we observed a particularly strong decrease in cortisol. Effect sizes are reported, allowing the replication of results in a larger study with sufficient sample size to draw final conclusions with respect to differences in OT and cortisol alterations depending on attachment representation. When interpreting the results, one should keep in mind that this study investigated lactating mothers. Thus, the generalizability of results is limited and future studies should investigate non-lactating healthy females as

  2. Increased cortisol levels in hair of recent Ecstasy/MDMA users.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A C; Sands, H R; Jones, L; Clow, A; Evans, P; Downey, L A; Stalder, T

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has revealed an acute 8-fold increase in salivary cortisol following self-administrated Ecstasy/MDMA in dance clubbers. It is currently not known to what extent repeated usage impacts upon activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis over a more prolonged period of time. This study investigated the integrated cortisol levels in 3-month hair samples from recent Ecstasy/MDMA users and non-user controls. One hundred and one unpaid participants (53 males, 48 females; mean age 21.75 years) completed the University of East London recreational drug use questionnaire, modified to cover the past 3-months of usage. They comprised 32 light recent Ecstasy/MDMA users (1-4 times in last 3 months), 23 recent heavy MDMA users (+5 times in last 3 months), and 54 non-user controls. Volunteers provided 3 cm hair samples for cortisol analysis. Hair cortisol levels were observed to be significantly higher in recent heavy MDMA users (mean = 55.0 ± 80.1 pg/mg), compared to recent light MDMA users (19.4 ± 16.0 pg/mg; p=0.015), and to non-users (13.8 ± 6.1 pg/mg; p<0.001). Hence the regular use of Ecstasy/MDMA was associated with almost 4-fold raised hair cortisol levels, in comparison with non-user controls. The present results are consistent with the bio-energetic stress model for Ecstasy/MDMA, which predicts that repeated stimulant drug use may increase cortisol production acutely, and result in greater deposits of the hormone in hair. These data may also help explain the neurocognitive, psychiatric, and other psychobiological problems of some abstinent users. Future study design and directions for research concerning the psychoneuroendocrinological impact of MDMA are also discussed.

  3. Effect of examination stress on mood, performance and cortisol levels in medical students.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ruchi; Goyal, Manish; Tiwari, Sunita; Ghildiyal, Archana; Nattu, Shankar M; Das, Shobha

    2012-01-01

    Stress produces definable mental and physiological reactions in the body. Mild stress is beneficial in cognitive tasks and performance but persistently high stress may lead to neuropsychiatric illnesses like anxiety and depression. Examinations act as stressor and activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis causing an increase in cortisol level, which is reflected in saliva. Present study was done on 35 medical students. Their mood parameters were assessed, using Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) scoring, and salivary cortisol levels using quantitative ELISA. Subjects were evaluated for mood parameters two times, one during relaxed state (with no examinations in preceding 2 weeks and in coming 2 weeks) and another during stressed state (on the day of viva voce examination). The levels of mood parameters and salivary cortisol were significantly raised during examination stress. The changes in stress level significantly correlated with change in levels of anxiety and salivary cortisol though there was no significant effect on the performance. Males and females showed similar changes in mood parameters. This study suggests that as examinations act as unavoidable stressors, the medical educators as well as students should be made aware of the negative consequences of stress faced during medical training. Efficient relaxation program as well as counseling services should be provided to stressed students so that they are able to cope better with examination stress.

  4. Evaluation of Salivary Cortisol and Anxiety Levels in Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Background Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Methods Twenty patients suffering from myofascial pain were recruited as the study group. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as the control group. The salivary samples collected between 9-9:15 am from both groups were analyzed for cortisol levels with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured using Hamilton's anxiety scale. Results The mean serum cortisol level of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and the salivary cortisol levels in MPDS patients. Conclusions These findings suggest that anxiety plays a vital role in the etio-pathogenesis of MPDS; thus, besides pharmacological treatment, psychological support is also needed. PMID:24478898

  5. Evaluation of salivary cortisol and anxiety levels in myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadendla, Lakshmi Kavitha; Meduri, Venkateswarlu; Paramkusam, Geetha; Pachava, Koteswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS), otherwise called myofascial pain is one of the most common temporomandibular disorders, which in turn is the most common cause of orofacial pain of non-dental origin. Its etiology is multifactorial and still poorly understood. Psychological factors have been shown to play a role in the etiology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between anxiety and salivary cortisol levels in patients with myofascial pain. Twenty patients suffering from myofascial pain were recruited as the study group. The same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals were taken as the control group. The salivary samples collected between 9-9:15 am from both groups were analyzed for cortisol levels with the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Anxiety levels of 40 patients were measured using Hamilton's anxiety scale. The mean serum cortisol level of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. The mean anxiety scores of the MPDS group showed a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) from the controls. A positive correlation was found between anxiety and the salivary cortisol levels in MPDS patients. These findings suggest that anxiety plays a vital role in the etio-pathogenesis of MPDS; thus, besides pharmacological treatment, psychological support is also needed.

  6. Wireless Fluid Level Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A level-sensing probe positioned in a tank is divided into sections with each section including (i) a fluid-level capacitive sensor disposed along the length thereof, (ii) an inductor electrically coupled to the capacitive sensor, (iii) a sensor antenna positioned for inductive coupling to the inductor, and (iv) an electrical conductor coupled to the sensor antenna. An electrically non-conductive housing accessible from a position outside of the tank houses antennas arrayed in a pattern. Each antenna is electrically coupled to the electrical conductor from a corresponding one of the sections. A magnetic field response recorder has a measurement head with transceiving antennas arrayed therein to correspond to the pattern of the housing's antennas. When a measurement is to be taken, the measurement head is mechanically coupled to the housing so that each housing antenna is substantially aligned with a specific one of the transceiving antennas.

  7. Children's Wellbeing and Cortisol Levels in Home-Based and Center-Based Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether individual variability in children's cortisol levels and wellbeing at childcare can be explained by indices of quality of care and child characteristics. Participants were 71 children from childcare homes and 45 children from childcare centers in the age range of 20-40 months. In both types of settings…

  8. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  9. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, Fatemeh; ADHA, Nikmatul; ZAINOL, Rosilawati; ISAHAK, Marzuki; NEMATI, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels. PMID:26060694

  10. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  11. Maternal Cortisol Levels and Behavior Problems in Adolescents and Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Smith, Leann E.; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher; Stawski, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Using daily diary methods, mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 86) were contrasted with a nationally representative comparison group of mothers of similarly-aged unaffected children (n = 171) with respect to the diurnal rhythm of cortisol. Mothers of adolescents and adults with ASD were found to have significantly lower levels of…

  12. Cortisol level in men with major depressive disorder treated with fluoxetine or imipramine.

    PubMed

    Piwowarska, Jadwiga; Dryll, Karolina; Szelenberger, Waldemar; Pachecka, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find out whether increased plasma cortisol levels appear in unipolar or bipolar patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and whether the effective antidepressant treatment by imipramine and fluoxetine leads to regulation of the cortisol level. Cortisol levels were studied in two groups of patients with major depressive disorder: unipolar and bipolar patients treated with fluoxetine (doses: 20-60 mg/day). This group included 5 patients (age 29-46 yr); unipolar and bipolar subjects treated with imipramine (50-150 mg/day), this group included 5 patients (aged 24-70 yr). Cortisol and fluoxetine or imipramine plasma levels were assessed using HPLC methods: before treatment, after 3, 6 and 24 h of drug administration as well as in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week of antidepressant treatment. HPLC methods were previously validated. The research conducted and the clinical data may be useful for proving the essential role of enhanced HPA axis activity for the pathogenesis and depressive disorder proceedings.

  13. Stress, depression, quality of life and salivary cortisol levels in community health agents.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Berenice Scaletzky; Cocco, Rafaela Abreu; Radtke, Vinicius Augusto; Medeiros, João Ricardo Carvalho; Oses, Jean Pierre; Wiener, Carolina David; Jansen, Karen

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of and factors associated with depression and stress with perceived quality of life and the salivary cortisol levels in Community Health Agent (CHA). Materials and Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study of CHAs in Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Data collection, including sociodemographic information and factors related to work and health. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II was used to assess depressive symptoms, Inventory of Stress Symptoms Lipp (ISSL) was used for the analysis of stress and the WHOQOL-BREF was used to investigate quality of life. Salivary cortisol was quantified via ELISA test. The assessments showed that 71.0% are in a state of stress resistance, 30.5% were in the alert state of stress and 32.8% were in the stress state of exhaustion. Depressive episodes (BDI≥12) were observed in 28.2%. The environmental domain had the lowest score for quality of life. We observed significantly higher salivary cortisol levels in CHAs with less than 1 year of service and with the lowest quality of life scores in the environmental subsection. A high prevalence of stress and depression was observed in this sample of CHAs. In addition, the worst levels of quality of life were identified in the environmental subsection. Cortisol levels corroborate these findings regarding quality of life within the environmental domain and began working less than a year previously.

  14. Sex differences in the relationship between cortisol levels and the Empathy and Systemizing Quotients in humans.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yoshihisa; Takahashi, Taiki; Wakabayashi, Akio; Oono, Hidemi; Radford, Mark H B

    2007-08-01

    Little is known regarding the relationship between cortisol (a stress hormone) levels and psychological cognitive styles. Baron-Cohen proposed two fundamental cognitive styles, which are measured by the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizng Quotient (SQ). Previous studies have examined the influences of prenatal testosterone exposure on EQ and SQ scores. This study aimed to examine the relationships between morning cortisol levels and EQ and SQ scores, and the 'brain types' which were determined by two quotients in both sexes. These relationships are potentially important in the developmental psychopathology of autism and neuroeconomics of empathy. We assessed morning cortisol levels with LC/MS (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) and ESQ in healthy male and female university students. Results indicate clear sex differences between brain types: i.e. E-type males and S-type females (participants with atypical cognitive styles) have significantly higher cortisol levels than S-type males and E-type females (participants with typical cognitive styles). Implications for the role of sex in social adaptation of autistic patients are discussed.

  15. Children's Wellbeing and Cortisol Levels in Home-Based and Center-Based Childcare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groeneveld, Marleen G.; Vermeer, Harriet J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Linting, Marielle

    2010-01-01

    The central question in this study is whether individual variability in children's cortisol levels and wellbeing at childcare can be explained by indices of quality of care and child characteristics. Participants were 71 children from childcare homes and 45 children from childcare centers in the age range of 20-40 months. In both types of settings…

  16. Cortisol Levels of Caregivers in Child Care Centers as Related to the Quality of their Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Schipper, Elles J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; de Weerth, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether stress in professional caregivers--as reflected in salivary cortisol levels--is related to the quality of their caregiving behavior. The 221 professional female caregivers in 64 child care centers were observed in three different situations and saliva samples were taken three times during the morning. Results…

  17. Psychosocial correlates of cortisol levels in fingernails among middle-aged workers.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shuhei; Matsudaira, Ko; Miki, Keiichi; Arisaka, Mayumi; Tsuchiya, Masao

    2017-07-01

    It was recently suggested that cortisol levels in fingernails reflect cumulative hormone exposure over a relatively long period. This exploratory study cross-sectionally investigated the relationships between fingernail cortisol level and psychosocial stress in a sample of middle-aged workers (94 men and 29 women). The participants were asked to grow their fingernails for ∼2 weeks and then provide fingernail samples from every digit by using nail clippers. Further, they completed questionnaires for assessment of exposure to psychosocial stress in the past (stressful life events in the workplace in the previous year; e.g. change to a different line of work) and in the present (job stress and perceived stress). Results of a regression analysis adjusting for the effects of demographic variables showed that experience of stressful life events, but not job stress and perceived stress, was associated with elevated fingernail cortisol level. These findings indicate the potential of fingernail samples to retrospectively reflect individual differences in cortisol levels related to past psychosocial stress.

  18. Neighborhood-Level Stress and Circadian Cortisol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Fatemeh; Adha, Nikmatul; Zainol, Rosilawati; Isahak, Marzuki; Nemati, Nahid

    2014-10-01

    The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.

  19. Baseline Religion Involvement Predicts Subsequent Salivary Cortisol Levels Among Male But not Female Black Youth

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Malekahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Zimmerman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Compared to Whites, Blacks are exposed to higher levels of chronic stress in the United States. As a result, major Black-White differences exist in the baseline and response of cortisol. Yet, the potential association between baseline religiosity and subsequent cortisol levels of Blacks are not known. Objectives: In the current study we aimed to determine the association between baseline religious behaviors and daytime salivary cortisol level among male and female Black youth. Materials and Methods: With a longitudinal design, data came from wave 1 (1994) and wave 6 (2000) of a cohort from an urban area in the Midwest of the United States. The study followed 227 Black adolescents (109 males and 118 females) for six years. Socio-demographics and religious behaviors (frequency of participation in religious activities) were measured at baseline. Base morning cortisol level at wave 6 was the outcome. We fitted a linear regression model to test the association between baseline religiosity at wave 1 and cortisol level at wave 6, while baseline age, socio-economics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. Results: In the pooled sample, frequency of participation in religious activities at baseline was negatively associated with mean cortisol level at follow up (r = -0.29, P > 0.01) among all, males (r = -0.38, P > 0.01), but not females (r = -.20, P > 0.05). Frequency of participation in religious activities remained a significant predictor of subsequent cortisol level (b = -0.283, 95% CI = -.107 - -0.022) while the effect of age, socioeconomics, and psychological symptoms were controlled. We could only find such an association among male Black youth (b = -0.368, 95% CI = -0.148 - -0.024) but not female Black youth (b = -0.229, 95% CI = -.113 - 0.011). Conclusions: Religiosity has been used as a coping mechanism among Blacks. Religiosity may also be related to stress regulation among Black youth. Future studies need to test complex associations between

  20. Serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate levels after balneotherapy and physical therapy in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Semiz, Esra A.; Hizmetli, Sami; Semiz, Murat; Karadağ, Ahmet; Adalı, Merve; Tuncay, Mehmet S.; Alim, Bulent; Hayta, Emrullah; Uslu, Ali U.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigated serum cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) levels between fibromyalgia (FMS) patients and a control group, and the effect of balneotherapy (BT) on these hormones. Methods: Seventy-two patients with FMS and 39 healthy volunteers were included in the study. This prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out in the Medical Faculty, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic, Cumhuriyet University, Cumhuriyet, Turkey between June 2012 and June 2013. Patients were divided into 2 groups. There were 40 patients in the first group, consisting of BT and physical therapy (PT) administered patients. There were 32 FMS patients in the second group who were only administered PT. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers were enrolled as a control group. Result: Cortisol was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (10.10±4.08 μg/dL and 11.78±3.6 μg/dL; p=0.033). Serum DHEA-S level was observed to be lower in FMS patients compared with the controls (89.93±53.96 μg/dL and 143.15±107.92 μg/dL; p=0.015). Average serum cortisol levels of patients receiving BT were determined to be 9.95±3.20 μg/dL before treatment and 9.06±3.77μg/dL after treatment; while average serum DHEA-S levels were 77.60±48.05 μg/dL before treatment, and 76.84±48.71 μg/dL after treatment. No significant changes were determined in serum cortisol and DHEA-S levels when measured again after BT and PT. Conclusion: Low levels of serum cortisol and DHEA-S were suggested to be associated with the physiopathology of FMS. PMID:27146618

  1. Variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with depression after treatment with bilateral electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Burgese, Daniel Fortunato; Bassitt, Débora Pastore

    2015-01-01

    More than 60 years after the introduction of modern psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) continues to be an essential therapeutic modality in the treatment of mental disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Hormones play an essential role in the development and expression of a series of behavioral changes. One aspect of the influence of hormones on behavior is their potential contribution to the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and the mechanism of action of psychotropic drugs and ECT. We measured blood levels of the hormone cortisol in patients with unipolar depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and compared results with levels found in healthy adults. Blood cortisol levels were measured before the beginning of treatment with ECT, at the seventh session, and at the last session, at treatment completion. Depression symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Cortisol levels remained stable in both men and women between the seventh and the last sessions of ECT; values ranged from 0.686±9.6330 g/dL for women, and there was a mean decrease of 5.825±6.0780 g/dL (p = 0.024). Mean number of ECT sessions was 12. After the seventh and the last ECT sessions, patients with depression and individuals in the control group had similar cortisol levels, whereas BDI scores remained different. Cortisol levels decreased during ECT treatment. ECT seems to act as a regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis.

  2. High cortisol levels are associated with low quality food choice in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Duong, Michelle; Cohen, Jessica I; Convit, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis control may be impaired in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucocorticoids increase consumption of low quality foods high in calories, sugar, and fat. We explored the relationship between cortisol levels, poor blood glucose control, and food quality choice in T2DM. Twenty-seven healthy controls were age-, gender- and education-matched to 27 T2DM participants. Standard clinical blood tests and cortisol values were measured from fasting blood samples. Participants recorded all consumed food and drink items in a consecutive 3-day food diary. Diaries were analyzed for "high quality" and "low quality" foods using a standardized method with high reliability (0.97 and 0.86, respectively). Controlling for education, body mass index (BMI) and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), log-transformed cortisol (LogC) predicted the percent of low quality foods (R (2) = 0.092, β = 0.360, P < 0.05), but not the percent of high quality foods chosen. Controlling for education, BMI, and LogC, HbA1C significantly predicted both the percent of low quality foods (ΔR (2) = 0.079, β = 0.348, P = 0.024) and high quality foods chosen (ΔR (2) = 0.085, β = -0.362, P = 0.022). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be mediated by cortisol, controlling for BMI and education (P < 0.01). HbA1C displayed both an indirect (cortisol-mediated) effect (P < 0.05) and direct effect on low quality food choice (P < 0.05). The relationship between HbA1C and low quality food choice may be partially mediated by cortisol. Poor blood glucose control may cause HPA axis disruption, increased consumption of low quality foods.

  3. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-08-14

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intervention Effects on Foster Parent Stress: Associations With Children's Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Foster children exhibit high rates of atypical neuroendocrine functioning compared to children in the general population. In particular, alterations in the daytime diurnal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been observed in foster children, often characterized by blunted salivary cortisol levels (i.e., low morning levels that remain low throughout the day). There is emerging evidence that therapeutic interventions for foster children can affect this pattern of HPA axis activity, but the specific intervention components responsible for change have not been fully explicated. Within a randomized trial to evaluate a therapeutic intervention for foster preschoolers (n = 57 intervention condition; n = 60 comparison condition; n = 60 community comparison condition), the present study examined whether diurnal cortisol activity was associated with caregiver self-reported stress in response to child problem behavior. Results showed immediate reductions in caregiver stress that were sustained through 12 months postbaseline in the intervention condition. In contrast, caregivers in the regular foster care condition showed higher rates of stress across time and increased stress sensitivity to child problem behaviors. In addition, among caregivers in regular foster care, higher self-reported stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels and more blunted diurnal cortisol activity. These results provide evidence that interventions can simultaneously impact caregiver stress and buffer children from the negative impacts of caregiver stress on HPA axis regulation PMID:18606041

  5. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A; Romero-Gonzalez, Borja; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p < .05). In the second trimester, significant differences were found in the Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p < .05). In the third trimester significant differences between both groups were found regarding pregnancy-specific stress. We found significant positive differences between groups regarding hair cortisol levels in the first and the third trimester. Hair cortisol levels could predict 21.7% of the variance of postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings.

  6. Effects of anxiety reduction training on physiological indices and serum cortisol levels before elective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Nasim; Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharifnia, Hamid; Shaigan, Hoorieh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammad-Rezaei, Zhila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients awaiting surgery typically experience significant physical and psychological stress. Vital signs and serum cortisol level are altered in response to anxiety. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of preoperative education on physiological indices and cortisol level of female patients undergoing elective surgeries. Materials and Methods: In this single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 60 women undergoing gynecological elective surgeries in Kowsar Hospital (Qazvin, Iran) were randomly assigned to either control or intervention group. The patients of the intervention group were assessed based on the nursing process after admission. Subjects with anxiety, inadequate awareness, and fear received necessary training on anxiety reduction techniques. The control group merely received routine care. A questionnaire including demographic characteristics, baseline and preoperative vital signs, and serum cortisol level was completed for all subjects. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics (Fisher's exact test, paired and independent t-tests, and Mann–Whitney U test) in SPSS17. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The two groups were homogeneous in terms of age (P = 0.20), marital status (P = 0.50), education (P = 0.10), employment status (P = 0.13), and admission history (P = 0.30). There were no significant differences in baseline vital signs between the intervention and control groups. Before surgery, the mean values of vital signs increased in both the groups. However, the increments were less in the experimental group than in the control group. Serum cortisol levels were also lower in the experimental group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Education based on the nursing process is a non-pharmaceutical and effective method to minimize changes in vital signs and decrease serum cortisol level in patients undergoing gynecological elective surgeries. PMID:24403946

  7. Hair cortisol levels, psychological stress and psychopathological symptoms as predictors of postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Caparros-Gonzalez, Rafael A.; Strivens-Vilchez, Helen; Gonzalez-Perez, Raquel; Martinez-Augustin, Olga; Peralta-Ramirez, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects a huge number of women and has detrimental consequences. Knowing the factors associated with postpartum depression during pregnancy can help its prevention. Although there is evidence surrounding behavioral or psychological predictors of postpartum depression, there is a lack of evidence of biological forecasters. The aim of this study was to analyze the sociodemographic, obstetric, and psychological variables along with hair cortisol levels during the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy that could predict postpartum depression symptoms. A sample of 44 pregnant women was assessed during 3 trimesters of pregnancy and the postpartum period using psychological questionnaires and hair cortisol levels. Participants were divided into 2 groups: a group with postpartum depression symptoms and a group with no postpartum depression symptoms. Results showed significant positive differences between groups in the first trimester regarding the Somatization subscale of the SCL-90-R (p < .05). In the second trimester, significant differences were found in the Somatization, Depression, Anxiety, and GSI subscales (p < .05). In the third trimester significant differences between both groups were found regarding pregnancy-specific stress. We found significant positive differences between groups regarding hair cortisol levels in the first and the third trimester. Hair cortisol levels could predict 21.7% of the variance of postpartum depression symptoms. In conclusion, our study provided evidence that psychopathological symptoms, pregnancy-specific stress, and hair cortisol levels can predict postpartum depression symptoms at different time-points during pregnancy. These findings can be applied in future studies and improve maternal care in clinical settings. PMID:28846691

  8. Estimation and comparison of serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals: A clinical-biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Rohini, G.; Kalaivani, S.; Kumar, Vipin; Rajasekar, S. A.; Tuckaram, Jaishree; Pandey, Vinisha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Psychological conditions, particularly psychosocial stress have been implicated as risk indicators of periodontal disease. Stress increases cortisol production from the adrenal cortex by stimulating an increase in the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland. Increased cortisol production suppresses the immune response and increases the potential of periodontal tissue destruction. Aim: The aim of the present study was to estimate and compare the serum cortisol levels in periodontally diseased patients and periodontally healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Total of 45 subjects were recruited for this study and were categorized into three groups. Group I - Comprised of aggressive periodontitis patients (n = 15), Group II - Chronic periodontitis patients (n = 15), and Group III - Healthy controls (n = 15). Serum samples were collected from each of the groups and cortisol levels were determined using cortisol immunoassay kit. Clinical examination covered probing depth, gingival index (GI), gingival recession, plaque index, and clinical attachment level. The statistical analysis was done using nonparameteric t-test and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: With respect to cortisol, the levels were higher in Group-I compared to the other groups. On comparison of mean cortisol levels among the groups, the values were statistically significant between Group-I and Group-III. Group-I showed a significant negative correlation between cortisol levels and GI. Conclusion: Within the limits of the study serum cortisol levels was higher in the chronic periodontitis group compared to the other groups. Positive correlation was found between the cortisol levels and other clinical parameters except for the GI. PMID:26538897

  9. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears

    PubMed Central

    TØ, Bechshøft; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, EW; Muir, DCG; Letcher, RJ; Novak, MA; Henchey, E; Meyer, JS; Jenssen, BM; Villanger, GD

    2012-01-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p′-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. PMID:22575327

  10. Associations between complex OHC mixtures and thyroid and cortisol hormone levels in East Greenland polar bears.

    PubMed

    Bechshøft, T Ø; Sonne, C; Dietz, R; Born, E W; Muir, D C G; Letcher, R J; Novak, M A; Henchey, E; Meyer, J S; Jenssen, B M; Villanger, G D

    2012-07-01

    The multivariate relationship between hair cortisol, whole blood thyroid hormones, and the complex mixtures of organohalogen contaminant (OHC) levels measured in subcutaneous adipose of 23 East Greenland polar bears (eight males and 15 females, all sampled between the years 1999 and 2001) was analyzed using projection to latent structure (PLS) regression modeling. In the resulting PLS model, most important variables with a negative influence on cortisol levels were particularly BDE-99, but also CB-180, -201, BDE-153, and CB-170/190. The most important variables with a positive influence on cortisol were CB-66/95, α-HCH, TT3, as well as heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, BDE-47, p,p'-DDD. Although statistical modeling does not necessarily fully explain biological cause-effect relationships, relationships indicate that (1) the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in East Greenland polar bears is likely to be affected by OHC-contaminants and (2) the association between OHCs and cortisol may be linked with the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of crowding and sex on fecal cortisol levels of captive forest musk deer.

    PubMed

    He, Lan; Wang, Wen-Xia; Li, Lin-Hai; Liu, Bao-Qing; Liu, Gang; Liu, Shu-Qiang; Qi, Lei; Hu, De-Fu

    2014-09-29

    Restricted space and close contact with conspecifics in captivity may be stressful for musk deer, as they are highly territorial and solitary in the wild. So we tested the effects of crowding on stress of forest musk deer (Moschus berezovskii) in heterosexual groups, using fecal cortisol analysis as a non-invasive method. 32 healthy adults during non-breeding seasons were chose as our experimental objects. Group 1 was defined as higher crowding condition, with 10-15 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂); group 2 was defined as lower crowding condition, with 23-33 m2/deer (6 enclosures, 10♀ and 6♂). Every enclosure contained 1 male and 3 female. These patterns had been existed for years. The results showed that females in lower crowding condition (217.1 ± 9.5 ug/g) had significantly higher fecal cortisol levels than those in higher crowding condition (177.2 ± 12.1 ug/g). Interestingly, crowding seemed have no effect on male fecal cortisol levels (148.1 ± 9.1 ug/g and 140.5 ± 13.3 ug/g, respectively). At both groups, cortisol was significantly lower in males than in females. These results showed that chronic crowding may affect stress status of captive forest musk deer. The captive environment should consider the space need for musk deer.

  12. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  13. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-11-01

    Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP.

  14. Correlation of psychological symptoms with cortisol and CRP levels in pregnant women with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bjelanović, Vedran; Babić, Dragan; Hodžić, Damir; Bjelanović, Ana; Krešić, Tanja; Dugandžić-Šimić, Ana; Orešković, Slavko

    2015-12-01

    In pregnancy occurs series of physiological, organic and psychological changes in the female organism. Particularly are significant hormonal and metabolic changes. Elevated cortisol levels are reduced by linking the transport of globulin (transcortin). Triglycerides were increased 50% and other lipids from 20 to 30%. The values of CRP were slightly elevated in the third trimester of pregnancy (10-15 mg/L). To investigate the association of psychological symptoms with the level of cortisol and CRP in women with metabolic syndrome. From 1646 pregnant women cross-sectional, prospective study included 180 pregnant women divided into three groups by applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Research methods are laboratory and clinical tests and questionnaires. Every pregnant woman have been made complete laboratory findings and determined cortisol in 8 and 17 hours using the chemiluminescent immunoassay method. All pregnant women filled in several questionnaires: socio-demographic, obstetrical-gynecological, standardized psychometric questionnaire (SCL 90-R), a questionnaire syndrome of depression according to ICD 10 and Beck self depression scale. The study was conducted from August 2011 to mid-November 2012. From the total of 1646 hospitalized pregnant women, 176 pregnant women had a BMI>30 and 120 of them were tested, but 60 had criteria for MS. The concentration of morning and afternoon cortisol is increased in pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome Obese pregnant women have a statistically higher level and morning and afternoon cortisol levels than women with normal body weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but these differences are smaller than in the case of pregnant women with the metabolic syndrome. CRP is significantly higher in women with metabolic syndrome. CRP concentration is significantly higher in obese pregnant women compared to pregnant women with normal weight and without the metabolic syndrome, but it is lower than in pregnant women

  15. Salivary cortisol levels, but not salivary α-amylase levels, are elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis irrespective of depression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Jeon, Ja-Young; Koh, Bo-Ram; Park, Sat-Byul; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-02-01

    Stress is recognized as an important factor in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we explored multiple aspects of stress in RA patients. Salivary cortisol and α-amylase levels were measured as markers of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and sympatho-adrenomedullary system activity, respectively. Depression was assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and short-term analysis of the heart rate variability (HRV) was performed to evaluate the autonomic nervous system. The salivary cortisol levels of the RA patients were significantly higher than those of the normal controls (NC; 0.12 ± 0.162 μg/dL vs. 0.068 ± 0.052 μg/dL, P = 0.006). There was no difference in salivary α-amylase levels between the RA and the NC. The BDI levels of the RA patients were significantly higher than the NC (13.7 ± 8.9 vs. 6.4 ± 6.9, P < 0.001). Depression was more prevalent in RA patients than in the NC. The salivary cortisol levels were still significantly higher in the RA than the NC after controlling BDI by logistic regression analysis (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference in the HRV of RA patients and the NC. The evaluation of relationship between stress measures and disease activity markers of RA revealed that only BDI was positively correlated with the visual analogue pain scale. Salivary cortisol levels and the BDI of RA patients were higher than those of the NC, and elevated salivary cortisol levels were independent of depression. However, the level of stress may not be correlated with disease activity in RA. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. The relationship between preoperative serum cortisol level and the stability of plaque in carotid artery stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Qin, Feng; Sun, Yudong; Hu, Wenping; Wei, Xiaolong; Li, Zhenjiang; Zhou, Jian; Zhao, Zhiqing; Jing, Zaiping

    2016-07-01

    Stability of plaque has been implicated as risk factor for stroke. Serum cortisol regulates lipoprotein metabolism and immune response, contributing to plaque stability in atherosclerosis. However, the relationship between serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque has not been well characterized. We conducted a serology analysis to identify the relationship between serum cortisol and carotid plaque stability. Between May 2013 to October 2015, 73 patients with carotid stenosis patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) were enrolled in our study. Serum cortisol was analyzed at 8:00 AM in the morning before surgery via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. According to the classification made by the American Heart Association, hematoxylin-and-eosin staining was performed to divide these patients into either a stable or unstable group, according to the morphology of fibrous cap, lipid core and intima layer. A curve fitting method was used to identify the relationship between preoperative serum cortisol and stability of carotid plaque. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to identify carotid plaque stability-associated serum cortisol. Curve fitting's result represents a U-shape characteristic. A total of 314.92 and 395.23 nmol/L were considered as the cut point for preoperative serum cortisol when trisected the patients. When adjusted for degree of stenosis, hyperlipemia, smoking and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis' results demonstrated that preoperative serum cortisol can significantly affect carotid plaque stability. The odds ratio values in multivariate logistic regression analysis for C reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and preoperative serum cortisol level were 7.67 and 20.86 respectively. Preoperative serum cortisol was associated with stability of carotid plaque in patients undergoing CEA. Low or high levels of

  17. The Levels of Cortisol, Oxidative Stress, and DNA Damage in the Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Yüksel, Tuğba; Alaca, Rümeysa

    2016-01-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate serum cortisol, oxidative stress, and DNA damage in children who are sexual abuse victims. The study included 38 children who sustained child sexual abuse and 38 age- and gender-matched children who did not have a history of trauma. Cortisol levels reflecting the status of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, natural anti-oxidant coenzyme Q, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine as the indicator of DNA damage were analyzed in serum samples using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the child sexual abuse group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels decreased as the time elapsed since the sexual abuse increased. Coenzyme Q level was lower in victims who sustained multiple assaults than in the victims of a single assault. Cortisol and superoxide dismutase levels were lower in the victims of familial sexual abuse. Decreases in cortisol and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels as time elapsed may be an adaptation to the toxic effects of high cortisol levels over a prolonged period of time. Child sexual abuse did not result in oxidative stress and DNA damage; however, some features of sexual abuse raised the level of oxidative stress.

  18. Testing the Effect of Medical Positive Reinforcement Training on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bonobos and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  19. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species.

  20. Basal cortisol levels in relation to dimensions and DSM-IV categories of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Veen, Gerthe; van Vliet, Irene M; DeRijk, Roel H; Giltay, Erik J; van Pelt, Johannes; Zitman, Frans G

    2011-01-30

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV classification may fail to adequately distinguish neuroendocrine factors involved in the etiology of depressive and anxiety disorders. Continuous phenotypic dimensions may correlate better with underlying neuroendocrine dysregulations. We compared the categorical DSM-IV diagnoses with a dimensional approach in the same group of outpatients with depressive (n=36), anxiety (n=18), and comorbid depressive and anxiety (n=19) disorders, who were free of psychotropic medication, and in 36 healthy controls. The Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ) was used to measure the three dimensions of the tripartite model, i.e., anhedonic depression, anxious arousal, and general distress. The salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) (0, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening), and diurnal cortisol decline (11:00 h, 15:00 h, 19:00 h, and 23:00 h) were analyzed for linear and nonlinear associations. The CAR showed statistically significant nonlinear relationships with two MASQ dimensions, i.e., anhedonic depression and general distress, but no differences between DSM-IV categories. The diurnal cortisol decline was linearly related to the MASQ dimensions anhedonic depression and general distress and significantly higher AUC(diurnal) levels and a steeper slope were found in depressive patients compared to controls using DSM-IV categories. The present study shows that linear and nonlinear associations with salivary cortisol are detected when using phenotypic dimensions and may be complementary to phenotypic DSM-IV categories when doing neuroendocrine research.

  1. Cortisol levels in fingernails, neurocognitive performance and clinical variables in euthymic bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Herane-Vives, Andres; Cleare, Anthony J; Chang, Chin-Kuo; de Angel, Valeria; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Fischer, Susanne; Halari, Rozmin; Cheung, Eric Y W; Young, Allan H

    2017-03-27

    Neurocognitive impairment has been found in bipolar patients. Hypercortisolemia is one possible cause but there has been no agreement on this. Previous sampling methods assessed only acute cortisol levels, whereas the association between cortisol and psychopathology might be better understood by investigating chronic levels. Fingernails are a novel method for measuring chronic cortisol concentration (CCC). Here, we measured CCC in euthymic bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and healthy controls using fingernails to investigate whether differences in CCC influenced neurocognitive performance. We also investigated whether differences in clinical illness variables influenced CCC in euthymic BD-I patients. A previous study demonstrated neurocognitive impairment in euthymic BD-I patients. The current study included a portion of this sample: 40 BD-I versus 42 matched controls who provided fingernail samples. There was no statistically significant difference in CCC between controls and BD-I (P = .09). Logistic regression analyses revealed that euthymic bipolar I subjects with more than five years of current euthymia had decreased odds of having higher fingernail cortisol concentration (>71.2 pg/mg) compared to those with less than 1.5 years (P = .04). There was no association between CCC and cognitive impairment in all domains before and after adjustment for age and sex. The current evidence suggests CCC is not a trait biomarker in euthymic BD-I (BD-I). Longer periods of stability in affective disorders are associated with lower CCC. Fingernail cortisol does not seem to be implicated in neurocognitive impairment and BD-I. Future studies may investigate CCC in different illness phases of BD-I.

  2. Cortisol levels in response to starting school in children at increased risk for social phobia.

    PubMed

    Russ, Stephanie J; Herbert, Joe; Cooper, Peter; Gunnar, Megan R; Goodyer, Ian; Croudace, Tim; Murray, Lynne

    2012-04-01

    Research on depression has identified hyperactivity of the HPA axis as a potential contributory factor to the intergenerational transmission of affective symptoms. This has not yet been examined in the context of social phobia. The current study compared HPA axis activity in response to a universal social stressor (starting school) in children of 2 groups of women: one with social phobia and one with no history of anxiety (comparison group). To determine specificity of effects of maternal social phobia, a third group of children were also examined whose mothers had generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Children provided salivary cortisol samples in the morning, afternoon and at bedtime across 3 time-blocks surrounding the school start: a month before starting school (baseline), the first week at school (stress response), and the end of the first school term (stress recovery). Child behavioural inhibition at 14 months was assessed to explore the influence of early temperament on later stress responses. All children displayed an elevation in morning and afternoon cortisol from baseline during the first week at school, which remained elevated until the end of the first term. Children in the social phobia group, however, also displayed an equivalent elevation in bedtime cortisol, which was not observed for comparison children or for children of mothers with GAD. Children in the social phobia group who were classified as 'inhibited' at 14 months displayed significantly higher afternoon cortisol levels overall. A persistent stress response to school in the morning and afternoon is typical for all children, but children of mothers with social phobia also display atypical elevations in evening cortisol levels when at school--signalling longer-term disruption of the circadian rhythm in HPA axis activity. This is the first study to report HPA axis disruption in children at increased risk of developing social phobia. Future research should determine whether this represents a

  3. Association of stress, salivary cortisol level, and periodontitis among the inmates of a central prison in Kerala

    PubMed Central

    Fenol, Angel; Jebi, Susan; Krishnan, Sajitha; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha; Menon, Sai Megha; Mohandas, Ashitha

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between stress, salivary cortisol, and periodontitis among the inmates of the central prison. Materials and Methods: Seventy inmates were grouped depending on their pocket depth into Group A (pocket depth >4 mm and <6 mm), Group B (at least four sites with pocket depth ≥6 mm), and Group C (pocket depth ≤3 mm). The clinical parameters such as the oral hygiene index-simplified, gingival index, pocket depth, and the clinical attachment levels (CALs) were recorded. Stress was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale along with prison time served. Saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using electrochemiluminescence assay. Chi-square test was used for finding the association between the clinical parameters. The correlation between clinical parameters, stress, salivary cortisol levels, and time served was done using Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. Results: The CALs, the stress score and the salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in Group B (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation showed a positive correlation between stress, cortisol level, and pocket depth. A positive correlation which was statistically significant was obtained between salivary cortisol level and prison time served by the inmates. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that there is a positive relation between stress and periodontal disease. The study suggests that salivary cortisol level can be used as a marker to assess stress. PMID:28928784

  4. Association of stress, salivary cortisol level, and periodontitis among the inmates of a central prison in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Fenol, Angel; Jebi, Susan; Krishnan, Sajitha; Perayil, Jayachandran; Vyloppillil, Rajesh; Bhaskar, Anuradha; Menon, Sai Megha; Mohandas, Ashitha

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between stress, salivary cortisol, and periodontitis among the inmates of the central prison. Seventy inmates were grouped depending on their pocket depth into Group A (pocket depth >4 mm and <6 mm), Group B (at least four sites with pocket depth ≥6 mm), and Group C (pocket depth ≤3 mm). The clinical parameters such as the oral hygiene index-simplified, gingival index, pocket depth, and the clinical attachment levels (CALs) were recorded. Stress was measured using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale along with prison time served. Saliva samples were collected, and cortisol levels were determined using electrochemiluminescence assay. Chi-square test was used for finding the association between the clinical parameters. The correlation between clinical parameters, stress, salivary cortisol levels, and time served was done using Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. The CALs, the stress score and the salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher in Group B (P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation showed a positive correlation between stress, cortisol level, and pocket depth. A positive correlation which was statistically significant was obtained between salivary cortisol level and prison time served by the inmates. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that there is a positive relation between stress and periodontal disease. The study suggests that salivary cortisol level can be used as a marker to assess stress.

  5. ALTERED BASAL CORTISOL LEVELS AT 3, 6, 8 AND 18 MONTHS IN INFANTS BORN AT EXTREMELY LOW GESTATIONAL AGE

    PubMed Central

    GRUNAU, RUTH E.; HALEY, DAVID W.; WHITFIELD, MICHAEL F.; WEINBERG, JOANNE; YU, WAYNE; THIESSEN, PAUL

    2007-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the developmental trajectory of cortisol levels in preterm infants after hospital discharge. Study design In a cohort of 225 infants (gestational age at birth <33 weeks) basal salivary cortisol levels were compared in infants born at extremely low gestational age (ELGA, 23-28 weeks), very low gestational age (VLGA, 29-32 weeks) and full-term (37-42 weeks), at 3, 6, 8 and 18 months corrected age (CA). Infants with major neurosensory and/or motor impairment were excluded. Results At 3 months CA, salivary cortisol levels were lower in both preterm groups compared to the full-term infants (p = .003). Conversely, at 8 and 18 months CA, the ELGA infants had significantly higher basal cortisol levels than the VLGA and full-term infants (p = .016; p = .006 respectively). Conclusions In ELGA infants, the shift from low basal cortisol levels at 3 months to significantly high levels at 8 and 18 months CA suggests long-term ‘re-setting’ of endocrine stress systems. Multiple factors may contribute to these higher cortisol levels in the ELGA infants, including physiological immaturity at birth, cumulative stress related to multiple procedures and mechanical ventilation during lengthy hospitalization. Prolonged elevation of the cortisol “set-point” may have negative implications for neurodevelopment and later health. PMID:17236892

  6. Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children are associated with cortisol responses to psychosocial stress but not with daily cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Kajantie, Eero; Jones, Alexander; Pyhälä, Riikka; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo E; Räikkönen, Katri

    2011-11-01

    We tested associations of diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPAA) activity and its response to stress with behavioral symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among 272 eight-year-old children. We measured their diurnal salivary cortisol and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Mothers rated their child's behavior with the ADHD-IV Rating Scale and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). There were no significant associations between ADHD symptoms and diurnal cortisol concentrations. The boys with predominantly inattentive symptoms of ADHD (ADHD-I; scores at or above the 90th percentile) had 26% lower mean salivary cortisol levels during the TSST-C than the boys with scores below this cutoff. In the girls with symptoms of ADHD-I, initial salivary cortisol levels prior to the TSST-C were higher and fell more rapidly during and after the TSST-C, which was not seen in the remaining girls (P = 0.007 for interaction 'ADHD-I × sampling time'). Controlling for Oppositional Defiant Disorder/Conduct Disorder and Anxiety Disorder or excluding children with these comorbid problems did not substantially affect these findings. We conclude that the boys and the girls with behavioral symptoms of ADHD-I had reduced HPAA responsiveness to stress, which is also seen in people after traumatic events or with chronic stress. Their diurnal cortisol rhythm was not affected. Thus, ADHD-I may be associated with dysregulation of the HPAA or reduced engagement with stressful stimuli. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-07

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats.

  8. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2005-01-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  9. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil MY; Cepeda, Ivan L.; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R.; Grunau, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24–32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38–41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children’s behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end - study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime - diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at

  10. Cortisol levels in former preterm children at school age are predicted by neonatal procedural pain-related stress.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Chau, Cecil M Y; Cepeda, Ivan L; Degenhardt, Amanda; Weinberg, Joanne; Synnes, Anne R; Grunau, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Early life stress can alter hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis function. Differences in cortisol levels have been found in preterm infants exposed to substantial procedural stress during neonatal intensive care, compared to infants born full-term, but only a few studies investigated whether altered programming of the HPA axis persists past toddler age. Further, there is a dearth of knowledge of what may contribute to these changes in cortisol. This prospective cohort study examined the cortisol profiles in response to the stress of cognitive assessment, as well as the diurnal rhythm of cortisol, in children (n=129) born at varying levels of prematurity (24-32 weeks gestation) and at full-term (38-41 weeks gestation), at age 7 years. Further, we investigated the relationships among cortisol levels and neonatal procedural pain-related stress (controlling for multiple medical confounders), concurrent maternal factors (parenting stress, depressive and anxiety symptoms) and children's behavioral problems. For each aim we investigate acute cortisol response profiles to a cognitive challenge as well as diurnal cortisol patterns at home. We hypothesized that children born very preterm will differ in their pattern of cortisol secretion from children born full-term, possibly depended on concurrent child and maternal factors, and that exposure to neonatal pain-related stress would be associated with altered cortisol secretion in children born very preterm, possibly in a sex-dependent way. Saliva samples were collected from 7-year old children three times during a laboratory visit for assessment of cognitive and executive functions (pretest, mid-test, end-study day acute stress profile) and at four times over two consecutive non-school days at home (i.e. morning, mid-morning, afternoon and bedtime-diurnal rhythm profile). We found that cortisol profiles were similar in preterm and full-term children, albeit preterms had slightly higher cortisol at bedtime compared to

  11. Ecological correlates of cortisol levels in two bat species with contrasting feeding habits.

    PubMed

    Lewanzik, Daniel; Kelm, Detlev H; Greiner, Sabine; Dehnhard, Martin; Voigt, Christian C

    2012-05-15

    The immediate release of adrenal glucocorticoids can be crucial for an animal's survival when facing a stressor, but constantly elevated or exceptionally high glucocorticoid levels are usually detrimental for health. Although baseline and maximal secretion of glucocorticoids are regulated within narrow ranges within species, plasma glucocorticoid levels vary largely across vertebrates. We asked what ecological factors affect baseline plasma cortisol levels (CortI) and maximum levels (CortMax) following a physiological challenge through administration of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Specifically, we studied whether seasonal fluctuations in food abundance correlate with the capacity of cortisol increases in two phyllostomid bat species with contrasting feeding habits: the sanguinivorous vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the frugivorous short-tailed fruit bat (Carollia perspicillata). Both species coexist in habitats with various levels of seasonality (dry and rainforest). On a seasonal basis, resource abundance is more stable for vampire than for fruit bats, but previous studies suggested that daily foraging success may vary more for vampire than for fruit bats. CortI and CortMax varied seasonally in C. perspicillata from dry and rainforests, with the exception of CortMax in rainforest bats. Although we expected food availability to be stable year-round for vampire bats, we found CortI and CortMax of vampires to be higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Also, we found CortMax to be higher in vampires from the rainforest than in those from the dry forest. CortMax of vampires were among the highest measured for a free-ranging mammal; a pattern that could be related to the species' vulnerability to starvation. We conclude that food availability modulates cortisol levels in free-ranging species that face seasonally fluctuating resources; in species, however, that benefit from food which is constantly abundant, other factors than food may

  12. Associations of Maternal Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Health Outcomes of Mothers and Their Very-Low-Birthweight Infants.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2017-07-01

    Although the roles of testosterone and cortisol in various health problems have been extensively investigated, little is known about their associations with health outcomes in mothers and their very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants when maternal testosterone and cortisol are examined together during the postpartum period. The 101 mother-VLBW infant pairs were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary medical center in the southeastern United States. Demographic information, pregnancy and labor complications of mothers, and health and growth outcomes of infants were obtained from medical records and interviews with mothers. Maternal salivary testosterone and cortisol levels were determined using enzyme immunoassay. Linear regression showed that mothers who were older and had a larger body mass index experienced more pregnancy complications, whereas mothers who were single and had a cesarean section experienced more labor complications. Generalized linear models showed that mothers with high cortisol levels had more antepartum hemorrhage, whereas infants of mothers with high cortisol levels had fewer neurological insults and shorter hospitalizations than other infants. More mothers experienced premature prolonged rupture of membranes (PPROM) than chorioamnionitis, and maternal medical complications were negatively associated with infant health outcomes except PPROM, which was positively associated with infant outcomes. High maternal cortisol levels were associated with maternal health problems during pregnancy. Beneficial effects of PPROM and high maternal cortisol levels on infant health outcomes were important findings, and understanding the mechanisms of these relationships may be of practical value for clinicians and researchers.

  13. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in

  14. Cortisol and ACTH levels in drug-naive adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Şeref; Gençoğlan, Salih; Yüksel, Tuğba; Aktaş, Hüseyin

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone in adolescents with first-episode early onset schizophrenia. A total of 23 adolescent patients, who did not receive prior therapy and who were diagnosed with psychosis according to DSM-IV, were included. Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, Positive and Negative Symptom Scale, and Clinical Global Impression Scale were conducted with the participants. No significant differences were found between the patients and the control subjects in serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (P > .05). Our study's findings do not support the hypothesis of increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in first-episode early onset schizophrenia.

  15. Effects of the Higashi-Nihon earthquake: posttraumatic stress, psychological changes, and cortisol levels of survivors.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Pacific side of Japan's northeast was devastated by an earthquake and tsunami. For years, many researchers have been working on ways of examining the psychological effects of earthquakes on survivors in disaster areas who have experienced aftershocks, catastrophic fires, and other damage caused by the earthquake. The goal of this study is to examine scores on psychological measures and salivary cortisol level in these individuals both before and three months after the earthquake. The participants had been measured for these variables before the earthquake. After the earthquake, we carried out PTSD screening using CAPS for participants for another experiment, and then again conducted the aforementioned tests. We collected saliva samples from all survivors. Our results show that social relationship scores on the WHO-QOL26, negative mood scores of the WHO-SUBI, total GHQ score, POMS confusion scores, and CMI emotional status score after the earthquake showed scores indicating significantly decreased compared to before the earthquake. On the other hand, salivary cortisol levels after the earthquake was significantly increased compared to before the earthquake. Moreover, the result of a multiple regression analysis found that negative mood score on the WHO-SUBI and social relationship score on the WHO-QOL26 were significantly related to salivary cortisol levels. Our results thus demonstrate that several psychological stress induced by the earthquake was associated with an increase in salivary cortisol levels. These results show similar findings to previous study. We anticipate that this study will provide a better understanding of posttraumatic responses in the early stages of adaptation to the trauma and expand effective prevention strategies and countermeasures for PTSD.

  16. Measuring Baseline Cortisol Levels in Cetaceans: Developing a Novel Non-Invasive Analysis Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Cortisol in cetacean skin samples is expected to reflect levels of chronic stress, as the acute stress potentially caused by the sampling itself is not...expected to enter this matrix for days or even weeks. Skin samples can thus provide information on the long-term physiological status of the animal...OBJECTIVES At the conclusion of the project period, we expect to have provided a greater understanding of the potential of cetacean skin as a

  17. Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine and its related compounds in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, S; Kamei, C; Yoshida, T; Tasaka, K

    1993-08-01

    Changes in plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels induced by intracerebroventricular injection of histamine (H(i)) were studied in dogs. Intracerebroventricular administration of Hi at doses of 5 and 10 micrograms/kg caused a significant increase in plasma ACTH, while more rapid and more marked increase in plasma cortisol was noticed after Hi injection at doses of 2-10 micrograms/kg. Similar results were obtained when 2-methylhistamine was injected; remarkable increases in both plasma ACTH and cortisol levels were observed at doses of 25 and 50 micrograms/kg. However, no such effect was elicited by 4-methylhistamine even at a dose of 50 micrograms/kg. The rate of plasma cortisol increase induced by either Hi or 2-methylhistamine was significantly faster than that of plasma ACTH. Simultaneous application of pyrilamine (intracerebroventricularly) with H(i) resulted in the significant inhibition of H(i)-induced hormone secretions, but in similar administration neither ACTH nor cortisol were affected by cimetidine. In hypophysectomized dogs, a significant increase in plasma cortisol level was also observed after H(i) injection at a dose of 5 micrograms/kg. Intravenous infusion of hexamethonium continued before and after H(i) injection failed to inhibit the increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels induced by H(i). From these findings, it can be concluded that intracerebroventricular injection of H(i) caused an increase in plasma ACTH and cortisol levels via H1-receptor, and it is suggested that to some extent, the cortisol release elicited by H(i) is certainly produced without participation of ACTH.

  18. Seasonal changes in CRF-I and urotensin I transcript levels in masu salmon: correlation with cortisol secretion during spawning.

    PubMed

    Westring, Christian G; Ando, Hironori; Kitahashi, Takashi; Bhandari, Ramji Kumar; Ueda, Hiroshi; Urano, Akihisa; Dores, Robert M; Sher, Anna A; Danielson, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Pacific salmon employ a semelparous reproductive strategy where sexual maturation is followed by rapid senescence and death. Cortisol overproduction has been implicated as the central physiologic event responsible for the post-spawning demise of these fish. Cortisol homeostasis is regulated through the action of hormones of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. These include corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (UI). In the present study, masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) were assayed for changes in the levels CRF-I and UI mRNA transcripts by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results were compared to plasma cortisol levels in juvenile, adult, and spawning masu salmon to identify specific regulatory factors that appear to be functionally associated with changes in cortisol levels. Intramuscular implantation of GnRH analog (GnRHa) capsules was also used to determine whether GnRH influences stress hormone levels. In both male and female masu salmon, spawning fish experienced a 5- to 7-fold increase in plasma cortisol levels relative to juvenile non-spawning salmon. Changes in CRF-I mRNA levels were characterized by 1-2 distinctive short-term surges in adult masu salmon. Conversely, seasonal changes in UI mRNA levels displayed broad and sustained increases during the pre-spawning and spawning periods. The increases in UI mRNA levels were positively correlated (R(2)=0.21 male and 0.26 female, p<0.0001) with levels of plasma cortisol in the pre-spawning and spawning periods. Despite the importance of GnRH in sexual maturation and reproduction, the administration of GnRHa to test animals failed to produce broad changes in CRF-I, UI or plasma cortisol levels. These findings suggest a more direct role for UI than for CRF-I in the regulation of cortisol levels in spawning Pacific salmon.

  19. Gender differences in aggression and cortisol levels in zebrafish subjected to unpredictable chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Marcon, Matheus; Villanova, Débora; Koakoski, Gessi; de Abreu, Murilo S; Oliveira, Thiago A; Barcellos, Leonardo J G; Piato, Angelo L; Bonan, Carla D

    2017-03-15

    Chronic stress may cause physical, behavioral and neuropsychiatric changes, affecting the health condition of an individual. Aggression is a universal behavior with great relevance on human and animal social systems. Despite studies showing the influence of chronic stress on aggression, the effects of unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) on aggressive behavior in male and female zebrafish remain unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of UCS on the aggressive behavior and cortisol levels in adult zebrafish of both sexes. Our results showed that UCS increased aggression in males, but not in females, which displayed more aggressive behavior at baseline than control males. Increased whole-body cortisol levels were observed in stressed males; however, no differences were found between female groups. In conclusion, we reported for the first time gender differences on behavioral parameters and cortisol levels in response to UCS in zebrafish. These results highlight the relevance of studying behavioral and physiological parameters in both sexes separately. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An optimized whole-body cortisol quantification method for assessing stress levels in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish.

  1. An Optimized Whole-Body Cortisol Quantification Method for Assessing Stress Levels in Larval Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chen-Min; Glöck, Mario; Ryu, Soojin

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoids serve important regulatory functions for many physiological processes and are critical mediators of the stress response. The stress response is a set of bodily processes aimed at counteracting a state of threatened homeostasis. Proper stress response is critical for the survival of an animal, however prolonged or abnormal stress response can be detrimental and is implicated in a number of human diseases such as depression and metabolic diseases. To dissect the underlying mechanism of this complex and important response, the zebrafish, Danio rerio offer important advantages such as ease of genetic manipulations and high-throughput behavioral analyses. However, there is a paucity of suitable methods to measure stress level in larval zebrafish. Therefore, an efficient low-cost method to monitor stress hormone levels will greatly facilitate stress research in zebrafish larvae. In this study, we optimized sample collection as well as cortisol extraction methods and developed a home-made ELISA protocol for measuring whole-body cortisol level in zebrafish larvae. Further, using our customized protocols, we characterized the response of larval zebrafish to a variety of stressors. This assay, developed for efficient cortisol quantification, will be useful for systematic and large-scale stress analyses in larval zebrafish. PMID:24223943

  2. Cortisol Level and Hemodynamic Changes During Tooth Extraction at Hypertensive and Normotensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Agani, Zana Bajrami; Benedetti, Alberto; Krasniqi, Vjosa Hamiti; Ahmedi, Jehona; Sejfija, Zana; Loxha, Mergime Prekazi; Murtezani, Arben; Rexhepi, Aida Namani; Ibraimi, Zana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The patients that are subjects to oral-surgical interventions produce large amounts of steroids in comparison with healthy patients which are not a subject to any dental intervention. The aim of research was to determine the level of stress hormone cortisol in serum, arterial blood pressure and arterial pulse, and to compare the effectiveness of the usage of lidocaine with adrenalin in comparison with lidocaine without adrenalin during the tooth extraction. Patients and methods: This clinical research includes patients with indication of tooth extraction divided in hypertensive and normotensive patients. Results: There is no important statistical distinction between groups, for the cortisol levels before, during and after tooth extraction regardless of the type of anesthetic used, while we registered higher values of systolic and diastolic values at hypertensive patients, regardless of the type of anesthetic Conclusion: There is significant systolic and diastolic blood pressure rise in both groups of patients hypertensive and normotensive patients, (regardless of anesthetic used with or without vasoconstrictor), who underwent tooth extraction. The special emphasize is attributed to hypertensive patients where these changes are more significant. As per cortisol level and pulse rate, our results indicate no significant statistical difference in between groups. PMID:26005263

  3. Trauma sequelae and cortisol levels in women exposed to intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Basu, Archana; Levendosky, Alytia A; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is often a chronic form of trauma with deleterious mental health problems. Furthermore, IPV survivors have also often experienced trauma in childhood. Consequently, by examining a sample of IPV survivors, this study sought to assess typical trauma sequelae--Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), or dissociative symptoms-and trauma-related characteristics consistent with Herman's Trauma theory (1992; i.e., chronicity of trauma, age of first trauma exposure, and social support), in relation to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function. The study compared basal and diurnal cortisol in women (n = 88) based on diagnostic status and symptom severity (PTSD [n = 14], PTSD and comorbid MDD [n = 43], subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and MDD [n = 19]), dissociative symptoms, and the aforementioned trauma-related characteristics to a matched control group (n = 12) without any lifetime history of mental health diagnoses or exposure to interpersonal trauma. Regardless of their diagnostic status and trauma-related characteristics, trauma-exposed women had higher levels of dissociative symptoms relative to women in the control group, and these dissociative symptoms were inversely related to awakening cortisol levels. Findings suggest that low cortisol levels may not be a diagnostic marker, but instead may be associated with a dissociative coping style developed in the context of trauma exposure, consistent with mechanisms posited by Trauma theory.

  4. Effects of coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of plasma cortisol levels on leukocyte transcriptional response to endotoxin challenge in humans.

    PubMed

    Kamisoglu, Kubra; Sleight, Kirsten; Nguyen, Tung T; Calvano, Steve E; Coyle, Susette M; Corbett, Siobhan A; Androulakis, Ioannis P

    2014-10-01

    Severe traumas are associated with hypercortisolemia due to both disruption of cortisol secretion rhythm and increase in its total concentration. Understanding the effects of altered cortisol levels and rhythms on immune function is of great clinical interest, to prevent conditions such as sepsis from complicating the recovery. This in vivo study assesses the responses of circulating leukocytes to coupled dose and rhythm manipulation of cortisol, preceding an immune challenge induced by endotoxin administration. Through continuous infusion, plasma cortisol concentration was increased to and kept constant at a level associated with major physiologic stress. In response, transcriptional programming of leukocytes was altered to display a priming response before endotoxin exposure. Enhanced expression of a number of receptors and signaling proteins, as well as lowered protein translation and mitochondrial function indicated a sensitization against potential infectious threats. Despite these changes, response to endotoxin followed very similar patterns in both cortisol and saline pre-treated groups except one cluster including probe sets associated with major players regulating inflammatory response. In sum, altered dose and rhythm of plasma cortisol levels engendered priming of circulating leukocytes when preceded an immune challenge. This transcriptional program change associated with stimulated surveillance function and suppressed energy-intensive processes, emphasized permissive actions of cortisol on immune function.

  5. Annual changes in plasma levels of cortisol and sex steroid hormones in male rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    2001-09-01

    The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.

  6. Claudin tight junction proteins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin: Spatial response to elevated cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Gauberg, Julia; Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-01-01

    This study examined regional distribution and corticosteroid-induced alterations of claudin (cldn) transcript abundance in teleost fish skin. Regional comparison of mRNA encoding 20 Cldns indicated that 12 exhibit differences in abundance along the dorsoventral axis of skin. However, relative abundance of cldns (i.e. most to least abundant) remained similar in different skin regions. Several cldns appear to be present in the epidermis and dermal vasculature whereas others are present only in the epidermis. Increased circulating cortisol levels significantly altered mRNA abundance of 10 cldns in a region specific manner, as well as corticosteroid receptors and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (type 2). Epidermis and epidermal mucous cell morphometrics also altered in response to cortisol, exhibiting changes that appear to enhance skin barrier properties. Taken together, data provide a first look at spatial variation in the molecular physiology of the teleost fish integument TJ complex and region-specific sensitivity to an endocrine factor.

  7. Salivary cortisol levels and mood vary by lifetime trauma exposure in a sample of healthy women.

    PubMed

    Ganzel, Barbara L; Eckenrode, John J; Kim, Pilyoung; Wethington, Elaine; Horowitz, Eric; Temple, Elise

    2007-10-01

    The authors examined the effects of lifetime trauma exposure on salivary cortisol and mood in a sample of women (N = 37) over 25 days before and after a stressful event. The sample excluded posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression and was divided into three groups: (a) no trauma, (b) prior trauma with no peritraumatic symptoms of acute distress, and (c) prior trauma with peritraumatic symptoms. Because results indicated no significant differences between groups one and two, they were combined for analysis. Women reporting prior trauma with symptoms had lower afternoon cortisol levels across time, with sustained negative mood relative to the comparison group. These data suggest the presence of long-term psychophysiological effects of trauma exposure in healthy women.

  8. [Increased cortisol levels, frostbite and effects on the muscles and skeleton during extreme polar conditions].

    PubMed

    Steine, Kjetil; Røseth, Arne G; Sandbaek, Gunnar; Murison, Robert; Slagsvold, Carl-Erik; Keller, Anne; Falch, Jan A

    2003-12-23

    We wanted to record physiological changes, injuries and illnesses during a long sledge expedition in North Canada. The expedition consisted of four men aged 41 to 50, and 16 polar dogs. Measurements of cortisol in saliva were performed before, during and after the expedition. Frostbites and other injuries were registered continuously. Body weight and muscle, fat and bone mass were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry scanning, and strength and endurance of shoulders, knees and back were tested. The group encountered extreme frost (-30 to -42 degrees C day temperature), wind, unexpected amounts of pack ice, and poorly motivated dogs. The participants showed increased free cortisol levels during their stay on the ice, probably because of increased mental stress. Three got first degree and two second-degree frostbites, but the affected areas were normal on vascular examination five months later. All members increased their muscle mass, but muscle strength and endurance remained unchanged.

  9. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target.

  10. Effects of Music Listening on Cortisol Levels and Propofol Consumption during Spinal Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fuermetz, Julian; Sack, Ulrich; Bauer, Katrin; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Wiegel, Martin; Kaisers, Udo X.; Heinke, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study explores effects of instrumental music on the hormonal system (as indicated by serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone), the immune system (as indicated by immunoglobulin A) and sedative drug requirements during surgery (elective total hip joint replacement under spinal anesthesia with light sedation). This is the first study investigating this issue with a double-blind design using instrumental music. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients (n = 40) were randomly assigned either to a music group (listening to instrumental music), or to a control group (listening to a non-musical placebo stimulus). Both groups listened to the auditory stimulus about 2 h before, and during the entire intra-operative period (during the intra-operative light sedation, subjects were able to respond lethargically to verbal commands). Results indicate that, during surgery, patients of the music group had a lower propofol consumption, and lower cortisol levels, compared to the control group. Conclusion/Significance: Our data show that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels (reflecting stress-reducing effects) and reduces sedative requirements to reach light sedation. PMID:21716581

  11. Hippocampal formation volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in patients with Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Starkman, M N; Gebarski, S S; Berent, S; Schteingart, D E

    1992-11-01

    Patients with chronic hypercortisolemia due to Cushing's syndrome (CS) exhibit cognitive dysfunction. Because glucocorticoid excess is associated with hippocampal damage in animals, and the hippocampus participates in learning and memory, we explored the relationships between hippocampal formation (HF) volume, memory dysfunction, and cortisol levels in 12 patients with CS. After magnetic resonance imaging, HF volume was determined using digital sum of track ball traces of dentate gyrus, hippocampus proper and subiculum, correcting for total intracranial volume. For 27% of the patients, HF volume fell outside the 95% confidence intervals for normal subject volume given in the literature. In addition, there were significant and specific correlations between HF volume and scores for verbal paired associate learning, verbal recall, and verbal recall corrected for full-scale IQ (r = 0.57 to 0.70, p < 0.05). HF volume was negatively correlated with plasma cortisol levels (r = -0.73, p < 0.05). These studies suggest an association between reduced HF volume, memory dysfunction, and elevated cortisol in patients with CS.

  12. Effects of carbamazepine on cortisol levels and behavioral responses to stress in the fish Jenynsia multidentata.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Emilia; Durando, Patricia; Valdés, M Eugenia; Franchioni, Liliana; Bistoni, María de los Ángeles

    2016-05-01

    Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant drug, prescribed worldwide for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and trigeminal neuralgia, which has been frequently detected in aquatic environments. The objective of this study was to analyze if CBZ modifies scototaxis and shoaling behaviors and/or whole-body cortisol levels of the one-sided livebearing fish Jenynsia multidentata under stress condition. Female adults of J. multidentata were exposed to 0, 10, 50 and 200μgCBZ/L during 14days. After CBZ exposure, fish were subjected to restraint stress during 15min. Control animals were not exposed to CBZ or stress. In the light/dark preference test (scototaxis), the individuals under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) exhibited a significant increase in the mean speed and in the time spent both in the light compartment and in the bottom of the tank with respect to controls. They also showed a tendency to stay longer frozen in the light compartment. Fish exposed to 10 and 50μgCBZ/L showed a significant reduction in mean speed compared to stressed fish without CBZ. A reduction in the time spent in the bottom of the tank was also observed in fish exposed to 10μgCBZ/L. Fish exposed to 200μgCBZ/L showed a decreasing tendency in all behavioral endpoints (time spent in the light compartment, mean speed, time spent at the bottom and freezing) in comparison to stressed fish not exposed to CBZ. Considering whole-body cortisol results, fish under acute restraint stress (without CBZ) significantly increased their hormone levels with respect to the control group, while fish exposed to CBZ and acute restraint stress, significantly decreased their whole-body cortisol levels. There were no significant changes in shoaling behavior due to either stress or CBZ exposure and no significant differences in whole-body cortisol levels between experimental groups. Considering that the light/dark and shoaling tests measure different stress response behaviors regulated by different

  13. Cortisol Levels in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Review

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristen M.; Fazzio, Pamela; Oberfield, Sharon E.; Gallagher, Mary P.; Aranoff, Gaya S.

    2017-01-01

    There is little data documenting cortisol levels in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), despite the fact that untreated adrenal insufficiency (AI) could worsen the outcome of DKA. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed serum cortisol levels in 28 children with DKA and new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus evaluated at our center over a 5-year period. Average duration of diabetes-related symptoms was positively associated with age (P = .002), and significantly lower hemoglobin A1c levels were observed in the youngest children. The mean cortisol level was 40.9 mg/dL, with a range of 7.8 to 119 mg/dL. Cortisol levels were found to be inversely associated with serum pH (P = .007). There was no difference in the clinical outcome of the 4 patients who had cortisol levels less than 18 mg/dL. Overall, we did not find clinical or laboratory evidence of diminished cortisol reserve; however, the possibility of AI must be kept in mind when treating children with DKA. PMID:28145127

  14. Relationship of salivary and plasma cortisol levels in preterm infants: results of a prospective observational study and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Ringwald, Christine; Weber, Karin; Engel, Corinna; Poets, Christian F; Binder, Gerhard; Bassler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    (1) To investigate the relationship of salivary and plasma cortisol levels in preterm infants with a focus on the usability of salivary cortisol in diagnostic work-up of infants at risk of adrenal insufficiency. (2) To perform a systematic review addressing this question. Clinical study: We conducted a prospective observational single-center study in preterm infants. We analyzed plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations by enzyme immunoassay. Correlation analysis was used to determine the relation between salivary and plasma cortisol levels and the agreement of the measurement methods was analyzed according to Bland-Altman. Systematic review: A systematic literature search (PubMed and Embase) on the relationship of salivary and plasma cortisol levels in neonates was performed in November 2012. Clinical study: We enrolled 58 preterm infants (median (interquartile range) gestational age at birth was 31.4 (28.1-32.7) weeks, birth weight 1,340 (974-1,745) g, respectively). Correlation analyses revealed a relationship of plasma cortisol and salivary cortisol levels. Rank correlation coefficient was 0.6. Estimating plasma cortisol levels based on measured salivary cortisol levels showed poor agreement of the two methods for determining plasma cortisol levels (direct and via salivary cortisol). Sensitivity and specificity of salivary cortisol for the detection of adrenal insufficiency were 0.66 and 0.62, respectively. Systematic review: Six studies in preterm infants and term neonates depicting the correlation of salivary and plasma cortisol were identified with a range of saliva-plasma correlation coefficients from 0.44 to 0.83. Substitution of plasma cortisol by salivary cortisol determination cannot be recommended in preterm infants because of unsatisfactory agreement between methods.

  15. Influence of the leptin and cortisol levels on craving and smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arthur da Silva; Toffolo, Mayla Cardoso Fernandes; Keulen, Henriqueta Vieira van; Castro e Silva, Flávia Márcia; Ferreira, Ana Paula; Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente Dutra; Mendes, Larissa Loures; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; de Aguiar, Aline Silva

    2015-09-30

    Leptin inhibits cortisol release and may increase the craving for cigarettes, hindering the process of smoking cessation. We evaluate the influence of the initial concentration of cortisol and serum leptin on craving and smoking status in individuals after one month of treatment for smoking cessation. The leptin concentration was adjusted by the Initial Body Mass Index (BMI) (leptin/BMI) and the initial percentage of body fat (%BF) (leptin/%BF). The craving was assessed using the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges-Brief (QSU-Brief). The QSU-Brief was assessed about a score of factor 1 (positive reinforcement by tobacco), and factor 2 (negative reinforcement by tobacco). Correlation was found between QSU-Brief (Factor 1 and 2) with the initial concentration of leptin/BF% among those who continued to smoke. There was a negative correlation between cortisol levels and leptin/%BF in individuals who remained smokers after 1 month. There was a positive correlation between leptin/BMI and leptin/%BF with the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) of 1 month in women who remained smokers (r=0.565; p=0.023) and the QSU-Brief (Factor 2) initial among the abstinent women (r=0.551; p=0.033). The highest concentrations of leptin were associated with greater craving and difficulty in achieve abstinence.

  16. Awake/sleep cortisol levels and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients with peritraumatic dissociation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-09-01

    Differences in the time of day that cortisol is sampled and failure to consider the impact of peritraumatic dissociation have been hypothesized as factors possibly contributing to the inconsistent findings in research examining associations between cortisol levels soon after trauma exposure and the subsequent development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study examined associations between urinary cortisol levels during wake and sleep times soon after a serious injury and the subsequent development of PTSD in adult patients reporting low or high peritraumatic dissociative (PD) symptoms. Thirty-nine injury patients (20 with high and 19 with low PD symptoms) provided a 15-hour (6 PM to 9 AM) urine sample at 3-weeks post-injury and completed the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale at a 7-week follow-up. Participants collected their urine during wake and sleep times separately. Results showed that in the total sample and in the high PD group, wake, but not sleep, cortisol levels were lower in patients who developed PTSD compared to those who did not. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant main effect of PD and a non-significant interaction between wake cortisol and PD in predicting PTSD symptom severity. In addition, results showed that PD was a better predictor of PTSD symptom severity than wake cortisol levels. These results were consistent with prior research indicating lower afternoon/evening cortisol levels in PTSD and strong associations between PD and PTSD, but did not support the existence of subgroups of PTSD patients (dissociators versus non-dissociators) who may differ in basal cortisol levels.

  17. Quality of Life, Cortisol Blood Levels and Exercise in Older Adults: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Cossu, Giulia; Migliaccio, Gian M; Atzori, Claudio; Nardi, Antonio E; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cortisol plays a central role in the stress response; while high stress can determine physical and psychological impairment, moderate stress, with a mild increase in cortisol level, may have a positive effect on coping and physical performance. This trial attempted to determine whether cortisol levels were associated with Quality of Life (QoL) in a sample of elderly subjects undertaking an exercise program. Methods:42 subjects aged ≥65 years were randomlyassigned in a 1:1 fashion either to a vigorous physical activity (VAG: N=21) or to a postural gimnastic group (PGG: N=21). Differences between the two groups in QoL (on SF-12), and blood cortisol levels were assessed by ANOVA at different times. Results:In both the VAG and PGG, cortisol levels rose at the end of the trial, with statistically significant differences as compared to the baseline. QoL at the end of the trial was higher than in the national normative sample. Cortisol and QoL in both groups decreased slightly 12 weeks after the end of the trial (T2); however, only in the VAG did the difference from the initial level remain statistically significant. At T1 and T2, subjects with higher SF-12 scores were found in subsamples in both groups with cortisol levels moderately increased (between 200 and 300 mg/ml). Conclusion:In a sample of elderly subjects undergoing two different kinds of exercise, a better perception of Quality of Life was associated with a moderate, non-pathological increase in cortisol. The results need to be confirmed by trials on larger samples. PMID:25006344

  18. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Triiodotyronine (T3) was significantly decreased (p<0.001) and thyroxine (T4 ) significantly increased ( p<0.001) in metabolic syndrome compared to healthy controls. T3 correlated positively and significantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( p<0.001 ) and negatively with body mass index ( p<0.001 )and triglyceride ( p=0.026). T4 had a negative significant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (p<0.001) while growth hormone correlated positively with

  19. Cortisol, high cortisol diseases and anti-cortisol therapy.

    PubMed

    Sapse, A T

    1997-01-01

    Elevated cortisol is found in many diseases, including infectious, aging-related, depression and depression-associated conditions; even in some with no known origin, and no known therapy. While it was initially thought that 'high cortisol' is the result of these diseases, there is mounting evidence to the contrary, namely, that high cortisol actually plays a major role in inducing them, opening the possibility that anti-cortisol drugs might represent a new beneficial therapy. Evidence is here presented, showing that the use of anti-cortisol drugs has already induced beneficial results in conditions ranging from AIDS to depression. A main reason for not realizing the major role played by cortisol is due to a defective interpretation of cortisol results. If cortisol is within normal range of 0800 h or 1700 h, it has been considered normal, without realizing that swings, sometimes at immunosuppressive levels, might occur during its 24 h circadian rhythm. We suggest that a first step toward unveiling the role of cortisol in diseases would be to develop a standardized cortisol circadian rhythm chart that would show normal levels at any time during a 24 h period, enabling a more accurate comparison with cortisol values obtained under pathological conditions.

  20. Relationship between the cortisol levels in umbilical cord blood and neonatal RDS/TTN in twin pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Kotani, Tomomi; Sumigama, Seiji; Mano, Yukio; Nakano, Tomoko; Hua, Li; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-01-01

    Twin neonates have a higher risk of respiratory complications, such as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), than singleton neonates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the cortisol levels in the umbilical cord and neonatal RDS/TTN in twin pregnancies. We analyzed data obtained from 106 neonates (53 twin pairs), comprising 33 dichorionic twin (DCT) and 20 monochorionic twin (MCT) gestations. All infants were delivered via scheduled cesarean section without labor. We measured the cortisol levels in umbilical vein blood using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cortisol levels in the umbilical vein were significantly lower in the RDS/TTN group than in the no RDS/TTN group (p = 0.004). The umbilical cortisol levels in the TTN group were between the values observed in the RDS group and no RDS/TTN group. We subsequently analyzed the cut-off cortisol values for RDS/TTN and observed higher accuracy in the DCTs than in the MCTs. Neonates who develop RDS/TTN have significantly lower cortisol levels in the umbilical cord at birth than no RDS/TTN neonates in twin pregnancies. When applying these data in clinical practice, physicians should pay attention to differences based on chorionicity.

  1. Treatment of infantile spasms with high-dose ACTH: efficacy and plasma levels of ACTH and cortisol.

    PubMed

    Snead, O C; Benton, J W; Hosey, L C; Swann, J W; Spink, D; Martin, D; Rej, R

    1989-08-01

    Fifteen children with infantile spasms and a hypsarrhythmic EEG defined by EEG-videotelemetry monitoring received a regimen of high-dose (150 IU/m2/d) ACTH for their seizures. We carried out an endocrinologic evaluation before and after initiation of the ACTH and conducted a time course study of plasma ACTH and cortisol levels after ACTH dosing. Spasms were controlled and the EEG normalized in 14 of the 15 children. Prior to starting ACTH therapy all the patients had normal prolactin, insulin, cortisol, and ACTH levels in plasma and normal thyroid function. Although the pattern of rise of ACTH levels in plasma after ACTH dosing was similar in all the children, there was great individual variation in the absolute concentrations. However, both the pattern of rise and absolute level of cortisol in plasma after ACTH was highly predictable in all patients. Plasma cortisol rose rapidly within 1 hour of ACTH administration and continued a slower rise for 12 to 24 hours after the ACTH dose. High-dose ACTH therapy seems quite effective in infantile spasms, perhaps because of a sustained high level of plasma cortisol. This sustained plateau of cortisol may be more effective in controlling infantile spasms than the pulse effect expected with oral steroids or lower doses of ACTH.

  2. Polymorphisms in the FK506 binding protein 5 gene are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and diurnal cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Johan; Allen, Marie; Nilsson, Kent W; Lindblad, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies have shown an association between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a down-regulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) with low diurnal cortisol levels. Given the role of the FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) as an important regulator of the negative feedback system of the HPA axis, we set out to investigate possible associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 in relation to ADHD and diurnal cortisol levels. Children with ADHD (n = 81) and healthy comparisons (n = 88) collected saliva four times during a regular school day for radioimmunoassay analysis of cortisol and for genotyping of five SNPs in FKBP5 (rs9296158, rs1360780, rs9470080, rs7748266 and rs9394309). We found associations between SNP genotypes and ADHD as well as between genotypes and diurnal cortisol levels. One of these SNPs, rs9470080, was significantly associated with both ADHD and lower cortisol levels. This study contributes to previous findings on a down-regulated HPA axis in children with ADHD by demonstrating an association between ADHD, lower cortisol levels and SNPs of the FKBP5-gene. The relevance of these findings for the development and shaping of ADHD symptoms needs to be approached in larger samples, preferably also taking stress reactivity into consideration. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation and cytokine production in sheep as affected by cortisol level and duration of stress.

    PubMed

    Ciliberti, M G; Albenzio, M; Inghese, C; Santillo, A; Marino, R; Sevi, A; Caroprese, M

    2017-01-01

    A large number of studies recognize glucocorticoids (Gc) as suppressors of inflammation; Gc exert an important role in coordinating the magnitude and duration of host immune responses. In the present in vitro investigation, we tested incremental levels of cortisol to verify the immunosuppressive or immunopermissive role of cortisol in sheep peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after acute and chronic stress. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC were cultured for 24h and 96h at 37°C with 5% of CO2 and varying cortisol levels: 10 ng/mL (baseline), 100 ng/mL (physiological poststressor), and 1,000 ng/mL [hyperactivated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis]. The cell-free supernatants were collected for determination of IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 by ELISA, and the bromodeoxyuridine assay was performed on cells. Physiological cortisol concentration negatively affected the levels of IL-6 secreted by PBMC, resulting in increased cell proliferation after acute stress (24h of incubation). However, physiological cortisol concentration exhibited a reduction in cell proliferation induced by increased levels of IL-6 secreted by PBMC during chronic stress (96h of incubation). The cortisol concentration representing a hyperactivated HPA axis led to a reduction in cell proliferation after acute stress, which was probably induced by the elevated IL-10 production. Our results demonstrate that in sheep the effect of Gc on the immune system was related to the magnitude and the duration of stress. In particular, cortisol levels higher than physiological concentrations suppressed cell proliferation soon after acute stress. Instead, the physiological poststressor concentration of cortisol affected the immune responses in a bidirectional manner depending on the duration of the stressor. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a recently developed wireless measurement acquisition system to fluid-level measurement. This type of fluid-level measurement system alleviates many shortcomings of fluid-level measurement methods currently being used, including limited applicability of any one fluid-level sensor design. Measurement acquisition shortcomings include the necessity for power to be supplied to each sensor and for the measurement to be extracted from each sensor via a physical connection to the sensor. Another shortcoming is existing measurement systems require that a data channel and signal conditioning electronics be dedicated to each sensor. Use of wires results in other shortcomings such as logistics needed to add or replace sensors, weight, potential for electrical arcing and wire degradations. The fluid level sensor design is a simple passive inductor-capacitor circuit that is not subject to mechanical failure that is possible when float and lever-arm systems are used. Methods are presented for using the sensor in caustic, acidic or cryogenic fluids. Oscillating magnetic fields are used to power the sensor. Once electrically excited, the sensor produces a magnetic field response. The response frequency corresponds to the amount to fluid within the capacitor s electric field. The sensor design can be modified for measuring the level of any fluid or fluent substance that can be stored in a non-conductive reservoir. The interrogation method for discerning changes in the sensor response frequency is also presented.

  5. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress

    PubMed Central

    Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C.; van Wingen, Guido A.; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-01-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. PMID:26668010

  6. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    PubMed

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The association between self-reported daily hassles and cortisol levels in depression and anxiety in community living older adults.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadis, H-M; Forget, H; Préville, M

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the association, in a naturalistic setting, between daily hassles and diurnal salivary cortisol differs in the presence of depression and anxiety in older adults. Data were assessed in a large representative community sample of older adults (n = 1760). A multinomial analysis was used to study as an outcome variable: no disorder, depression only, anxiety only and depression and anxiety, as a function of daily hassles and cortisol levels controlling for age, gender and time of saliva collection. Multivariate regression analyses were also carried out to test the association between daily hassles and cortisol levels stratified by depression and anxiety status. A significant positive association was observed between the number of daily hassles reported and cortisol levels in participants with no depression and no anxiety and in participants with anxiety. Participants without depression and anxiety, and those with depression only, had significant lower cortisol levels later in the day. This was not observed in respondents with anxiety. Stressors such as daily hassles are associated with cortisol secretion in depression and anxiety in older adults in a large epidemiologic setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Associations between DSM-IV diagnosis, psychiatric symptoms and morning cortisol levels in a community sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA-axis) is implicated in a variety of psychiatric and emotional disorders. In this study, we explore the association between HPA-axis functioning, as measured by morning cortisol, and common psychiatric disorders and symptoms among a community sample of adolescents. Data from a cross-sectional school-based survey of 501 school pupils, aged 15, were used to establish the strength of association between salivary morning cortisol and both diagnosis of psychiatric disorders and a number of psychiatric symptoms, as measured via a computerised psychiatric interview. Analysis, conducted separately by gender, used multiple regressions, adjusting for relevant confounders. With one exception (a positive association between conduct disorder symptoms and cortisol among females) there was no association between morning cortisol and psychiatric diagnosis or symptoms. However, there was a significant two-way interaction between gender and conduct symptoms, with females showing a positive and males a negative association between cortisol and conduct symptoms. A further three-way interaction showed that while the association between cortisol and conduct symptoms was negative among males with a few mood disorder symptoms, among females with many mood symptoms it was positive. Except in relation to conduct symptoms, dysregulation of morning cortisol levels seems unrelated to any psychiatric disorder or symptoms. However, the relationship between cortisol and conduct symptoms is moderated by both gender and mood symptoms. Findings are compatible with the recent work suggesting research should concentrate on the moderated associations between gender, internalising and externalising symptoms and cortisol, rather than any simple relationship.

  9. The biologic effects of grounding the human body during sleep as measured by cortisol levels and subjective reporting of sleep, pain, and stress.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Maurice; Teplitz, Dale

    2004-10-01

    Diurnal cortisol secretion levels were measured and circadian cortisol profiles were evaluated in a pilot study conducted to test the hypothesis that grounding the human body to earth during sleep will result in quantifiable changes in cortisol. It was also hypothesized that grounding the human body would result in changes in sleep, pain, and stress (anxiety, depression, irritability), as measured by subjective reporting. Twelve (12) subjects with complaints of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were grounded to earth during sleep for 8 weeks in their own beds using a conductive mattress pad. Saliva tests were administered to establish pregrounding baseline cortisol levels. Levels were obtained at 4-hour intervals for a 24-hour period to determine the circadian cortisol profile. Cortisol testing was repeated at week 6. Subjective symptoms of sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress were reported daily throughout the 8-week test period. Measurable improvements in diurnal cortisol profiles were observed, with cortisol levels significantly reduced during night-time sleep. Subjects' 24-hour circadian cortisol profiles showed a trend toward normalization. Subjectively reported symptoms, including sleep dysfunction, pain, and stress, were reduced or eliminated in nearly all subjects. Results indicate that grounding the human body to earth ("earthing") during sleep reduces night-time levels of cortisol and resynchronizes cortisol hormone secretion more in alignment with the natural 24-hour circadian rhythm profile. Changes were most apparent in females. Furthermore, subjective reporting indicates that grounding the human body to earth during sleep improves sleep and reduces pain and stress.

  10. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation and correlation of stress scores with blood pressure, endogenous cortisol levels, and homocysteine levels in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and comparison with age-matched controls

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Garg, Monika; Dixit, Nikhil; Godara, Rohini

    2016-01-01

    Context: Stress had been associated with the development of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). The study was designed to evaluate the effect of stress on other risk factors of CSC such as serum cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, and blood pressure (BP) in CSC patients. Aims: To compare stress scores, serum cortisol and serum homocysteine levels, and BP of CSC patients with that of control population and to correlate stress scores of CSC patients with BP, serum cortisol levels, and serum homocysteine levels. Materials and Methods: Stress scores, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, serum homocysteine levels, systolic and diastolic BP of 54 CSC patients were measured and compared with that of 54 age- and sex-related controls using Student's t-test. Stress scores of CSC patients were correlated with systolic and diastolic BP, serum morning and evening cortisol levels and serum homocysteine levels and Pearson correlation coefficient (r) were calculated. Results: Stress scores, serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP were all elevated in CSC patients as compared with age- and sex-related controls (P < 0.05). Stress scores of CSC patients were found to correlate strongly with serum homocysteine levels, serum morning and evening cortisol levels, and systolic and diastolic BP, with r values 0.82, 0.8, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.81, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Stress scores were elevated in CSC patients and were strongly correlated with serum homocysteine and cortisol levels and BP. PMID:27958201

  12. Acetabular pneumatocyst containing air-fluid level.

    PubMed

    Narváez, J A; Narváez, J; Rodríguez-Mijarro, M; Quintero, J C

    1999-01-01

    The presence of intraosseous gas most commonly occurs in osteomyelitis, vacuum phenomenon, and postsurgery or posttraumatic states. Several cases of subchondral gas-filled lesions, called pneumatocysts, have also been described in the sacroiliac joint and clavicle, none of them with intralesional air-fluid level. These pneumatocysts are innocuous lesions of uncertain origin. We describe one case of acetabular pneumatocyst containing air-fluid level in a 62-year-old man with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis involving hip joint. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a pneumatocyst in an acetabular location containing air-fluid level.

  13. Hepatic heat shock protein 70 and plasma cortisol levels in rainbow trout after tagging with a passive integrated transponder

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Mesa, M.G.; Li, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the potentially stressful effects of tagging juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags by measuring short-term (<120-h) changes in plasma concentrations of cortisol and hepatic heat shock protein 70 (hsp70). In a laboratory experiment, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish before they were tagged (0 h) and at 2, 6, 24, and 120 h after being tagged. Hepatic hsp70 levels were measured at 0, 24, and 120 h. All results were compared with those for fish that were handled but not tagged. Plasma cortisol levels were significantly higher in both treatment groups (tagged and handled but not tagged) at 2 h than in the pretreatment groups (0 h). Plasma cortisol levels in the treatment groups returned to near pretreatment levels by 6 h. However, there was a significant difference in plasma cortisol levels between treatment groups at 6 h. There were no significant differences in hepatic hsp70 levels among the two treatment groups, and hepatic hsp70 levels did not change through time. Our results suggest that PIT tagging is a low-impact tagging procedure for juvenile salmonids. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  14. Comparison of salivary and calculated free cortisol levels during low and standard dose of ACTH stimulation tests in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Elbuken, Gulsah; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Karaca, Zuleyha; Kula, Mustafa; Gokahmetoglu, Selma; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2015-03-01

    Salivary cortisol (SC) has been increasingly used as a surrogate biomarker of free cortisol (FC) for the assessment of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but there are not enough data regarding its use during ACTH stimulation tests. Therefore, we aimed to determine the responses of SC, calculated free cortisol (cFC) and free cortisol index (FCI) to ACTH stimulation tests in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy volunteers (24 men and 20 women) were included in the study. Low-dose (1 µg) and standard-dose (250 µg) ACTH stimulation tests were performed on two consecutive days. Basal and stimulated total cortisol (TC) and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels and SC levels were measured during both doses of ACTH stimulation tests. cFC (by Coolens' equation) and FCI levels were calculated from simultaneously measured TC and CBG levels. The minimum SC, cFC, FCI levels after low-dose ACTH stimulation test were 0.21, 0.33, 16.06 µg/dL, and after standard-dose ACTH were 0.85, 0.46, 26.11 µg/dL, respectively, in healthy individuals who all had TC responses higher than 20 µg/dL. Peak CBG levels after both doses of ACTH stimulation tests were found to be higher in women than in men. So, by its effect, peak cFC and FCI levels were found to be lower in female than in male group. Neither TC nor SC levels were affected by gender. cFC and FCI levels depend on CBG levels and they are affected by gender. Cut-off levels for SC, cFC, FCI levels after both low- and standard-dose ACTH stimulation are presented. Studies including patients with adrenal insufficiency would be helpful to see the diagnostic value of these suggested cut-off levels.

  15. Influence of riders' skill on plasma cortisol levels of horses walking on forest and field trekking courses.

    PubMed

    Ono, Ayaka; Matsuura, Akihiro; Yamazaki, Yumi; Sakai, Wakako; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanowatari, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Irimajiri, Mami; Hodate, Koichi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of rider's skill on the plasma cortisol levels of trekking horses on two courses, walking on field and forest courses (about 4.5 to 5.1 km each). Three riders of different skills did horse trekking (HT) in a tandem line under a fixed order: advanced-leading, beginner-second and intermediate-last. A total of six horses were used and they experienced all positions in both courses; a total of 12 experiments were done. Blood samples were obtained before HT, immediately after and 2 h after HT. As a control, additional blood samples were obtained from the same horses on non-riding days. Irrespective of the course and the rider's skill, the cortisol level before HT was higher than that of control (P < 0.05). In both courses, the cortisol levels immediately after HT ridden by the advanced rider were higher than that of control (P < 0.05). However, in every case, the cortisol level 2 h after HT was closely similar to the level of the control. Thus, we concluded the stress of trekking horse was not sufficient to disturb the circadian rhythm of the cortisol level, irrespective of the course and the rider's skill. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Social mobbing calls in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus): effects of experience and associated cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Clara, Elena; Tommasi, Luca; Rogers, Lesley J

    2008-04-01

    We compared the mobbing response to model snakes of two groups of captive-born common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) differing in genetic relatedness, age and past experience. Mobbing vocalisations (tsik calls), other mobbing behaviour and attention to the stimulus were recorded for 2 min. intervals pre-exposure, during exposure to various stimuli and post-exposure. Marmosets in one group were vocally reactive to all stimuli, although more so to one particular stimulus resembling rearing snakes and modified images of it, whereas the marmosets in a younger and genetically unrelated group attended to the stimuli but made very few mobbing calls. The parent stock of the first group had suffered stress in early life and had developed a phobic response to a specific stimulus, which they had transmitted to their offspring. A third group, matching the older group in age range but genetically unrelated, was also found to be unresponsive to the stimulus that elicited the strongest response in the first group. Cortisol levels in samples of hair were assayed and a significant negative correlation was found between the number of tsik calls made during presentation of the stimuli and the cortisol level, showing that mobbing behaviour/behavioural reactivity is associated with low levels of physiological stress.

  17. Characteristics of plasma NOx levels in severe sepsis: high interindividual variability and correlation with illness severity, but lack of correlation with cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ho, J T; Chapman, M J; O'Connor, S; Lam, S; Edwards, J; Ludbrook, G; Lewis, J G; Torpy, D J

    2010-09-01

    Objectives Nitric oxide (NO) concentrations are elevated in sepsis and their vasodilatory action may contribute to the development of hyperdynamic circulatory failure. Hydrocortisone infusion has been reported to reduce nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) concentrations and facilitate vasopressor withdrawal in septic shock. Our aim was to determine whether NOx concentrations relate to (i) protocol-driven vasopressor initiation and withdrawal and (ii) plasma cortisol concentrations, from endogenous and exogenous sources. Demonstration of a relation between NOx, cortisol and vasopressor requirement may provide an impetus towards the study of hydrocortisone-mediated NOx suppression as a tool in sepsis management. Design A prospective study of 62 patients with severe sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit. Measurements Plasma NOx, total and free cortisol, and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) concentrations were measured and related to protocol-driven vasopressor use for 7 days following admission. Results Patients who developed septic shock (n = 35) had higher plasma NOx, total and free cortisol, and lower CBG concentrations than the nonseptic shock group (n = 27). Cortisol, CBG and NOx concentrations correlated with illness severity. Free cortisol, and to a lesser extent total cortisol, but not NOx concentrations, predicted septic shock. NOx concentrations were higher in nonsurvivors, and the concentrations were characteristically stable within individuals but marked interindividual differences were only partly accounted for by illness severity or renal dysfunction. NOx concentrations did not correlate with cortisol, did not relate to vasopressor requirement and did not fall after standard dose hydrocortisone, given for clinical indications. Conclusions Nitric oxide production increased with sepsis severity but did not correlate with plasma cortisol or vasopressor requirement. NOx levels were not suppressed reproducibly by hydrocortisone. High interindividual

  18. Cell Damage, Antioxidant Status, and Cortisol Levels Related to Nutrition in Ski Mountaineering During a Two-Day Race

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Elena; Ruiz, Fatima; Hoyos, Itziar; Zubero, Jaime; Gravina, Leyre; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon; Gil, Susana Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of nutrition on cell damage, antioxidant enzymes, and cortisol during a two-day ski mountaineering competition. Twenty-one male skiers participated in the study. Creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (AP), cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities (GR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, total antioxidant status, and cortisol levels were measured in serum the day before and immediately after the race. Their diet was also analysed during the competition. Enzymes and cortisol levels significantly increased after the competition. CK and LDH and cortisol levels were negatively correlated to total energy, protein, and fat intake. Intake of vitamin A, B1, B2, B6 and niacin was negatively correlated to LDH and AP. A negative correlation was also found between CK activity and Na, Fe, and Zn intake. Cortisol levels were negatively correlated to the intake of vitamins C, B1 and B2, and niacin. A positive correlation was found between serum GPx and intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins, A and B vitamins, and folic acid. Skiers with the lowest nutrient intake during the competition were the ones who showed greater cell damage and lower antioxidant enzyme activity and cortisol levels, which may impair performance and also cause injuries and accidents. Particularly, skiers should have high intakes of total energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and B, Na, Zn, and Fe in order to decrease the deleterious effect of strenuous exercise. Key points A two-day ski mountaineering race produced muscle cell damage and oxidative stress and an increase in cortisol levels. There was a marked insufficient intake of carbohydrates which has been shown to affect performance Those skiers with lowest nutrient intake showed greater cell damage, lower antioxidant

  19. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity.

  20. Elevated Hair Cortisol Levels among Heroin Addicts on Current Methadone Maintenance Compared to Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jin; Li, Jifeng; Xu, Guanyi; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Lu, Zuhong; Deng, Huihua

    2016-01-01

    Whether methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) can improve the basal function of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which is suppressed by long-term heroin consumption, is a matter of debate. The stress state and depression and anxiety symptoms may affect the basal activity of the HPA axis in MMT patients. However, the effect of psychological factors on HPA activity was not simultaneously controlled in previous studies. This study investigated differences in HPA basal activity between MMT patients and controls using psychological variables as covariates. The participants included 52 MMT patients and 41 age-matched, non-heroin-dependent controls. Psychological states were self-reported with the Perceived Stress Scale, Self-Rating Depression Scale and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale. The hair cortisol level was adopted as a biomarker of HPA basal activity and was determined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The results revealed that MMT patients had significantly higher hair cortisol levels than the controls (p<0.05), but the difference was not significant (p>0.05) when the perceived stress, depression and anxiety scores were used as covariates. We concluded that patients with long-term MMT showed higher basal activity of the HPA axis. The high chronic stress state and increase in depression and anxiety symptoms may mask the suppression effect of methadone on the HPA activity. PMID:27010803

  1. β-Glucan-induced cortisol levels improve the early immune response in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Franco Montoya, Luz N; Martins, Talísia P; Gimbo, Rodrigo Y; Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the role of endogenous cortisol on the innate immune response in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus) fed with β-glucan, prior to and after stressor exposure and bacterial challenge. For this, we evaluated the serum cortisol and plasma glucose levels, the serum lysozyme levels, the hemolytic activity of the complement system, and the respiratory activity of leukocytes, as well as the number of circulating erythrocytes and leukocytes of fish fed during 15 days with diets containing β-glucan 0.1% (β-G) or β-glucan 0.1% + metyrapone 30 mg kg(-1) fish (β-G + MTP). Dietary MTP was used to block cortisol production. After feeding, fish were air-exposed during 3 min, to endogenously increase the cortisol levels. Following that, they were challenged with intraperitoneal injection of Aeromonas hydrophila. Results were compared with a positive control group fed with a β-glucan-free diet. A negative control group, also fed with β-glucan-free diet but inoculated with PBS, was established to evaluate the effect of the handling during injection. Fish were sampled prior to the stressor exposure, 30 min after exposure, and 24 h post infection (hpi). Herein we observed that dietary β-G modulated the cortisol profile prior to and after the stressor, increasing the number and activity of leukocytes. Moreover, cortisol showed to be an efficient modulator of both humoral and cellular innate immune system by increasing lysozyme and complement activity, as well as neutrophil and monocyte populations. Our results suggest that β-glucan-induced cortisol increase is one important mechanism to improve the innate immune response in matrinxã. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age.

    PubMed

    Grunau, Ruth E; Cepeda, Ivan L; Chau, Cecil M Y; Brummelte, Susanne; Weinberg, Joanne; Lavoie, Pascal M; Ladd, Mihoko; Hirschfeld, Aaron F; Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Van Uum, Stan; Brant, Rollin; Turvey, Stuart E

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to school age, and if common genetic variants in the promoter region of the NFKBIA gene involved in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, modify the association between early experience and later life stress as indexed by hair cortisol levels, which provide an integrated index of endogenous HPA axis activity. Cortisol was assayed in hair samples from 128 children (83 born preterm ≤ 32 weeks gestation and 45 born full-term) without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments at age 7 years. We found that hair cortisol levels were lower in preterm compared to term-born children. Downregulation of the HPA axis in preterm children without major impairment, seen years after neonatal stress terminated, suggests persistent alteration of stress system programming. Importantly, the etiology was gender-specific such that in preterm boys but not girls, specifically those with the minor allele for NFKBIA rs2233409, lower hair cortisol was associated with greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term), independent of medical confounders. Moreover, the minor allele (CT or TT) of NFKBIA rs2233409 was associated with higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines, supporting the hypothesis that neonatal pain-related stress may act as a proinflammatory stimulus that induces long-term immune cell activation. These findings are the first evidence that a long-term association between early pain-related stress and cortisol may be mediated by a genetic variants that regulate the activity of NF-κB, suggesting possible involvement of stress/inflammatory mechanisms in HPA programming in boys born very

  3. Job stress and agentic-communal personality traits related to serum cortisol levels of male workers in a Japanese medium-sized company: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Fujii, Yasuhito

    2015-02-01

    Although serum cortisol is a widely accepted index of stress levels, associations between job stress and cortisol levels have been inconsistent. Individual differences in personality traits were discussed as one compelling explanation for this discrepancy. Agentic-communal personality traits have been examined as possible predictive factors for psychological stress. This study investigated correlations among agentic-communal personality traits and serum cortisol levels. It was also investigated whether job stress levels modified correlations between agentic-communal personality and cortisol levels. Participants were 198 male workers (mean age = 52.2 years) employed by a shipbuilding company in Japan. Questionnaire data and blood samples were collected during an annual health checkup. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire that included the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) that assesses job control as job stress levels the Communion-Agency scale (CAS) and questions regarding health behaviors. Communion positively correlated with serum cortisol levels and unmitigated agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels. Stratified by job control, communion positively correlated with serum cortisol levels and agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels in participants with low levels of job control. Unmitigated agency negatively correlated with serum cortisol levels in participants with high levels of job control. Levels of job control may modify correlations of gender-related personality with serum cortisol levels. Especially with exposure to high job stress, male workers with high femininity (i.e., high communion and low agency) were more likely to have a high stress response as measured by serum cortisol levels.

  4. POST DEXAMETHASONE PLASMA CORTISOL LEVELS IN DEPRESSIVES TREATED WITH IMIPRAMINE AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY5

    PubMed Central

    Varma, S.L.; Trivedi, J K; Anand, Mohini; Gulam, Ram; Lal, Narottam

    1989-01-01

    SUMMARY Sixty patients of endogenous depression and thirty normal controls were studied to find out the relationship of post dexamethasone plasma Cortisol levels (PDPC) and clinical improvement of endogenous depression inpatients treated with electroconvulsive therapy and imipramine. The PDPC levels in both the group of patients showed significant decrease with clinical improvement (Pre and post treatment PDPC values of ECT group was 20.7 ug/dl and 13.6 ug/dl while it was 17.9 ug/dl and 12.7 ug/dl respectively for the Imipramine group). A significant correlation was also found between PDPC and severity of illness (p< 0.001) in the both groups which indicates that PDPC levels is independent of treatment modality used. PMID:21927362

  5. Assessment of the changes in the stress-related salivary cortisol levels to the various dental procedures in children.

    PubMed

    Patil, Sharmila J; Shah, Preetam P; Patil, Jayakumar A; Shigli, Anand; Patil, Anil T; Tamagond, Sridevi B

    2015-01-01

    Fear and pain are the factors producing stress and there is evidence that dental fear acquired in childhood may persist to influence adult behavior. Dental treatment is often considered as anxiety producing and stressful. To assess the levels of stress displayed by the healthy children undergoing routine dental procedures like oral examination, restoration, and extraction by analyzing salivary levels of cortisol before, during, and after the procedures. Twenty healthy children aged between 4 and 8 years having their first dental visit and requiring at least one restoration and one extraction were selected. In each patient, three procedures were carried out: (i) Routine dental examination, (ii) restoration, and (iii) extraction. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected 10 min before, during the procedure, and 30 min after each procedure at three different visits for comparison of cortisol production in response to anxiety and stress over time. Total 180 samples were collected to determine salivary cortisol levels using UBI-MAGIWEL TM kit and the readings were noted. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software with paired t-test, two independent sample t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the findings. A correlation between salivary cortisol and stress in dental procedure was noticed. Cavity preparation is more stressful procedure in children, so alternative methods can be used in anxious children. Stress associated with extraction persists to a postoperative period. No correlation exists in between Corah's anxiety scale and salivary cortisol.

  6. The Influence of Serum Cortisol Level Onto Perceptive Experience of Optimism in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Cancer.

    PubMed

    Vukojevic, Mladenka; Dodaj, Arta; Galic, Kristina; Marijanovic, Inga

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the morning level of serum cortisol and perceptive experience of optimism in a selected group of 60 patients with newly diagnosed cancer who were treated at Mostar University Clinical Hospital during a one-month period. The morning level of serum cortisol was measured in all patients following the verification of oncological disease. The patients also filled out a questionnaire of socio-demographic data, as well as the scales for optimism/pessimism assessment. The average morning serum cortisol level was within the reference values in the majority of patients, independently of their perceptive experience of optimism/pessimism. There was no significant difference in the morning level of serum cortisol among the subgroups of patients high and low on the scale of optimism, as well as the scale of pessimism. No correlation existed between the serum cortisol morning level and expressed optimism/pessimism, as well. The great majority of respondents had secondary and lower education, was retired or unemployed, and suffered lower socio-economic conditions of life. Therefore, their access to medical information and their knowledge of cancer modern treatment options and possibilities were restricted, what may also have an influence onto perceptive experience of optimism/pessimism. The results concerned with the perceptive experience of optimism/pessimism assessment were not a consequence of stress reaction but they were more correlated to general personal characteristics, the level of education, and socio-economic status of patients. The results do not confirm the impact of morning serum cortisol level onto physiological reactions to stressful conditions and situations in selected group of patients with de novo carcinoma.

  7. Impaired lactation performance following elective delivery at term: role of maternal levels of cortisol and prolactin.

    PubMed

    Zanardo, Vincenzo; Savona, Valentina; Cavallin, Francesco; D'Antona, Donato; Giustardi, Arturo; Trevisanuto, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    Lactation performance depends on stress surrounding labor and delivery, and it is likely to be different in women who underwent elective cesarean delivery (ECD) or vaginal (VD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between cortisol and human prolactin (hPRL), following ECD and lactation performance, from the delivery room to the 6th month of life. A total of 106 mothers were consecutively enrolled: 38 after ECD, 28 after emergency cesarean delivery (EmCD), and 40 after VD. Basal stress-, lactogenic-hormones, cortisol, and hPRL were comparable on day 3 postpartum in all the women. Multivariate analysis indicated that ECD has a negative impact (OR; 95% CI) on breastfeeding prevalence on the seventh day (0.14; 0.0-0.44, p=0.008) and at third month post partum (0.19; 0.05-0.71, p=0.05) in comparison to VD. In addition, hPRL levels proved to have a statistically significant role in early breastfeeding (1.01; 1-1.01, p=0.002). ECD is a risk factor for successful lactation performance. This information should be provided to mothers and caregivers for extra breastfeeding guidance.

  8. Intranasal oxytocin increases positive communication and reduces cortisol levels during couple conflict.

    PubMed

    Ditzen, Beate; Schaer, Marcel; Gabriel, Barbara; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2009-05-01

    In nonhuman mammals, the neuropeptide oxytocin has repeatedly been shown to increase social approach behavior and pair bonding. In particular, central nervous oxytocin reduces behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to social stress and is suggested to mediate the rewarding aspects of attachment in highly social species. However, to date there have been no studies investigating the effects of central oxytocin mechanisms on behavior and physiology in human couple interaction. In a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally before a standard instructed couple conflict discussion in the laboratory. The conflict session was videotaped and coded for verbal and nonverbal interaction behavior (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal positive behavior, and self-disclosure). Salivary cortisol was repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly increased positive communication behavior in relation to negative behavior during the couple conflict discussion (F = 4.18, p = .047) and significantly reduced salivary cortisol levels after the conflict compared with placebo (F = 7.14, p = .011). These results are in line with animal studies indicating that central oxytocin facilitates approach and pair bonding behavior. Our findings imply an involvement of oxytocin in couple interaction and close relationships in humans.

  9. Cortisol coregulation in fish

    PubMed Central

    Fürtbauer, Ines; Heistermann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Cortisol coregulation, which is the up- or down-regulation of partners’ physiological stress responses, has been described for individuals with strong attachment bonds, e.g. parents and their children, and romantic relationship partners. Research into moderating effects on cortisol coregulation suggests stronger covariation among distressed partners. Whether cortisol coregulation is unique to humans or can also be found in other species that share universal features of the vertebrate stress response remains unexplored. Using a repeated measures approach and non-invasive waterborne hormone analysis, we test the hypothesis that dyads of three-spined stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) coregulate their cortisol levels in shared environments. Dyadic cortisol levels were unrelated when cohabiting (home tank), but significantly covaried when sharing a more stressful (as indicated by higher cortisol levels) environment (open field). Time-lag analysis further revealed that open field cortisol levels were predicted by partner’s cortisol levels prior to the shared experience. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence for coregulatory processes on cortisol responses in a non-human animal that lacks strong bonds and social attachment relationships, suggesting a shared evolutionary origin of cortisol coregulation in vertebrates. From an adaptive perspective, cortisol coregulation may serve to reduce risk in challenging, potentially threatening situations. PMID:27458063

  10. Relationship among Periodontal Disease, Insulin Resistance, Salivary Cortisol, and Stress Levels during Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Seraphim, Ana Paula Castilho Garcia; Chiba, Fernando Yamamoto; Pereira, Renato Felipe; Mattera, Maria Sara de Lima Coutinho; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Sumida, Doris Hissako

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period involving important metabolic changes that enable the maintenance of the mother's health and development of the fetus. This study aimed to assess the relationship among periodontal disease, insulin resistance, salivary cortisol concentration and level of perceived stress in pregnant women. This was a cross-sectional study. The sample comprised 96 pregnant women between the fifth and seventh month of pregnancy registered at the Basic Health Units of the Unified Health System (SUS). The periodontal condition was assessed after obtainment free and informed consent from the participants. Participants were divided into three groups: control subjects with a healthy periodontal condition (CN; n=46), patients with gingivitis (GI; n=26), and patients with periodontitis (PI; n=24). Saliva and blood samples were collected for evaluation of salivary cortisol concentration, glycemia, insulinemia and Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance index. A validated survey for the assessment of perceived stress levels was also performed. PI group showed significantly higher (p<0.05) blood glucose levels (CN: 4.43±0.05; GI: 4.46±0.04; PI: 4.68±0.08), insulinemia (CN: 6.93±0.45; GI: 8.87±0.79; PI: 12.77±1.30), insulin resistance (CN: 1.40±0.10; GI: 1.81±0.18; PI: 2.66±0.29) compared with the CN and GI groups. The levels of perceived stress were higher (p<0.05) in PI and GI groups when compared to CN group (CN: 20.5±1.26; GI: 25.8±1.95; PI: 26.6±1.36). There was no significant difference in the concentration of salivary cortisol between the groups (CN: 11.13±0.58; GI: 11.96±0.74; PI: 11.47±0.74). It was concluded that there is a relationship between higher levels of perceived stress, insulin resistance and the occurrence of periodontal disease during pregnancy. This study emphasizes the importance of preventing periodontitis in order to avoid insulin resistance and stress during pregnancy since these can cause systemic complications for the

  11. Road transportation stress promptly increases bovine peripheral blood absolute NK cell counts and cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2010-06-01

    Livestock transportation effects on the number of circulating leukocytes have been reported. However, data related specifically to the relation between acute stress levels during transport and leukocyte differentiation, including lymphocyte subsets, are lacking. This study was undertaken to evaluate the distribution of peripheral blood leukocyte differential counts, CD25+ lymphocytes and NK cells in calves subjected to truck transportation on different road types. Healthy Japanese Black calves were divided into three treatments: 1) those moved around in a mountainous area (Group M); 2) those moved around on flatland (Group F); and 3) those that were not transported (control). The plasma cortisol levels in Group M increased during transport. The increase was significantly higher at the end of transport than in the controls (P<0.05); a slight increase was noted in Group F. Total leukocytes and the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in Group M were elevated with neutrophilia at 2 hr post-transport (P<0.05); the former levels remained higher than those in the controls for 4 hr. The numbers of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and CD25+ lymphocytes remained unchanged throughout the observations. The number of circulating NK cells in Group M increased during transport and peaked shortly after transport (P<0.05). Subsequent to these time points, the counts in Group F showed a trend toward elevation. The circulating NK cell counts were positively correlated with the plasma cortisol level during transport (M, r=0.755, P<0.0005; F, r=0.653; P<0.005). These results suggest that circulating NK cells might be more rapidly mobilized than other leukocytes. Therefore, they might reflect acute stress levels in calves during road transportation.

  12. New approach for monitoring fish stress: A novel enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting cortisol levels in fish.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyun; Ohnuki, Hitoshi; Ota, Shirei; Murata, Masataka; Yoshiura, Yasutoshi; Endo, Hideaki

    2017-07-15

    Fishes display a wide variation in their physiological responses to stress, which is clearly evident in the plasma corticosteroid changes, chiefly cortisol levels in fish. As a well-known indicator of fish stress, a simple and rapid method for detecting cortisol changes especially sudden increases is desired. In this study, we describe an enzyme-functionalized label-free immunosensor system for detecting fish cortisol levels. Detection of cortisol using amperometry was achieved by immobilizing both anti-cortisol antibody (selective detection of cortisol) and glucose oxidase (signal amplification and non-toxic measurement) on an Au electrode surface with a self-assembled monolayer. This system is based on the maximum glucose oxidation output current change induced by the generation of a non-conductive antigen-antibody complex, which depends on the levels of cortisol in the sample. The immunosensor responded to cortisol levels with a linear decrease in the current in the range of 1.25-200ngml(-1) (R=0.964). Since the dynamic range of the sensor can cover the normal range of plasma cortisol in fish, the samples obtained from the fish did not need to be diluted. Further, electrochemical measurement of one sample required only ~30min. The sensor system was applied to determine the cortisol levels in plasma sampled from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), which were then compared with levels of the same samples determined using the conventional method (ELISA). Values determined using both methods were well correlated. These findings suggest that the proposed label-free immunosensor could be useful for rapid and convenient analysis of cortisol levels in fish without sample dilution. We also believe that the proposed system could be integrated in a miniaturized potentiostat for point-of-care cortisol detection and useful as a portable diagnostic in fish farms in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Elevated late-night salivary cortisol levels in elderly male type 2 diabetic veterans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hau; Bravata, Dena M; Cabaccan, Josel; Raff, Hershel; Ryzen, Elisabeth

    2005-12-01

    Late-night salivary cortisol (LNSC) is reportedly highly accurate for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS). However, diagnostic thresholds for abnormal results are based on healthy, young populations and limited data are available on its use in elderly populations with chronic medical conditions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LNSC levels in elderly male veterans with and without diabetes. Prospective evaluation of LNSC levels in male veterans. One hundred and fifty-four participants with type 2 diabetes and 52 participants without diabetes. Participants underwent outpatient LNSC (2300 h) testing. Participants with elevated LNSC (> or = 4.3 nmol/l) underwent secondary testing, including 24-h urine free cortisol (24UFC, > 60 microg/day) and dexamethasone suppression testing (DST, serum cortisol > 50 nmol/l). Participants with positive secondary testing had a morning ACTH level analysed and either pituitary or adrenal imaging performed. One hundred and forty-one diabetics and 46 controls (mean age 61 years) returned samples (91% overall). Average LNSC levels (nmol/l) in diabetics were significantly higher than in nondiabetics [median (interquartile range): 2.6 (1.8-4.1) vs. 1.6 (1.0-2.0)] and in those aged > or = 60 compared to < 60 [2.7 (2.0-4.3) vs. 1.9 (1.4-2.9)] (P < 0.001 for both). Thirty-one participants required secondary testing. Seventy-nine per cent of participants who underwent secondary testing had normal 24UFC and DST. No cases of CS have been diagnosed to date. Increasing age [odds ratio (OR) 2.0 per decade], current diabetes mellitus (OR 4.4), and elevated blood pressure (OR 1.3 per 10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure) were associated with abnormal LNSC results (P < 0.05 for each). LNSC has been shown to be sensitive and specific in diagnosing CS in certain high-risk populations, primarily the young and middle-aged. The development of age- and comorbidity-adjusted thresholds may be warranted for LNSC testing in elderly subjects

  14. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  15. Aggressive behavior and hair cortisol levels in captive Dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas) as animal-based welfare indicators.

    PubMed

    Salas, Marina; Temple, Déborah; Abáigar, Teresa; Cuadrado, Mariano; Delclaux, Maria; Enseñat, Conrad; Almagro, Vanessa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Quevedo, Miguel Ángel; Carbajal, Annaïs; Tallo-Parra, Oriol; Sabés-Alsina, Maria; Amat, Marta; Lopez-Bejar, Manel; Fernández-Bellon, Hugo; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Ensuring welfare in captive wild animal populations is important not only for ethical and legal reasons, but also to maintain healthy individuals and populations. An increased level of social behaviors such as aggression can reduce welfare by causing physical damage and chronic stress to animals. Recently, cortisol in hair has been advanced as a non-invasive indicator to quantify long-lasting stress in many species. The sensitivity of social behavior and hair cortisol concentration was evaluated in several groups of dorcas gazelles (Gazella dorcas). Four different groups of gazelles from three different zoos were observed and the expression of intra-specific affiliative and negative social behaviors was assessed across the different groups. Hair samples were taken from sub-groups of animals and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Significant differences between groups of dorcas gazelles were found in frequency of negative social behavior and hair cortisol concentration. Despite the low sample size, these two parameters had a positive Spearman correlation coefficient (rs  = +0.80, P = 0.20). These results suggest that hair cortisol levels are sensitive to differences in the social structure of dorcas gazelles. Zoo Biol. 35:467-473, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Socioeconomic status in children is associated with hair cortisol levels as a biological measure of chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Vliegenthart, J; Noppe, G; van Rossum, E F C; Koper, J W; Raat, H; van den Akker, E L T

    2016-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) may be associated with a high risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. There is a strong association between parental SES, stress and indicators of child health and adult health outcome. The exact mechanisms underlying this association have not yet been fully clarified. Low SES may be associated with chronic stress, which may lead to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, resulting in a higher circulating level of the stress hormone cortisol. Therefore, chronic stress may mediate the association between low SES and elevated cortisol levels and its adverse outcomes. We investigated whether SES was associated with a chronic measure of cortisol exposure in a child population. Cortisol and cortisone were measured in scalp hair in 270 children and adolescents, aged 4-18 years, enrolled through school visits. Neighborhood level SES was based on a score developed by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research using postal codes, and this includes neighborhood measures of income education and unemployment. Maternal and paternal education level were used as indicators of family SES. Neighborhood level socioeconomic status score was significantly associated with hair cortisol (β=-0.103, p=0.007, 95%CI [-0.179, -0.028]) and hair cortisone (β=-0.091, p=0.023, 95%CI [-0.167, -0.015]), adjusted for age and sex. Additionally, hair cortisol was significantly correlated with maternal education level and hair cortisone was significantly correlated with paternal education level. The results of our study suggest that the widely shown association between low family SES and adverse child health outcomes may be mediated by chronic stress, given the chronically higher levels of cortisol in children and adolescents in families with low SES. It is especially notable that the association between SES and cortisol was already found in children of young age as this can have major consequences, such as increased

  17. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Carol, Emily E.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. PMID

  18. Resting cortisol level, self-concept, and putative familial environment in adolescents at ultra high-risk for psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Carol, Emily E; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-07-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that resting cortisol levels are elevated in patients with schizophrenia and closely tied to symptom severity. However, there is limited research on the biological stress system during the ultra high-risk (UHR) period immediately preceding the onset of psychosis, and cortisol has not been examined in relation to individual characteristics such as self-concept or potential stressors such as putative familial environment in this critical population. In the present study, salivary cortisol samples were collected on 37 UHR and 42 matched control adolescents, and these individuals were assessed with clinical interviews as well as a measure of self-concept. For a subsection of the sample (23 UHR and 20 control adolescents), a participating relative/caretaker was also assessed with an expressed emotion interview designed to gauge psychosocial environment. Consistent with previous studies, UHR participants exhibited elevated resting cortisol levels when compared with controls. In addition, UHR adolescents exhibited increased negative self-concept and their relatives/caretakers endorsed significantly fewer initial positive statements about the participant. Interestingly, a strong trend in the UHR group suggests that higher cortisol levels are associated with higher rates of critical statements from relatives/caretakers. Furthermore, elevated cortisol levels in the participants were associated with increased negative self-concept as well as fewer initial positive comments from relatives/caretakers. Results suggest that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) dysfunction is closely associated with both individual and environmental-level characteristics. Taken together, these findings support a neural diathesis-stress model of psychosis and future studies, designed to examine causal relationships, stand to inform both our understanding of pathogenic processes in the high-risk period as well as early intervention efforts. Published by

  19. The effect of otolith malformation on behavior and cortisol levels in juvenile red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Browning, Zoe S; Wilkes, Allison A; Moore, Erica J; Lancon, Trevor W; Clubb, Fred J

    2012-08-01

    Captive-raised red drum fish were observed with phenotypic abnormalities, including deformities of the spine, jaw, and cephalic region, that were consistent with vitamin C deficiency during the larval stage. In light of their visible exterior skeletal abnormalities, we suspected that the affected fish would also have abnormal otoliths. Otoliths are dense calcareous structures that function in fish hearing. We hypothesized that abnormal fish would have irregular otoliths that would alter behavior and cortisol levels as compared with those of phenotypically normal fish. The normal and abnormal fish had statistically significant differences in behavior, cortisol levels, and otolith volume and density. MicroCT assessment of abnormal fish revealed operculum abnormalities, malocclusions, and several types of otolith malformations. Therefore, the affected fish had not only an abnormal skeletal appearance but also significantly abnormal behavior and cortisol responses.

  20. High cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with breast milk dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women.

    PubMed

    Kido, Teruhiko; Dao, Tung Van; Ho, Manh Dung; Duc Dang, Nhu; Pham, Ngoc Thien; Okamoto, Rie; Pham, Tai The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Honma, Seijiro; Le, Son Ke; Nguyen, Hung Ngoc

    2014-01-01

    Dioxin (polychlorinated dibenzodioxins+polychlorinated dibenzofurans) is one of the most toxic chemical substances known. Although it is suspected to cause endocrine disruption, very few epidemiological studies have been carried out on its effects on human steroid hormones. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association of dioxin exposure with steroid hormone levels in the saliva and serum of Vietnamese women. Two areas, namely Phu Cat (hot spot) and Kim Bang (nonexposed area), were selected for the study. The study subjects consisted of 51 and 58 women respectively. Saliva, blood, and breast milk samples were collected from the subjects in both the areas. Cortisol, cortisone, DHEA, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol levels in serum and saliva were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; dioxin concentrations in breast milk were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dioxin concentrations in the breast milk of women from the dioxin hot spot were three to four times higher than those in the breast milk of women from the nonexposed area. Good correlations were found between the levels of six steroid hormones in saliva and those in serum respectively. Salivary and serum cortisol and cortisone levels in women from the dioxin hot spot were significantly higher than those in women from the nonexposed area (P<0.001) and those in all the subjects were positively associated with dioxin concentrations in Vietnamese women (P<0.01). These results suggest that dioxin influences steroidogenesis in humans. Saliva samples can be used for hormone analysis and are therefore excellent specimens in epidemiological studies.

  1. Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.

    PubMed

    Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G

    2014-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-μL cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the

  2. Effect of Whole Body Massage by Patient's Companion on the Level of Blood Cortisol in Coronary Patients

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Rajabi-Beheshtabad, Rahman; Abasi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent results have been reported on the effect of massage therapy on the blood cortisol levels. Also, no study is available about the effect of massage done by patient's companions on the level of blood cortisol in patients hospitalized at CCU. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of whole body massage performed by patient's companion on the level of blood cortisol among the patients admitted in CCU. Patients and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 patients admitted to a CCU ward. Patients were randomly placed into two groups of massage performed by patient's companion and the control group. In the intervention group, whole body massage was administered. The control group did not receive massage. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.5 software. Independent sample and Paired samples t-test, Chi Square and Fisher's Exact tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean age for the patients was 58.90 ± 15.63 years. None of them had the history of massage therapy. In the group massaged by the patients' companions, the mean of blood cortisol was 323.6 ± 162.6 nanomoles which decreased to 268.4 ± 141.1 after the intervention (P < 0.102). The mean of blood cortisol in the control group did not change significantly. Conclusions: Massage therapy lowered the level of cortisol in the group massaged by the patients' companions. It can be recommended that massage therapy be used in patients admitted in CCU. PMID:25414870

  3. BDNF, interleukin-6, and salivary cortisol levels in depressed patients treated with desvenlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Ninan, Philip T; Shelton, Richard C; Bao, Weihang; Guico-Pabia, Christine J

    2014-01-03

    Relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin (IL)-6, and salivary cortisol and both depression severity and treatment response were assessed in patients enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of desvenlafaxine 50mg/d for MDD. Outpatients with MDD were randomly assigned to 12weeks of double-blind treatment with desvenlafaxine 50mg/d or placebo (2:1). Baseline severity was assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); treatment response at week 12 was based on HAM-D17 total score and response and remission status. Saliva (cortisol) and blood (BDNF, IL-6) samples for biomarker assay were collected at baseline and week 12. Spearman correlations were calculated between the biomarkers at baseline, and between biomarkers and HAM-D17 total score at baseline. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether baseline biomarker levels predicted treatment response at week 12, with and without adjustment for baseline HAM-D17 score, treatment, and geographic region. Similarly, an analysis of covariance was used to assess whether baseline disease severity predicted biomarker change at week 12. A total of 427 patients who received ≥1 dose of study drug and had baseline and ≥1 on-therapy primary efficacy evaluations were included in the analysis. At baseline, there was a statistically significant although weak correlation between levels of IL-6 and BDNF (Spearman correlation coefficient [rs]=0.120; P=0.014), but no significant correlation between baseline biomarker levels and baseline HAM-D17 total score (absolute value of all rs, ≤0.061). Desvenlafaxine 50mg/d treatment significantly reduced HAM-D17 total score from baseline at week 12 compared with placebo (P=0.006), but the three potential biomarkers did not predict treatment effects. No significant correlations were observed between the change from baseline in any biomarker level and change in HAM-D17 total score at week 12, either overall

  4. Comparison of total, salivary and calculated free cortisol levels in patients with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Elbuken, Gulsah; Karaca, Zuleyha; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Unluhizarci, Kursad; Sungur, Murat; Doganay, Mehmet; Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to compare serum total cortisol (STC), salivary cortisol (SaC) and calculated free cortisol (cFC) levels at baseline and after the adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test in patients with severe sepsis (SS) and determine the suitability of use of SaC and cFC levels instead of STC for the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency (AI) in patients with SS. And secondary aims of this study were to compare these parameters in patients with SS with healthy controls and check their effects on survival status of the patients. Thirty patients with SS (15 men and 15 women) were compared with 16 healthy controls. Low-dose (1 μg) ACTH stimulation test was performed to the patients on the first, seventh and 28th days of diagnosis of SS, but in control group, 1 μg ACTH stimulation test was performed only once. STC, SaC and cFC levels were measured during ACTH stimulation test. Patients were categorized as having low or high baseline STC according to a cut-off level of 10 μg/dL. In high STC group, baseline and peak SaC levels were found to be 2.3 (0.2-9.0) and 3.4 (0.5-17.8) μg/dL on D1 and 1.1 (0.8-4.6) and 2.6 (1.3-2.9) μg/dL on D7, respectively. In the control group, baseline and peak SaC levels were 0.4 (0.1-1.4) and 1.1 (0.4-2.5) μg/dL, respectively. Baseline and peak SaC levels after ACTH stimulation were found to be higher in high STC group than in controls, but they were found to be similar in low STC and control groups. In high STC group, cFC levels were 0.3 (0.1-0.3) and 0.4 (0.3-0.7) μg/dL on D1 and 0.2 (0.1-0.3) and 0.4 (0.1-0.7) μg/dL on D7, respectively. In the control group, baseline and peak cFC levels were 1.7 (0.4-1.9) and 1.8 (1.0-6.6) μg/dL, respectively. cFC levels were found to be lower in patients with SS subgroups than in the control group. Baseline and stimulated STC, SaC and cFC levels did not differ according to the survival status. SaC, cFC and STC levels were found to be correlated with each other. SS

  5. High-throughput determination of cortisol, cortisone, and melatonin in oral fluid by on-line turbulent flow liquid chromatography interfaced with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa

    2013-07-15

    Cortisol, cortisone, and melatonin (CORTol, CORTone, and MELA, respectively) are hormones related to stress and sleep disorders. Their detection is relevant to epidemiological studies aimed at investigating the effects of circadian cycle disruption. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a high-throughput assay for the detection of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA concentrations in non-invasively collected oral fluid samples. A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method to measure levels of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA in oral fluid samples in the presence of deuterated analogs was optimized and validated. A 50 μL aliquot of oral fluid sample, obtained by centrifugation of a chewed swab, was purified using on-line turbulent flow liquid chromatography. Analytes were then separated using C18 reversed-phase chromatography, subjected to positive ionization using an electrospray source, then quantitated using a triple quadrupole mass detector in the selected reaction monitoring mode. Limits of quantification and linear dynamic ranges were found to be 0.55 nmol/L, 5.5 nmol/L, and 0.004 nmol/L, and up to 28 nmol/L, 277 nmol/L, and 0.43 nmol/L for CORTol, CORTone, and MELA, respectively. Inter- and intra-run precisions as relative standard deviation values were <5%, and accuracies were within 95-106% of theoretical concentrations. An evaluation of matrix effects showed that the use of deuterated analogs controlled sources of bias. Furthermore, the total analysis time per sample was 13 min, resulting in a throughput of approximately 100 samples/day. To our knowledge, this is the first automated, high-throughput assay for the simultaneous quantification of CORTol, CORTone, and MELA in oral fluid specimens. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of resistance exercise and obesity level on ghrelin and cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A; Kraemer, William J; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Volek, Jeff S; Denegar, Craig R; Maresh, Carl M

    2012-06-01

    Resistance exercise (RE) is increasingly recommended by health organizations as a weight management tool. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an acute high-volume, whole-body RE protocol on the glucoregulatory and ghrelin response in sedentary obese and lean men. Five World Health Organization (WHO) class 1 obese (body mass index [BMI], 30.00-34.99) (age, 21.6 ± 2.5 years; height, 176.3 ± 3.7 cm; body mass, 97.8 ± 8.58 kg; body fat, 34.7% ± 2.95%), 5 WHO 2 (BMI, 35-39.99)/WHO 3 (BMI, ≥40) obese (age, 20.0 ± 1.4 years; height, 177.7 ± 5.15 cm; body mass, 120.8 ± 10.49 kg; body fat, 40.5% ± 5.82 %), and 9 lean men (age, 20.1 ± 2.1 years; height, 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass, 71.7 ± 5.8 kg; body fat, 14.7% ± 3.54 %) completed an acute RE testing protocol (6 exercises, 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 85%-95% 10-repetition maximum with 120- and 90-second rest periods); and blood samples were collected pre-, mid-, and immediately postexercise and during recovery (+50, +70, and +110). Resistance exercise produced differences over time in cortisol, insulin, and glucose. Group differences were observed for ghrelin, with the WHO class 2/3 group having significantly greater ghrelin levels than the lean group (d = 0.28, P = .009) and the WHO class 1 group (d = 0.39, P = .002). Higher ghrelin was significantly associated with lower cortisol only in obese individuals. In addition, higher growth hormone was associated with lower ghrelin in lean individuals. Results suggest that glucoregulatory homeostasis is altered with increasing levels of obesity and that these alterations may mediate the response of cortisol and ghrelin in response to RE.

  7. Coat and hair color: hair cortisol and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi Nejad, Jalil; Kim, Byong-Wan; Lee, Bae-Hun; Sung, Kyung-Il

    2017-01-01

    The deleterious effects of heat stress on animal health are being increasingly recognized. This study aimed to determine hair cortisol (HC) and serotonin levels in lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions with different coat and hair-cut color. Forty-five multiparous lactating Holstein cows (days in milk = 130 ± 47, body weight = 753 ± 85 kg) were divided to two main groups of over 80% black coat color (BC) and over 85% white coat color (WC) visually observed based on registry certificates and subdividing to black hair sample (BH) and white hair samples (WH) in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements. Hair samples were taken from the forehead of the individuals. Higher HC levels were observed in BC than WC cows (P < 0.05). No differences were found in HC levels between BH and WH groups (P > 0.05). Serotonin levels showed no difference between BC and WC (P > 0.05). Interaction between coat color and hair color was not significant (P > 0.05). The cortisol levels in hair are not affected by pigmentation. However, pigmentation within the coat alters cortisol levels. In conclusion, white coat color retains less cortisol than the black coat. Therefore, white coats are preferable for dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

  8. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety.

  9. The effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Mottahedian Tabrizi, Elaheh; Sahraei, Hedayat; Movahhedi Rad, Saeid; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Lak, Marziyeh

    2012-01-01

    Surgical procedures performed using spinal anesthetic techniques present a special challenge to anesthesiologists, because patients are awake and are exposed to multiple anxiety provoking visual and auditory stimuli. Therefore, this study was carried out to define the effect of music on the level of cortisol, blood glucose and physiological variables in patients under spinal anesthesia. In this semi-experimental research, 90 men aging from 18-48 years with ASA (acetylsalicylic acid) class I, who underwent urological and abdominal surgery, were investigated. Patients were divided randomly into three groups of thirty subjects. Music group (headphone with music), Silence group (headphone without music) and the control group (without interference). The level of cortisol and blood sugar was measured half an hour before and after the operation. Moreover, the physiological indicators in each of these three groups were monitored and recorded from ten minutes before getting spinal anesthesia to ten minutes after the operation. The level of blood cortisol didn't have any increase in the music group after operation compared to the time before that. However, in the groups of silence and control this level had risen (p< 0.05). The level of blood glucose in music group had declined and in the other two groups it had increased. Our data showed that listening to music during surgery under regional anesthesia has effects on cortisol levels and some of the physiological variables. Therefore the researcher offers to be used music therapy as a complementary method in patients on the reduce anxiety. PMID:27350774

  10. Baseline morning cortisol level as a predictor of pituitary-adrenal reserve: a comparison across three assays.

    PubMed

    Sbardella, Emilia; Isidori, Andrea M; Woods, Conor P; Argese, Nicola; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Shine, Brian; Jafar-Mohammadi, Bahram; Grossman, Ashley B

    2017-02-01

    The short ACTH stimulation test (250 μg) is the dynamic test most frequently used to assess adrenal function. It is possible that a single basal cortisol could be used to predict the dynamic response, but research has been hampered by the use of different assays and thresholds. To propose a morning baseline cortisol criterion of three of the most commonly used modern cortisol immunoassays - Advia Centaur (Siemens), Architect (Abbott) and the Roche Modular System (Roche) - that could predict adrenal sufficiency. Observational, retrospective cross-sectional study at two centres. Retrospective analysis of the results of 1019 Short Synacthen tests (SSTs) with the Advia Centaur, 449 SSTs with the Architect and 2050 SSTs with the Roche Modular System assay. Serum cortisol levels were measured prior to injection of 250 μg Synacthen and after 30 min. Overall, we were able to collate data from a total of 3518 SSTs in 3571 patients. Using receiver-operator curve analysis, baseline cortisol levels for predicting passing the SST with 100% specificity were 358 nmol/l for Siemens, 336 nmol/l for Abbott and 506 nmol/l for Roche. Utilizing these criteria, 589, 158 and 578 SSTs, respectively, for Siemens, Abbott and Roche immunoassays could have been avoided. We have defined assay-specific morning cortisol levels that are able to predict the integrity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. We propose that this represents a valid tool for the initial assessment of adrenal function and has the potential to obviate the need for dynamic testing in a significant number of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Circadian rhythm and stress in the elderly: a study using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator].

    PubMed

    Fujibayashi, S; Koizumi, A

    1989-10-01

    Biological response to stress was studied in the healthy elderly by fluctuations of their circadian rhythms using salivary cortisol levels as an indicator. Social activities per se may not be stressors, but may serve as a "eustress" to the elderly when they are in good health because their rhythm is maintained. Concerning the occupations of the subjects, the rhythms of elderly watchmen showed no disturbance when they slept for three hours between 23:00 and 2:00. However, those who were unable to sleep showed disturbed rhythms. We concluded that disturbance of a rhythm that has been established on the basis of being active during the day time and sleeping at night could be a stressor to the elderly rather than stress due to working as a guard.

  12. Housing with females increases testosterone and cortisol levels in captive groups of black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi).

    PubMed

    Cerda-Molina, A L; Hernández-López, L; Díaz-Díaz, G; Mejía-Varas, F; Chavira, R; Mondragón-Ceballos, R

    2012-01-01

    The black-handed spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) is a seasonal reproducer that requires a seclusiveness to copulate and has a fusion-fission social system. These features impose important restrictions to achieve reproduction of captive animals. We investigated if group composition in captive spider monkeys has any endocrine effects. We compared testosterone and cortisol concentrations during the mating season in all-male and multifemale-multimale groups to study if the former condition impairs reproductive potential and increases stress. Concentrations of testosterone and cortisol of males living with females were higher than those of all-male groups. In the multifemale-multimale condition, dominant males had the highest levels of testosterone, while the youngest males showed the highest concentrations of cortisol. Results show that males adjust well to isosexual grouping, this being an appropriate condition to keep animals when controlled reproduction is sought.

  13. Sex and the housing: Effects on behavior, cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Reolon, Gustavo Kellermann; de Melo, Gabriela Madalena; da Rosa, João Gabriel Dos Santos; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2018-01-15

    Studies with zebrafish use acclimatizing periods of at least one week immediately before the experiments. During this time, animals can be housed in sexually segregated conditions (only females or males in the tank) or in mixed-sex conditions (both sexes in the tank). The influence of sex and housing conditions regarding the presence of one or two sexes is largely unknown in zebrafish. Our aim was to evaluate the influence that sex and housing regarding the sex of animals had in the open tank task, in the inhibitory avoidance memory test, in cortisol levels and weight in zebrafish. Four groups of animals were used: 1) segregated housed females (only females were kept in the tank); 2) segregated housed males (only males were kept in the tank); 3) mixed-sex housed females (only females were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex); 4) mixed-sex housed males (only males were analyzed from a tank containing 50% ratio of each sex). Males showed higher total distance travelled and mean speed when compared to females. In the inhibitory avoidance memory, sexually segregated animals had higher latencies than their mixed-sex counterparts in the 1day test and sexually segregated females presented a memory that persisted longer and was able to be reinstated. Whole-body cortisol levels were higher in mixed-sex animals while weight was lower in these fish. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that effects of sex and housing regarding sex were investigated in behavior and physiology of zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Attenuation of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and blood cortisol level with forced exercise in comparison with diazepam.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Bangash, Mohammad Yasan; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2015-01-01

    Relieving withdrawal and post-abstinence syndrome of alcoholism is one of the major strategies in the treatment of alcohol addicted patients. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and topiramate are the approved medications that were used for this object. To assess the role of non-pharmacologic therapy in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, we analyzed effects of forced exercise by treadmill on alcohol dependent mice as an animal model. A total of 60 adult male mice were divided into 5 groups, from which 4 groups became dependent to alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for 15 days. From day 16, treatment groups were treated by diazepam (0.5mg/kg), forced exercise, and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) concurrent with forced exercise for two weeks; And the positive control group received same dose of alcohol (2 g/kg/day) for two weeks. The negative control group received normal saline for four weeks. Finally, on day 31, all animals were observed for withdrawal signs, and Alcohol Total Withdrawal Score (ATWS) was determined. Blood cortisol levels were measured in non-fasting situations as well. Present findings showed that ATWS significantly decrease in all treatment groups in comparison with positive control group (P<0.05 for groups received diazepam and treated by forced exercise and P<0.001 for group under treatment diazepam + forced exercise). Moreover, blood cortisol level significantly decreased in all treatment groups (P<0.001). This study suggested that forced exercise and physical activity can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism and can ameliorate side effects and stress situation of withdrawal syndrome periods.

  15. Effects of Gentle Human Touch and Field Massage on Urine Cortisol Level in Premature Infants: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asadollahi, Malihe; Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Mahallei, Majid; Asgari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Sakine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT) techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session) for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026). Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants. PMID:27752484

  16. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  17. Salivary Alpha Amylase and Cortisol Levels in Children with Global Developmental Delay and Their Relation with the Expectation of Dental Care and Behavior during the Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    dos Santos, Marcio Jose Possari; Bernabe, Daniel Galera; Nakamune, Ana Claudia de Melo Stevanato; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturoli; de Aguiar, Sandra Maria Herondina Coelho Avila; de Oliveira, Sandra Helena Penha

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol levels in children with Global developmental delay (GDD) before and after dental treatment and its association with the children's behavior during treatment. The morning salivary cortisol levels and activity of sAA of 33 children with GDD were evaluated before and after…

  18. Pleiotropic relationships between cortisol levels and adiposity: The HERITAGE Family Study.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Mary F; Rice, Treva; Rosmond, Roland; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Wilmore, Jack H; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D C

    2002-12-01

    To investigate familial basis for the relationship between cortisol adiposity at baseline and their training responses. Bivariate correlation and segregation analyses were employed between cortisol and several adiposity measures [body mass index, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, percentage of body fat (% BF), abdominal visceral fat (AVF), abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF), and abdominal total fat (ATF)] from 99 white families and 105 black families. In both races, significant inverse phenotypic correlations were generally observed between cortisol and adiposity measures at baseline but not for training responses. Significant cross-trait familial correlations were found for cortisol with abdominal fat (ASF, AVF, ATF) and overall body adiposity (FM, % BF) measures at baseline, which accounted for 14% to 20% of the phenotypic variance in whites. The cross-trait correlations were not significant for baseline phenotypes in blacks, perhaps because of the small sample size. A bivariate segregation analysis showed evidence of polygenic pleiotropy for cortisol with both abdominal fat and overall adiposity measures that accounted for 14% to 17% of the phenotypic covariance, but major gene pleiotropy was not suggested in whites. However, when ASF, AVF, and ATF were additionally adjusted for FM, no familial cross-trait correlations or polygenic pleiotropy between cortisol and the abdominal fat measures remained. Evidence was found for polygenic pleiotropy but not for pleiotropic major gene effects between cortisol and overall adiposity in whites. However, the covariation of cortisol with abdominal fat phenotypes is dependent on concomitant polygenic factors for total-body fat.

  19. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study.

    PubMed

    Karb, Rebecca A; Elliott, Michael R; Dowd, Jennifer B; Morenoff, Jeffrey D

    2012-09-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get "under the skin" remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene modulates the biotransformation, DNA damage and cortisol level of red sea bream challenged with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Bo, Jun; Gopalakrishnan, Singaram; Chen, Fang-Yi; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2014-08-30

    In animals, biotransformation and the immune system interact with each other, however, knowledge of the toxic mechanism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on these two systems is not well known. The present study investigated the toxic effects of BaP on the biotransformation system, cortisol level and DNA integrity of red sea bream (Pagrus major). The results showed that cortisol level was induced under the challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Short-term exposure (96 h) of BaP at environmental concentration significantly increased the cortisol level, hepatic EROD activity and CYP1A1 mRNA expression. When P. major was exposed to BaP for 14 d followed by LPS challenge this increased the cortisol level, EROD activity and hepatic DNA damage except CYP1A1 mRNA expression. Combined with our previous data, which showed that BaP exposure can modulate the immunologic response in P. major challenged with LPS, a hypothetical adverse outcome pathway of BaP on fish was suggested.

  2. Effects of Methylphenidate and Bupropion on DHEA-S and Cortisol Plasma Levels in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Soo; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Jung, In-Kwa

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated plasma levels of DHEA-S and cortisol before and after treating ADHD patients with one of two medications: methylphenidate (n = 12) or bupropion (n = 10). Boys with ADHD (combined type) were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS) and the computerized ADHD diagnostic system (ADS). All assessments were measured at baseline…

  3. Adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels directly correlate with childhood neglect and depression measures in addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Gerra, Gilberto; Leonardi, Claudio; Cortese, Elena; Zaimovic, Amir; Dell'Agnello, Grazia; Manfredini, Matteo; Somaini, Lorenzo; Petracca, Francesca; Caretti, Vincenzo; Baroni, Cristina; Donnini, Claudio

    2008-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction has been reported to be involved in vulnerability to alcohol and drug dependence in humans, possibly underlying both addictive behaviour and depression susceptibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible interactions between childhood adverse experiences, depressive symptoms and HPA axis function in addicted patients, in comparison with healthy control. Eighty-two abstinent heroin or cocaine dependent patients and 44 normal controls, matched for age and sex, completed the symptoms Check List-90 (SCL-90), measuring depressive symptoms, and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Blood samples were collected to determine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol basal plasma levels at 8:00 and 8:30 a.m. Addicted individuals showed significantly higher neglect and depression scores and ACTH-cortisol plasma levels respect to control subjects. Depression scores at SCL-90 in addicted patients positively correlated with plasma ACTH and cortisol values. In turn, plasma ACTH levels were directly associated with childhood neglect measures, reaching statistical significance with 'mother-neglect' scores. Plasma cortisol levels were related to 'father antipathy' among cocaine addicts. These findings suggest the possibility that childhood experience of neglect and poor parent-child attachment may have a persistent effect on HPA axis function as an adult, partially contributing, together with genetic factors and other environmental conditions, to both depressive traits and substance abuse neurobiological vulnerability.

  4. Stressful Life Events and Daily Stressors Affect Awakening Cortisol Level in Midlife Mothers of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jen D.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Hong, Jinkuk; Almeida, David M.; Coe, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The current study examines the awakening cortisol level in midlife mothers (M=51.4 years old, SD=8.4) of individuals (M=22.1 years old, SD=7.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) under stressful conditions that are not specific to the son or daughter's ASD symptoms. Methods In addition to completing a set of questionnaires and in-home interviews, 82 mothers from the Adolescents and Adults with Autism Study (AAA) participated in a Daily Diary Study. Results Findings from the multilevel models indicated that mothers who previously were exposed to no negative life events in the previous period had an increased awakening cortisol level on days following a greater number and more severe stressors, a normative stress response. In contrast, we observed a flatter cortisol level of daily stressors in mothers who experienced a greater number of negative life events in the previous period. Conclusion These findings highlight the sustained toll that global and everyday stressors have on awakening cortisol level of midlife and aging mothers of individuals with ASD. PMID:22640177

  5. Neighborhood-level stressors, social support, and diurnal patterns of cortisol: the Chicago Community Adult Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Karb, Rebecca A.; Elliott, Michael R.; Dowd, Jennifer B.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage has consistently been linked to increased rates of morbidity and mortality, but the mechanisms through which neighborhood environments may get “under the skin” remain largely unknown. Differential exposure to chronic environmental stressors has been identified as a potential pathway linking neighborhood disadvantage and poor health, particularly through the dysregulation of stress-related biological pathways such as cortisol secretion, but the majority of existing observational studies on stress and neuroendocrine functioning have focused exclusively on individual-level stressors and psychosocial characteristics. This paper aims to fill that gap by examining the association between features of the neighborhood environment and the diurnal cortisol patterns of 308 individuals from Chicago, Illinois, USA. We found that respondents in neighborhoods with high levels of perceived and observed stressors or low levels of social support experienced a flatter rate of cortisol decline throughout the day. In addition, overall mean cortisol levels were found to be lower in higher stress, lower support neighborhoods. This study adds to the growing evidence of hypocortisolism among chronically stressed adult populations and suggests hypocortisolism rather than hypercortisolism as a potential mechanism linking social disadvantage to poor health. PMID:22698925

  6. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOEpatents

    Patch, Keith D.; Morgan, Dean T.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  7. Changes in Men's Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents.

    PubMed

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman's vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant.

  8. Effects of Clove Oil as a Euthanasia Agent on Blood Collection Efficiency and Serum Cortisol Levels in Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daniel J; Klug, Jenna; Hankins, Miriam; Doerr, Holly M; Monticelli, Stephanie R; Song, Ava; Gillespie, Catherine H; Bryda, Elizabeth C

    2015-09-01

    Zebrafish are an important laboratory animal model for biomedical research and are increasingly being used for behavioral neuroscience. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS222) is the standard agent used for euthanasia of zebrafish. However, recent studies of zebrafish behavior suggest that MS222 may be aversive, and clove oil might be a possible alternative. In this study, we compared the effects of MS222 or clove oil as a euthanasia agent in zebrafish on the volume of blood collected and on serum levels of cortisol. Greater amounts of serum could be collected and lower serum levels of cortisol were present in fish euthanized with clove oil compared with equipotent dose of MS222. Euthanasia with clove oil did not blunt the expected elevation of serum cortisol levels elicited by an acute premortem stress. According to our findings, clove oil is a fast-acting agent that minimizes the cortisol response to euthanasia in zebrafish and allows the collection of large volumes of blood postmortem. These results represent a significant refinement in euthanasia methods for zebrafish.

  9. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients’ vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Conclusions: Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings. PMID:27563324

  10. Effect of lavender essence inhalation on the level of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, SeyedAbedin; Heydari, Alemeh; Vakili, MohammadAli; Moghadam, Shahram; Tazyky, SadeghAli

    2016-01-01

    Surgery, as a treatment, is a stressful experience. The anxiety is more severe in open-heart surgery patients due to its risk and complications. The present study aimed to determine the effect of lavender essence on the levels of anxiety and blood cortisol in candidates for open-heart surgery. This was a single-blind clinical trial, a random allocation study with a control group conducted on 90 candidates for open-heart surgery in two groups of study and control. The study and control groups inhaled two drops of lavender and distilled water for 20 min, respectively. Spielberger questionnaire was filled by the patients. A 2 ml blood sample was taken to measure the cortisol level and patients' vital signs were recorded before and after intervention. Data were analyzed by chi-square in the form of mean, SD, and frequency distribution, independent t-test, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), with a significance level of P = 0.05 to modify the pre-test scores. Results showed a significant reduction in mean anxiety score from 56.73 (5.67) to 54.73 (5.42) after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group [1.11 (1.17)] (P < 0.001). There was also a higher difference in cortisol level in the study group compared to the control group [1.88 (0.56) vs. 0.42 (0.45)]. ANCOVA test showed that the 10.8% variance in anxiety score and 69.6% decrease in blood cortisol resulted from inhalation of lavender. Results showed the positive effect of lavender essence on anxiety and blood cortisol level among the patients. Aromatherapy with lavender is suggested to be considered as a nursing intervention in clinical settings.

  11. Cortisol levels and sleep patterns in infants with orofacial clefts undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Andreas A; Kalak, Nadeem; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background Traumatic events during early infancy might damage infants’ psychobiological functioning, such as sleep and cortisol secretion. Infants born with orofacial clefts (OFCs) undergo functional, anatomical, and aesthetic surgery. The aim of the present study was to determine whether infants with OFC and undergoing OFC surgery show deteriorated sleep and cortisol secretion compared with healthy controls and with their presurgery status. Methods A total of 27 infants with OFC (mean age: 22 weeks) and 30 healthy controls (mean age: 23 weeks) took part in the study. For infants with OFC, sleep actigraphy was performed and saliva cortisol was analyzed 5 days before, during, and 5 days after surgery. For controls, sleep and saliva cortisol were assessed similarly, except for the period taken up with surgery. Results Compared with healthy controls, infants with OFC undergoing OFC surgery did not differ in sleep and cortisol secretion. Their sleep and cortisol secretion did deteriorate during the perisurgical period but recovered 5 days postsurgery. Conclusion In infants with OFC undergoing corrective surgery, the pattern of results for sleep and cortisol suggests that OFC surgery does not seem to constitute a traumatic event with long-term consequences. PMID:25342905

  12. CT findings of a unicameral calcaneal bone cyst containing a fluid-fluid level.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Thomas A; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer E; Vade, Aruna

    2007-03-01

    Calcaneal unicameral bone cysts often contain fluid, but rarely contain fluid-fluid levels. We present a case focusing on the CT findings of a large calcaneal bone cyst with a fluid-fluid level and a review of the literature.

  13. Serum but not salivary cortisol levels are influenced by daily glycemic oscillations in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bellastella, Giuseppe; Maiorino, Maria Ida; De Bellis, Annamaria; Vietri, Maria Teresa; Mosca, Carmela; Scappaticcio, Lorenzo; Pasquali, Daniela; Esposito, Katherine; Giugliano, Dario

    2016-07-01

    Diurnal salivary and plasma cortisol variations are considered valid expression of circadian cortisol rhythmicity. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of salivary and plasma cortisol and if glycemia and glycemic oscillations may interfere with their concentration. Forty-seven type 2 diabetic patients and 31 controls were studied for glycemic profile and diurnal salivary and plasma cortisol variations on two contemporary samples taken at 08:00 a.m.-11:00 p.m (Late Night, LN). Glucose variability was evaluated in diabetic patients by considering the standard deviation of blood glucose (BGSD) readings, by calculating the mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) and continuous overlapping net glycemic action (CONGA). A significant correlation between LN serum cortisol and morning fasting glycemia (r = 0.78; p = 0.004) was observed in T2DM group but not in the control group (r = 0.09; p = 0.74). While LN serum cortisol significantly correlated with CONGA in diabetic patients (r = 0.50; p < 0.001), LN salivary cortisol did not correlate with any indices of glucose variability. Moreover, a highly significant correlation between LN salivary and LN serum cortisol concentrations was found in control group (r = 0.80; p < 0.001) but not in diabetic patients (r = 0.07; p = 0.62). This study shows for the first time that LN salivary rather than plasma cortisol may give information on the dynamics of adrenal function of type 2 diabetic patients, as it is not significantly influenced by glycemic variations. However, our preliminary results need to be confirmed by further studies with more complete evaluations including many more patients.

  14. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cortisol Mediates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Relationships to Mortality after Severe TBI: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, Miranda J.; Kumar, Raj G.; Oh, Byung-Mo; Conley, Yvette P.; Wang, Zhensheng; Failla, Michelle D.; Wagner, Amy K.

    2017-01-01

    Distinct regulatory signaling mechanisms exist between cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that may influence secondary injury cascades associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome. We investigated concurrent CSF BDNF and cortisol relationships in 117 patients sampled days 0–6 after severe TBI while accounting for BDNF genetics and age. We also determined associations between CSF BDNF and cortisol with 6-month mortality. BDNF variants, rs6265 and rs7124442, were used to create a gene risk score (GRS) in reference to previously published hypothesized risk for mortality in “younger patients” (<48 years) and hypothesized BDNF production/secretion capacity with these variants. Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to create two cortisol groups (high and low trajectories). A Bayesian estimation approach informed the mediation models. Results show CSF BDNF predicted patient cortisol TRAJ group (P = 0.001). Also, GRS moderated BDNF associations with cortisol TRAJ group. Additionally, cortisol TRAJ predicted 6-month mortality (P = 0.001). In a mediation analysis, BDNF predicted mortality, with cortisol acting as the mediator (P = 0.011), yielding a mediation percentage of 29.92%. Mediation effects increased to 45.45% among younger patients. A BDNF*GRS interaction predicted mortality in younger patients (P = 0.004). Thus, we conclude 6-month mortality after severe TBI can be predicted through a mediation model with CSF cortisol and BDNF, suggesting a regulatory role for cortisol with BDNF's contribution to TBI pathophysiology and mortality, particularly among younger individuals with severe TBI. Based on the literature, cortisol modulated BDNF effects on mortality after TBI may be related to known hormone and neurotrophin relationships to neurological injury severity and autonomic nervous system imbalance. PMID:28337122

  15. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cortisol Mediates Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Relationships to Mortality after Severe TBI: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Miranda J; Kumar, Raj G; Oh, Byung-Mo; Conley, Yvette P; Wang, Zhensheng; Failla, Michelle D; Wagner, Amy K

    2017-01-01

    Distinct regulatory signaling mechanisms exist between cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that may influence secondary injury cascades associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and predict outcome. We investigated concurrent CSF BDNF and cortisol relationships in 117 patients sampled days 0-6 after severe TBI while accounting for BDNF genetics and age. We also determined associations between CSF BDNF and cortisol with 6-month mortality. BDNF variants, rs6265 and rs7124442, were used to create a gene risk score (GRS) in reference to previously published hypothesized risk for mortality in "younger patients" (<48 years) and hypothesized BDNF production/secretion capacity with these variants. Group based trajectory analysis (TRAJ) was used to create two cortisol groups (high and low trajectories). A Bayesian estimation approach informed the mediation models. Results show CSF BDNF predicted patient cortisol TRAJ group (P = 0.001). Also, GRS moderated BDNF associations with cortisol TRAJ group. Additionally, cortisol TRAJ predicted 6-month mortality (P = 0.001). In a mediation analysis, BDNF predicted mortality, with cortisol acting as the mediator (P = 0.011), yielding a mediation percentage of 29.92%. Mediation effects increased to 45.45% among younger patients. A BDNF(*)GRS interaction predicted mortality in younger patients (P = 0.004). Thus, we conclude 6-month mortality after severe TBI can be predicted through a mediation model with CSF cortisol and BDNF, suggesting a regulatory role for cortisol with BDNF's contribution to TBI pathophysiology and mortality, particularly among younger individuals with severe TBI. Based on the literature, cortisol modulated BDNF effects on mortality after TBI may be related to known hormone and neurotrophin relationships to neurological injury severity and autonomic nervous system imbalance.

  16. Circadian rhythm in circulating CD16-positive natural killer (NK) cells in macaque monkeys, implication of plasma cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Terao, Keiji; Suzuki, Juri; Ohkura, Satoshi

    2002-10-01

    The daily change in both percentage and absolute number of circulating major lymphocyte subset was determined with young Japanese monkeys and rhesus monkeys. The blood sample was collected at four hour-intervals beginning at 16:00 for 24 hours under the condition of applying tethering system by which blood samples could be collected without restraint. During the dark period (from 20:00 to 08:00), the number of peripheral lymphocytes increased and that of granulocytes decreased, resulting in no significant change in the number of total peripheral white blood cells. The absolute number of CD4+ T, CD8+ T, and CD20+ B cells showed the significant daily change similar to that in number of peripheral lymphocytes, indicating no proportional change in these subsets. The typical proportional change was observed in CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells and the percentage of CD16+ cells decreased during dark period (from 20:00 to 04:00) and increased in the morning (from 08:00 to 12:00). The NK activity determined by killing K562 target cells showed the same changing pattern as that of percentage in CD16+ NK cells. The changing pattern of both percentage and activity of NK cells was consistent with that of plasma cortisol levels. In addition, the intravenous injection of 300 g/kg of cortisol induced increase in plasma cortisol levels and decrease in percentage of CD16+ NK cells during the first 60 min after cortisol injection. These results strongly suggest that the levels of peripheral functional CD16+ NK cells might be directly regulated by plasma cortisol level in macaque monkeys.

  17. Effects of stress on exacerbation of diabetes mellitus, serum glucose and cortisol levels and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Radahmadi, Maryam; Shadan, Farrokh; Karimian, Seied Morteza; Sadr, Seied Shahab-e-din; Nasimi, Ali

    2006-02-21

    The effects of stress on the serum glucose, serum cortisol levels and body weight were investigated to clarify the possible link between the stress and diabetes. The experiments were performed on nondiabetic and streptozotocin diabetic rats divided to control, sham and stressed groups. Water immersion was used as stressor. After the experiment, blood samples were collected. The serum glucose level (SGL) was measured by the glucose oxidase method and serum cortisol level (SCL) was determined by radioimmunoassay. Stress caused a significant increase in glucose level in both nondiabetic and diabetic rats. In diabetes rats, a significant increase in SCL was observed. Stress did not cause, however, significant increases in SCL. A significant weight loss took place in rats exposed to stress and that was much greater in diabetic animals. The stress with mainly psychic component exacerbated the diabetes in streptozotocin treated rats and the glucose levels increased significantly also in nondiabetic controls, but no glucose was detected in their urine.

  18. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18 °C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the

  19. Diurnal cortisol and survival in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Schrepf, Andrew; Thaker, Premal H; Goodheart, Michael J; Bender, David; Slavich, George M; Dahmoush, Laila; Penedo, Frank; DeGeest, Koen; Mendez, Luis; Lubaroff, David M; Cole, Steven W; Sood, Anil K; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2015-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) deregulation is commonly observed in cancer patients, but its clinical significance is not well understood. We prospectively examined the association between HPA activity, tumor-associated inflammation, and survival in ovarian cancer patients prior to treatment. Participants were 113 women with ovarian cancer who provided salivary cortisol for three days prior to treatment for calculation of cortisol slope, variability, and night cortisol. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were used to examine associations between cortisol and survival in models adjusting for disease stage, tumor grade, cytoreduction and age. On a subsample of 41 patients with advanced disease ascites fluid was assayed for levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and correlated with cortisol variables. Each cortisol measure was associated with decreased survival time, adjusting for covariates (all p<.041). A one standard deviation increase in night cortisol was associated with a 46% greater likelihood of death. Patients in the high night cortisol group survived an estimated average of 3.3 years compared to 7.3 years for those in the low night cortisol group. Elevated ascites IL-6 was associated with each cortisol measure (all r>36, all p<.017). Abnormal cortisol rhythms assessed prior to treatment are associated with decreased survival in ovarian cancer and increased inflammation in the vicinity of the tumor. HPA abnormalities may reflect poor endogenous control of inflammation, dysregulation caused by tumor-associated inflammation, broad circadian disruption, or some combination of these factors. Nocturnal cortisol may have utility as a non-invasive measure of HPA function and/or disease severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The relationship between the levels of salivary cortisol and the presence of xerostomia in menopausal women. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rivera Gómez, Begoña; Hernández Vallejo, Gonzalo; Arriba de la Fuente, Lorenzo; López Cantor, Margarita; Díaz, Milagros; López Pintor, Rosa Maria

    2006-08-01

    Xerostomia is a particularly frequent occurrence among menopausal women, and is often associated with depression. To evaluate the relationship between unstimulated salivary flow rate and the presence of xerostomia, and to determine the levels of salivary cortisol and its relationship with xerostomia. Thirty women were selected from patients attending the Department of Medicine and Buccofacial surgery, and formed into two groups, study and control. Samples of unstimulated salivary flow were collected, and the amounts of salivary cortisol determined using the ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The mean unstimulated salivary flow rates for the control and study group were 0.37 +/- 0.28 ml/min and 0.24 +/- 0.18 ml/min, respectively. The concentration of salivary cortisol was 3.47 +/- 1.64 ng/ml for the control group and 2.29 +/- 2.60 ng/ml for the study group. The statistical tests applied showed no significant differences for either variable between the two groups in the study. The results of the present study indicate that there is no relationship between variations in the rates of unstimulated salivary flow and the corresponding concentration of cortisol.

  1. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King

    2017-01-01

    Background Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. Results The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (−2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05), as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (−3.35±5.76 vs −0.81±4.59, P<0.05), the severity of adverse reactions score (−1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05), and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS) score (−6.00±4.68 vs −0.877±7.08, P<0.05). The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05), and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05) and negatively with finger temperature (r=−0.235, P<0.05) in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, P<0.05). Conclusion Providing music during HD is an effective complementary therapy to relieve the frequency and severity of adverse reactions, as well as to lower salivary cortisol levels. Differences in salivary cortisol after music therapy may predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD. PMID:28260913

  2. Music therapy-induced changes in salivary cortisol level are predictive of cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Chou; Lin, Yen-Ju; Lu, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chang, Chia-Chi; Yang, Li-King

    2017-01-01

    Music therapy has been applied in hemodialysis (HD) patients for relieving mental stress. Whether the stress-relieving effect by music therapy is predictive of clinical outcome in HD patients is still unclear. We recruited a convenience sample of 99 patients on maintenance HD and randomly assigned them to the experimental (n=49) or control (n=50) group. The experimental group received relaxing music therapy for 1 week, whereas the control group received no music therapy. In the experimental group, we compared cardiovascular mortality in the patients with and without cortisol changes. The salivary cortisol level was lowered after 1 week of music therapy in the experimental group (-2.41±3.08 vs 1.66±2.11 pg/mL, P<0.05), as well as the frequency of the adverse reaction score (-3.35±5.76 vs -0.81±4.59, P<0.05), the severity of adverse reactions score (-1.93±2.73 vs 0.33±2.71, P<0.05), and hemodialysis stressor scale (HSS) score (-6.00±4.68 vs -0.877±7.08, P<0.05). The difference in salivary cortisol correlated positively with HD stress score scales (r=0.231, P<0.05), systolic blood pressure (r=0.264, P<0.05), and respiratory rates (r=0.369, P<0.05) and negatively with finger temperature (r=-0.235, P<0.05) in the total study population. The 5-year cardiovascular survival in the experimental group was higher in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by <0.6 pg/mL than that in patients whose salivary cortisol lowered by >0.6 pg/mL (83.8% vs 63.6%, P<0.05). Providing music during HD is an effective complementary therapy to relieve the frequency and severity of adverse reactions, as well as to lower salivary cortisol levels. Differences in salivary cortisol after music therapy may predict cardiovascular mortality in patients under maintenance HD.

  3. Validating the Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...Novel Method of Measuring Cortisol Levels in Cetacean Skin by use of an ACTH Challenge in Bottlenose Dolphins Thea Bechshoft Aarhus University...method (Bechshoft et al. Submitted) using skin samples collected from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The dolphins will be sampled as part

  4. Changes in fetal and maternal blood levels of prolactin, cortisol, and cortisone during eutocic and dystocic childbirth.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenberge, J R; Hustin, J; Demey-Ponsart, E; Sulon, J; Reuter, A; Lambotte, R; Franchimont, P

    1987-01-01

    The changes in blood levels of prolactin, total and free cortisol, and cortisone were studied and compared in 51 mother-infant pairs, 30 with eutocic delivery and 21 with dystocic delivery. Regardless of the type of delivery, the newborn at term showed significantly higher prolactin and cortisone serum levels than their mothers, and significantly lower levels of free and total cortisol. In fetal distress of short duration, free cortisol levels were significantly raised in both the mother and the child, while prolactin and cortisone levels were significantly higher only in the child. In contrast to these observations, serum prolactin and cortisone levels in the mother were not altered by the occurrence of fetal distress. In the newborn at delivery there was a negative correlation between serum prolactin and the Apgar score at 1 min applied to the part of the graph between 8 and 2 Apgar scores. This study illustrates the utility of fetal prolactin measurements in evaluating the stress to which the fetus is subjected.

  5. High maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy are associated with more psychiatric symptoms in offspring at age of nine - A prospective study from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, J; Lindblad, F; Valladares, E; Högberg, U

    2015-12-01

    Maternal exposure to stress or adversity during pregnancy has been associated with negative health effects for the offspring including psychiatric symptoms. Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been suggested as one mediating process. In order to investigate possible long term effects of stressors during pregnancy, we followed 70 children and their mothers from pregnancy up to nine years aiming to investigate if maternal cortisol levels and distress/exposure to partner violence were associated with child psychiatric symptoms and child cortisol levels at follow-up. Maternal distress was evaluated using The Self Reporting Questionnaire, exposure to partner violence by an instrument from WHO and child psychiatric symptoms with Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We adjusted the analyses for gestational week, gender, SES, perinatal data and maternal distress/exposure to partner violence at child age of nine years. Elevated maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy, as a possible marker of maternal stress load, were correlated with higher CBCL-ratings, especially concerning externalizing symptoms. Maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy were not associated with child cortisol levels at child age of nine years. Maternal distress and exposure to partner violence during pregnancy were neither associated with child psychiatric symptoms nor child cortisol levels. To conclude, intrauterine exposure to elevated cortisol levels was associated with higher ratings on offspring psychopathology at nine years of age. The lack of association between maternal cortisol levels during pregnancy and child cortisol levels does not support the hypothesis of fetal programming of the HPA-axis, but reliability problems may have contributed to this negative finding. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hair cortisol levels, perceived stress and body mass index in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods: the READI study.

    PubMed

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Ball, Kylie; Wright, Craig; Abbott, Gavin; Brown, Erin; Turner, Anne Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Disadvantaged communities provide adverse psychosocial exposures that have been linked to high levels of stress, and this may provide one explanatory pathway linking socioeconomic disadvantage to obesity. This study used hair cortisol analysis to quantify associations between stress and body mass index (BMI), and between hair cortisol and perceived psychological stress levels, in women and children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Participants were a volunteer sample of 70 women from the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study, including 30 maternal-child pairs. Women self-reported body weight, height and perceived psychological stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and provided hair samples for themselves and their child. Children's body weight and height were measured. Following extraction, hair cortisol levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression models examined associations between stress and BMI, and between hair cortisol and perceived stress levels in women and children. Women's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their BMI or PSS scores. Women's PSS scores were positively associated with their BMI (p = 0.015). Within maternal-child pairs, mothers and children's hair cortisol levels were strongly positively associated (p = 0.006). Maternal hair cortisol levels and PSS scores were unrelated to their child's zBMI. Children's hair cortisol levels were not associated with their zBMI or with their mother's PSS score. Findings suggest that cortisol-based and perceived psychological measures of stress may be distinct among women and children living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Perceived psychological measures may be more important predictors of weight-related risk.

  7. Lower cortisol level in response to a psychosocial stressor in young females with self-harm.

    PubMed

    Plener, Paul L; Zohsel, Katrin; Hohm, Erika; Buchmann, Arlette F; Banaschewski, T; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Laucht, Manfred

    2017-02-01

    Self-harm is highly prevalent in adolescence, often serving an emotion regulation function. Social stressors such as bullying are associated with self-harm. The neurobiological background of the relationship between social stressors and self-harm needs to be further understood to inform prevention and therapy. Participants were members of an epidemiological cohort study. 130 female participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) at age 19. Of them, 21 reported a history of self-harm as assessed by the Youth Self Report. Psychiatric diagnoses were recorded. Participants with a history of self-harm showed significantly lower blood cortisol levels throughout the TSST. Early psychosocial adversity did not significantly differ between groups with and without self-harm, with self-harming participants reporting more childhood adversities. These results add to the limited field of studies showing an altered HPA axis activity in females with self-harm. Future studies need to address the causal mechanisms behind this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of personality and traumatic events in cortisol levels--where does PTSD fit in?

    PubMed

    Savic, Danka; Knezevic, Goran; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Spiric, Zeljko; Matic, Gordana

    2012-07-01

    Studies of cortisol in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have yielded mixed results. We hypothesize that personality traits and traumatic experiences could be the confounders of cortisol measures and disease symptoms. This study was a part of a broader project in which simultaneous psychological and biological investigations were carried out in hospital conditions on 400 male participants categorized by four groups: (A) 133 with current PTSD, (B) 66 with lifetime PTSD, (C) 102 trauma controls, and (D) 99 healthy controls (matched by age and education). Cortisol and ACTH were measured in blood samples taken hourly from 22:00 h to 09:00 h, with an additional sample at 07:30 h (resting state and morning rise). The next night, dexamethasone (0.5mg) suppression test was performed. No significant differences in basal cortisol and ACTH were found between study groups. The trait Conscientiousness, negatively modulated by Extraversion (assessed by NEO Personality Inventory-Revised) was found to correlate with cortisol (but not with ACTH). Group differences are found on suppression. Structural equation modeling shows excellent fit only when the paths (influences) from Conscientiousness to basal cortisol and from traumatic events to suppression are present. The paths connecting suppression and PTSD symptoms do not contribute. Two sources of differences of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis functioning are implied, both only indirectly connected to PTSD. It seems that basal cortisol secretion is associated more tightly with personality (introvertively modulated Conscientiousness), while the regulation by glucocorticoid receptor system is sensitized by repeated traumatic situations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Salivary and serum cortisol levels, salivary alpha-amylase and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate in pregnant and non-pregnant.

    PubMed

    Abrao, Aline Lauria Pires; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Falcao, Denise Pinheiro

    2014-02-01

    To compare salivary and serum cortisol levels, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), and unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate in pregnant and non-pregnant women. A longitudinal study was conducted at a health promotion center of a university hospital. Nine pregnant and 12 non-pregnant women participated in the study. Serum and UWS were collected and analyzed every trimester and twice a month during the menstrual cycle. The salivary and serum cortisol levels were determined by chemiluminescence assay and the sAA was processed in an automated biochemistry analyzer. Significant differences between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were found in median [interquartile range] levels of serum cortisol (23.8 µL/dL [19.4-29.4] versus 12.3 [9.6-16.8], p<0.001) and sAA (56.7 U/L [30.9-82.2] versus 31.8 [18.1-53.2], p<0.001). Differences in salivary and serum cortisol (µL/dL) and sAA levels in the follicular versus luteal phase were observed (p<0.001). Median UWS flow rates were similar in pregnant (0.26 [0.15-0.30] mL/min) and non-pregnant subjects (0.23 [0.20-0.32] mL/min). Significant correlations were found between salivary and serum cortisol (p=0.02) and between salivary cortisol and sAA (p=0.01). Serum cortisol and sAA levels are increased during pregnancy. During the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, salivary cortisol levels increase, whereas serum cortisol and sAA levels decline.

  10. Association of yoga practice and serum cortisol levels in chronic periodontitis patients with stress-related anxiety and depression

    PubMed Central

    Katuri, Kishore Kumar; Dasari, Ankineedu Babu; Kurapati, Sruthi; Vinnakota, Narayana Rao; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary; Dhulipalla, Ravindranath

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Reducing the psychosocial stress by various methods can improve overall health, and yoga is now considered as an easily available alternative method. The present cross-sectional pilot study was conducted mainly to find the association of yoga practice with periodontal disease by measuring serum cortisol levels. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 subjects with age range of 35–60 years suffering with chronic periodontitis were divided into group I (with stress), group II (without stress), and group III (practicing yoga). Psychological evaluation was carried out using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale (ZSDS). Periodontal parameters like plaque index (PI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were recorded. Blood samples were collected and serum cortisol levels were measured. Results: Mean age, plaque scores, and number of teeth with PPD and CAL at 5–8 mm and >8 mm were similar in all the groups, except between group I and group III where a multiple comparison with Tukey's post-hoc test showed significant difference in plaque index (P < 0.038) and the number of teeth with CAL 5–8 mm (P < 0.016). Serum cortisol levels and HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores showed highly significant value (P < 0.001) in group I subjects when compared with group II and group III subjects. Conclusion: Cross-sectional observation done among three groups showed that individuals practicing yoga regularly had low serum cortisol levels, HAM-A scale and ZSDS scores, and better periodontal health. PMID:27011926

  11. Impact of zoo visitors on the fecal cortisol levels and behavior of an endangered species: Indian blackbuck (Antelope cervicapra L.).

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Archunan, Govindaraju; Sekar, Mahadevan

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated behavioral activities (resting, moving, aggressive, social, and reproductive behavior) and fecal cortisol levels in 8 individually identified adult male blackbucks during periods of varying levels of zoo visitors (zero, low, high, and extremely high zoo visitor density). This study also elucidated whether zoo visitor density could disturb nonhuman animal welfare. This study analyzed fecal cortisol from the samples of blackbuck by radioimmunoassay and found significant differences (p < .05) for time the animals devoted to moving, resting, aggressive, reproductive, and social behavior on days with high and extremely high levels of zoo visitors. The ANOVA with Duncan's Multiple Range Test test showed that the fecal cortisol concentration was higher (p < .05) during the extremely high (137.30 ± 5.88 ng/g dry feces) and high (113.51 ± 3.70 ng/g dry feces) levels of zoo visitor density. The results of the study suggest that zoo visitor density affected behavior and adrenocortical secretion in Indian Blackbuck, and this may indicate an animal welfare problem.

  12. Effects of acute systemic cocaine administration on the cortisol, ACTH and prolactin levels of black tufted-ear marmosets.

    PubMed

    Lima, Daniela; Spíndola, Daiana B; Dias, Luana O; Tomaz, Carlos; Barros, Marilia

    2008-04-01

    The effect of acute systemic cocaine administration on total circulating cortisol, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and prolactin levels of nine adult black tufted-ear marmoset monkeys (Callithrix penicillata) was investigated. For each subject, two blood samples were obtained after an i.p. injection of 10 and 20mg/kg of cocaine: one sample was drawn 30-min post-injection, while the second was following a 60-min interval. Blood samples were also obtained 0, 30 and 60 min following a saline injection. The 20 mg/kg dose of cocaine induced a significant decrease in ACTH levels 60 min after being administered. Circulating levels of cortisol, on the other hand, increased significantly 60 min after the 20 mg/kg dose. Prolactin concentrations decreased significantly 30 and 60 min after both doses of cocaine had been administered (10 and 20 mg/kg). Finally, the content of the three hormones analyzed remained constant 0, 30 and 60 min post-saline administrations. Therefore, an acute systemic cocaine challenge alters the basal circulating levels of ACTH, cortisol and prolactin of marmoset monkeys. A distinct response pattern was observed for each hormone analyzed, possibly related to specific negative feedback mechanisms and/or this species glucocorticoid-resistance. The use of this small neotropical primate may thus provide a unique opportunity to investigate cocaine-induced neuroendocrine effects.

  13. Cortisol, blood pressure, and heart rate responses to food intake were independent of physical fitness levels in women.

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Sisitha U; Torres, Susan J; Fraser, Steve F; Turner, Anne I

    2015-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that women who had higher levels of physical fitness will have lower hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (cortisol) and sympatho-adrenal medullary system (blood pressure and heart rate) responses to food intake compared with women who had low levels of physical fitness. Lower fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 27.4 ± 1.0 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) and higher fitness (n = 22; maximal oxygen consumption = 41.9 ± 1.6 mL∙kg(-1)·min(-1)) women (aged 30-50 years; in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle) who participated in levels of physical activity that met (lower fitness = 2.7 ± 0.5 h/week) or considerably exceeded (higher fitness = 7.1 ± 1.4 h/week) physical activity guidelines made their own lunch using standardised ingredients at 1200 h. Concentrations of cortisol were measured in blood samples collected every 15 min from 1145-1400 h. Blood pressures and heart rate were also measured every 15 min between 1145 h and 1400 h. The meal consumed by the participants consisted of 20% protein, 61% carbohydrates, and 19% fat. There was a significant overall response to lunch in all of the parameters measured (time effect for all, p < 0.01). The cortisol response to lunch was not significantly different between the groups (time × treatment, p = 0.882). Overall, both groups showed the same pattern of cortisol secretion (treatment p = 0.839). Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, or heart rate responses (time × treatment, p = 0.726, 0.898, 0.713, and 0.620, respectively) were also similar between higher and lower fitness women. Results suggest that the physiological response to food intake in women is quite resistant to modification by elevated physical fitness levels.

  14. Analysis of salivary cortisol levels to determine the association between depression level and differences in circadian rhythms of shift-working nurses.

    PubMed

    Baba, Michie; Ohkura, Mitsuru; Koga, Kayoko; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Herrera, Lourdes R; Matsuse, Ryoichi; Inoue, Toshitaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether there are differences in the circadian rhythms of shift-working nurses by assessing depression, fatigue and salivary cortisol levels. Forty nurses working in a two-shift system at "Hospital A", Fukuoka City, Japan, used a self-rated depression scale (SDS) to assess their depression levels. Fatigue levels were measured with the visual analogue scale for fatigue (VAS-F); saliva was collected before and during shifts for three days. Results were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Thirty-six valid records were obtained, and subjects were classified according to SDS scores into a normal group (NG), moderate group (MG) and severe group (SG). There were no significant differences in the day shift salivary cortisol values of the three groups. However, the night shift salivary cortisol value for the SG was 0.132 µg/dl at 16:00, before starting the shift, and decreased to 0.036 µg/dl at 20:00. It increased slightly up to 0.057 µg/dl by 24:00 and formed a peak between 5:00 and 7:00, with the levels being 0.322 µg/dl and 0.305 µg/dl respectively. Meanwhile, the NG cortisol value was 0.154 µg/dl before the shift, decreased to 0.034 µg/dl by 20:00, slightly increased up to 0.093 µg/dl by 5:00 and presented its peak value, 0.253 µg/dl, at 7:00 next morning. SG nurses presented significantly increased salivary cortisol levels early in the morning during night shifts, showing a phase deviation in the circadian rhythm. Because subjective fatigue levels did not differ with time, SG nurses should understand and deal with physical changes in the early morning. This approach may reduce medical accidents and malpractice in the early morning.

  15. A Novel Method for the Assessment of Cortisol Hormone in Different Body Fluids Using A New Photo Probe Thiazole Derivative.

    PubMed

    Attia, M S; El-Swafy, E; Youssef, A O; Hefny, H A; Khalil, M H

    2014-03-01

    A low cost and accurate method for the detection and analytical determination of the cortisol in pharmaceutical preparation, blood serum and urine was developed. The method was based upon the enhancement of fluorescence intensity of the band at 424 nm of the photo probe by different cortisol concentrations in acetonitrile at (pH 5.7, λex = 320 nm). The influence of the different parameters, e.g. pH, solvent, cortisol concentration and foreign ions concentrations that control the enhancement process of fluorescence intensity of the band of photo probe was critically investigated. The remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence intensity at 424 nm in acetonitrile by various concentrations of cortisol was successfully used as a photo- probe for the assessment of cortisol concentration. The calibration plot was achieved over the concentration range 8.0 × 10(-6)-5.5 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) cortisol with a correlation coefficient of 0.998 and a detection limit of 4.7 × 10(-9) mol L(-1). The developed method is simple and proceeds without practical artifacts compared to the other determination methods.

  16. Effects of LI-4 and SP-6 Acupuncture on Labor Pain, Cortisol Level and Duration of Labor.

    PubMed

    Asadi, Nasrin; Maharlouei, Najmeh; Khalili, Azadeh; Darabi, Yalda; Davoodi, Sarah; Raeisi Shahraki, Hadi; Hadianfard, Mohammadjavad; Jokar, Azam; Vafaei, Homeira; Kasraeian, Maryam

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, acupuncture is widely used to manage pain, and childbirth is a condition requiring appropriate pain management interventions. The efficacy of acupuncture in the management of labor pain has recently been studied, but the results are not satisfactory and conflicts exist. In this study, we investigated the effects of acupuncture on labor pain, serum cortisol level, and duration of labor. We conducted a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial that included 63 nulliparous women: 32 in the study group and 31 in the control group. Acupuncture was performed at the SP-6 and the LI-4 points in the study group, and sham acupuncture was performed at the same points in the control group. Pain scores and serum cortisol levels were measured before and after the intervention. Changes in these measures and in the duration of labor were compared between the groups. No significant variations in pain scores or serum cortisol levels were observed between the two control groups. However, the duration of labor was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the group receiving real acupuncture. Our results show that acupuncture is significantly associated with a decreased duration of labor, even though it was no better than a placebo for the treatment of labor pain.

  17. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Wilkinson, Paul O.; Dunn, Valerie J.; Croudace, Timothy J.; Goodyer, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys. PMID:24550453

  18. Elevated morning cortisol is a stratified population-level biomarker for major depression in boys only with high depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Owens, Matthew; Herbert, Joe; Jones, Peter B; Sahakian, Barbara J; Wilkinson, Paul O; Dunn, Valerie J; Croudace, Timothy J; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-03-04

    Major depressive disorder (MD) is a debilitating public mental health problem with severe societal and personal costs attached. Around one in six people will suffer from this complex disorder at some point in their lives, which has shown considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity. Overall there remain no validated biomarkers in the youth population at large that can aid the detection of at-risk groups for depression in general and for boys and young men in particular. Using repeated measurements of two well-known correlates of MD (self-reported current depressive symptoms and early-morning cortisol), we undertook a population-based investigation to ascertain subtypes of adolescents that represent separate longitudinal phenotypes. Subsequently, we tested for differential risks for MD and other mental illnesses and cognitive differences between subtypes. Through the use of latent class analysis, we revealed a high-risk subtype (17% of the sample) demarcated by both high depressive symptoms and elevated cortisol levels. Membership of this class of individuals was associated with increased levels of impaired autobiographical memory recall in both sexes and the greatest likelihood of experiencing MD in boys only. These previously unidentified findings demonstrate at the population level a class of adolescents with a common physiological biomarker specifically for MD in boys and for a mnemonic vulnerability in both sexes. We suggest that the biobehavioral combination of high depressive symptoms and elevated morning cortisol is particularly hazardous for adolescent boys.

  19. Correlation of salivary cortisol level with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in pediatric subjects.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Soon; Guilleminault, Christian; Hwang, Se-Hwan; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Park, Dong-Sun; Maeng, Jae-Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with stress system activation involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. The relationships among salivary cortisol, a measure of the HPA axis, and objective parameters of polysomnography (PSG) and subjective sleep symptoms were examined. Our prospective study enrolled 80 children who had a physical examination, underwent overnight PSG, and completed the Korean version of the modified pediatric Epworth sleepiness scale (KMPESS) and OSA-18 (KOSA-18) questionnaires. Saliva was collected at night before PSG and in the early morning after PSG. Subjects (N=80) were divided into control (n=32, apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]<1) and OSAS (n=48, AHI > or =1) groups; the OSAS group was subdivided into mild (1< or = AHI < 5) and moderate to severe (AHI > or =5) groups. Although salivary cortisol before PSG (n-sCor) did not show a significant change with OSAS severity, salivary cortisol after PSG (m-sCor) significantly decreased with OSAS severity. This decrease resulted in a salivary cortisol ratio (r-sCor) that was significantly different between the control group and the two OSAS subgroups. The m-sCor and sub-sCor of the total group as well as the m-sCor, sub-sCor, and r-sCor of the OSAS group were negatively related to the oxygen desaturation index (ODI). The m-sCor and r-sCor in the OSAS group also were related to subjective sleep symptoms (quality of life [QOL] by KOSA-18). Among the four salivary cortisol parameters, r-sCor was negatively associated with OSAS severity, ODI, and QOL (KOSA-18), which may indicate a chronically stressed HPA axis. These results demonstrate that salivary cortisol may be a useful biomarker of OSAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cortisol and finfish welfare.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tim; Yildiz, Hijran Yavuzcan; López-Olmeda, Jose; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tort, Lluis; Øverli, Øyvind; Martins, Catarina I M

    2012-02-01

    Previous reviews of stress, and the stress hormone cortisol, in fish have focussed on physiology, due to interest in impacts on aquaculture production. Here, we discuss cortisol in relation to fish welfare. Cortisol is a readily measured component of the primary (neuroendocrine) stress response and is relevant to fish welfare as it affects physiological and brain functions and modifies behaviour. However, we argue that cortisol has little value if welfare is viewed purely from a functional (or behavioural) perspective-the cortisol response itself is a natural, adaptive response and is not predictive of coping as downstream impacts on function and behaviour are dose-, time- and context-dependent and not predictable. Nevertheless, we argue that welfare should be considered in terms of mental health and feelings, and that stress in relation to welfare should be viewed as psychological, rather than physiological. We contend that cortisol can be used (with caution) as a tractable indicator of how fish perceive (and feel about) their environment, psychological stress and feelings in fish. Cortisol responses are directly triggered by the brain and fish studies do indicate cortisol responses to psychological stressors, i.e., those with no direct physicochemical action. We discuss the practicalities of using cortisol to ask the fish themselves how they feel about husbandry practices and the culture environment. Single time point measurements of cortisol are of little value in assessing the stress level of fish as studies need to account for diurnal and seasonal variations, and environmental and genetic factors. Areas in need of greater clarity for the use of cortisol as an indicator of fish feelings are the separation of (physiological) stress from (psychological) distress, the separation of chronic stress from acclimation, and the interactions between feelings, cortisol, mood and behaviour.

  1. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods for the Determination of Salivary Cortisol Levels in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta), Cynomolgus Macaques (Macaca fascicularis), and African Green Monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops).

    PubMed

    Rapp-Santos, Kamala J; Altamura, Louis A; Norris, Sarah L; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Rico, Pedro J; Hofer, Christian C

    2017-03-01

    The ability to quickly and accurately determine cortisol as a biomarker for stress is a valuable tool in assessing the wellbeing of NHP. In this study, 2 methods of collecting saliva (a commercial collection device and passive drool) and the resulting free salivary cortisol levels were compared with total serum cortisol concentration in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops) at 2 collection time points. Serum and salivary cortisol levels were determined using a competitive quantitative ELISA. In addition, both saliva collection methods were evaluated for volume collected and ease of use. Compared with passive drool, the experimental collection device was more reliable in collecting sufficient volumes of saliva, and the resulting salivary cortisol values demonstrated stronger correlation with serum cortisol concentration in all species and collection days except cynomolgus macaques on day 1. This saliva collection device allows quick and reliable sample collection for the determination of salivary cortisol levels. In addition, the results might provide a useful tool for evaluating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity or the physiologic stress reaction in NHP as well as a biomarker of psychologic stress states in a variety of situations.

  2. Fecal cortisol metabolite levels in free-ranging North American red squirrels: Assay validation and the effects of reproductive condition.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; McAdam, Andrew G; Palme, Rupert; Fletcher, Quinn E; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Boonstra, Rudy

    2010-06-01

    Patterns in stress hormone (glucocorticoid: GC) levels and their relationship to reproductive condition in natural populations are rarely investigated. In this study, we (1) validate an enzyme-immunoassay to measure fecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) levels in North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and (2) examine relationships between FCM levels and reproductive condition in a free-ranging red squirrel population. Injected radiolabeled cortisol was entirely metabolized and excreted in both the urine (mean+/-SE; 70.3+/-0.02%) and feces (29.7+/-0.02%), with a lag time to peak excretion in the feces of 10.9+/-2.3h. Our antibody reacted with several cortisol metabolites, and an adrenocorticotropic injection significantly increased FCM levels above baseline levels at 8h post-injection. Relative to baseline levels, manipulation by handling also tended to increase FCM levels at 8h post-manipulation, but this difference was not significant. FCM levels did not differ significantly between samples frozen immediately and 5h after collection. Reproductive condition significantly affected FCM levels in free-ranging females (pregnant>lactating>post-lactating>non-breeding) but not males (scrotal testes vs. abdominal testes). Among females with known parturition dates, FCM levels increased during gestation, peaked at parturition, and declined during lactation. The difference between pregnant and lactating females was therefore dependent upon when the fecal samples were obtained during these periods, suggesting caution in categorizing reproductive stages. This study demonstrates the utility of fecal hormone metabolite assays to document patterns of glucocorticoid levels in free-ranging animals.

  3. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM.

  4. Serum levels of copeptin, C-reactive protein and cortisol in different severity groups of sickle cell anaemia.

    PubMed

    Akinlade, K S; Atere, A D; Rahamon, S K; Olaniyi, J A

    2013-12-20

    It is well known that individuals with SCA undergo constant physiological stress even, in steady state. However, there is little information on the relationship between the severity of sickle cell anaemia (SCA) and serum levels of biomarkers of stress. This study therefore determined the serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP in adults with SCA in different severity groups. Sixty adults with sickle cell anaemia in steady state (27.1±6.3 years) and in vaso-occlusive crisis (24.9±4.9 years) were recruited into this cross-sectional study. Degree of severity (mild, moderate or severe) was determined using a scoring system incorporating annual number of blood transfusions, crisis and presence of anaemia, vaso-occlusive pain and organ complications. Standard methods were used for the determination of packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), blood pressure measurements and anthropometric indices. Serum levels of copeptin, cortisol and CRP were determined using ELISA with the ratios calculated accordingly. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using the Student's t-test, Mann Whitney U and Chi-square test as appropriate. P<0.05 was considered significant. The mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) and copeptin level were significantly higher in subjects with moderate SCA compared with those with mild SCA. Similarly SBP, pulse, WBC, copeptin and cortisol were significantly higher while body weight was significantly lower in subjects with severe SCA compared with subjects with mild SCA. However, WBC and cortisol-to-copeptin ratio were significantly higher in subjects with severe SCA compared with subjects with moderate SCA. There was progressive rise in serum levels of CRP from mild SCA through severe SCA but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, proportions of subjects with elevated SBP and WBC were higher than the proportion of subjects with lower SBP and WBC in the severe SCA group. Serum levels of cortisol, copeptin, and

  5. [Changes in kidney function and the cortisol and ADH levels after peritoneal dialysis with 5% glucose in dogs].

    PubMed

    Nachev, N; Bratanova, Ts; Pavlov, D

    1975-01-01

    The authors made peritoneal dialisis with 5% of glucose (7 ml/kg of body weight) in 11 dogs under the conditions of an acute experiments. They examined cortiosl and ADH activity, hematocrite and plasma protein in the samples of blood, obtained on the 20th and 50th minute. ADH was titrated biologicaly by a new method, proposed by Nacev. The results were compared with the changes in the circulatory and renal indices, obtained at the same procedure in the preceding investigations. There was an increase in the cortisol and ADH activity, which could be explained by the total hypovolemia, induced by peritoneal dialisis. The increase of the cortisol level is described as a separate link in a more complex mechanism, assuring metabolic homeostasis.

  6. The effect of shift rotation on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Hegney, Desley; O'Brien, Anthony; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2011-03-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythm, especially working night duty together with irregular sleep patterns, sleep deprivation, and fatigue, creates an occupational health risk associated with diminished vigilance and work performance. This study reviewed the effect of shift rotations on employee cortisol profile, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention level. Researchers conducted a systematic review of relevant articles published between 1996 and 2008 that were listed on the following databases: SCOPUS, OVID, Blackwell Science, EBSCO Host, PsycINFO, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and CEPS. A total of 28 articles were included in the review. Previous research into the effects of shift work on cortisol profiles, sleep quality, fatigue, and attention used data assessed at evidence Levels II to IV. Our systematic review confirmed a conflict between sleep-wake cycle and light-dark cycle in night work. Consequences of circadian rhythm disturbance include disruption of sleep, decreased vigilance, general feeling of malaise, and decreased mental efficiency. Shift workers who sleep during the day (day sleepers) experience cortisol secretion increases, which diminish the healing power of sleep and enjoy 1 to 4 hours less sleep on average than night sleepers. Sleep debt accumulation results in chronic fatigue. Prolonged fatigue and inadequate recovery result in decreased work performance and more incidents. Rotation from day shift to night shift and its effect on shift workers was a special focus of the articles retained for review. Disturbed circadian rhythm in humans has been associated with a variety of mental and physical disorders and may negatively impact on work safety, performance, and productivity.

  7. Blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss.

    PubMed

    Koomkrong, Nunyarat; Boonkaewwan, Chaiwat; Laenoi, Watchara; Kayan, Autchara

    2017-06-26

    An experiment was conducted to study the blood haematology, muscle pH and serum cortisol changes in pigs with different levels of drip loss. Two groups (low and high) of 20 animals were selected from 100 pigs based on drip loss. All [Duroc × (Large White × Landrace)] pigs were slaughtered according to standard slaughtering procedures. At exsanguinations, blood samples were taken for the haematological parameters and serum cortisol analysis. The muscle samples were taken from longissimus dorsi muscle to evaluate the muscle pH and drip loss. Haematological parameters of low drip loss group showed higher content of white blood cells and monocytes than high drip loss group (p<0.05). The low drip loss group was higher muscle pH at 45 min (p<0.05) and 24 h (p<0.001) post-mortem than the high drip loss group. However, there was no significant difference in serum cortisol levels (p>0.05). Drip loss is mainly affected by the muscle pH decline after slaughter and might be affected on white blood cells and monocytes.

  8. Salivary cortisol and IgA levels in patients with myofascial pain treated with occlusal appliances in the short term.

    PubMed

    Doepel, M; Söderling, E; Ekberg, E L; Nilner, M; Le Bell, Y

    2009-03-01

    In many studies, the endocrinological response of individuals to different kinds of stresses has been tested. There seems to be widespread agreement that stress, depression, disability and dysfunctional illness behaviors are critical aspects of patients suffering from symptoms like pain, arising out of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). We aimed to explore treatment-induced changes in salivary cortisol, IgA and flow rate values in TMD patients suffering from myofascial pain. Temporomandibular disorders patients (n = 39) were randomized into two groups and treated with two different occlusal appliances. Perceived stress regarding family, work, economy, relationships, general health and stress in general was evaluated at baseline according to a verbal scale. Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were collected before treatment and during follow-up at 6 and 10 weeks. Flow rate was measured immediately after the saliva collection while salivary cortisol and IgA were determined from samples stored at -70 degrees C. No clear association between reported stress and cortisol or IgA values could be observed at baseline. At 10 weeks follow-up, 92% of the patients felt 'better, much better, symptom-free' and no difference was found between the two appliance groups. Cortisol, IgA and flow rate values showed no systematic between appliance groups' differences. All salivary parameters showed interindividual differences but stayed intra-individually on a similar level throughout the study and no statistically significant changes could be observed when comparing before and after treatment levels. To conclude, there were no treatment-induced changes in saliva parameters despite successful appliance therapy in myofascial pain patients.

  9. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  10. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  11. Classroom Emotional Support Predicts Differences in Preschool Children's Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Bridget E.; Hestenes, Linda L.; Kintner-Duffy, Victoria L.; O'Brien, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests children enrolled in full-time child care often display afternoon elevations of the hormone cortisol, which is an indicator of stress. Recent advances in immunoassays allow for measurement of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the autonomic sympathetic nervous system from saliva, and measurement…

  12. What Does Their Saliva Say? Salivary Cortisol Levels in Children Exposed to Severe Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Schneider, Marissa

    2009-01-01

    Stress is an unavoidable aspect of the human experience. When the brain interprets a situation as stressful, it triggers the release of a hormone called cortisol that acts as a catalyst of the body's "fight or flight" response system. In small amounts this hormone can provide the body with the necessary tools to escape a stressful situation.…

  13. Effectiveness of Exercise- and Cognitive-Based Treatments on Salivary Cortisol Levels and Sundowning Syndrome Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Massimo; Sollima, Alessio; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Bisconti, Angela V; Brasioli, Anna; Muti, Ettore; Esposito, Fabio

    2016-07-14

    Sundowning syndrome (SDS) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the intensification of behavioral disorders at sunset. Despite SDS etiology being unclear, a strong relationship between high cortisol levels and SDS has been reported. Aerobic exercise (AE) and cognitive training (CT) can reduce cortisol levels. However, whether SDS would benefit from AE and CT is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether AE and CT treatments are effective in reducing SDS via downregulation of cortisol levels. The possible additive effects of combined AE+CT were also assessed. Eighty AD patients were randomly assigned to AE (n = 20), CT (n = 20), AE+CT (n = 20), and standard therapy (no treatment, NT; n = 20). Treatments were administered for 3 months, 5 days/week, 1 hour before sunset. Before and after treatments, salivary cortisol levels were sampled at 7, 11, 15, at sunset, and 20 (time of day). Blind assessment of behavioral disorders (neuropsychiatric inventory, NPI) and agitation (agitated behavior scale, ABS) were also performed. After interventions, cortisol levels were reduced in AE and AE+CT by ∼26%. In the same groups, NPI and ABS decreased by ∼50%. By contrast, cortisol and behavioral disorders were similar to baseline in CT and NT. Changes in NPI and ABS were significantly correlated with the reduction in cortisol levels. AE or AE+CT effects on SDS and cortisol levels and the lack of effect of CT alone indicate the effectiveness of an exercise-based treatment on SDS, suggesting a possible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation underpinning SDS.

  14. Social correlates of the dominance rank and long-term cortisol levels in adolescent and adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Wu, Xujun; Morrill, Ryan J.; Li, Zhifei; Li, Chunlu; Yang, Shangchuan; Li, Zhaoxia; Cui, Ding; Lv, Longbao; Hu, Zhengfei; Zhang, Bo; Yin, Yong; Guo, Liyun; Qin, Dongdong; Hu, Xintian

    2016-01-01

    A common pattern in dominance hierarchies is that some ranks result in higher levels of psychosocial stress than others. Such stress can lead to negative health outcomes, possibly through altered levels of stress hormones. The dominance rank-stress physiology relationship is known to vary between species; sometimes dominants show higher levels of glucocorticoid stress hormones, whereas in other cases subordinates show higher levels. It is less clear how this relationship varies between groups of different ages or cultures. In this study, we used long-term cortisol measurement methods to compare the effect of rank on cortisol levels in adult and adolescent male rhesus macaques. In the adult groups, subordinates had significantly higher cortisol levels. In the adolescents, no significant correlation between cortisol and status was found. Further analysis demonstrated that the adult hierarchy was stricter than that of the adolescents. Adult subordinates received extreme aggression more frequently than dominants, and this class of behavior was positively correlated with cortisol; by contrast, adolescents showed neither trend. Together, these findings provide evidence for a cortisol-rank relationship determined by social factors, namely, despotism of the group, and highlight the importance of group-specific social analysis when comparing or combining results obtained from different groups of animals. PMID:27145729

  15. Examination of associations between chaos in the home environment, serum cortisol level, and dietary fat intake among parents of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Laura M; Darlington, Gerarda; Haines, Jess; Ma, David W L

    2017-07-01

    This research investigated associations between home-environment chaos, fat intake, and morning serum cortisol level in 44 parents of preschool-age children. Chaos was measured using the Confusion, Hubbub, and Order Scale, and fat intake was quantified using the Block fat screener. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that chaos and cortisol were both associated with fat intake ([Formula: see text] = 0.53, p = 0.001; [Formula: see text] = 0.03, p = 0.0002), and there was a nonsignificant association between chaos and cortisol.

  16. [Effect of a major gene in inheritance of the cortisol level in the peripheral blood of a domesticable population of foxes (Vulpes vulpes)].

    PubMed

    Vasil'eva, L L; Chepkasov, I L; Os'kina, I N

    1991-11-01

    Domestication of animals is known to be associated with hereditary changes in the pituitary-adrenal system which regulates most important stages of ontogenesis. Cortisol is one of the basic indices of activity of this system. A segregation analysis of inheritance of cortisol content in blood of domestic silver fox population was undertaken. The results of the analysis point to an effect of a major gene controlling this quantitative trait, and indicate that breeding for domestic behaviour is accompanied by selection of individuals homozygous with respect to recessive genes controlling the cortisol level.

  17. Clinical significance of serum cortisol levels following surgery for congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Teagarden, Alicia M; Mastropietro, Christopher W

    2017-03-01

    Use of hydrocortisone to treat refractory haemodynamic instability in patients recovering from surgery for congenital heart disease is common practice at many centres. We aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between total serum cortisol concentrations and haemodynamic response to this therapy. Material and methods We retrospectively reviewed patients <21 years who underwent cardiac surgery from 2011 to 2013, received hydrocortisone within 72 hours postoperatively, and had total serum cortisol measurements contemporaneous with its administration. Favourable responders were defined as patients in whom, at 24 hours after hydrocortisone initiation, either (1) systolic blood pressure was increased or unchanged and vasoactive-inotrope score was decreased or (2) systolic blood pressure increased by ⩾10% of baseline and vasoactive-inotrope score was unchanged. Variables were compared using t-tests or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate. In total, 24 patients were reviewed, with a median age of 1.4 months and range of 0.1-232 months. Among them, 14 (58%) patients responded favourably to hydrocortisone. At 24 hours, the median change in vasoactive-inotrope score was -18% in favourable responders and +31% in those who did not respond favourably, p=0.001. The mean pre-hydrocortisone total serum cortisol in favourable responders was 17.4±10.9 µg/dl compared with 46.1±44.7 µg/dl in those who did not respond favourably, p=0.03. Total serum cortisol obtained before initiation of hydrocortisone was significantly lower in patients who responded favourably to this therapy. Total serum cortisol may therefore be helpful in identifying children recovering from cardiac surgery who may or may not haemodynamically improve with hydrocortisone.

  18. Effects of prolonged intensive training on the resting levels of salivary immunoglobulin A and cortisol in adolescent volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Li, T L; Lin, H C; Ko, M H; Chang, C K; Fang, S H

    2012-10-01

    Concerns have been raised regarding the effects of prolonged intensive training on adolescent athletes. This study investigated the differences in mucosal immune functions and stress responses between intensively trained male adolescent volleyball players and age-matched sedentary controls. Twelve male volleyball players (16.5 [0.7] years of age) and sixteen healthy sedentary male volunteers (17.1 [0.6] years of age) participated in this study. Volleyball players were engaged in regular and year-round training. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from volleyball players during the high-intensity training period and from the counterparts at the same timepoints after at least 18 hours of rest. Concentrations of salivary total protein, secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), cortisol, and lactoferrin were measured. Results of this study revealed that the SIgA concentrations and the ratio of SIgA/total protein in volleyball players were significantly lower compared with those in sedentary controls. However, the salivary cortisol concentrations and the ratio of cortisol/total protein in volleyball players were markedly higher compared with those in sedentary controls. No significant difference was observed in lactoferrin levels between volleyball players and sedentary controls. The findings of this study suggest that the prolonged intensive training may elicit a sustained stress and induce a suppressive effect on mucosal immunity in regularly and intensively trained adolescent athletes.

  19. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    PubMed

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women.

  20. The onset of cortisol synthesis and the stress response is independent of changes in CYP11B or CYP21 mRNA levels in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Scott L; Wilson, C Alexander; Holt, G Joan; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-01-15

    Although cortisol plays an important role in teleost development, the onset of cortisol production and the cortisol stress response in teleosts remain poorly understood. Here we have reported basal cortisol levels and the development of the cortisol stress response in larval red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). We isolated partial nucleic acid sequences encoding two key corticosteroidogenic enzymes, CYP11B and CYP21 and assessed ontogenetic patterns of their mRNA levels relative to basal and stress-induced cortisol production. Basal cortisol was first detected 3 days post-hatch (DPH) and reached a maximum at 9 DPH. Cortisol did not increase in response to an acute stressor prior to 6 DPH. From 6 DPH forward, stress caused significant increases in larval cortisol content. Stress-induced cortisol levels in 6-9 DPH larvae were highest 1h post-stress. In larvae 11 DPH and older, the highest cortisol measurements occurred 0.5h post-stress. Elevated cortisol was still evident after 3h in 6 DPH larvae. From 11 DPH onward, basal cortisol levels were reestablished in larvae by 1h post-stress. CYP11B and CYP21 transcripts were detected in red drum 12h prior to hatching and in all post-hatch larvae examined. Changes in CYP11B and CYP21 mRNA levels did not occur in association with the ontogenetic appearance of cortisol, or the onset of the stress response. As larvae developed, the dynamics of the cortisol stress response matured from a low magnitude, slow recovery response, to a response similar to that observed in juvenile and adult fish.

  1. Cortisol Levels in Relation to Maternal Interaction and Child Internalizing Behavior in Preterm and Full-Term Children at 18 Months Corrected Age

    PubMed Central

    Brummelte, Susanne; Grunau, Ruth E.; Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Weinberg, Joanne; Nordstokke, David; Cepeda, Ivan L.

    2011-01-01

    Cortisol levels were compared in children born preterm at extremely low gestational age (ELGA; 24–28 weeks), very low gestational age (VLGA; 29–32 weeks), and full-term in response to cognitive assessment at 18 months corrected age (CA). Further, we investigated the relationship between maternal interactive behaviors and child internalizing behaviors (rated by the mother) in relation to child cortisol levels. ELGA children had higher “pretest” cortisol levels and a different pattern of cortisol response to cognitive assessment compared to VLGA and full-terms. Higher cortisol levels in ELGA, but not full-term, children were associated with less optimal mother interactive behavior. Moreover, the pattern of cortisol change was related to internalizing behaviors among ELGA, and to a lesser degree VLGA children. In conclusion, our findings suggest altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in preterm children, as well as their greater sensitivity to environmental context such as maternal interactive behavior. PMID:21298633

  2. Prolonged fasting and cortisol reduce myostatin mRNA levels in tilapia larvae; short-term fasting elevates.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Buel D; Weber, Gregory M; Kelley, Kevin M; Levine, Michael A

    2003-05-01

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indexes in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA levels were unaffected. By contrast, larval myostatin mRNA levels were sometimes elevated after a short-term fast and were consistently reduced with prolonged fasting. These effects were specific for myostatin, as mRNA levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphatase were unchanged. Cortisol levels were elevated in fasted larvae with reduced myostatin mRNA, whereas in addition immersion of larvae in 1 ppm (2.8 microM) cortisol reduced myostatin mRNA in a time-dependent fashion. These results suggest that larval myostatin mRNA levels may initially rise but ultimately fall during a prolonged fast. The reduction is likely mediated by fasting-induced hypercortisolemia, indicating divergent evolutionary mechanisms of glucocorticoid regulation of myostatin mRNA, since these steroids upregulate myostatin gene expression in mammals.

  3. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Outgroup Threat and Opportunity to Derogate on Salivary Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sampasivam, Sinthujaa; Collins, Katherine Anne; Bielajew, Catherine; Clément, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of intergroup threat have been related to both experiences of physiological stress responses and derogation of the outgroup. In this study, a neuroscience perspective was used to investigate the relationship between stress and opportunity to derogate the outgroup, in a threatening intergroup context. Research from a social identity perspective suggests that engaging in outgroup derogation alleviates stress when perceiving an intergroup threat. However, in line with the model of intergroup anxiety, opportunity to derogate could exacerbate the negative connotations of a threatening situation, resulting in more stress. Canadian participants (N = 110) were exposed to text describing either discriminatory or favorable comments expressed by Chinese individuals towards Canadians. Half of the participants were given the opportunity to derogate via a bias task. Salivary cortisol was used as a measure of stress and was collected at baseline, post-threat, and post-derogation. As expected, threatening identity led to more stress as evidenced by increased cortisol concentrations. Furthermore, threatened participants who had an opportunity to derogate showed greater cortisol concentrations than those who did not. These results demonstrate a link between stress and the opportunity to derogate, and highlights the value of using biological markers within the intergroup context. Rewrite abstract to remove all the references (they are meaningless because the abstracting services will use the abstract as is but will not provide the references so their presence is useless. PMID:27338433

  5. The DeStress for Success Program: effects of a stress education program on cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school.

    PubMed

    Lupien, S J; Ouellet-Morin, I; Trépanier, L; Juster, R P; Marin, M F; Francois, N; Sindi, S; Wan, N; Findlay, H; Durand, N; Cooper, L; Schramek, T; Andrews, J; Corbo, V; Dedovic, K; Lai, B; Plusquellec, P

    2013-09-26

    Various studies have shown that increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can predict the onset of adolescent depressive symptomatology. We have previously shown that adolescents making the transition to high school present a significant increase in cortisol levels, the main product of HPA axis activation. In the present study, we evaluated whether a school-based education program developed according to the current state of knowledge on stress in psychoneuroendocrinology decreases cortisol levels and/or depressive symptoms in adolescents making the transition to high school. Participants were 504 Year 7 high school students from two private schools in the Montreal area. Adolescents of one school were exposed to the DeStress for Success Program while adolescents from the other school served as controls. Salivary cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology were measured before, immediately after as well as 3 months after exposure to the program. Measures of negative mood were obtained at baseline in order to determine whether adolescents starting high school with specific negative moods were differentially responsive to the program. The results show that only adolescents starting high school with high levels of anger responded to the intervention with a significant decrease in cortisol levels. Moreover, we found that adolescents who took part in the intervention and showed decreasing cortisol levels following the intervention (responders) were 2.45 times less at risk to suffer from clinical and subclinical depressive states three months post-intervention in comparison to adolescents who showed increasing cortisol levels following the intervention (nonresponders). This study provides the first evidence that a school-based program on stress is effective at decreasing cortisol levels and depressive symptomatology in adolescents making the transition to high school and it helps explain which adolescents are sensitive to the program and what

  6. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity.

  7. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    PubMed

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life: an ambulatory assessment study in remitted depressed patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Huffziger, Silke; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Zamoscik, Vera; Reinhard, Iris; Kirsch, Peter; Kuehner, Christine

    2013-10-01

    The influence of naturally occurring emotional and cognitive experiences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) activity is still underinvestigated, particularly in clinical populations. The present study examined effects of mood and rumination on cortisol levels in daily life in remitted depressed patients with recurrent episodes or a chronic precourse (n=31) and healthy controls (n=32). Ambulatory assessment of subjective variables (valence, calmness, energetic-arousal, ruminative self-focus), daily stressors, and saliva cortisol samples was performed five times a day on two consecutive workdays, whereby cortisol was collected 20min after the subjective assessments. In addition, depressive symptoms and trait rumination (brooding, reflection) were measured retrospectively. Multilevel models revealed that remitted depressed patients showed lower cortisol activity compared to healthy controls. Depressive symptoms and trait rumination did not predict HPAA activity, whereas, by controlling for daily stressors, higher daily means of ruminative self-focus and lower daily means of valence, energetic arousal and calmness were associated with higher daily cortisol levels. Separate analyses per group revealed that mean daily ruminative self-focus predicted higher cortisol in both samples. In contrast, lower daily means of calmness, but also of valence and energetic arousal, were significantly linked to higher cortisol output only in healthy controls, but not in the patient sample. These findings indicate that naturally occurring rumination and low mood are associated with increased activation of the HPAA in daily life. Moreover, our data revealed a potentially reduced mood-cortisol coupling in remitted recurrent depression, possibly indicating that during the course of recurrent depression HPAA activation might become less responsive toward subtle emotional experiences in natural contexts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of salivary cortisol levels and later depressive state in elderly people living in a rural community: a 3-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Nabeta, Hiromi; Mizoguchi, Yoshito; Matsushima, Jun; Imamura, Yoshiomi; Watanabe, Itaru; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Kojima, Naoki; Kawashima, Toshiro; Yamada, Shigeto; Monji, Akira

    2014-04-01

    Late-life depressive disorder is becoming an important issue in health economics in the world, as it has been reported to be one of major risk factors for incidence of dementia. Identification of predictive markers associated with depression in later life is therefore of high priority in public health. The aim of the study was to examine the association of salivary cortisol levels with a later depressive state in elderly healthy people living in a rural Japan community. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 68 elderly healthy people (24 men; 44 women) followed by completion of the BDI, MMSE, and FAB from 2004 to 2006. The same cohort underwent BDI again from 2007 to 2009. In healthy elderly women subject, a significant positive correlation was found between salivary cortisol levels at baseline and BDI scores at follow-up, but not at baseline. Salivary cortisol levels at baseline were not correlated with the score of either MMSE or FAB. When the cut-off point of BDI scores were set at 20/21, logistic regression analyses revealed that salivary cortisol levels at baseline had a significant positive relationship with a later depressive state. Age and gender were also significantly related with a later depressive state. The present study involves small number of participants. Higher salivary cortisol levels were associated with a later depressive state in elderly healthy women living in rural community. Salivary cortisol might be a predictive marker for a later depressive state in elderly women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Levels of Cortisol and Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage in Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse with or without Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Tuğba; Kaplan, İbrahim; Uysal, Cem; Aktaş, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether cortisol and oxidative stress levels and DNA damage differ between individuals who developed PTSD or not following a sexual trauma. Methods The study included 61 children aged between 5 and 17 years who sustained sexual abuse (M/F: 18/43). The patients were divided into two groups: patients with PTSD and patients without PTSD based, based on the results of a structured psychiatric interview (K-SADS-PL and CAPS-CA). Cortisol, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), coenzyme Q, 8-Hydroxy-2-Deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were all evaluated by the ELISA method. Results Our evaluation revealed a diagnosis of PTSD in 51% (n=31) of victims. There was no significant difference between the groups with or without PTSD in terms of cortisol, GPx, SOD, coenzyme Q, and 8-OHdG levels. There was no correlation between CAPS scores and GPx, SOD, coenzyme Q, and 8-OHdG levels between patients with or without PTSD. In patients with PTSD, both cortisol and 8-OHdG levels decreased with increasing time after trauma, and there was no significant correlation with cortisol and 8-OHdG levels in patients without PTSD. Conclusion Although the present study did not find any difference between the groups in terms of 8-OHdG concentrations, the decreases in both cortisol and 8-OHdG levels with increasing time after trauma is considered to indicate a relationship between cortisol and DNA damage. PMID:27909452

  11. Cognitive-behavioral therapy augmentation of SSRI reduces cortisol levels in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rosnick, Christopher B; Wetherell, Julie L; White, Kamila S; Andreescu, Carmen; Dixon, David; Lenze, Eric J

    2016-04-01

    Elevated cortisol in stress and aging, such as has been seen in late-life anxiety disorders, is postulated to accelerate cognitive and physiological decline in this large and increasing population. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) are both effective treatments for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. On the other hand, there is very little research examining the effect of combining these therapies on peak cortisol levels. For the current analyses, we examined the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels in older adults diagnosed with GAD. The sample consisted of 42 individuals with late-life GAD who received an acute course of the SSRI escitalopram and then entered a 16-week randomized phase. Twenty-one participants were randomized to receive 16 sessions of CBT in addition to continuing escitalopram and the remaining 21 participants continued on escitalopram without CBT. Generalized estimating equations were performed to assess the effectiveness of CBT augmentation on peak cortisol levels (30 min after waking). Older adults with GAD who received both escitalopram and CBT demonstrated a significant reduction in peak cortisol levels at posttreatment compared to the group who received escitalopram without CBT augmentation. CBT augmentation of SSRI treatment reduced peak cortisol levels for older adults with GAD. Since persistently high cortisol levels in aging are thought to increase age-related cognitive and medical problems, our findings suggest that there may be a benefit to health and cognition of CBT augmentation for late-life anxiety disorders. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Effects of Chronic Active Cannabis Use on Visuomotor Integration, in Relation to Brain Activation and Cortisol Levels

    PubMed Central

    King, G.R.; Ernst, T.; Deng, W.; Stenger, A.; Gonzales, R.M.K; Nakama, H.; Chang, L.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. 30 cannabis users (16 men and 14 women, 18 to 45 years old) and 30 non-drug user controls (16 men and 14 women, 19 to 44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and functional MRI (fMRI), using a 3 Tesla scanner, during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in the male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. These brain activities may be attenuated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

  13. The effect of energy drinks on cortisol levels, cognition and mood during a fire-fighting exercise.

    PubMed

    Sünram-Lea, Sandra I; Owen-Lynch, Jane; Robinson, Sarita J; Jones, Emma; Hu, Henglong

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress has been associated with changes in cognitive performance and mood, and these have been in part associated with stress-related increased release of cortisol. Both glucose and caffeine consumed in isolation have been shown to moderate cortisol response and affect cognitive performance and affect mood; however, there has been very little research into their behavioural and physiological effects when taken in combination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the two substances in combination under stressful and physically demanding conditions (fire-fighting training) on cognition, mood and cortisol release. Using a double-blind, mixed measures design, 81 participants were administered a 330-ml drink containing either (1) 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine, (2) 10.25 g of fructose/glucose and 80 mg caffeine or a placebo drink and tested across a range of cognitive tasks, mood and physiological measures. The results showed an increase in grip strength and improved memory performance after ingestion of the drink containing 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine, and both active drinks resulted in improved performance on the information-processing task compared to the placebo. In terms of mood effects, the drink containing 50 g glucose and 40 mg caffeine led to a reduction in anxiety and significantly reduced self-reported levels of stress following the fire-fighter training. Based on the results of this study, in situations of stress combined with physical performance, administration of an energy drink containing glucose and caffeine might be an easy to implement and cost effective way to maintain mental performance levels and to ameliorate the negative effects of stress on mood.

  14. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. Results ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. Conclusions In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated

  15. High-end normal adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels are associated with specific cardiovascular risk factors in pediatric obesity: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Prodam, Flavia; Ricotti, Roberta; Agarla, Valentina; Parlamento, Silvia; Genoni, Giulia; Balossini, Caterina; Walker, Gillian Elisabeth; Aimaretti, Gianluca; Bona, Gianni; Bellone, Simonetta

    2013-02-20

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and in particular cortisol, has been reported to be involved in obesity-associated metabolic disturbances in adults and in selected populations of adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between morning adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight or obese Caucasian children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study of 450 obese children and adolescents (aged 4 to 18 years) was performed in a tertiary referral center. ACTH, cortisol, cardiovascular risk factors (fasting and post-challenge glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, and hypertension) and insulin resistance were evaluated. All analyses were corrected for confounding factors (sex, age, puberty, body mass index), and odds ratios were determined. ACTH and cortisol levels were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting glucose and insulin resistance. Cortisol, but not ACTH, was also positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. When adjusted for confounding factors, an association between ACTH and 2 h post-oral glucose tolerance test glucose was revealed. After stratification according to cardiovascular risk factors and adjustment for possible confounding factors, ACTH levels were significantly higher in subjects with triglycerides ≥90th percentile (P <0.02) and impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance (P <0.001). Higher cortisol levels were found in subjects with blood pressure ≥95th percentile and LDL-cholesterol ≥90th percentile. Overall, the highest tertiles of ACTH (>5.92 pmol/l) and cortisol (>383.5 nmol/l) although within the normal range were associated with increases in cardiovascular risk factors in this population. In obese children and adolescents, high morning ACTH and cortisol levels are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. High

  16. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.

  17. Free cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase levels during a six-hour-water immersion in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohleder, N.; Wirth, D.; Fraßl, W.; Kowoll, R.; Schlemmer, M.; Vogler, S.; Kirsch, K. A.; Kirschbaum, C.; Gunga, H.-C.

    2005-08-01

    Limited data are available on the response of stress systems to microgravity. Increased activity of stress systems is reported during space flight, but unchanged or decreased activity during simulated microgravity. We here investigated the impact of head-out water immersion on the activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system.Eight healthy young men were exposed to a six-hour water immersion in a thermo neutral bath and a control condition. Saliva samples were taken before, during, and after interventions to assess cortisol as an index for HPA axis activity, and salivary α-amylase as an index for SAM system activity.Cortisol levels uniformly decreased during both conditions. Amylase levels increased during both conditions, but were significantly lower during the first half of water immersion compared to the control condition.In conclusion, the HPA axis is not influenced by simulated microgravity, while SAM system activity shows initial decreases during water immersion.

  18. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans.

    PubMed

    Houtepen, Lotte C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Creyghton, Menno P; Kahn, René S; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B; Boks, Marco P M

    2016-03-21

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10(-6)). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability.

  20. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress

    PubMed Central

    Saliba, Flávia G.; Adiwardana, Natanael S.; Uehara, Eliane U.; Silvestre, Renata N.; Leite, Victor V.; Faleiros, Francisca T.V.; Padovani, Flávia H.P.; De Gobbi, Juliana I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process. PMID:27114816

  1. Salivary Cortisol Levels: The Importance of Clown Doctors to Reduce Stress.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Flávia G; Adiwardana, Natanael S; Uehara, Eliane U; Silvestre, Renata N; Leite, Victor V; Faleiros, Francisca T V; Padovani, Flávia H P; De Gobbi, Juliana I F

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed to correlate entertainment of clown-doctors (CD) activities on hospitalized children and aphysiological bio-marker. For this purpose we collected saliva samples and verified children satisfaction with these activities by using a visual analog scale (VAS). Children from 6 to 7 years-old, with diagnosis of any acute pathology, interned in the Pediatric Ward of the Botucatu Medical School Hospital (São Paulo, Brazil) were interviewed. Two groups were taken into consideration: lunchCD and dinnerCD. The following protocol was applied in each group (lunch and dinner): collection of the first saliva sample and presentation of VAS prior to CD activities, followed by collection of a second saliva sample and another VAS assessment after CD activities. The salivary cortisol was reduced in both groups comparing the first saliva sample. The satisfaction of the intervention was evident for lunchCD. The CD intervention is effective in decreasing an important physiological biomarker of stress factor, cortisol, in hospitalized children, been effective for the healing process.

  2. Genome-wide DNA methylation levels and altered cortisol stress reactivity following childhood trauma in humans

    PubMed Central

    Houtepen, Lotte C.; Vinkers, Christiaan H.; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Hiemstra, Marieke; van Lier, Pol A.; Meeus, Wim; Branje, Susan; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.; Creyghton, Menno P.; Kahn, René S.; Joëls, Marian; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Boks, Marco P. M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation likely plays a role in the regulation of human stress reactivity. Here we show that in a genome-wide analysis of blood DNA methylation in 85 healthy individuals, a locus in the Kit ligand gene (KITLG; cg27512205) showed the strongest association with cortisol stress reactivity (P=5.8 × 10−6). Replication was obtained in two independent samples using either blood (N=45, P=0.001) or buccal cells (N=255, P=0.004). KITLG methylation strongly mediates the relationship between childhood trauma and cortisol stress reactivity in the discovery sample (32% mediation). Its genomic location, a CpG island shore within an H3K27ac enhancer mark, and the correlation between methylation in the blood and prefrontal cortex provide further evidence that KITLG methylation is functionally relevant for the programming of stress reactivity in the human brain. Our results extend preclinical evidence for epigenetic regulation of stress reactivity to humans and provide leads to enhance our understanding of the neurobiological pathways underlying stress vulnerability. PMID:26997371

  3. Test performance and self-esteem in relation to experienced stress in Swedish sixth and ninth graders--saliva cortisol levels and psychological reactions to demands.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Mats; Theorell, Töres; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-04-01

    To study relations between test performance, academic self-esteem, self-reported stress and saliva cortisol levels in students exposed to test demands at school. 46 randomly selected 6th and 9th graders voluntarily participated in an experimental school test concerning reading and mathematics skills. Cortisol saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min later, before test and after test. Perceived stress was registered with a visual analogue scale (VAS). A standardized self-rating questionnaire for measuring self-esteem was administered together with questions about school stress and psychological reactions when exposed to stress during a test. Experienced stress during the school test was correlated to low test performance and to low self-rated evaluation of self-esteem as well as to an increase of saliva cortisol levels during the test. There were also correlations between certain psychological reactions to demands and different cortisol measures. Children who reported that they applied the procedure "I say to myself: I can solve this task" in a school test situation had a lower morning increase of saliva cortisol. Reported use of the procedure "I get worried and will have problems solving other tasks too"--when referring to a school test situation--was correlated to an increase in cortisol levels during the test situation. Test performance, academic self-esteem, perceived stress and reactions of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) are highly intertwined. Furthermore, certain school stress psychological reactions to performance demands seem to be related to different cortisol reactions.

  4. Maternal stress-associated cortisol stimulation may protect embryos from cortisol excess in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Faught, Erin; Best, Carol; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal embryo cortisol level causes developmental defects and poor survival in zebrafish (Danio rerio). However, no study has demonstrated that maternal stress leads to higher embryo cortisol content in zebrafish. We tested the hypothesis that maternal stress-associated elevation in cortisol levels increases embryo cortisol content in this asynchronous breeder. Zebrafish mothers were fed cortisol-spiked food for 5 days, to mimic maternal stress, followed by daily breeding for 10 days to monitor temporal embryo cortisol content. Cortisol treatment increased mean embryo yield, but the daily fecundity was variable among the groups. Embryo cortisol content was variable in both groups over a 10-day period. A transient elevation in cortisol levels was observed in the embryos from cortisol-fed mothers only on day 3, but not on subsequent days. We tested whether excess cortisol stimulates 11βHSD2 expression in ovarian follicles as a means to regulate embryo cortisol deposition. Cortisol treatment in vitro increased 11β HSD2 levels sevenfold, and this expression was regulated by actinomycin D and cycloheximide suggesting tight regulation of cortisol levels in the ovarian follicles. We hypothesize that cortisol-induced upregulation of 11βHSD2 activity in the ovarian follicles is a mechanism restricting excess cortisol incorporation into the eggs during maternal stress. PMID:26998341

  5. Calcium handling in Sparus auratus: effects of water and dietary calcium levels on mineral composition, cortisol and PTHrP levels.

    PubMed

    Abbink, Wout; Bevelander, Gideon S; Rotllant, Josep; Canario, Adelino V M; Flik, Gert

    2004-11-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus auratus L.; 10-40 g body mass) were acclimatized in the laboratory to full strength (34 per thousand) or dilute (2.5 per thousand) seawater and fed normal, calcium-sufficient or calcium-deficient diet for nine weeks. Mean growth rate, whole-body calcium and phosphorus content and accumulation rates were determined, as well as plasma levels of ionic and total calcium, cortisol and parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP; a hypercalcemic hormone in fish). When confronted with limited calcium access (low salinity and calcium-deficient diet), sea bream show growth arrest. Both plasma cortisol and PTHrP increase when calcium is limited in water or diet, and a positive relationship was found between plasma PTHrP and plasma ionic calcium (R(2)=0.29, N=18, P<0.05). Furthermore, a strong correlation was found between net calcium and phosphorus accumulation (R(2)=0.92, N=16, P<0.01) and between body mass and whole-body calcium (R(2)=0.84, N=25, P<0.01) and phosphorus (R(2)=0.88, N=24, P<0.01) content. Phosphorus accumulation is strongly calcium dependent, as phosphorus accumulation decreases in parallel to calcium accumulation when the diet is calcium deficient but phosphorus sufficient. We conclude that PTHrP and cortisol are involved in the regulation of the hydromineral balance of these fish, with growth-related calcium accumulation as an important target.

  6. The Effects of Single-Dose Etomidate Versus Propofol on Cortisol Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Urologic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi; Chen, Yi-Jun; He, Bin; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2015-12-01

    The effects of general anesthetics on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and cortisol release in children are poorly characterized. Normal, daily fluctuation of cortisol levels complicates assessment of these effects. This study aimed to characterize the effects of etomidate compared with propofol on the normal cortisol secretory pattern in children undergoing urologic surgery by using a salivary cortisol assay. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled study, we recruited 80 children aged 3 to 12 years assigned ASA physical status I who were scheduled for urologic surgery and 11 healthy child volunteers. Before surgery, cortisol levels of the 11 volunteers and 15 study patients were tested from 7:00 AM to 9:00 PM every hour for 1 day. The study patients were then randomly allocated into an etomidate group and a propofol group, receiving etomidate 0.3 mg/kg (n = 38) or propofol 2 mg/kg (n = 39) and midazolam 0.1 mg/kg, fentanyl 2 μg/kg, and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg for induction, respectively. The cortisol levels of the patients were assessed continuously for 2 days postoperatively. The cortisol levels of the etomidate group were continuously and significantly lower than those of the propofol group from the time of discharge from the postanesthesia care unit (approximately 2:00 PM) until 8:00 AM the next morning (all P < 0.0001) and were significantly lower than before surgery at the same time points (all P < 0.0001). Except at 11:00 AM just before the operation, no significant differences in cortisol levels were detected before and after the operation in the propofol group (P max = 0.476, P min = 0.002). Also, no significant differences in clinical outcomes were detected between the 2 groups undergoing surgery (all P > 0.070). Compared with propofol, a single induction dose of etomidate suppressed postoperative cortisol levels in healthy children undergoing urologic surgery. This suppression lasted approximately 24 hours and was not associated

  7. Measurement of salivary cortisol level for the diagnosis of critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Gunnala, Vishal; Guo, Rong; Minutti, Carla; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Laporte, Cynthia; Mathews, Herbert; Kliethermis, Stephanie; Bhatia, Rahul

    2015-05-01

    To compare serum total, serum free and salivary cortisol in critically ill children. Prospective observational cohort study. Tertiary pediatric critical care unit at Ronald McDonald Children's Hospital at Loyola University Medical Center. We enrolled 59 patients (4 weeks to 18 years of age) between January 2012 and May 2013. Thirty-four patients were included in the salivary to serum free cortisol correlational analysis. Blood and saliva samples were obtained simultaneously within 24 hours of admission between the hours of 6 AM and 12 PM. Salivary cortisol was tested by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, serum free cortisol by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry followed by equilibrium dialysis, and serum total cortisol by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Salivary and serum free cortisol values from 34 patients had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.93; p < 0.0001). The total serum and salivary cortisol values had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.42-0.81; p < 0.0001). The total serum and serum free cortisol values had a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.69-0.91; p < 0.0001). Serum free and salivary cortisol values correlate in critically ill children. Salivary cortisol can be used as a surrogate for serum free cortisol in critically ill pediatric patients. Salivary cortisol is a cost-effective and less invasive measure of bioavailable cortisol and offers an alternate and accurate method for assessing critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency in children.

  8. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress.

  9. Salivary Cortisol Levels and Depressive Symptomatology in Consumers and Nonconsumers of Self-Help Books: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Hand, Anne; Sindi, Shireen; Juster, Robert-Paul; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    The self-help industry generates billions of dollars yearly in North America. Despite the popularity of this movement, there has been surprisingly little research assessing the characteristics of self-help books consumers, and whether this consumption is associated with physiological and/or psychological markers of stress. The goal of this pilot study was to perform the first psychoneuroendocrine analysis of consumers of self-help books in comparison to nonconsumers. We tested diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol levels, personality, and depressive symptoms in 32 consumers and nonconsumers of self-help books. In an explorative secondary analysis, we also split consumers of self-help books as a function of their preference for problem-focused versus growth-oriented self-help books. The results showed that while consumers of growth-oriented self-help books presented increased cortisol reactivity to a psychosocial stressor compared to other groups, consumers of problem-focused self-help books presented higher depressive symptomatology. The results of this pilot study show that consumers with preference for either problem-focused or growth-oriented self-help books present different physiological and psychological markers of stress when compared to nonconsumers of self-help books. This preliminary study underlines the need for additional research on this issue in order to determine the impact the self-help book industry may have on consumers' stress. PMID:26839713

  10. Predicting emotional responses to potentially traumatic events from pre-exposure waking cortisol levels: a longitudinal study of police and firefighters.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Suzanne L; Rasmusson, Ann M; Yehuda, Rachel; Lasko, Natasha B; Macklin, Michael L; Pitman, Roger K; Orr, Scott P

    2013-01-01

    There is a large literature demonstrating that individuals who have experienced traumatic events have alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, the existing literature does not address the extent to which these alterations represent pre-existing risk factors for developing psychopathology upon exposure to a significant stressor. In the current study, we examined the relationship between waking salivary cortisol level and physiological, personality, and psychological measures in 60 firefighters and police trainees during training, and then again after exposure to a highly stressful, potentially traumatic event (PTE). Waking cortisol was negatively associated with neuroticism, but positively associated with physiological reactivity to loud tones and fear conditioning when assessed during training. Longitudinally, there were significant negative correlations between pre-PTE waking cortisol and post-PTE negative mood and anxiety symptoms, but a positive correlation (trend) between pre-PTE waking cortisol and post-PTE physiological reactivity during recollection of the PTE. Thus, waking cortisol level may serve to predict divergent types of emotional sequelae following PTEs.

  11. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Depression, Social Anxiety, Aggression, and Salivary Cortisol Levels of Elementary School Children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yang-Gyeong; Lee, Duck-Joo; Lee, In-Soo; Shin, Namin; Park, Ju-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Ra; Yu, Boas

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the effects of a school-based mind subtraction meditation program on depression, social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels of 42 elementary school children in South Korea. The research design was a nonequivalent group comparison with pretest and post-test. The experimental group was given 8weeks of the meditation program. The results showed social anxiety, aggression, and salivary cortisol levels were significantly lowered in the experimental group. This demonstrated that the school-based mind subtraction meditation program could be effective in improving psychosocial and behavioral aspects of mental health in elementary school children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex-related differences in the association of salivary cortisol levels and type 2 diabetes. Findings from the cross-sectional population based KORA-age study.

    PubMed

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Kruse, Johannes; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-07-01

    Dysregulation in the cortisol secretion may have a role in the development of type 2 diabetes although conflicting evidence on the particular cortisol secretion patterns and type 2 diabetes demands further investigations. We aim to examine the association of cortisol levels and diurnal secretion patterns with prevalence of type 2 diabetes and HbA1c levels as well as the potential impact of sex and adiposity on this association. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted among 757 participants (aged 65-90 years) of the population-based KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-Age study. Multivariate regression analyses were employed to examine the association between salivary cortisol (measured upon waking (M1), 30min after awakening (M2), and in the late night (LNSC)) and type 2 diabetes as well as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) with adjustments for potential confounders. In the total sample population, an elevated LNSC level was observed in type 2 diabetes patients compared to non-patients (P=0.04). In sex-stratified analyses, diabetic men showed a greater Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) (P=0.02). Diabetic women had significantly elevated LNSC levels (P=0.04). HbA1c was positively associated with both CAR and LNSC levels but was negatively associated with M1 to LNSC ratio. In this aged population, type 2 diabetes is associated with dysregulated cortisol secretion characterized by distinct sex specific diurnal patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inverse correlation between morning plasma cortisol levels and MMPI psychasthenia and depression scale scores in victims of mobbing with adjustment disorders.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Antonio; Martocchia, Antonio; Frugoni, Patrizia; Baldini, Rossella; Sani, Gabriele; Di Simone Di Giuseppe, Barbara; Vairano, Andrea; Girardi, Paolo; Monaco, Edoardo; Tatarelli, Roberto; Falaschi, Paolo

    2007-10-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests stress-related changes of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in mobbing. We investigated the association between HPA activity and psychological profiles in mobbing, using a multidisciplinary approach. Forty-eight victims of mobbing were evaluated by a working group of the Departments of Occupational Medicine, Psychiatry and Internal Medicine. After an informed consent, a detailed occupational history, a psychiatric interview with Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2 (MMPI-2) administration and a blood sample (8:00 AM) for the determination of basal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) plasma levels were collected. Twenty-six patients received an overnight dexamethasone (dex) test. Mean ACTH, cortisol and DHEAS levels were within normal ranges. The dex-test response was normal, with a significant hormone suppression (ACTH p<0.001, cortisol p<0.001, DHEAS p<0.001). The correlations between basal hormones and the psychometric scales of MMPI-2 revealed that cortisol was significantly and negatively related to Psychasthenia (Pt, p=0.003) and Depression (D, p=0.006), while DHEAS showed a significant negative correlation to Hysteria (Hy, p=0.008). Basal ACTH levels were not significantly related to psychometric scales. A significant inverse correlation between morning plasma cortisol levels and psychometric parameters in victims of mobbing with adjustment disorders was observed. A larger group of patients is necessary to identify and validate a cut-off cortisol level that may become an innovative biological parameter for the diagnosis and follow-up in victims of mobbing.

  14. Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.

  15. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  16. Effects of faith/assurance on cortisol levels are enhanced by a spiritual mantram intervention in adults with HIV: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Jill E.; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Wetherell, Julie L.; Roesch, Scott; Redwine, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Previous research among HIV-infected individuals suggests that spiritual well-being is inversely related to psychological distress and rates of disease progression. Use of amantram, a spiritual word or phrase repeated frequently and silently throughout the day, has been associated with decreased psychological distress and increased spiritual well-being. This study compared the effects of 2 interventions — aspiritually-based mantram intervention versus anattention-matched controlgroup — on faith/assurance and average salivary cortisol levels among HIV-infected individuals. Methods Using arandomized design, HIV-infected adults were assigned to the intervention (n=36) or control condition (n=35). Faith scores and saliva (collected at 7 a.m., 11 a.m.,4 p.m., and 9 p.m.) were assessed at preintervention, postintervention, and 5-week follow-up. Path analyses tested competing models that specify both concurrent and sequential relationships between faith and average daily cortisol levels while comparing groups. Results Faithlevels increased among mantram participants from pre- to post intervention. Greater faithat preintervention was significantly associated with lower average cortisol at postintervention in the mantram group but not in the controls. The associations between faith at postintervention and cortisol levels at 5-week follow-up were significant among both groups but weaker than the pre- to postintervention association identified in the mantram group. Conclusions These results suggest the presence of lagged or antecedent consequent relationships between faith and cortisol, which may be enhanced by mantram use. Decreased cortisol could potentially benefit immune functioning among HIV-infected individuals. PMID:19154859

  17. Yawning, fatigue, and cortisol: expanding the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Simon B N

    2014-10-01

    Yawning and its involvement in neurological disorders has become the new scientific conundrum. Cortisol levels are known to rise during stress and fatigue; yawning may occur when we are under stress or tired. However, the link between yawning, fatigue, and cortisol has not been fully understood. Expansion of the Thompson Cortisol Hypothesis proposes that the stress hormone, cortisol, is responsible for yawning and fatigue especially in people with incomplete innervation such as multiple sclerosis. This informs our understanding of the functional importance of the brain stem region of the brain in regulating stress and fatigue. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. HPA Axis Genes, and Their Interaction with Childhood Maltreatment, are Related to Cortisol Levels and Stress-Related Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gerritsen, Lotte; Milaneschi, Yuri; Vinkers, Christiaan H; van Hemert, Albert M; van Velzen, Laura; Schmaal, Lianne; Penninx, Brenda Wjh

    2017-06-07

    Stress responses are controlled by the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA)-axis and maladaptive stress responses are associated with the onset and maintenance of stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD). Genes that play a role in the HPA-axis regulation may likely contribute to the relation between relevant neurobiological substrates and stress-related disorders. Therefore, we performed gene-wide analyses for 30 a priori literature-based genes involved in HPA-axis regulation in 2014 subjects (34% male; mean age: 42.5) to study the relations with lifetime MDD diagnosis, cortisol awakening response, and dexamethasone suppression test (DST) levels (subsample N=1472) and hippocampal and amygdala volume (3T MR images; subsample N=225). Additionally, gene by childhood maltreatment (CM) interactions were investigated. Gene-wide significant results were found for dexamethasone suppression (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, POU1F1, AKR1D1), hippocampal volume (CYP17A1, CYP11A1, HSD3B2, PROP1, AVPRA1, SRD5A1), amygdala volume (POMC, CRH, HSD3B2), and lifetime MDD diagnosis (FKBP5 and CRH), all permutation p-values<0.05. Interactions with CM were found for several genes; the strongest interactions were found for NR3C2, where the minor allele of SNP rs17581262 was related to smaller hippocampal volume, smaller amygdala volume, higher DST levels, and higher odds of MDD diagnosis only in participants with CM. As hypothesized, several HPA-axis genes are associated with stress-related endophenotypes including cortisol response and reduced brain volumes. Furthermore, we found a pleiotropic interaction between CM and the mineralocorticoid receptor gene, suggesting that this gene plays an important moderating role in stress and stress-related disorders.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 5 July 2017; doi:10.1038/npp.2017.118.

  19. Synovial fluid lactic acid levels in septic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Riley, T V

    1981-01-01

    Synovial fluid lactic acid estimations were carried out on 50 samples by gas liquid chromatography. Specimens from 4 patients with bacteria arthritis, other than gonococcal, had a mean lactic acid concentration of 215 mg/dl. One patient with gonococcal arthritis had a synovial fluid lactic acid of 30 mg/dl. Forty-one patients with inflammatory arthritis and 4 patients with degenerative arthritis had mean synovial fluid lactic acid levels of 27 and 23 mg/dl respectively. The estimation of synovial fluid lactic acid is reliable in differentiating septic arthritis from inflammatory and degenerative arthritis except when the infecting organism is NEisseria gonorrhoeae.

  20. Coping with Aversive Stimulation in the Neonatal Period: Quiet Sleep and Plasma Cortisol Levels during Recovery from Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnar, Megan R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Determines the time course of circulating cortisol following circumcision in 80 healthy newborns and investigates whether changes in behavioral state following circumcision in anyway paralleled the adrenocortical time course. Adrenocortical and behavioral data indicated that subjects were able to cope with circumcision trauma. Cortisol levels…

  1. Coping with Aversive Stimulation in the Neonatal Period: Quiet Sleep and Plasma Cortisol Levels during Recovery from Circumcision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnar, Megan R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Determines the time course of circulating cortisol following circumcision in 80 healthy newborns and investigates whether changes in behavioral state following circumcision in anyway paralleled the adrenocortical time course. Adrenocortical and behavioral data indicated that subjects were able to cope with circumcision trauma. Cortisol levels…

  2. Quality of life in patients with adrenal insufficiency correlates stronger with hydrocortisone dosage, than with long-term systemic cortisol levels.

    PubMed

    Andela, Cornelie D; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Joustra, Sjoerd D; Pereira, Alberto M; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; Biermasz, Nienke R

    2016-10-01

    In patients with adrenal insufficiency (AI) a higher hydrocortisone intake has been associated with more impairment in quality of life (QoL). Irrespective of age, sex and severity of AI the dosage of hydrocortisone is titrated around 20mg/D in all patients with AI based on physical and mental signs and symptoms. However, until now it is unknown whether these QoL impairments are related to increased systemic cortisol exposure. Measurement of hair cortisol levels (CORThair) can be used to assess chronic systemic cortisol exposure. This study aimed to explore whether QoL in patients with AI is associated with CORThair and daily hydrocortisone intake. We performed a cross-sectional study in 120 patients with AI on stable hydrocortisone replacement, in whom hair samples and QoL data were collected. CORThair were measured with ELISA, and QoL was assessed with validated questionnaires (SF-36, EQ-5D, HADS, MFI-20). Patients reported impairments in 14 of 15 QoL subscales (p<0.001). More impairments in physical aspects of QoL correlated with higher CORThair and higher daily hydrocortisone intake (p<0.05), an effect that was more pronounced in female patients. Regression analyses including both CORThair and hydrocortisone intake revealed a significant negative contribution of higher hydrocortisone intake on physical aspects of QoL (p≤0.046), whereas no significant contribution was found for CORThair. The present study showed that patients with AI report several impairments in QoL which are associated with hydrocortisone intake, and to a lesser extent reflected by chronic systemic cortisol exposure as measured by hair cortisol. This suggests that QoL impairments in patients with AI are not per se the effect of prolonged exposure to elevated systemic cortisol levels.

  3. Cortisol - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol Hypopituitarism in which the pituitary gland does not signal ... Cushing syndrome Cushing syndrome due to adrenal tumor Hypopituitarism Review Date 10/28/2015 Updated by: Brent ...

  4. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease. PMID:28298818

  5. Oral Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v Reduces Cortisol Levels in Human Saliva during Examination Induced Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Hannah; Tullberg, Cecilia; Ahrné, Siv; Hamberg, Kristina; Lazou Ahrén, Irini; Molin, Göran; Sonesson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To clarify the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on the salivary cortisol and salivary IgA levels in young adults under examination stress. Design. Forty-one students with an upcoming academic exam were included in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The probiotic bacteria or the placebo product was administered in capsules once a day during 14 days. Saliva was collected and a perceived stress test was filled out at each sampling occasion. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis by Electrochemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLI) and salivary IgA was analysed by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Abundance of lactobacilli was evaluated by cultivation of saliva on selective medium and identification of L. plantarum 299v was done on randomly selected colonies by a random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing. Results. A significant difference in cortisol levels was found between the treatment group and the placebo group (P < 0.05), together with a significant increase in levels of lactobacilli in the treatment group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.001). No significant changes were found for salivary IgA. Conclusion. A probiotic bacterium with ability to reduce symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) prohibited increased levels of the stress marker cortisol during the examination period. The registration number of the study is NCT02974894, and the study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:28101105

  6. Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Roshni; Shenoy, Nina; Thomas, Biju

    2016-01-01

    Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05). Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.

  7. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Dziurkowska, Ewelina; Wesolowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer's and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients' age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods. PMID:26380376

  8. Multivariate Statistical Analysis as a Supplementary Tool for Interpretation of Variations in Salivary Cortisol Level in Women with Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dziurkowska, Ewelina; Wesolowski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analysis is widely used in medical studies as a profitable tool facilitating diagnosis of some diseases, for instance, cancer, allergy, pneumonia, or Alzheimer's and psychiatric diseases. Taking this in consideration, the aim of this study was to use two multivariate techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to disclose the relationship between the drugs used in the therapy of major depressive disorder and the salivary cortisol level and the period of hospitalization. The cortisol contents in saliva of depressed women were quantified by HPLC with UV detection day-to-day during the whole period of hospitalization. A data set with 16 variables (e.g., the patients' age, multiplicity and period of hospitalization, initial and final cortisol level, highest and lowest hormone level, mean contents, and medians) characterizing 97 subjects was used for HCA and PCA calculations. Multivariate statistical analysis reveals that various groups of antidepressants affect at the varying degree the salivary cortisol level. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and the polypragmasy reduce most effectively the hormone secretion. Thus, both unsupervised pattern recognition methods, HCA and PCA, can be used as complementary tools for interpretation of the results obtained by laboratory diagnostic methods.

  9. Hydrocellular foam dressing increases the leptin level in wound fluid.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Sawako; Nakagami, Gojiro; Ohira, Tomomi; Kawasaki, Rui; Shimura, Mari; Iwatsuki, Ken; Sanada, Hiromi; Kobayashi-Hattori, Kazuo; Oishi, Yuichi; Yamane, Takumi

    2015-09-01

    Hydrocellular foam dressing (HCF) absorbs excessive wound fluid, which contains various cytokines and growth factors, and ensures a moist environment to promote wound healing. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the wound fluid component changes induced by HCF are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of HCF on wound healing and the associated regulatory mechanisms in relation to variations in cytokine levels in the wound fluid. We created full-thickness wounds on the dorsolateral skin of rats and collected the resulting wound fluid samples. HCF was immersed in a plate containing the wound fluids. HCF was then removed and the excess wound fluid remaining in the plate was examined by cytokine array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also used a rat model and human dermal fibroblast cultures to examine the effect of wound fluid component changes during the wound healing process. Upon treatment with HCF, leptin levels were upregulated in the wound fluid. Fibroblast proliferation was enhanced and the effect was suppressed in the presence of leptin antagonist. In our in vivo model, HCF increased wound contraction compared with film dressings and this positive effect of HCF was suppressed by addition of leptin antagonist. Our results suggest that dermal fibroblast proliferation is upregulated by HCF due to increased leptin level at the wound surface, and these effects promote wound healing. We believe that the present study contributes to furthering the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of HCF-induced wound healing.

  10. Associations of Maternal and Infant Testosterone and Cortisol Levels With Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Infant Socioemotional Problems.

    PubMed

    Cho, June; Su, Xiaogang; Phillips, Vivien; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the associations of testosterone and cortisol levels with maternal depressive symptoms and infant socioemotional (SE) problems that are influenced by infant gender. A total of 62 mothers and their very-low-birth weight (VLBW) infants were recruited from a neonatal intensive care unit at a tertiary medical center in the southeast United States. Data were collected at three time points (before 40 weeks' postmenstrual age [PMA] and at 3 months and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity). Measures included infant medical record review, maternal interview, biochemical assays of salivary hormone levels in mother-VLBWinfant pairs, and standard questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations with separate analyses for boys and girls showed that maternal testosterone level was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in mothers of boys, whereas infant testosterone level was negatively associated with maternal report of infant SE problems in girls after controlling for characteristics of mothers and infants and number of days post birth of saliva collection. Not surprisingly, the SE problems were positively associated with a number of medical complications. Mothers with more depressive symptoms reported that their infants had more SE problems. Mothers with higher testosterone levels reported that girls, but not boys, had fewer SE problems. In summary, high levels of testosterone could have a protective role for maternal depressive symptoms and infant SE problems. Future research need to be directed toward clinical application of these preliminary results.

  11. Changes in Men’s Salivary Testosterone and Cortisol Levels, and in Sexual Desire after Smelling Female Axillary and Vulvar Scents

    PubMed Central

    Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Hernández-López, Leonor; de la O, Claudio E.; Chavira-Ramírez, Roberto; Mondragón-Ceballos, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that a woman’s vaginal or axillary odors convey information on her attractivity. Yet, whether such scents induce psychoneuroendocrinological changes in perceivers is still controversial. We studied if smelling axillary and vulvar odors collected in the periovulatory and late luteal phases of young women modify salivary testosterone and cortisol levels, as well as sexual desire in men. Forty-five women and 115 men, all of them college students and unacquainted with each other, participated in the study. Female odors were collected on pads affixed to the axilla and on panty protectors both worn the entire night before experiments. Men provided five saliva samples, a basal one before the smelling procedure, and four more 15, 30, 60, and 75 min after exposure to odors. Immediately after smelling the odor source, men answered a questionnaire rating hedonic qualities of scents, and after providing the last saliva sample they answered questionnaire on sexual desire. We found that periovulatory axillary and vulvar odors increased testosterone and cortisol levels, with vulvar scents producing a more prolonged effect. Luteal axilla odors decreased testosterone and cortisol levels, while luteal vulva odors increased cortisol. Periovulatory axilla and vulva scents accounted for a general increase of interest in sex. These odors were also rated as more pleasant and familiar, while luteal vulvar odors were perceived as intense and unpleasant. PMID:24194730

  12. The effect of cognitive behavior therapy-based "forest therapy" program on blood pressure, salivary cortisol level, and quality of life in elderly hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jidong; Woo, Jong-Min; Kim, Won; Lim, Seoung-Kyeon; Chung, Eun-Joo

    2012-01-01

    This article aimed to develop the "forest therapy" program, which is a cognitive behavior therapy (CBT)-based intervention program using forest environment, and investigate its effects on blood pressure (BP), salivary cortisol, and quality of life (QoL) measures in patients with hypertension. A total of 56 men and women were enrolled for this study, being referred from local health centers in Republic of Korea, from April to October 2009. They were conveniently assigned to either "forest" group participating in the forest therapy program or control group doing self-monitoring of BP. Measurements of salivary cortisol level and QoL were done at initial visits and at 8-week final visits. Both groups did not differ significantly in baseline clinical characteristics. The BP change at week 4 and week 8 did not differ between the two groups. Salivary cortisol level reduction was significantly larger and QoL measures improved significantly more in the forest group at week 8 compared with the control group. The forest therapy program did not induce prolonged systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction. However, considering the significant decrease in cortisol level and improvement in QoL measures, this may be a useful model of community hypertension management program.

  13. Acute and chronic stress-like levels of cortisol inhibit the oestradiol stimulus to induce sexual receptivity but have no effect on sexual attractivity or proceptivity in female sheep.

    PubMed

    Papargiris, M M; Rivalland, E T A; Hemsworth, P H; Morrissey, A D; Tilbrook, A J

    2011-09-01

    Stress-like levels of cortisol inhibit sexual receptivity in ewes but the mechanism of this action is not understood. One possibility is that cortisol interferes with the actions of oestradiol to induce sexual receptivity. We tested this hypothesis in 2 experiments with ovariectomised ewes that were artificially induced into oestrus by 12 days of i.m. injections of progesterone followed by an i.m. injection of oestradiol benzoate (ODB) 48 h later. In Experiment 1, ewes were randomly allocated to the following groups: saline infusion+25 μg ODB, saline infusion+50 μg ODB, cortisol infusion+25 μg ODB or cortisol infusion+50 μg ODB (n=5 per group). Saline or cortisol was infused i.v. for 40 h beginning at the ODB injection. In Experiment 2, ewes were infused with saline or cortisol (n=5 per group) for 5h beginning 1h before ODB injection. In both experiments, ewe sexual behaviour (attractivity, proceptivity and receptivity) was quantified every 6h. Blood samples were also collected. The cortisol infusion yielded plasma concentrations of cortisol similar to those seen during psychosocial stress. In both experiments, cortisol suppressed receptivity index (number of immobilisations by ewe/courtship displays by ram) and the number of times ewes were mounted but had no effect on attractivity or proceptivity, irrespective of the dose of ODB (Experiment 1). Cortisol also suppressed LH pulse amplitude. These results suggest that both an acute (5h) and chronic (40 h) infusion of cortisol inhibit oestradiol-induced sexual receptivity in ewes and that increasing the dose of ODB does not overcome the inhibitory effects of cortisol.

  14. Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the short-lived rodent, Octodon degus.

    PubMed

    Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D

    2013-06-01

    The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a short-lived and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.

  15. Ultrasonic Measurement of Aircraft Strut Hydraulic Fluid Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.

    2002-01-01

    An ultrasonic method is presented for non-intrusively measuring hydraulic fluid level in aircraft struts in the field quickly and easily without modifying the strut or aircraft. The technique interrogates the strut with ultrasonic waves generated and received by a removable ultrasonic transducer hand-held on the outside of the strut in a fashion that is in the presence or absence of hydraulic fluid inside the strut. This technique was successfully demonstrated on an A-6 aircraft strut on the carriage at the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Conventional practice upon detection of strut problem symptoms is to remove aircraft from service for extensive maintenance to determine fluid level. No practical technique like the method presented herein for locating strut hydraulic fluid level is currently known to be used.

  16. Amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels and labor.

    PubMed

    Kofinas, G D; Kofinas, A D; Pyrgerou, M; Reyes, F I

    1987-06-01

    To define the relationship between amniotic fluid concentrations of beta-endorphin immunoreactivity and onset of parturition, we measured this opioid in samples obtained during cesarean section at term. A total of 27 women were studied, 14 without labor and 13 in early labor. Mean (+/- SE) amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels were significantly lower in patients in labor than in those not in labor (3.2 +/- 0.05 versus 8.4 +/- 1.0 fmol/mL). The mean beta-endorphin level (21.1 +/- 4.2 fmol/mL) in other amniotic fluid samples obtained during the second trimester of pregnancy was significantly higher than mean values at term. These differences in amniotic fluid beta-endorphin levels may support the theory of an opioid mechanism involved in parturition.

  17. The relation of cortisol and sex hormone levels to results of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests in military men and women.

    PubMed

    Flegr, Jaroslav; Hampl, Richard; Černochová, Dana; Preiss, Marek; Bičíková, Marie; Sieger, Ladislav; Příplatová, Lenka; Kaňková, Šárka; Klose, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Cortisol, along with other hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, belongs to one of the main factors influencing psychological and pathognomic factors, intelligence, and memory. The aim of our study was to review a large battery of psychological, performance, IQ and memory tests as to their relation with cortisol, testosterone and estrogen levels in groups of 100 men and 93 women who attended the Central Military Hospital in Prague for regular entrance psychological examinations for military personnel. In men, we detected positive correlations between cortisol and emotional lability, and negative correlations with impulsivity, while in women hypochondria and psychopathology were negatively correlated, and aggression measured with the Meili selective memory test had a positive relation to cortisol level. Testosterone correlated positively with emotional liability and negatively with impulsivity in men, and negatively with hypochondria and psychasteny, indirect aggression, irritability and paranoia in women. Estradiol correlated positively with psychopathology in men, and negatively with phobia. It was positively correlated with negativism in women. No clear correlation was observed between the concentration of steroid hormones and psychomotor performance or intelligence. Concentrations of steroid hormones correlate with results of several psychological tests, the sign and magnitude of these correlations, however, very often differ in military men and women.

  18. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  19. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  20. Differential regulation of Igf1 and Igf2 mRNA levels in tilapia hepatocytes: effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Andrew L; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2011-11-01

    Igf1 and Igf2 stimulate growth and development of vertebrates. In mammals, liver-derived endocrine Igf1 mediates the growth promoting effects of GH during postnatal life, whereas Igf2 stimulates placental and fetal growth and is not regulated by GH. Insulin enhances Igf1 production by the mammalian liver directly, and by increasing hepatocyte sensitivity to GH. We examined the regulation of igf1 and igf2 mRNA levels by GH, insulin, and cortisol, and the effects of insulin and cortisol on GH sensitivity in primary cultured hepatocytes of tilapia, a cichlid teleost. GH increased mRNA levels of both igf1 and igf2 in a concentration-related and biphasic manner over the physiological range, with a greater effect on igf2 mRNA level. Insulin increased basal igf2 mRNA level, and strongly increased GH-stimulated igf2 mRNA level, but slightly reduced basal igf1 mRNA level and did not affect GH-stimulated igf1 mRNA level. Cortisol inhibited GH stimulation of igf1, but increased GH stimulation of igf2 mRNA level. The synergistic effect of insulin and GH on igf2 mRNA level was confirmed in vivo. These results indicate that insulin and cortisol differentially modulate the response of igf1 and igf2 mRNA to GH in tilapia hepatocytes, and suggest that the regulation of liver Igf2 production differs between fish and mammals. Regulation of liver Igf2 production in fish appears to be similar to regulation of liver Igf1 production in mammals.

  1. Plasma cortisol and sex steroid levels in Great Lakes coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) in relation to fecundity and egg survival.

    PubMed

    Morrison, P F; Leatherland, J F; Sonstegard, R A

    1985-01-01

    Plasma 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol levels in spawning male and female coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch Walbaum) collected from a Lake Erie (Pennsylvania) stock were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than in stocks of coho salmon at a comparable stage of sexual development collected from Lakes Ontario (two stocks) or Michigan. Plasma testosterone levels in female coho salmon from Lake Erie were significantly lower (P less than 0.01) than in females from Lake Ontario or Lake Michigan stocks. There were no significant differences in plasma testosterone levels in the males, or 17 beta-estradiol levels in male or female salmon of the four stocks sampled from the three study lakes. This apparent dysfunction in androgen and cortisol secretion in the Lake Erie stock is correlated with and may account for the low fecundity and poor expression of secondary sexual characteristics in that stock.

  2. Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Viola, Antoine U; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and well-being. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive

  3. Cortisol increases CXCR4 expression but does not affect CD62L and CCR7 levels on specific T cell subsets in humans.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Linz, Barbara; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Groch, Sabine; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2014-06-01

    Glucocorticoids are well known to affect T cell migration, leading to a redistribution of the cells from blood to the bone marrow, accompanied by a concurrent suppression of lymph node homing. Despite numerous studies in this context, with most of them employing synthetic glucocorticoids in nonphysiological doses, the mechanisms of this redistribution are not well understood. Here, we investigated in healthy men the impact of cortisol at physiological concentrations on the expression of different migration molecules on eight T cell subpopulations in vivo and in vitro. Hydrocortisone (cortisol, 22 mg) infused during nocturnal rest when endogenous cortisol levels are low, compared with placebo, differentially reduced numbers of T cell subsets, with naive CD4(+) and CD8(+) subsets exhibiting the strongest reduction. Hydrocortisone in vivo and in vitro increased CXCR4 expression, which presumably mediates the recruitment of T cells to the bone marrow. Expression of the lymph node homing receptor CD62L on total CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells appeared reduced following hydrocortisone infusion. However, this was due to a selective extravasation of CD62L(+) T cell subsets, as hydrocortisone affected neither CD62L expression on a subpopulation level nor CD62L expression in vitro. Corresponding results in the opposite direction were observed after blocking of endogenous cortisol synthesis by metyrapone. CCR7, another lymph node homing receptor, was also unaffected by hydrocortisone in vitro. Thus, cortisol seems to redirect T cells to the bone marrow by upregulating their CXCR4 expression, whereas its inhibiting effect on T cell homing to lymph nodes is apparently regulated independently of the expression of classical homing receptors.

  4. Wireless Fluid-Level Sensors for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic-field-response sensors have been developed for use in measuring levels of fluids under extreme conditions. The sensors work without wire connections or direct physical contact with power sources, microprocessors, data-acquisition equipment, or electrical circuitry. For fuel-level sensors, the absence of wire connections offers an important safety advantage in elimination of potential ignition sources.

  5. The cortisol level and its relationship with depression, stress and anxiety indices in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients and normal individuals undergoing inguinal hernia surgery.

    PubMed

    Pirnia, Bijan; Givi, Fatemeh; Roshan, Rasool; Pirnia, Kambiz; Soleimani, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Stimulants addition and abuse can cause some functional and morphological changes in the normal function of glands and hormones. Methamphetamine as an addictive stimulant drug affects the Hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and consequently makes some changes in the psychological state of the drug users. The present study aims to examine the relationship between plasma levels of cortisol with depression, stress and anxiety symptoms in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients and normal individuals who have undergone the inguinal hernia surgery. To meet the purpose of the study, 35 chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients in the active phase of drug abuse and 35 non-users (N=70) who were homogenized regarding the demographic features were purposefully selected from among the patients referred to undergo inguinal hernia surgery since March 15 to June 9, 2015. The participants were then divided into the control and experiment group. The changes in cortisol levels in plasma were measured using Radioimmunoassay (RIA) in three-time series including 0 (upon the induction of anesthesia), 12 and 24 hours after the surgery. Further, three behavioral indices of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21 (DASS-21) and then the data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson Correlation coefficient. The plasma level of cortisol in the chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients (experiment group) had a significant increase in 24 hours after surgery (p<0.05). This study showed that cortisol levels in chronic methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly higher than non-dependent patients in response to alarming events such as inguinal surgery. Changes in cortisol levels were intensified due to a confrontation with the phenomenon of pain and anxiety. In addition, depression index was higher in the chronic methamphetaminedependent patients than that in the non-dependent patients. However, there was no significant

  6. A clinical study of the efficacy of a single session of individual exercise for depressive patients, assessed by the change in saliva free cortisol level

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficacy of physical exercise as an augmentation to pharmacotherapy with antidepressants for depressive patients has been documented. However, to clarify the effectiveness of exercise in the treatment of depression, it is necessary to distinguish the effect of the exercise itself from the effect of group dynamics. Furthermore, an objective measurement for estimation of the effect is needed. Previous reports adopted a series of group exercises as the exercise intervention and mainly psychometric instruments for the measurement of effectiveness. Therefore, this clinical study was done to examine the effectiveness of a single session of individual exercise on depressive symptoms by assessing the change in saliva free cortisol level, which reflects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function that is disturbed in depressive patients. Method Eighteen medicated patients, who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for major depressive disorder, were examined for the change in saliva free cortisol levels and the change in subjective depressive symptoms before and after pedaling a bicycle ergometer for fifteen minutes. Within a month after the exercise session, participants conducted a non-exercise control session, which was sitting quietly at the same time of day as the exercise session. Results Depressed patients who participated in this study were in remission or in mild depressive state. However, they suffered chronic depression and had disturbed quality of life. The saliva free cortisol level and subjective depressive symptoms significantly decreased after the exercise session. Moreover, the changes in these variables were significantly, positively correlated. On the other hand, although the subjective depressive symptoms improved in the control session, the saliva free cortisol level did not change. Conclusion For the first time in depressive patients, we were able to show a decrease in the saliva free cortisol level due to physical exercise, accompanied by

  7. Are we missing a mineralocorticoid in teleost fish? Effects of cortisol, deoxycorticosterone and aldosterone on osmoregulation, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity and isoform mRNA levels in Atlantic salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Regish, A.; O'Dea, M. F.; Shrimpton, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It has long been held that cortisol, acting through a single receptor, carries out both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid actions in teleost fish. The recent finding that fish express a gene with high sequence similarity to the mammalian mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) suggests the possibility that a hormone other than cortisol carries out some mineralocorticoid functions in fish. To test for this possibility, we examined the effect of in vivo cortisol, 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and aldosterone on salinity tolerance, gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity and mRNA levels of NKA α1a and α1b in Atlantic salmon. Cortisol treatment for 6–14 days resulted in increased, physiological levels of cortisol, increased gill NKA activity and improved salinity tolerance (lower plasma chloride after a 24 h seawater challenge), whereas DOC and aldosterone had no effect on either NKA activity or salinity tolerance. NKA α1a and α1b mRNA levels, which increase in response to fresh water and seawater acclimation, respectively, were both upregulated by cortisol, whereas DOC and aldosterone were without effect. Cortisol, DOC and aldosterone had no effect on gill glucocorticoid receptor GR1, GR2 and MR mRNA levels, although there was some indication of possible upregulation of GR1 by cortisol (p = 0.07). The putative GR blocker RU486 inhibited cortisol-induced increases in salinity tolerance, NKA activity and NKA α1a and α1b transcription, whereas the putative MR blocker spironolactone had no effect. The results provide support that cortisol, and not DOC or aldosterone, is involved in regulating the mineralocorticoid functions of ion uptake and salt secretion in teleost fish.

  8. Evaluation of seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine and cortisol levels in wild masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou, sampled by a Japanese fishing method.

    PubMed

    Munakata, A; Miura, G; Matsuda, H

    2014-10-01

    A new fish sampling method was developed using a Japanese bait fishing rod (8-9 m carbon rod and a nylon line with a small fine wire single hook), which is considered to catch wild salmonid juveniles with low sampling stress. Using this method, seasonal and daily changes of plasma thyroxine (T4 ) and cortisol levels were examined in wild parr, pre-smolts and smolts of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in contiguous locations in a coastal river (Kesen River; 44 km) in northern Honshu Island, Japan, overlapping the period of smoltification and seaward migration from August to March. Plasma T4 and cortisol were low in 0+ and 1+ year parr caught in August and September. In March, some yearling (1+ year) fish, which were judged as pre-smolts, and smolts appeared mainly in mid and lower reaches, while parr (0+ and 1+ year parr) continued to appear in the upper and mid reaches. In March, 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts showed high plasma T4 levels while the levels of 1+ year parr were low. During March 2008-2010, plasma T4 levels of 1+ year pre-smolts and smolts had high levels from early to mid-March, whereas plasma cortisol levels of 1+ year smolts were low in early March and increased towards mid-March. Based on these data, plasma cortisol increases probably occur following the increases of plasma T4 levels to lead the 1+ year O. masou to the completion of smoltification and initiation of seaward migration. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. A Realtime and Continuous Assessment of Cortisol in ISF Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Manju; Arya, Sunil K; Chornokur, Ganna; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2011-12-01

    This study describes the functioning of a novel sensor to measure cortisol concentration in the interstitial fluid (ISF) of a human subject. ISF is extracted by means of vacuum pressure from micropores created on the stratum corneum layer of the skin. The pores are produced by focusing a near infrared laser on a layer of black dye material attached to the skin. The pores are viable for approximately three days after skin poration. Cortisol measurements are based on electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. Gold microelectrode arrays functionalized with Dithiobis (succinimidyl propionate) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) have been used to fabricate an ultrasensitive, disposable, electrochemical cortisol immunosensor. The biosensor was successfully used for in-vitro measurement of cortisol in ISF. Tests in a laboratory setup show that the sensor exhibits a linear response to cortisol concentrations in the range 1 pm to 100 nM. A small pilot clinical study showed that in-vitro immunosensor readings, when compared with commercial evaluation using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method, correlated well with cortisol levels in saliva and ISF. Further, circadian rhythm could be established between the subject's ISF and the saliva samples collected over 24 hours time-period. Cortisol levels in ISF were found reliably higher than in saliva. This Research establishes the feasibility of using impedance based biosensor architecture for a disposable, wearable cortisol detector. The projected commercial in-vivo real-time cortisol sensor device, besides being minimally invasive, will allow continuous ISF harvesting and cortisol monitoring over 24 hours even when the subject is asleep. Forthcoming, this sensor could be interfaced to a wireless health monitoring system that could transfer sensor data over existing wide-area networks such as the internet and a cellular phone network to enable real-time remote monitoring of subjects.

  10. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  11. [The saliva cortisol level test using the automatic immunochemical analyzer Cobas e601 (Roche) to diagnose endogenous hypercorticalism in patients with obesity].

    PubMed

    Belaia, Zh E; Il'in, A V; Mel'nichenko, G A; Rozhinskaia, L Ia; Dragunova, N V; Dzeranova, L K; Ogneva, N A; Butrova, S A; Troshina, E A; Kolesnikova, G S; Dedov, I I

    2011-12-01

    The saliva cortisol level test applies to diagnose endogenous hypercorticalism. However the methods of die format immunoassay traditionally used do not make it possible to get the study results on-the-fly. Also, reference interval and optimal takeoffs differ under implementing various techniques of cortisol tests. The purpose of actual study is to investigate the possibilities of electrochemiluminescent technique of testing free cortisol in saliva. The device Cobas e601 was applied to diagnose endogenous hypercorticalism in patients with obesity. The saliva samples were collected at 11 PM from 98 healthy volunteers and 123 patients with obesity (in 45 cases endogenous hypercorticalism was diagnosed). In total, 205 persons donated saliva at 11 PM two days running to evaluate the technique reproducibility. The samples of 197 individuals were frozen to implement the immune-enzyme assay. The minor test with dexamethasone was applied to patients with suspected endogenous hypercorticalism. The diagnosis of endogenous hypercorticalism was finally confirmed after the results of histological analysis of post-operative material or autopsy. Among healthy volunteers, the reference interval on indicators consisted 0.5-9.4 nMol/l. The correlation coefficient under free cortisol measuring at the same time two days running was -0.785. The optimal takeoff to diagnose endogenous hypercorticalism in patients with obesity consisted 9.4 nMol/l, sensitivity--84.4% (95% confidence band 71.2-92.2%), specificity--92.3% (95% confidence band 84.2-96.4%), predictive value of positive result--11.0 (95% confidence band 5.0-23.9), predictive value of negative result--0.17 (95% confidence band 0.08-0.33) and likelihood ratio for positive result--65.1 (95% confidence band 20.4-207.6). The two-fold cortisol test in saliva using immune-enzyme assay and minor test with dexamethasone with their diagnostic capabilities corresponded to one-fold saliva free cortisol test using electrochemiluminescent

  12. Salivary Cortisol Can Replace Free Serum Cortisol Measurements in Patients With Septic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Orlander, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is a renewed interest in adrenal function during severe sepsis. Most studies have used total serum cortisol levels; however, only free serum cortisol is biologically active. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate for free serum cortisol levels during septic shock. Methods: Fifty-seven patients with septic shock were studied to determine the correlation between total serum cortisol and salivary cortisol to free serum cortisol levels. Thirty-eight patients were included in the salivary to free serum cortisol correlation. Salivary cortisol level was tested by enzyme immunoassay. Serum total cortisol, free cortisol, and cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) levels were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, equilibrium analysis, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The mean ± SD age was 56.6 ± 18.5 years. Fifty-seven percent were women. APACHE (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation) II score median was 26, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II median was 61, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment median was 13. The correlation between salivary and free serum cortisol levels was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89; P < .0001). The correlation between free serum cortisol and total serum cortisol levels was 0.86 (95% CI, 0.78-0.92; P < .0001). The mean ± SD free serum cortisol level was 2.27 ± 1.64 μg/dL. The mean ± SD salivary cortisol level was 2.60 ± 2.69 μg/dL. The mean ± SD total serum cortisol level was 21.56 ± 8.71 μg/dL. The mean ± SD CBG level was 23.54 ± 8.33 mg/dL. Conclusions: Salivary cortisol level can be used as a surrogate of free serum cortisol level in patients with septic shock with very good correlation. Salivary cortisol testing is noninvasive, easy to perform, and can be conducted daily. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00523198; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov PMID:21816912

  13. Higher perceived stress but lower cortisol levels found among young Greek adults living in a stressful social environment in comparison with Swedish young adults.

    PubMed

    Faresjö, Åshild; Theodorsson, Elvar; Chatziarzenis, Marios; Sapouna, Vasiliki; Claesson, Hans-Peter; Koppner, Jenny; Faresjö, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide financial crisis during recent years has raised concerns of negative public health effects. This is notably evident in southern Europe. In Greece, where the financial austerity has been especially pronounced, the prevalence of mental health problems including depression and suicide has increased, and outbreaks of infectious diseases have risen. The main objective in this study was to investigate whether different indicators of health and stress levels measured by a new biomarker based on cortisol in human hair were different amongst comparable Greek and Swedish young adults, considering that Sweden has been much less affected by the recent economic crises. In this cross-sectional comparative study, young adults from the city of Athens in Greece (n = 124) and from the city of Linkoping in Sweden (n = 112) participated. The data collection comprised answering a questionnaire with different health indicators and hair samples being analyzed for the stress hormone cortisol, a biomarker with the ability to retrospectively measure long-term cortisol exposure. The Greek young adults reported significantly higher perceived stress (p<0.0001), had experienced more serious life events (p = 0.002), had lower hope for the future (p<0.0001), and had significantly more widespread symptoms of depression (p<0.0001) and anxiety (p<0.0001) than the Swedes. But, the Greeks were found to have significantly lower cortisol levels (p<0.0001) than the Swedes, and this difference was still significant in a multivariate regression (p<0.0001), after adjustments for potential intervening variables. A variety of factors related to differences in the physical or socio-cultural environment between the two sites, might possibly explain this finding. However, a potential biological mechanism is that long-term stress exposure could lead to a lowering of the cortisol levels. This study points out a possible hypothesis that the cortisol levels of the Greek young adults might have been

  14. Wireless Fluid-Level Measurement System Equips Boat Owners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    While developing a measurement acquisition system to be used to retrofit aging aircraft with vehicle health monitoring capabilities, Langley Research Center developed an innovative wireless fluid-level measurement system. The NASA technology was of interest to Tidewater Sensors LLC, of Newport News, Virginia, because of its many advantages over conventional fuel management systems, including its ability to provide an accurate measurement of volume while a boat is experiencing any rocking motion due to waves or people moving about on the boat. These advantages led the company to license this novel fluid-level measurement system from NASA for marine applications.

  15. Thin-Film Magnetic-Field-Response Fluid-Level Sensor for Non-Viscous Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2008-01-01

    An innovative method has been developed for acquiring fluid-level measurements. This method eliminates the need for the fluid-level sensor to have a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment. The complete system consists of a lightweight, thin-film magnetic-field-response fluid-level sensor (see Figure 1) and a magnetic field response recorder that was described in Magnetic-Field-Response Measurement-Acquisition System (LAR-16908-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 6 (June 2006), page 28. The sensor circuit is a capacitor connected to an inductor. The response recorder powers the sensor using a series of oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, the sensor responds with its own harmonic magnetic field. The sensor will oscillate at its resonant electrical frequency, which is dependent upon the capacitance and inductance values of the circuit.

  16. Circadian Levels of Serum Melatonin and Cortisol in relation to Changes in Mood, Sleep, and Neurocognitive Performance, Spanning a Year of Residence in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Premkumar, Madhumita; Sable, Tarulata; Dhanwal, Dinesh; Dewan, Richa

    2013-01-01

    Background. Altered circadian cortisol and melatonin rhythms in healthy subjects exposed to an extreme polar photoperiod results in changes in mood and sleep, which can influence cognitive performance. Materials and Methods. We assessed the circadian rhythm of 20 subjects who wintered over at Maitri (70°S, 11°E), India's permanent Antarctic station, from November 2010 to December 2011. Serum cortisol and melatonin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay at 8 am, 3 pm, 8 pm, and 2 am in a single day, once each during the polar summer and winter photoperiods. Conventional psychological tests, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and a computerized neurocognitive test battery were used to measure mood, sleep, and cognitive performance. Results. The mean scores for DASS42 were higher during midwinter suggesting the presence of “overwintering.” Mean diurnal cortisol levels during summer and winter were comparable, but the levels of melatonin were markedly higher during winter. Higher 8 am melatonin levels were associated with better sleep quality, lower depression scores, and better performance in tasks like attention, visual memory, and arithmetic. Conclusion. Timing of artificial light exposure and usage of melatonin supplements in improving sleep and cognitive performance in expedition teams are of future research interest. PMID:26317088

  17. The effect of the lunar cycle on fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraging ecology of nocturnally and diurnally active spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Dayan, Tamar; Levy, Ofir; Schubert, Iris; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage.

  18. The Effect of the Lunar Cycle on Fecal Cortisol Metabolite Levels and Foraging Ecology of Nocturnally and Diurnally Active Spiny Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Tamar; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2011-01-01

    We studied stress hormones and foraging of nocturnal Acomys cahirinus and diurnal A. russatus in field populations as well as in two field enclosures populated by both species and two field enclosures with individuals of A. russatus alone. When alone, A. russatus individuals become also nocturnally active. We asked whether nocturnally active A. russatus will respond to moon phase and whether this response will be obtained also in diurnally active individuals. We studied giving-up densities (GUDs) in artificial foraging patches and fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Both species exhibited elevated fecal cortisol metabolite levels and foraged to higher GUDs in full moon nights; thus A. russatus retains physiological response and behavioral patterns that correlate with full moon conditions, as can be expected in nocturnal rodents, in spite of its diurnal activity. The endocrinological and behavioral response of this diurnal species to moon phase reflects its evolutionary heritage. PMID:21829733

  19. Memory Training Program Decreases the Circulating Level of Cortisol and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pesce, Mirko; Tatangelo, Raffaella; La Fratta, Irene; Rizzuto, Alessia; Campagna, Giovanna; Turli, Cinzia; Ferrone, Alessio; Franceschelli, Sara; Speranza, Lorenza; Verrocchio, Maria C.; De Lutiis, Maria A.; Felaco, Mario; Grilli, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Aging cognitive decline has been associated to impairment of the Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenals (HPA) axis activity and a higher level of the systemic inflammation. However, little is known about the molecules driving this process at peripheral level. In addition, the cognitive function is to some extent modifiable with Memory Training (MT) programs, even among older adults and beyond. The study aims to evaluate whether MT could contribute to ameliorate cognitive performance and modulate the HPA axis activity as well the low level inflammation in the aging phenotype. Whether the phosphatase WIP-1, a negative regulator for inflammation, is involved in this process was also investigated. We recruited 31 young adults (19–28, years of age) and 62 older adults aged over 60. Thirty-two older adults were submitted to 6-months of MT program (EG), and 28 older adults were no treated and used as Control Group (CG). Global cognitive functioning (MMSE score), verbal and visual memory, and attention were assessed at baseline (T0) and after 6-months (T1). At the same time, plasmatic level of Cortisol (C), IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and the expression of WIP-1 mRNA and protein in ex vivo Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells were analyzed in young adults at T0, as well in older adults at T0 and T1. Together, the results suggest that MT improves the global cognitive functionality, verbal and visual memory, as well as the level of attention. At the same time we observed a decrease of the plasmatic level of C, of the cytokines, and an increase of the expression of mRNA and protein of WIP-1. The analysis of correlations highlighted that the level of the mRNA of WIP-1 was positively associated to the MMSE score, and negatively to the C and cytokine levels. In conclusion, we purpose the MT as tool that could help support successful aging through the improving of memory, attention and global cognitive function performance. Furthermore, this approach could participate to maintain lower the

  20. The detection of cortisol in human sweat: implications for measurement of cortisol in hair.

    PubMed

    Russell, Evan; Koren, Gideon; Rieder, Michael; Van Uum, Stan H M

    2014-02-01

    Hair cortisol analysis has been shown to be an effective measure of chronic stress. Cortisol is assumed to incorporate into hair via serum, sebum, and sweat sources; however, the extent to which sweat contributes to hair cortisol content is unknown. Sweat and saliva samples were collected from 17 subjects after a period of intensive exercise and analyzed by salivary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Subsequently, an in vitro test on exposure of hair to hydrocortisone was conducted. Residual hair samples were immersed in a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution for periods lasting 15 minutes to 24 hours, followed by a wash or no-wash condition. Hair cortisol content was determined using our modified protocol for a salivary ELISA. Postexercise control sweat cortisol concentrations ranged from 8.16 to 141.7 ng/mL and correlated significantly with the log-transformed time of day. Sweat cortisol levels significantly correlated with salivary cortisol concentrations. In vitro hair exposure to a 50-ng/mL hydrocortisone solution (mimicking sweat) for 60 minutes or more resulted in significantly increased hair cortisol concentrations. Washing with isopropanol did not affect immersion-increased hair cortisol concentrations. Human sweat contains cortisol in concentrations comparable with salivary cortisol levels. This study suggests that perfuse sweating after intense exercise may increase cortisol concentrations detected in hair. This increase likely cannot be effectively decreased with conventional washing procedures and should be considered carefully in studies using hair cortisol as a biomarker of chronic stress.

  1. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  2. Cortisol and Treatment Effect in Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Nicolle M.H.; van Goozen, Stephanie H.M.; Matthys, Walter; Snoek, Heddeke; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Basal cortisol and cortisol stress responsivity are valuable biological characteristics of children with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD). In this study, the predictive value of cortisol to outcome of intervention was investigated. Method: Basal cortisol levels and cortisol levels under stress were studied in 22 children with DBD…

  3. Effects of age on cerebrospinal fluid oxytocin