Network-Theoretic Modeling of Fluid Flow
2015-07-29
Final Report STIR: Network-Theoretic Modeling of Fluid Flow ARO Grant W911NF-14-1-0386 Program manager: Dr. Samuel Stanton ( August 1, 2014–April 30...Morzyński, M., and Comte , P., “A finite-time thermodynamics of unsteady fluid flows,” Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermody- namics, Vol. 33, No. 2
VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.
Chen, Cheng-lung
1986-01-01
This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.
Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."
Poiseuille flow to measure the viscosity of particle model fluids.
Backer, J A; Lowe, C P; Hoefsloot, H C J; Iedema, P D
2005-04-15
The most important property of a fluid is its viscosity, it determines the flow properties. If one simulates a fluid using a particle model, calculating the viscosity accurately is difficult because it is a collective property. In this article we describe a new method that has a better signal to noise ratio than existing methods. It is based on using periodic boundary conditions to simulate counter-flowing Poiseuille flows without the use of explicit boundaries. The viscosity is then related to the mean flow velocity of the two flows. We apply the method to two quite different systems. First, a simple generic fluid model, dissipative particle dynamics, for which accurate values of the viscosity are needed to characterize the model fluid. Second, the more realistic Lennard-Jones fluid. In both cases the values we calculated are consistent with previous work but, for a given simulation time, they are more accurate than those obtained with other methods.
Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav
2015-05-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.
A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.
Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long
2005-07-15
Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived.
Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1982-01-01
Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.
Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1982-01-01
Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.
Pulmonary Fluid Flow Challenges for Experimental and Mathematical Modeling
Levy, Rachel; Hill, David B.; Forest, M. Gregory; Grotberg, James B.
2014-01-01
Modeling the flow of fluid in the lungs, even under baseline healthy conditions, presents many challenges. The complex rheology of the fluids, interaction between fluids and structures, and complicated multi-scale geometry all add to the complexity of the problem. We provide a brief overview of approaches used to model three aspects of pulmonary fluid and flow: the surfactant layer in the deep branches of the lung, the mucus layer in the upper airway branches, and closure/reopening of the airway. We discuss models of each aspect, the potential to capture biological and therapeutic information, and open questions worthy of further investigation. We hope to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration by providing insights into mathematical descriptions of fluid-mechanics in the lung and the kinds of predictions these models can make. PMID:25096289
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows
Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa
2009-09-01
The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.
Hydromechanical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Lower Crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connolly, J.
2011-12-01
The lower crust lies within an ambiguous rheological regime between the brittle upper crust and ductile sub-lithospheric mantle. This ambiguity has allowed two schools of thought to develop concerning the nature of fluid flow in the lower crust. The classical school holds that lower crustal rocks are inviscid and that any fluid generated by metamorphic devolatilization is squeezed out of rocks as rapidly as it is produced. According to this school, permeability is a dynamic property and fluid flow is upward. In contrast, the modern school uses concepts from upper crustal hydrology that presume implicitly, if not explicitly, that rocks are rigid or, at most, brittle. For the modern school, the details of crustal permeability determine fluid flow and as these details are poorly known almost anything is possible. Reality, to the extent that it is reflected by inference from field studies, offers some support to both schools. In particular, evidence of significant lateral and channelized fluid flow are consistent with flow in rigid media, while evidence for short (104 - 105 y) grain-scale fluid-rock interaction during much longer metamorphic events, suggests that reaction-generated grain-scale permeability is sealed rapidly by compaction; a phenomenon that is also essential to prevent extensive retrograde metamorphism. These observations provide a compelling argument for recognizing in conceptual models of lower crustal fluid flow that rocks are neither inviscid nor rigid, but compact by viscous mechanisms on a finite time-scale. This presentation will review the principle consequences of, and obstacles to, incorporating compaction in such models. The role of viscous compaction in the lower crust is extraordinarily uncertain, but ignoring this uncertainty in models of lower crustal fluid flow does not make the models any more certain. Models inevitably invoke an initial steady state hydraulic regime. This initial steady state is critical to model outcomes because it
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander
2016-07-01
Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.
Reduced order modeling of some fluid flows of industrial interest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alonso, D.; Terragni, F.; Velazquez, A.; Vega, J. M.
2012-06-01
Some basic ideas are presented for the construction of robust, computationally efficient reduced order models amenable to be used in industrial environments, combined with somewhat rough computational fluid dynamics solvers. These ideas result from a critical review of the basic principles of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order modeling of both steady and unsteady fluid flows. In particular, the extent to which some artifacts of the computational fluid dynamics solvers can be ignored is addressed, which opens up the possibility of obtaining quite flexible reduced order models. The methods are illustrated with the steady aerodynamic flow around a horizontal tail plane of a commercial aircraft in transonic conditions, and the unsteady lid-driven cavity problem. In both cases, the approximations are fairly good, thus reducing the computational cost by a significant factor.
Multiscale Modeling of Multiphase Fluid Flow
2016-08-01
models. 5.1 Introduction Heat and mass transfer in thin evaporating liquid films is of interest in a variety of technological and industrial...modeling of evaporative heat and mass transfer in thin films presents a multiscale problem where the intermolecular interactions between the substrate...Iskrenova, S.S. Patnaik, J. Heat Transfer , 137 (2015) 080912. [12] E.K. Iskrenova, S.S. Patnaik, International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer , 100
Mathematical model of fluid flow in fundoplication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, S. K.; Zaki, T. A.; Brasseur, J. G.; Kahrilas, P. J.
2000-11-01
Fundoplication is a surgical procedure to reduce chronic acid reflux that permanently narrows the diameter and lengthens the "hiatus" at the esophagus-stomach junction. However, muscle tone required to force a food "bolus" from the esophageal "ampulla" through the constricted hiatus to the stomach increases. Our aim was to analyze these supranormal tonic requirements using a mathematical model. The hiatus was modeled as a narrow axisymmetric tube through which viscous liquid is forced from a modeled ampulla to an isobaric outlet. The time changes in ampullary pressure were calculated using lubrication theory with specified time changes in length and radius of the ampulla and hiatal canal, parametrized from radiographic data. Whereas measurements show that ampullary pressure increases during emptying, the model indicates that a nonlinear reduction in ampullary radius with time is required. Two distinct phases in emptying are predicted, an initial period in which pressure depends both on hiatal diameter and length, and a final period of rapid pressure increase that depends only on hiatal length. These results have important implications to surgery.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A.; Trapp, J.A. |
1992-09-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A. ); Trapp, J.A. Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )
1992-01-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Two-fluid model for two-phase flow
Ishii, M.
1987-01-01
The two-fluid model formulation is discussed in detail. The emphasis of the paper is on the three-dimensional formulation and the closure issues. The origin of the interfacial and turbulent transfer terms in the averaged formulation is explained and their original mathematical forms are examined. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy is proportional to the interfacial area and driving force. This is not a postulate but a result of the careful examination of the mathematical form of the exact interfacial terms. These two effects are considered separately. Since all the interfacial transfer terms involve the interfacial area concentration, the accurate modeling of the local interfacial area concentration is the first step to be taken for a development of a reliable two-fluid model closure relations. The interfacial momentum interaction has been studied in terms of the standard-drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset forces. Available analytical and semi-empirical correlations and closure relations are reviewed and existing shortcomings are pointed out. The other major area of importance is the modeling of turbulent transfer in two-phase flow. The two-phase flow turbulence problem is coupled with the phase separation problem even in a steady-state fully developed flow. Thus the two-phase turbulence cannot be understood without understanding the interfacial drag and lift forces accurately. There are some indications that the mixing length type model may not be sufficient to describe the three-dimensional turbulent and flow structures. Although it is a very difficult challenge, the two-phase flow turbulence should be investigated both experimentally and analytically with long time-scale research. 87 refs.
Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.
2016-04-01
Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.
A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd
1998-01-01
This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales.
Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Celata, Gian Piero
2011-04-15
The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed.
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales
2011-01-01
The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed. PMID:21711847
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester.
Energy flow model for thin plate considering fluid loading with mean flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Ju-Bum; Hong, Suk-Yoon; Song, Jee-Hun
2012-11-01
Energy Flow Analysis (EFA) has been developed to predict the vibration energy density of system structures in the high frequency range. This paper develops the energy flow model for the thin plate in contact with mean flow. The pressure generated by mean flow affects energy governing equation and power reflection-transmission coefficients between plates. The fluid pressure is evaluated by using velocity potential and Bernoulli's equation, and energy governing equations are derived by considering the flexural wavenumbers of a plate, which are different along the direction of flexural wave and mean flow. The derived energy governing equation is composed of two kinds of group velocities. To verify the developed energy flow model, various numerical analyses are performed for a simple plate and a coupled plate for several excitation frequencies. The EFA results are compared with the analytical solutions, and correlations between the EFA results and the analytical solutions are verified.
Deplano, Valérie; Knapp, Yannick; Bailly, Lucie; Bertrand, Eric
2014-04-11
The aim of this work is to develop a unique in vitro set-up in order to analyse the influence of the shear thinning fluid-properties on the flow dynamics within the bulge of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). From an experimental point of view, the goals are to elaborate an analogue shear thinning fluid mimicking the macroscopic blood behaviour, to characterise its rheology at low shear rates and to propose an experimental device able to manage such an analogue fluid without altering its feature while reproducing physiological flow rate and pressure, through compliant AAA. Once these experimental prerequisites achieved, the results obtained in the present work show that the flow dynamics is highly dependent on the fluid rheology. The main results point out that the propagation of the vortex ring, generated in the AAA bulge, is slower for shear thinning fluids inducing a smaller travelled distance by the vortex ring so that it never impacts the anterior wall in the distal region, in opposition to Newtonian fluids. Moreover, scalar shear rate values are globally lower for shear thinning fluids inducing higher maximum stress values than those for the Newtonian fluids. Consequently, this work highlights that a Newtonian fluid model is finally inadequate to obtain a reliable prediction of the flow dynamics within AAA.
Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita
2015-04-01
Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow
Spatial and Temporal Low-Dimensional Models for Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalb, Virginia
2008-01-01
A document discusses work that obtains a low-dimensional model that captures both temporal and spatial flow by constructing spatial and temporal four-mode models for two classic flow problems. The models are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition at two reference Reynolds numbers. Model predictions are made at an intermediate Reynolds number and compared with direct numerical simulation results at the new Reynolds number.
Winters, W.S.
1984-01-01
An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.
Numerical models of fluid-filled fault zones: the effect of fluid flow on shear localization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianco, R. L.; Sparks, D. W.; Aharonov, E.; Goren, L.; Toussaint, R.
2013-12-01
Slip on fault zones occurs within a gouge layer, which consists of a granular material of finely-ground rock that has worn off of the sliding surfaces. Within the gouge layer, the majority of shear is often further localized within narrow bands of grains. The development of this gouge layer and the forces that generate the deformation of the granular medium under constant shear has been extensively studied through both field studies and numerical models. However, there is still no comprehensive set of continuum governing laws to explain and predict where shearing patterns within the gouge material will occur, nor how the localization of shear bands will vary with the inclusion of pore fluids under differing boundary conditions. Since shear in granular materials is always accompanied by dilation and compaction, local pore fluid pressure perturbations are created in shearing regions that drive fluid flow and, in turn, affect grain motions. We use a combined 2-D discrete element/ finite difference numerical model numerical model of a coupled solid and liquid phase matrix governed by the mass conservation laws of a two-phase continuum (Goren et al., JGR, 2011). We model a set of non-cohesive grains that are confined between rough-walled, rigid, porous fault blocks with an independent internal permeability. In a set of models runs, we have independently varied the permeabilities of the gouge layer and the overlying fault blocks and the applied shear velocity and confining stress conditions. We will present results exploring the relationships between compaction/dilation, fluid pressure, and slip localization. In our models, at a given instant, shear is localized in a layer 5-10 grains thick, while the rest of the gouge behaves as an elastic block. These shear bands may occur at one or both boundaries between the gouge and fault blocks, or may 'wander' between the interior and boundaries. In the latter case, the time-integrated shear strain will appear uniform, as if the
Measuring and modelling of particle-fluid flow in a riser reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viitanen, Pekka
1992-02-01
An introduction to the basics of fluidization techniques and especially the principle of a Fluidized Catalyst Cracking (FCC) plant is given. The flow in the riser reactor of an FCC plant is essentially a two phase flow with gaseous fluid flow and particulate flow consisting of the cracking catalyst. Experimental results obtained from tracer measurements done in an FCC plant are presented. Measurements indicate that a dilute phase flow is dominating the flow structure of the catalyst in the riser. Different approaches to model two phase flow are reviewed. Axial dispersion model fit is done and a simulation model is constructed in order to calculate the radial distribution of the cracking catalyst on the FCC riser. A satisfactory agreement with the experiments and the model is achieved when the slip velocity between discrete particles and the fluid is described using the Newtonian drag force. The Newtonian drag is argued to be due to turbulent fluid flow.
Chang, F.C.; Hull, J.R.; Wang, Y.H.; Blazek, K.E.
1996-02-01
A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy- current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from a static test.
Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska
Kelley, Karen D.
2007-01-01
INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits
Predicting multidimensional annular flows with a locally based two-fluid model
Antal, S.P. Edwards, D.P.; Strayer, T.D.
1998-06-01
Annular flows are a well utilized flow regime in many industrial applications, such as, heat exchangers, chemical reactors and industrial process equipment. These flows are characterized by a droplet laden vapor core with a thin, wavy liquid film wetting the walls. The prediction of annular flows has been largely confined to one-dimensional modeling which typically correlates the film thickness, droplet loading, and phase velocities by considering the average flow conditions and global mass and momentum balances to infer the flow topology. In this paper, a methodology to predict annular flows using a locally based two-fluid model of multiphase flow is presented. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a modeling approach for annular flows using a multifield, multidimensional two-fluid model and discuss the need for further work in this area.
E-1 Dynamic Fluid-Flow Model Update: EASY/ROCETS Enhancement and Model Development Support
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Follett, Randolph F.; Taylor, Robert P.
1998-01-01
This report documents the research conducted to update computer models for dynamic fluid flow simulation of the E-1 test stand subsystems at te NASA John C. Stennis Space Center.Work also involved significant upgrades to the capabilities of EASY/ROCKETS library through the inclusion of the NIST-12 thermodynamic property database and development of new control system modules.
Many-body dissipative particle dynamics modeling of fluid flow in fine-grained nanoporous shales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, Yidong; Goral, Jan; Huang, Hai; Miskovic, Ilija; Meakin, Paul; Deo, Milind
2017-05-01
A many-body dissipative particle dynamics model, namely, MDPD, is applied for simulation of pore-scale, multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in fine-grained, nanoporous shales. Since this model is able to simultaneously capture the discrete features of fluid molecules in nanometer size pores and continuum fluid dynamics in larger pores, and is relatively easy to parameterize, it has been recognized as being particularly suitable for simulating complex fluid flow in multi-length-scale nanopore networks of shales. A remarkable feature of this work is the integration of a high-resolution FIB-SEM (focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy) digital imaging technique to the MDPD model for providing 3D voxel data that contain the invaluable geometrical and compositional information of shale samples. This is the first time that FIB-SEM is seamlessly linked to a Lagrangian model like MDPD for fluid flow simulation, which offers a robust approach to bridging gaps between the molecular- and continuum-scales, since the relevant spatial and temporal scales are too big for molecular dynamics, and too small for computational fluid dynamics with known constitutive models. Simulations ranging from a number of benchmark problems to a forced two-fluid flow in a Woodford shale sample are presented. Results indicate that this model can be used to deliver reasonable simulations for multi-component, multi-phase fluid flows in arbitrarily complex pore networks in shales.
Field and modelling studies of immiscible fluid flow above a contaminated water-table aquifer
Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Hess, K.M.
1991-01-01
A method was developed for measuring the spatial distribution of immiscible liquid contaminants in the subsurface. Fluid saturation distributions measured at a crude-oil spill site were used to test a numerical multiphase flow model.
Mathematical modeling of fluid flow in aluminum ladles for degasification with impeller - injector
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos-Gómez, E.; González-Rivera, C.; Ramírez-Argáez, M. A.
2012-09-01
In this work a fundamental Eulerian mathematical model was developed to simulate fluid flow in a water physical model of an aluminum ladle equipped with impeller for degassing treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, gas flow rate on the fluid flow and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. Commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 was used to solve all conservation equations governing the process for this twophase fluid flow system. The mathematical model was successfully validated against experimentally measured liquid velocity and turbulent profiles in a physical model. From the results it was concluded that the angular speed of the impeller is the most important parameter promoting better stirred baths. Pumping effect of the impeller is increased as impeller rotation speed increases. Gas flow rate is detrimental on bath stirring and diminishes pumping effect of impeller.
Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F.; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A.S.; Moosavi, M.H.; Najarian, S.; Bastani, Dariush
2013-01-01
Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data. PMID:25337330
Masoumi, Nafiseh; Framanzad, F; Zamanian, Behnam; Seddighi, A S; Moosavi, M H; Najarian, S; Bastani, Dariush
2013-01-01
Many diseases are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics. Therefore, understanding the hydrodynamics of CSF flow and intracranial pressure is helpful for obtaining deeper knowledge of pathological processes and providing better treatments. Furthermore, engineering a reliable computational method is promising approach for fabricating in vitro models which is essential for inventing generic medicines. A Fluid-Solid Interaction (FSI)model was constructed to simulate CSF flow. An important problem in modeling the CSF flow is the diastolic back flow. In this article, using both rigid and flexible conditions for ventricular system allowed us to evaluate the effect of surrounding brain tissue. Our model assumed an elastic wall for the ventricles and a pulsatile CSF input as its boundary conditions. A comparison of the results and the experimental data was done. The flexible model gave better results because it could reproduce the diastolic back flow mentioned in clinical research studies. The previous rigid models have ignored the brain parenchyma interaction with CSF and so had not reported the back flow during the diastolic time. In this computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, the CSF pressure and flow velocity in different areas were concordant with the experimental data.
Lattice Boltzmann Modeling of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Porous Medium Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauswirth, S.; Dye, A. L.; Schultz, P. B.; Bowers, C.; Miller, C. T.
2016-12-01
The ability to predict the behavior of non-Newtonian fluids in porous medium systems is critical for a wide-range of applications, including hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, contaminant remediation, and biological systems. Development of accurate macroscale models of such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between the fluid and medium properties at the microscale and averaged macroscale properties. This study focuses specifically on guar gum, a major component of hydraulic fracturing fluids that exhibits Cross-model rheology. A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) incorporating non-Newtonian behavior was developed and validated against a semi-analytical solution for Cross-model fluid flow between parallel plates. The developed LBM was then used to simulate a series of one-dimensional column flow experiments conducted with a range of fluids and porous medium materials. The computational results were used in conjunction with the experimental data to investigate the relationships between fluid and media properties, microscale physics, and macroscale parameters.
A probabilistic approach to modeling and controlling fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaiser, Eurika; Noack, Bernd R.; Spohn, Andreas; Cattafesta, Louis N.; Morzynski, Marek; Daviller, Guillaume; Brunton, Bingni W.; Brunton, Steven L.
2016-11-01
We extend cluster-based reduced-order modeling (CROM) (Kaiser et al., 2014) to include control inputs in order to determine optimal control laws with respect to a cost function for unsteady flows. The proposed methodology frames high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamics into low- dimensional, probabilistic, linear dynamics which considerably simplifies the optimal control problem while preserving nonlinear actuation mechanisms. The data-driven approach builds upon the unsupervised partitioning of the data into few kinematically similar flow states using a clustering algorithm. The coarse-grained dynamics are then described by a Markov model which is closely related to the approximation of Perron-Frobenius operators. The Markov model can be used as predictor for the ergodic probability distribution for a particular control law approximating the long-term behavior of the system on which basis the optimal control law is determined. Moreover, we combine CROM with a recently developed approach for optimal sparse sensor placement for classification (Brunton et al., 2013) as a critical enabler for in-time control and for the systematic identification of dynamical regimes from few measurements. The approach is applied to a separating flow and a mixing layer exhibiting vortex pairing.
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
Modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow for decaying swirl flow in a circular pipe
Bali, T.
1998-04-01
The economic benefits of energy and material savings have prompted and received greatest attention in order to increase convective heat transfer rates in the process equipment. In the present study, a propeller type swirl generator was developed, and its effects on heat transfer and fluid flow were investigated numerically and experimentally for air flow in a pipe. In the numerical study, for axisymmetrically, incompressible turbulent swirl flows, the Navier-Stokes equations were solved using the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulent model. So that a computer program in Fortran was constructed using the SIMPLEC Algorithm. In experimental work, axial and tangential velocity distributions behind the swirl generator were measured by using hot-wire anemometry. Experimental and numerical axial and tangential velocity distributions along the pipe were compared, and good agreement was found. Axial velocity profile showed a decrement in the central portion of the pipe and an increased axial velocity was seen in near the wall. Tangential velocity profiles had a maximum value and its location moved in radially with distance. The effects of swirl flow on the heat transfer and pressure drop were also investigated experimentally.
Hydraulic modeling of unsteady debris-flow surges with solid-fluid interactions
Iverson, Richard M.
1997-01-01
Interactions of solid and fluid constituents produce the unique style of motion that typifies debris flows. To simulate this motion, a new hydraulic model represents debris flows as deforming masses of granular solids variably liquefied by viscous pore fluid. The momentum equation of the model describes how internal and boundary forces change as coarse-grained surge heads dominated by grain-contact friction grade into muddy debris-flow bodies more strongly influenced by fluid viscosity and pressure. Scaling analysis reveals that pore-pressure variations can cause flow resistance in surge heads to surpass that in debris-flow bodies by orders of magnitude. Numerical solutions of the coupled momentum and continuity equations provide good predictions of unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows from initiation through deposition.
Soltani, M.; Chen, P.
2013-01-01
Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor’s surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy’s law for tissue, and simplified Navier–Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model. PMID:23840579
Soltani, M; Chen, P
2013-01-01
Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model.
Modeling Fluid Flow by Exploring Different Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility
2006-06-01
EXPLORING DIFFERENT FLOW GEOMETRIES AND EFFECT OF WEAK COMPRESSIBILITY by James J. Sopko June 2006 Thesis Advisor: Hong Zhou Second...Flow Geometries and Effect of Weak Compressibility. 6. AUTHOR James J. Sopko 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS...velocity field. This yields a weakly compressible fluid flow. The basis of this study is to use numerical analysis to explore the effects of weak
Prediction of fluid forces acting on a hand model in unsteady flow conditions.
Kudo, Shigetada; Yanai, Toshimasa; Wilson, Barry; Takagi, Hideki; Vennell, Ross
2008-01-01
The aim of this study was to develop a method to predict fluid forces acting on the human hand in unsteady flow swimming conditions. A mechanical system consisting of a pulley and chain mechanism and load cell was constructed to rotate a hand model in fluid flows. To measure the angular displacement of the hand model a potentiometer was attached to the axis of the rotation. The hand model was then fixed at various angles about the longitudinal axis of the hand model and rotated at different flow velocities in a swimming flume for 258 different trials to approximate a swimmer's stroke in unsteady flow conditions. Pressures were taken from 12 transducers embedded in the hand model at a sampling frequency of 200Hz. The resultant fluid force acting on the hand model was then determined on the basis of the kinetic and kinematic data taken from the mechanical system at the frequency of 200Hz. A stepwise regression analysis was applied to acquire higher order polynomial equations that predict the fluid force acting on the accelerating hand model from the 12 pressure values. The root mean square (RMS) difference between the resultant fluid force measured and that predicted from the single best-fit polynomial equation across all trials was 5N. The method developed in the present study accurately predicted the fluid forces acting on the hand model.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.
1987-01-01
A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.
Development of Efficient Real-Fluid Model in Simulating Liquid Rocket Injector Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary; Farmer, Richard
2003-01-01
The characteristics of propellant mixing near the injector have a profound effect on the liquid rocket engine performance. However, the flow features near the injector of liquid rocket engines are extremely complicated, for example supercritical-pressure spray, turbulent mixing, and chemical reactions are present. Previously, a homogeneous spray approach with a real-fluid property model was developed to account for the compressibility and evaporation effects such that thermodynamics properties of a mixture at a wide range of pressures and temperatures can be properly calculated, including liquid-phase, gas- phase, two-phase, and dense fluid regions. The developed homogeneous spray model demonstrated a good success in simulating uni- element shear coaxial injector spray combustion flows. However, the real-fluid model suffered a computational deficiency when applied to a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The deficiency is caused by the pressure and enthalpy being the independent variables in the solution procedure of a pressure-based code, whereas the real-fluid model utilizes density and temperature as independent variables. The objective of the present research work is to improve the computational efficiency of the real-fluid property model in computing thermal properties. The proposed approach is called an efficient real-fluid model, and the improvement of computational efficiency is achieved by using a combination of a liquid species and a gaseous species to represent a real-fluid species.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartwright, Ian
Advection-dispersion fluid flow models implicitly assume that the infiltrating fluid flows through an already fluid-saturated medium. However, whether rocks contain a fluid depends on their reaction history, and whether any initial fluid escapes. The behaviour of different rocks may be illustrated using hypothetical marble compositions. Marbles with diverse chemistries (e.g. calcite + dolomite + quartz) are relatively reactive, and will generally produce a fluid during heating. By contrast, marbles with more restricted chemistries (e.g. calcite + quartz or calcite-only) may not. If the rock is not fluid bearing when fluid infiltration commences, mineralogical reactions may produce a reaction-enhanced permeability in calcite + dolomite + quartz or calcite + quartz, but not in calcite-only marbles. The permeability production controls the pattern of mineralogical, isotopic, and geochemical resetting during fluid flow. Tracers retarded behind the mineralogical fronts will probably be reset as predicted by the advection-dispersion models; however, tracers that are expected to be reset ahead of the mineralogical fronts cannot progress beyond the permeability generating reaction. In the case of very unreactive lithologies (e.g. pure calcite marbles, cherts, and quartzites), the first reaction to affect the rocks may be a metasomatic one ahead of which there is little pervasive resetting of any tracer. Centimetre-scale layering may lead to the formation of self-perpetuating fluid channels in rocks that are not fluid saturated due to the juxtaposition of reactants. Such layered rocks may show patterns of mineralogical resetting that are not predicted by advection-dispersion models. Patterns of mineralogical and isotopic resetting in marbles from a number of terrains, for example: Chillagoe, Marulan South, Reynolds Range (Australia); Adirondack Mountains, Old Woman Mountains, Notch Peak (USA); and Stephen Cross Quarry (Canada) vary as predicted by these models.
Unsteady fluid dynamic model for propeller induced flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Joseph; Ashby, Dale L.; Yon, Steven
1991-01-01
A potential flow based three-dimensional panel method was modified to treat time dependent flow conditions in which the body's geometry may vary with time. The main objective of this effort was the study of a flow field due to a propeller rotating relative to a nonrotating body which is otherwise moving at a constant forward speed. Calculated surface pressure, thrust and torque coefficient data for a four-bladed marine propeller/body compared favorably with previously published experimental results.
Unsteady fluid dynamic model for propeller induced flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Joseph; Ashby, Dale L.; Yon, Steven
1991-01-01
A potential flow based three-dimensional panel method was modified to treat time dependent flow conditions in which the body's geometry may vary with time. The main objective of this effort was the study of a flow field due to a propeller rotating relative to a nonrotating body which is otherwise moving at a constant forward speed. Calculated surface pressure, thrust and torque coefficient data for a four-bladed marine propeller/body compared favorably with previously published experimental results.
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi; Richardson, Jacob A.; Cashman, Katharine V.
2017-01-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, designing flow mitigation measures, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, COMSOL, and MOLASSES. We model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal planes, sloping surfaces, and into topographic obstacles. We compare model results to physical observations made during well-controlled analogue and molten basalt experiments, and to analytical theory when available. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and OpenFOAM and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We assess the goodness-of-fit of the simulation results and the computational cost. Our results guide the selection of numerical simulation codes for different applications, including inferring emplacement conditions of past lava flows, modeling the temporal evolution of ongoing flows during eruption, and probabilistic assessment of lava flow hazard prior to eruption. Finally, we outline potential experiments and desired key observational data from future flows that would extend existing benchmarking data sets.
Preece, D.S. Perkins, E.D.
1999-02-10
Techniques for modeling oil well sand production have been developed using the formulations for superquadric discrete elements and Darcy fluid flow. Discrete element models are generated using the new technique of particle cloning. Discrete element sources and sinks allow simulation of sand production from the initial state through the transition to an equilibrium state where particles are created and removed at the same rate.
An efficient tool for modeling and predicting fluid flow in nanochannels.
Ahadian, Samad; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki
2009-11-14
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to evaluate the penetration of two different fluids (i.e., a Lennard-Jones fluid and a polymer) through a designed nanochannel. For both fluids, the length of permeation as a function of time was recorded for various wall-fluid interactions. A novel methodology, namely, the artificial neural network (ANN) approach was then employed for modeling and prediction of the length of imbibition as a function of influencing parameters (i.e., time, the surface tension and the viscosity of fluids, and the wall-fluid interaction). It was demonstrated that the designed ANN is capable of modeling and predicting the length of penetration with superior accuracy. Moreover, the importance of variables in the designed ANN, i.e., time, the surface tension and the viscosity of fluids, and the wall-fluid interaction, was demonstrated with the aid of the so-called connection weight approach, by which all parameters are simultaneously considered. It was revealed that the wall-fluid interaction plays a significant role in such transport phenomena, namely, fluid flow in nanochannels.
Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.
1976-01-01
A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.
An Integrative Model of Excitation Driven Fluid Flow in a 2D Uterine Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggio, Charles; Fauci, Lisa; Chrispell, John
2009-11-01
We present a model of intra-uterine fluid flow in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus by inducing peristalsis in a 2D channel. This is an integrative multiscale computational model that takes as input fluid viscosity, passive tissue properties of the uterine channel and a prescribed wave of membrane depolarization. This voltage pulse is coupled to a model of calcium dynamics inside a uterine smooth muscle cell, which in turn drives a kinetic model of myosin phosphorylation governing contractile muscle forces. Using the immersed boundary method, these muscle forces are communicated to a fluid domain to simulate the contractions which occur in a human uterus. An analysis of the effects of model parameters on the flow properties and emergent geometry of the peristaltic channel will be presented.
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-01
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
Yamagishi, Osamu Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-15
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Time-Dependent Model for Fluid Flow in Porous Materials with Multiple Pore Sizes.
Cummins, Brian M; Chinthapatla, Rukesh; Ligler, Frances S; Walker, Glenn M
2017-04-18
An understanding of fluid transport through porous materials is critical for the development of lateral flow assays and analytical devices based on paper microfluidics. Models of fluid transport within porous materials often assume a single capillary pressure and permeability value for the material, implying that the material comprises a single pore size and that the porous material is fully saturated behind the visible wetted front. As a result, current models can lead to inaccuracies when modeling transport over long distances and/or times. A new transport model is presented that incorporates a range of pore sizes to more accurately predict the capillary transport of fluid in porous materials. The model effectively predicts the time-dependent saturation of rectangular strips of Whatman filter no. 1 paper using the manufacturer's data, published pore-size distribution measurements, and the fluid's properties.
A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2016-04-01
Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To
Experimental Investigation and Pore-Scale Modeling of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hauswirth, S.; Dye, A. L.; Miller, C. T.; Tapscott, C.; Schultz, P. B.
2015-12-01
Systems involving the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media arise in a number of settings, including hydraulic fracturing, enhanced oil recovery, contaminant remediation, and biological systems. Development of accurate macroscale models of such systems requires an understanding of the relationship between the fluid and medium properties at the microscale and averaged macroscale properties. This study investigates the flow of aqueous solutions of guar gum, a major component of hydraulic fracturing fluids that exhibits Cross model rheological behavior. The rheological properties of solutions containing varying concentrations of guar gum were characterized using a rotational rheometer and the data were fit to a model relating viscosity to shear rate and concentration. Flow experiments were conducted in a porous medium-packed column to measure the pressure response during the flow of guar gum solutions at a wide range of flow rates and determine apparent macroscale viscosities and shear rates. To investigate the relationship between the fluid rheology, microscale physics, and the observed macroscale properties, a lattice Boltzmann pore scale simulator incorporating non-Newtonian behavior was developed. The model was validated, then used to simulate systems representative of the column experiments, allowing direct correlation of detailed microscale physics to the macroscale observations.
Numerical modeling of thermal behavior of fluid conduit flow with transport delay
Chow, T.T.; Ip, F.; Dunn, A.; Tse, W.L.
1996-12-31
Fluid mass and energy flows in air-conditioning systems vary with the changing output demand. In lengthy or complex ductwork and pipework, the accuracy in simulating the dynamic network behavior is greatly affected by the accuracy in modeling the radial energy losses and the axial transport lag. Transport delay consideration is also vital in the study of heat exchanger dynamics. This paper reviews the development of transport delay models in fluid conduit flow. A new numerical model is recommended in which the thermal behavior of fluid elements can be traced per physical distance traveled in unit time step. Justifications by sensitivity and frequency response analyses were performed. The results of analytical, experimental, as well as intermodel comparisons demonstrate the promising accuracy of the numerical model introduced.
Geophysical fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.
1979-01-01
The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
Application of a single-fluid model for the steam condensing flow prediction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smołka, K.; Dykas, S.; Majkut, M.; Strozik, M.
2016-10-01
One of the results of many years of research conducted in the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery of the Silesian University of Technology are computational algorithms for modelling steam flows with a non-equilibrium condensation process. In parallel with theoretical and numerical research, works were also started on experimental testing of the steam condensing flow. This paper presents a comparison of calculations of a flow field modelled by means of a single-fluid model using both an in-house CFD code and the commercial Ansys CFX v16.2 software package. The calculation results are compared to inhouse experimental testing.
Chemical vapor deposition fluid flow simulation modelling tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bullister, Edward T.
1992-01-01
Accurate numerical simulation of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes requires a general purpose computational fluid dynamics package combined with specialized capabilities for high temperature chemistry. In this report, we describe the implementation of these specialized capabilities in the spectral element code NEKTON. The thermal expansion of the gases involved is shown to be accurately approximated by the low Mach number perturbation expansion of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The radiative heat transfer between multiple interacting radiating surfaces is shown to be tractable using the method of Gebhart. The disparate rates of reaction and diffusion in CVD processes are calculated via a point-implicit time integration scheme. We demonstrate the use above capabilities on prototypical CVD applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Juan, Tingting; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Eldredge, Jeff D.; Pirouz Kavehpour, H.
2011-11-01
Vitrectomy is a microsurgical technique to remove the vitreous gel from the vitreous cavity. Due to the viscoelastic nature of the vitreous gel, its complex fluidic behavior during vitrectomy affects the outcome of the procedure. Therefore, the knowledge of such behavior is essential for better designing the vitrectomy devices, such as vitreous cutters, and tuning the system settings such as port and shaft diameters, infusion, vacuum, and cutting rate. We studied the viscoelastic properties of porcine vitreous humor using a stressed-control shear rheometer and obtained its relaxation time, retardation time, and shear-zero viscosity. We performed a computational study of the flow in a vitreous cutter using the viscoelastic parameters obtained from the rheology experiments. We found significant differences between the modeled vitreous gel and a Newtonian surrogate fluid in the flow behavior and performance of the vitreous cutter. Our results will help in understanding of the vitreous behavior during vitrectomy and providing guidelines for new vitreous cutter design.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, H. R.; Lev, E.; Chen, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Honor, C.
2015-12-01
Recent eruptions in Hawai'i, Iceland, and Cape Verde highlight the need for improved lava flow models for forecasting and hazard assessment. Existing models used for lava flow simulation range in assumptions, complexity, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess the capabilities of existing models and test the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flows, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, Flow3D, and COMSOL. Using new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (2015) as a guide, we model Newtonian, Herschel-Bulkley and cooling flows over inclined planes, obstacles, and digital elevation models with a wide range of source conditions. Results are compared to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Our study highlights the strengths and weakness of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection. We apply the best-fit codes to simulate the lava flows in Harrat Rahat, a predominately mafic volcanic field in Saudi Arabia. Input parameters are assembled from rheology and volume measurements of past flows using geochemistry, crystallinity, and present-day lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models. With these data, we use our verified models to reconstruct historic and prehistoric events, in order to assess the hazards posed by lava flows for Harrat Rahat.
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
Pulsatile flow of blood using a modified second-grade fluid model
Massoudi, Mehrdad; Tran, P.X.
2008-07-01
We study the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood in an artery, where the effects of body acceleration are included. The blood is modeled as a modified second-grade fluid where the viscosity and the normal stress coefficients depend on the shear rate. It is assumed that the blood near the wall behaves as a Newtonian fluid, and in the core as a non-Newtonian fluid. This phenomenon is also known as the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect. The equations are made dimensionless and solved numerically.
Using inverse modeling to quantify the unknown parameters pertaining to metamorphic fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Z.; Skelton, A.
2012-12-01
Metamorphic reactions can liberate fluid species such as H2O, CO2 and CH4, which are buoyant and migrate upwards through the Earth's crust. To elucidate the role of metamorphism in long term global chemical cycles, it is critical to quantify the flux rate and duration of metamorphic fluid flow and rates of metamorphic reactions and hydrodynamic dispersion in metamorphic fluids. Although time-integrated and time-averaged flux rates of metamorphic fluids and the rates of reactions driven by metamorphic fluid flow have been estimated by reactive transport modeling in the past, most of these estimates rely on simplifications which allow derivation of an analytical solution to some form of the reactive transport equation. These include ignoring the term for hydrodynamic dispersion in the direction of fluid flow, assuming 'grain scale equilibrium' and assuming a 'steady state' or 'quasi-stationary state'. Given that these assumptions are frequently used to quantify metamorphic fluid flow, we consider it useful to verify their usage by 1) developing a general inverse (i.e. back-analysis) modeling framework for quantification of metamorphic fluid flux rates and the rates of fluid-driven metamorphic reactions, and 2) using this framework to validate previous estimates of these parameters which were based on analytical solutions to the reactive transport equation. Our newly developed inverse modeling approach combines numerical solutions of reactive transport equation with the differential evolution method. This general transport model considers advection, hydrodynamic dispersion and fluid-rock reactions under a transient state, which is solved by the Galerkin finite element method. By using global optimization algorithms such as the differential evolution method, those unknown parameters (e.g. flux rates) that cannot be measured in the field or in the laboratory, can be set trial values within certain ranges and continuously adjusted, until the discrepancies between
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.
1987-01-01
The role of experiment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is discussed. Flow modeling of complex physics and determination of accuracy limits (confidence) are two ways in which experimentation can be used to develop CFD. The results of this discussion are presented in viewgraph form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marvin, Joseph G.
1987-01-01
The role of experiment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is discussed. Flow modeling of complex physics and determination of accuracy limits (confidence) are two ways in which experimentation can be used to develop CFD. The results of this discussion are presented in viewgraph form.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Farhad; Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Khan, Ilyas; Saqib, Muhammad
2017-02-01
The effects of magnetohydrodynamics on the blood flow when blood is represented as a Casson fluid, along with magnetic particles in a horizontal cylinder is studied. The flow is due to an oscillating pressure gradient. The Laplace and finite Hankel transforms are used to obtain the closed form solutions of the fractional partial differential equations. Effects of various parameters on the flow of both blood and magnetic particles are shown graphically. The analysis shows that, the model with fractional order derivatives bring a remarkable changes as compared to the ordinary model. The study highlights that applied magnetic field reduces the velocities of both the blood and magnetic particles.
A PISO-like algorithm to simulate superfluid helium flow with the two-fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soulaine, Cyprien; Quintard, Michel; Allain, Hervé; Baudouy, Bertrand; Van Weelderen, Rob
2015-02-01
This paper presents a segregated algorithm to solve numerically the superfluid helium (He II) equations using the two-fluid model. In order to validate the resulting code and illustrate its potential, different simulations have been performed. First, the flow through a capillary filled with He II with a heated area on one side is simulated and results are compared to analytical solutions in both Landau and Gorter-Mellink flow regimes. Then, transient heat transfer of a forced flow of He II is investigated. Finally, some two-dimensional simulations in a porous medium model are carried out.
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.
2009-01-01
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2016-02-29
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
FEA modeling and fluid flow simulation of human rectum with inserted bowel catheters.
Yong Zhang; VanRiper, Tina; Rague, Brian; Weidman, Drew
2016-08-01
In this project, fluid flow and fluid-structure interaction are studied for the human lower gastrointestinal (GI) region. The study consists of two steps. First, we apply meshing methods to discretize both the human lower GI model and the catheter model at sufficient resolution suitable for importing into a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) tool. For model discretization, 3D models of the colon reconstructed from human MRI slices are used to obtain the valid inlet and outlet boundary surfaces. To resolve the viscous boundary layer in flow studies, a special structure of the near-wall volumetric mesh is built by triangular prisms that construct quasi-structured, multiple near-boundary sub-layers. Second, we study the computational fluid dynamics. Transient numerical calculation of flow profiles are conducted for velocity profiles, flow rate division, pressure gradient variation, and flow cosmetics. The analysis of biofluid interactions with medical catheters is conducted to help understand how the biofluid behaves in various conditions to address design related concerns such as leakage problems.
Numerical Modeling on Two phase Fluid flow in a Coupled Fracture-Skin-Matrix System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valsala Kumari, R.; G, S. K.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow modeling studies below the ground surface is very essential for designing suitable remediation strategies for contaminated aquifers and for the development of petroleum and geothermal reservoirs. Presence of fractured bedrock beneath the ground surface will make multiphase flow process more complex due to its highly heterogeneous nature. A major challenge in modeling flow within a fractured rock is to capture the interaction between the high permeability fracture and the low permeability rock-matrix. In some instances, weathering and mineral depositions will lead to formation of an additional layer named fracture-skin at the fracture-matrix interface. Porosity and permeability of fracture-skin may significantly vary from the adjacent rock matrix and this variation will result in different flow and transport behavior within the fracture-skin. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model simultaneous flow of two immiscible phases (water and LNAPL) in a saturated coupled fracture-skin-matrix system. A fully-implicit finite difference model has been developed to simulate the variation of pressure and saturation of fluid phases along the fracture and within the rock-matrix. Sensitivity studies have been done to analyze the effect of change of various fracture-skin parameters such as porosity, diffusion coefficient and thickness on pressure and saturation distribution of both wetting and non-wetting fluid phases. It can be concluded from the study that the presence of fracture-skin is significantly affecting the fluid flow at the fracture-matrix interface and it can also be seen from the study that the flow behavior of both fluid phases is sensitive to fracture-skin parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yongbin
2015-06-01
Quantitative comparisons were made between the flow factor approach model and the molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) results both of which describe the flow of a molecularly thin fluid film confined between two solid walls. Although these two approaches, respectively, calculate the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film by different ways, very good agreements were found between them when the Couette and Poiseuille flows, respectively, calculated from them were compared. It strongly indicates the validity of the flow factor approach model in modeling the flow of a confined molecularly thin fluid film.
Characterization and Low-Dimensional Modeling of Urban Fluid Flow
2014-10-06
outflow boundary condition prescribed on the right face . (a) L∞ and L2 errors in u and v as a function of polynomial order for domain x ∈ [−0.5 5.0...2000] have used LES on a single cube while Baik and Kim [1999] have used a 2D k- turbulence model for a 2D street. Kim and Baik [2004] used a 3D...around a cube , focused his interest on the iden- tification and localization of large-scale vortical structures. He found that swirling strength and
Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.
2007-06-15
After providing a brief review of the constitutive modeling of the stress tensor for granular materials using non-Newtonian fluid models, we study the flow between two horizontal flat plates. It is assumed that the granular media behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid (of the Reiner–Rivlin type); we use the constitutive relation derived by Rajagopal and Massoudi [Rajagopal, K. R. and M. Massoudi, “A Method for measuring material moduli of granular materials: flow in an orthogonal rheometer,” Topical Report, DOE/PETC/TR-90/3, 1990] which can predict the normal stress differences. The lower plate is fixed and heated, and the upper plate (which is at a lower temperature than the lower plate) is set into motion with a constant velocity. The steady fully developed flow and the heat transfer equations are made dimensionless and are solved numerically; the effects of different dimensionless numbers and viscous dissipation are discussed.
Perrin, Christian L; Tardy, Philippe M J; Sorbie, Ken S; Crawshaw, John C
2006-03-15
The in situ rheology of polymeric solutions has been studied experimentally in etched silicon micromodels which are idealizations of porous media. The rectangular channels in these etched networks have dimensions typical of pore sizes in sandstone rocks. Pressure drop/flow rate relations have been measured for water and non-Newtonian hydrolyzed-polyacrylamide (HPAM) solutions in both individual straight rectangular capillaries and in networks of such capillaries. Results from these experiments have been analyzed using pore-scale network modeling incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid mechanics of a Carreau fluid. Quantitative agreement is seen between the experiments and the network calculations in the Newtonian and shear-thinning flow regions demonstrating that the 'shift factor,'alpha, can be calculated a priori. Shear-thickening behavior was observed at higher flow rates in the micromodel experiments as a result of elastic effects becoming important and this remains to be incorporated in the network model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egbers, C.
The'GeoFlow' is an ESA experiment planned for the Fluid Science Laboratory on ISS under the scientific coordination (PI) of the Department of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics (LAS) at the Brandenburg Technical University (BTU) of Cottbus, Germany. The objective of the experiment is to study thermal convection in the gap between two concentric rotating (full) spheres. A central symmetric force field simi- lar to the gravity field acting on planets can be produced by applying a high voltage between inner and outer sphere using the dielectrophoretic effect (rotating capacitor). To counter the unidirectional gravity under terrestrial conditions, this experiment re- quires a microgravity environment. The parameters of the experiment are chosen in analogy to the thermal convective motions in the outer core of the Earth. In analogy to geophysical motions in the Earth`s liquid core the experiment can rotate as solid body as well as differential (inner to outer). Thermal convection is produced by heat- ing the inner sphere and cooling the outer ones. Furtheron, the variation of radius ratio between inner and outer sphere is foreseen as a parameter variation. The flows to be investigated will strongly depend on the gap width and on the Prandtl number.
Dynamic analysis of electro- and magneto-rheological fluid dampers using duct flow models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esteki, Kambiz; Bagchi, Ashutosh; Sedaghati, Ramin
2014-03-01
Magneto-rheological (MR) and electro-rheological (ER) fluid dampers provide a semi-active control mechanism for suppressing vibration responses of a structure. MR and ER fluids change their viscosity under the influence of magnetic and electrical fields, respectively, which facilitates automatic control when these fluids are used in damping devices. The existing models, namely the phenomenological models for simulating the behavior of MR and ER dampers, rely on various parameters determined experimentally by the manufacturers for each damper configuration. It is of interest to develop mechanistic models of these dampers which can be applied to various configurations so that their fundamental characteristics can be studied to develop flexible design solutions for smart structures. This paper presents a formulation for dynamic analysis of electro-rheological (ER) and magneto-rheological (MR) fluid dampers in flow and mix mode configurations under harmonic and random excitations. The procedure employs the vorticity transport equation and the regularization function to deal with the unsteady flow and nonlinear behavior of ER/MR fluid in general motion. The finite difference method has been used to solve the governing differential equations. Using the developed approach, the damping force of ER/MR dampers can be calculated under any type of excitation.
Computer modelling of bone's adaptation: the role of normal strain, shear strain and fluid flow.
Tiwari, Abhishek Kumar; Prasad, Jitendra
2017-04-01
Bone loss is a serious health problem. In vivo studies have found that mechanical stimulation may inhibit bone loss as elevated strain in bone induces osteogenesis, i.e. new bone formation. However, the exact relationship between mechanical environment and osteogenesis is less clear. Normal strain is considered as a prime stimulus of osteogenic activity; however, there are some instances in the literature where osteogenesis is observed in the vicinity of minimal normal strain, specifically near the neutral axis of bending in long bones. It suggests that osteogenesis may also be induced by other or secondary components of mechanical environment such as shear strain or canalicular fluid flow. As it is evident from the literature, shear strain and fluid flow can be potent stimuli of osteogenesis. This study presents a computational model to investigate the roles of these stimuli in bone adaptation. The model assumes that bone formation rate is roughly proportional to the normal, shear and fluid shear strain energy density above their osteogenic thresholds. In vivo osteogenesis due to cyclic cantilever bending of a murine tibia has been simulated. The model predicts results close to experimental findings when normal strain, and shear strain or fluid shear were combined. This study also gives a new perspective on the relation between osteogenic potential of micro-level fluid shear and that of macro-level bending shear. Attempts to establish such relations among the components of mechanical environment and corresponding osteogenesis may ultimately aid in the development of effective approaches to mitigating bone loss.
Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation
Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.
1982-08-10
The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.
Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation
Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.
1982-10-01
The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.
A Rayleigh-Plesset based transport model for cryogenic fluid cavitating flow computations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, SuGuo; Wang, GuoYu; Hu, ChangLi
2014-04-01
The present article focuses on modeling issues to simulate cryogenic fluid cavitating flows. A revised cavitation model, in which the thermal effect is considered, is derivated and established based on Kubota model. Cavitating flow computations are conducted around an axisymmetric ogive and a 2D quarter caliber hydrofoil in liquid nitrogen implementing the revised model and Kubota model coupled with energy equation and dynamically updating the fluid physical properties, respecitively. The results show that the revised cavitation model can better describe the mass transport process in the cavitation process in cryogenic fluids. Compared with Kubota model, the revised model can reflect the observed "frosty" appearance within the cavity. The cavity length becomes shorter and it can capture the temperature and pressure depressions more consistently in the cavitating region, particularly at the rear of the cavity. The evaporation rate decreases, and while the magnitude of the condensation rate becomes larger because of the thermal effect terms in the revised model compared with the results obtained by the Kubota model.
Evaluation of a vortex model of turbulent cavity flow. [for computing noise generation of fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, J. C.; Block, P. J. W.
1979-01-01
A two dimensional discrete vortex model is applied to turbulent flow over a cavity at a Reynolds number based on cavity half length of approximately 500,000. These model predictions are compared with experimental data on a time average and on a spectral basis. The comparisons indicate that the vortex model reproduces the mean velocity profiles of this complex flow, while the turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress profiles are overpredicted in magnitude. Spectral analyses show that the vortex model introduces unrealistic low frequency power which becomes less dominant as the model becomes more disordered. The spectral power distribution of the model in this state is nearly in agreement with that of the data, somewhat too low at the higher frequencies and too high at the lower frequencies. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the cavity feedback oscillation phenomenon.
Multiscale computational model of fluid flow and matrix deformation in decellularized liver.
Nishii, Kenichiro; Reese, Greg; Moran, Emma C; Sparks, Jessica L
2016-04-01
Currently little is known about the biomechanical environment in decellularized tissue. The goal of this research is to quantify the mechanical microenvironment in decellularized liver, for varying organ-scale perfusion conditions, using a combined experimental/computational approach. Needle-guided ultra-miniature pressure sensors were inserted into liver tissue to measure parenchymal fluid pressure ex-situ in portal vein-perfused native (n=5) and decellularized (n=7) ferret liver, for flow rates from 3-12mL/min. Pressures were also recorded at the inlet near the portal vein cannula to estimate total vascular resistance of the specimens. Experimental results were fit to a multiscale computational model to simulate perfusion conditions inside native versus decellularized livers for four experimental flow rates. The multiscale model consists of two parts: an organ-scale electrical analog model of liver hemodynamics and a tissue-scale model that predicts pore fluid pressure, pore fluid velocity, and solid matrix stress and deformation throughout the 3D hepatic lobule. Distinct models were created for native versus decellularized liver. Results show that vascular resistance decreases by 82% as a result of decellularization. The hydraulic conductivity of the decellularized liver lobule, a measure of tissue permeability, was 5.6 times that of native liver. For the four flow rates studied, mean fluid pressures in the decellularized lobule were 0.6-2.4mmHg, mean fluid velocities were 211-767μm/s, and average solid matrix principal strains were 1.7-6.1%. In the future this modeling platform can be used to guide the optimization of perfusion seeding and conditioning strategies for decellularized scaffolds in liver bioengineering.
A discontinuous finite element approach to cracking in coupled poro-elastic fluid flow models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M. W.; Evans, O.; Ulven, O. I.; Sun, W.
2016-12-01
Reaction-driven cracking is a coupled process whereby fluid-induced reactions drive large volume changes in the host rock which produce stresses leading to crack propagation and failure. This in turn generates new surface area and fluid-flow pathways for subsequent reaction in a potentially self-sustaining system. This mechanism has has been proposed for the pervasive serpentinization and carbonation of peridotite, as well as applications to mineral carbon sequestration and hydrocarbon extraction. The key computational issue in this problem is implementing algorithms that adequately model the formation of discrete fractures. Here we present models using a discontinuous finite element method for modeling fracture formation (Radovitsky et al., 2011). Cracks are introduced along facets of the mesh by the relaxation of penalty parameters once a failure criterion is met. It is fully described in the weak form of the equations, requiring no modification of the underlying mesh structure and allowing fluid properties to be easily adjusted along cracked facets. To develop and test the method, we start by implementing the algorithm for the simplified Biot equations for poro-elasticity using the finite element model assembler TerraFERMA. We consider hydro-fracking around a borehole (Grassl et al., 2015), where elevated fluid pressure in the poro-elastic solid causes it to fail radially in tension. We investigate the effects of varying the Biot coefficient and adjusting the fluid transport properties in the vicinity of the crack and compare our results to related dual-graph models (Ulven & Sun, submitted). We discuss issues arising from this method, including the formation of null spaces and appropriate preconditioning and solution strategies. Initial results suggest that this method provides a promising way to incorporate cracking into our reactive fluid flow models and future work aims to integrate the mechanical and chemical aspects of this process.
Nonlinear modeling and testing of magneto-rheological fluids in low shear rate squeezing flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farjoud, Alireza; Ahmadian, Mehdi; Mahmoodi, Nima; Zhang, Xinjie; Craft, Michael
2011-08-01
A novel analytical investigation of magneto-rheological (MR) fluids in squeezing flows is performed and the results are validated with experimental test data. The squeeze flow of MR fluids has recently been of great interest to researchers. This is due to the large force capacity of MR fluids in squeeze mode compared to other modes (valve and shear modes), which makes the squeeze mode appropriate for a wide variety of applications such as impact dampers and engine mounts. Tested MR fluids were capable of providing a large range of controllable force along a short stroke in squeeze mode. A mathematical model was developed using perturbation techniques to predict closed-form solutions for velocity field, shear rate distribution, pressure distribution and squeeze force. Therefore, the obtained solutions greatly help with the design process of intelligent devices that use MR fluids in squeeze mode. The mathematical model also reduces the need for complicated and computationally expensive numerical simulations. The analytical results are validated by performing experimental tests on a novel MR device called an 'MR pouch' in an MR squeeze mode rheometer, both designed and built at CVeSS.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alakus, Bayram
Mathematical modeling involving porous heterogeneous media is important in a number of composite manufacturing processes, such as resin transfer molding (RTM), injection molding and the like. Of interest here are process modeling issues as related to composites manufacturing by RTM, because of the ability of the method to manufacture consolidated net shapes of complex geometric parts. In this research, we propose a mathematical model by utilizing the local volume averaging technique to establish the governing equations and therein provide finite element computational developments to predict the flow behavior of a viscous and viscoelastic fluid through a porous fiber network. The developments predict the velocity, pressure, and polymeric stress by modeling the conservation laws (e.g. mass and momentum) of the flow field coupled with constitutive equations for polymeric stress field. The governing equations of the flow are averaged for the fluid phase. Furthermore, the simulations target a variety of viscoelastic models (e.g. Newtonian model, Upper-Convected-Maxwell Model, Oldroyd-B model and Giesekus model) to provide a fundamental understanding of the elastic effects on the flow field. To solve the complex coupled nonlinear equations of the mathematical model described above, a combination of Newton linearization and the Galerkin and Streamline-Upwinding-Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite element procedures are employed to accurately capture the representative physics. The formulations are first validated with available test cases of viscoelastic flows without porous media. Therein, the simulations are described for viscoelastic flow through porous media and the comparative results of different constitutive models are presented and discussed at length.
Geophysical fluid flow cell experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, J. E.
1982-01-01
The primary purpose of the geophysical flow experiments is to simulate large-scale baroclinic (density-stratified) flows which occur naturally in the atmospheres of rotating planets and stars and to gain insights and obtain answers to crucial questions concerning the large-scale nonlinear mechanics of the global geophysical flows. Those external conditions related to fluid viscosity, rotation, gravity are identified, which allow qualitatively different modes of instability or waves in the model.
Optimization of a new flow design for solid oxide cells using computational fluid dynamics modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duhn, Jakob Dragsbæk; Jensen, Anker Degn; Wedel, Stig; Wix, Christian
2016-12-01
Design of a gas distributor to distribute gas flow into parallel channels for Solid Oxide Cells (SOC) is optimized, with respect to flow distribution, using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling. The CFD model is based on a 3d geometric model and the optimized structural parameters include the width of the channels in the gas distributor and the area in front of the parallel channels. The flow of the optimized design is found to have a flow uniformity index value of 0.978. The effects of deviations from the assumptions used in the modelling (isothermal and non-reacting flow) are evaluated and it is found that a temperature gradient along the parallel channels does not affect the flow uniformity, whereas a temperature difference between the channels does. The impact of the flow distribution on the maximum obtainable conversion during operation is also investigated and the obtainable overall conversion is found to be directly proportional to the flow uniformity. Finally the effect of manufacturing errors is investigated. The design is shown to be robust towards deviations from design dimensions of at least ±0.1 mm which is well within obtainable tolerances.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2016-07-12
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2014-03-06
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
Fluid Transport in Porous Rocks. II. Hydrodynamic Model of Flow and Intervoxel Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, P.; Issa, B.
In a preceding paper [P. Mansfield and B. Issa, J. Magn. Reson. A122, 137-148 (1996)], a stochastic model of fluid flow in porous rocks based upon the experimental observation of water flow through a Bentheimer sandstone core was proposed. The flow maps were measured by NMR-imaging techniques. The stochastic theory led to a Gaussian velocity distribution with a mean value in accord with Darcy's law. Also predicted was a linear relationship between flow variance and mean fluid flow through rock, the Mansfield-Issa equation, originally proposed as an empirical relationship. In the present work a flow coupling mechanism between voxels is proposed. Examination of the flow coupling between isolated voxel pairs leads to a complementary explanation of the Gaussian velocity distribution, and also gives further details of the Mansfield-Issa equation. These details lead to a new expression for the connectivity, < C>, between voxels with an experimental value of < C> = 5.64 × 10 -9for Bentheimer sandstone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xiao-Gang; Yu, Wei-Lun; Cen, Hai-Peng; Wang, Yan-Qin; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Wei-Yi
2015-02-01
A hierarchical model is developed to predict the streaming potential (SP) in the canaliculi of a loaded osteon. Canaliculi are assumed to run straight across the osteon annular cylinder wall, while disregarding the effect of lacuna. SP is generalized by the canalicular fluid flow. Analytical solutions are obtained for the canalicular fluid velocity, pressure, and SP. Results demonstrate that SP amplitude (SPA) is proportional to the pressure difference, strain amplitude, frequency, and strain rate amplitude. However, the key loading factor governing SP is the strain rate, which is a representative loading parameter under the specific physiological state. Moreover, SPA is independent of canalicular length. This model links external loads to the canalicular fluid pressure, velocity, and SP, which can facilitate further understanding of the mechanotransduction and electromechanotransduction mechanisms of bones.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline
2016-04-01
Surface outcrops provide natural analogs for aquifers and they offer an opportunity to study the geometry of geologic heterogeneities in three dimensions over a range of scales. We show photographs, maps, quantitative field data of rock fractures and sedimentary features in outcrops exposed in a unique collection of many different settings. These include small-scale sedimentary structures, carbonate nodules, faults, and other fractures as documented in outcrops of porous sandstone (Utah, USA and Italy), tight sandstones (Bolivia), dolomite (Northern Italy), and carbonates (Central Italy). We simulate the geometries observed in outcrops with simple conceptual and numerical models of flow to show how important it is to recognize the appropriate attributes for the description and the process responsible for the formation of geologic heterogeneities. For example, knowing the type of structural heterogeneities (fault, joint, compaction band, stylolite, and vein) and their development mechanics helps to predict the distribution and preferential orientation of these features within an aquifer. This knowledge is particularly important for modeling of fluid flow where geophysical or borehole data are lacking. Geologic heterogeneities of sedimentary, structural or diagenetic (chemical) nature influence the fluid flow properties in many aquifers and reservoirs at scales varying over several orders of magnitude and with a spatial variability ranging from mm to tens of meters. Heterogeneities may enhance or degrade porosity and permeability, they impart anisotropy to permeability and dispersion and affect mass transport-related processes in groundwater. Furthermore, aquifer heterogeneities control aquifer continuity and compartmentalization. In fractured aquifers, geologic and diagenetic heterogeneities may affect connectivity, aperture of the flow channels or the distribution of permeability buffers, barriers and seals. Also variations in layer thickness and lithology within a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horiuchi, Shun-suke; Iwamori, Hikaru
2016-05-01
Water plays crucial roles in the subduction zone dynamics affecting the thermal-flow structure through the fluid processes. We aim to understand what controls the dynamics and construct a model to solve consistently fluid generation, fluid transport, its reaction with the solid and resultant viscosity, and thermal-flow structure. We highlight the effect of mechanical weakening of rocks associated with hydration. The viscosity of serpentinite (ηserp) in subduction zones critically controls the flow-thermal structure via extent of mechanical coupling between the subducting slab and overlying mantle wedge. When ηserp is greater than 1021 Pa s, the thermal-flow structure reaches a steady state beneath the volcanic zone, and the melting region expands until Cin (initial water content in the subducting oceanic crust) reaches 3 wt %, and it does not expand from 3 wt %. On the other hand, when ηserp is less than 1019 Pa s, the greater water dependence of viscosity (expressed by a larger fv) confines a hot material to a narrower channel intruding into the wedge corner from a deeper part of the back-arc region. Consequently, the overall heat flux becomes less for a larger fv. When ageba (age of back-arc basin as a rifted lithosphere) = 7.5 Ma, the increase in fv weakens but shifts the melting region toward the trench side because of the narrow channel flow intruding into the wedge corner, where as it shuts down melting when ageba=20 Ma. Several model cases (particularly those with ηserp=1020 to 1021 Pa s and a relatively large fv for Cin=2 to 3 wt %) broadly account for the observations in the Northeast Japan arc (i.e., location and width of volcanic chain, extent of serpentinite, surface heat flow, and seismic tomography), although the large variability of surface heat flow and seismic tomographic images does not allow us to constrain the parameter range tightly.
Modelling flow and heat transfer in two-fluid interfacial flows, with applications to drops and jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehdi-Nejad, Vala
2003-10-01
A two-dimensional, axi-symmetric model is developed to calculate flow and heat transfer in a two-fluid system. The model uses one set of the governing equations combined with a volume tracking method on a fixed structured mesh to model the simultaneous movement of mass, momentum and energy across cell boundaries. Both first and second-order methods are used to approximate temperature fields with sharp gradients that exist near a fluid-fluid interface. The model is first used to simulate the effect of surrounding air during a droplet impact. Bubble entrapment is observed in both numerical simulation and experimental photographs. The impact of water, n-heptane and molten nickel droplets on a solid surface is simulated. When a droplet approaches another surface, air in the gap between them was forced out. Increased air pressure below the droplet creates a depression in its surface, in which air is trapped. Different behaviors observed for water and n-heptane simulations are attributed to differences in wetting behavior. Next, to demonstrate the capabilities of the model, the interfacial heat transfer from molten tin droplets falling in an oil bath is modelled. The development of vortices behind droplets is simulated and the effect of fluid recirculation and oil thermal conductivity on heat dissipation is studied. The thesis concludes with application of the model to a study of interfacial heat transfer during jet break up. It is demonstrated that the change of fluid properties associated with interfacial heat transfer affects the jet break up and the resulting droplet size. It is also shown that obtaining a desirable droplet size during jet break up not only depends on hydrodynamic conditions such as nozzle diameter, jet initial velocity, and pressure, but also on thermal conditions such as the initial jet temperature and the surrounding fluid thermal properties.
Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser metal deposition by powder injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Zhiqiang
Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique which allows quick fabrication of fully-dense metallic components directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. A self-consistent three-dimensional model was developed for the laser metal deposition process by powder injection, which simulates heat transfer, phase changes, and fluid flow in the melt pool. The governing equations for solid, liquid and gas phases in the calculation domain have been formulated using the continuum model. The free surface in the melt pool has been tracked by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, while the VOF transport equation was solved using the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) method. Surface tension was modeled by taking the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model combined with a force-balance flow algorithm. Laser-powder interaction was modeled to account for the effects of laser power attenuation and powder temperature rise during the laser metal deposition process. The governing equations were discretized in the physical space using the finite volume method. The advection terms were approximated using the MUSCL flux limiter scheme. The fluid flow and energy equations were solved in a coupled manner. The incompressible flow equations were solved using a two-step projection method, which requires a solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure field. The discretized pressure Poisson equation was solved using the ICCG (Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient) solution technique. The energy equation was solved by an enthalpy-based method. Temperature-dependent thermal-physical material properties were considered in the numerical implementation. The numerical model was validated by comparing simulations with experimental measurements.
Modeling studies for multiphase fluid and heat flow processes in nuclear waste isolation
Pruess, K.
1988-07-01
Multiphase fluid and heat flow plays an important role in many problems relating to the disposal of nuclear wastes in geologic media. Examples include boiling and condensation processes near heat-generating wastes, flow of water and formation gas in partially saturated formations, evolution of a free gas phase from waste package corrosion in initially water-saturated environments, and redistribution (dissolution, transport, and precipitation) of rock minerals in non-isothermal flow fields. Such processes may strongly impact upon waste package and repository design considerations and performance. This paper summarizes important physical phenomena occurring in multiphase and nonisothermal flows, as well as techniques for their mathematical modeling and numerical simulation. Illustrative applications are given for a number of specific fluid and heat flow problems, including: thermohydrologic conditions near heat-generating waste packages in the unsaturated zone; repository-wide convection effects in the unsaturated zone; effects of quartz dissolution and precipitation for disposal in the saturated zone; and gas pressurization and flow corrosion of low-level waste packages. 34 refs; 7 figs; 2 tabs.
Application of two-fluid model in the unsteady flow simulation for a multiphase rotodynamic pump
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Y Yu, Z.; Zhu, B. S.; Cao, S. L.; Y Wang, G.
2013-12-01
Based on the assumption of tiny bubbly flow, the gas-liquid two-phase unsteady flow in a multiphase rotodynamic pump was numerically simulated with two-fluid model. The two-phase transport process and the evolution characteristic of the pump head were analyzed. In the working conditions, the liquid flow rate was constant, and the IGVF (inlet gas volume fraction) was 0.05, 0.15 and 0.25, respectively. The k ω- based SST model was used for turbulence; the drag force and the added mass force were accounted for in the interfacial momentum transfer terms. Because the wrap angle of the blade was large, the hybrid mesh was adopted to guarantee high mesh quality. The simulation results demonstrate that two-fluid model can more reasonably capture the transport process than the homogeneous model; and the drag law should be corrected based on the mixture viscosity in high gas volume fraction conditions. If the liquid flow rate is constant, the increase of IGVF can raise the pressure in the inlet extended region, while the pressure in the outlet extended region will not be affected much, thus the pump head will go down. In addition, due to the fluctuation of gas volume fraction field, the pump head will also fluctuate around a stable value in the transport process.
Surface flow boundary conditions in modeling land subsidence due to fluid withdrawal.
Baú, Domenico; Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro
2004-01-01
Land subsidence due to subsurface fluid (water, gas, oil) withdrawal is often predicted by either finite element or finite difference numerical models based on coupled poroelastic theory, where the soil is represented as a semi-infinite medium bounded by the traction-free (ground) surface. One of the variables playing a most important role on the final outcome is the flow condition used on the traction-free boundary, which may be assumed as either permeable or impermeable. Although occasionally justified, the assumption of no-flow surface seems to be in general rather unrealistic. A permeable boundary where the fluid pressure is fixed to the external atmospheric pressure appears to be more appropriate. This paper addresses the response, in terms of land subsidence, obtained with a coupled poroelastic finite element model that simulates a distributed pumping from a horizontal aquifer confined between two relatively impervious layers, and takes either a permeable boundary surface, i.e., constant hydraulic potential, or an impermeable boundary, i.e., a zero Neumann flow condition. The analysis reveals that land subsidence is rather sensitive to the flow condition implemented on the traction-free boundary. In general, the no-flow condition leads to an overestimate of the predicted ground surface settlement, which could even be 1 order of magnitude larger than that obtained with the permeable boundary.
A two-fluid model for black-hole accretion flows: particle acceleration and disc structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jason P.; Becker, Peter A.
2017-02-01
Hot, tenuous advection-dominated accretion flows around black holes are ideal sites for the Fermi acceleration of relativistic particles at standing shock waves in the accretion disc. Previous work has demonstrated that the shock-acceleration process can be efficient enough to power the observed, strong outflows in radio-loud active galaxies such as M87. However, the dynamical effect (back-reaction) on the flow, exerted by the pressure of the relativistic particles, has not been previously considered, and this effect can have a significant influence on the disc structure. We reexamine the problem by developing a new, two-fluid model for the structure of the accretion disc that includes the dynamical effect of the relativistic particle pressure, combined with the pressure of the background (thermal) gas. The new model is analogous to the two-fluid model of cosmic ray acceleration in supernova-driven shock waves. As part of the model, we also develop a new set of shock jump conditions, which are solved along with the hydrodynamic conservation equations to determine the structure of the accretion disc. The solutions include the formation of a mildly relativistic outflow (jet) at the shock radius, driven by the relativistic particles accelerated in the disc. One of our main conclusions is that in the context of the new two-fluid accretion model, global smooth (shock-free) solutions do not exist, and the disc must always contain a standing shock wave, at least in the inviscid case considered here.
Modeling Lymph Flow and Fluid Exchange with Blood Vessels in Lymph Nodes.
Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Woodruff, Matthew C; Zawieja, David C; Carroll, Michael C; Moore, J E
2015-12-01
Lymph nodes (LNs) are positioned strategically throughout the body as critical mediators of lymph filtration and immune response. Lymph carries cytokines, antigens, and cells to the downstream LNs, and their effective delivery to the correct location within the LN directly impacts the quality and quantity of immune response. Despite the importance of this system, the flow patterns in LN have never been quantified, in part because experimental characterization is so difficult. To achieve a more quantitative knowledge of LN flow, a computational flow model has been developed based on the mouse popliteal LN, allowing for a parameter sensitivity analysis to identify the important system characteristics. This model suggests that about 90% of the lymph takes a peripheral path via the subcapsular and medullary sinuses, while fluid perfusing deeper into the paracortex is sequestered by parenchymal blood vessels. Fluid absorption by these blood vessels under baseline conditions was driven mainly by oncotic pressure differences between lymph and blood, although the magnitude of fluid transfer is highly dependent on blood vessel surface area. We also predict that the hydraulic conductivity of the medulla, a parameter that has never been experimentally measured, should be at least three orders of magnitude larger than that of the paracortex to ensure physiologic pressures across the node. These results suggest that structural changes in the LN microenvironment, as well as changes in inflow/outflow conditions, dramatically alter the distribution of lymph, cytokines, antigens, and cells within the LN, with great potential for modulating immune response.
A Numerical Hydro-Chemo-Mechanical Model for Fault Activation under Reactive Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pouya, A.; Tounsi, H.; Rohmer, J.
2015-12-01
The migration of CO2-rich fluid in fractured rock masses can cause processes such as mineral dissolution and precipitation, chemically induced weakening, which can affect the long-term mechanical and transport properties of the rock mass as well as the stability of fault systems. Some numerical approaches are already available in the literature for modelling the dissolution/precipitation phenomena in fractures (e.g. Yasuhara & Elsworth 2007) as well as subcritical crack propagation (e.g. Park et al. 2007). Generally, the dissolution is supposed to increase the rock porosity and, in this way, decrease the rock strength. Some experimental data are available for the variation of rock strength and stiffness parameters with the porosity and so as a consequence of dissolution process (Bemer et al. 2004). Also the effect of chemical processes on the mechanical stability has been studied and modelled numerically in the framework of continuum materials and the context, in particular, of weathering in underground galleries (Ghabezloo & Pouya 2006). In the context of fault systems, a complete numerical modelling of the stability evolution with the flow of a reactive fluid has not yet been done. In this paper we present a simplified, but complete, set of equations for a whole system of coupled hydro-chemo-mechanical process of reactive fluid flow inside a fault. These equations have been implemented in Porofis, a FEM numerical code specially conceived for HCM processes in porous fractured media. We show how this numerical method allows to model the coupled HCM processes in the fault and the evolution of the mechanical stability in presence of in situ stresses and reactive fluid flow.
Fluid flow, mineral reactions, and metasomatism
Ferry, J.M.; Dipple, G.M. )
1991-03-01
A general model that relates fluid flow along a temnperature gradient to chemical reaction in rocks can be used to quantitatively interpret petrologic and geochemical data on metasomatism from ancient flow systems in terms of flow direction and time-integrated fluid flux. The model is applied to regional metamorphism, quartz veins, and a metasomatized ductile fault zone.
Kelly; Humphrey
1998-03-01
Considerable debate has occurred over the use of hydrofoil impellers in large-scale fermentors to improve mixing and mass transfer in highly viscous non-Newtonian systems. Using a computational fluid dynamics software package (Fluent, version 4.30) extensive calculations were performed to study the effect of impeller speed (70-130 rpm), broth rheology (value of power law flow behavior index from 0.2 to 0.6), and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall (6-18 in.) on flow near the perimeter of a large (75-m3) fermentor equipped with A315 impellers. A quadratic model utilizing the data was developed in an attempt to correlate the effect of A315 impeller speed, power law flow behavior index, and distance between the cooling coil bank and the fermentor wall on the average axial velocity in the coil bank-wall region. The results suggest that there is a potential for slow or stagnant flow in the coil bank-wall region which could result in poor oxygen and heat transfer for highly viscous fermentations. The results also indicate that there is the potential for slow or stagnant flow in the region between the top impeller and the gas headspace when flow through the coil bank-wall region is slow. Finally, a simple guideline was developed to allow fermentor design engineers to predict the degree of flow behind a bank of helical cooling coils in a large fermentor with hydrofoil flow impellers.
Prediction of Parameters Distribution of Upward Boiling Two-Phase Flow With Two-Fluid Models
Yao, Wei; Morel, Christophe
2002-07-01
In this paper, a multidimensional two-fluid model with additional turbulence k - {epsilon} equations is used to predict the two-phase parameters distribution in freon R12 boiling flow. The 3D module of the CATHARE code is used for numerical calculation. The DEBORA experiment has been chosen to evaluate our models. The radial profiles of the outlet parameters were measured by means of an optical probe. The comparison of the radial profiles of void fraction, liquid temperature, gas velocity and volumetric interfacial area at the end of the heated section shows that the multidimensional two-fluid model with proper constitutive relations can yield reasonably predicted results in boiling conditions. Sensitivity tests show that the turbulent dispersion force, which involves the void fraction gradient, plays an important role in determining the void fraction distribution; and the turbulence eddy viscosity is a significant factor to influence the liquid temperature distribution. (authors)
An improved gray lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluid flow in multi-scale porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jiujiang; Ma, Jingsheng
2013-06-01
A lattice Boltzmann (LB) model is proposed for simulating fluid flow in porous media by allowing the aggregates of finer-scale pores and solids to be treated as 'equivalent media'. This model employs a partially bouncing-back scheme to mimic the resistance of each aggregate, represented as a gray node in the model, to the fluid flow. Like several other lattice Boltzmann models that take the same approach, which are collectively referred to as gray lattice Boltzmann (GLB) models in this paper, it introduces an extra model parameter, ns, which represents a volume fraction of fluid particles to be bounced back by the solid phase rather than the volume fraction of the solid phase at each gray node. The proposed model is shown to conserve the mass even for heterogeneous media, while this model and that model of Walsh et al. (2009) [1], referred to the WBS model thereafter, are shown analytically to recover Darcy-Brinkman's equations for homogenous and isotropic porous media where the effective viscosity and the permeability are related to ns and the relaxation parameter of LB model. The key differences between these two models along with others are analyzed while their implications are highlighted. An attempt is made to rectify the misconception about the model parameter ns being the volume fraction of the solid phase. Both models are then numerically verified against the analytical solutions for a set of homogenous porous models and compared each other for another two sets of heterogeneous porous models of practical importance. It is shown that the proposed model allows true no-slip boundary conditions to be incorporated with a significant effect on reducing errors that would otherwise heavily skew flow fields near solid walls. The proposed model is shown to be numerically more stable than the WBS model at solid walls and interfaces between two porous media. The causes to the instability in the latter case are examined. The link between these two GLB models and a
Gupta, Sumeet; Soellinger, Michaela; Boesiger, Peter; Poulikakos, Dimos; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan
2009-02-01
This study aims at investigating three-dimensional subject-specific cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics in the inferior cranial space, the superior spinal subarachnoid space (SAS), and the fourth cerebral ventricle using a combination of a finite-volume computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments. An anatomically accurate 3D model of the entire SAS of a healthy volunteer was reconstructed from high resolution T2 weighted MRI data. Subject-specific pulsatile velocity boundary conditions were imposed at planes in the pontine cistern, cerebellomedullary cistern, and in the spinal subarachnoid space. Velocimetric MRI was used to measure the velocity field at these boundaries. A constant pressure boundary condition was imposed at the interface between the aqueduct of Sylvius and the fourth ventricle. The morphology of the SAS with its complex trabecula structures was taken into account through a novel porous media model with anisotropic permeability. The governing equations were solved using finite-volume CFD. We observed a total pressure variation from -42 Pa to 40 Pa within one cardiac cycle in the investigated domain. Maximum CSF velocities of about 15 cms occurred in the inferior section of the aqueduct, 14 cms in the left foramen of Luschka, and 9 cms in the foramen of Magendie. Flow velocities in the right foramen of Luschka were found to be significantly lower than in the left, indicating three-dimensional brain asymmetries. The flow in the cerebellomedullary cistern was found to be relatively diffusive with a peak Reynolds number (Re)=72, while the flow in the pontine cistern was primarily convective with a peak Re=386. The net volumetric flow rate in the spinal canal was found to be negligible despite CSF oscillation with substantial amplitude with a maximum volumetric flow rate of 109 mlmin. The observed transient flow patterns indicate a compliant behavior of the cranial subarachnoid space. Still, the estimated
Fedosov, Dmitry A; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-04-14
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees-Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method.
Yao, Wei; Shen, Zhoufeng; Ding, Guanghong
2013-01-01
In this paper, we use Stokes, Brinkman and Darcy equations to approximate the porous continuum media of ligament tissues respectively, simulate the flow field with FLUENT software, and study the shear stress on the cell surface due to the interstitial fluid flow. Since the Brinkman equation approaches Stokes equation well in high hydraulic permeability (kp) condition (kp ≥1.0×10-8 m2 in our numerical simulation), and it is an approximation to Darcy model in low kp condition (kp ≤5.0×10-12 m2 in our numerical simulation), we used the Brinkman model to simulate the interstitial fluid flow in the ligament where kp is approximately 1.0×10-16 m2. It shows kp and anisotropic property have a little effect on the flow field, but have a great effect on the shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells (τcell). There is a linear relationship between τcell and , when kp =1.0×10-16 m2 and the maximum τcell (τcell,max) is approximately 10 Pa. The anisotropic property will affect τcell's distribution on the cell surface. When kx/ky>1, low τcell dominates the cell, while when kx/ky<1, high τcell dominants the cell. PMID:24250250
Numerical Modeling of Liquid-Vapor Coupled Heat and Fluid Flow in Geothermal Reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, J.; Xing, H.
2011-12-01
Liquid-vapor two phase flows in porous media are complex dynamic processes involving phase transitions and phase production due to concurrent processes. The coupled thermo fluid flow with liquid-vapor phase change has received increasing concern recently due to the highly nonlinear behaviors and drastic changes of physical properties. A numerical model is developed for simulating liquid/vapor two-phase coupled fluid and heat flow in porous media, particularly towards hydrothermal/geothermal reservoirs. The model is formulated by two nonlinear equations with pressure and enthalpy as the primary variables. The nonlinearities in the coupled partial differential equations as well as the severe oscillations and instabilities existing in the numerical modeling are investigated. The coupled highly nonlinear equations are solved simultaneously using a Newton based nonlinear finite element technique with the support of a phase change control module and an automatic time step control module. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed model and algorithms.
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, A.; Bouchut, F.; Fernández-Nieto, E. D.; Narbona-Reina, G.; Kone, E. H.
2014-12-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
A Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Model for Dense Granular Flows Including Dilatancy Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2015-04-01
We propose a thin layer depth-averaged two-phase model to describe solid-fluid mixtures such as debris flows. It describes the velocity of the two phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure, that itself modifies the friction within the granular phase (Iverson et al., 2010). The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson (2000) based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work (Bouchut et al., 2014). In particular, Pitman and Le replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's equations. We close the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation involving a critical density, or equivalently a critical pressure. Moreover, we relax one boundary condition, making it possible for the fluid to escape the granular media when compression of the granular mass occurs. Furthermore, we introduce second order terms in the equations making it possible to describe the evolution of the pore fluid pressure in response to the compression/dilatation of the granular mass without prescribing an extra ad-hoc equation for the pore pressure. We prove that the energy balance associated with this Jackson closure is dissipative, as well as its thin layer associated model. We present several numerical tests for the 1D case that are compared to the
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.
2012-01-01
We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.
Vali, Alireza; Abla, Adib A; Lawton, Michael T; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy L
2017-01-04
In vivo measurement of blood velocity fields and flow descriptors remains challenging due to image artifacts and limited resolution of current imaging methods; however, in vivo imaging data can be used to inform and validate patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. Image-based CFD can be particularly useful for planning surgical interventions in complicated cases such as fusiform aneurysms of the basilar artery, where it is crucial to alter pathological hemodynamics while preserving flow to the distal vasculature. In this study, patient-specific CFD modeling was conducted for two basilar aneurysm patients considered for surgical treatment. In addition to velocity fields, transport of contrast agent was simulated for the preoperative and postoperative conditions using two approaches. The transport of a virtual contrast passively following the flow streamlines was simulated to predict post-surgical flow regions prone to thrombus deposition. In addition, the transport of a mixture of blood with an iodine-based contrast agent was modeled to compare and verify the CFD results with X-ray angiograms. The CFD-predicted patterns of contrast flow were qualitatively compared to in vivo X-ray angiograms acquired before and after the intervention. The results suggest that the mixture modeling approach, accounting for the flow rates and properties of the contrast injection, is in better agreement with the X-ray angiography data. The virtual contrast modeling assessed the residence time based on flow patterns unaffected by the injection procedure, which makes the virtual contrast modeling approach better suited for prediction of thrombus deposition, which is not limited to the peri-procedural state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stanford Keen, Giles
1996-11-01
Mechanical disruption and injury sustained by animal cells undergoing cultivation in bioreactors is an important problem in biotechnology. Damage to cells is thought to be caused primarily by bubbles bursting at the free surface of the culture medium. Here we present computational studies applying a mathematical model for the cell damage rates experienced by cells in laminar flow. Two fluid dynamical systems are considered - namely a converging channel and a single bursting bubble. The flows are calculated using a fourth-order finite difference technique on a stretched grid, and a boundary integral method respectively. It is possible to obtain an estimate for the number of cells in a particular population which are likely to be disrupted by the forces they experience in the flow. This is done by calculating the maximum rate of strain experienced by fluid particles, and combining this with experimental data on the strength and size of cells, obtained by micromanipulation techniques. The resulting information is then used together with the cell damage model to produce a cell damage prediction. The computational results are compared with experimental measurements of cell death, to validate the model for cell damage.
Multidimensional Model of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Generation-IV Supercritical Water Reactors
Gallaway, Tara; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.
2006-07-01
This paper is concerned with the mechanistic modeling and theoretical/computational analysis of flow and heat transfer in future Generation-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWR). The issues discussed in the paper include: the development of analytical models of the properties of supercritical water, and the application of full three-dimensional computational modeling framework to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in SCWRs. Several results of calculations are shown, including the evaluation of water properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and Prandtl number) near the pseudo-critical temperature for various supercritical pressures, and the CFD predictions using the NPHASE computer code. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very promising for future mechanistic analyses of SCWR thermal-hydraulics and safety. (authors)
Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature.
Grimes, D T; Boswell, C W; Morante, N F C; Henkelman, R M; Burdine, R D; Ciruna, B
2016-06-10
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) affects 3% of children worldwide, yet the mechanisms underlying this spinal deformity remain unknown. Here we show that ptk7 mutant zebrafish, a faithful developmental model of IS, exhibit defects in ependymal cell cilia development and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Transgenic reintroduction of Ptk7 in motile ciliated lineages prevents scoliosis in ptk7 mutants, and mutation of multiple independent cilia motility genes yields IS phenotypes. We define a finite developmental window for motile cilia in zebrafish spine morphogenesis. Notably, restoration of cilia motility after the onset of scoliosis blocks spinal curve progression. Together, our results indicate a critical role for cilia-driven CSF flow in spine development, implicate irregularities in CSF flow as an underlying biological cause of IS, and suggest that noninvasive therapeutic intervention may prevent severe scoliosis.
Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow and Intra-Ocular Pressure following Glaucoma Surgery
Gardiner, Bruce S.; Smith, David W.; Coote, Michael; Crowston, Jonathan G.
2010-01-01
Background Glaucoma surgery is the most effective means for lowering intraocular pressure by providing a new route for fluid to exit the eye. This new pathway is through the sclera of the eye into sub-conjunctival tissue, where a fluid filled bleb typically forms under the conjunctiva. The long-term success of the procedure relies on the capacity of the sub-conjunctival tissue to absorb the excess fluid presented to it, without generating excessive scar tissue during tissue remodeling that will shut-down fluid flow. The role of inflammatory factors that promote scarring are well researched yet little is known regarding the impact of physical forces on the healing response. Methodology To help elucidate the interplay of physical factors controlling the distribution and absorption of aqueous humor in sub-conjunctival tissue, and tissue remodeling, we have developed a computational model of fluid production in the eye and removal via the trabecular/uveoscleral pathways and the surgical pathway. This surgical pathway is then linked to a porous media computational model of a fluid bleb positioned within the sub-conjunctival tissue. The computational analysis is centered on typical functioning bleb geometry found in a human eye following glaucoma surgery. A parametric study is conducted of changes in fluid absorption by the sub-conjunctival blood vessels, changes in hydraulic conductivity due to scarring, and changes in bleb size and shape, and eye outflow facility. Conclusions This study is motivated by the fact that some blebs are known to have ‘successful’ characteristics that are generally described by clinicians as being low, diffuse and large without the formation of a distinct sub-conjunctival encapsulation. The model predictions are shown to accord with clinical observations in a number of key ways, specifically the variation of intra-ocular pressure with bleb size and shape and the correspondence between sites of predicted maximum interstitial fluid pressure
Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2009-01-01
In the subsurface fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids and contaminants (sometimes over long distances), by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes and enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone, water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil and water/oil/gas in oil reservoirs, water/air/non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in contaminated vadose zone systems and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines, and its impact on dynamic contact angles, must also be taken into account, and coupled with the fluid flow. Pore network models and simple statistical physics based models such as the invasion percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models have been used quite extensively. However, these models for multiphase fluid flow are based on simplified models for pore space geometries and simplified physics. Other methods such a lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas models, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, and particle methods such as dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are based more firmly on first principles, and they do not require simplified pore and/or fracture geometries. However, they are less (in some cases very much less) computationally efficient that pore network and statistical physics models. Recently a combination of continuum computation fluid dynamics, fluid-fluid interface tracking or capturing and simple models for the dependence of contact angles on fluid velocity
Paul Meakin; Alexandre Tartakovsky
2009-07-01
In the subsurface fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids and contaminants (sometimes over long distances), by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes and enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone, water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil and water/oil/gas in oil reservoirs, water/air/non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in contaminated vadose zone systems and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines, and its impact on dynamic contact angles, must also be taken into account, and coupled with the fluid flow. Pore network models and simple statistical physics based models such as the invasion percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models have been used quite extensively. However, these models for multiphase fluid flow are based on simplified models for pore space geometries and simplified physics. Other methods such a lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas models, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, and particle methods such as dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are based more firmly on first principles, and they do not require simplified pore and/or fracture geometries. However, they are less (in some cases very much less) computationally efficient that pore network and statistical physics models. Recently a combination of continuum computation fluid dynamics, fluid-fluid interface tracking or capturing and simple models for the dependence of contact angles on fluid velocity
Glass, C Richard; Walters, Keith F A; Gaskell, Philip H; Lee, Yeaw C; Thompson, Harvey M; Emerson, David R; Gu, Xiao-Jun
2010-01-01
Increasing societal and governmental concern about the worldwide use of chemical pesticides is now providing strong drivers towards maximising the efficiency of pesticide utilisation and the development of alternative control techniques. There is growing recognition that the ultimate goal of achieving efficient and sustainable pesticide usage will require greater understanding of the fluid mechanical mechanisms governing the delivery to, and spreading of, pesticide droplets on target surfaces such as leaves. This has led to increasing use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an important component of efficient process design with regard to pesticide delivery to the leaf surface. This perspective highlights recent advances in CFD methods for droplet spreading and film flows, which have the potential to provide accurate, predictive models for pesticide flow on leaf surfaces, and which can take account of each of the key influences of surface topography and chemistry, initial spray deposition conditions, evaporation and multiple droplet spreading interactions. The mathematical framework of these CFD methods is described briefly, and a series of new flow simulation results relevant to pesticide flows over foliage is provided. The potential benefits of employing CFD for practical process design are also discussed briefly.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of the Diurnal Variation of Flow in a Street Canyon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Ryu, Young-Hee
2011-10-01
Urban surface and radiation processes are incorporated into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to investigate the diurnal variation of flow in a street canyon with an aspect ratio of 1. The developed CFD model predicts surface and substrate temperatures of the roof, walls, and road. One-day simulations are performed with various ambient wind speeds of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ms-1, with the ambient wind perpendicular to the north-south oriented canyon. During the day, the largest maximum surface temperature for all surfaces is found at the road surface for an ambient wind speed of 3 ms-1 (56.0°C). Two flow regimes are identified by the vortex configuration in the street canyon. Flow regime I is characterized by a primary vortex. Flow regime II is characterized by two counter-rotating vortices, which appears in the presence of strong downwind building-wall heating. Air temperature is relatively low near the downwind building wall in flow regime I and inside the upper vortex in flow regime II. In flow regime II, the upper vortex expands with increasing ambient wind speed, thus enlarging the extent of cool air within the canyon. The canyon wind speed in flow regime II is proportional to the ambient wind speed, but that in flow regime I is not. For weak ambient winds, the dependency of surface sensible heat flux on the ambient wind speed is found to play an essential role in determining the relationship between canyon wind speed and ambient wind speed.
Low order modelling for feedback control of fluid flows around complex geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dellar, Oliver; Jones, Bryn; Department of Automatic Control; Systems Engineering Collaboration
2015-11-01
The majority of goods transportation vehicles' power is consumed in overcoming aerodynamic drag. Reduction in pressure drag via feedback control could have significant economic and environmental effects on CO2 emissions, and reduce fatigue on the body by suppressing vortex shedding. The difficulty in designing such controllers lies in obtaining models suited to modern control design methods, which are necessarily of much lesser complexity than typical Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models, or models derived from immediate spatial discretisation of the Navier-Stokes equations. This work develops an approach for modelling fluid flows using frequency response data generated for individual computational node sub-systems that result from a CFD type spatial discretisation of the governing equations. Input-to-sensor frequency response data for the overall system are then computed by forming interconnections between adjacent nodes via a Redheffer Star Product operation, from which one typically observes low-order dynamics. With this data, a low-order model can be identified and used for controller design. This method avoids manipulating large matrices and is therefore computationally efficient and numerically well-conditioned. It can be readily applied to complex geometry flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Guang-Hao; Wang, Guo-Yu; Huang, Biao; Hu, Chang-Li; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Wang, Jian
2015-02-01
In this paper, a compressible fluid model is proposed to investigate dynamics of the turbulent cavitating flow over a Clark-Y hydrofoil. The numerical simulation is based on the homogeneous mixture approach coupled with filter-based density correction model (FBDCM) turbulence model and Zwart cavitation model. Considering the compressibility effect, the equation of state of each phase is introduced into the numerical model. The results show that the predicted results agree well with experimental data concerning the time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency. The quasi-periodic evolution of sheet/cloud cavitation and the resulting lift and drag are discussed in detail. Especially, the present compressible-mixture numerical model is capable of simulating the shock waves in the final stage of cavity collapse. It is found that the shock waves may cause the transient significant increase and decrease in lift and drag if the cavity collapses near the foil surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam, Saad; Premnath, Kannan
2016-11-01
Fluid mechanics of non-Newtonian fluids, which arise in numerous settings, are characterized by non-linear constitutive models that pose certain unique challenges for computational methods. Here, we consider the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), which offers some computational advantages due to its kinetic basis and its simpler stream-and-collide procedure enabling efficient simulations. However, further improvements are necessary to improve its numerical stability and accuracy for computations involving broader parameter ranges. Hence, in this study, we extend the cascaded LBM formulation by modifying its moment equilibria and relaxation parameters to handle a variety of non-Newtonian constitutive equations, including power-law and Bingham fluids, with improved stability. In addition, we include corrections to the moment equilibria to obtain an inertial frame invariant scheme without cubic-velocity defects. After preforming its validation study for various benchmark flows, we study the physics of non-Newtonian flow over pairs of circular and square cylinders in a tandem arrangement, especially the wake structure interactions and their effects on resulting forces in each cylinder, and elucidate the effect of the various characteristic parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kufner, S. K.; Huepers, A.; Kopf, A.; Wenzel, F.
2011-12-01
Being the fastest growing accretionary complex in the world, the Mediterranean Ridge provides an excellent possibility to study the linkage between tectonic activity and fluid transport processes at convergent plate margins. Abundant mud volcanism provides evidence for mass transfer from depth to the ocean floor. Seismic and bathymetric profiles indicate active deformation in the entire region. We combine seismic data, laboratory measurements of hydrological properties and finite element modeling to characterize fluid migration and fluid pressures in a 2D cross-section perpendicular to the Hellenic trench. The results might give constraints on mass fluxes and mechanics in the upper portion of the Hellenic subduction zone including the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone. At the Hellenic subduction zone the African plate subducts obliquely toward the northeast beneath the Eurasian lithosphere. The current subduction rate is about 16mm/year. The plate convergence between Africa and Eurasia led to the accretion of a sedimentary prism since approx. 19Ma. The upper part of ocean sediments was scraped off and accreted to the overriding Eurasian plate whereas the lower part was underthrust. Nowadays, in the central part of the Mediterranean Ridge, the prism is pushed over its backstop, because of initiated continent-continent collision, whereas a thick sequence of oceanic sediments still enters the subducting system in the east near the Island of Crete. We used a numerical model of fluid flow to estimate fluid fluxes and fluid pressures in the shallow part of the Hellenic subduction zone. The modeled domain in the present study comprises the accreted sediment section and the underthrust sequence. The wedge geometry is obtained from seismic cross-sections and bathymetric maps. Input into the hydro-geological model include the compaction fluid source, the dehydration source and sediment permeability. The compaction source is obtained from porosity-depth relationships
General Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Secondary Flows in Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; Van Hoosier, Katherine P.
1995-01-01
The complexity and variety of turbomachinery flow circuits created a need for a general fluid system simulation program for test data anomaly resolution as well as design review. The objective of the paper is to present a computer program that has been developed to support Marshall Space Flight Center's turbomachinery internal flow analysis efforts. The computer program solves for the mass. energy and species conservation equation at each node and flow rate equation at each branch of the network by a novel numerical procedure which is a combination of both Newton-Ralphson and successive substitution method and uses a thermodynamic property program for computing real gas properties. A generalized, robust, modular, and 'user-friendly' computer program has been developed to model internal flow rates, pressures, temperatures, concentrations of gas mixtures and axial thrusts. The program can be used for any network for compressible and incompressible flows, choked flow, change of phase and gaseous mixturecs. The code has been validated by comparing the predictions with Space Shuttle Main Engine test data.
Incompressible SPH Model for Simulating Violent Free-Surface Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staroszczyk, Ryszard
2014-06-01
In this paper the problem of transient gravitational wave propagation in a viscous incompressible fluid is considered, with a focus on flows with fast-moving free surfaces. The governing equations of the problem are solved by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). In order to impose the incompressibility constraint on the fluid motion, the so-called projection method is applied in which the discrete SPH equations are integrated in time by using a fractional-step technique. Numerical performance of the proposed model has been assessed by comparing its results with experimental data and with results obtained by a standard (weakly compressible) version of the SPH approach. For this purpose, a plane dam-break flow problem is simulated, in order to investigate the formation and propagation of a wave generated by a sudden collapse of a water column initially contained in a rectangular tank, as well as the impact of such a wave on a rigid vertical wall. The results of simulations show the evolution of the free surface of water, the variation of velocity and pressure fields in the fluid, and the time history of pressures exerted by an impacting wave on a wall.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Noreen Sher; Nadeem, S.; Lee, Changhoon
In the present article we have analyzed the Jeffrey fluid model for the peristaltic flow of chyme in the small intestine. We have formulated the problem using two non-periodic sinusoidal waves of different wavelengths propagating with same speed c along the outer wall of the tube. Governing equations for the problem under consideration have been simplified under the assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number approximation (such assumptions are consistent since Re (Reynolds number) is very small and long wavelength approximation also exists in the small intestine). Exact solutions have been calculated for velocity and pressure rise. Physical behavior of different parameters of Jeffrey fluid has been presented graphically for velocity, pressure rise, pressure gradient and frictional forces. The trapping phenomenon is also discussed at the end of the article.
Fracture propagation and fluid flow in fractured reservoirs: field studies and numerical models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brenner, S. L.
2005-05-01
In fractured reservoirs (e.g., for petroleum or geothermal water), fluid flow is largely controlled by the permeability of the fracture network. Together with shear fractures (faults), hydrofractures (extension fractures generated by internal fluid pressure, including mineral veins and joints) contribute considerably to the permeability in fractured reservoirs. The permeability of an individual fracture is proportional to the cube of its aperture. But for fluid flow to occur between two sites in a reservoir, there must be at least one interconnected cluster of fractures that links these sites, that is, the percolation threshold must be reached. Field observations show that in heterogeneous and anisotropic, e.g., layered, rocks many hydrofractures become arrested or offset at layer contacts (become stratabound) and do not form interconnected networks. Here I present results from field studies in layered sedimentary rocks from the Bristol Channel Basin, UK. The Lower Jurassic sections exposed near Kilve, Somerset Coast (Southwest England), and around Nash Point, Glamorgan Coast (South Wales) consist of limestone and shale layers dissected by normal faults (Kilve) or strike-slip faults (Nash Point). Whereas joints occur throughout the study areas, calcite veins occur almost exclusively in the cores and damage zones of the faults. These observations indicate that geothermal water was transported along the then-active faults into the host rocks. Furthermore, there is evidence that the veins were injected as hydrofractures from the fault planes into the limestone layers next to the faults. The most important factors that contribute to hydrofracture arrest or offset are discontinuities, stiffness (Young's modulus) changes between layers, and stress barriers - layers where the local stress field is unfavorable to the propagation of a hydrofracture. Using numerical models I explore the conditions for hydrofracture propagation and conclude that mechanical layering largely
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, T.; Shahzad, A.; Iqbal, Z.; Ahmed, J.; Khan, M.
A study is presented for the flow and heat transfer of Sisko fluid model over an unsteady stretching sheet in the presence of uniform magnetic field. While taking newly developed similarity transformations, the governing time dependent partial differential equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Numerical solutions of the reduced nonlinear differential equations are found by employing Shooting method. The influence of physical parameters of interest on the velocity and temperature profiles are highlighted graphically and examined in detail. Moreover, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are tabulated against influential parameters. Skin friction coefficient increases with unsteadiness parameter, magnetic field and suction parameter.
Analysis Of Residence Time Distribution Of Fluid Flow By Axial Dispersion Model
Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Abidin, Zainal
2010-12-23
Radioactive tracer {sup 82}Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity {+-} 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P.; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S.
2015-01-01
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between and m s−1 which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than . Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25808342
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow.
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S
2015-05-06
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] m s(-1) which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than [Formula: see text]. Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
A fiber matrix model for fluid flow and streaming potentials in the canaliculi of an osteon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, Y.; Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.
1994-01-01
A theoretical model is developed to predict the fluid shear stress and streaming potential at the surface of osteocytic processes in the lacunar-canalicular porosity of an osteon when the osteon is subject to mechanical loads that are parallel or perpendicular to its axis. The theory developed in Weinbaum et al. (31) for the flow through a proteoglycan matrix in a canaliculus is employed in a poroelastic model for the osteon. Our formulation is a generalization of that of Petrov et al. (17). Our model predicts that, in order to satisfy the measured frequency dependence of the phase and magnitude of the SGP in macroscopic bone samples, the fiber spacing in the fluid annulus must lie in the narrow range 6-7 nm typical of the spacing of GAG sidechains along a protein monomer. The model predictions for the local SGP profiles in the osteon agree with the experimental observations of Starkebaum et al. (24). The theory predicts that the pore pressure relaxation time, tau d, for a 150-300 microns diameter osteon with the foregoing matrix structure is approximately 0.03-0.13 sec, and that the amplitude of the mean fluid shear stress on the membrane of the osteocytic process at the mean areal radius of the osteon has a maximum at 28 Hz if tau d = 0.06 sec. This maximum, which is independent of the magnitude of the loading, could be important in vivo since the recent experiments of Turner et al. (28) and McLeod et al. (15) have a peak in the strain frequency spectrum between 20 and 30 Hz that also appears to be independent of the type (magnitude) of loading. Numerical predictions for the amplitude of the average fluid shear stress on the osteocytic membrane at the mean areal radius of the osteon show that the fluid shear stress associated with the low amplitude 20-30 Hz spectral strain component is at least as large as the average fluid shear stress associated with the high amplitude 1 Hz stride component, although the latter loading is an order of magnitude larger, and has a
Modeling Lymph Flow and Fluid Exchange with Blood Vessels in Lymph Nodes
Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Woodruff, Matthew C.; Zawieja, David C.; Carroll, Michael C.; Moore, J.E.
2015-01-01
Abstract Background: Lymph nodes (LNs) are positioned strategically throughout the body as critical mediators of lymph filtration and immune response. Lymph carries cytokines, antigens, and cells to the downstream LNs, and their effective delivery to the correct location within the LN directly impacts the quality and quantity of immune response. Despite the importance of this system, the flow patterns in LN have never been quantified, in part because experimental characterization is so difficult. Methods and Results: To achieve a more quantitative knowledge of LN flow, a computational flow model has been developed based on the mouse popliteal LN, allowing for a parameter sensitivity analysis to identify the important system characteristics. This model suggests that about 90% of the lymph takes a peripheral path via the subcapsular and medullary sinuses, while fluid perfusing deeper into the paracortex is sequestered by parenchymal blood vessels. Fluid absorption by these blood vessels under baseline conditions was driven mainly by oncotic pressure differences between lymph and blood, although the magnitude of fluid transfer is highly dependent on blood vessel surface area. We also predict that the hydraulic conductivity of the medulla, a parameter that has never been experimentally measured, should be at least three orders of magnitude larger than that of the paracortex to ensure physiologic pressures across the node. Conclusions: These results suggest that structural changes in the LN microenvironment, as well as changes in inflow/outflow conditions, dramatically alter the distribution of lymph, cytokines, antigens, and cells within the LN, with great potential for modulating immune response. PMID:26683026
SDEM modelling of deformation associated with a listric fault system and associated fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, Marie L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Egholm, David L.; Andresen, Katrine J.
2016-04-01
Numerical modelling of geological structures using FEM, DEM and SDEM methods as well as analogue modelling are widely used in order to achieve a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics during deformation. The methods are furthermore the ultimate source for mapping (observing) the true geometry of geological structures as well as subsurface fluid flow phenomena in 3D seismic data developed for hydrocarbon exploration. Here we use 3D seismic data and SDEM modelling to suggest a dynamic-kinematic evolution of the deformation in the hangingwall of a listric fault overlying an active salt roller. We use the results to obtain a better understanding of the fluid flow in a complex deformed hangingwall. The case study is focused at the D-1 fault trend in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin, at the northern slope of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The D-1 main fault detaches along the northern flank of a Zechstein salt roller which was active during the Cenozoic. The seismic analysis shows a system of secondary normal antithetic and synthetic faults dipping approximately 50-60dg within the hangingwall. Shallow gas is trapped in the hangingwall and the secondary faults often confine the accumulations i.e. indicating that the secondary faults are sealing. The modelling confirms that the geometry of the secondary faults is highly controlled by the rheology of different layers in the hangingwall but also on the intensity of the salt movement. The modelling also suggests the presence of vertical deformation zones; structures which are not directly observed on the seismic data. The vertical deformation zones are related to the differential vertical movement of the strata due to salt migration. A neural network trained chimney probability cube shows high probabilities for the presence of minor vertical gas chimneys below the gas accumulations suggesting that vertical fluid migration in the hangingwall occurred in areas with significant vertical salt movements. The
Assessment of septal deviation effects on nasal air flow: a computational fluid dynamics model.
Chen, Xiao Bing; Lee, Heow Pueh; Chong, Vincent Fook Hin; Wang, De Yun
2009-09-01
The purpose of this article is to analyze the effects of septal deviation on the aerodynamic air flow pattern compared with that of a normal nose by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools. Two 3-dimensional (3-D) models of nasal cavities were constructed from the magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans of a healthy human nose and a nose with septal deviation, with the use of the software MIMICS 12.1 (The Materialise Group, Leuven, Belgium). Thereafter high-resolution 3-D volume meshes comprising boundary layer effect and computational domain exterior to the nose were constructed. Numerical simulations were carried out using FLUENT (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA) for CFD simulations. The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved for the turbulence flow with the shear stress transport k - omega model. In the nose model with septal deviation, major changes in the pattern of inspiratory airflow (e.g., flow partitioning and nasal resistance, velocity and pressure distributions, intensity and location of turbulence), wall shear stress, and increasing of total negative pressure through the nasal cavity were demonstrated qualitatively and quantitatively. In the healthy nose, the area with the highest intensity of turbulent flow was found in the functional nasal valve region, but it became less apparent or even disappeared in the septal deviation one. This CFD study provides detailed information of the aerodynamic effects of nasal septal deviation on nasal airflow patterns and their associated physiological functions.
Inverse model of fully coupled fluid flow and stress in fractured rock masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Rutqvist, J.
2008-12-01
In order to reflect the real behavior of the seepage field and deformation field during the environment change and construction process£¬the basic equations and FEM methods for fully coupled analysis of fluid flow and stress are developed£¬based on the assumptions of small deformation and incompressible water flow in complicated fractured rock masses. Both the equivalent continuum media model and the discrete media model are adopted. And the modified initial flow method is used to deal with the free surface of unconfined seepage. Due to the difficulty in determining the parameters of water flow field, stress field and their coupling relations, an inverse model is presented for the fully coupled problem in which both the data of water head and displacement are taken into consideration. Objective function is defined based on sensitivity analysis of parameters, and the relative values of water head, displacement on parameters are adopted in the establishment of objective function. A hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed as optimization method. The probability of crossover and mutation is determined according to chromosome fitness and a concept of self- adaptive probability is given. In addition, simplex method is also applied to increase the ability of local search, the operation of accelerated cycle is used in order to decrease optimization time.
Nanoscale Pore Imaging and Pore Scale Fluid Flow Modeling in Chalk
Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy
2004-08-19
For many rocks of high economic interest such as chalk, diatomite, tight gas sands or coal, nanometer scale resolution is needed to resolve the 3D-pore structure, which controls the flow and trapping of fluids in the rocks. Such resolutions cannot be achieved with existing tomographic technologies. A new 3D imaging method, based on serial sectioning and using the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has been developed. FIB allows for the milling of layers as thin as 10 nanometers by using accelerated Ga+ ions to sputter atoms from the sample surface. After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed, a 2D image of this surface is generated. Next, the 2D images are stacked to reconstruct the 3D pore or grain structure. Resolutions as high as 10 nm are achievable using such a technique. A new robust method of pore-scale fluid flow modeling has been developed and applied to sandstone and chalk samples. The method uses direct morphological analysis of the pore space to characterize the petrophysical properties of diverse formations. Not only petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, relative permeability and capillary pressures) can be computed but also flow processes, such as those encountered in various IOR approaches, can be simulated. Petrophysical properties computed with the new method using the new FIB data will be presented. Present study is a part of the development of an Electronic Core Laboratory at LBNL/UCB.
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media
Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-01-01
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy () or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between and . Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media.
Monteiro, Paulo J M; Rycroft, Chris H; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-12-11
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy (~109-²¹ m² ) or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between -1/2 and -1. Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Hsieh, P. A.; Ingebritsen, S. E.
2008-12-01
One facet of volcanic unrest is ground-surface displacement (GSD), which is typically thought to result from magma intrusion at depth. Although many caldera-hosted volcanic systems show evidence of vigorous hydrothermal activity between the ground surface and underlying magma chamber, the potential contribution of circulating aqueous fluids and gases to GSD is often overlooked. Estimates of magma source depth, geometry, and composition depend critically on whether crustal deformation is caused by magmatic intrusion or hydrothermal phenomena. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD reveal complex and multi- faceted deformation patterns. Further, recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources permit quantitative assessment of the complex thermal interplay between groundwater flow and crustal mechanics. We carry out numerical simulations of multi-phase (liquid--gas), multi-component (H2O-- CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes, including heterogeneous permeability distributions (both lateral and vertical) and fluid sourcing. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates (mm--10's of cm/yr), magnitudes (10's of m), and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain many occurrences of gradual and rapid deformation that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood
Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.
1990-09-01
Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ranjbar, Ehsan; Hassanzadeh, Hassan
2011-05-01
The matrix-fracture transfer shape factor is one of the important parameters in the modeling of fluid flow in fractured porous media using a dual-porosity concept. Warren and Root [36] introduced the dual-porosity concept and suggested a relation for the shape factor. There is no general relationship for determining the shape factor for a single-phase flow of slightly compressible fluids. Therefore, different studies reported different values for this parameter, as an input into the flow models. Several investigations have been reported on the shape factor for slightly compressible fluids. However, the case of compressible fluids has not been investigated in the past. The focus of this study is, therefore, to find the shape factor for the single-phase flow of compressible fluids (gases) in fractured porous media. In this study, a model for the determination of the shape factor for compressible fluids is presented; and, the solution of nonlinear gas diffusivity equation is used to derive the shape factor. The integral method and the method of moments are used to solve the nonlinear governing equation by considering the pressure dependency of the viscosity and isothermal compressibility of the fluid. The approximate semi-analytical model for the shape factor presented in this study is verified using single-porosity, fine-grid, numerical simulations. The dependency of the shape factor on the gas specific gravity, pressure and temperature are also investigated. The theoretical analysis presented improves our understanding of fluid flow in fractured porous media. In addition, the developed matrix-fracture transfer shape factor can be used as an input for modeling flow of compressible fluids in dual-porosity systems, such as naturally fractured gas reservoirs, coalbed methane reservoirs and fractured tight gas reservoirs.
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.
2009-01-15
A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.
Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.
2008-05-29
Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bukac, Martina; Zunino, Paolo; Yotov, Ivan
2013-11-01
We model arterial blood flow as an incompressible Newtonian fluid confined by a multilayered poroelastic wall. We consider a two layer model for the arterial wall, where the inner layers (the endothelium and the intima) behave as a thin structure modeled as a linearly elastic Koiter membrane, while the outer part of the artery (the media and adventitia) is described by the Biot model. The fluid, membrane, and poroelastic structure are two-way coupled via kinematic and dynamic coupling conditions. We propose and analyze a splitting strategy based on the Lie operator splitting method, which allows solving the Navier-Stokes and Biot equations separately. In this way, we uncouple the original problem into two problems defined on separate subregions, the lumen and the wall. We show that the proposed scheme is stable under mild restriction of the time approximation step. Numerically, we investigate the effects of porosity to the structure displacement. We distinguish a high storativity and a high permeability case in the Darcy equations, and compare them to the results obtained using a purely elastic model. Depending on the regime, we observe significantly different behaviors in response to perturbations of each parameter.
Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock
Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H
2010-01-01
Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcy’s Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.
Modeling Variable-Density Fluid Flow and Solute Transport in Glaciated Sedimentary Basins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIntosh, J. C.; Garven, G.; Hanor, J. S.
2005-12-01
Sedimentary basins typically contain saline formation waters (35 to >250 g/L TDS) with relatively long residence times (Kyrs to Myrs). Advance and retreat of km-thick ice sheets, as recently as the Late Pleistocene (<18 ka BP), exposed regional aquifers along the margins of northern latitude basins. Overpressuring of aquifers beneath the wet-based glaciers forced meltwaters to great depths in subsurface flow systems, significantly diluting remnant saline fluids and reorganizing salinity structures. Permafrost zones outboard of the ice sheet margins further enhanced deep circulation of glacial recharge. In basins containing shallow evaporites, meltwaters dissolved large quantities of halite, generating relatively recent (<1 Ma) NaCl brines. Furthermore, glacial recharge promoted generation of economic deposits of microbial methane in shallow organic-rich sediments. To better constrain the impact of glaciation on variable-density fluid flow and solute transport in sedimentary basins, we constructed a transient 2D finite element model of the northern half of the glaciated Michigan Basin. The circular basin is relatively tectonically undeformed and contains ~4 km of Paleozoic strata, primarily composed of carbonates, clastics and bedded evaporites. Thick glacial drift deposits (up to ~300 m) form most of the topographic relief in this low-lying intracratonic region. The salinity of basin fluids sharply increases from <0.5 g/L TDS near the surface to >350 g/L at ~800 m depth. Modern groundwater flow is primarily restricted to shallow glacial drift aquifers, with discharge to the Great Lakes. During Pleistocene glaciation, however groundwater flow patterns were reversed, and meteoric waters were routed into Paleozoic carbonate and siliclastic basinal aquifer systems, depressing the freshwater-saline water mixing zones and dissolving halite. Dilute waters (<100 g/L TDS) migrated ~200 km laterally into the Devonian carbonate aquifers. Carbon-14 ages and δ18O values of
Desbonnets, Quentin; Broc, Daniel
2012-07-01
It is well known that a fluid may strongly influence the dynamic behaviour of a structure. Many different physical phenomena may take place, depending on the conditions: fluid flow, fluid at rest, little or high displacements of the structure. Inertial effects can take place, with lower vibration frequencies, dissipative effects also, with damping, instabilities due to the fluid flow (Fluid Induced Vibration). In this last case the structure is excited by the fluid. Tube bundles structures are very common in the nuclear industry. The reactor cores and the steam generators are both structures immersed in a fluid which may be submitted to a seismic excitation or an impact. In this case the structure moves under an external excitation, and the movement is influence by the fluid. The main point in such system is that the geometry is complex, and could lead to very huge sizes for a numerical analysis. Homogenization models have been developed based on the Euler equations for the fluid. Only inertial effects are taken into account. A next step in the modelling is to build models based on the homogenization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The papers presents results on an important step in the development of such model: the analysis of the fluid flow in a oscillating tube bundle. The analysis are made from the results of simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid. Comparisons are made with the case of the oscillations of a single tube, for which a lot of results are available in the literature. Different fluid flow pattern may be found, depending in the Reynolds number (related to the velocity of the bundle) and the Keulegan Carpenter number (related to the displacement of the bundle). A special attention is paid to the quantification of the inertial and dissipative effects, and to the forces exchanges between the bundle and the fluid. The results of such analysis will be used in the building of models based on the homogenization of the Navier
Physiological Flow of Jeffrey Six Constant Fluid Model due to Ciliary Motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaheen, A.; Hussain, S.; Nadeem, S.
2016-12-01
The main purpose of this article is to present a mathematical model of ciliary motion in an annulus. In this analysis, the peristaltic motion of non-Newtonian Jeffrey six constant fluid is observed in an annulus with ciliated tips in the presence of heat and mass transfer. The effects of viscous dissipation are also considered. The flow equations of non-Newtonian fluid for the two-dimensional tube in cylindrical coordinates are simplified using the low Reynolds number and long wave-length approximations. The main equations for Jeffrey six constant fluid are considered in cylindrical coordinates system. The resulting nonlinear problem is solved using the regular perturbation technique in terms of a variant of small dimensionless parameter α. The results of the solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration field are presented graphically. Bk is Brinkman number, ST is soret number, and SH is the Schmidth number. Outcome for the longitudinal velocity, pressure rise, pressure gradient and stream lines are represented through graphs. in the history, the viscous-dissipation effect is usually represented by the Brinkman number.
Ninokata, H.; Deguchi, A.; Kawahara, A.
1995-09-01
A new void drift model for the subchannel analysis method is presented for the thermohydraulics calculation of two-phase flows in rod bundles where the flow model uses a two-fluid formulation for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A void drift model is constructed based on the experimental data obtained in a geometrically simple inter-connected two circular channel test sections using air-water as working fluids. The void drift force is assumed to be an origin of void drift velocity components of the two-phase cross-flow in a gap area between two adjacent rods and to overcome the momentum exchanges at the phase interface and wall-fluid interface. This void drift force is implemented in the cross flow momentum equations. Computational results have been successfully compared to experimental data available including 3x3 rod bundle data.
Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, W.; Ostien, J. T.; Foulk, J. W.; Abdeljawad, F.
2012-12-01
Deformation bands in geological materials refer to narrow zones of inhomogeneous strain. Their onset and propagation may cause significant changes in microstructures and therefore profoundly enhance or suppress fluid flow and induce anisotropy. These changes in hydraulic properties have strong implications in geotechnical engineering, carbon dioxide sequestration and nuclear waste storage. The difficulty in modeling such multiphysics phenomena is threefold. 1. Monolithically coupled promechanics formulation may lead to non-physical oscillation in pore pressure near the undrained limit if identical mesh and basis functions are used for pore pressure and displacement. 2. Onsets of deformation bands may lead to non-converging mesh-dependent results if no length scale is introduced to the finite element formulation. 3. Modeling anisotropy induced by the deformation band may require a very fine mesh to capture the sharp pore pressure gradient and results in a computational intensive system. In this study, we introduce a projection-based technique to stabilize a large deformation finite element model that eliminates the non-physical oscillation in pore pressure. Using a 1D analytical solution as guideline, we introduce a simple scheme that can adaptively update the optimal value for the stabilization parameter that can restore stability without over-diffusing the system. This stabilized model is coupled with a localization element technique used to introduce proper length scale to regularize the governing equations and resolve the fluid flow jumps across the deformation bands. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the properties and performance of the proposed localized models. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000
On Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for Carreau fluid flow over a slendering sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashim; Khan, Masood
The underlying intentions of this article are to investigate the impact of non-Fourier heat flux model on the stagnation-point flow of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid. In this study, the innovative Cattaneo-Christov constitutive model is introduced to study the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The flow is impelled by a slendering surface which is of the variable thickness. In the model, the physical mechanism responsible for homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are further taken into account. Also, the diffusion coefficients of the reactant and auto catalyst are considered to be equal. The governing non-linear partial differential equations consisting of the momentum, energy and concentration equations are reduced to the coupled ordinary differential equations by means of local similarity transformations. The transformed ODEs are tackled numerically by employing an effective shooting algorithm along with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg scheme. The physical characteristics of the fluid velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are illuminated with the variation of numerous governing factors and are presented graphically. For instance, our result indicates that the temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness are lower in case of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model when compared to classical Fourier's heat model. Meanwhile, the rate of heat transfer is significantly improved by a high wall thickness parameter and an opposite influence is found due to the thermal relaxation parameter. We further noticed that a higher value of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameter corresponds to a deceleration in the concentration field and it shows an inverse relation for the Schmidt number. A correlation with accessible results for specific cases is found with fabulous consent.
Stochastic modeling of fluid-particle flows in homogeneous cluster-induced turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Innocenti, Alessio; Chibbaro, Sergio; Fox, Rodney; Salvetti, Maria Vittoria
2016-11-01
Inertial particles in turbulent flows are characterized by preferential concentration and segregation and, at sufficient mass loading, dense clusters may spontaneously generate due to momentum coupling between the phases. These clusters in turn can generate and sustain turbulence in the fluid phase, which we refer to as cluster-induced turbulence (CIT). In the present work, we tackle the problem of homogeneous gravity driven CIT in the framework of a stochastic model, based on a Lagrangian formalism which includes naturally the Eulerian one. A rigorous formalism has been put forward focusing in particular on the terms responsible of the two-way coupling in the carrier phase, which is the key mechanism in this type of flow. Moreover, the decomposition of the particle-phase velocity into the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components has been used allowing to identify the contributions to the correlated fluctuating energy and to the granular temperature. Tests have been performed taking into account also the effects of collisions between particles. Results are compared against DNS, and they show a good accuracy in predicting first and second order moments of particle velocity and fluid velocity seen by particles.
A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis
Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray; Martineau, Richard
2016-08-01
A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.
Ledezma, G A; Folch, A; Bhatia, S N; Balis, U J; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M
1999-02-01
The incorporation of monolayers of cultured hepatocytes into an extracorporeal perfusion system has become a promising approach for the development of a temporary bioartificial liver (BAL) support system. In this paper we present a numerical investigation of the oxygen tension, shear stress, and pressure drop in a bioreactor for a BAL composed of plasma-perfused chambers containing monolayers of porcine hepatocytes. The chambers consist of microfabricated parallel disks with center-to-edge radial flow. The oxygen uptake rate (OUR), measured in vitro for porcine hepatocytes, was curve-fitted using Michaelis-Menten kinetics for simulation of the oxygen concentration profile. The effect of different parameters that may influence the oxygen transport inside the chambers, such as the plasma flow rate, the chamber height, the initial oxygen tension in the perfused plasma, the OUR, and K(m) was investigated. We found that both the plasma flow rate and the initial oxygen tension may have an important effect upon oxygen transport. Increasing the flow rate and/or the inlet oxygen tension resulted in improved oxygen transport to cells in the radial-flow microchannels, and allowed significantly greater diameter reactor without oxygen limitation to the hepatocytes. In the range investigated in this paper (10 microns < H < 100 microns), and for a constant plasma flow rate, the chamber height, H, had a negligible effect on the oxygen transport to hepatocytes. On the contrary, it strongly affected the mechanical stress on the cells that is also crucial for the successful design of the BAL reactors. A twofold decrease in chamber height from 50 to 25 microns produced approximately a fivefold increase in maximal shear stress at the inlet of the reactor from 2 to 10 dyn/cm2. Further decrease in chamber height resulted in shear stress values that are physiologically unrealistic. Therefore, the channel height needs to be carefully chosen in a BAL design to avoid deleterious hydrodynamic
Vorticity transport in shock driven plasma flows: A comparison of MHD and two-fluid models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bond, Daryl; Wheatley, Vincent; Pullin, Dale; Samtaney, Ravi
2015-11-01
Suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in a plasma, through the application of a seed magnetic field, has been studied in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodymanics. These studies have shown that suppression is achieved through the transport of vorticity by magnetohydrodynamic waves away from a perturbed fluid-fluid interface where it was baroclinically generated by shock impact. The implementation of a more physically accurate, fully electromagnetic, two-fluid plasma representation allows a more realistic investigation of vorticity transport in shock driven plasma flows. Results comparing ideal one-dimensional two-fluid and magnetohydrodymanic flows are presented. Substantial increases in the complexity of the flow field and vorticity transport dynamics are observed with important ramifications for the stabilization of shock driven interfaces. This work was partially supported by the KAUST Office of Sponsored Research under Award URF/1/2162-01.
Interstitial Fluid Flow and Drug Delivery in Vascularized Tumors: A Computational Model
Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko
2013-01-01
Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider–with the help of a theoretical model–the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various
Steady-State Flows in Two-Fluid Models of NSTX and DIII-D Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.; Chen, J.
2009-05-01
Accurate axisymmetric steady-states of a comprehensive two-fluid model are calculated for plasmas in diverted NSTX and DIII-D geometries using the M3D-C^1 code [1]. It is found that gyroviscosity may have a significant effect on the flows in steady-state when a localized density source is present. The model implemented in M3D-C^1 self-consistently includes the effects of flows, anisotropic viscosity, anisotropic thermal conductivity, and resistivity. Results for ohmically driven plasmas are presented. New capabilities of M3D-C^1 allow the three-dimensional linear stability of axisymmetric equilibria to be calculated; these capabilities and preliminary stability results are discussed. Also discussed are recent and future extensions to M3D-C^1, including heuristic bootstrap current models, coupling to a physics-based transport model, and nonlinear non-axisymmetric capability. 3pt[1] S. C. Jardin, J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, J. Comput. Phys, 226 (2007) 2146
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yadong
The study of two-fluid pipe flow was largely inspired by the potential application of using less viscous fluid to lubricate very viscous fluids such as heavy crude oil in oil transporting system. In this thesis, starting from the basic assumptions and mathematical formations of the governing equations for general two-phase flows, we first discuss the simple steady solutions of two immiscible fluids flowing coaxially in a pipe. There are basically two types of solutions, one is the stratified solution, and the other is the core-annular solution, in which the viscous phase stays in the center while the less viscous phase forms an annular around it. This solution is favored from the perspective of lubricated pipelining. The numerical results of the linear stability analysis of these solutions are then obtained using a finite element approximation with an iterative eigenvalue solver for the large matrices generated by the approximation. The core-annular flow configuration is, in general unstable due to capillarity, interfacial friction force and Reynolds stress or the combination of the three. In most of the industrial practices, the Reynolds number is so high that the flow of the less viscous phase is turbulent. For these cases we apply a k - epsilon turbulence model to the less viscous phase while assume the viscous core is still laminar and solve for the steady solution. The friction factor, which measures the drag in a pipe system, and the holdup ratio are computed for typical cases. The results are compared with available experimental data and the agreement is rather good.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.
2016-07-01
Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.
Modelling fluid flow in clastic eruptions: application to the Lusi mud eruption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel W.; Galerne, Christophe; Lupi, Matteo; Mazzini, Adriano
2017-04-01
Clastic eruptions involve the rapid ascension of clasts together with fluids, gas and/or liquid phases that may deform and brecciate the host rocks. These fluids transport the resulting mixture, called mud breccia, to the surface. Such eruptions are often associated with geological structures such as mud volcanoes, hydrothermal vent complexes and more generally piercement structures. They involve various processes, acting over a wide range of scales which makes them a complex and challenging, multi-phase system to model. Although piercement structures have been widely studied and discussed, only few attempts have been made to model the dynamics of such clastic eruptions. The ongoing Lusi mud eruption, in the East Java back-arc basin, which began in May 2006, is probably the most spectacular clastic eruption. Lusi's eruptive behaviour has been extensively studied over the past decade and thus represents a unique opportunity to better understand the dynamics driving clastic eruptions, including fossil clastic systems. We use both analytical formulations and numerical models to simulate Lusi's eruptive dynamics and to investigate simple relationships between the mud breccia properties (density, viscosity, gas and clast content) and the volumetric flow rate. Our results show that the conduit radius of such piercement system cannot exceeds a few meters at depth, and that clasts, if not densely packed, will not affect the flow rate when they are smaller than a fifth of the conduit size. Using published data for the annual gas fluxes at Lusi, we infer a maximal depth at which exsolution starts. This occurs between 1800 m and 3200 m deep for the methane and between 750 m and 1000 m for the carbon dioxide.
Hsieh, Paul A.
2001-01-01
This report serves as a user?s guide for two computer models: TopoDrive and ParticleFlow. These two-dimensional models are designed to simulate two ground-water processes: topography-driven flow and advective transport of fluid particles. To simulate topography-driven flow, the user may specify the shape of the water table, which bounds the top of the vertical flow section. To simulate transport of fluid particles, the model domain is a rectangle with overall flow from left to right. In both cases, the flow is under steady state, and the distribution of hydraulic conductivity may be specified by the user. The models compute hydraulic head, ground-water flow paths, and the movement of fluid particles. An interactive visual interface enables the user to easily and quickly explore model behavior, and thereby better understand ground-water flow processes. In this regard, TopoDrive and ParticleFlow are not intended to be comprehensive modeling tools, but are designed for modeling at the exploratory or conceptual level, for visual demonstration, and for educational purposes.
McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel
1993-01-01
A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.
Capturing nonlinear dynamics of two-fluid Couette flows with asymptotic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papageorgiou, Demetrios; Cimpeanu, Radu; Kalogirou, Anna; Keaveny, Eric
2016-11-01
The nonlinear stability of two-fluid Couette flows is studied using a novel evolution equation whose dynamics are validated by direct numerical simulations (DNS). The evolution equation incorporates inertial effects at arbitrary Reynolds numbers through a nonlocal term arising from the coupling between the two fluid regions, and is valid when one of the layers is thin. The equation predicts asymmetric solutions and exhibits bistability as seen in experiments. Related low-inertia models have been used in qualitative predictions using ad hoc modifications rather than the direct comparisons carried out here. Comparisons between model solutions and DNS show excellent agreement at Reynolds numbers of O (103) found in experiments. Direct comparisons are also made with the available experimental results of Barthelet et al. (1995) when the thin layer occupies 1 / 5 of the channel height. Pointwise comparisons of the travelling wave shapes are carried out and once again the agreement is very good. EPSRC Grant Numbers EP/K041134 and EP/L020564.
Interpretation and modeling of the averaged equations for a fluid-solid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Hayley H.; Hwang, Guann-Jiun
1989-01-01
A self-consistent derivation of the conservation laws is given for flows of a fluid-solid mixture. A unified analytical framework for obtaining constitutive relations is provided. This analysis uses a control volume/control surface approach that is widely used in fluid mechanics. All terms in the governing equations and the constitutive relations are written in terms of the mass-weighted averages except solid concentration. It is believed that the mass-weighted average is the natural bridge between micromechanics and constitutive relations. The derived momentum equations contain terms that differ from all existing models except that of Prosperetti and Jones (1984). However, their assumptions are not needed here. Special attention is given to the solid phase pressure. The physical basis of the previously assumed form for this pressure (Givler 1987) becomes clear. A number of related phenomena are also discussed. These include the anti-diffusion and anisotropic normal stresses. The energy equations are also different from existing models.
A unified approach to fluid-flow, geomechanical, and seismic modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarushina, Viktoriya; Minakov, Alexander
2016-04-01
The perturbations of pore pressure can generate seismicity. This is supported by observations from human activities that involve fluid injection into rocks at high pressure (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 storage, geothermal energy production) and natural examples such as volcanic earthquakes. Although the seismic signals that emerge during geotechnical operations are small both in amplitude and duration when compared to natural counterparts. A possible explanation for the earthquake source mechanism is based on a number of in situ stress measurements suggesting that the crustal rocks are close to its plastic yield limit. Hence, a rapid increase of the pore pressure decreases the effective normal stress, and, thus, can trigger seismic shear deformation. At the same time, little attention has been paid to the fact that the perturbation of fluid pressure itself represents an acoustic source. Moreover, non-double-couple source mechanisms are frequently reported from the analysis of microseismicity. A consistent formulation of the source mechanism describing microseismic events should include both a shear and isotropic component. Thus, improved understanding of the interaction between fluid flow and seismic deformation is needed. With this study we aim to increase the competence in integrating real-time microseismic monitoring with geomechanical modelling such that there is a feedback loop between monitored deformation and stress field modelling. We propose fully integrated seismic, geomechanical and reservoir modelling. Our mathematical formulation is based on fundamental set of force balance, mass balance, and constitutive poro-elastoplastic equations for two-phase media consisting of deformable solid rock frame and viscous fluid. We consider a simplified 1D modelling setup for consistent acoustic source and wave propagation in poro-elastoplastic media. In this formulation the seismic wave is generated due to local changes of the stress field and pore pressure induced by
Qayyum, Mubashir; Khan, Hamid; Rahim, M. Tariq; Ullah, Inayat
2015-01-01
The aim of this article is to model and analyze an unsteady axisymmetric flow of non-conducting, Newtonian fluid squeezed between two circular plates passing through porous medium channel with slip boundary condition. A single fourth order nonlinear ordinary differential equation is obtained using similarity transformation. The resulting boundary value problem is solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and fourth order Explicit Runge Kutta Method (RK4). Convergence of HPM solution is verified by obtaining various order approximate solutions along with absolute residuals. Validity of HPM solution is confirmed by comparing analytical and numerical solutions. Furthermore, the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the longitudinal and normal velocity profiles are studied graphically. PMID:25738864
In-situ observation and modelling of solidification and fluid flow on GTAW process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiocca, A.; Soulié, F.; Deschaux-Beaume, F.; Bordreuil, C.
2015-06-01
An experimental setup is presented in order to obtain experimental data during solidification of a static weld pool after arc extinction with a GTAW process. Several devices have been set up to extract three kinds of measurements: (i) solidification front velocity (ii) fluid flow velocity at the vicinity of the front (iii) temperature field in the solid part. A high-speed camera is used to film the interface during welding at microscopic level and an infra-red in order to take the temperature field around the weld pool in the solid part. After processing and calibration of the videos, the experimental results are compared to theoritical results founded on an adapted model from the KGT [1] and from the one of Gandin et al. [2]. All the tests are done thin plate of Cu-30wt.%Ni.
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2010-11-23
An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2017-08-15
Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Khosravian, N; Rafii-Tabar, H
2008-07-09
In the design of nanotube-based fluidic devices, a critical issue is the effect of the induced vibrations in the nanotube arising from the fluid flow, since these vibrations can promote structural instabilities, such as buckling transitions. It is known that the induced resonant frequencies depend on the fluid flow velocity in a significant manner. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of a non-viscous fluid in stubby multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Timoshenko classical beam theory to model the nanotubes as a continuum structure. We have obtained the variations of the resonant frequencies with the fluid flow velocity under several experimentally interesting boundary conditions and aspect ratios of the nanotube. The main finding from our work is that, compared to an Euler-Bernoulli classical beam model of a nanotube, the Timoshenko beam predicts the loss of stability at lower fluid flow velocities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravian, N.; Rafii-Tabar, H.
2008-07-01
In the design of nanotube-based fluidic devices, a critical issue is the effect of the induced vibrations in the nanotube arising from the fluid flow, since these vibrations can promote structural instabilities, such as buckling transitions. It is known that the induced resonant frequencies depend on the fluid flow velocity in a significant manner. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of a non-viscous fluid in stubby multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Timoshenko classical beam theory to model the nanotubes as a continuum structure. We have obtained the variations of the resonant frequencies with the fluid flow velocity under several experimentally interesting boundary conditions and aspect ratios of the nanotube. The main finding from our work is that, compared to an Euler-Bernoulli classical beam model of a nanotube, the Timoshenko beam predicts the loss of stability at lower fluid flow velocities.
Priyadharshini, S.; Ponalagusamy, R.
2015-01-01
An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = −1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979
A critical evaluation of various turbulence models as applied to internal fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nallasamy, M.
1985-01-01
Models employed in the computation of turbulent flows are described and their application to internal flows is evaluated by examining the predictions of various turbulence models in selected flow configurations. The main conclusions are: (1) the k-epsilon model is used in a majority of all the two-dimensional flow calculations reported in the literature; (2) modified forms of the k-epsilon model improve the performance for flows with streamline curvature and heat transfer; (3) for flows with swirl, the k-epsilon model performs rather poorly; the algebraic stress model performs better in this case; and (4) for flows with regions of secondary flow (noncircular duct flows), the algebraic stress model performs fairly well for fully developed flow, for developing flow, the algebraic stress model performance is not good; a Reynolds stress model should be used. False diffusion and inlet boundary conditions are discussed. Countergradient transport and its implications in turbulence modeling is mentioned. Two examples of recirculating flow predictions obtained using PHOENICS code are discussed. The vortex method, large eddy simulation (modeling of subgrid scale Reynolds stresses), and direct simulation, are considered. Some recommendations for improving the model performance are made. The need for detailed experimental data in flows with strong curvature is emphasized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Felisa, Giada; Ciriello, Valentina; Longo, Sandro; Di Federico, Vittorio
2017-04-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian flow in fractured media is essential in hydraulic fracturing operations, largely used for optimal exploitation of oil, gas and thermal reservoirs. Complex fluids interact with pre-existing rock fractures also during drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery, environmental remediation, and other natural phenomena such as magma and sand intrusions, and mud volcanoes. A first step in the modeling effort is a detailed understanding of flow in a single fracture, as the fracture aperture is typically spatially variable. A large bibliography exists on Newtonian flow in single, variable aperture fractures. Ultimately, stochastic modeling of aperture variability at the single fracture scale leads to determination of the flowrate under a given pressure gradient as a function of the parameters describing the variability of the aperture field and the fluid rheological behaviour. From the flowrate, a flow, or 'hydraulic', aperture can then be derived. The equivalent flow aperture for non-Newtonian fluids of power-law nature in single, variable aperture fractures has been obtained in the past both for deterministic and stochastic variations. Detailed numerical modeling of power-law fluid flow in a variable aperture fracture demonstrated that pronounced channelization effects are associated to a nonlinear fluid rheology. The availability of an equivalent flow aperture as a function of the parameters describing the fluid rheology and the aperture variability is enticing, as it allows taking their interaction into account when modeling flow in fracture networks at a larger scale. A relevant issue in non-Newtonian fracture flow is the rheological nature of the fluid. The constitutive model routinely used for hydro-fracturing modeling is the simple, two-parameter power-law. Yet this model does not characterize real fluids at low and high shear rates, as it implies, for shear-thinning fluids, an apparent viscosity which becomes unbounded for zero shear rate
Cerebrospinal fluid flow in adults.
Bradley, William G; Haughton, Victor; Mardal, Kent-Andre
2016-01-01
This chapter uses magnetic resonance imaging phase-contrast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow measurements to predict which clinical normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients will respond to shunting as well as which patients with Chiari I are likely to develop symptoms of syringomyelia. Symptomatic NPH patients with CSF flow (measured as the aqueductal CSF stroke volume) which is shown to be hyperdynamic (defined as twice normal) are quite likely to respond to ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The hyperdynamic CSF flow results from normal systolic brain expansion compressing the enlarged ventricles. When atrophy occurs, there is less brain expansion, decreased aqueductal CSF flow, and less likelihood of responding to shunting. It appears that NPH is a "two-hit" disease, starting as benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, followed by deep white-matter ischemia in late adulthood, which causes increased resistance to CSF outflow through the extracellular space of the brain. Using computational flow dynamics (CFD), CSF flow can be modeled at the foramen magnum and in the upper cervical spine. As in the case of NPH, hyperdynamic CSF flow appears to cause the signs and symptoms in Chiari I and can provide an additional indication for surgical decompression. CFD can also predict CSF pressures over the cardiac cycle. It has been hypothesized that elevated pressure pulses may be a significant etiologic factor in some cases of syringomyelia.
Scalable modeling and performance evaluation of dynamic RED router using fluid-flow approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Imase, Makoto
2005-10-01
In recent years, AQM (Active Queue Management) mechanisms, which support the end-to-end congestion control mechanism of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol), have been widely studied in the literature. AQM mechanism is a congestion controller at a router for suppressing and stabilizing its queue length (i.e., the number of packets in the buffer) by actively discarding arriving packets. Although a number of AQM mechanisms have been proposed, behaviors of those AQM mechanisms other than RED (Random Early Detection) have not been fully investigated. In this paper, using fluid-flow approximation, we analyze steady state behavior of DRED (Dynamic RED), which is designed with a control theoretic approach. More specifically, we model several network components such as congestion control mechanism of TCP, DRED router, and link propagation delay as independent SISO (Single-Input Single-Output) continuous-time systems. By interconnecting those SISO models, we obtain a continuous-time model for the entire network. Unlike other fluid-based modeling approaches, our analytic approach is scalable; our analytic approach is scalable in terms of the number of TCP connections and DRED routers since both input and output of all continuous-time systems are uniformly defined as a packet transmission rate. By performing steady-state analysis, we derive TCP throughput, average queue length of DRED router, and packet loss probability. Through several numerical examples, we quantitatively show that DRED has an intrinsic problem in high-speed networks; i.e., DRED cannot stabilize its queue length when the bottleneck link bandwidth is high. We also validate accuracy of our analytic approach by comparing analytic results with simulation ones.
Well-posedness and convergence of cfd two-fluid model for bubbly flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidheeswaran, Avinash
The current research is focused on developing a well-posed multidimensional CFD two-fluid model (TFM) for bubbly flows. Two-phase flows exhibit a wide range of local flow instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, plume and jet instabilities. They arise due to the density difference and/or the relative velocity between the two phases. A physically correct TFM is essential to model these instabilities. However, this is not the case with the TFMs in numerical codes, which can be shown to have complex eigenvalues due to incompleteness and hence are ill-posed as initial value problems. A common approach to regularize an incomplete TFM is to add artificial physics or numerically by using a coarse grid or first order methods. However, it eliminates the local physical instabilities along with the undesired high frequency oscillations resulting from the ill-posedness. Thus, the TFM loses the capability to predict the inherent local dynamics of the two-phase flow. The alternative approach followed in the current study is to introduce appropriate physical mechanisms that make the TFM well-posed. First a well-posed 1-D TFM for vertical bubbly flows is analyzed with characteristics, and dispersion analysis. When an incomplete TFM is used, it results in high frequency oscillations in the solution. It is demonstrated through the travelling void wave problem that, by adding the missing short wavelength physics to the numerical TFM, this can be removed by making the model well-posed. To extend the limit of well-posedness beyond the well-known TFM of Pauchon and Banerjee [1], the mechanism of collision is considered, and it is shown by characteristics analysis that the TFM then becomes well-posed for all void fractions of practical interest. The aforementioned ideas are then extended to CFD TFM. The travelling void wave problem is again used to demonstrate that by adding appropriate physics, the problem of ill-posedness is resolved. Furthermore, issues pertaining to
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Khanafer, Khalil; Cook, Keith; Marafie, Alia
2012-01-01
A numerical study was conducted to analyze fluid flow within hollow fiber membranes of the artificial lungs. The hollow fiber bundle was approximated using a porous media model. In addition, the transport equations were solved using the finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals. Comparisons with previously published work on the basis of special cases were performed and found to be in excellent agreement. A Newtonian viscous fluid model for the blood was used. Different flow models for porous media, such as the Brinkman-extended Darcy model, Darcy's law model, and the generalized flow model, were considered. Results were obtained in terms of streamlines, velocity vectors, and pressure distribution for various Reynolds numbers and Darcy numbers. The results from this investigation showed that the pressure drop across the artificial lung device increased with an increase in the Reynolds number. In addition, the pressure drop was found to increase significantly for small Darcy numbers.
Khanafer, Khalil; Cook, Keith; Marafie, Alia
2013-01-01
A numerical study was conducted to analyze fluid flow within hollow fiber membranes of the artificial lungs. The hollow fiber bundle was approximated using a porous media model. In addition, the transport equations were solved using the finite-element formulation based on the Galerkin method of weighted residuals. Comparisons with previously published work on the basis of special cases were performed and found to be in excellent agreement. A Newtonian viscous fluid model for the blood was used. Different flow models for porous media, such as the Brinkman-extended Darcy model, Darcy’s law model, and the generalized flow model, were considered. Results were obtained in terms of streamlines, velocity vectors, and pressure distribution for various Reynolds numbers and Darcy numbers. The results from this investigation showed that the pressure drop across the artificial lung device increased with an increase in the Reynolds number. In addition, the pressure drop was found to increase significantly for small Darcy numbers. PMID:23471191
June, Ronald K; Fyhrie, David P
2013-01-01
Cartilage exhibits nonlinear viscoelastic behaviour. Various models have been proposed to explain cartilage stress relaxation, but it is unclear whether explicit modelling of fluid flow in unconfined compression is needed. This study compared Fung's quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model with a stretched-exponential model of cartilage stress relaxation and examined each of these models both alone and in combination with a fluid-flow model in unconfined compression. Cartilage explants were harvested from bovine calf patellofemoral joints and equilibrated in tissue culture for 5 days before stress-relaxation testing in unconfined compression at 5% nominal strain. The stretched exponential models fit as well as the QLV models. Furthermore, the average stretched exponential relaxation time determined by this model lies within the range of experimentally measured relaxation times for extracted proteoglycan aggregates, consistent with the hypothesis that the stretched exponential model represents polymeric mechanisms of cartilage viscoelasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pažanin, Igor; Siddheshwar, Pradeep G.
2017-03-01
In this article we investigate the fluid flow through a thin fracture modelled as a fluid-saturated porous medium. We assume that the fracture has constrictions and that the flow is governed by the prescribed pressure drop between the edges of the fracture. The problem is described by the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model acknowledging the Brinkman extension of the Darcy law as well as the flow inertia. Using asymptotic analysis with respect to the thickness of the fracture, we derive the explicit higher-order approximation for the velocity distribution. We make an error analysis to comment on the order of accuracy of the method used and also to provide rigorous justification for the model.
Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells.
Keren, Kinneret; Yam, Patricia T; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Mogilner, Alex; Theriot, Julie A
2009-10-01
Cytosolic fluid dynamics have been implicated in cell motility because of the hydrodynamic forces they induce and because of their influence on transport of components of the actin machinery to the leading edge. To investigate the existence and the direction of fluid flow in rapidly moving cells, we introduced inert quantum dots into the lamellipodia of fish epithelial keratocytes and analysed their distribution and motion. Our results indicate that fluid flow is directed from the cell body towards the leading edge in the cell frame of reference, at about 40% of cell speed. We propose that this forward-directed flow is driven by increased hydrostatic pressure generated at the rear of the cell by myosin contraction, and show that inhibition of myosin II activity by blebbistatin reverses the direction of fluid flow and leads to a decrease in keratocyte speed. We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data.
Bhamidipati, J.R.; El-Kaddah, N.
1995-12-31
A mathematical model for the analysis and design of electromagnetic continuous casters (EMC) has been developed. The model addresses all aspects of EMC operation, namely, electromagnetic confinement of the molten pool, and melt solidification, all in terms of basic process variables. A methodology is presented for solving the coupled electromagnetic, heat transfer and fluid flow equations without regridding the solution domain during the search for the equilibrium meniscus shape, which is not known a priori. It is based on the solution of these equations in a fixed computational domain using a variable non-orthogonal coordinate transformation. Within this framework, the electromagnetic field was computed using the technique of mutual inductance, while the temperature and velocity fields in the slab were calculated using the control volume technique. The equilibrium shape of the meniscus was determined from the balance between the magnetic, metallostatic, and surface tension pressures. The model was used to simulate EMC casting of aluminum, and the numerical predictions were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements reported in the open literature. The model presented in this paper provides a theoretical framework for the analysis and optimization of EMC casters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavlyk, Vitaliy; Dilthey, Ulrich
2004-01-01
The microstructure exerts a strong influence on the mechanical properties and on the integrity of welded joints. Prediction of the formation of the microstructure during welding and of other solidification processes may be an important and supporting factor for technology optimization. Nowadays, increasing computing power allows direct simulations of the dendritic and cell morphology of columnar grains in the molten zone for specific temperature conditions. Modelling is carried out, on the one hand, with the finite difference—cellular automata and, on the other hand, with the phase field method. Determination of the solidification conditions during fusion welding (temperature gradient, local solidification rate, weld pool shape) is carried out with a numerical macroscopic finite element modelling calculation of the weld pool fluid flow and of the temperature distribution, as presented in this paper. As with the use of accurate physical models, the simulations are carried out with a spatial resolution of the microstructure, and many assumptions and restrictions from traditional, analytical or phenomenological models may be eliminated. The possibilities of using numerical algorithms for generation and visualization of microstructure formation during solidification are demonstrated. The spectrum of applications extends from welding and casting to processes with rapid solidification. In particular, computer simulations of the solidification conditions and the formation of a dendritic morphology during the directional solidification in gas-tungsten-arc welding are described. Moreover, the simulation results are compared with the experimental findings.
Energy balance and mass conservation in reduced order models of fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohebujjaman, Muhammad; Rebholz, Leo G.; Xie, Xuping; Iliescu, Traian
2017-10-01
In this paper, we investigate theoretically and computationally the conservation properties of reduced order models (ROMs) for fluid flows. Specifically, we investigate whether the ROMs satisfy the same (or similar) energy balance and mass conservation as those satisfied by the Navier-Stokes equations. All of our theoretical findings are illustrated and tested in numerical simulations of a 2D flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number Re = 100. First, we investigate the ROM energy balance. We show that using the snapshot average for the centering trajectory (which is a popular treatment of nonhomogeneous boundary conditions in ROMs) yields an incorrect energy balance. Then, we propose a new approach, in which we replace the snapshot average with the Stokes extension. Theoretically, the Stokes extension produces an accurate energy balance. Numerically, the Stokes extension yields more accurate results than the standard snapshot average, especially for longer time intervals. Our second contribution centers around ROM mass conservation. We consider ROMs created using two types of finite elements: the standard Taylor-Hood (TH) element, which satisfies the mass conservation weakly, and the Scott-Vogelius (SV) element, which satisfies the mass conservation pointwise. Theoretically, the error estimates for the SV-ROM are sharper than those for the TH-ROM. Numerically, the SV-ROM yields significantly more accurate results, especially for coarser meshes and longer time intervals.
Thermal convection in a magnetized conducting fluid with the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model.
Bissell, J J
2016-11-01
By substituting the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model for the more usual parabolic Fourier law, we consider the impact of hyperbolic heat-flow effects on thermal convection in the classic problem of a magnetized conducting fluid layer heated from below. For stationary convection, the system is equivalent to that studied by Chandrasekhar (Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, 1961), and with free boundary conditions we recover the classical critical Rayleigh number [Formula: see text] which exhibits inhibition of convection by the field according to [Formula: see text] as [Formula: see text], where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. However, for oscillatory convection we find that the critical Rayleigh number [Formula: see text] is given by a more complicated function of the thermal Prandtl number [Formula: see text], magnetic Prandtl number [Formula: see text] and Cattaneo number C. To elucidate features of this dependence, we neglect [Formula: see text] (in which case overstability would be classically forbidden), and thereby obtain an expression for the Rayleigh number that is far less strongly inhibited by the field, with limiting behaviour [Formula: see text], as [Formula: see text]. One consequence of this weaker dependence is that onset of instability occurs as overstability provided C exceeds a threshold value CT(Q); indeed, crucially we show that when Q is large, [Formula: see text], meaning that oscillatory modes are preferred even when C itself is small. Similar behaviour is demonstrated in the case of fixed boundaries by means of a novel numerical solution.
Description of fluid dynamics and coupled transports in models of a laminar flow diffusion chamber.
Trávníčková, Tereza; Havlica, Jaromír; Ždímal, Vladimír
2013-08-14
The aim of this study is to assess how much the results of nucleation experiments in a laminar flow diffusion chamber (LFDC) are influenced by the complexity of the model of the transport properties. The effects of the type of fluid dynamic model (the steady state compressible Navier-Stokes system for an ideal gas/parabolic profile approximation) and the contributions of the coupled terms describing the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion on the predicted magnitude of the nucleation maxima and its location were investigated. This study was performed on the model of the homogeneous nucleation of an n-butanol-He vapor mixture in a LFDC. The isothermal dependencies of the nucleation rate on supersaturation were determined at three nucleation temperatures: 265 K, 270 K, and 280 K. For this purpose, the experimental LFDC data measured by A. P. Hyvärinen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224304 (2006)] were reevaluated using transport models at different levels of complexity. Our results indicate that the type of fluid dynamical model affects both the position of the nucleation maxima in the LFDC and the maximum value of the nucleation rate. On the other hand, the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion perceptibly influence only the value of the maximal nucleation rate. Its position changes only marginally. The dependence of the maximum experimental nucleation rate on the saturation ratio and nucleation temperature was acquired for each case. Based on this dependence, we presented a method for the comparison and evaluation of the uncertainties of simpler models' solutions for the results, where we assumed that the model with Navier-Stokes equations and both coupled effects taken into account was the basis. From this comparison, it follows that an inappropriate choice of mathematical models could lead to relative errors of the order of several hundred percent in the maximum experimental nucleation rate. In the conclusion of this study, we also provide some general recommendations
Description of fluid dynamics and coupled transports in models of a laminar flow diffusion chamber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trávníčková, Tereza; Havlica, Jaromír; Ždímal, Vladimír
2013-08-01
The aim of this study is to assess how much the results of nucleation experiments in a laminar flow diffusion chamber (LFDC) are influenced by the complexity of the model of the transport properties. The effects of the type of fluid dynamic model (the steady state compressible Navier-Stokes system for an ideal gas/parabolic profile approximation) and the contributions of the coupled terms describing the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion on the predicted magnitude of the nucleation maxima and its location were investigated. This study was performed on the model of the homogeneous nucleation of an n-butanol-He vapor mixture in a LFDC. The isothermal dependencies of the nucleation rate on supersaturation were determined at three nucleation temperatures: 265 K, 270 K, and 280 K. For this purpose, the experimental LFDC data measured by A. P. Hyvärinen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224304 (2006), 10.1063/1.2200341] were reevaluated using transport models at different levels of complexity. Our results indicate that the type of fluid dynamical model affects both the position of the nucleation maxima in the LFDC and the maximum value of the nucleation rate. On the other hand, the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion perceptibly influence only the value of the maximal nucleation rate. Its position changes only marginally. The dependence of the maximum experimental nucleation rate on the saturation ratio and nucleation temperature was acquired for each case. Based on this dependence, we presented a method for the comparison and evaluation of the uncertainties of simpler models' solutions for the results, where we assumed that the model with Navier-Stokes equations and both coupled effects taken into account was the basis. From this comparison, it follows that an inappropriate choice of mathematical models could lead to relative errors of the order of several hundred percent in the maximum experimental nucleation rate. In the conclusion of this study, we also provide some
A simple model of fluid flow and electrolyte balance in the body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, R. J.; Neal, L.
1973-01-01
The model is basically a three-compartment model, the three compartments being the plasma, interstitial fluid and cellular fluid. Sodium, potassium, chloride and urea are the only major solutes considered explicitly. The control of body water and electrolyte distribution is affected via drinking and hormone levels. Basically, the model follows the effect of various oral input water loads on solute and water distribution throughout the body.
Fluid Transport in Porous Rocks. I. EPI Studies and a Stochastic Model of Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mansfield, P.; Issa, B.
The velocity of water flowing through a Bentheimer sandstone core has been measured by NMR-imaging techniques. The localized pixel values of velocity indicate a random distribution centered around the mean value corresponding to Darcy's law. When the same flow state is repeated, the velocity map changes but the general characteristics of the velocity distribution remain unchanged. The random nature of the irreproducibility of the flow maps has led us to propose a stochastic theory of flow in porous rocks. The theory leads to a Gaussian velocity distribution which approximates well to the data. Also predicted is a linear relationship between flow variance and mean fluid flow through the rock, the Mansfield-Issa equation, originally proposed as an empirical relationship.
Takatani, H.; Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M.
2000-02-09
Columnar dendritic grains of steel growth in the presence of fluid flow (e.g., solidified on turning rolls) have been characterized by Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) technique. It is shown that grains have a random crystallographic orientation at the surfaces of the sheet in contact with the mould. In the middle of the sheet, the grains which have survived the growth selection mechanisms exhibit a (100) texture in which the average dendrite trunk direction is not exactly aligned with the thermal gradient (i.e., the normal to the surfaces of the sheet). It is tilted by about 15{degree} toward the upstream direction. This deviation is examined by simulations of grain structure formation based on a three-dimensional Cellular Automation (CA)-Finite Element (FE) (3D CAFE) model, which has been modified in order to account for fluid flow effects. The modified Ca algorithm includes a growth kinetics of the dendrites which is a function of both the undercooling and fluid flow direction. It is validated by comparing the predicted shape of an individual grain growing under given thermal and fluid flow conditions with an analytical solution. The 3D CAFE predictions of the columnar grains grown in the presence of fluid flow are in good agreement with the experimental EBSB results.
Khanafer, Khalil M; Bull, Joseph L; Upchurch, Gilbert R; Berguer, Ramon
2007-01-01
The numerical models of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in use do not take into account the non-Newtonian behavior of blood and the development of local turbulence. This study examines the influence of pulsatile, turbulent, non-Newtonian flow on fluid shear stresses and pressure changes under rest and exercise conditions. We numerically analyzed pulsatile turbulent flow, using simulated physiological rest and exercise waveforms, in axisymmetric-rigid aortic aneurysm models (AAMs). Discretization of governing equations was achieved using a finite element scheme. Maximum turbulence-induced shear stress was found at the distal end of an AAM. In large AAMs (dilated to undilated diameter ratio = 3.33) at peak systolic flow velocity, fluid shear stress during exercise is 70.4% higher than at rest. Our study provides a numerical, noninvasive method for obtaining detailed data on the forces generated by pulsatile turbulent flow in AAAs that are difficult to study in humans and in physical models. Our data suggest that increased flow turbulence results in increased shear stress in aneurysms. While pressure readings are fairly uniform along the length of an aneurysm, the kinetic energy generated by turbulence impacting on the wall of the distal half of the aneurysm increases fluid and wall shear stress at this site. If the increased fluid shear stress results in further dilation and hence further turbulence, wall stress may be a mechanism for aneurysmal growth and eventual rupture.
Relaminarization of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, S.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Du, C.
2009-12-01
The Moxa Arch Anticline is a regional-scale northwest-trending uplift in western Wyoming where geological storage of acid gases (CO2, CH4, N2, H2S, He) from ExxonMobile's Shute Creek Gas Plant is under consideration. The Nugget Sandstone, a deep saline aquifer at depths exceeding 17,170 ft, is a candidate formation for acid gas storage. As part of a larger goal of determining site suitability, this study builds three-dimensional local to regional scale geological and fluid flow models for the Nugget Sandstone, its caprock (Twin Creek Limestone), and an underlying aquifer (Ankareh Sandstone), or together, the ``Nugget Suite''. For an area of 3000 square miles, geological and engineering data were assembled, screened for accuracy, and digitized, covering an average formation thickness of ~1700 feet. The data include 900 public-domain well logs (SP, Gamma Ray, Neutron Porosity, Density, Sonic, shallow and deep Resistivity, Lithology, Deviated well logs), 784 feet of core measurements (porosity and permeability), 4 regional geological cross sections, and 3 isopach maps. Data were interpreted and correlated for geological formations and facies, the later categorized using both Neural Network and Gaussian Hierarchical Clustering algorithms. Well log porosities were calibrated with core measurements, those of permeability estimated using formation-specific porosity-permeability transforms. Using conditional geostatistical simulations (first indicator simulation of facies, then sequential Gaussian simulation of facies-specific porosity), data were integrated at the regional-scale to create a geological model from which a local-scale simulation model surrounding the Shute Creek injection site was extracted. Based on this model, full compositional multiphase flow simulations were conducted with which we explore (1) an appropriate grid resolution for accurate acid gas predictions (pressure, saturation, and mass balance); (2) sensitivity of key geological and engineering
Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding
Zhang, Wei
2011-01-01
MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.
Kenkeremath, D.
1985-05-01
Numerical simulation models and data bases that were developed for DOE as part of a number of geothermal programs have been assessed with respect to their overall stage of development and usefulness. This report combines three separate studies that focus attention upon: (1) economic models related to geothermal energy; (2) physical geothermal system models pertaining to thermal energy and the fluid medium; and (3) geothermal energy data bases. Computerized numerical models pertaining to the economics of extracting and utilizing geothermal energy have been summarized and catalogued with respect to their availability, utility and function. The 19 models that are discussed in detail were developed for use by geothermal operators, public utilities, and lending institutions who require a means to estimate the value of a given resource, total project costs, and the sensitivity of these values to specific variables. A number of the models are capable of economically assessing engineering aspects of geothermal projects. Computerized simulations of heat distribution and fluid flow have been assessed and are presented for ten models. Five of the models are identified as wellbore simulators and five are described as reservoir simulators. Each model is described in terms of its operational characteristics, input, output, and other pertinent attributes. Geothermal energy data bases are reviewed with respect to their current usefulness and availability. Summaries of eight data bases are provided in catalogue format, and an overall comparison of the elements of each data base is included.
Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin
2010-03-01
Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, R. M.; Nicolas, A. N.
2003-04-01
A modeling approach of gas solid flow, taking into account different physical phenomena such as gas turbulence and inter-particle interactions is presented. Moment transport equations are derived for the second order fluctuating velocity tensor which allow to involve practical closures based on single phase turbulence modeling on one hand and kinetic theory of granular media on the other hand. The model is applied to fluid catalytic cracking processes and explosive volcanism. In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are modeled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents oscillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillations of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. Pentadiagonal linear systems are solved in each geometrical direction (the so
A mass-conservative switching algorithm for modeling fluid flow in variably saturated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush
2011-02-01
Numerical solutions of flow equation in fluid content-based form or in fluid pressure head-based form are often tradeoffs between speed, accuracy, and convenience. The fluid-content based form can be solved quite rapidly with low CPU time and perfect mass balance. However, it cannot be used in saturated regions (as diffusivity function becomes infinite) and strictly becomes invalid in composite, layered, and real heterogeneous porous materials, due to singularity and discontinuity in fluid content profile. This formulation also gives misleading impression that gradient in fluid content causes the flow of fluid in porous materials, where in reality gravity and fluid pressure potential gradient produce the motion. The pressure head-based form, on the other hand, is more flexible but due to its highly nonlinear nature is much more time-consuming and produces poor global mass balance for dry initial conditions. Very fine spatial and temporal discretizations are needed to maintain mass balance property for these scenarios. The mixed form of the flow equation partially solves these issues as it maintains acceptable mass balance and is applicable to layered, heterogeneous, and composite fractured foundations. However, it is only applicable in unsaturated zones. In this study, a switching algorithm was proposed and implemented in which the mass conservative mixed form and the pressure head-based form were, respectively, used in the unsaturated and saturated zones of an initial-boundary value flow problem involving a variably saturated porous medium. The algorithm showed excellent agreement with a reference solution, obtained on a very fine spatiotemporal mesh. The simulator was then calibrated with several real-world large-scale experimental datasets. In all cases, the proposed algorithm exhibited close agreements with the experimental time-space series. The algorithm poses excellent mass balance property and can easily be used in both saturated and unsaturated regions
Barker, Andrew T. Cai Xiaochuan
2010-02-01
We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barker, Andrew T.; Cai, Xiao-Chuan
2010-02-01
We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.
Model of fluid flow and internal erosion of a porous fragile medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kudrolli, Arshad; Clotet, Xavier
2016-11-01
We discuss the internal erosion and transport of particles leading to heterogeneity and channelization of a porous granular bed driven by fluid flow by introducing a model experimental system which enables direct visualization of the evolution of porosity from the single particle up to the system scale. Further, we develop a hybrid hydrodynamic-statistical model to understand the main ingredients needed to simulate our observations. A uniqueness of our study is the close coupling of the experiments and simulations with control parameters used in the simulations derived from the experiments. Understanding this system is of fundamental importance to a number of geophysical processes, and in the extraction of hydrocarbons in the subsurface including the deposition of proppants used in hydraulic fracturing. We provide clear evidence for the importance of curvature of the interface between high and low porosity regions in determining the flux rate needed for erosion and the spatial locations where channels grow. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences program under DE-SC0010274.
Guidelines for optimizing multilevel ECN using fluid-flow-based TCP model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quet, Pierre-Francois; Chellappan, Sriram; Durresi, Arjan; Sridharan, Mukundan; Ozbay, Hitay; Jain, Raj
2002-07-01
Congestion avoidance on today's Internet is mainly provided by the combination of the TCP protocol and Active Queue Management (AQM) schemes such as the de facto standard RED (Random Early Detection). When used with ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification), these algorithms can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the feedback information is carried on a single bit. A modification of this scheme called MECN was proposed, where the marking information is carried using 2 bits. MECN conveys more accurate feedback about the network congestion to the source than the current 1-bit ECN. The TCP source reaction was modified so that it takes advantage of the extra information about congestion and adapts faster to the changing congestion scenario leading to a smoother decrease in the sending rates of the sources upon congestion detection and consequently resulting in an increase in the router's throughput. A linearized fluid flow model already developed for ECN is extended to our case. Using control theoretic tools we justify the performance obtained in using the MECN scheme and give guidelines for optimizing its parameters. We use ns simulations to illustrate the performance improvement from the point of better throughput and low level of oscillations in the queue.
Modeling Fluid Flow and Electrical Resistivity in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir Rocks
Detwiler, R L; Roberts, J J; Ralph, W; Bonner, B P
2003-01-14
Phase change of pore fluid (boiling/condensing) in rock cores under conditions representative of geothermal reservoirs results in alterations of the electrical resistivity of the samples. In fractured samples, phase change can result in resistivity changes that are more than an order of magnitude greater than those measured in intact samples. These results suggest that electrical resistivity monitoring may provide a useful tool for monitoring the movement of water and steam within fractured geothermal reservoirs. We measured the electrical resistivity of cores of welded tuff containing fractures of various geometries to investigate the resistivity contrast caused by active boiling and to determine the effects of variable fracture dimensions and surface area on water extraction. We then used the Nonisothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport model (NUFT) (Nitao, 1998) to simulate the propagation of boiling fronts through the samples. The simulated saturation profiles combined with previously reported measurements of resistivity-saturation curves allow us to estimate the evolution of the sample resistivity as the boiling front propagates into the rock matrix. These simulations provide qualitative agreement with experimental measurements suggesting that our modeling approach may be used to estimate resistivity changes induced by boiling in more complex systems.
Strongly coupled fluid-particle flows in vertical channels. II. Turbulence modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-03-01
In Part I, simulations of strongly coupled fluid-particle flow in a vertical channel were performed with the purpose of understanding, in general, the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence and, in particular, the roles of the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components of the particle velocity. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions were presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow were evaluated in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework. Here, data from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress model (RSM) that predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase, one-point turbulence statistics up to second order. It is shown that the anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is a crucial component for predicting the distribution of the RA particle-phase volume fraction. Moreover, the decomposition of the phase-average (PA) particle-phase fluctuating energy into the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components is necessary to account for the boundary conditions at the wall. When these factors are properly accounted for in the RSM, the agreement with the EL turbulence statistics is satisfactory at first order (e.g., PA velocities) but less so at second order (e.g., PA turbulent kinetic energy). Finally, an algebraic stress model for the PA particle-phase pressure tensor and the Reynolds stresses is derived from the RSM using the weak-equilibrium assumption.
Quaini, A; Canic, S; Glowinski, R; Igo, S; Hartley, C J; Zoghbi, W; Little, S
2012-01-10
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.
2011-01-01
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
An adaptive lattice Boltzmann scheme for modeling two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dye, Amanda L.; McClure, James E.; Adalsteinsson, David; Miller, Cass T.
2016-04-01
We formulate a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to simulate two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems. The MRT LBM is applied to simulate the displacement of a wetting fluid by a nonwetting fluid in a system corresponding to a microfluidic cell. Analysis of the simulation shows widely varying time scales for the dynamics of fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and interfacial curvatures that are typical characteristics of such systems. Displacement phenomena include Haines jumps, which are relatively short duration isolated events of rapid fluid displacement driven by capillary instability. An adaptive algorithm is advanced using a level-set method to locate interfaces and estimate their rate of advancement. Because the displacement dynamics are confined to the interfacial regions for a majority of the relaxation time, the computational effort is focused on these regions. The proposed algorithm is shown to reduce computational effort by an order of magnitude, while yielding essentially identical solutions to a conventional fully coupled approach. The challenges posed by Haines jumps are also resolved by the adaptive algorithm. Possible extensions to the advanced method are discussed.
Reactive fluid flow models and applications to diagenesis, mineral deposits and crustal rocks
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.
1993-08-01
Funds are requested for a combined theoretical and field study of coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport, and chemical reaction in hydrothermal and metamorphic systems. An existing computer code developed by the applicants which numerically treats multi-component, finite-rate reactions combined with advective and dispersive transport in one and two dimensions and which incorporates isotopic exchange and heat and mass transfer will continue to be developed and applied in a variety of geological settings. The code we have developed simultaneously solves for mass transport and reaction, thus offering a significant improvement in computational efficiency over existing ``batch`` reaction path codes. By coupling flow and chemical reaction in a hydrothermal system, we can explicitly investigate the extent to which characteristic flow-reaction paths govern the chemical evolution of the fluids in a hydrothermal system. The concept of a flow-reaction path is particularly important where certain portions of mature hydrothermal systems may exhaust the buffer capacity of the rock as the primary mineralogy is consumed. In these instances 7 fluids traversing distinct regions within the hydrothermal system may experience very different reaction histories, even where the system can be described as nearly isothermal. The study of paleo-hydrothermal systems can yield some important insights into the chemical dynamics of hydrothermal systems in general. As an example of a paleo-hydrothermal system, we have considered the geochemical evolution of ``porphyry-copper`` type mineralization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, L. W.; Zou, A. X.
2017-05-01
In order to find a high efficiency, energy saving structure of the indoor substation room, a novel computational fluid dynamics method is proposed to model its flow and heat transfer characteristics. As an automatic optimization system, the efficient methods for mesh generation and numerical calculation are necessary. The mesh of the whole room including the transformer and its heat transfer fins is created using a structured mesh scheme, and a detection technology is adopted to recognize all the obstacles. In order to improve the numerical efficiency, a fast computational fluid dynamics (FFD) method is adopted to establish the three dimensional dynamic model with heat source. The comparisons between the FFD model and the experimental data show that the FFD can model the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the indoor substation efficiently. By modifying the related parameters in the model, this method can be used in the simulation of other indoor substation rooms to optimize their structure and operation.
Thermal convection in a magnetized conducting fluid with the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bissell, J. J.
2016-11-01
By substituting the Cattaneo-Christov heat-flow model for the more usual parabolic Fourier law, we consider the impact of hyperbolic heat-flow effects on thermal convection in the classic problem of a magnetized conducting fluid layer heated from below. For stationary convection, the system is equivalent to that studied by Chandrasekhar (Hydrodynamic and Hydromagnetic Stability, 1961), and with free boundary conditions we recover the classical critical Rayleigh number Rc(c )(Q ) which exhibits inhibition of convection by the field according to Rc(c )→π2Q as Q →∞ , where Q is the Chandrasekhar number. However, for oscillatory convection we find that the critical Rayleigh number Rc(o )(Q ,P1,P2,C ) is given by a more complicated function of the thermal Prandtl number P1, magnetic Prandtl number P2 and Cattaneo number C. To elucidate features of this dependence, we neglect P2 (in which case overstability would be classically forbidden), and thereby obtain an expression for the Rayleigh number that is far less strongly inhibited by the field, with limiting behaviour Rc(o )→π √{Q }/ C , as Q →∞ . One consequence of this weaker dependence is that onset of instability occurs as overstability provided C exceeds a threshold value CT(Q); indeed, crucially we show that when Q is large, CT∝1 / √{Q }, meaning that oscillatory modes are preferred even when C itself is small. Similar behaviour is demonstrated in the case of fixed boundaries by means of a novel numerical solution.
Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano
2016-04-01
The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ~ 30 000 people. Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the mechanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s). In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126) we use both analytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.
Mathematical model for blood flow through a bifurcated artery using couple stress fluid.
Srinivasacharya, D; Madhava Rao, G
2016-08-01
In this article, the blood flow through a bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated taking blood as couple stress fluid. The artery configuring bifurcation is assumed to be symmetric about the axis of the artery and straight cylinders of finite length. The governing equations are non-dimensionalized and coordinate transformation is used to convert the irregular boundary to a regular boundary. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The variation of shear stress, flow rate and impedance near the apex with pertinent parameters are studied graphically. It has been noticed that shear stress, flow rate and impedance have been changing suddenly with all the parameters on both sides of the apex. This occurs because of the backflow of the streaming blood at the onset of the lateral junction and secondary flow near the apex in the daughter artery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.
Cairns, Douglas S.; Rossel, Scott M.
2004-06-01
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.
Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method
Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.
Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.
2017-01-01
This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.
Mechanics of coupled granular/fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vinningland, J.; Toussaint, R.; Johnsen, O.; Flekkoy, E. G.; Maloy, K. J.
2006-12-01
We introduce a hybrid numerical model for coupled flow of solid grains and intersticial fluid, which renders for complex hydrodynamic interactions between mobile grains. This model treats the solid phase as discrete particles, interacting mechanically with the other particles and with the intersticial flowing fluid. The fluid is described by continuum equations rendering for its advection by the local grains, superposed to a pressure diffusion ruled by a Darcy flow with a permeability depending on the local solid fraction. This model is aimed at describing accurately such coupled flow. This model is tested for two model situations, where it is compared to experimental results: 1/ Injection of a localized overpressure in a grain/fluid filled cell lying horizontally, where gravity is unimportant. 2/ Sedimentation of heavy grains falling into an initially grain-free fluid region. The development of pattern-forming instabilities is obtained in these two situations, corresponding to granular/fluid equivalents of the two-fluids Saffman-Taylor and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Numerical and experimental results are shown to be consistent with each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muha, Boris; Canić, Suncica
2013-03-01
We study a nonlinear, unsteady, moving boundary, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problem arising in modeling blood flow through elastic and viscoelastic arteries. The fluid flow, which is driven by the time-dependent pressure data, is governed by two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, while the elastodynamics of the cylindrical wall is modeled by the one-dimensional cylindrical Koiter shell model. Two cases are considered: the linearly viscoelastic and the linearly elastic Koiter shell. The fluid and structure are fully coupled (two-way coupling) via the kinematic and dynamic lateral boundary conditions describing continuity of velocity (the no-slip condition), and the balance of contact forces at the fluid-structure interface. We prove the existence of weak solutions to the two FSI problems (the viscoelastic and the elastic case) as long as the cylinder radius is greater than zero. The proof is based on a novel semi-discrete, operator splitting numerical scheme, known as the kinematically coupled scheme, introduced in Guidoboni et al. (J Comput Phys 228(18):6916-6937, 2009) to numerically solve the underlying FSI problems. The backbone of the kinematically coupled scheme is the well-known Marchuk-Yanenko scheme, also known as the Lie splitting scheme. We effectively prove convergence of that numerical scheme to a solution of the corresponding FSI problem.
On the multidimensional modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in SCWRS
Gallaway, T.; Antal, S. P.; Podowski, M. Z.
2012-07-01
The Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) has been proposed as one of the six Generation IV reactor design concepts under consideration. The key feature of the SCWR is that water at supercritical pressures is used as the reactor coolant. Although at such pressures, fluids do not undergo phase change as they are heated, the fluid properties experience dramatic variations throughout what is known as the pseudo-critical region. Highly nonuniform temperature and fluid property distributions are expected in the reactor core, which will have a significant impact on turbulence and heat transfer in future SCWRs. The goal of the present work has been to understand and predict the effects of these fluid property variations on turbulence and heat transfer throughout the reactor core. Spline-type property models have been formulated for water at supercritical pressures in order to include the dependence of properties on both temperature and pressure into a numerical solver. New models of turbulence and heat transfer for variable-property fluids have been developed and implemented into the NPHASE-CMFD software. The results for these models have been compared to experimental data from the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) for various heat transfer regimes. It is found that the Low-Reynolds {kappa}-{epsilon} model performs best at predicting the experimental data. (authors)
Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman
2016-08-01
During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment
Computation of two-fluid, flowing equilibria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinhauer, Loren; Kanki, Takashi; Ishida, Akio
2006-10-01
Equilibria of flowing two-fluid plasmas are computed for realistic compact-toroid and spherical-tokamak parameters. In these examples the two-fluid parameter ɛ (ratio of ion inertial length to overall plasma size) is small, ɛ ˜ 0.03 -- 0.2, but hardly negligible. The algorithm is based on the nearby-fluids model [1] which avoids a singularity that otherwise occurs for small ɛ. These representative equilibria exhibit significant flows, both toroidal and poloidal. Further, the flow patterns display notable flow shear. The importance of two-fluid effects is demonstrated by comparing with analogous equilibria (e.g. fixed toroidal and poloidal current) for a static plasma (Grad-Shafranov solution) and a flowing single-fluid plasma. Differences between the two-fluid, single-fluid, and static equilibria are highlighted: in particular with respect to safety factor profile, flow patterns, and electrical potential. These equilibria are computed using an iterative algorithm: it employs a successive-over-relaxation procedure for updating the magnetic flux function and a Newton-Raphson procedure for updating the density. The algorithm is coded in Visual Basic in an Excel platform on a personal computer. The computational time is essentially instantaneous (seconds). [1] L.C. Steinhauer and A. Ishida, Phys. Plasmas 13, 052513 (2006).
Numerical modeling of coupled pressure solution and fluid flow in quartz sandstones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheldon, H. A.; Wheeler, J.; Worden, R.
2001-12-01
Pressure solution in quartz sandstones can be envisaged as a 3-stage process, involving dissolution along grain contacts, diffusion of the solute along the grain contact to the pore space, and removal of the solute from the pore fluid by a combination of diffusive and/or advective transport and chemical reactions (e.g. precipitation of dissolved silica on free grain surfaces). A number of authors have developed mathematical models of pressure solution in order to assess the impact of this process on porosity and permeability in sandstones. However, such models have always been based on a simplified subset of the governing equations, in order to reduce the computation time to an acceptable level. For example, some models assume diffusion through the grain contact zone to be the rate-limiting step, with all the dissolved material precipitating locally in the pore space. Other models assume that the rate of removal of solute from the pore fluid, by diffusion and precipitation, is rate-limiting. It is now possible to solve the full coupled system of equations on a PC, without such simplifications. This enables us to investigate the coupling and interactions between pressure solution, chemical reactions in the pore spaces and macroscale advective/diffusive transport in the pore fluid. Preliminary results of such modeling will be presented, highlighting the importance of modeling pressure solution in an open system, where there is a strong coupling between macroscale transport in the pore fluid and the rate of porosity loss due to compaction and cementation.
Stoner, D. L.; Watson, S. M.; Stedtfeld, R. D.; Meakin, P.; Griffel, L. K.; Tyler, T. L.; Pegram, L. M.; Barnes, J. M.; Deason, V. A.
2005-01-01
Here we introduce the use of transparent experimental models fabricated by stereolithography for studying the impacts of biomass accumulation, minerals precipitation, and physical configuration of flow paths on liquid flow in fracture apertures. The internal configuration of the models ranged in complexity from simple geometric shapes to those that incorporate replicated surfaces of natural fractures and computationally derived fracture surfaces. High-resolution digital time-lapse imaging was employed to qualitatively observe the migration of colloidal and soluble dyes through the flow models. In this study, a Sphingomonas sp. and Sporosarcina (Bacillus) pasteurii influenced the fluid dynamics by physically altering flow paths. Microbial colonization and calcite deposition enhanced the stagnant regions adjacent to solid boundaries. Microbial growth and calcite precipitation occurred to a greater extent in areas behind the fabricated obstacles and less in high-velocity orifices. PMID:16332867
Modeling of unsteady flow of viscous fluid in the channel of complex geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marfin, E. A.; Abdrashitov, A. A.
2016-11-01
The article concerns an issue of exploring the mechanism of wave influence on the process of filtration. To describe a filtration flow, the porous medium is represented as a capillary, the radius of which varies sinusoidally. In this article we are presenting the results of numerical modeling of pulsating liquid flow in a sinusoidally-shaped channel. Numerical research was conducted with the help of the program complex FlowVision. As a result of series of calculations we received fields of velocities and pressure in the axial section of flowing channel. It was found that it is the flow in narrow isthmuses between the pores that contributes to the pressure difference the most. We revealed the signs of steady-state liquid flow in the channel when imposing fluctuations of pressure in the absence of pressure gradient. The conditions of formation of such flow are revealed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Y.; Yang, J.
2009-05-01
A finite element computer modeling approach, integrated with existing geological, geochemical and geophysical data, was used to address the diagenetic process of dolomitization in Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). A 2-D conceptualized model was developed to simulate hydrothermal flow in particular for the packland play type dolomitization in Peace River Arch of WCSB. Our numerical results indicate that faults serve as important pathways for the ascending hydrothermal fluids driven by buoyancy force due to temporal and spatial changes in temperature. Both steady state and transient computations were conducted to reveal suitable hydraulic conditions under which the modeled temperature within the aquifer system is consistent with observed values in the targeted study area. A series of numerical case studies were carried out to investigate key factors controlling hydrothermal fluid flow, including fault penetration depth, width and permeability, and its connectivity with the host rock units.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.
2003-01-01
As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.
Numerical modeling of fluid flow in a fault zone: a case of study from Majella Mountain (Italy).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina; De'Haven Hyman, Jeffrey; Valocchi, Albert J.
2017-04-01
The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a numerical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). This fault zone is considered a good analogue for the massive presence of fluid migration in the form of tar. Faults are mechanical features and cause permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead the fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier, or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing information and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., type of fractures, statistical properties, geometrical and petro-physical characteristics). In our model the damage zones of the fault are described as discretely fractured medium, while the core of the fault as a porous one. Our model utilizes the dfnWorks code, a parallelized computational suite, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), that generates three dimensional Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) of the damage zones of the fault and characterizes its hydraulic parameters. The challenge of the study is the coupling between the discrete domain of the damage zones and the continuum one of the core. The field investigations and the basic computational workflow will be described, along with preliminary results of fluid flow simulation at the scale of the fault.
Wetzel, L.R.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Shock, E.L.
2001-01-01
Coordinated geochemical and hydrological calculations guide our understanding of the composition, fluid flow patterns, and thermal structure of near-ridge oceanic crust. The case study presented here illustrates geochemical and thermal changes taking place as oceanic crust ages from 0.2 to 1.0 Myr. Using a finite element code, we model fluid flow and heat transport through the upper few hundred meters of an abyssal hill created at an intermediate spreading rate. We use a reaction path model with a customized database to calculate equilibrium fluid compositions and mineral assemblages of basalt and seawater at 500 bars and temperatures ranging from 150 to 400??C. In one scenario, reaction path calculations suggest that volume increases on the order of 10% may occur within portions of the basaltic basement. If this change in volume occurred, it would be sufficient to fill all primary porosity in some locations, effectively sealing off portions of the oceanic crust. Thermal profiles resulting from fluid flow simulations indicate that volume changes along this possible reaction path occur primarily within the first 0.4 Myr of crustal aging. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Chin, Jonathan; Boek, Edo S; Coveney, Peter V
2002-03-15
We present a lattice Boltzmann study of the flow of a binary fluid where the fluid components have different viscosities. For this purpose, a microscopic interaction model (due to Shan & Chen) is used. The model is validated for Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids and the dispersion of a capillary wave. We then study the unstable displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid in a two-dimensional channel. Although a finger-like structure was observed in many simulations, it is not clear if this structure was produced due to viscous fingering or due to other effects.
Rotational fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.
Dynamic simulation of wavy-stratified two-phase flow with the one-dimensional two-fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullmer, William D.
The one-dimensional two-fluid model is the basis for the description of the transport of mass, momentum and energy in the thermal-hydraulic codes used for nuclear reactor safety analysis. Unlike other physical transport models, the one-dimensional two-fluid model suffers from the possibility of being ill-posed as an initial-boundary value problem depending on the flow conditions and the relevant physical closure laws. Typically, the ill-posedness is dealt with through either excessive numerical damping or the addition of unphysical closure laws designed for the sole purpose of hyperbolization. Unfortunately both methods eliminate the instability along with the problem of ill-posedness causing the model to undoubtedly lose some of its inherent dynamic capability. In this work, a one-dimensional two-fluid model for horizontal or slightly inclined stratified flow is developed. Higher order physical models that are often neglected, such as surface tension and axial viscous stress, are retained for their short-wavelength stability properties. Characteristic, dispersion and nonlinear analyses are performed to demonstrate that the resulting model is linearly well-posed and nonlinearly well-behaved. While it has been known that higher-order differential terms are able to regularize the short-wavelength problem of ill-posedness without removing the long-wavelength instability, the literature is relatively silent on the consequences of using a model under linearly unstable conditions. Using carefully selected conditions in an idealized infinite domain, it is demonstrated for the first time that the one-dimensional two-fluid model exhibits chaotic behavior in addition to limit cycles and asymptotic stability. The chaotic behavior is a consequence of the long-wavelength linear instability (energy source) the nonlinearity (energy transfer) and the short-wavelength dissipation (energy sink). Since the model is chaotic, solutions exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial
Light-controlled flows in active fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dervaux, Julien; Capellazzi Resta, Marina; Brunet, Philippe
2017-03-01
Many photosynthetic microorganisms are able to detect light and move towards optimal intensities. This ability, known as phototaxis, plays a major role in ecology by affecting natural phytoplankton mass transfers, and has important applications in bioreactor and artificial micro-swimmers technologies. Here we show that this property can be exploited to generate macroscopic fluid flows using a localized light source directed towards shallow suspensions of phototactic microorganisms. Within the intensity range of positive phototaxis, algae accumulate beneath the excitation light, where collective effects lead to the emergence of radially symmetric convective flows. These flows can thus be used as hydrodynamic tweezers to manipulate small floating objects. At high cell density and layer depth, we uncover a new kind of instability, wherein the viscous torque exerted by self-generated fluid flows on the swimmers induces the formation of travelling waves. A model coupling fluid flow, cell concentration and orientation finely reproduces the experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, D.
2015-09-01
The uses of ejector for efficient refrigeration are manifold - it has been used, among other applications, in the VCRS to reduce the compression ratio, in the combined ejector absorption cycle to enhance the refrigeration capacity and in the ejector absorber cycle to obtain lower evaporator pressures, higher absorber pressures and pre-absorption of the refrigerant in the ejector. Hence, modeling of flow which may be two phase two fluid as in ejector absorber cycle or two phase single fluid as in VCRS in an ejector assumes utmost importance. However, much work has not been done in this field. The primary objective of the present work is to discuss about the role of ejectors in various refrigeration systems and to model the two phase two fluid flow in the nozzle and the diffuser of an ejector under suitable assumptions. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy have been solved to find the different flow properties like pressure, temperature and velocity of the two phases as function of the length in the diffuser. Different cases pertaining to different flows have been taken care of by appreciating what type of phenomena can actually occur at the interface of the two phases. Higher pressure rise was obtained for a given diffuser length with higher diffuser angles, smaller droplet diameter, higher inlet velocity of the gaseous phase and higher drag coefficients. Among other results, it was also seen that the two phases reached thermal equilibrium faster with higher diffuser angle, smaller droplet diameter and higher heat transfer coefficient.
Two-fluid equilibrium with flow: FLOW2
Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.
2015-09-15
The effects of finite macroscopic velocities on axisymmetric ideal equilibria are examined using the two-fluid (ions and electrons) model. A new equilibrium solver, the code FLOW2, is introduced for the two-fluid model and used to investigate the importance of various flow patterns on the equilibrium of tight aspect ratio (NSTX) and regular tokamak (DIII-D) configurations. Several improvements to the understanding and calculation of two-fluid equilibria are presented, including an analytical and numerical proof of the single-fluid and static limits of the two-fluid model, a discussion of boundary conditions, a user-friendly free-function formulation, and the explicit evaluation of velocity components normal to magnetic surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter K 0 introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
Sui, Jize; Zhao, Peng; Cheng, Zhengdong; Zheng, Liancun; Zhang, Xinxin
2017-02-01
The rheological and heat-conduction constitutive models of micropolar fluids (MFs), which are important non-Newtonian fluids, have been, until now, characterized by simple linear expressions, and as a consequence, the non-Newtonian performance of such fluids could not be effectively captured. Here, we establish the novel nonlinear constitutive models of a micropolar fluid and apply them to boundary layer flow and heat transfer problems. The nonlinear power law function of angular velocity is represented in the new models by employing generalized "n-diffusion theory," which has successfully described the characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids, such as shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. These novel models may offer a new approach to the theoretical understanding of shear-thinning behavior and anomalous heat transfer caused by the collective micro-rotation effects in a MF with shear flow according to recent experiments. The nonlinear similarity equations with a power law form are derived and the approximate analytical solutions are obtained by the homotopy analysis method, which is in good agreement with the numerical solutions. The results indicate that non-Newtonian behaviors involving a MF depend substantially on the power exponent n and the modified material parameter [Formula: see text] introduced by us. Furthermore, the relations of the engineering interest parameters, including local boundary layer thickness, local skin friction, and Nusselt number are found to be fitted by a quadratic polynomial to n with high precision, which enables the extraction of the rapid predictions from a complex nonlinear boundary-layer transport system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovaysi, S.; Piri, M.
2009-12-01
We present a three-dimensional fully dynamic parallel particle-based model for direct pore-level simulation of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model was developed from scratch and is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution microtomography images of naturally occurring or man-made porous systems. It reads the images as input where the position of the solid walls are given. The entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is then discretized using particles. The model is based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) technique. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. It takes into account viscous pressure drop in addition to the gravity forces. It conserves mass and can automatically detect any false connectivity with fluid particles in the neighboring pores and throats. It includes a sophisticated algorithm to automatically split and merge particles to maintain hydraulic connectivity of extremely narrow conduits. Furthermore, it uses novel methods to handle particle inconsistencies and open boundaries. To handle the computational load, we present a fully parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters and exhibits excellent scalability. The model is used to simulate unsteady-state flow problems under different conditions starting from straight noncircular capillary tubes with different cross-sectional shapes, i.e., circular/elliptical, square/rectangular and triangular cross-sections. We compare the predicted dimensionless hydraulic conductances with the data available in the literature and observe an excellent agreement. We then test the scalability of our parallel model with two samples of an artificial sandstone, samples A and B, with different volumes and different distributions (non-uniform and uniform) of solid particles among the processors. An excellent linear scalability is
A Computer Simulation Model of Fluid Flow Through a Channel with Constriction
2013-06-01
14. SUBJECT TERMS COMSOL , Stenosis, Fluid Dynamics, Hemodynamics 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 67 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY...8. Two dimensional proportional velocity vectors provided from COMSOL multiphysics. Recirculation is clearly visible toward the artery wall, away...Dunec of COMSOL multiphysics for helping to develop our model and to help us get our ideas into model form. Finally, I would like to thank my wife
A model for fluid flow during saturated boiling on a horizontal cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kheyrandish, K.; Dalton, C.; Lienhard, J. H.
1987-01-01
A model has been developed to represent the vapor removal pattern in the vicinity of a cylinder during nucleate flow boiling across a horizontal cylinder. The model is based on a potential flow representation of the liquid and vapor regions and an estimate of the losses that should occur in the flow. Correlation of the losses shows a weak dependence on the Weber number and a slightly stronger dependence on the saturated liquid-to-vapor density ratio. The vapor jet thickness, which is crucial to the prediction of the burnout heat flux, and the shape of the vapor film are predicted. Both are verified by qualitative experimental observations.
A model for fluid flow during saturated boiling on a horizontal cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kheyrandish, K.; Dalton, C.; Lienhard, J. H.
1987-01-01
A model has been developed to represent the vapor removal pattern in the vicinity of a cylinder during nucleate flow boiling across a horizontal cylinder. The model is based on a potential flow representation of the liquid and vapor regions and an estimate of the losses that should occur in the flow. Correlation of the losses shows a weak dependence on the Weber number and a slightly stronger dependence on the saturated liquid-to-vapor density ratio. The vapor jet thickness, which is crucial to the prediction of the burnout heat flux, and the shape of the vapor film are predicted. Both are verified by qualitative experimental observations.
Modeling Solar Wind Flow with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite
Pogorelov, N.V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Bedford, M. C.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I. A.; Zank, G. P.
2013-04-01
Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) is a package of numerical codes capable of performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations of complex plasma flows in the presence of discontinuities and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms. The flow of the ionized component is described with the ideal MHD equations, while the transport of atoms is governed either by the Boltzmann equation or multiple Euler gas dynamics equations. We have enhanced the code with additional physical treatments for the transport of turbulence and acceleration of pickup ions in the interplanetary space and at the termination shock. In this article, we present the results of our numerical simulation of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) in different time-dependent and stationary formulations. Numerical results are compared with the Ulysses, Voyager, and OMNI observations. Finally, the SW boundary conditions are derived from in-situ spacecraft measurements and remote observations.
Physical model of fluid flow characteristics in RH-TOP vacuum refining process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Lu; Bao, Yan-ping; Yue, Feng; Zhang, Li-qiang; Ou, Hong-lin
2012-06-01
To understand the characteristic of circulation flow rate in 250-t RH-TOP vacuum refining process, the l:4 water model test was established through the bubble behavior and gas holdup in the up-leg to investigate the effects of different processes and equipment parameters on the RH circulation flow rate. With the increases of lifting gas flow rate, lifting bubble travel, and the internal diameter of the up-leg, and the decrease of nozzle diameter, the work done by bubble floatage and the circulation flow rate increase. The expression of circulation flow rate was derived from the regression analysis of experiment data. Meanwhile, the influences of vacuum chamber pressure and nozzle blockage situation on the circulation flow rate were discussed in detail by the bubble behavior and gas holdup in the up-leg. It is necessary to maintain a certain vacuum chamber liquid level in the molten steel circulation flow. Compared with a nozzle with symmetrical blockage in the up-leg, when a nozzle with non-symmetrical blockage is applied, the lifting gas distribution is non-uniform, causing a great effect on the molten steel circulation flow and making the circulation flow drop largely.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.
2015-06-01
In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.
Pathapati, Subbu-Srikanth; Sansalone, John J
2011-07-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is emerging as a model for resolving the fate of particulate matter (PM) by unit operations subject to rainfall-runoff loadings. However, compared to steady flow CFD models, there are greater computational requirements for unsteady hydrodynamics and PM loading models. Therefore this study examines if integrating a stepwise steady flow CFD model can reproduce PM separation by common unit operations loaded by unsteady flow and PM loadings, thereby reducing computational effort. Utilizing monitored unit operation data from unsteady events as a metric, this study compares the two CFD modeling approaches for a hydrodynamic separator (HS), a primary clarifier (PC) tank, and a volumetric clarifying filtration system (VCF). Results indicate that while unsteady CFD models reproduce PM separation of each unit operation, stepwise steady CFD models result in significant deviation for HS and PC models as compared to monitored data; overestimating the physical size requirements of each unit required to reproduce monitored PM separation results. In contrast, the stepwise steady flow approach reproduces PM separation by the VCF, a combined gravitational sedimentation and media filtration unit operation that provides attenuation of turbulent energy and flow velocity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-nan
1996-01-01
In this paper a numerical procedure for simulating two-fluid flows is presented. This procedure is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method proposed by Hirt and Nichols and the continuum surface force (CSF) model developed by Brackbill, et al. In the VOF method fluids of different properties are identified through the use of a continuous field variable (color function). The color function assigns a unique constant (color) to each fluid. The interfaces between different fluids are distinct due to sharp gradients of the color function. The evolution of the interfaces is captured by solving the convective equation of the color function. The CSF model is used as a means to treat surface tension effect at the interfaces. Here a modified version of the CSF model, proposed by Jacqmin, is used to calculate the tension force. In the modified version, the force term is obtained by calculating the divergence of a stress tensor defined by the gradient of the color function. In its analytical form, this stress formulation is equivalent to the original CSF model. Numerically, however, the use of the stress formulation has some advantages over the original CSF model, as it bypasses the difficulty in approximating the curvatures of the interfaces. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is used to discretize the governing equation systems. The LSFEM has proven to be effective in solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and pure convection equations, making it an ideal candidate for the present applications. The LSFEM handles all the equations in a unified manner without any additional special treatment such as upwinding or artificial dissipation. Various bench mark tests have been carried out for both two dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows, including a dam breaking, oscillating and stationary bubbles and a conical liquid sheet in a pressure swirl atomizer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilyasov, A. M.; Bulgakova, G. T.
2016-08-01
This paper describes a mathematical model of the main fracture isolation in porous media by water-based mature gels. While modeling injection, water infiltration from the gel pack through fracture walls is taking into account, due to which the polymer concentration changes and the residual water resistance factor changes as a consequence. The salutation predicts velocity and pressure fields of the non-Newtonian incompressible fluid filtration for conditions of a non-deformable formation as well as a gel front trajectory in the fracture. The mathematical model of agent injection into the main fracture is based on the fundamental laws of continuum mechanics conservation describing the flow of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluids separated by an interface plane in a flat channel with permeable walls. The mathematical model is based on a one-dimensional isothermal approximation, with dynamic parameters pressure and velocity, averaged over the fracture section.
Duddu, Ravindra; Chopp, David L; Moran, Brian
2009-05-01
We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. Copyright 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Frolov, S V; Sindeev, S V; Liepsch, D; Balasso, A
2016-05-18
According to the clinical data, flow conditions play a major role in the genesis of intracranial aneurysms. The disorder of the flow structure is the cause of damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, which leads to the development of cerebral aneurysms. Knowledge of the alteration of the flow field in the aneurysm region is important for treatment. The aim is to study quantitatively the flow structure in an patient-specific aneurysm model of the internal carotid artery using both experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. A patient-specific geometry of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery was used. Patient data was segmented and smoothed to obtain geometrical model. An elastic true-to-scale silicone model was created with stereolithography. For initial investigation of the blood flow, the flow was visualized by adding particles into the silicone model. The precise flow velocity measurements were done using 1D Laser Doppler Anemometer with a spatial resolution of 50 μ m and a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The local velocity measurements were done at a distance of 4 mm to each other. A fluid with non-Newtonian properties was used in the experiment. The CFD simulations for unsteady-state problem were done using constructed hexahedral mesh for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Using 1D laser Doppler Anemometer the minimum velocity magnitude at the end of systole -0.01 m/s was obtained in the aneurysm dome while the maximum velocity 1 m/s was at the center of the outlet segment. On central cross section of the aneurysm the maximum velocity value is only 20% of the average inlet velocity. The average velocity on the cross-section is only 11% of the inlet axial velocity. Using the CFD simulation the wall shear stresses for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at the end of systolic phase (t= 0.25 s) were computed. The wall shear stress varies from 3.52 mPa (minimum value) to 10.21 Pa (maximum value) for the
Perfluorocarbon Tracers (PFTs) Complement stable Isotopes and Geochemistry for Verifying, Assessing or Modeling Fluid Flow. Geochemistry, Isotopes and PFT’s complement Geophysics to monitor and verify plume movement, leakage to shallow aquifers or surface
On the hyperbolicity of a two-fluid model for debris flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mineo, C.; Torrisi, M.
2010-05-01
We consider the system of partial differential equations associated with the mathematical model for debris flows proposed by E.B. Pitman and L. Le (Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 363, 1573-1601, 2005) and analyze the problem of the hyperbolicity of the model.
Two-Phase Acto-Cytosolic Fluid Flow in a Moving Keratocyte: A 2D Continuum Model.
Nikmaneshi, M R; Firoozabadi, B; Saidi, M S
2015-09-01
The F-actin network and cytosol in the lamellipodia of crawling cells flow in a centripetal pattern and spout-like form, respectively. We have numerically studied this two-phase flow in the realistic geometry of a moving keratocyte. Cytosol has been treated as a low viscosity Newtonian fluid flowing through the high viscosity porous medium of F-actin network. Other involved phenomena including myosin activity, adhesion friction, and interphase interaction are also discussed to provide an overall view of this problem. Adopting a two-phase coupled model by myosin concentration, we have found new accurate perspectives of acto-cytosolic flow and pressure fields, myosin distribution, as well as the distribution of effective forces across the lamellipodia of a keratocyte with stationary shape. The order of magnitude method is also used to determine the contribution of forces in the internal dynamics of lamellipodia.
Mosbahi, Selim; Mickaily-Huber, Elizabeth; Charbonnier, Dominique; Hullin, Roger; Burki, Marco; Ferrari, Enrico; von Segesser, Ludwig K; Berdajs, Denis A
2014-10-01
The reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with valved conduits remains a challenge. The reoperation rate at 5 years can be as high as 25% and depends on age, type of conduit, conduit diameter and principal heart malformation. The aim of this study is to provide a bench model with computer fluid dynamics to analyse the haemodynamics of the RVOT, pulmonary artery, its bifurcation, and left and right pulmonary arteries that in the future may serve as a tool for analysis and prediction of outcome following RVOT reconstruction. Pressure, flow and diameter at the RVOT, pulmonary artery, bifurcation of the pulmonary artery, and left and right pulmonary arteries were measured in five normal pigs with a mean weight of 24.6 ± 0.89 kg. Data obtained were used for a 3D computer fluid-dynamics simulation of flow conditions, focusing on the pressure, flow and shear stress profile of the pulmonary trunk to the level of the left and right pulmonary arteries. Three inlet steady flow profiles were obtained at 0.2, 0.29 and 0.36 m/s that correspond to the flow rates of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 l/min flow at the RVOT. The flow velocity profile was constant at the RVOT down to the bifurcation and decreased at the left and right pulmonary arteries. In all three inlet velocity profiles, low sheer stress and low-velocity areas were detected along the left wall of the pulmonary artery, at the pulmonary artery bifurcation and at the ostia of both pulmonary arteries. This computed fluid real-time model provides us with a realistic picture of fluid dynamics in the pulmonary tract area. Deep shear stress areas correspond to a turbulent flow profile that is a predictive factor for the development of vessel wall arteriosclerosis. We believe that this bench model may be a useful tool for further evaluation of RVOT pathology following surgical reconstructions. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Hipwell, John H.; Hawkes, David J.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Vavourakis, Vasileios
2017-01-01
We present an in-silico model of avascular poroelastic tumour growth coupled with a multiscale biphasic description of the tumour–host environment. The model is specified to in-vitro data, facilitating biophysically realistic simulations of tumour spheroid growth into a dense collagen hydrogel. We use the model to first confirm that passive mechanical remodelling of collagen fibres at the tumour boundary is driven by solid stress, and not fluid pressure. The model is then used to demonstrate the influence of collagen microstructure on peritumoural permeability and interstitial fluid flow. Our model suggests that at the tumour periphery, remodelling causes the peritumoural stroma to become more permeable in the circumferential than radial direction, and the interstitial fluid velocity is found to be dependent on initial collagen alignment. Finally we show that solid stresses are negatively correlated with peritumoural permeability, and positively correlated with interstitial fluid velocity. These results point to a heterogeneous, microstructure-dependent force environment at the tumour–peritumoural stroma interface. PMID:28902902
Boutchko, Rostyslav; Rayz, Vitaliy L; Vandehey, Nicholas T; O'Neil, James P; Budinger, Thomas F; Nico, Peter S; Druhan, Jennifer L; Saloner, David A; Gullberg, Grant T; Moses, William W
2012-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling aspects of applying nuclear emission tomography to study fluid flow in laboratory packed porous media columns of the type frequently used in geophysics, geochemistry and hydrology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are used as non-invasive tools to obtain dynamic 3D images of radioactive tracer concentrations. Dynamic sequences obtained using (18)F-FDG PET are used to trace flow through a 5 cm diameter × 20 cm tall sand packed column with and without an impermeable obstacle. In addition, a custom-made rotating column setup placed in a clinical two-headed SPECT camera is used to image (99m)Tc-DTPA tracer propagation in a through-flowing column (10 cm diameter × 30 cm tall) packed with recovered aquifer sediments. A computational fluid dynamics software package FLUENT is used to model the observed flow dynamics. Tracer distributions obtained in the simulations in the smaller column uniformly packed with sand and in the column with an obstacle are remarkably similar to the reconstructed images in the PET experiments. SPECT results demonstrate strongly non-uniform flow patterns for the larger column slurry-packed with sub-surface sediment and slow upward flow. In the numerical simulation of the SPECT study, two symmetric channels with increased permeability are prescribed along the column walls, which result in the emergence of two well-defined preferential flow paths. Methods and results of this work provide new opportunities in hydrologic and biogeochemical research. The primary target application for developed technologies is non-destructive, non-perturbing, quantitative imaging of flow dynamics within laboratory scale porous media systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutchko, Rostyslav; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Vandehey, Nicholas T.; O'Neil, James P.; Budinger, Thomas F.; Nico, Peter S.; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Saloner, David A.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Moses, William W.
2012-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling aspects of applying nuclear emission tomography to study fluid flow in laboratory packed porous media columns of the type frequently used in geophysics, geochemistry and hydrology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are used as non-invasive tools to obtain dynamic 3D images of radioactive tracer concentrations. Dynamic sequences obtained using 18F-FDG PET are used to trace flow through a 5 cm diameter × 20 cm tall sand packed column with and without an impermeable obstacle. In addition, a custom-made rotating column setup placed in a clinical two-headed SPECT camera is used to image 99mTc-DTPA tracer propagation in a through-flowing column (10 cm diameter × 30 cm tall) packed with recovered aquifer sediments. A computational fluid dynamics software package FLUENT is used to model the observed flow dynamics. Tracer distributions obtained in the simulations in the smaller column uniformly packed with sand and in the column with an obstacle are remarkably similar to the reconstructed images in the PET experiments. SPECT results demonstrate strongly non-uniform flow patterns for the larger column slurry-packed with sub-surface sediment and slow upward flow. In the numerical simulation of the SPECT study, two symmetric channels with increased permeability are prescribed along the column walls, which result in the emergence of two well-defined preferential flow paths. Methods and results of this work provide new opportunities in hydrologic and biogeochemical research. The primary target application for developed technologies is non-destructive, non-perturbing, quantitative imaging of flow dynamics within laboratory scale porous media systems.
Boutchko, Rostyslav; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Vandehey, Nicholas T.; O’Neil, James P.; Budinger, Thomas F.; Nico, Peter S.; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Saloner, David A.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Moses, William W.
2014-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling aspects of applying nuclear emission tomography to study fluid flow in laboratory packed porous media columns of the type frequently used in geophysics, geochemistry and hydrology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are used as non-invasive tools to obtain dynamic 3D images of radioactive tracer concentrations. Dynamic sequences obtained using 18F-FDG PET are used to trace flow through a 5 cm diameter × 20 cm tall sand packed column with and without an impermeable obstacle. In addition, a custom-made rotating column setup placed in a clinical two-headed SPECT camera is used to image 99mTc-DTPA tracer propagation in a through-flowing column (10 cm diameter × 30 cm tall) packed with recovered aquifer sediments. A computational fluid dynamics software package FLUENT is used to model the observed flow dynamics. Tracer distributions obtained in the simulations in the smaller column uniformly packed with sand and in the column with an obstacle are remarkably similar to the reconstructed images in the PET experiments. SPECT results demonstrate strongly non-uniform flow patterns for the larger column slurry-packed with sub-surface sediment and slow upward flow. In the numerical simulation of the SPECT study, two symmetric channels with increased permeability are prescribed along the column walls, which result in the emergence of two well-defined preferential flow paths. Methods and results of this work provide new opportunities in hydrologic and biogeochemical research. The primary target application for developed technologies is non-destructive, non-perturbing, quantitative imaging of flow dynamics within laboratory scale porous media systems. PMID:24917693
Flow sensor for biomedical fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winkler, H. E.
1981-01-01
Electronic sensor accurately measures and controls flow of plasma, whole blood, or drugs in solution. Since sensor does not directly contact fluid, it does not have to be sterilized. It is compatible with disposable bottles, tubes, and hypodermic needles widely used in hospitals. Only modification necessary is in tube, which must contain two small metal inserts, spaced to fit in curved thermistor plates.
Electro-osmotic flow in bicomponent fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazarenko, Andrei; Sega, Marcello
The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is a widely used technique that uses the action of external electric fields on solvated ions to move fluids around in microfluidics devices. For homogeneous fluids, the characteristics of the flow can be well approximated by simple analytical models, but in multicomponent systems such as oil-in-water droplets one has to rely to numerical simulations. The purpose of this study is to investigate physical properties of the EOF in a bicomponent fluid by solving the coupled equations of motions of explicit ions in interaction with a continuous model of the flow. To do so we couple the hydrodynamics equations as solved by a Shan-Chen Lattice-Boltzmann method to the molecular dynamics of the ions. The presence of explicit ions allows us to go beyond the simple Poisson-Boltzmann approximations, and investigate a variety of EOF regimes. ETN-COLLDENSE (H2020-MCSA-ITN-2014, Grant No. 642774).
Verification of mesoscopic models of viscoelastic fluids with a non-monotonic flow curve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuznetsova, Julia L.; Skul'skiy, Oleg I.
2016-02-01
The non-monotonic flow curve of a 1 wt.% polyacrylonitrile solution in dimethyl sulfoxide is described by two mesoscopic models: the modified Vinogradov-Pokrovsky model and the model proposed by Remmelgas, Harrison and Leal. To obtain an adequate description of the experimental curve, we have selected suitable internal parameters for these models. Analytical solutions for the Couette-Poiseuille flow problems are determined in parametric form, which allows us to plot the distribution of stress components and anisotropy tensor as well as the velocity profiles containing closed loops and weak tangential discontinuities. It is shown that both models predict a similar qualitative picture of structure evolution, but exhibit a significant discrepancy in the quantitative description of the magnitude of molecular chain stretching.
Goldstein, A S; Dimilla, P A
1997-08-20
The strength of adhesion and dynamics of detachment of murine 3T3 fibroblasts from self-assembled monolayers were measured in a radial-flow chamber (RFC) by applying models for fluid mechanics, adhesion strength probability distributions, and detachment kinetics. Four models for predicting fluid mechanics in a RFC were compared to evaluate the accuracy of each model and the significance of inlet effects. Analysis of these models indicated an outer region at large radial positions consistent with creeping flow, an intermediate region influenced by inertial dampening, and an inner region dominated by entrance effects from the axially-oriented inlet. In accompanying experiments patterns of the fraction of cells resisting detachment were constructed for individual surfaces as a function of the applied shear stress and evaluated by comparison with integrals of both a normal and a log-normal distribution function. The two functions were equally appropriate, yielding similar estimates of the mean strength of adhesion. Further, varying the Reynolds number in the inlet, Re(d), between 630 and 1480 (corresponding to volumetric flow rates between 0.9 and 2.1 mL/s) did not affect the mean strength of adhesion. For these same experiments, analysis of the dynamics of detachment revealed three temporal phases: 1) rapid detachment of cells at the onset of flow, consistent with a first-order homogeneous kinetic model; 2) time-dependent rate of detachment during the first 30 sec. of exposure to hydrodynamic shear, consistent with the first-order heterogeneous kinetic model proposed by Dickinson and Cooper (1995); and 3) negligible detachment, indicative of pseudo-steady state after 60 sec. of flow. Our results provide rigorous guidelines for the measurement of adhesive interactions between mammalian cells and prospective biomaterial surfaces using a RFC. (c) 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 55: 616-629, 1997.
Widmer Soyka, René P; López, Alejandro; Persson, Cecilia; Cristofolini, Luca; Ferguson, Stephen J
2013-11-01
Fluids present or used in biology, medicine and (biomedical) engineering are often significantly non-Newtonian. Furthermore, they are chemically complex and can interact with the porous matrix through which they flow. The porous structures themselves display complex morphological inhomogeneities on a wide range of length scales. In vertebroplasty, a shear-thinning fluid, e.g. poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), is injected into the cavities of vertebral trabecular bone for the stabilization of fractures and metastatic lesions. The main objective of this study was therefore to provide a protocol for numerically investigating the rheological properties of PMMA-based bone cements to predict its spreading behavior while flowing through vertebral trabecular bone. A numerical upscaling scheme based on a dimensionless formulation of the Navier-Stokes equation is proposed in order to relate the pore-scale rheological properties of the PMMA that were experimentally estimated using a plate rheometer, to the continuum-scale. On the pore length scale, a viscosity change on the order of one magnitude was observed whilst the shear-thinning properties caused a viscosity change on the order of only 10% on the continuum length scale and in a flow regime that is relevant for vertebroplasty. An experimental validation, performed on human cadaveric vertebrae (n=9), showed a significant improvement of the cement spreading prediction accuracy with a non-Newtonian formulation. A root mean square cement surface prediction error of 1.53mm (assuming a Newtonian fluid) and 1.37mm (assuming a shear-thinning fluid) was found. Our findings highlight the importance of incorporating the non-Newtonian fluids properties in computational models of porous media at the appropriate length scale.
Price, J.; Indraratna, B.
2005-07-01
Fracture flow of two-phase mixtures is particularly applicable to the coal mining and coal bed methane projects in Australia. A one-dimensional steady-state pseudo-two-phase flow model is proposed for fractured rock. The model considers free flow of a compressible mixture of air and water in an inclined planar fracture and is based upon the conservation of momentum and the 'cubic' law. The flow model is coupled to changes in the stress environment through the fracture normal stiffness, which is related to changes in fracture aperture. The model represents the individual air and water phases as a single equivalent homogenous fluid. Laboratory testing was performed using the two-phase high-pressure triaxial apparatus on 54 mm diameter (approximately 2: 1 height: diameter) borehole cores intersected by induced near-axial fractures. The samples were of Triassic arenaceous fine-medium grained sandstone (known as the Eckersley Formation) that is found locally in the Southern Coalfield of New South Wales. The sample fracture roughness was assessed using a technique based upon Fourier series analysis to objectively attribute a joint roughness coefficient. The proposed two-phase flow model was verified using the recorded laboratory data obtained over a range of triaxial confining pressures (i.e., fracture normal stresses).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timmel, K.; Kratzsch, C.; Asad, A.; Schurmann, D.; Schwarze, R.; Eckert, S.
2017-07-01
The present paper reports about numerical simulations and model experiments concerned with the fluid flow in the continuous casting process of steel. This work was carried out in the LIMMCAST project in the framework of the Helmholtz alliance LIMTECH. A brief description of the LIMMCAST facilities used for the experimental modeling at HZDR is given here. Ultrasonic and inductive techniques and the X-ray radioscopy were employed for flow measurements or visualizations of two-phase flow regimes occurring in the submerged entry nozzle and the mold. Corresponding numerical simulations were performed at TUBAF taking into account the dimensions and properties of the model experiments. Numerical models were successfully validated using the experimental data base. The reasonable and in many cases excellent agreement of numerical with experimental data allows to extrapolate the models to real casting configurations. Exemplary results will be presented here showing the effect of electromagnetic brakes or electromagnetic stirrers on the flow in the mold or illustrating the properties of two-phase flows resulting from an Ar injection through the stopper rod.
Nanometer-scale imaging and pore-scale fluid flow modeling inchalk
Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy; Radmilovich, Velimir
2005-08-23
For many rocks of high economic interest such as chalk,diatomite, tight gas sands or coal, nanometer scale resolution is neededto resolve the 3D-pore structure, which controls the flow and trapping offluids in the rocks. Such resolutions cannot be achieved with existingtomographic technologies. A new 3D imaging method, based on serialsectioning and using the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has beendeveloped. FIB allows for the milling of layers as thin as 10 nanometersby using accelerated Ga+ ions to sputter atoms from the sample surface.After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed, a 2D image of thissurface is generated. Next, the 2D images are stacked to reconstruct the3D pore or grain structure. Resolutions as high as 10 nm are achievableusing this technique. A new image processing method uses directmorphological analysis of the pore space to characterize thepetrophysical properties of diverse formations. In addition to estimationof the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, relativepermeability and capillary pressures), the method is used for simulationof fluid displacement processes, such as those encountered in variousimproved oil recovery (IOR) approaches. Computed with the new methodcapillary pressure curves are in good agreement with laboratory data. Themethod has also been applied for visualization of the fluid distributionat various saturations from the new FIB data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, C. T.; Piggott, M. D.
2015-03-01
This model description paper introduces a new finite element model for the simulation of non-linear shallow water flows, called Firedrake-Fluids. Unlike traditional models that are written by hand in static, low-level programming languages such as Fortran or C, Firedrake-Fluids uses the Firedrake framework to automatically generate the model's code from a high-level abstract language called Unified Form Language (UFL). By coupling to the PyOP2 parallel unstructured mesh framework, Firedrake can then target the code towards a desired hardware architecture to enable the efficient parallel execution of the model over an arbitrary computational mesh. The description of the model includes the governing equations, the methods employed to discretise and solve the governing equations, and an outline of the automated solution process. The verification and validation of the model, performed using a set of well-defined test cases, is also presented along with a road map for future developments and the solution of more complex fluid dynamical systems.
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhanasekharan, M.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)
2000-01-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
Three-dimensional modelling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser full-penetration welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Xiao-Hu; Chen, Xi
2002-05-01
Modelling results are presented concerning the laser full-penetration welding characteristics. The effects of welding speed, Marangoni convection and natural convection on melt flow and heat transfer are all included in the modelling, and thus a three-dimensional (3-D) approach is employed. Comparison of the present 3-D modelling results with corresponding two-dimensional ones shows that besides the welding speed, Marangoni convection also plays critical role in determining the temperature distribution in the workpiece and melt flow in the weld pool and cannot be ignored even for the full-penetration welding of a thin plate. A method is described concerning how to use the present 3-D modelling results to estimate the keyhole radius or predict the energy efficiency in the laser full-penetration welding.
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhanasekharan, M.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)
2000-01-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid.
Dhanasekharan, M; Kokini, J L
2000-08-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
Modeling Coupled Processes for Multiphase Fluid Flow in Mechanically Deforming Faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, S. A.; Pike, D. Q.
2011-12-01
Modeling of coupled hydrological-mechanical processes in fault zones is critical for understanding the long-term behavior of fluids within the shallow crust. Here we utilize a previously developed cellular-automata (CA) model to define the evolution of permeability within a 2-D fault zone under compressive stress. At each time step, the CA model calculates the increase in fluid pressure within the fault at every grid cell. Pressure surpassing a critical threshold (e.g., lithostatic stress) causes a rupture in that cell, and pressure is then redistributed across the neighboring cells. The rupture can cascade through the spatial domain and continue across multiple time steps. Stress continues to increase and the size and location of rupture events are recorded until a percolating backbone of ruptured cells exists across the fault. Previous applications of this model consider uncorrelated random fields for the compressibility of the fault material. The prior focus on uncorrelated property fields is consistent with development of a number of statistical physics models including percolation processes and fracture propagation. However, geologic materials typically express spatial correlation and this can have a significant impact on the results of the pressure and permeability distributions. We model correlation of the fault material compressibility as a multiGaussian random field with a correlation length defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the kernel used to create the field. The FWHM is varied from < 0.001 to approximately 0.47 of the domain size. The addition of spatial correlation to the compressibility significantly alters the model results including: 1) Accumulation of larger amounts of strain prior to the first rupture event; 2) Initiation of the percolating backbone at lower amounts of cumulative strain; 3) Changes in the event size distribution to a combined power-law and exponential distribution with a smaller power; and 4) Evolution of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dempsey, D. E.; Sanchez-Alfaro, P.; Rowland, J. V.; O'Sullivan, J.
2016-12-01
The interplay between seismic activity, fluid flow and mineral precipitation plays a critical role in promoting the development of geothermal systems and the formation of ore deposits. In geothermal systems, fault rupture might dramatically change the thermodynamic conditions of fluids and trigger transient events of mineralization recorded as flashing textures in calcite and silica. Due to the heterogeneous nature of fault and fracture networks, specific geometries such as linkage zones, dilational jogs and wing cracks are likely to dilate. During fault rupture, pore volume is rapidly created by dilation resulting in a transient drop in pore fluid pressure which enables rapid precipitation. In this study we analyze the effect that fault rupture has on deformation and fluid flow within extensional stepovers that form a dilational jog. Geometrically, this structure is composed of two sub-parallel faults linked by an oblique fracture (jog). We used Poly3D, a boundary element code that solves the elastostatic equations for stress and displacement, to compute dilation of the faults. Boundary conditions were constrained by calibrating the magnitude of the remote stresses, earthquake magnitude and rupture surface with empirical earthquake scaling relationships. To identify the conditions that maximize dilation, several hundred numerical experiments were performed for various orientation and length of the jog, overlap and spacing between the parallel faults and regional stress tensor. Our preliminary results indicate that a 4 Mw magnitude earthquake may produce an average opening of 4.5 mm and create a volume of approximately 600 m3in the jog. Jog orientation and overlap between faults are the variables that have the greatest effect on opening of the jog. The computed dilation and volume increase are inputs for simulations of coupled heat and fluid flow performed in the TOUGH2 numerical model. Boundary and initial conditions are constrained with data of active geothermal
Geophysical models of heat and fluid flow in damageable poro-elastic continua
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roubíček, Tomáš
2017-03-01
A rather general model for fluid and heat transport in poro-elastic continua undergoing possibly also plastic-like deformation and damage is developed with the goal to cover various specific models of rock rheology used in geophysics of Earth's crust. Nonconvex free energy at small elastic strains, gradient theories (in particular the concept of second-grade nonsimple continua), and Biot poro-elastic model are employed, together with possible large displacement due to large plastic-like strains evolving during long time periods. Also the additive splitting is justified in stratified situations which are of interest in modelling of lithospheric crust faults. Thermodynamically based formulation includes entropy balance (in particular the Clausius-Duhem inequality) and an explicit global energy balance. It is further outlined that the energy balance can be used to ensure, under suitable data qualification, existence of a weak solution and stability and convergence of suitable approximation schemes at least in some particular situations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sumit; Hardy, Richard; Smith, Gregory; Kazemifar, Farzan; Christensen, Kenneth; Best, Jim
2017-04-01
Biofilms are ubiquitously present in fluvial systems, growing on almost all wetted surface and has a significant impact on both water quantity, in terms of ambient flow condition, as well as water quality, biofilms growing in water distribution system leads to unwanted contamination. The local hydraulic conditions have a significant impact on the biofilm lifecycle as in order to sustain their growth biofilms draw essential nutrients either from the flow or from the surface on which they grow. This implies that in convection dominated flow, nutrient transfer from water, would nurture the growth of biofilms. However, at higher flow rates biofilms are subjected to higher stresses which may lead to their detachment. Furthermore, biofilms in ambient flow conditions oscillate and therefore alter the local flow conditions. There is, therefore, a complex feedback between biofilms and flow which have has implications for flow dynamics and water quality issues in riverine ecosystems. The research presented here describes a fluid-structure interaction solver to examine the coupled nature of biofilm oscillations due to the ambient flow and its feedback on the local flow structures. The fluid flow is modelled by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and structural deformation of the biofilm is modeled by applying a linear elastic model. The governing equations are numerically solved through Finite Volume methodology based on cell-centered scheme. Simulations are conducted in a laminar regime for a biofilm streamer modelled as moving slender plate. The temporal evolution of the pressure, flow structures are examined in the vicinity of the biofilm. Further investigations examine the impact of changing Reynolds number on the oscillation frequency as well as drag and lift forces experienced by the biofilm. The changing frequency of biofilm oscillation with varying Reynolds number is characterized by the Strouhal number (St). Our investigation reveals that as the flow separates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makuch, Lauren A.
2004-01-01
Humans reach peak bone mass at age 30. After this point, we lose 1 to 2 percent of bone mass each decade. In the microgravity environment of space, astronauts lose bone mass at an accelerated rate of 1 to 2 percent each month. When astronauts travel to Mars, they may be in space for as long as 3 years. During this time, they may lose about half of their bone mass from weight-bearing bones. This loss may be irreversible. The drastic loss in bone that astronauts experience in space makes them much more vulnerable to fractures. In addition, the corresponding removal of calcium from bone results in higher levels of calcium in the blood, which increases the risk of developing kidney stones. Currently, studies are being conducted which investigate factors governing bone adaptation and mechanotransduction. Bone is constantly adapting in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased mechanical loading stimulates bone formation and suppresses bone resorption. Reduction in mechanical loading caused by bedrest, disuse, or microgravity results in decreased bone formation and possibly increased bone resorption. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the two main cell types that participate in bone remodeling. Osteoblasts are anabolic (bone-forming) cells and osteoclasts are catabolic (bone-resorbing) cells. In microgravity, the activity of osteoblasts slows down and the activity of osteoclasts may speed up, causing a loss of bone density. Mechanotransduction, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical stimuli are converted to biochemical signals, is not yet understood. Exposure of cells to fluid flow imposes a shear stress on the cells. Several studies have shown that the shear stress that results from fluid flow induces a cellular response similar to that induced by mechanical loading. Thus, fluid flow can be used as an in vitro model to simulate the mechanical stress that bone cells experience in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that fluid flow induces several responses in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makuch, Lauren A.
2004-01-01
Humans reach peak bone mass at age 30. After this point, we lose 1 to 2 percent of bone mass each decade. In the microgravity environment of space, astronauts lose bone mass at an accelerated rate of 1 to 2 percent each month. When astronauts travel to Mars, they may be in space for as long as 3 years. During this time, they may lose about half of their bone mass from weight-bearing bones. This loss may be irreversible. The drastic loss in bone that astronauts experience in space makes them much more vulnerable to fractures. In addition, the corresponding removal of calcium from bone results in higher levels of calcium in the blood, which increases the risk of developing kidney stones. Currently, studies are being conducted which investigate factors governing bone adaptation and mechanotransduction. Bone is constantly adapting in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased mechanical loading stimulates bone formation and suppresses bone resorption. Reduction in mechanical loading caused by bedrest, disuse, or microgravity results in decreased bone formation and possibly increased bone resorption. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the two main cell types that participate in bone remodeling. Osteoblasts are anabolic (bone-forming) cells and osteoclasts are catabolic (bone-resorbing) cells. In microgravity, the activity of osteoblasts slows down and the activity of osteoclasts may speed up, causing a loss of bone density. Mechanotransduction, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical stimuli are converted to biochemical signals, is not yet understood. Exposure of cells to fluid flow imposes a shear stress on the cells. Several studies have shown that the shear stress that results from fluid flow induces a cellular response similar to that induced by mechanical loading. Thus, fluid flow can be used as an in vitro model to simulate the mechanical stress that bone cells experience in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that fluid flow induces several responses in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Başağaoğlu, Hakan; Harwell, John R.; Nguyen, Hoa; Succi, Sauro
2017-04-01
Significant improvements in the computational performance of the lattice-Boltzmann (LB) model, coded in FORTRAN90, were achieved through application of enhancement techniques. Applied techniques include optimization of array memory layouts, data structure simplification, random number generation outside the simulation thread(s), code parallelization via OpenMP, and intra- and inter-timestep task pipelining. Effectiveness of these optimization techniques was measured on three benchmark problems: (i) transient flow of multiple particles in a Newtonian fluid in a heterogeneous fractured porous domain, (ii) thermal fluctuation of the fluid at the sub-micron scale and the resultant Brownian motion of a particle, and (iii) non-Newtonian fluid flow in a smooth-walled channel. Application of the aforementioned optimization techniques resulted in an average 21 × performance improvement, which could significantly enhance practical uses of the LB models in diverse applications, focusing on the fate and transport of nano-size or micron-size particles in non-Newtonian fluids.
Modeling Solar Wind Flow with the Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite
Pogorelov, N.V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Bedford, M. C.; ...
2013-04-01
Multi-Scale Fluid-Kinetic Simulation Suite (MS-FLUKSS) is a package of numerical codes capable of performing adaptive mesh refinement simulations of complex plasma flows in the presence of discontinuities and charge exchange between ions and neutral atoms. The flow of the ionized component is described with the ideal MHD equations, while the transport of atoms is governed either by the Boltzmann equation or multiple Euler gas dynamics equations. We have enhanced the code with additional physical treatments for the transport of turbulence and acceleration of pickup ions in the interplanetary space and at the termination shock. In this article, we present themore » results of our numerical simulation of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) in different time-dependent and stationary formulations. Numerical results are compared with the Ulysses, Voyager, and OMNI observations. Finally, the SW boundary conditions are derived from in-situ spacecraft measurements and remote observations.« less
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M.
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here. PMID:27093542
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.
Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Stoops, Thomas M.; Wood, thomas R.; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
1999-12-31
(1) To determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. (2) To introduce a new approach to the multiscale characterization of flow and transport in fractured basalt vadose zones and to develop physically based conceptual models on a hierarchy of scales. The following activities are indicative of the success in meeting the project s objectives: A series of ponded infiltration tests, including (1) small-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 0.5 m2) conducted at the Hell s Half Acre site near Shelley, Idaho, and (2) intermediate-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 56 m2) conducted at the Box Canyon site near Arco, Idaho. Laboratory investigations and modeling of flow in a fractured basalt core. A series of small-scale dripping experiments in fracture models. Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from nonlinear dynamics; Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils, and how it can be used to guide remediation efforts; Development of a conceptual model and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport that incorporate (1) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media, and (2) the description of the temporal dynamics of flow and transport, both of which may be chaotic. Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow. This approach is based on the assumption that spatial heterogeneity and flow phenomena are affected by nonlinear dynamics, and in particular, by chaotic processes. The scientific and practical value of this approach is that we can predict the range within which the parameters of flow and transport change with time in order to design and manage the remediation, even when we can not predict
Shen, Binglin; Pan, Bailiang; Jiao, Jian; Xia, Chunsheng
2015-07-27
Comprehensive analysis of kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers is reported. Taking into account effects of the temperature, the amplified spontaneous emission, the saturation power, the excitation of the alkali atoms to high electronic levels and the ionization, a detailed physical model is established to simulate the output performance of flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers. Influences of the flow velocity and the pump power on the amplified power are calculated and analyzed. Comparisons between single and double amplifier, longitudinal and transverse flow are made. Results show that end-pumped cascaded amplifier can provide higher output power under the same total pump power and the cell length, while output powers achieved by single- and double-end pumped, double-side pumped amplifiers with longitudinal or transverse flow have a complicated but valuable relation. Thus the model is extremely helpful for designing high-power flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor amplifiers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, A. K.; Juanes, R.
2009-08-01
We present a discrete element model for simulating, at the grain scale, gas migration in brine-saturated deformable media. We rigorously account for the presence of two fluids in the pore space by incorporating forces on grains due to pore fluid pressures and surface tension between fluids. This model, which couples multiphase fluid flow with sediment mechanics, permits investigation of the upward migration of gas through a brine-filled sediment column. We elucidate the ways in which gas migration may take place: (1) by capillary invasion in a rigid-like medium and (2) by initiation and propagation of a fracture. We find that grain size is the main factor controlling the mode of gas transport in the sediment, and we show that coarse-grain sediments favor capillary invasion, whereas fracturing dominates in fine-grain media. The results have important implications for understanding vent sites and pockmarks in the ocean floor, deep subseabed storage of carbon dioxide, and gas hydrate accumulations in ocean sediments and permafrost regions. Our results predict that in fine sediments, hydrate will likely form in veins following a fracture network pattern, and the hydrate concentration will likely be quite low. In coarse sediments, the buoyant methane gas is likely to invade the pore space more uniformly, in a process akin to invasion percolation, and the overall pore occupancy is likely to be much higher than for a fracture-dominated regime. These implications are consistent with laboratory experiments and field observations of methane hydrates in natural systems.
Fluid flow along faults in carbonate rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina
2015-04-01
The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a mathematical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). The Majella is a thrust related, asymmetric, box shaped anticline. The mountain carbonate outcrops are part of a lower Cretaceous-Miocene succession, covered by a siliciclastic sequence of lower Pliocene age. We study a fault zone located in the Bolognano Formation (Oligo-Miocene age) and exposed in the Roman Valley Quarry near the town of Lettomanoppello, in the northern sector of the Majella Mountain. This is one of the best places in the Apennines to investigate a fault zone and has been the subject of numerous field studies. Faults are mechanical and permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead a fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., kind of fractures, statistical properties, geometry and pertrophysical characteristics). Our analytical model describe the Bolognano Formation using a dual porosity/dual permeability model: global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrix contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots and the effects of the characteristic parameters. The analytical model has been calibrated against published data on fluid flow and pressure distribution in the Bolognano Formation.
Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of low-density hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.
1988-01-01
The concept of a viscous shock-layer and several related versions of continuum theories/methods are examined for their adequacy as a viable framework to study flow physics and aerothermodynamics of relevance to sustained hypersonic flights. Considering the flat plate at angle of attack, or the wedge, as a generic example for the major aerodynamic component of a hypersonic vehicle, the relative importance of the molecular-transport effects behind the shock (in the form of the 'shock slip') and the wall-slip effects are studied. In the flow regime where the shock-transition-zone thickness remains small compared to the shock radius of curvature, a quasi-one-dimensional shock structure under the Burnett/thirteen-moment approximation, as well as particulate/collisional models, can be consistently developed. The fully viscous version of the shock-layer model is shown to provide the crucial boundary condition downstream the shock in this case. The gas-kinetic basis of the continuum description for the flow behind the bow shock, and certain features affecting the non-equilibrium flow chemistry, are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erçetin, Engin; Düşünür Doǧan, Doǧa
2017-04-01
The aim of the study is to present a numerical temperature and fluid-flow modelling for the topographic effects on hydrothermal circulation. Bathymetry can create a major disturbance on fluid flow pattern. ANSYS Fluent Computational fluid dynamics software is used for simulations. Coupled fluid flow and temperature quations are solved using a 2-Dimensional control volume finite difference approach. Darcy's law is assumed to hold, the fluid is considered to be anormal Boussinesq incompressible fluid neglecting inertial effects. Several topographic models were simulated and both temperature and fluid flow calculations obtained for this study. The preliminary simulations examine the effect of a ingle bathymetric high on a single plume and the secondary study of simulations investigates the effect of multiple bathymetric highs on multiple plume. The simulations were also performed for the slow spreading Lucky Strike segment along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), one of the best studied regions along the MAR, where a 3.4 km deep magma chamber extending 6 km along-axis is found at its center. The Lucky Strike segment displays a transitional morphology between that of the FAMOUS - North FAMOUS segments, which are characterized by well-developed axial valleys typical of slow-spreading segments, and that of the Menez Gwen segment, characterized by an axial high at the segment center. Lucky Strike Segment hosts a central volcano and active vent field located at the segment center and thus constitutes an excellent case study to simulate the effects of bathymetry on fluid flow. Results demonstrate that bathymetric relief has an important influence on hydrothermal flow. Subsurface pressure alterations can be formed by bathymetric highs, for this reason, bathymetric relief ought to be considered while simulating hydrothermal circulation systems. Results of this study suggest the dominant effect of bathymetric highs on fluid flow pattern and Darcy velocities will be presented
Theoretical modeling of fluid flow in cellular biological media: an overview.
Kapellos, George E; Alexiou, Terpsichori S; Payatakes, Alkiviades C
2010-06-01
Fluid-structure interactions strongly affect, in multiple ways, the structure and function of cellular biological media, such as tissues, biofilms, and cell-entrapping gels. Mathematical models and computer simulation are important tools in advancing our understanding of these interactions, interpreting experimental observations, and designing novel processes and biomaterials. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey and highlight promising directions of future research on theoretical modeling of momentum transport in cellular biological media with focus on the formulation of governing equations and the calculation of material properties both theoretically and experimentally. With regard to the governing equations, significant work has been done with single-scale approaches (e.g. mixture theory), whereas traditional upscaling methods (e.g. homogenization, volume averaging) or multiscale equation-free approaches have received limited attention. The underlying concepts, strengths, and limitations of each approach, as well as examples of use in the field of biomaterials are presented. The current status of knowledge regarding the dependence of macroscopic material properties on the volume fractions, geometry, and intrinsic material properties of the constituent phases (cells, extracellular matrix and fluid) is also presented. The observation of conformational changes that occur at finer levels of the structural hierarchy during momentum transport, the correlation of macro-properties with geometrical and topological features of materials with heterogeneous and anisotropic microstructure, as well as the determination of dynamic material properties are among important challenges for future research.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ostrach, S.
1982-01-01
The behavior of fluids in micro-gravity conditions is examined, with particular regard to applications in the growth of single crystals. The effects of gravity on fluid behavior are reviewed, and the advent of Shuttle flights are noted to offer extended time for experimentation and processing in a null-gravity environment, with accelerations resulting solely from maneuvering rockets. Buoyancy driven flows are considered for the cases stable-, unstable-, and mixed-mode convection. Further discussion is presented on g-jitter, surface-tension gradient, thermoacoustic, and phase-change convection. All the flows are present in both gravity and null gravity conditions, although the effects of buoyancy and g-jitter convection usually overshadow the other effects while in a gravity field. Further work is recommended on critical-state and sedimentation processes in microgravity conditions.
Fluid flow electrophoresis in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, R. N.
1975-01-01
Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.
Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.
General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
Amsden, A. A.; Ruppel, H. M.; Hirt, C. W.
1992-03-12
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundgren, P.; Lanari, R.; Manzo, M.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.
2008-12-01
Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, located along the Bay of Naples, has a long history of significant vertical deformation, with the most recent large uplift (>1.5m) occurring in 1983-1984. Each episode of uplift has been followed by a period of subsidence that decreases in rate with time and may be punctuated by brief episodes of lesser uplift. The large amplitude of the major uplifts that occur without volcanic activity, and the subsequent subsidence has been argued as evidence for hydrothermal amplification of any magmatic source. The later subsidence and its temporal decay have been argued as due to diffusion of the pressurized caldera fill material into the less porous surrounding country rock. We present satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) time series analysis of ERS and Envisat data from the European Space Agency, based on exploiting the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach [Berardino et al., 2002]; this allows us to generate maps of relative surface deformation though time, beginning in 1992 through 2007, that are relevant to both ascending and descending satellite orbits. The general temporal behavior is one of subsidence punctuated by several lesser uplift episodes. The spatial pattern of deformation can be modeled through simple inflation/deflation sources in an elastic halfspace. Given the evidence to suggest that fluids may play a significant role in the temporal deformation of Campi Flegrei, rather than a purely magmatic or magma chamber-based interpretation, we model the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation as a hydrothermal fluid flow process. We use the TOUGH2-BIOT2 set of numerical codes [Preuss et al., 1999; Hsieh, 1996], which couple multi-phase (liquid-gas) and multi-component (H2O-CO2) fluid flow in a porous or fractured media with plane strain deformation and fluid flow in a linearly elastic porous medium. We explore parameters related to the depth and temporal history of fluid injection, fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1995-01-01
Using the empirical constraints provided by observations in the inner corona and in interplanetary space. we derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two fluid model. Density and scale height temperatures are derived from White Light coronagraph observations on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa, from 1.16 to 5.5 R, in the two polar coronal holes on 11-12 Apr. 1993. Interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux are taken from the Ulysses south polar passage. By comparing the results of the model computations that fit the empirical constraints in the two coronal hole regions, we show how the effects of the line of sight influence the empirical inferences and subsequently the corresponding numerical results.
Dynamics of fluid mixing in separated flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leder, A.
1991-05-01
Separated flows at high Re (>103) are highly turbulent. In some situations the turbulence generation and mixing processes associated with flow separation are desirable, e.g., in heat exchangers or in many chemical engineering applications. In others, e.g., stalled airfoils, separation must be avoided as it causes loss in pressure and kinetic energy. To control the phenomenon effectively, physical mechanisms of flow separation and related aspects, such as the growth of flow instabilities in shear layers, the process of vortex formation, and the dynamics of fluid mixing in recirculating flow regions, must be understood. In many cases numerical procedures, e.g., Navier-Stokes calculations including k-ɛ turbulence modeling, fail to predict real physical mechanisms in separated flows.1,2 Separated flows in the lee of bluff bodies have been studied for many years.3,4 However, accurate measurements of the magnitude and direction of velocities and the magnitude of the terms of the Reynolds stress tensor have been restricted by the unsuitability of the hot-wire anemometer in recirculating flows. The development of the pulsed-wire anemometer, flying hot-wire anemometer, and laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) allows more reliable measurements also in turbulent separated flows.5-8 The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of undisturbed fluid mixing in separated regions of 2-D, incompressible flows with visualization techniques and LDA. Measurements were performed with a vertical flat plate model, mounted in a closed-circuit wind tunnel at low blockage ratio. Because of the noninvasive character, optical techniques like LDA are more suitable to analyze complex fluid motions than pulsed-wire and flying-wire anemometry. The LDA system used to investigate turbulent flow structures consists of a two-channel version operating in backscatter mode and a specifically developed phase detector to extract phase-averaged information from recorded measurement ensembles.9 Endplates
A fictitious domain method with a hybrid cell model for simulating motion of cells in fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Wenrui; Xu, Zhiliang; Liu, Chun; Lin, Guang
2015-01-01
In this study, we develop a hybrid model to represent membranes of biological cells and use the distributed-Lagrange-multiplier/fictitious-domain (DLM/FD) formulation for simulating the fluid/cell interactions. The hybrid model representing the cellular structure consists of a continuum representation of the lipid bilayer, from which the bending force is calculated through energetic variational approach, a discrete cytoskeleton model utilizing the worm-like chain to represent network filament, and area/volume constraints. For our computational scheme, a formally second-order accurate fractional step scheme is employed to decouple the entire system into three sub-systems: a fluid problem, a solid problem and a Lagrange multiplier problem. The flow problem is solved by the projection method; the solid problem based on the cell model is solved by a combination of level set method, ENO reconstruction, and the Newton method; and the Lagrange multiplier problem is solved by immerse boundary interpolation. The incompressibility of the material is implemented with the penalty function method. Numerical results compare favorably with previously reported numerical and experimental results, and show that our method is suited to the simulation of the cell motion in flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Farhad; Saqib, Muhammad; Khan, Ilyas; Ahmad Sheikh, Nadeem
2016-10-01
The present article applies the idea of Caputo-Fabrizio time fractional derivatives to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) free convection flow of generalized Walters'-B fluid over a static vertical plate. Free convection is caused due to combined gradients of temperature and concentration. Hence, heat and mass transfers are considered together. The fractional model of Walters'-B fluid is used in the mathematical formulation of the problem. The problem is solved via the Laplace transform method. Exact solutions for velocity, temperature and concentration are obtained. The physical quantities of interest are examined through plots for various values of fractional parameter: α, Walters'-B parameter Γ, magnetic parameter M , Prandtl number Pr, Schmidt number Sc, thermal Grashof number Gr and mass Grashof number Gm. As a special case, the published results from open literature are recovered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisenko, N. S.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Yanchenko, A. A.; Tulupov, A. A.; Boiko, A. V.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu; Moshkin, M. P.; Akulov, A. E.
2016-06-01
In our experiments, we investigate a flow of a viscous fluid in the model of the common carotid artery bifurcation. The studies are carried out using three hardware equipments: two magnetic resonance scanners by Philips and Bruker, and intravascular guidewire ComboWire. The flux is generated by a special pump CompuFlow that is designed to reproduce a flow similar to the one in the blood vessels. A verification of the obtained data is carried out. Conducted research shows the capabilities of the measurement instruments and reflects the character of fluid flow inside the model.
Taylor, J. Bryce; Yavuzkurt, Savas; Baratta, Anthony J.
2002-07-01
The Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), a promising Generation IV nuclear reactor design, raises many novel technological issues for which new experience and techniques must be developed. This brief study explores a few of these issues, utilizes a computational fluid dynamics code to model some simple phenomena, and points out deficiencies in current knowledge that should be addressed by future research and experimentation. A highly simplified representation of the PBMR core is analyzed with FLUENT, a commercial computational fluid dynamics code. The applied models examine laminar and turbulent flow in the vicinity of a single spherical fuel pebble near the center of the core, accounting for the effects of the immediately adjacent fuel pebbles. Several important fluid flow and heat transfer parameters are examined, including heat transfer coefficient, Nusselt number, and pressure drop, as well as the temperature, pressure, and velocity profiles near the fuel pebble. The results of these 'unit cell' calculations are also compared to empirical correlations available in the literature. As FLUENT is especially sensitive to geometry during the generation of a computational mesh, the sensitivity of code results to pebble spacing is also examined. The results of this study show that while a PBMR presents a novel and complex geometry, a code such as FLUENT is suitable for calculation of both local and global flow characteristics, and can be a valuable tool for the thermal-hydraulic study of this new reactor design. FLUENT results for pressure drop deviate from the Darcy correlation by several orders of magnitude in all cases. When determining the heat transfer coefficient, FLUENT is again much lower than Robinson's correlation. Results for Nusselt number show better agreement, with FLUENT predicting results that are 10 or 20 times as large as those from the Robinson and Lancashire correlations. These differences may arise because the empirical correlations concern mainly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez, Eudoxio Ramos; Zenit, Roberto; Rivera, Carlos González; Trápaga, Gerardo; Ramírez-Argáez, Marco A.
2013-04-01
In this work, a 3D numerical simulation using a Euler-Euler-based model implemented into a commercial CFD code was used to simulate fluid flow and turbulence structure in a water physical model of an aluminum ladle equipped with an impeller for degassing treatment. The effect of critical process parameters such as rotor speed, gas flow rate, and the point of gas injection (conventional injection through the shaft vs a novel injection through the bottom of the ladle) on the fluid flow and vortex formation was analyzed with this model. The commercial CFD code PHOENICS 3.4 was used to solve all conservation equations governing the process for this two-phase fluid flow system. The mathematical model was reasonably well validated against experimentally measured liquid velocity and vortex sizes in a water physical model built specifically for this investigation. From the results, it was concluded that the angular speed of the impeller is the most important parameter in promoting better stirred baths and creating smaller and better distributed bubbles in the liquid. The pumping effect of the impeller is increased as the impeller rotation speed increases. Gas flow rate is detrimental to bath stirring and diminishes the pumping effect of the impeller. Finally, although the injection point was the least significant variable, it was found that the "novel" injection improves stirring in the ladle.
Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H.; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVES The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. METHODS Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. RESULTS Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CONCLUSIONS CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred. PMID:23660734
Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban
2013-08-01
The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred.
Magnetohydrodynamic two-phase dusty fluid flow and heat model over deforming isothermal surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turkyilmazoglu, Mustafa
2017-01-01
This paper is devoted to the mathematical analysis of a magnetohydrodynamic viscous two-phase dusty fluid flow and heat transfer over permeable stretching or shrinking bodies. The wall boundary is subjected to a linear deformation as well as to a quadratic surface temperature. Such a highly nonlinear phenomenon, for the first time in the literature, is attacked to search for occurrence of exact solutions, whose numerical correspondences are already available for limited wall transpiration velocities. The obtained analytical solutions are found be in perfect line with the numerical computations. Besides this, exact solutions point to the existence of dual solutions for both permeable stretching and shrinking cases, which were not detected from the numerical studies up to date. The existence of such exact solutions and their parameter domain particularly depending on the wall suction or injection are successfully analyzed. The physical outcomes concerning the effects of suspended particles on the momentum and thermal boundary layers well-documented in the open literature can be best understood from the presented exact solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taheri, Mehrdad
In this thesis analytical and numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer through open cell metal foam heat exchangers are presented. Primarily, different representative unit cell approximations, i.e, tetrakaidecahedron, dodecahedron and cubic are discussed. By applying the thermal resistance analogy, a novel formulation for evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of metal foams is proposed. The model improves previous models based on cubic or hexagonal cells. By using computer tomography images of a nickel foam sample a realistic 3D geometry is created and the foam's geometrical properties (i.e., porosity and surface area to volume ratio) and effective thermal conductivity are obtained. By using the experimentally found values of permeability, Forchheimer coefficient and solid-fluid interfacial convection coefficient, mathematical models for fluid flow and heat transfer in metal foams are developed. Two different assumptions: local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), are used. LTNE yields more accurate results. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of metal foam is made and validated against the experimental data for a square cross sectional nickel foam heat exchanger channel heated from the side walls while cooling air passes through the foam. The simulations are carried out for constant temperature or heat flux and different foam materials with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per inch. The results show that the bonding of the foam to the walls has a considerable impact on the heat transfer rate. Convective heat transfer coefficients in terms of Nusselt number as functions of Reynolds number are also obtained. The design and CFD modeling of metal foam cross flow heat exchangers are also discussed. The results indicate both effectiveness and number of transfer units (NTU) for the metal foam heat exchangers are higher than those of a hollow channel; however, the effectiveness-NTU curves
Flow of an electrorheological fluid between eccentric rotating cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Průša, Vít; Rajagopal, K. R.
2012-01-01
Electrorheological fluids have numerous potential applications in vibration dampers, brakes, valves, clutches, exercise equipment, etc. The flows in such applications are complex three-dimensional flows. Most models that have been developed to describe the flows of electrorheological fluids are one-dimensional models. Here, we discuss the behavior of two fully three-dimensional models for electrorheological fluids. The models are such that they reduce, in the case of simple shear flows with the intensity of the electric field perpendicular to the streamlines, to the same constitutive relation, but they would not be identical in more complicated three-dimensional settings. In order to show the difference between the two models, we study the flow of these fluids between eccentrically placed rotating cylinders kept at different potentials, in the setting that corresponds to technologically relevant problem of flow of electrorheological fluid in journal bearing. Even though the two models have quite a different constitutive structure, due to the assumed forms for the velocity and pressure fields, the models lead to the same velocity field but to different pressure fields. This finding illustrates the need for considering the flows of fluids described by three-dimensional constitutive models in complex geometries, and not restricting ourselves to flows of fluids described by one-dimensional models or simple shear flows of fluids characterized by three-dimensional models.
Fluid Mechanics of Inhalant Siphon Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
True, A. C.; Crimaldi, J. P.
2016-02-01
Inhalant siphon and suction flows are ubiquitous in marine ecosystems. From biological flows in filter-feeding benthic bivalves and predation by planktivorous fishes, to engineered flows in water samplers and production of hydrodynamic stimuli for laboratory assays, inhalant siphon flows span much of the laminar range (Reynolds number 0.01 - 2,000) and fundamentally influence many transport and exchange processes. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of inhalant siphon flows with varying Reynolds numbers and geometries have informed design and construction of an index of refraction-matched flow facility (mineral oil, borosilicate glass tubing) in which we are employing particle image velocimetry (PIV) to quantify transient and steady-state flow fields outside and inside the siphon tube. Varying siphon diameter, flow rate, and extraction height allows us to evaluate effects of Reynolds number and siphon geometry on local hydrodynamics. This complementary experimental and numerical modeling investigation of siphon flow hydrodynamics was motivated recently by a colleague whose biologically inspired numerical modeling of inhalant siphons using a boundary condition of constant volumetric outflow (as opposed to the classically assumed uniform inlet velocity profile) revealed nontrivial departures from idealized flows: inviscid potential flows (i.e. point sink) and pipe flows (the classical pipe entry problem), particularly in the low Reynolds number regime. Reduced entrance lengths, larger radial inflows, and modifications to fluid capture zones seen numerically at low Reynolds number are being tested experimentally and may have important implications for both biological and engineered siphons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linmin; Li, Baokuan; Liu, Lichao; Motoyama, Yuichi
2017-04-01
The present work develops a multi-region dynamic coupling model for fluid flow, heat transfer and arc-melt interaction in tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding using the dynamic mesh technique. The arc-weld pool unified model is developed on basis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations and the interface is tracked using the dynamic mesh method. The numerical model for arc is firstly validated by comparing the calculated temperature profiles and essential results with the former experimental data. For weld pool convection solution, the drag, Marangoni, buoyancy and electromagnetic forces are separately validated, and then taken into account. Moreover, the model considering interface deformation is adopted in a stationary TIG welding process with SUS304 stainless steel and the effect of interface deformation is investigated. The depression of weld pool center and the lifting of pool periphery are both predicted. The results show that the weld pool shape calculated with considering the interface deformation is more accurate.
Piotrowski-Daspit, Alexandra S; Simi, Allison K; Pang, Mei-Fong; Tien, Joe; Nelson, Celeste M
2017-01-01
Cells are surrounded by mechanical stimuli in their microenvironment. It is important to determine how cells respond to the mechanical information that surrounds them in order to understand both development and disease progression, as well as to be able to predict cell behavior in response to physical stimuli. Here we describe a protocol to determine the effects of interstitial fluid flow on the migratory behavior of an aggregate of epithelial cells in a three-dimensional (3D) culture model. This protocol includes detailed methods for the fabrication of a 3D cell culture chamber with hydrostatic pressure control, the culture of epithelial cells as an aggregate in a collagen gel, and the analysis of collective cell behavior in response to pressure-driven flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashmi, M. S.; Khan, N.; Ullah Khan, Sami; Rashidi, M. M.
In this study, we have constructed a mathematical model to investigate the heat source/sink effects in mixed convection axisymmetric flow of an incompressible, electrically conducting Oldroyd-B fluid between two infinite isothermal stretching disks. The effects of viscous dissipation and Joule heating are also considered in the heat equation. The governing partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity variables. The series solution of these dimensionless equations is constructed by using homotopy analysis method. The convergence of the obtained solution is carefully examined. The effects of various involved parameters on pressure, velocity and temperature profiles are comprehensively studied. A graphical analysis has been presented for various values of problem parameters. The numerical values of wall shear stress and Nusselt number are computed at both upper and lower disks. Moreover, a graphical and tabular explanation for critical values of Frank-Kamenetskii regarding other flow parameters.
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow
Margolin, Len G
2008-01-01
Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, Christina; Huismans, Ritske S.; Beaumont, Christopher; Fullsack, Philippe
2007-10-01
A model is developed which couples fully saturated porous compaction to the viscous-plastic deformation of the skeleton matrix. The Darcy fluid flow during compaction is described by an advection-diffusion equation for the excess pressure with two source/sink terms that depend on the mechanical compressibility and viscous compaction of the pore space, the latter representing the effect of pressure solution. The incompressible deformation of the composite medium is described by a force balance equation and its rheology can be viscous, plastic, or viscoplastic (Bingham material). For the plastic and viscoplastic cases, the coupling between the compacting and plastically deforming parts of the system is through the Drucker-Prager frictional-plastic yield criterion modified by Terzaghi's principle, so that the yield strength depends on the effective dynamical pressure. The coupled system is solved using a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method. Two problems are solved to demonstrate the behavior of our theory. The first considers compaction of a uniform sediment layer. The numerical results agree with the predictions of the nondimensional control parameters and previously published results. The second problem concerns 2-D kinematic progradation of deltaic sediments. Substratum and delta sediments have the same compaction properties and a Bingham rheology during deviatoric deformation, such that the delta undergoes linear postyield viscous flow. For certain depositional regimes, overpressure is generated. When pore pressures approach critical values, yielding occurs and the delta front fails and becomes unstable, spreading gravitationally under its own weight. The flow velocity is limited to geological rates by the Bingham viscosity. For the range of parameter values considered, pressure solution is the most effective mechanism for generating near-lithostatic fluid pressures that lead to initial failure, and it appears that mechanical compaction hardly contributes
Finite element modeling of melting and fluid flow in the laser-heated diamond-anvil cell
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Perez, N.; Rodriguez, J. F.; McWilliams, R. S.
2017-04-01
The laser-heated diamond anvil cell is widely used in the laboratory study of materials behavior at high-pressure and high-temperature, including melting curves and liquid properties at extreme conditions. Laser heating in the diamond cell has long been associated with fluid-like motion in samples, which is routinely used to determine melting points and is often described as convective in appearance. However, the flow behavior of this system is poorly understood. A quantitative treatment of melting and flow in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell is developed here to physically relate experimental motion to properties of interest, including melting points and viscosity. Numerical finite-element models are used to characterize the temperature distribution, melting, buoyancy, and resulting natural convection in samples. We find that continuous fluid motion in experiments can be explained most readily by natural convection. Fluid velocities, peaking near values of microns per second for plausible viscosities, are sufficiently fast to be detected experimentally, lending support to the use of convective motion as a criterion for melting. Convection depends on the physical properties of the melt and the sample geometry and is too sluggish to detect for viscosities significantly above that of water at ambient conditions, implying an upper bound on the melt viscosity of about 1 mPa s when convective motion is detected. A simple analytical relationship between melt viscosity and velocity suggests that direct viscosity measurements can be made from flow speeds, given the basic thermodynamic and geometric parameters of samples are known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Fei
2014-07-01
In this article, the water model was established to investigate the fluid flow and mixing phenomena during the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus refining process. The mixing time was measured by detecting the conductivity. The velocity, turbulent energy and its dissipation rate were measured using a particle-image velocimetry. There were several findings in the current study. The jet from the downleg penetrated to the bottom of the ladle, collided with the right wall of the ladle, and then went upward and sloped left to enter the upleg, generating a recirculation eddy below the upleg. The turbulent fluctuation velocities at different directions were different so that the k- ɛ turbulent model is invalid to accurately study the fluid flow during ladle refining process. The mixing time was usually three to four times that of the recirculation time, and the mixing was different at different locations. When the mixing time is reported, the location where the mixing time is measured should be clearly mentioned. The mixing time was dependent on the stirring power by t mix ~ ɛ-0.42.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Mengsu; Rutqvist, Jonny; Wang, Yuan
2016-11-01
In this study, a numerical manifold method (NMM) model is developed to analyze flow in porous media with discrete fractures in a non-conforming mesh. This new model is based on a two-cover-mesh system with a uniform triangular mathematical mesh and boundary/fracture-divided physical covers, where local independent cover functions are defined. The overlapping parts of the physical covers are elements where the global approximation is defined by the weighted average of the physical cover functions. The mesh is generated by a tree-cutting algorithm. A new model that does not introduce additional degrees of freedom (DOF) for fractures was developed for fluid flow in fractures. The fracture surfaces that belong to different physical covers are used to represent fracture flow in the direction of the fractures. In the direction normal to the fractures, the fracture surfaces are regarded as Dirichlet boundaries to exchange fluxes with the rock matrix. Furthermore, fractures that intersect with Dirichlet or Neumann boundaries are considered. Simulation examples are designed to verify the efficiency of the tree-cutting algorithm, the calculation's independency from the mesh orientation, and accuracy when modeling porous media that contain fractures with multiple intersections and different orientations. The simulation results show good agreement with available analytical solutions. Finally, the model is applied to cases that involve nine intersecting fractures and a complex network of 100 fractures, both of which achieve reasonable results. The new model is very practical for modeling flow in fractured porous media, even for a geometrically complex fracture network with large hydraulic conductivity contrasts between fractures and the matrix.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonov, N. V.; Ignatieva, A. A.
2006-11-01
Critical behaviour of a fluid (binary mixture or liquid crystal), subjected to strongly anisotropic turbulent mixing, is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group. As a simplified model, relaxational stochastic dynamics of a non-conserved scalar order parameter, coupled to a random velocity field with prescribed statistics, is considered. The velocity is taken Gaussian, white in time, with a correlation function of the form ~δ(t - t')/|kbottom|d+ξ, where kbottom is the component of the wave vector, perpendicular to the distinguished direction ('direction of the flow')—the d-dimensional generalization of the ensemble introduced by Avellaneda and Majda (1990 Commun. Math. Phys. 131 381) within the context of passive scalar advection. It is shown that, depending on the relation between the exponent ξ and the space dimensionality d, the system exhibits various types of large-scale self-similar behaviour, associated with different infrared attractive fixed points of the renormalization group equations. In addition to well-known asymptotic regimes (model A of equilibrium critical dynamics and a passively advected scalar with no self-interaction), the existence of a new, non-equilibrium and strongly anisotropic type of critical behaviour (universality class) is established, and the corresponding critical dimensions are calculated to the second order of the double expansion in ξ and ɛ = 4 - d (two-loop approximation). The most realistic values of the model parameters (for example, d = 3 and the Kolmogorov exponent ξ = 4/3) belong to this class. The scaling behaviour appears anisotropic in the sense that the critical dimensions related to the directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow are essentially different. The results are in qualitative agreement with the results, obtained in experiments and simulations of fluid systems subjected to various kinds of regular and chaotic anisotropic flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
2015-12-01
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
Effect of self-etching adhesives on dentin permeability in a fluid flow model.
Grégoire, Geneviève; Guignes, Philippe; Millas, Arlette
2005-01-01
Numerous self-etching bonding systems exist, with composition differing from one product to another. It is important for the clinician to know if they are all equally effective, and whether they provide an effective seal between dentin and restorative materials. This study was designed to measure the hydraulic conductance of physiologic saline across dentin after application of various self-etching bonding systems or of a 1-bottle adhesive system preceded by a phosphoric acid etch. One hundred extracted noncarious human third molars from patients 18-25 years old were used for this study. Dentin disks were cut from crown segments parallel to the occlusal surface at the top of the pulp cavity. The 100 disks, each 1 mm thick, were divided into 10 groups (n=10 per group), each of which was treated with 1 of 9 self-etching systems-AdheSE, Adper Prompt L-Pop, Clearfil SE Bond, Etch & Prime 3.0, Prime & Bond NRC Nt, One-Up Bond F, optiBond solo Plus Self Etch, Prompt L-Pop, or Xeno III-or a control bonding system (Prime & Bond NT) preceded by a phosphoric acid etch. Hydraulic conductance, the volume of fluid transported across a known area of surface (0.28 cm2) per unit time under a unit pressure gradient (200 cm H2O), was analyzed for the adhesive systems using a fluid flow apparatus (Flodec). First, both sides of each specimen were etched with 36% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds, and the hydraulic conductance was measured every 30 seconds for 15 minutes. The initial set of measurements served as the reference value for each specimen. The measurements were repeated when a smear layer had been formed and, finally, after 1 of the 10 bonding systems had been applied. The data were analyzed using a 1-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha=.05). The control 1-bottle adhesive used with a phosphoric acid pre-etch did not provide the largest reduction in penetration (42.3%). The greatest mean reduction (68.9%, P<.05) was observed with the self-etching product Xeno III
Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gor, G.; Prevost, J.
2013-12-01
Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013
MOD_FreeSurf2D: a Surface Fluid Flow Simulation Model for Rivers, Streams, and Shallow Estuaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, N.; Gorelick, S. M.
2003-12-01
The MOD_FreeSurf2D, Modular Free Surface Flow in Two-Dimensions, computer model simulates free surface fluid flow in streams, rivers, and shallow estuaries under the assumptions of a well-mixed water column, a small water depth to width ratio, and a hydrostatic pressure distribution. The dependent variables in the model are free surface elevation, which provides total water depth, and fluid velocity. Primary advantages of MOD_FreeSurf2D relative to other two-dimensional models are a stable and computationally efficient numerical representation and a transparent representation of wetting and drying of the simulation domain. MOD_FreeSurf2D approximates the depth-averaged, shallow water equations with a finite volume, semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian numerical representation similar to the TRIM method (Casulli, 1990; Casulli and Cheng, 1992; Casulli, 1999). The semi-implicit, semi-Lagrangian approach is computationally efficient because time steps can exceed the Courant-Friedrich-Lewy (CFL) stability criterion without significant accuracy degradation (Robert, 1982; Casulli, 1990). The rectangular, Arakawa C-grid, finite-volume layout allows flooding and drying in response to changing flow conditions without prior channel specification or closed boundary specification. Open boundary conditions available in MOD_FreeSurf2D are specified flux, specified total water depth, specified velocity, radiation free surface, and radiation velocity. MOD_FreeSurf2D requires initial topography, undisturbed water depth, and Manning's roughness coefficient. MOD_FreeSurf2D simulated results are shown to converge to the semi-empirical solution for a simple straight channel case. Two applications demonstrate the accuracy of MOD_FreeSurf2D. The first application is the evolution of water depth in the dambreak-style flume experiment of Bellos et al. (1992). In this case, MOD_FreeSurf2D accurately simulates the changing water depth in the flume during the experiment and models the wetting of
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balankin, Alexander S.; Mena, Baltasar; Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier
2017-02-01
We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived.
Analytical study of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a boundary layer flow of Oldroyd-B fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, M. Abbasi; M, Mustafa; S, A. Shehzad; M, S. Alhuthali; T, Hayat
2016-01-01
We investigate the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible Oldroyd-B fluid over a linearly stretching sheet. Mathematical formulation of the boundary layer problems is given. The nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are obtained through optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). The influences of the physical parameters on the velocity and the temperature are pointed out. The results show that the temperature and the thermal boundary layer thickness are smaller in the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model than those in the Fourier’s law of heat conduction. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR) King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Grant No. 32-130-36-HiCi).
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1996-07-20
We derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two-fluid model constrained by the density gradients inferred from white light observations of a south polar coronal hole on 11 April 1993 during the SPARTAN 201-1 flight, and interplanetary observations, e.g. from Ulysses' south polar passage. We present the results of model computations for which we get the best fit to these data. One of the main results of this study is that, for the same energy input to electrons and protons, the proton temperature can be significantly higher than the electron temperature in the inner corona. In addition, we show that different functional forms of the energy addition with the same total energy input can yield different solar wind parameters at 1AU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linmin; Liu, Zhongqiu; Cao, Maoxue; Li, Baokuan
2015-07-01
In the ladle metallurgy process, the bubble movement and slag layer behavior is very important to the refining process and steel quality. For the bubble-liquid flow, bubble movement plays a significant role in the phase structure and causes the unsteady complex turbulent flow pattern. This is one of the most crucial shortcomings of the current two-fluid models. In the current work, a one-third scale water model is established to investigate the bubble movement and the slag open-eye formation. A new mathematical model using the large eddy simulation (LES) is developed for the bubble-liquid-slag-air four-phase flow in the ladle. The Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) model is used for tracking the liquid-slag-air free surfaces and the Lagrangian discrete phase model (DPM) is used for describing the bubble movement. The turbulent liquid flow is induced by bubble-liquid interactions and is solved by LES. The procedure of bubble coming out of the liquid and getting into the air is modeled using a user-defined function. The results show that the present LES-DPM-VOF coupled model is good at predicting the unsteady bubble movement, slag eye formation, interface fluctuation, and slag entrainment.
Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2004-01-01
The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.
A Coupled Multiphase Fluid Flow And Heat And Vapor Transport Model For Air-Gap Membrane Distillation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhopadhyay, Sumit
2010-05-01
Membrane distillation (MD) is emerging as a viable desalination technology because of its low energy requirements that can be provided from low-grade, waste heat and because it causes less fouling. In MD, desalination is accomplished by transporting water vapour through a porous hydrophobic membrane. The vapour transport process is governed by the vapour pressure difference between the two sides of a membrane. A variety of configurations have been tested to impose this vapour pressure gradient, however, the air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) has been found to be the most efficient. The separation mechanism of AGMD and its overall efficiency is based on vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE). At present, little knowledge is available about the optimal design of such a transmembrane VLE-based evaporation, and subsequent condensation processes. While design parameters for MD have evolved mostly through experimentations, a comprehensive mathematical model is yet to be developed. This is primarily because the coupling and non-linearity of the equations, the interactions between the flow, heat and mass transport regimes, and the complex geometries involved pose a challenging modelling and simulation problem. Yet a comprehensive mathematical model is needed for systematic evaluation of the processes, design parameterization, and performance prediction. This paper thus presents a coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transfer model to investigate the main processes and parameters affecting the performance of an AGMD.
Resolved simulations of a granular-fluid flow through a check dam with a SPH-DCDEM model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birjukovs Canelas, Ricardo; Domínguez, Jose; Crespo, Alejandro; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
2017-04-01
Debris flows represent some of the most relevant phenomena in geomorphological events. Due to the potential destructiveness of such flows, they are the target of a vast amount of research. Experimental research in laboratory facilities or in the field is fundamental to characterize the fundamental rheological properties of these flows and to provide insights on its structure. However, characterizing interparticle contacts and the structure of the motion of the granular phase is difficult, even in controlled laboratory conditions, and possible only for simple geometries. This work addresses the need for a numerical simulation tool applicable to granular-fluid mixtures featuring high spatial and temporal resolution, thus capable of resolving the motion of individual particles, including all interparticle contacts and susceptible to complement laboratory research. The DualSPHysics meshless numerical implementation based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is expanded with a Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) in order to explicitly solve the fluid and the solid phase. The specific objective is to test the SPH-DCDEM approach by comparing its results with experimental data. An experimental set-up for stony debris flows in a slit check dam is reproduced numerically, where solid material is introduced through a hopper assuring a constant solid discharge for the considered time interval. With each sediment particle possibly undergoing several simultaneous contacts, thousands of time-evolving interactions are efficiently treated due to the model's algorithmic structure and the HPC implementation of DualSPHysics. The results, comprising mainly of retention curves, are in good agreement with the measurements, correctly reproducing the changes in efficiency with slit spacing and density. The encouraging results, coupled with the prospect of so far unique insights into the internal dynamics of a debris flow show the potential of high-performance resolved
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.
1986-01-01
The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.
1986-01-01
The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)
Smith, Joshua H; García, José Jaime
2009-09-18
A biphasic nonlinear mathematical model is proposed for the concomitant fluid transport and tissue deformation that occurs during constant flow rate infusions into brain tissue. The model takes into account material and geometrical nonlinearities, a hydraulic conductivity dependent on strain, and nonlinear boundary conditions at the infusion cavity. The biphasic equations were implemented in a custom written code assuming spherical symmetry and using an updated Lagrangian finite element algorithm. Results of the model showed that both, geometric and material nonlinearities play an important role in the physics of infusions, yielding important differences from infinitesimal analyses. Geometrical nonlinearities were mainly due to the significant enlargement of the infusion cavity, while variations of the parameters that describe the degree of nonlinearity of the stress-strain curve yielded significant differences in all distributions. For example, a parameter set showing stiffening under tension yielded maximum values of radial displacement and porosity not localized at the infusion cavity. On the other hand, a parameter set showing softening under tension yielded a slight decrease in the fluid velocity for a three-fold increase in the flow rate, which can be explained by the substantial increase of the infusion cavity, not considered in linear analyses. This study strongly suggests that significant enlargement of the infusion cavity is a real phenomenon during infusions that may produce collateral damage to brain tissue. Our results indicate that more experimental tests have to be undertaken in order to determine material nonlinearities of brain tissue over a range of strains. With better understanding of these nonlinear effects, clinicians may be able to develop protocols that can minimize the damage to surrounding tissue.
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.
2010-12-01
In 2003, an extension of the existing ice and trash sluiceway was added at Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2). This extension started at the existing corner collector for the ice and trash sluiceway adjacent to Bonneville Powerhouse 2 and the new sluiceway was extended to the downstream end of Cascade Island. The sluiceway was designed to improve juvenile salmon survival by bypassing turbine passage at B2, and placing these smolt in downstream flowing water minimizing their exposure to fish and avian predators. In this study, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics model was modified and used to characterized tailrace hydraulics and sluiceway egress conditions for low total river flows and low levels of spillway flow. STAR-CD v4.10 was used for seven scenarios of low total river flow and low spill discharges. The simulation results were specifically examined to look at tailrace hydraulics at 5 ft below the tailwater elevation, and streamlines used to compare streamline pathways for streamlines originating in the corner collector outfall and adjacent to the outfall. These streamlines indicated that for all higher spill percentage cases (25% and greater) that streamlines from the corner collector did not approach the shoreline at the downstream end of Bradford Island. For the cases with much larger spill percentages, the streamlines from the corner collector were mid-channel or closer to the Washington shore as they moved downstream. Although at 25% spill at 75 kcfs total river, the total spill volume was sufficient to "cushion" the flow from the corner collector from the Bradford Island shore, areas of recirculation were modeled in the spillway tailrace. However, at the lowest flows and spill percentages, the streamlines from the B2 corner collector pass very close to the Bradford Island shore. In addition, the very flow velocity flows and large areas of recirculation greatly increase potential predator exposure of the spillway passed smolt. If there is
Simple interphase drag model for numerical two-fluid modeling of two-phase flow systems. [PWR; BWR
Chow, H.; Ransom, V.H.
1984-06-08
The interphase drag model that has been developed for RELAP5/MOD2 is based on a simple formulation having flow regime maps for both horizontal and vertical flows. The model is based on a conventional semi-empirical formulation that includes the product of drag coefficient, interfacial area, and relative dynamic pressure. The interphase drag model is implemented in the RELAP5/MOD2 light water reactor transient analysis code and has been used to simulate a variety of separate effects experiments to assess the model accuracy. The results from three of these simulations, the General Electric Company small vessel blowdown experiment, Dukler and Smith's counter-current flow experiment, and a Westinghouse Electric Company FLECHT-SEASET forced reflood experiment, are presented and discussed.
Fluids in crustal deformation: Fluid flow, fluid-rock interactions, rheology, melting and resources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacombe, Olivier; Rolland, Yann
2016-11-01
Fluids exert a first-order control on the structural, petrological and rheological evolution of the continental crust. Fluids interact with rocks from the earliest stages of sedimentation and diagenesis in basins until these rocks are deformed and/or buried and metamorphosed in orogens, then possibly exhumed. Fluid-rock interactions lead to the evolution of rock physical properties and rock strength. Fractures and faults are preferred pathways for fluids, and in turn physical and chemical interactions between fluid flow and tectonic structures, such as fault zones, strongly influence the mechanical behaviour of the crust at different space and time scales. Fluid (over)pressure is associated with a variety of geological phenomena, such as seismic cycle in various P-T conditions, hydrofracturing (including formation of sub-horizontal, bedding-parallel veins), fault (re)activation or gravitational sliding of rocks, among others. Fluid (over)pressure is a governing factor for the evolution of permeability and porosity of rocks and controls the generation, maturation and migration of economic fluids like hydrocarbons or ore forming hydrothermal fluids, and is therefore a key parameter in reservoir studies and basin modeling. Fluids may also help the crust partially melt, and in turn the resulting melt may dramatically change the rheology of the crust.
López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.; Nielson, Dennis L.
1994-01-01
The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Shi; Shu, Ruiwen
2017-04-01
In this paper we consider a kinetic-fluid model for disperse two-phase flows with uncertainty. We propose a stochastic asymptotic-preserving (s-AP) scheme in the generalized polynomial chaos stochastic Galerkin (gPC-sG) framework, which allows the efficient computation of the problem in both kinetic and hydrodynamic regimes. The s-AP property is proved by deriving the equilibrium of the gPC version of the Fokker-Planck operator. The coefficient matrices that arise in a Helmholtz equation and a Poisson equation, essential ingredients of the algorithms, are proved to be positive definite under reasonable and mild assumptions. The computation of the gPC version of a translation operator that arises in the inversion of the Fokker-Planck operator is accelerated by a spectrally accurate splitting method. Numerical examples illustrate the s-AP property and the efficiency of the gPC-sG method in various asymptotic regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Raisul
2016-07-01
In this research paper firstly theoretical analysis and design of the porous matrix for filtration and selection of associated liquid (highly viscous and low viscous liquid) is carried out. Hence, porosity of the bed has been found out followed by a detailed CFD analysis of the flow to identify displacement structure (fingering: due to the nonlinear interactions among viscous, capillary and gravitational forces). Moreover, an experiment will be with synthetic porous medium consists of a single layer of glass beads which are then positioned homogeneously or non-homogeneously between two Perspex sheets and then fluid displacement structure/fingering will be photographed. Then the effort will be made to validate results with the experiment based photograph and then the CFD model will be extended to microgravity condition KEYWORDS: CFD, Fingering, microgravity, Non-homogeneously, Capillary .
Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.; Page, W.R.; Howard, T.M.
1993-12-31
Fractures have been characterized for fluid-flow, geomechanical, and paleostress modeling at three localities in the vicinity of drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada. A method for fracture characterization is introduced that integrates mapping fracture-trace networks and quantifying eight fracture parameters: trace length, orientation, connectivity, aperture, roughness, shear offset, trace-length density, and mineralization. A complex network of fractures was exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements cleared of debris in the upper lithophysal unit of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paint-brush Tuff. The pavements are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.2 m were mapped and studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel
2016-04-01
Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the
Turbulent developing fluid flow in helical pipes
Lin, C.X.; Ebadian, M.A.
1996-12-31
A fully elliptic numerical study has been carried out to investigate three-dimensional turbulent developing fluid flow in helical pipes with finite pitch. The {kappa}-{epsilon} standard two-equation turbulence model is applied. The governing equations are solved by a Control-Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM). The results presented here cover a Reynolds number range of 2.5 {times} 10{sup 4}--2.5 {times} 10{sup 5}, a pitch range of 0.0 {approximately} 0.6, and a curvature ratio range of 0.025--0.050. The developments of main and secondary flow fields, turbulent kinetic energy fields, and local and average friction factors are reported and discussed. It has been found that three parameters--Reynolds number, pitch and curvature ratio--generate very complex effects on the development of the turbulent flow fields. Moreover, along the axial direction, the friction factor experiences an oscillatory period before the flow becomes fully developed.
Using toughreact to model reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport in hydrothermal systems
Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten
2003-07-31
The interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the rocks through which they migrate alters the earlier formed primary minerals and leads to the formation of secondary minerals, resulting in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the system. We have developed a comprehensive numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, which considers nonisothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The code can be applied to problems in fundamental analysis of the hydrothermal systems and in the exploration of geothermal reservoirs including chemical evolution, mineral alteration, mineral scaling, changes of porosity and permeability, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.
Vuong, Barry; Genis, Helen; Wong, Ronnie; Ramjist, Joel; Jivraj, Jamil; Farooq, Hamza; Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor X.D.
2014-01-01
Hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, specifically in regions of curved vasculature such as bifurcations exhibiting irregular blood flow profiles. Carotid atherosclerotic disease can be intervened by stent implantation, but this may result in greater alterations to local blood flow and consequently further complications. This study demonstrates the use of a variant of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) known as split spectrum DOCT (ssDOCT) to evaluate hemodynamic patterns both before and after stent implantation in the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed to simulate blood velocity profiles and compared to the findings achieved through ssDOCT images. Both methods demonstrated noticeable alterations in hemodynamic patterns following stent implantation, with features such as slow velocity regions at the neck of the bifurcation and recirculation zones at the stent struts. Strong correlation between CFD models and ssDOCT images demonstrate the potential of ssDOCT imaging in the optimization of stent implantation in the clinical setting. PMID:25574447
Vuong, Barry; Genis, Helen; Wong, Ronnie; Ramjist, Joel; Jivraj, Jamil; Farooq, Hamza; Sun, Cuiru; Yang, Victor X D
2014-12-01
Hemodynamics plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, specifically in regions of curved vasculature such as bifurcations exhibiting irregular blood flow profiles. Carotid atherosclerotic disease can be intervened by stent implantation, but this may result in greater alterations to local blood flow and consequently further complications. This study demonstrates the use of a variant of Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) known as split spectrum DOCT (ssDOCT) to evaluate hemodynamic patterns both before and after stent implantation in the bifurcation junction in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were constructed to simulate blood velocity profiles and compared to the findings achieved through ssDOCT images. Both methods demonstrated noticeable alterations in hemodynamic patterns following stent implantation, with features such as slow velocity regions at the neck of the bifurcation and recirculation zones at the stent struts. Strong correlation between CFD models and ssDOCT images demonstrate the potential of ssDOCT imaging in the optimization of stent implantation in the clinical setting.
Incompressible fluid flows in rapidly rotating cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fournier, Alexandre
The subject of incompressible fluid flows in rapidly rotating cavities, relevant to the dynamics of the Earth's outer core, is addressed here by means of numerical modeling. We recall in the introduction what makes this topic fascinating and challenging, and emphasize the need for new, more flexible numerical approaches in line with the evolution of today's parallel computers. Relying upon recent advances in numerical analysis, we first introduce in chapter 2 a spectral element model of the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equation, in a rotating reference frame. Comparisons with analytical or published numerical solutions are made for various test problems, which highlight the spectral convergence properties and adaptivity of the approach. In chapter 3, we couple this axisymmetric kernel with a Fourier expansion in longitude in order to describe the dynamics of three-dimensional convection flows. Again, several reference problems are studied. In the specific case of a rotating fluid undergoing thermal convection, this so-called Fourier-spectral element method (FSEM) proves to be as accurate as standard pseudo-spectral techniques. Having this numerical tool anchored on solid grounds, we study in chapter 4 fluid flows driven by thermal convection and precession at the same time. A new topic in the vast field of fluid mechanics, convecto-precessing flows are of particular importance for the Earth's core, and the equations governing their evolution are derived in detail. We solve these using the FSEM; results seem to indicate that to first order, thermal convection and precession ignore each other. We discuss the relevance of these calculations for the Earth's core and outline directions for future related research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, W.; Kim, C.-H.; DebRoy, T.
2004-05-01
Gas metal arc (GMA) fillet welding is one of the most important processes for metal joining because of its high productivity and amiability to automation. This welding process is characterized by the complicated V-shaped joint geometry, a deformable weld pool surface, and the additions of hot metal droplets. In the present work, a three-dimensional numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to examine the temperature profiles, velocity fields, weld pool shape and size, and the nature of the solidified weld bead geometry during GMA fillet welding. The model solved the equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy using a boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate system. Apart from the direct transport of heat from the welding arc, additional heat from the metal droplets was modeled considering a volumetric heat source. The deformation of the weld pool surface was calculated by minimizing the total surface energy. Part I of this article is focused on the details of the numerical model such as coordinate transformation and calculation of volumetric heat source and free surface profile. An application of the model to GMA fillet welding of mild steel is described in an accompanying article (W. Zhang, C.-H. Kim and T. DebRoy, J. Appl Phys. 95, 5220 (2004)).
Testing the Markov hypothesis in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Daniel W.; Saggini, Frédéric
2016-05-01
Stochastic Markov processes are used very frequently to model, for example, processes in turbulence and subsurface flow and transport. Based on the weak Chapman-Kolmogorov equation and the strong Markov condition, we present methods to test the Markov hypothesis that is at the heart of these models. We demonstrate the capabilities of our methodology by testing the Markov hypothesis for fluid and inertial particles in turbulence, and fluid particles in the heterogeneous subsurface. In the context of subsurface macrodispersion, we find that depending on the heterogeneity level, Markov models work well above a certain scale of interest for media with different log-conductivity correlation structures. Moreover, we find surprising similarities in the velocity dynamics of the different media considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luff, Roger; Wallmann, Klaus
2003-09-01
A numerical model was applied to investigate and to quantify biogeochemical processes and methane turnover in gas hydrate-bearing surface sediments from a cold vent site situated at Hydrate Ridge, an accretionary structure located in the Cascadia Margin subduction zone. Steady state simulations were carried out to obtain a comprehensive overview on the activity in these sediments which are covered with bacterial mats and are affected by strong fluid flow from below. The model results underline the dominance of advective fluid flow that forces a large inflow of methane from below (869 μmol cm -2 a -1) inducing high oxidation rates in the surface layers. Anaerobic methane oxidation is the major process, proceeding at a depth-integrated rate of 870 μmol cm -2 a -1. A significant fraction (14%) of bicarbonate produced by anaerobic methane oxidation is removed from the fluids by precipitation of authigenic aragonite and calcite. The total rate of carbonate precipitation (120 μmol cm -2 a -1) allows for the build-up of a massive carbonate layer with a thickness of 1 m over a period of 20,000 years. Aragonite is the major carbonate mineral formed by anaerobic methane oxidation if the flow velocity of methane-charge fluids is high enough (≥10 cm a -1) to maintain super-saturation with respect to this highly soluble carbonate phase. It precipitates much faster within the studied surface sediments than previously observed in abiotic laboratory experiments, suggesting microbial catalysis. The investigated station is characterized by high carbon and oxygen turnover rates (≈1000 μmol cm -2 a -1) that are well beyond the rates observed at other continental slope sites not affected by fluid venting. This underlines the strong impact of fluid venting on the benthic system, even though the flow velocity of 10 cm a -1 derived by the model is relative low compared to fluid flow rates found at other cold vent sites. Non-steady state simulations using measured fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, B.; Garven, G.; Boles, J. R.
2011-12-01
Major fault systems play a first-order role in controlling fluid migration in the Earth's crust, and also in the genesis/preservation of hydrocarbon reservoirs in young sedimentary basins undergoing deformation, and therefore understanding the geohydrology of faults is essential for the successful exploration of energy resources. For actively deforming systems like the Santa Barbara Basin and Los Angeles Basin, we have found it useful to develop computational geohydrologic models to study the various coupled and nonlinear processes affecting multiphase fluid migration, including relative permeability, anisotropy, heterogeneity, capillarity, pore pressure, and phase saturation that affect hydrocarbon mobility within fault systems and to search the possible hydrogeologic conditions that enable the natural sequestration of prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in these young basins. Subsurface geology, reservoir data (fluid pressure-temperature-chemistry), structural reconstructions, and seismic profiles provide important constraints for model geometry and parameter testing, and provide critical insight on how large-scale faults and aquifer networks influence the distribution and the hydrodynamics of liquid and gas-phase hydrocarbon migration. For example, pore pressure changes at a methane seepage site on the seafloor have been carefully analyzed to estimate large-scale fault permeability, which helps to constrain basin-scale natural gas migration models for the Santa Barbara Basin. We have developed our own 2-D multiphase finite element/finite IMPES numerical model, and successfully modeled hydrocarbon gas/liquid movement for intensely faulted and heterogeneous basin profiles of the Los Angeles Basin. Our simulations suggest that hydrocarbon reservoirs that are today aligned with the Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone were formed by massive hydrocarbon flows from deeply buried source beds in the central synclinal region during post-Miocene time. Fault permeability, capillarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labonte, Alison Louise
Detecting seafloor deformation events in the offshore convergent margin environment is of particular importance considering the significant seismic hazard at subduction zones. Efforts to gain insight into the earthquake cycle have been made at the Cascadia and Costa Rica subduction margins through recent expansions of onshore GPS and seismic networks. While these studies have given scientists the ability to quantify and locate slip events in the seismogenic zone, there is little technology available for adequately measuring offshore aseismic slip. This dissertation introduces an improved flow meter for detecting seismic and aseismic deformation in submarine environments. The value of such hydrologic measurements for quantifying the geodetics at offshore margins is verified through a finite element modeling (FEM) study in which the character of deformation in the shallow subduction zone is determined from previously recorded hydrologic events at the Costa Rica Pacific margin. Accurately sensing aseismic events is one key to determining the stress state in subduction zones as these slow-slip events act to load or unload the seismogenic zone during the interseismic period. One method for detecting seismic and aseismic strain events is to monitor the hydrogeologic response to strain events using fluid flow meters. Previous instrumentation, the Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter which measures flow rates through the sediment-water interface, can detect transient events at very low flowrates, down to 0.0001 m/yr. The CAT meter performs well in low flow rate environments and can capture gradual changes in flow rate, as might be expected during ultra slow slip events. However, it cannot accurately quantify high flow rates through fractures and conduits, nor does it have the temporal resolution and accuracy required for detecting transient flow events associated with rapid deformation. The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) developed for this purpose is an
Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim
2015-04-01
Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.
Fluid Flow Nozzle Energy Harvesters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.
Mathematic modeling of human amniotic fluid dynamics.
Mann, S E; Nijland, M J; Ross, M G
1996-10-01
We sought to develop a model quantifying the relative contributions of fetal swallowing and intramembranous flow to amniotic fluid dynamics during human gestation. We then used the model to simulate the impact of absent swallowing on amniotic fluid volume. The model was developed with published data for normal human amniotic fluid volume and composition, human fetal urine flow rate and composition (11 to 42 weeks), and extrapolated data from ovine lung fluid production. Fetal swallowing and intramembranous flow were calculated with assumptions that (1) swallowed fluid is isotonic to amniotic fluid, (2) intramembranous flow is free water diffusion, and (3) 50% of lung fluid is swallowed. The model was then applied to simulate absent fetal swallowing and variable (0%, 50%) proportions of swallowed lung fluid were used as a representation of esophageal atresia-tracheal fistula variations. Fetal swallowed volume and intramembranous flow linearly increase until 28 to 30 weeks. Daily swallowed volume then exponentially increases to a maximum of 1006 ml/day at term, whereas intramembranous flow continues on a linear trend to reach 393 ml/day at term. With absent swallowing and variable amounts of lung fluid swallowed (0%, 50%), predicted amniotic fluid volume is similar to normal values through 20 weeks, exceeds the 95% confidence interval for normal amniotic fluid volume at 29 to 30 weeks' gestation (approximately 2000 ml), and then exponentially increases. Predicted amniotic fluid osmolality (280 to 257 mOsm/kg) is slightly lower than actual values although within the clinically normal range. This model indicates that the normal reduction in amniotic fluid volume beginning at 34 weeks results from the marked increase in swallowed volume during the third trimester. Additionally, this model correlates well with the timing of the initial clinical presentation of polyhydramnios observed in some fetuses with conditions that result in absent or reduced swallowing or
2009-03-01
Monod -type kinetic models were discussed as a method that is essentially similar to the previously mentioned first-order models , but includes...... Monod model 29 used to model aerobic growth with the notable modification of replacing COC with CH4, the methane concentration yielding the formula
Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow with Phase Change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat
1999-01-01
We present a numerical method to compute phase change dynamics of three-dimensional deformable bubbles. The full Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved for both phases by a front tracking/finite difference technique. The fluid boundary is explicitly tracked by discrete points that are connected by triangular elements to form a front that is used to keep the stratification of material properties sharp and to calculate the interfacial source terms. Two simulations are presented to show robustness of the method in handling complex phase boundaries. In the first case, growth of a vapor bubble in zero gravity is studied where large volume increase of the bubble is managed by adaptively increasing the front resolution. In the second case, growth of a bubble under high gravity is studied where indentation at the rear of the bubble results in a region of large curvature which challenges the front tracking in three dimensions.
Connecting Pore Scale Dynamics to Macroscopic Models for Two-Fluid Phase Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClure, J. E.; Dye, A. L.; Miller, C. T.; Gray, W. G.
2015-12-01
Imaging technologies such as computed micro-tomography (CMT) provide high resolution three-dimensional images of real porous medium systems that reveal the true geometric structure of fluid and solid phases. Simulation and analysis tools are essential to extract knowledge from this raw data, and can be applied in tandem to provide information that is otherwise inaccessible. Guidance from multi-scale averaging theory is used to develop a multi-scale analysis framework to determine phase connectivity and extract interfacial areas, curvatures, common line length, contact angle and the velocities of the interface and common curve. The approach is applied to analyze pore-scale dynamics based on a multiphase lattice Boltzmann method. Dense sets of simulations are performed to evaluate the equilibrium relationship between capillary pressure, saturation and interfacial area for several experimentally imaged porous media. The approach is also used study the evolution of macroscopic quantities under dynamic conditions, which is compared to the equilibrium data.
George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.
2011-01-01
Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-10-14
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, Dag
1999-02-01
A finite-element method model for the time-dependent heat and fluid flows that develop during direct-chill (DC) semicontinuous casting of aluminium ingots is presented. Thermal convection and turbulence are included in the model formulation and, in the mushy zone, the momentum equations are modified with a Darcy-type source term dependent on the liquid fraction. The boundary conditions involve calculations of the air gap along the mold wall as well as the heat transfer to the falling water film with forced convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. The mold wall and the starting block are included in the computational domain. In the start-up period of the casting, the ingot domain expands over the starting-block level. The numerical method applies a fractional-step method for the dynamic Navier-Stokes equations and the “streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin” (SUPG) method for mixed diffusion and convection in the momentum and energy equations. The modeling of the start-up period of the casting is demonstrated and compared to temperature measurements in an AA1050 200×600 mm sheet ingot.
Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid
Knapp, Philip A.
1996-01-01
A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.
Thermoelectric Generation Using Counter-Flows of Ideal Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Xiangning; Lu, Baiyi; Zhu, Miaoyong; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.
2017-08-01
Thermoelectric (TE) performance of a three-dimensional (3-D) TE module is examined by exposing it between a pair of counter-flows of ideal fluids. The ideal fluids are thermal sources of TE module flow in the opposite direction at the same flow rate and generate temperature differences on the hot and cold surfaces due to their different temperatures at the channel inlet. TE performance caused by different inlet temperatures of thermal fluids are numerically analyzed by using the finite-volume method on 3-D meshed physical models and then compared with those using a constant boundary temperature. The results show that voltage and current of the TE module increase gradually from a beginning moment to a steady flow and reach a stable value. The stable values increase with inlet temperature of the hot fluid when the inlet temperature of cold fluid is fixed. However, the time to get to the stable values is almost consistent for all the temperature differences. Moreover, the trend of TE performance using a fluid flow boundary is similar to that of using a constant boundary temperature. Furthermore, 3-D contours of fluid pressure, temperature, enthalpy, electromotive force, current density and heat flux are exhibited in order to clarify the influence of counter-flows of ideal fluids on TE generation. The current density and heat flux homogeneously distribute on an entire TE module, thus indicating that the counter-flows of thermal fluids have high potential to bring about fine performance for TE modules.
Kamioka, Hiroshi; Kameo, Yoshitaka; Imai, Yuichi; Bakker, Astrid D; Bacabac, Rommel G; Yamada, Naoko; Takaoka, Akio; Yamashiro, Takashi; Adachi, Taiji; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke
2012-10-01
Osteocytes play a pivotal role in the regulation of skeletal mass. Osteocyte processes are thought to sense the flow of interstitial fluid that is driven through the osteocyte canaliculi by mechanical stimuli placed upon bone, but how this flow elicits a cellular response is virtually unknown. Modern theoretical models assume that osteocyte canaliculi contain ultrastructural features that amplify the fluid flow-derived mechanical signal. Unfortunately the calcified bone matrix has considerably hampered studies on the osteocyte process within its canaliculus. Using one of the few ultra high voltage electron microscopes (UHVEM) available worldwide, we applied UHVEM tomography at 2 MeV to reconstruct unique three-dimensional images of osteocyte canaliculi in 1 μm sections of human bone. A realistic three-dimensional image-based model of a single canaliculus was constructed, and the fluid dynamics of a Newtonian fluid flow within the canaliculus was analyzed. We created virtual 2.2 nm thick sections through a canaliculus and found that traditional TEM techniques create a false impression that osteocyte processes are directly attached to the canalicular wall. The canalicular wall had a highly irregular surface and contained protruding axisymmetric structures similar in size and shape to collagen fibrils. We also found that the microscopic surface roughness of the canalicular wall strongly influenced the fluid flow profiles, whereby highly inhomogeneous flow patterns emerged. These inhomogeneous flow patterns may induce deformation of cytoskeletal elements in the osteocyte process, thereby amplifying mechanical signals. Based on these observations, new and realistic models can be developed that will significantly enhance our understanding of the process of mechanotransduction in bone.
Stovall, T.K.; Crabtree, A.; Felde, D.
1995-04-01
The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor is being designed to provide a research tool with capabilities beyond those of any existing reactors. One portion of its state-of-the-art design requires high speed fluid flow through narrow channels between the fuel plates in the core. Experience with previous reactors has shown that fuel plate damage can occur when debris becomes lodged at the entrance to these channels. Such debris can disrupt the fluid flow to the plate surfaces and prevent adequate cooling of the fuel. Preliminary ANS designs addressed this issue by providing an unheated entrance length for each fuel plate. In theory, any flow disruption would recover within this unheated length, thus providing adequate heat removal from the downstream heated portions of the fuel plates.
Secondary flow in a curved artery model with Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-11-01
Steady and pulsatile flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids through a 180°-curved pipe were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiment was inspired by physiological pulsatile flow through large curved arteries, with a carotid artery flow rate imposed. Sodium iodide (NaI) and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) were added to the working fluids to match the refractive index (RI) of the test section to eliminate optical distortion. Rheological measurements revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN changes the viscoelastic properties of non-Newtonian solutions and reduces their shear-thinning property. Measured centerline velocity profiles in the upstream straight pipe agreed well with an analytical solution. In the pulsatile case, secondary flow structures, i.e. deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices, were observed in various cross sections along the curved pipe. Vortical structures at each cross section were detected using the d2 vortex identification method. Circulation analysis was performed on each vortex separately during the systolic deceleration phase, and showed that vortices split and rejoin. Secondary flow structures in steady flows were found to be morphologically similar to those in pulsatile flows for sufficiently high Dean number. supported by the George Washington University Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
Scott, D.J.
1993-09-01
This research examined a two-dimensional numerical model, VALOR, which can simulate multiphase fluid flow in soils and groundwater, and evaluated the applicability of the model as a decision-making tool for assessing and remediating IRP sites. Model sensitivity analyses were conducted to study the influence of grid sizes, soil types, and organic release rates on the simulated migration of both light and dense non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The VALOR model was applied to a case study of a JP-4 release at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The finer grid sizes provide the most accurate definition of NAPL distribution. The soil type and release rate sensitivity analyses demonstrate that NAPL migrates quicker through coarse sands than fine sand and clay. The light NAPL ponds at the water table and spreads laterally. The dense NAPL migrates through the subsurface and ponds at the aquifer bottom. The fast organic release simulations predict wider vertical pathways of migration. The slow organic release simulations predict higher light NAPL saturation at the water table. The case study indicates that within limits, VALOR may be useful for assessing NAPL distribution, estimating contaminated soil volumes, and evaluating remediation alternatives.... Groundwater modeling, Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: NAPL, Multiphase fluid flow model, Installation Restoration Program, IRP.
Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data and a two-fluid model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1994-01-01
The flow properties of the solar wind from 1 R(sub s) to 1 AU were obtained using a two fluid model constrained by density and scale height temperatures derived from white light observations, as well as knowledge of the electron temperature in coronal holes. The observations were obtained with the white light coronographs on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), in a north polar coronal hole from 1.16 to 5.5 R(sub s) on 11 Apr. 1993. By specifying the density, temperature, Alfven wave velocity amplitude and heating function at the coronal base, it was found that the model parameters fit well the constraints of the empirical density profiles and temperatures. The optimal range of the input parameters was found to yield a higher proton temperature than electron temperature in the inner corona. The results indicate that no preferential heating of the protons at larger distances is needed to produce higher proton than electron temperatures at 1 AU, as observed in the high speed solar wind.
Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data and a two-fluid model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1994-01-01
The flow properties of the solar wind from 1 R(sub s) to 1 AU were obtained using a two fluid model constrained by density and scale height temperatures derived from white light observations, as well as knowledge of the electron temperature in coronal holes. The observations were obtained with the white light coronographs on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), in a north polar coronal hole from 1.16 to 5.5 R(sub s) on 11 Apr. 1993. By specifying the density, temperature, Alfven wave velocity amplitude and heating function at the coronal base, it was found that the model parameters fit well the constraints of the empirical density profiles and temperatures. The optimal range of the input parameters was found to yield a higher proton temperature than electron temperature in the inner corona. The results indicate that no preferential heating of the protons at larger distances is needed to produce higher proton than electron temperatures at 1 AU, as observed in the high speed solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Valocchi, A. J.; Kohanpur, A. H.; Freiburg, J. T.
2015-12-01
Direct numerical simulation of multiphase flow in porous media is an important tool for understanding pore-scale processes affecting transport and fate of supercritical CO2 in saline reservoirs. The lattice Boltzmann method, based on microscopic models and mesoscopic kinetic equations, is particularly well suited for fluid flow simulations involving interfacial dynamics and complex boundaries. In this study, we compare the Shan-Chen and color-fluid model in lattice Boltzmann simulation of multiphase flow in porous media. The original models were proposed two decades ago, and suffer from significant spurious currents as well as other numerical limitations. Therefore, the latest developments of the two models are employed, which allows consideration of density and viscosity contrasts relevant to geological sequestration in saline reservoirs. Previous studies of the comparison of the two models were mostly done in simple geometries, and demonstrated that the Shan-Chen model suffered from more serious numerical errors than the color-fluid model, although the latter is more computationally demanding. The real impact on multiphase flow in porous media has not been studied in detail. In this investigation, we employ realistic fluid parameters and perform numerical simulations in geometries based on micro-CT images of rock cores. The fluid displacement patterns and the relative permeability obtained by simulations will be used to evaluate the two models. The computational cost of the two models will also be presented for comparison. This work was supported as part of the Center for Geologic Storage of CO2, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Juan; Qiu, Bing; Tan, Hui-Li
2009-06-01
A lattice Boltzmann model is presented to simulate the deformation and motions of a red blood cell (RBC) in a shear flow. The curvatures of the membrane of a static RBC with different chemical potential drops calculated by our model agree with those computed by a shooting method very well. Our simulation results show that in a shear flow, a biconcave RBC becomes highly flattened and undergoes tank-treading motion. With intrinsically parallel dynamics, this lattice Boltzmann method is expected to find wide applications to both single and multi-vesicles suspension as well as complex open membranes in various fluid flows for a wide range of Reynolds numbers.
Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling
Tew, R.C. Jr.
1988-02-01
NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.
Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C., Jr.
1988-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.
Hibi, Yoshihiko; Tomigashi, Akira
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations that couple flow in a surface fluid with that in a porous medium are useful for examining problems of pollution that involve interactions among atmosphere, water, and groundwater, including saltwater intrusion along coasts. Coupled numerical simulations of such problems must consider both vertical flow between the surface fluid and the porous medium and complicated boundary conditions at their interface. In this study, a numerical simulation method coupling Navier-Stokes equations for surface fluid flow and Darcy equations for flow in a porous medium was developed. Then, the basic ability of the coupled model to reproduce (1) the drawdown of a surface fluid observed in square-pillar experiments, using pillars filled with only fluid or with fluid and a porous medium and (2) the migration of saltwater (salt concentration 0.5%) in the porous medium using the pillar filled with fluid and a porous medium was evaluated. Simulations that assumed slippery walls reproduced well the results with drawdowns of 10-30 cm when the pillars were filled with packed sand, gas, and water. Moreover, in the simulation of saltwater infiltration by the method developed in this study, velocity was precisely reproduced because the experimental salt concentration in the porous medium after saltwater infiltration was similar to that obtained in the simulation. Furthermore, conditions across the boundary between the porous medium and the surface fluid were satisfied in these numerical simulations of square-pillar experiments in which vertical flow predominated. Similarly, the velocity obtained by the simulation for a system coupling flow in surface fluid with that in a porous medium when horizontal flow predominated satisfied the conditions across the boundary. Finally, it was confirmed that the present simulation method was able to simulate a practical-scale surface fluid and porous medium system. All of these numerical simulations, however, required a great deal of
Flow and structure of fluids in functionalized nanopores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.
2017-02-01
We investigate through non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations the structure and flow of fluids in functionalized nanopores. The nanopores are modeled as cylindrical structures with solvophilic and solvophobic sites. Two fluids are modeled. The first is a standard Lennard Jones fluid. The second one is modeled with an isotropic two-length scale potential, which exhibits in bulk water-like anomalies. Our results indicate distinct dependence of the overall mass flux for each species of fluid with the number of solvophilic sites for different nanotubes' radii. Also, the density and fluid structure are dependent on the nanotube radius and the solvophilic properties of the nanotube. This indicates that the presence of a second length scale in the fluid-fluid interaction will lead to distinct behavior. Also, our results show that chemically functionalized nanotubes with different radii will have distinct nanofluidic features. Our results are explained on the basis of the characteristic scale fluid properties and the effects of nanoconfinement.
Fluid flow through the larynx channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, J. A.; Pereira, J. C.; Thomas, D. W.
1988-03-01
The classic two-mass model of the larynx channel is extended by including the false vocal folds and the laryngeal ventricle. Several glottis profiles are postulated to exist which are the result of the forces applied to the mucus membrane due to intraglottal pressure variation. These profiles constrain the air flow which allows the formation of one or two "venae contractae". The location of these influences the pressure in the glottis and layrngeal ventricle and also gives rise to additional viscous losses as well as losses due to flow enlargement. Sampled waveforms are calculated from the model for volume velocity, glottal area, Reynolds number and fluid forces over the vocal folds for various profiles. Results show that the computed waveforms agree with physiological data [1,2] and that it is not necessary to use any empirical constants to match the simulation results. Also, the onset of phonation is shown to be possible either with abduction or adduction of the vocal folds.
Nonlinear gel electrophoresis: an analogy with ideal fluid flow.
Dennison, C; Phillips, A M; Nevin, J M
1983-12-01
The behavior of electrolytes undergoing electrophoresis in various shaped gels was investigated using bromphenol blue as a model electrolyte. The results suggest that during gel electrophoresis, small electrolytes behave in a manner analogous to the flow of ideal, irrotational fluids.
1999-01-03
cooling phenomenon in pressure driven polymer flows , Cao et al. developed a thermal-mechanically consistent theory by postulating density a function...1, iqqfr-T>r. TT. 1998. Fluid mschanics and zfreolcgy of fluid fiH*r flows : fundaTmtal sciaxe and tedrological applications 6. AUTHOR(S) QLtfeqg...research activities are focused on modeling of polymeric liquid crystal (LCP) flows . We first summarizes our comprehensive studies on the shear and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abels, Helmut; Röger, Matthias
2009-11-01
We introduce a new sharp interface model for the flow of two immiscible, viscous, incompressible fluids. In contrast to classical models for two-phase flows we prescribe an evolution law for the interfaces that takes diffusional effects into account. This leads to a coupled system of Navier-Stokes and Mullins-Sekerka type parts that coincides with the asymptotic limit of a diffuse interface model. We prove the long-time existence of weak solutions, which is an open problem for the classical two-phase model. We show that the phase interfaces have in almost all points a generalized mean curvature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hisamatu, Hiroyuki; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Murata, Masayuki
2003-08-01
In the current Internet, most of the traffic is transmitted by TCP (Transmission Control Protocol). In our previous work, we have proposed a modeling approach for the entire network, including TCP congestion control mechanisms operating at source hosts and the network seen by TCP connections, as a single feedback system. However, our analytic model is limited to a simple network, where TCP connections have the identical propagation delay. In this paper, we therefore extend our analytic approach to a more generic network, where multiple TCP connections are allowed to have different propagation delays. We derive the packet loss probability in the network, the throughput and the average round-trip time of each TCP connection in steady state. By presenting several numerical examples, we quantitatively investigate how the fairness among TCP connections is degraded when multiple TCP connections with different propagation delays share the single bottleneck link.
Flow visualization in fluid mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freymuth, Peter
1993-01-01
The history of flow visualization is reviewed and basic methods are examined. A classification of the field of physical flow visualization is presented. The introduction of major methods is discussed and discoveries made using flow visualization are reviewed. Attention is given to limitations and problem areas in the visual evaluation of velocity and vorticity fields and future applications for flow visualization are suggested.
Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.
Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.
1998-01-01
Down-hole geochemical anomalies encountered in active accretionary systems can be used to constrain the timing, rates, and localization of fluid flow. Here we combine a coupled flow and solute transport model with a kinetic model for smectite dehydration to better understand and quantify fluid flow in the Nankai accretionary complex offshore of Japan. Compaction of sediments and clay dehydration provide fluid sources which drive the model flow system. We explicitly include the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments in our calculations to evaluate the impact that variations in this unknown quantity have on pressure and chloride distribution. Sensitivity analysis of steady state pressure solutions constrains bulk and flow conduit permeabilities. Steady state simulations with 30% smectite in the incoming sedimentary sequence result in minimum chloride concentrations at site 808 of 550 mM, but measured chlorinity is as low as 447 mM. We simulate the transient effects of hydrofracture or a strain event by assuming an instantaneous permeability increase of 3-4 orders of magnitude along a flow conduit (in this case the de??collement), using steady state results as initial conditions. Transient results with an increase in de??collement permeability from 10-16 m2 to 10-13 m2 and 20% smectite reproduce the observed chloride profile at site 808 after 80-160 kyr. Modeled chloride concentrations are highly sensitive to the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments, such that rapid compaction of underthrust material leads to increased freshening. Pressures within the de??collement during transient simulations rise rapidly to a significant fraction of lithostatic and remain high for at least 160 kyr, providing a mechanism for maintaining high permeability. Flow rates at the deformation front for transient simulations are in good agreement with direct measurements, but steady state flow rates are 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than observed. Fluid budget calculations
Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue
2017-06-08
Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min ≤ Q r ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min < Q max < Q r (Case II), L h is exclusively controlled by L h1 ; while L h is only determined by L h2 when Q r < Q min < Q max (Case III). Furthermore, L h1 first increases and then decreases with the increase in drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.
Fluid flow through packings of rotating obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Rafael S.; Andrade, José S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.
2015-03-01
We investigate through numerical simulation the nonstationary flow of a Newtonian fluid through a two-dimensional channel filled with an array of circular obstacles of distinct sizes. The disks may rotate around their respective centers, modeling a nonstationary, inhomogeneous porous medium. Obstacle sizes and positions are defined by the geometry of an Apollonian packing (AP). To allow for fluid flow, the radii of the disks are uniformly reduced by a factor 0.6 ≤s ≤0.8 for assemblies corresponding to the four first AP generations. The investigation is targeted to elucidate the main features of the rotating regime as compared to the fixed disk condition. It comprises the evaluation of the region of validity of Darcy's law as well as the study of the nonlinear hydraulic resistance as a function of the channel Reynolds number, the reduction factor s , and the AP generation. Depending on a combination of these factors, the resistance of rotating disks may be larger or smaller than that of the corresponding static case. We also analyze the flow redistribution in the interdisk channels as a result of the rotation pattern and characterize the angular velocity of the disks. Here, the striking feature is the emergence of a stable oscillatory behavior of the angular velocity for almost all disks that are inserted into the assemblies after the second generation.
Tröbs, Monique; Achenbach, Stephan; Röther, Jens; Redel, Thomas; Scheuering, Michael; Winneberger, David; Klingenbeck, Klaus; Itu, Lucian; Passerini, Tiziano; Kamen, Ali; Sharma, Puneet; Comaniciu, Dorin; Schlundt, Christian
2016-01-01
Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFRinvasive), although gold standard to identify hemodynamically relevant coronary stenoses, is time consuming and potentially associated with complications. We developed and evaluated a new approach to determine lesion-specific FFR on the basis of coronary anatomy as visualized by invasive coronary angiography (FFRangio): 100 coronary lesions (50% to 90% diameter stenosis) in 73 patients (48 men, 25 women; mean age 67 ± 9 years) were studied. On the basis of coronary angiograms acquired at rest from 2 views at angulations at least 30° apart, a PC-based computational fluid dynamics modeling software used personalized boundary conditions determined from 3-dimensional reconstructed angiography, heart rate, and blood pressure to derive FFRangio. The results were compared with FFRinvasive. Interobserver variability was determined in a subset of 25 narrowings. Twenty-nine of 100 coronary lesions were hemodynamically significant (FFRinvasive ≤ 0.80). FFRangio identified these with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 85%, and negative predictive value of 92%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93. Correlation between FFRinvasive (mean: 0.84 ± 0.11) and FFRangio (mean: 0.85 ± 0.12) was r = 0.85. Interobserver variability of FFRangio was low, with a correlation of r = 0.88. In conclusion, estimation of coronary FFR with PC-based computational fluid dynamics modeling on the basis of lesion morphology as determined by invasive angiography is possible with high diagnostic accuracy compared to invasive measurements.
Debris-flow deposition: Effects of pore-fluid pressure and friction concentrated at flow margins
Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.
1999-01-01
Measurements of pore-fluid pressure and total bed-normal stress at the base of several ???10 m3 experimental debris flows provide new insight into the process of debris-flow deposition. Pore-fluid pressures nearly sufficient to cause liquefaction were developed and maintained during flow mobilization and acceleration, persisted in debris-flow interiors during flow deceleration and deposition, and dissipated significantly only during postdepositional sediment consolidation. In contrast, leading edges of debris flows exhibited little or no positive pore-fluid pressure. Deposition therefore resulted from grain-contact friction and bed friction concentrated at flow margins. This finding contradicts models that invoke widespread decay of excess pore-fluid pressure, uniform viscoplastic yield strength, or pervasive grain-collision stresses to explain debris-flow deposition. Furthermore, the finding demonstrates that deposit thickness cannot be used to infer the strength of flowing debris.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huber, F. M.; Enzmann, F.; Wenka, A.; Dentz, M.; Schaefer, T.
2010-12-01
Fluid flow and solute transport through fractures are a key process in both industrial and scientific issues ranging from e.g. geothermal energy production to the disposal of nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the various interdependent processes governing fluid flow and solute transport in fractures over a broad range of length and time scales is of utmost importance. Numerous studies have shown the importance of fracture geometry on flow and solute transport. More recently, significance of so called recirculation zones which are accessible for solutes and colloids through hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular diffusion have been identified [1,2] which can be responsible for pronounced late time solute breakthrough (tailing). Unfortunately, these studies are mostly focused on 2D. Thus, the intention of the prevailing study is to investigate the influence of fracture geometry on solute transport under a broad range of flow conditions (Pe number from 0.1 up to 1000) and as a function of flow direction (that is, reversed flow direction) both in 2D and 3D. We present µXCT measurements with a spatial resolution of 80 µm of a natural single fracture in a diorite drill core from Äspö, Sweden, which serves as direct input for computational mesh generation in order to obtain a realistic 3D model. Besides, a 2D model was produced by projecting the 3D mesh into the x-y-plane to completely exclude the fracture aperture information. Computational fluid dynamic simulations in 2D and 3D have been conducted to study fluid flow and conservative tracer (HTO) transport by means of the finite volume code FLUENT. The natural fracture exhibits a very complex geometry with asperities, rough side walls and a heterogenous aperture distribution. Furthermore, the µXCT data clearly shows that the fracture is not filled with fault gauge material. Simulation results confirm the impact of fracture geometry/roughness on fluid flow causing
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Focused fluid flow in passive continental margins.
Berndt, Christian
2005-12-15
Passive continental margins such as the Atlantic seaboard of Europe are important for society as they contain large energy resources, and they sustain ecosystems that are the basis for the commercial fish stock. The margin sediments are very dynamic environments. Fluids are expelled from compacting sediments, bottom water temperature changes cause gas hydrate systems to change their locations and occasionally large magmatic intrusions boil the pore water within the sedimentary basins, which is then expelled to the surface. The fluids that seep through the seabed at the tops of focused fluid flow systems have a crucial role for seabed ecology, and study of such fluid flow systems can also help in predicting the distribution of hydrocarbons in the subsurface and deciphering the climate record. Therefore, the study of focused fluid flow will become one of the most important fields in marine geology in the future.
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Method and device for measuring fluid flow
Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson
1976-11-23
This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.
Faybishenko, B.
1997-10-01
'Understanding subsurface flow and transport processes is critical for effective assessment, decision-making, and remediation activities for contaminated sites. However, for fluid flow and contaminant transport through fractured vadose zones, traditional hydrogeological approaches are often found to be inadequate. In this project, the authors examine flow and transport through a fractured vadose zone as a deterministic chaotic dynamical process, and develop a model of it in these terms. Initially, they examine separately the geometric model of fractured rock and the flow dynamics model needed to describe chaotic behavior. Ultimately they will put the geometry and flow dynamics together to develop a chaotic-dynamical model of flow and transport in a fractured vadose zone. They investigate water flow and contaminant transport on several scales, ranging from small-scale laboratory experiments in fracture replicas and fractured cores, to field experiments conducted in a single exposed fracture at a basalt outcrop, and finally to a ponded infiltration test using a pond of 7 by 8 m. In the field experiments, the authors measure the time-variation of water flux, moisture content, and hydraulic head at various locations, as well as the total inflow rate to the subsurface. Such variations reflect the changes in the geometry and physics of water flow that display chaotic behavior, which the authors try to reconstruct using the data obtained. In the analysis of experimental data, a chaotic model can be used to predict the long-term bounds on fluid flow and transport behavior, known as the attractor of the system, and to examine the limits of short-term predictability within these bounds. This approach is especially well suited to the need for short-term predictions to support remediation decisions and long-term bounding studies.'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan
2015-04-01
Debris flows are globally abundant threats for settlements and infrastructure in mountainous regions. Crucial influencing factors for hazard zone planning and mitigation strategies are based on numerical models that describe granular flow on general topography by solving a depth-averaged form of the Navier Stokes equations in combination with an appropriate flow resistance law. In case of debris flows, the Voellmy rheology is a widely used constitutive law describing the flow resistance. It combines a velocity independent Coulomb friction term with a term proportional to the square of the velocity as it is commonly used for turbulent flow. Parameters of the Vollemy fluid are determined by back analysis from observed events so that modelled events mimic their historical counterparts. Determined parameters characterizing individual debris flows show a large variability (related to fluid composition and surface roughness). However, there may be several sets of parameters that lead to a similar depositional pattern but cause large differences in flow velocity and momentum along the flow path. Fluid volumes of hazardous debris flows are estimated by analyzing historic events, precipitation time series, hydrographs or empirical relationships that correlate fluid volumes and drainage areas of torrential catchments. Beside uncertainties in the determination of the fluid volume the position and geometry of the initial masses of forthcoming debris flows are in general not well constrained but heavily influence the flow dynamics and the depositional pattern even in the run-out zones. In this study we present a new, freely available numerical description of rapid mass movements based on the GERRIS framework and early results of a Monte Carlo simulation exploring effects of the aforementioned parameters on run-out distance, inundated area and momentum. The novel numerical model describes rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian
Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino
2013-05-01
Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.
Effect of dynamic contact angle in a volume of fluid (VOF) model for a microfluidic capillary flow.
Ashish Saha, Auro; Mitra, Sushanta K
2009-11-15
We perform three-dimensional numerical and experimental study of the dynamic contact angle using volume of fluid (VOF) method applied to microfluidic channels with integrated pillars. Initially, we evaluated different dynamic contact angle models (hydrodynamic, molecular kinetic and empirical) for capillary filling of a two-dimensional microchannel using analytical formulation. Further, the models which require a minimum prescription of adjustable parameters are only used for the study of capillary filling of microchannels with integrated pillars using different working fluids such as DI water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Different microchannel geometry with varying diameter/height/spacing were studied for circular pillars. Effect of square pillars and changing the overall number of pillars on the capillary phenomena were also simulated. Our study demonstrated that the dynamic contact angle models modifies the transient response of the meniscus displacement and also the observed trends are model specific for the various microchannel geometries and working fluids. However, the different models have minimal effect on the meniscus profile. Different inlet boundary conditions were applied to observe the effect of grid resolution selected for numerical study on the capillary filling time. A grid dependent dynamic contact angle model which incorporates effective slip in the model was also used to observe the grid convergence of the numerical results. The grid independence was shown to improve marginally by applying the grid dependent dynamic contact angle model. Further we did numerical experiments of capillary filling considering variable surface wettability on the top and bottom walls of the microchannel with alternate hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns. The meniscus front pinning was noticed for a high wetting contrast between the patterns. Non uniform streamline patterns indicated mixing of the fluid when using patterned walls. Such a microfluidic device with
Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, A.
1983-01-01
Numerical simulation of turbulent flows is discussed. Computational requirements for the direct simulaton of turbulence, simulation of arbitrary homogeneous flows, an expansion technique for wall bounded flows with application to pipe flow, and possibilities of flow representations or modeling techniques that allow the simulation of high Reynolds number flows with a relatively small number of dependent variables are included.
Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.
2013-03-01
When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.
1984-01-01
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
The effect of fluid flow on coiled tubing reach
Bhalla, K.; Walton, I.C.
1996-12-31
A critical parameter to the success of many coiled tubing (CT) operations in highly deviated or horizontal wells is the depth penetration that can be attained before the CT buckles and locks up. Achieving a desired depth is always critical in CT operations and attaining an additional reach of a few hundred feet can be crucial. This paper addresses the effect of fluid flow in the CT and in the CT/wellbore annulus on the state of force and stress in the CT, and thereby predicts its effect on the reach attainable by the CT. The flow of fluid through the CT and annulus between the CT and borehole modifies the pressures and the effective force which governs the mechanical stability of the CT. The net force per unit length due to fluid flow in the coiled tubing and annulus between the coiled tubing casing/well is calculated in terms of the shear stress and its effect on the onset of buckling and lockup is determined. The model is then implemented in a full tubing forces calculation and the effect of flowing fluids and producing fluids on reach is analyzed. The new model is utilized in the design of commercial jobs. The exact analytic model shows that fluid flow inside the CT has zero impact on reach, that downward flow in the annulus has a favourable impact, and upward flow in the annulus reduces the maximum attainable reach. Using the full tubing forces model, a coiled tubing job can be designed taking into account the flow of a fluid with a specified rheology, density and flow rate. Thus the feasibility of attaining a given reach can be more accurately determined. Results are presented in the form of the surface weight for commercial wells and compared to field jobs.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.
1996-01-01
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.
1996-07-02
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.
Physical ecology of fluid flow sensing in arthropods.
Casas, Jérôme; Dangles, Olivier
2010-01-01
Terrestrial and aquatic arthropods sense fluid flow in many behavioral and ecological contexts, using dedicated, highly sensitive mechanosensory hairs, which are often abundant. Strong similarities exist in the biomechanics of flow sensors and in the sensory ecology of insects, arachnids, and crustaceans in their respective fluid environments. We extend these considerations to flow in sand and its implications for flow sensing by arthropods inhabiting this granular medium. Finally, we highlight the need to merge the various findings of studies that have focused on different arthropods in different fluids. This could be achieved using the unique combination, for sensory ecology, of both a workable and well-accepted mathematical model for hair-based flow sensing, both in air and water, and microelectronic mechanical systems microtechnology to tinker with physical models.
Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.
1967-01-01
Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.
Fluid flow dynamics under location uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mémin, Etienne
2014-03-01
We present a derivation of a stochastic model of Navier Stokes equations that relies on a decomposition of the velocity fields into a differentiable drift component and a time uncorrelated uncertainty random term. This type of decomposition is reminiscent in spirit to the classical Reynolds decomposition. However, the random velocity fluctuations considered here are not differentiable with respect to time, and they must be handled through stochastic calculus. The dynamics associated with the differentiable drift component is derived from a stochastic version of the Reynolds transport theorem. It includes in its general form an uncertainty dependent "subgrid" bulk formula that cannot be immediately related to the usual Boussinesq eddy viscosity assumption constructed from thermal molecular agitation analogy. This formulation, emerging from uncertainties on the fluid parcels location, explains with another viewpoint some subgrid eddy diffusion models currently used in computational fluid dynamics or in geophysical sciences and paves the way for new large-scales flow modelling. We finally describe an applications of our formalism to the derivation of stochastic versions of the Shallow water equations or to the definition of reduced order dynamical systems.
Prodanov, L; Semeins, C M; van Loon, J J W A; te Riet, J; Jansen, J A; Klein-Nulend, J; Walboomers, X F
2013-05-01
Introducing nanoroughness on various biomaterials has been shown to profoundly effect cell-material interactions. Similarly, physical forces act on a diverse array of cells and tissues. Particularly in bone, the tissue experiences compressive or tensile forces resulting in fluid shear stress. The current study aimed to develop an experimental setup for bone cell behavior, combining a nanometrically grooved substrate (200 nm wide, 50 nm deep) mimicking the collagen fibrils of the extracellular matrix, with mechanical stimulation by pulsatile fluid flow (PFF). MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were assessed for morphology, expression of genes involved in cell attachment and osteoblastogenesis and nitric oxide (NO) release. The results showed that both nanotexture and PFF did affect cellular morphology. Cells aligned on nanotexture substrate in a direction parallel to the groove orientation. PFF at a magnitude of 0.7 Pa was sufficient to induce alignment of cells on a smooth surface in a direction perpendicular to the applied flow. When environmental cues texture and flow were interacting, PFF of 1.4 Pa applied parallel to the nanogrooves initiated significant cellular realignment. PFF increased NO synthesis 15-fold in cells attached to both smooth and nanotextured substrates. Increased collagen and alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression was observed on the nanotextured substrate, but not on the smooth substrate. Furthermore, vinculin and bone sialoprotein were up-regulated after 1 h of PFF stimulation. In conclusion, the data show that interstitial fluid forces and structural cues mimicking extracellular matrix contribute to the final bone cell morphology and behavior, which might have potential application in tissue engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.
2007-11-01
This paper presents an approach to quantify the unsteady fluid forces, moments and mass transport generated by swimming animals, based on measurements of the surrounding flow field. These goals are accomplished within a framework that is independent of the vorticity field, making it unnecessary to directly resolve boundary layers on the animal, body vortex interactions, or interactions among vortex lines in the wake. Instead, the method identifies Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, whose dynamics in flows with compact vorticity are shown to be well approximated by potential flow concepts, especially the Kirchhoff and deformation potentials from deformable body theory. Examples of the application of these methods are given for pectoral fin locomotion of the bluegill sunfish and undulatory swimming of jellyfish, and the methods are validated by analysis of a canonical starting vortex ring flow. The transition to a Lagrangian approach toward animal swimming measurements suggests the possibility of implementing recently developed particle tracking (vis-à-vis DPIV) techniques for fully three-dimensional measurements of animal swimming.
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2016-04-01
In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanna, S R; Brown, M J; Camelli, F E; Chan, S T; Coirier, W J; Hansen, O R; Huber, A H; Kim, S; Reynolds, R M
2006-03-06
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model simulations of urban boundary layers have improved so that they are useful in many types of flow and dispersion analyses. The study described here is intended to assist in planning emergency response activities related to releases of chemical or biological agents into the atmosphere in large cities such as New York City. Five CFD models (CFD-Urban, FLACS, FEM3MP, FEFLO-Urban, and Fluent-Urban) have been applied by five independent groups to the same 3-D building data and geographic domain in Manhattan, using approximately the same wind input conditions. Wind flow observations are available from the Madison Square Garden March 2005 (MSG05) field experiment. It is seen from the many side-by-side comparison plots that the CFD models simulations of near-surface wind fields generally agree with each other and with field observations, within typical atmospheric uncertainties of a factor of two. The qualitative results shown here suggest, for example, that transport of a release at street level in a large city could reach a few blocks in the upwind and crosswind directions. There are still key differences seen among the models for certain parts of the domain. Further quantitative examinations of differences among the models and the observations are necessary to understand causal relationships.
Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.
1994-01-01
The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.
Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.
1994-02-01
The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.
Near critical swirling flow of a viscoelastic fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ly, Nguyen; Rusak, Zvi; Tichy, John; Wang, Shixiao
2016-11-01
The interaction between flow inertia and elasticity in high Re, axisymmetric, and near-critical swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid in a finite-length straight circular pipe is studied. The viscous stresses are described by the Giesekus constitutive model. The application of this model to columnar streamwise vortices is first investigated. Then, a nonlinear small-disturbance analysis is developed from the governing equations of motion. It explores the complicated interactions between flow inertia, swirl, and fluid viscosity and elasticity. An effective Re that links between steady states of swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid and those of a Newtonian fluid is revealed. The effects of the fluid viscosity, relaxation time, retardation time and mobility parameter on the flow development and on the critical swirl for the appearance of vortex breakdown are explored. Decreasing the ratio of the viscoelastic characteristic times from one increases the critical swirl for breakdown. Increasing the Weissenberg number from zero or increasing the fluid mobility parameter from zero cause a similar effect. Results may explain changes in the appearance of breakdown zones as a function of swirl level that were observed in Stokes et al. (2001) experiments, where Boger fluids were used.
Fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and nanopipes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Whitby, M.; Quirke, N.
2007-02-01
Nanoscale carbon tubes and pipes can be readily fabricated using self-assembly techniques and they have useful electrical, optical and mechanical properties. The transport of liquids along their central pores is now of considerable interest both for testing classical theories of fluid flow at the nanoscale and for potential nanofluidic device applications. In this review we consider evidence for novel fluid flow in carbon nanotubes and pipes that approaches frictionless transport. Methods for controlling such flow and for creating functional device architectures are described and possible applications are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John
2011-01-01
A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.
A framework for estimating potential fluid flow from digital imagery.
Luttman, Aaron; Bollt, Erik M; Basnayake, Ranil; Kramer, Sean; Tufillaro, Nicholas B
2013-09-01
Given image data of a fluid flow, the flow field, , governing the evolution of the system can be estimated using a variational approach to optical flow. Assuming that the flow field governing the advection is the symplectic gradient of a stream function or the gradient of a potential function-both falling under the category of a potential flow-it is natural to re-frame the optical flow problem to reconstruct the stream or potential function directly rather than the components of the flow individually. There are several advantages to this framework. Minimizing a functional based on the stream or potential function rather than based on the components of the flow will ensure that the computed flow is a potential flow. Next, this approach allows a more natural method for imposing scientific priors on the computed flow, via regularization of the optical flow functional. Also, this paradigm shift gives a framework--rather than an algorithm--and can be applied to nearly any existing variational optical flow technique. In this work, we develop the mathematical formulation of the potential optical flow framework and demonstrate the technique on synthetic flows that represent important dynamics for mass transport in fluid flows, as well as a flow generated by a satellite data-verified ocean model of temperature transport.
Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar
2016-04-01
Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Analytical solution of two-fluid electro-osmotic flows of viscoelastic fluids.
Afonso, A M; Alves, M A; Pinho, F T
2013-04-01
This paper presents an analytical model that describes a two-fluid electro-osmotic flow of stratified fluids with Newtonian or viscoelastic rheological behavior. This is the principle of operation of an electro-osmotic two-fluid pump as proposed by Brask et al. [Tech. Proc. Nanotech., 1, 190-193, 2003], in which an electrically non-conducting fluid is transported by the interfacial dragging viscous force of a conducting fluid that is driven by electro-osmosis. The electric potential in the conducting fluid and the analytical steady flow solution of the two-fluid electro-osmotic stratified flow in a planar microchannel are presented by assuming a planar interface between the two immiscible fluids with Newtonian or viscoelastic rheological behavior. The effects of fluid rheology, shear viscosity ratio, holdup and interfacial zeta potential are analyzed to show the viability of this technique, where an enhancement of the flow rate is observed as the shear-thinning effects are increased.
Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.
2001-01-01
This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.
Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube
Nigmatulin, R.I.
1995-09-01
The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stier, Bernd; Falco, R. E.
1994-01-01
Optical measurements on an axisymmetrical quartz component engine research model were made to evaluate the flow field encountered during induction. The measurement technique is LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry), a non-intrusive velocimetry concept that provides an investigator of fluid flow with a tool to attain planar information about three-dimensional velocity and vorticity vectors in a single measurement step. The goal of this investigation is to further develop this measurement technique and apply it to study the induction stroke of a water analog model of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The research conducted in the water analog model is a fundamental scientific inquiry into the flow fields that develop in the induction stroke of an engine at idling engine speeds. As this is the first investigation of its kind using LIPA technique, our goal has been to quantify, in a preliminary manner, the flow field features that develop during the intake stroke. In the process a more comprehensive understanding of the flow field features was developed, and tied to the quantification. The study evaluated the flow field of the intake stroke by estimating fields of velocity and vorticity. On the basis of these data, information about fluid dynamics during induction at engine speeds of 10, 20, and 30 RPM (corresponding to 170, 340, and 510 RPM respectively, when air is the flowing medium) for three different valve lifts was obtained. The overall development of the flow field, its energy content (kinetic, fluctuation) for the different settings of the engine parameters, vorticity information, and cyclic variations have been quantified. These have been discussed in terms of mixing performance.
Qamar, Shamsul Ahmed, Munshoor
2009-12-20
We present a high order kinetic flux-vector splitting (KFVS) scheme for the numerical solution of a conservative interface-capturing five-equation model of compressible two-fluid flows. This model was initially introduced by Wackers and Koren (2004) . The flow equations are the bulk equations, combined with mass and energy equations for one of the two fluids. The latter equation contains a source term in order to account for the energy exchange. We numerically investigate both one- and two-dimensional flow models. The proposed numerical scheme is based on the direct splitting of macroscopic flux functions of the system of equations. In two space dimensions the scheme is derived in a usual dimensionally split manner. The second order accuracy of the scheme is achieved by using MUSCL-type initial reconstruction and Runge-Kutta time stepping method. For validation, the results of our scheme are compared with those from the high resolution central scheme of Nessyahu and Tadmor . The accuracy, efficiency and simplicity of the KFVS scheme demonstrate its potential for modeling two-phase flows.
Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L
2015-06-25
Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity.
Unsteady fluid flow in smart material actuated fluid pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
John, Shaju; Cadou, Christopher
2005-05-01
Smart materials' ability to deliver large block forces in a small package while operating at high frequencies makes them extremely attractive for converting electrical to mechanical power. This has led to the development of hybrid actuators consisting of co-located smart material actuated pumps and hydraulic cylinders that are connected by a set of fast-acting valves. The overall success of the hybrid concept hinges on the effectiveness of the coupling between the smart material and the fluid. This, in turn, is strongly dependent on the resistance to fluid flow in the device. This paper presents results from three-dimensional unsteady simulations of fluid flow in the pumping chamber of a prototype hybrid actuator powered by a piezo-electric stack. The results show that the forces associated with moving the fluid into and out of the pumping chamber already exceed 10% of the piezo stack blocked force at relatively low frequencies ~120 Hz and approach 40% of the blocked force at 800 Hz. This reduces the amplitude of the piston motion in such a way that the volume flow rate remains approximately constant above operating frequencies of 500 Hz while the efficiency of the pump decreases rapidly.
Patterns and flow in frictional fluid dynamics
Sandnes, B.; Flekkøy, E.G.; Knudsen, H.A.; Måløy, K.J.; See, H.
2011-01-01
Pattern-forming processes in simple fluids and suspensions have been studied extensively, and the basic displacement structures, similar to viscous fingers and fractals in capillary dominated flows, have been identified. However, the fundamental displacement morphologies in frictional fluids and granular mixtures have not been mapped out. Here we consider Coulomb friction and compressibility in the fluid dynamics, and discover surprising responses including highly intermittent flow and a transition to quasi-continuodynamics. Moreover, by varying the injection rate over several orders of magnitude, we characterize new dynamic modes ranging from stick-slip bubbles at low rate to destabilized viscous fingers at high rate. We classify the fluid dynamics into frictional and viscous regimes, and present a unified description of emerging morphologies in granular mixtures in the form of extended phase diagrams. PMID:21505444
Sikiö, Päivi; Jalali, Payman
2014-12-01
The hierarchical shell models of turbulence including a spatial dimension, namely, spatiotemporal tree models, reproduce the intermittent behavior of Navier-Stokes equations in both space and time dimensions corresponding to high Reynolds number turbulent flows. This model is used, for the first time in this paper, in a one-dimensional flow zone containing a dispersed-phase particle that can be used in the study of dispersed-phase flows. In this paper, a straightforward method has been used to introduce discrete phase into the spatiotemporal tree model that leads to an increased amount of turbulent energy dissipation rate in the vicinity of the discrete phase. The effects of particle insertion and particle size on the turbulent energy dissipation rate are demonstrated. Moreover, the space-scale behavior of the time-averaged turbulent energy dissipation rate in the presence of dispersed phase is demonstrated by means of continuous wavelet transform.
Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity
Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.
2014-01-01
The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738
Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.; Lewan, M.D.
1999-01-01
Nine basalt dikes, ranging from 6 cm to 40 m thick, intruding the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Strzelecki Group, western onshore Gippsland Basin, were used to study maximum temperatures (Tmax) reached next to dikes. Tmax was estimated from fluid inclusion and vitrinitereflectance geothermometry and compared to temperatures calculated using heat-flow models of contact metamorphism. Thermal history reconstruction suggests that at the time of dike intrusion the host rock was at a temperature of 100-135??C. Fracture-bound fluid inclusions in the host rocks next to thin dikes ( 1.5, using a normalized distance ratio used for comparing measurements between dikes regardless of their thickness. In contrast, the pattern seen next to the thin dikes is a relatively narrow zone of elevated Rv-r. Heat-flow modeling, along with whole rock elemental and isotopic data, suggests that the extended zone of elevated Rv-r is caused by a convection cell with local recharge of the hydrothermal fluids. The narrow zone of elevated Rv-r found next to thin dikes is attributed to the rise of the less dense, heated fluids at the dike contact causing a flow of cooler groundwater towards the dike and thereby limiting its heating effects. The lack of extended heating effects suggests that next to thin dikes an incipient convection system may form in which the heated fluid starts to travel upward along the dike but cooling occurs before a complete convection cell can form. Close to the dike contact at X/D 1.5. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2010-12-01
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District (CENWP) has ongoing work to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids (smolt) migrating past The Dalles Dam. As part of that effort, a spillwall was constructed to improve juvenile egress through the tailrace downstream of the stilling basin. The spillwall was designed to improve smolt survival by decreasing smolt retention time in the spillway tailrace and the exposure to predators on the spillway shelf. The spillwall guides spillway flows, and hence smolt, more quickly into the thalweg. In this study, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified and used to characterize tailrace hydraulics between the new spillwall and the Washington shore for six different total river flows. The effect of spillway flow distribution was simulated for three spill patterns at the lowest total river flow. The commercial CFD solver, STAR-CD version 4.1, was used to solve the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Free surface motion was simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique. The model results were used in two ways. First, results graphics were provided to CENWP and regional fisheries agency representatives for use and comparison to the same flow conditions at a reduced-scale physical model. The CFD results were very similar in flow pattern to that produced by the reduced-scale physical model but these graphics provided a quantitative view of velocity distribution. During the physical model work, an additional spill pattern was tested. Subsequently, that spill pattern was also simulated in the numerical model. The CFD streamlines showed that the hydraulic conditions were likely to be beneficial to fish egress at the higher total river flows (120 kcfs and greater, uniform flow distribution). At the lowest flow case, 90 kcfs, it was necessary to use a non-uniform distribution. Of the three distributions tested, splitting the flow evenly between
MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS
Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.
1961-05-16
An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.
Fluid flow through seamounts and implications for global mass fluxes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harris, Robert N.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Chapman, David S.
2004-08-01
Seamounts contribute to globally significant hydrothermal fluxes, but the dynamics and impacts of fluid flow through these features are poorly understood. Numerical models of coupled heat and fluid flow illustrate how seamounts induce local convection in the oceanic crust. We consider idealized axisymmetric seamounts and calculate mass and heat fluxes by using a coupled heat- and fluid-flow model. By using P. Wessel's global database of ˜15,000 seamounts identified through satellite gravimetry, we estimate that the mass flux associated with seamounts is ˜1014 kg/yr, a number comparable to estimated regional mass fluxes through mid-ocean ridges and flanks. In addition, the seamount-generated advective heat flux may be locally significant well beyond the 65 Ma average age at which advective lithospheric heat loss on ridge flanks ends. These flows may be important for facilitating geochemical exchange between the crust and ocean and may affect subseafloor microbial ecosystems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen
2006-03-01
An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features.
Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B
2015-11-01
The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture process in a perfusion bioreactor provides enhanced nutrient supply as well as the flow-induced shear stress that may have a positive influence on the cell growth. Mathematical and computational modelling of such a culture process, by solving the coupled flow, mass transfer and cell growth equations simultaneously, can provide important insight into the biomechanical environment of a bioreactor and the related cell growth process. To do this, a two-way coupling between the local flow field and cell growth is required. Notably, most of the computational and mathematical models to date have not taken into account the influence of the cell growth on the local flow field and nutrient concentration. The present research aimed at developing a mathematical model and performing a numerical simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method to predict the chondrocyte cell growth without a scaffold on a flat plate placed inside a perfusion bioreactor. The model considers the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field, and the simulation has been performed for 174 culture days. To incorporate the cell growth into the model, a control-volume-based surface growth modelling approach has been adopted. The simulation results show the variation of local fluid velocity, shear stress and concentration distribution during the culture period due to the growth of the cell phase and also illustrate that the shear stress can increase the cell volume fraction to a certain extent.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase a