Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model
1982-04-06
WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less
VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.
Chen, Cheng-lung
1986-01-01
This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.
Template Matching Using a Fluid Flow Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, William Curtis
Template matching is successfully used in machine recognition of isolated spoken words. In these systems a word is broken into frames (20 millisecond time slices) and the spectral characteristics of each frame are found. Thus, each word is represented as a 2-dimensional (2-D) function of spectral characteristic and frame number. An unknown word is recognized by matching its 2-D representation to previously stored example words, or templates, also in this 2-D form. A new model for this matching step will be introduced. The 2-D representations of the template and unknown are used to determine the shape of a volume of viscous fluid. This volume is broken up into many small elements. The unknown is changed into the template by allowing flows between the element boundaries. Finally the match between the template and unknown is determined by calculating a weighted squared sum of the flow values. The model also allows the relative flow resistance between the element boundaries to be changed. This is useful for characterizing the important features of a given template. The flow resistances are changed according to the gradient of a simple performance function. This performance function is evaluated using a set of training samples provided by the user. The model is applied to isolated word and single character recognition tasks. Results indicate the applications where this model works best.
Modeling Tools Predict Flow in Fluid Dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2010-01-01
"Because rocket engines operate under extreme temperature and pressure, they present a unique challenge to designers who must test and simulate the technology. To this end, CRAFT Tech Inc., of Pipersville, Pennsylvania, won Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Marshall Space Flight Center to develop software to simulate cryogenic fluid flows and related phenomena. CRAFT Tech enhanced its CRUNCH CFD (computational fluid dynamics) software to simulate phenomena in various liquid propulsion components and systems. Today, both government and industry clients in the aerospace, utilities, and petrochemical industries use the software for analyzing existing systems as well as designing new ones."
A coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock
Swenson, Daniel; Martineau, Rick; James, Mark; Brown, Don
1991-01-01
We present a fully coupled model of fluid flow in jointed rock, where the fluid flow depends on the joint openings and the joint openings depend on the fluid pressure. The joints and rock blocks are modeled discretely using the finite element method. Solutions for the fluid and rock are obtained and iteration is performed until both solutions converge. Example applications include an examination of the effects of back-pressure on flow in a geothermal reservoir and transient fluid injection into a reservoir.
Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems
1994-06-20
FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less
Microfluidic flow switching design using volume of fluid model.
Chein, Reiyu; Tsai, S H
2004-03-01
In this study, a volume of fluid (VOF) model was employed for microfluidic switch design. The VOF model validity in predicting the interface between fluid streams with different viscosities co-flowing in a microchannel was first verified by experimental observation. It was then extended to microfluidic flow switch design. Two specific flow switches, one with a guided fluid to one of five desired outlet ports, and another with a guided fluid flows into one, two, or three outlet ports equally distributed along the outlet channel of a Y-shaped channel. The flow switching was achieved by controlling the flow rate ratios between tested and buffer fluids. The numerical results showed that the VOF model could successfully predict the flow switching phenomena in these flow switches. The numerical results also showed that the flow rate ratio required for flow switching depends on the viscosity ratio between the tested and buffer fluids. The numerical simulation was verified by experimental study and the agreement was good. PMID:15307449
Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav
2015-05-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.
A two-fluid model for avalanche and debris flows.
Pitman, E Bruce; Le, Long
2005-07-15
Geophysical mass flows--debris flows, avalanches, landslides--can contain O(10(6)-10(10)) m(3) or more of material, often a mixture of soil and rocks with a significant quantity of interstitial fluid. These flows can be tens of meters in depth and hundreds of meters in length. The range of scales and the rheology of this mixture presents significant modelling and computational challenges. This paper describes a depth-averaged 'thin layer' model of geophysical mass flows containing a mixture of solid material and fluid. The model is derived from a 'two-phase' or 'two-fluid' system of equations commonly used in engineering research. Phenomenological modelling and depth averaging combine to yield a tractable set of equations, a hyperbolic system that describes the motion of the two constituent phases. If the fluid inertia is small, a reduced model system that is easier to solve may be derived. PMID:16011934
Surface tension driven flow in glass melts and model fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcneil, T. J.; Cole, R.; Subramanian, R. S.
1982-01-01
Surface tension driven flow has been investigated analytically and experimentally using an apparatus where a free column of molten glass or model fluids was supported at its top and bottom faces by solid surfaces. The glass used in the experiments was sodium diborate, and the model fluids were silicone oils. In both the model fluid and glass melt experiments, conclusive evidence was obtained to prove that the observed flow was driven primarily by surface tension forces. The experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with predictions from the theoretical model.
Pulmonary fluid flow challenges for experimental and mathematical modeling.
Levy, Rachel; Hill, David B; Forest, M Gregory; Grotberg, James B
2014-12-01
Modeling the flow of fluid in the lungs, even under baseline healthy conditions, presents many challenges. The complex rheology of the fluids, interaction between fluids and structures, and complicated multi-scale geometry all add to the complexity of the problem. We provide a brief overview of approaches used to model three aspects of pulmonary fluid and flow: the surfactant layer in the deep branches of the lung, the mucus layer in the upper airway branches, and closure/reopening of the airway. We discuss models of each aspect, the potential to capture biological and therapeutic information, and open questions worthy of further investigation. We hope to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration by providing insights into mathematical descriptions of fluid-mechanics in the lung and the kinds of predictions these models can make. PMID:25096289
Pulmonary Fluid Flow Challenges for Experimental and Mathematical Modeling
Levy, Rachel; Hill, David B.; Forest, M. Gregory; Grotberg, James B.
2014-01-01
Modeling the flow of fluid in the lungs, even under baseline healthy conditions, presents many challenges. The complex rheology of the fluids, interaction between fluids and structures, and complicated multi-scale geometry all add to the complexity of the problem. We provide a brief overview of approaches used to model three aspects of pulmonary fluid and flow: the surfactant layer in the deep branches of the lung, the mucus layer in the upper airway branches, and closure/reopening of the airway. We discuss models of each aspect, the potential to capture biological and therapeutic information, and open questions worthy of further investigation. We hope to promote multi-disciplinary collaboration by providing insights into mathematical descriptions of fluid-mechanics in the lung and the kinds of predictions these models can make. PMID:25096289
Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi
2016-04-01
Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.
On the coupling between fluid flow and mesh motion in the modelling of fluid structure interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dettmer, Wulf G.; Perić, Djordje
2008-12-01
Partitioned Newton type solution strategies for the strongly coupled system of equations arising in the computational modelling of fluid solid interaction require the evaluation of various coupling terms. An essential part of all ALE type solution strategies is the fluid mesh motion. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the terms which couple the fluid flow with the fluid mesh motion on the convergence behaviour of the overall solution procedure. We show that the computational efficiency of the simulation of many fluid solid interaction processes, including fluid flow through flexible pipes, can be increased significantly if some of these coupling terms are calculated exactly.
A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows
Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa
2009-09-01
The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.
Hydromechanical Modeling of Fluid Flow in the Lower Crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Connolly, J.
2011-12-01
The lower crust lies within an ambiguous rheological regime between the brittle upper crust and ductile sub-lithospheric mantle. This ambiguity has allowed two schools of thought to develop concerning the nature of fluid flow in the lower crust. The classical school holds that lower crustal rocks are inviscid and that any fluid generated by metamorphic devolatilization is squeezed out of rocks as rapidly as it is produced. According to this school, permeability is a dynamic property and fluid flow is upward. In contrast, the modern school uses concepts from upper crustal hydrology that presume implicitly, if not explicitly, that rocks are rigid or, at most, brittle. For the modern school, the details of crustal permeability determine fluid flow and as these details are poorly known almost anything is possible. Reality, to the extent that it is reflected by inference from field studies, offers some support to both schools. In particular, evidence of significant lateral and channelized fluid flow are consistent with flow in rigid media, while evidence for short (104 - 105 y) grain-scale fluid-rock interaction during much longer metamorphic events, suggests that reaction-generated grain-scale permeability is sealed rapidly by compaction; a phenomenon that is also essential to prevent extensive retrograde metamorphism. These observations provide a compelling argument for recognizing in conceptual models of lower crustal fluid flow that rocks are neither inviscid nor rigid, but compact by viscous mechanisms on a finite time-scale. This presentation will review the principle consequences of, and obstacles to, incorporating compaction in such models. The role of viscous compaction in the lower crust is extraordinarily uncertain, but ignoring this uncertainty in models of lower crustal fluid flow does not make the models any more certain. Models inevitably invoke an initial steady state hydraulic regime. This initial steady state is critical to model outcomes because it
A numerical model for dynamic crustal-scale fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sachau, Till; Bons, Paul; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Koehn, Daniel
2015-04-01
Fluid flow in the crust is often envisaged and modeled as continuous, yet minimal flow, which occurs over large geological times. This is a suitable approximation for flow as long as it is solely controlled by the matrix permeability of rocks, which in turn is controlled by viscous compaction of the pore space. However, strong evidence (hydrothermal veins and ore deposits) exists that a significant part of fluid flow in the crust occurs strongly localized in both space and time, controlled by the opening and sealing of hydrofractures. We developed, tested and applied a novel computer code, which considers this dynamic behavior and couples it with steady, Darcian flow controlled by the matrix permeability. In this dual-porosity model, fractures open depending on the fluid pressure relative to the solid pressure. Fractures form when matrix permeability is insufficient to accommodate fluid flow resulting from compaction, decompression (Staude et al. 2009) or metamorphic dehydration reactions (Weisheit et al. 2013). Open fractures can close when the contained fluid either seeps into the matrix or escapes by fracture propagation: mobile hydrofractures (Bons, 2001). In the model, closing and sealing of fractures is controlled by a time-dependent viscous law, which is based on the effective stress and on either Newtonian or non-Newtonian viscosity. Our simulations indicate that the bulk of crustal fluid flow in the middle to lower upper crust is intermittent, highly self-organized, and occurs as mobile hydrofractures. This is due to the low matrix porosity and permeability, combined with a low matrix viscosity and, hence, fast sealing of fractures. Stable fracture networks, generated by fluid overpressure, are restricted to the uppermost crust. Semi-stable fracture networks can develop in an intermediate zone, if a critical overpressure is reached. Flow rates in mobile hydrofractures exceed those in the matrix porosity and fracture networks by orders of magnitude
Particle hopping vs. fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow
Nagel, K.
1995-12-31
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Modeling of fluid and heat flow in fractured geothermal reservoirs
Pruess, K.
1988-08-01
In most geothermal reservoirs large-scale permeability is dominated by fractures, while most of the heat and fluid reserves are stored in the rock matrix. Early-time fluid production comes mostly from the readily accessible fracture volume, while reservoir behavior at later time depends upon the ease with which fluid and heat can be transferred from the rock matrix to the fractures. Methods for modeling flow in fractured porous media must be able to deal with this matrix-fracture exchange, the so-called interporosity flow. This paper reviews recent work at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on numerical modeling of nonisothermal multiphase flow in fractured porous media. We also give a brief summary of simulation applications to problems in geothermal production and reinjection. 29 refs., 1 fig.
Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander
2016-07-01
Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.
Beyond poiseuille: preservation fluid flow in an experimental model.
Singh, Saurabh; Randle, Lucy V; Callaghan, Paul T; Watson, Christopher J E; Callaghan, Chris J
2013-01-01
Poiseuille's equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD) of 13 (12)%. Marshall's hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD) flow rate increase of only 19 (13)%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD) of 43 (17)% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille's equation was not followed; this is most likely due to "slipping" of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions. PMID:24062943
Beyond Poiseuille: Preservation Fluid Flow in an Experimental Model
Singh, Saurabh; Randle, Lucy V.; Callaghan, Paul T.; Watson, Christopher J. E.; Callaghan, Chris J.
2013-01-01
Poiseuille's equation describes the relationship between fluid viscosity, pressure, tubing diameter, and flow, yet it is not known if cold organ perfusion systems follow this equation. We investigated these relationships in an ex vivo model and aimed to offer some rationale for equipment selection. Increasing the cannula size from 14 to 20 Fr increased flow rate by a mean (SD) of 13 (12)%. Marshall's hyperosmolar citrate was three times less viscous than UW solution, but flows were only 45% faster. Doubling the bag pressure led to a mean (SD) flow rate increase of only 19 (13)%, not twice the rate. When external pressure devices were used, 100 mmHg of continuous pressure increased flow by a mean (SD) of 43 (17)% when compared to the same pressure applied initially only. Poiseuille's equation was not followed; this is most likely due to “slipping” of preservation fluid within the plastic tubing. Cannula size made little difference over the ranges examined; flows are primarily determined by bag pressure and fluid viscosity. External infusor devices require continuous pressurisation to deliver high flow. Future studies examining the impact of perfusion variables on graft outcomes should include detailed equipment descriptions. PMID:24062943
Two Dimensional Fluid Flow Models Offshore Southwestern Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, L. W.; Wu, S. K.; Chi, W. C.; Liu, C. S.; Shyu, C. T.; Wang, Y. S.
2012-04-01
Fluid migration rates are important parameters for understanding the structural characteristics and evolution of the crustal tectonics and hydrocarbon exploration. However, they are difficult to measure on the seafloor. Dense distribution of bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) as the index of fluid existence to shed light on our study of the fluid migration. In this study, We acquired 2D fluid flow patterns in two potential gas hydrate prospect sites offshore southwestern Taiwan, and respectively modeled across Yung-An and Formosa ridge in N-S and E-W direction southwestern Taiwan. Temperature field in the shallow crust is used as a tracer to examine the fluid flow patterns. We use thermal information directly measured by thermal probes and topography data to develop the theoretical 2D temperature field using a thermal conduction model, which was derived from a finite element method. The discrepancy between the observed temperature data and the conductive model is attributed to advection heat transfer due to fluid migration. For Yung-An Ridge, we found the BSR-based temperatures are about 2oC higher than the conduction model in the following zones: (1) near a fault zone, (2) on the eastern flank where there are strong seismic reflectors in a pseudo 3D seismic dataset, (3) a seismic chimney zone. We interpret that there is possible active dewatering inside the accretionary prism to allow fluid to migrate upward here. For Formosa Ridge in the passive margin, the BSR-based temperatures are about 2oC colder than the theoretical model, especially on the flanks. We interpret that cold seawater is moving into the ridge from the flanks, cooling the ridge, and then some of the fluid is expelled at the ridge top. The shallow temperature fields are strongly affected by 2D or even 3D bathymetry effects. But we can still gain much information regarding fluid flow patterns through modeling. In the near future, we will extend such study into 3D. Keywords: fluid migration
ANFIS modeling for prediction of particle motions in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Safdari, Arman; Kim, Kyung Chun
2015-11-01
Accurate dynamic analysis of parcel of solid particles driven in fluid flow system is of interest for many natural and industrial applications such as sedimentation process, study of cloud particles in atmosphere, etc. In this paper, numerical modeling of solid particles in incompressible flow using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is carried out to investigate the dynamic behavior of particles in different flow conditions; channel and cavity flow. Although modern computers have been well developed, the high computational time and costs for this kind of problems are still demanded. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is used to simulate fluid flows and combined with the Lagrangian approach to predict the motion of particles in the range of masses. Some particles are selected, and subjected to Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to predict the trajectory of moving solid particles. Using a hybrid learning procedure from computational particle movement, the ANFIS can construct an input-output mapping based on fuzzy if-then rules and stipulated computational fluid dynamics prediction pairs. The obtained results from ANFIS algorithm is validated and compared with the set of benchmark data provided based on point-like approach coupled with the LBM method.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, G. A.; Trapp, J. A.
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles, thus, avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A. ); Trapp, J.A. Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID )
1992-01-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
Particle-fluid two-phase flow modeling
Mortensen, G.A.; Trapp, J.A. |
1992-09-01
This paper describes a numerical scheme and computer program, DISCON, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between-thermal instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. It solves the Eulerian continuity, momentum, and energy equations for each liquid control volume, and the Lagrangian mass, momentum, energy, and position equations for each bubble. The bubbles are modeled individually using a large representative number of bubbles thus avoiding the numerical diffusion associated with Eulerian models. DISCON has been used to calculate the bubbling of air through a column of water and the subcooled boiling of water in a flow channel. The results of these calculations are presented.
GEOSIM: A numerical model for geophysical fluid flow simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, Karen A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Lu, Huei-Iin
1991-01-01
A numerical model which simulates geophysical fluid flow in a wide range of problems is described in detail, and comparisons of some of the model's results are made with previous experimental and numerical studies. The model is based upon the Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations in spherical coordinates, which can be reduced to a cylindrical system when latitudinal walls are used near the pole and the ratio of latitudinal length to the radius of the sphere is small. The equations are approximated by finite differences in the meridional plane and spectral decomposition in the azimuthal direction. The user can specify a variety of boundary and initial conditions, and there are five different spectral truncation options. The results of five validation cases are presented: (1) the transition between axisymmetric flow and baroclinic wave flow in the side heated annulus; (2) the steady baroclinic wave of the side heated annulus; (3) the wave amplitude vacillation of the side heated annulus; (4) transition to baroclinic wave flow in a bottom heated annulus; and (5) the Spacelab Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (spherical) experiment.
Modelling couplings between reaction, fluid flow and deformation: Kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malvoisin, Benjamin; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Connolly, James A. D.
2016-04-01
Mineral assemblages out of equilibrium are commonly found in metamorphic rocks testifying of the critical role of kinetics for metamorphic reactions. As experimentally determined reaction rates in fluid-saturated systems generally indicate complete reaction in less than several years, i.e. several orders of magnitude faster than field-based estimates, metamorphic reaction kinetics are generally thought to be controlled by transport rather than by processes at the mineral surface. However, some geological processes like earthquakes or slow-slip events have shorter characteristic timescales, and transport processes can be intimately related to mineral surface processes. Therefore, it is important to take into account the kinetics of mineral surface processes for modelling fluid/rock interactions. Here, a model coupling reaction, fluid flow and deformation was improved by introducing a delay in the achievement of equilibrium. The classical formalism for dissolution/precipitation reactions was used to consider the influence of the distance from equilibrium and of temperature on the reaction rate, and a dependence on porosity was introduced to model evolution of reacting surface area during reaction. The fitting of experimental data for three reactions typically occurring in metamorphic systems (serpentine dehydration, muscovite dehydration and calcite decarbonation) indicates a systematic faster kinetics close from equilibrium on the dehydration side than on the hydration side. This effect is amplified through the porosity term in the reaction rate since porosity is formed during dehydration. Numerical modelling indicates that this difference in reaction rate close from equilibrium plays a key role in microtextures formation. The developed model can be used in a wide variety of geological systems where couplings between reaction, deformation and fluid flow have to be considered.
Two-fluid model for two-phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, M.
1987-06-01
The two-fluid model formulation is discussed in detail. The emphasis of the paper is on the three-dimensional formulation and the closure issues. The origin of the interfacial and turbulent transfer terms in the averaged formulation is explained and their original mathematical forms are examined. The interfacial transfer of mass, momentum, and energy is proportional to the interfacial area and driving force. This is not a postulate but a result of the careful examination of the mathematical form of the exact interfacial terms. These two effects are considered separately. Since all the interfacial transfer terms involve the interfacial area concentration, the accurate modeling of the local interfacial area concentration is the first step to be taken for a development of a reliable two-fluid model closure relations. The interfacial momentum interaction has been studied in terms of the standard-drag, lift, virtual mass, and Basset forces. Available analytical and semi-empirical correlations and closure relations are reviewed and existing shortcomings are pointed out. The other major area of importance is the modeling of turbulent transfer in two-phase flow. The two-phase flow turbulence problem is coupled with the phase separation problem even in a steady-state fully developed flow. Thus the two-phase turbulence cannot be understood without understanding the interfacial drag and lift forces accurately. There are some indications that the mixing length type model may not be sufficient to describe the three-dimensional turbulent and flow structures. Although it is a very difficult challenge, the two-phase flow turbulence should be investigated both experimentally and analytically with long time-scale research.
A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd
1998-01-01
This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.
Complex fluid flow modeling with SPH on GPU
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bilotta, Giuseppe; Hérault, Alexis; Del Negro, Ciro; Russo, Giovanni; Vicari, Annamaria
2010-05-01
We describe an implementation of the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method for the simulation of complex fluid flows. The algorithm is entirely executed on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) developed by NVIDIA and fully exploiting their computational power. An increase of one to two orders of magnitude in simulation speed over equivalent CPU code is achieved. A complete modeling of the flow of a complex fluid such as lava is challenging from the modelistic, numerical and computational points of view. The natural topography irregularities, the dynamic free boundaries and phenomena such as solidification, presence of floating solid bodies or other obstacles and their eventual fragmentation make the problem difficult to solve using traditional numerical methods (finite volumes, finite elements): the need to refine the discretization grid in correspondence of high gradients, when possible, is computationally expensive and with an often inadequate control of the error; for real-world applications, moreover, the information needed by the grid refinement may not be available (e.g. because the Digital Elevation Models are too coarse); boundary tracking is also problematic with Eulerian discretizations, more so with complex fluids due to the presence of internal boundaries given by fluid inhomogeneity and presence of solidification fronts. An alternative approach is offered by mesh-free particle methods, that solve most of the problems connected to the dynamics of complex fluids in a natural way. Particle methods discretize the fluid using nodes which are not forced on a given topological structure: boundary treatment is therefore implicit and automatic; the movement freedom of the particles also permits the treatment of deformations without incurring in any significant penalty; finally, the accuracy is easily controlled by the insertion of new particles where needed. Our team has developed a new model based on the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yu-Ning
In this work, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for turbulent secondary flows of a Newtonian fluid and necessary and sufficient conditions for laminar steady secondary flows of a Non-Newtonian fluid in a straight tube. It is found that there is a striking similarity between them. This similarity motivates the assumption used in developing a generalized non-linear K- epsilon model. Based on an analogy that exists between the constitutive relations for turbulent mean flows of a Newtonian fluid and that for laminar flows of a Non -Newtonian fluid, and making use of the constitutive framework of extended thermodynamics, we develop a generalized non -linear K-epsilon model with the same relaxation time as that which appears in the turbulence model proposed by Yakhot, Orszag, Thangam, Gatski and Speziale in 1992. We show that the non-linear K-epsilon model developed by Speziale in 1987 is unable to predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses because of involving no K and dotepsilon , and a coefficient of which leads to a negative relaxation time for the Reynolds stresses. To correct this deficiency, we resort to making use of the relaxation time in the model of Yakhot et al.. The approximate form of our generalized non-linear K-epsilon model, which can predict the relaxation phenomena of the Reynolds stresses and is frame indifferent, is an extension of the standard K-epsilon model and the non-linear K-epsilon model of Speziale.
Draft: Modeling Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media Including Fluid-Fluid Interfacial Area
Crandall, Dustin; Niessner, Jennifer; Hassanizadeh, S Majid
2008-01-01
We present a new numerical model for macro-scale twophase flow in porous media which is based on a physically consistent theory of multi-phase flow.The standard approach for modeling the flow of two fluid phases in a porous medium consists of a continuity equation for each phase, an extended form of Darcy’s law as well as constitutive relationships for relative permeability and capillary pressure. This approach is known to have a number of important shortcomings and, in particular, it does not account for the presence and role of fluid - fluid interfaces. An alternative is to use an extended model which is founded on thermodynamic principles and is physically consistent. In addition to the standard equations, the model uses a balance equation for specific interfacial area. The constitutive relationship for capillary pressure involves not only saturation, but also specific interfacial area. We show how parameters can be obtained for the alternative model using experimental data from a new kind of flow cell and present results of a numerical modeling study
Advances in modelling of biomimetic fluid flow at different scales
2011-01-01
The biomimetic flow at different scales has been discussed at length. The need of looking into the biological surfaces and morphologies and both geometrical and physical similarities to imitate the technological products and processes has been emphasized. The complex fluid flow and heat transfer problems, the fluid-interface and the physics involved at multiscale and macro-, meso-, micro- and nano-scales have been discussed. The flow and heat transfer simulation is done by various CFD solvers including Navier-Stokes and energy equations, lattice Boltzmann method and molecular dynamics method. Combined continuum-molecular dynamics method is also reviewed. PMID:21711847
Wu, Binxin
2010-12-01
In this paper, 12 turbulence models for single-phase non-newtonian fluid flow in a pipe are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from three friction factor correlations. The turbulence models studied are (1) three high-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (2) six low-Reynolds-number k-ε models, (3) two k-ω models, and (4) the Reynolds stress model. The simulation results indicate that the Chang-Hsieh-Chen version of the low-Reynolds-number k-ε model performs better than the other models in predicting the frictional pressure drops while the standard k-ω model has an acceptable accuracy and a low computing cost. In the model applications, CFD simulation of mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester with pumped circulation is performed to propose an improvement in the effective mixing standards recommended by the U.S. EPA based on the effect of rheology on the flow fields. Characterization of the velocity gradient is conducted to quantify the growth or breakage of an assumed floc size. Placement of two discharge nozzles in the digester is analyzed to show that spacing two nozzles 180° apart with each one discharging at an angle of 45° off the wall is the most efficient. Moreover, the similarity rules of geometry and mixing energy are checked for scaling up the digester. PMID:21047058
Fluid flow induced calcium response in osteoblasts: mathematical modeling.
Su, J H; Xu, F; Lu, X L; Lu, T J
2011-07-28
Fluid flow in the bone lacuno-canalicular network can induce dynamic fluctuation of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in osteoblasts, which plays an important role in bone remodeling. There has been limited progress in the mathematical modeling of this process probably due to its complexity, which is controlled by various factors such as Ca(2+) channels and extracellular messengers. In this study we developed a mathematical model to describe [Ca(2+)](i) response induced by fluid shear stress (SS) by integrating the major factors involved and analyzed the effects of different experimental setups (e.g. [Ca(2+)](i) baseline, pretreatment with ATP). In this model we considered the ATP release process and the activities of multiple ion channels and purinergic receptors. The model was further verified quantitatively by comparing the simulation results with experimental data reported in literature. The results showed that: (i) extracellular ATP concentration has more significant effect on [Ca(2+)](i) baseline (73% increase in [Ca(2+)](i) with extracellular ATP concentration varying between 0 and 10 μM), as compared to that induced by SS (25% variation in [Ca(2+)](i) with SS varying from 0 to 3.5 Pa); (ii) Pretreatment with ATP-medium results in different [Ca(2+)](i) response as compared to the control group (ATP-free medium) under SS; (iii) Relative [Ca(2+)](i) fluctuation over baseline is more reliable to show the [Ca(2+)](i) response process than the absolute [Ca(2+)](i) response peak. The developed model may improve the experimental design and facilitate our understanding of the mechanotransduction process in osteoblasts. PMID:21665208
Modelling Fault Zone Evolution: Implications for fluid flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moir, H.; Lunn, R. J.; Shipton, Z. K.
2009-04-01
Flow simulation models are of major interest to many industries including hydrocarbon, nuclear waste, sequestering of carbon dioxide and mining. One of the major uncertainties in these models is in predicting the permeability of faults, principally in the detailed structure of the fault zone. Studying the detailed structure of a fault zone is difficult because of the inaccessible nature of sub-surface faults and also because of their highly complex nature; fault zones show a high degree of spatial and temporal heterogeneity i.e. the properties of the fault change as you move along the fault, they also change with time. It is well understood that faults influence fluid flow characteristics. They may act as a conduit or a barrier or even as both by blocking flow across the fault while promoting flow along it. Controls on fault hydraulic properties include cementation, stress field orientation, fault zone components and fault zone geometry. Within brittle rocks, such as granite, fracture networks are limited but provide the dominant pathway for flow within this rock type. Research at the EU's Soultz-sous-Forệt Hot Dry Rock test site [Evans et al., 2005] showed that 95% of flow into the borehole was associated with a single fault zone at 3490m depth, and that 10 open fractures account for the majority of flow within the zone. These data underline the critical role of faults in deep flow systems and the importance of achieving a predictive understanding of fault hydraulic properties. To improve estimates of fault zone permeability, it is important to understand the underlying hydro-mechanical processes of fault zone formation. In this research, we explore the spatial and temporal evolution of fault zones in brittle rock through development and application of a 2D hydro-mechanical finite element model, MOPEDZ. The authors have previously presented numerical simulations of the development of fault linkage structures from two or three pre-existing joints, the results of
Mathematical modeling of slope flows with entrainment as flows of non-Newtonian fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zayko, Julia; Eglit, Margarita
2015-04-01
Non-Newtonian fluids in which the shear stresses are nonlinear functions of the shear strain rates are used to model slope flows such as snow avalanches, mudflows, debris flows. The entrainment of bottom material is included into the model basing on the assumption that in entraining flows the bed friction is equal to the shear stress of the bottom material (Issler et al, 2011). Unsteady motion down long homogeneous slopes with constant inclines is studied numerically for different flow rheologies and different slope angles. Variation of the velocity profile, increase of the flow depth and velocity due to entrainment as well as the value of the entrainment rate is calculated. Asymptotic formulae for the entrainment rate are derived for unsteady flows of different rheological properties. REFERENCES Chowdhury M., Testik F., 2011. Laboratory testing of mathematical models for high-concentration fluid mud turbidity currents. Ocean Engineering 38, 256-270. Eglit, M.E., Demidov, K.S., 2005. Mathematical modeling of snow entrainment in avalanche motion. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 43 (1-2), 10-23. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2012, Mathematical Modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Eglit M. E., Yakubenko A. E., 2014, Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 108, 139-148. Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), pp.143-147 Kern M. A., Tiefenbacher F., McElwaine J., N., 2004. The rheology of snow in large chute flows. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 39, 181 -192. Naaim, M., Faug, T., Naaim-Bouvet, F., 2003. Dry granular flow modelling including erosion and deposition. Surv. Geophys. 24, 569-585. Naaim, M., Naaim-Bouvet, F., Faug, T., Bouchet, A., 2004. Dense snow avalanche modeling: flow, erosion, deposition and obstacle effects. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol. 39, 193-204. Rougier, J & Kern, M 2010, 'Predicting snow
Spatial and Temporal Low-Dimensional Models for Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalb, Virginia
2008-01-01
A document discusses work that obtains a low-dimensional model that captures both temporal and spatial flow by constructing spatial and temporal four-mode models for two classic flow problems. The models are based on the proper orthogonal decomposition at two reference Reynolds numbers. Model predictions are made at an intermediate Reynolds number and compared with direct numerical simulation results at the new Reynolds number.
Winters, W.S.
1984-01-01
An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.
Modeling of unsteady-state flows of viscoelastic plastic fluids
Shulman, Z.P.; Dornyak, O.R.; Khusid, B.M.; Ryklina, I.L.; Zal'tsgendler, E.A.
1989-04-01
Unsteady-state flows of media that possess a complex of rheological properties such as elasticity, viscosity and plasticity are studied. The fluid is assumed to exhibit elastic properties at stresses below the fluidity limit. A Trikomi-type boundary-value problem for describing the unsteady-state forced flows in these media is formulated. A difference scheme for the unobstructed calculation is constructed, and the conditions of its efficiency are investigated. The numerical results obtained illustrate the essential effect of elastic properties in the region where the stress is below the fluidity limit; in particular, those cases are studied wherein the period of the elastic shear wave is commensurable with the characteristic hydrodynamic time of the process.
Chang, F.C.; Hull, J.R.; Wang, Y.H.; Blazek, K.E.
1996-02-01
A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy- current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from a static test.
Shaded computer graphic techniques for visualizing and interpreting analytic fluid flow models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parke, F. I.
1981-01-01
Mathematical models which predict the behavior of fluid flow in different experiments are simulated using digital computers. The simulations predict values of parameters of the fluid flow (pressure, temperature and velocity vector) at many points in the fluid. Visualization of the spatial variation in the value of these parameters is important to comprehend and check the data generated, to identify the regions of interest in the flow, and for effectively communicating information about the flow to others. The state of the art imaging techniques developed in the field of three dimensional shaded computer graphics is applied to visualization of fluid flow. Use of an imaging technique known as 'SCAN' for visualizing fluid flow, is studied and the results are presented.
Predicting multidimensional annular flow with a locally based two-fluid model
Antal, S.P.; Edwards, D.P.; Strayer, T.D.
1998-06-01
The purpose of this work was to: develop a methodology to predict annular flows using a multidimensional four-field, two-fluid Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) computer code; develop closure models which use the CFD predicted local velocities, phasic volume fractions, etc...; implement a numerical method which allows the discretized equations to have the same characteristics as the differential form; and compare predicted results to local flow field data taken in a R-134a working fluid test section.
Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska
Kelley, Karen D., (Edited By)
2007-01-01
INTRODUCTION The foothills of the Brooks Range contain an enormous accumulation of zinc (Zn) in the form of zinc sulfide and barium (Ba) in the form of barite in Carboniferous shale, chert, and mudstone. Most of the resources and reserves of Zn occur in the Red Dog deposit and others in the Red Dog district; these resources and reserves surpass those of most deposits worldwide in terms of size and grade. In addition to zinc and lead sulfides (which contain silver, Ag) and barite, correlative strata host phosphate deposits. Furthermore, prolific hydrocarbon source rocks of Carboniferous and Triassic to Early Jurassic age generated considerable amounts of petroleum that may have contributed to the world-class petroleum resources of the North Slope. Deposits of Zn-Pb-Ag or barite as large as those in the Brooks Range are very rare on a global basis and, accordingly, multiple coincident favorable factors must be invoked to explain their origins. To improve our understanding of these factors and to contribute to more effective assessments of resources in sedimentary basins of northern Alaska and throughout the world, the Mineral Resources Program and the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a project that was aimed at understanding the petroleum maturation and mineralization history of parts of the Brooks Range that were previously poorly characterized. The project, titled ?Regional Fluid Flow and Basin Modeling in Northern Alaska,? was undertaken in collaboration with industry, academia, and other government agencies. This Circular contains papers that describe the results of the recently completed project. The studies that are highlighted in these papers have led to a better understanding of the following: *The complex sedimentary facies relationships and depositional settings and the geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks that host the deposits (sections 2 and 3). *The factors responsible for formation of the barite and zinc deposits
Multi-fluid pipe flow model for analysis of wellbore dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnopolsky, B.; Starostin, A.; Osiptsov, A.
2012-09-01
We present the results of developing a multi-fluid model for a transient multiphase flow in a pipe with application to oil and gas well cleanup after drilling or hydraulic fracturing. The model is an extension of the earlier work on multi-fluid models for near-horizontal pipes to cover any inclination angle and include additional phases. The 1D multi-fluid model governs a transient isothermal flow of three compressible fluids in a horizontal, deviated, or a vertical pipe. The multi-fluid model research code is based on well-known SIMPLE schemes, and features implementation of either a geometry or a mass conservation based algorithms. The multi-fluid model is able to predict the flow regimes with a single interface between gas and liquid mixture: stratified flow, flow with rolling waves, and flow with slugs. The code is validated against an analytical solutions and flow pattern maps. Agreement with theory is found in predicting the transition between the regimes. The final application of the model will be in transient wellbore dynamics with flow regime transitions.
E-1 Dynamic Fluid-Flow Model Update: EASY/ROCETS Enhancement and Model Development Support
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Follett, Randolph F.; Taylor, Robert P.
1998-01-01
This report documents the research conducted to update computer models for dynamic fluid flow simulation of the E-1 test stand subsystems at te NASA John C. Stennis Space Center.Work also involved significant upgrades to the capabilities of EASY/ROCKETS library through the inclusion of the NIST-12 thermodynamic property database and development of new control system modules.
Fluid Structure Modelling of Blood Flow in Vessels.
Moatamedi, M; Souli, M; Al-Bahkali, E
2014-12-01
This paper describes the capabilities of fluid structure interaction based multi-physics numerical modelling in solving problems related to vascular biomechanics. In this research work, the onset of a pressure pulse was simulated at the entrance of a three dimensional straight segment of the blood vessel like circular tube and the resulting dynamic response in the form of a propagating pulse wave through the wall was analysed and compared. Good agreement was found between the numerical results and the theoretical description of an idealized artery. Work has also been done on implementing the material constitutive models specific for vascular applications. PMID:26336693
Field and modelling studies of immiscible fluid flow above a contaminated water-table aquifer
Herkelrath, W.N.; Essaid, H.I.; Hess, K.M.
1991-01-01
A method was developed for measuring the spatial distribution of immiscible liquid contaminants in the subsurface. Fluid saturation distributions measured at a crude-oil spill site were used to test a numerical multiphase flow model.
A fully coupled porous flow and geomechanics model for fluid driven cracks: a peridynamics approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouchi, Hisanao; Katiyar, Amit; York, Jason; Foster, John T.; Sharma, Mukul M.
2015-03-01
A state-based non-local peridynamic formulation is presented for simulating fluid driven fractures in an arbitrary heterogeneous poroelastic medium. A recently developed peridynamic formulation of porous flow has been coupled with the existing peridynamic formulation of solid and fracture mechanics resulting in a peridynamic model that for the first time simulates poroelasticity and fluid-driven fracture propagation. This coupling is achieved by modeling the role of pore pressure on the deformation of porous media and vice versa through porosity variation with medium deformation, pore pressure and total mean stress. The poroelastic model is verified by simulating the one-dimensional consolidation of fluid saturated rock. An additional porous flow equation with material permeability dependent on fracture width is solved to simulate fluid flow in the fractured region. Finally, single fluid-driven fracture propagation with a two-dimensional plane strain assumption is simulated and verified against the corresponding classical analytical solution.
Modelling of fluid-structure interaction with multiphase viscous flows using an immersed-body method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, P.; Xiang, J.; Fang, F.; Pavlidis, D.; Latham, J.-P.; Pain, C. C.
2016-09-01
An immersed-body method is developed here to model fluid-structure interaction for multiphase viscous flows. It does this by coupling a finite element multiphase fluid model and a combined finite-discrete element solid model. A coupling term containing the fluid stresses is introduced within a thin shell mesh surrounding the solid surface. The thin shell mesh acts as a numerical delta function in order to help apply the solid-fluid boundary conditions. When used with an advanced interface capturing method, the immersed-body method has the capability to solve problems with fluid-solid interfaces in the presence of multiphase fluid-fluid interfaces. Importantly, the solid-fluid coupling terms are treated implicitly to enable larger time steps to be used. This two-way coupling method has been validated by three numerical test cases: a free falling cylinder in a fluid at rest, elastic membrane and a collapsing column of water moving an initially stationary solid square. A fourth simulation example is of a water-air interface with a floating solid square being moved around by complex hydrodynamic flows including wave breaking. The results show that the immersed-body method is an effective approach for two-way solid-fluid coupling in multiphase viscous flows.
Hydraulic modeling of unsteady debris-flow surges with solid-fluid interactions
Iverson, Richard M.
1997-01-01
Interactions of solid and fluid constituents produce the unique style of motion that typifies debris flows. To simulate this motion, a new hydraulic model represents debris flows as deforming masses of granular solids variably liquefied by viscous pore fluid. The momentum equation of the model describes how internal and boundary forces change as coarse-grained surge heads dominated by grain-contact friction grade into muddy debris-flow bodies more strongly influenced by fluid viscosity and pressure. Scaling analysis reveals that pore-pressure variations can cause flow resistance in surge heads to surpass that in debris-flow bodies by orders of magnitude. Numerical solutions of the coupled momentum and continuity equations provide good predictions of unsteady, nonuniform motion of experimental debris flows from initiation through deposition.
An accurate and comprehensive model of thin fluid flows with inertia on curved substrates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, A. J.; Li, Zhenquan
2006-04-01
Consider the three-dimensional flow of a viscous Newtonian fluid upon a curved two-dimensional substrate when the fluid film is thin, as occurs in many draining, coating and biological flows. We derive a comprehensive model of the dynamics of the film, the model being expressed in terms of the film thickness eta and the average lateral velocity bar{bm u}. Centre manifold theory assures us that the model accurately and systematically includes the effects of the curvature of substrate, gravitational body force, fluid inertia and dissipation. The model resolves wavelike phenomena in the dynamics of viscous fluid flows over arbitrarily curved substrates such as cylinders, tubes and spheres. We briefly illustrate its use in simulating drop formation on cylindrical fibres, wave transitions, three-dimensional instabilities, Faraday waves, viscous hydraulic jumps, flow vortices in a compound channel and flow down and up a step. These models are the most complete models for thin-film flow of a Newtonian fluid; many other thin-film models can be obtained by different restrictions and truncations of the model derived here.
Modeling deformation-induced fluid flow in cortical bone's canalicular-lacunar system.
Gururaja, S; Kim, H J; Swan, C C; Brand, R A; Lakes, R S
2005-01-01
To explore the potential role that load-induced fluid flow plays as a mechano-transduction mechanism in bone adaptation, a lacunar-canalicular scale bone poroelasticity model is developed and implemented. The model uses micromechanics to homogenize the pericanalicular bone matrix, a system of straight circular cylinders in the bone matrix through which bone fluids can flow, as a locally anisotropic poroelastic medium. In this work, a simplified two-dimensional model of a periodic array of lacunae and their surrounding systems of canaliculi is used to quantify local fluid flow characteristics in the vicinity of a single lacuna. When the cortical bone model is loaded, microscale stress, and strain concentrations occur in the vicinity of individual lacunae and give rise to microscale spatial variations in the pore fluid pressure field. Furthermore, loading of the bone matrix containing canaliculi generates fluid pressures in the contained fluids. Consequently, loading of cortical bone induces fluid flow in the canaliculi and exchange of fluid between canaliculi and lacunae. For realistic bone morphology parameters, and a range of loading frequencies, fluid pressures and fluid-solid drag forces in the canalicular bone are computed and the associated energy dissipation in the models compared to that measured in physical in vitro experiments on human cortical bone. The proposed model indicates that deformation-induced fluid pressures in the lacunar-canalicular system have relaxation times on the order of milliseconds as opposed to the much shorter times (hundredths of milliseconds) associated with deformation-induced pressures in the Haversian system. PMID:15709702
Direct pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media
Ovaysi, Saeed; Piri, Mohammad
2010-09-20
We present a dynamic particle-based model for direct pore-level modeling of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution micro-CT images of rock samples. It is based on moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability for flow in porous media problems. Using the micro-CT image of a rock sample, the entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is discretized into particles. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are then solved for each particle using the MPS summations. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. An algorithm to split and merge fluid particles is also introduced. To handle the computational load, we present a parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters. The accuracy of the model is validated against the analytical, numerical, and experimental data available in the literature. The validated model is then used to simulate both unsteady- and steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid directly in a representative elementary volume (REV) size micro-CT image of a naturally-occurring sandstone with 3.398 {mu}m resolution. We analyze the quality and consistency of the predicted flow behavior and calculate absolute permeability using the steady-state flow rate.
Soltani, M; Chen, P
2013-01-01
Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor's surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy's law for tissue, and simplified Navier-Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling's law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model. PMID:23840579
Soltani, M.; Chen, P.
2013-01-01
Modeling of interstitial fluid flow involves processes such as fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. To date, majority of microvascular flow modeling has been done at different levels and scales mostly on simple tumor shapes with their capillaries. However, with our proposed numerical model, more complex and realistic tumor shapes and capillary networks can be studied. Both blood flow through a capillary network, which is induced by a solid tumor, and fluid flow in tumor’s surrounding tissue are formulated. First, governing equations of angiogenesis are implemented to specify the different domains for the network and interstitium. Then, governing equations for flow modeling are introduced for different domains. The conservation laws for mass and momentum (including continuity equation, Darcy’s law for tissue, and simplified Navier–Stokes equation for blood flow through capillaries) are used for simulating interstitial and intravascular flows and Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. This is the first study of flow modeling in solid tumors to naturalistically couple intravascular and extravascular flow through a network. This network is generated by sprouting angiogenesis and consisting of one parent vessel connected to the network while taking into account the non-continuous behavior of blood, adaptability of capillary diameter to hemodynamics and metabolic stimuli, non-Newtonian blood flow, and phase separation of blood flow in capillary bifurcation. The incorporation of the outlined components beyond the previous models provides a more realistic prediction of interstitial fluid flow pattern in solid tumors and surrounding tissues. Results predict higher interstitial pressure, almost two times, for realistic model compared to the simplified model. PMID:23840579
(Reactive fluid flow models and applications to diagenesis, mineral deposits and crustal rocks)
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.
1991-01-01
The objective of this proposal is to put constraints on fluid and mass flux by combining theoretical and field studies of coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport, and chemical reaction in hydrothermal and metamorphic systems. We are presently applying the two-dimensional code 2DREACT to the study of reactive flow in hydrothermal system. The code represents a new approach to the modeling of simultaneous reaction and transport which was completed in the first months of this project.
An Image-Based Model of Fluid Flow Through Lymph Nodes.
Cooper, Laura J; Heppell, James P; Clough, Geraldine F; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Roose, Tiina
2016-01-01
The lymphatic system returns fluid to the bloodstream from the tissues to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. Lymph nodes distributed throughout the system filter the lymphatic fluid. The afferent and efferent lymph flow conditions of lymph nodes can be measured in experiments; however, it is difficult to measure the flow within the nodes. In this paper, we present an image-based modelling approach to investigating how the internal structure of the node affects the fluid flow pathways within the node. Selective plane illumination microscopy images of murine lymph nodes are used to identify the geometry and structure of the tissue within the node and to determine the permeability of the lymph node interstitium to lymphatic fluid. Experimental data are used to determine boundary conditions and optimise the parameters for the model. The numerical simulations conducted within the model are implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element analysis software. The parameter fitting resulted in the estimate that the average permeability for lymph node tissue is of the order of magnitude of [Formula: see text]. Our modelling shows that the flow predominantly takes a direct path between the afferent and efferent lymphatics and that fluid is both filtered and absorbed across the blood vessel boundaries. The amount that is absorbed or extravasated in the model is dependent on the efferent lymphatic lumen fluid pressure. PMID:26690921
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cho, Y. I.; Crawford, D. W.; Back, L. H.; Back, M. R.
1987-01-01
A flow visualization study using selective dye injection and frame by frame analysis of a movie provided qualitative and quantitative data on the motion of marked fluid particles in a 60 degree artery branch model for simulation of physiological femoral artery flow. Physical flow features observed included jetting of the branch flow into the main lumen during the brief reverse flow period, flow separation along the main lumen wall during the near zero flow phase of diastole when the core flow was in the downstream direction, and inference of flow separation conditions along the wall opposite the branch later in systole at higher branch flow ratios. There were many similarities between dye particle motions in pulsatile flow and the comparative steady flow observations.
Development of Efficient Real-Fluid Model in Simulating Liquid Rocket Injector Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Gary; Farmer, Richard
2003-01-01
The characteristics of propellant mixing near the injector have a profound effect on the liquid rocket engine performance. However, the flow features near the injector of liquid rocket engines are extremely complicated, for example supercritical-pressure spray, turbulent mixing, and chemical reactions are present. Previously, a homogeneous spray approach with a real-fluid property model was developed to account for the compressibility and evaporation effects such that thermodynamics properties of a mixture at a wide range of pressures and temperatures can be properly calculated, including liquid-phase, gas- phase, two-phase, and dense fluid regions. The developed homogeneous spray model demonstrated a good success in simulating uni- element shear coaxial injector spray combustion flows. However, the real-fluid model suffered a computational deficiency when applied to a pressure-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The deficiency is caused by the pressure and enthalpy being the independent variables in the solution procedure of a pressure-based code, whereas the real-fluid model utilizes density and temperature as independent variables. The objective of the present research work is to improve the computational efficiency of the real-fluid property model in computing thermal properties. The proposed approach is called an efficient real-fluid model, and the improvement of computational efficiency is achieved by using a combination of a liquid species and a gaseous species to represent a real-fluid species.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartwright, Ian
Advection-dispersion fluid flow models implicitly assume that the infiltrating fluid flows through an already fluid-saturated medium. However, whether rocks contain a fluid depends on their reaction history, and whether any initial fluid escapes. The behaviour of different rocks may be illustrated using hypothetical marble compositions. Marbles with diverse chemistries (e.g. calcite + dolomite + quartz) are relatively reactive, and will generally produce a fluid during heating. By contrast, marbles with more restricted chemistries (e.g. calcite + quartz or calcite-only) may not. If the rock is not fluid bearing when fluid infiltration commences, mineralogical reactions may produce a reaction-enhanced permeability in calcite + dolomite + quartz or calcite + quartz, but not in calcite-only marbles. The permeability production controls the pattern of mineralogical, isotopic, and geochemical resetting during fluid flow. Tracers retarded behind the mineralogical fronts will probably be reset as predicted by the advection-dispersion models; however, tracers that are expected to be reset ahead of the mineralogical fronts cannot progress beyond the permeability generating reaction. In the case of very unreactive lithologies (e.g. pure calcite marbles, cherts, and quartzites), the first reaction to affect the rocks may be a metasomatic one ahead of which there is little pervasive resetting of any tracer. Centimetre-scale layering may lead to the formation of self-perpetuating fluid channels in rocks that are not fluid saturated due to the juxtaposition of reactants. Such layered rocks may show patterns of mineralogical resetting that are not predicted by advection-dispersion models. Patterns of mineralogical and isotopic resetting in marbles from a number of terrains, for example: Chillagoe, Marulan South, Reynolds Range (Australia); Adirondack Mountains, Old Woman Mountains, Notch Peak (USA); and Stephen Cross Quarry (Canada) vary as predicted by these models.
Computational modelling of the flow of viscous fluids in carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravian, N.; Rafii-Tabar, H.
2007-11-01
Carbon nanotubes will have extensive application in all areas of nano-technology, and in particular in the field of nano-fluidics, wherein they can be used for molecular separation, nano-scale filtering and as nano-pipes for conveying fluids. In the field of nano-medicine, nanotubes can be functionalized with various types of receptors to act as bio-sensors for the detection and elimination of cancer cells, or be used as bypasses and even neural connections. Modelling fluid flow inside nanotubes is a very challenging problem, since there is a complex interplay between the motion of the fluid and the stability of the walls. A critical issue in the design of nano-fluidic devices is the induced vibration of the walls, due to the fluid flow, which can promote structural instability. It has been established that the resonant frequencies depend on the flow velocity. We have studied, for the first time, the flow of viscous fluids through multi-walled carbon nanotubes, using the Euler-Bernoulli classical beam theory to model the nanotube as a continuum structure. Our aim has been to compute the effect of the fluid flow on the structural stability of the nanotubes, without having to consider the details of the fluid-walls interaction. The variations of the resonant frequencies with the flow velocity are obtained for both unembedded nanotubes, and when they are embedded in an elastic medium. It is found that a nanotube conveying a viscous fluid is more stable against vibration-induced buckling than a nanotube conveying a non-viscous fluid, and that the aspect ratio plays the same role in both cases.
Modeling the Effect of Fluid Flow on a Growing Network of Fractures in a Porous Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alhashim, Mohammed; Koch, Donald
2015-11-01
The injection of a viscous fluid at high pressure in a geological formation induces the fracturing of pre-existing joints. Assuming a constant solid-matrix stress field, a weak joint saturated with fluid is fractured when the fluid pressure exceeds a critical value that depends on the joint's orientation. In this work, the formation of a network of fractures in a porous medium is modeled. When the average length of the fractures is much smaller than the radius of a cluster of fractured joints, the fluid flow within the network can be described as Darcy flow in a permeable medium consisting of the fracture network. The permeability and porosity of the medium are functions of the number density of activated joints and consequently depend on the fluid pressure. We demonstrate conditions under which these relationships can be derived from percolation theory. Fluid may also be lost from the fracture network by flowing into the permeable rock matrix. The solution of the model shows that the cluster radius grows as a power law with time in two regimes: (1) an intermediate time regime when the network contains many fractures but fluid loss is negligible; and (2) a long time regime when fluid loss dominates. In both regimes, the power law exponent depends on the Euclidean dimension and the injection rate dependence on time.
Unsteady fluid dynamic model for propeller induced flow fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, Joseph; Ashby, Dale L.; Yon, Steven
1991-01-01
A potential flow based three-dimensional panel method was modified to treat time dependent flow conditions in which the body's geometry may vary with time. The main objective of this effort was the study of a flow field due to a propeller rotating relative to a nonrotating body which is otherwise moving at a constant forward speed. Calculated surface pressure, thrust and torque coefficient data for a four-bladed marine propeller/body compared favorably with previously published experimental results.
Fault zone architecture and fluid flow: Insights from field data and numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caine, Jonathan Saul; Forster, Craig B.
Fault zones in the upper crust are typically composed of complex fracture networks and discrete zones of comminuted and geochemically altered fault rocks. Determining the patterns and rates of fluid flow in these distinct structural discontinuities is a three-dimensional problem. A series of numerical simulations of fluid flow in a set of three-dimensional discrete fracture network models aids in identifying the primary controlling parameters of fault-related fluid flow, and their interactions, throughout episodic deformation. Four idealized, but geologically realistic, fault zone architectural models are based on fracture data collected along exposures of the Stillwater Fault Zone in Dixie Valley, Nevada and geometric data from a series of normal fault zones in east Greenland. The models are also constrained by an Andersonian model for mechanically compatible fracture networks associated with normal faulting. Fluid flow in individual fault zone components, such as a fault core and damage zone, and full outcrop scale model domains are simulated using a finite element routine. Permeability contrasts between components and permeability anisotropy within components are identified as the major controlling factors in fault-related fluid flow. Additionally, the structural and hydraulic variations in these components are also major controls of flow at the scale of the full model domains. The four models can also be viewed as a set of snapshots in the mechanical evolution of a single fault zone. Changes in the hydraulic parameters within the models mimic the evolution of the permeability structure of each model through a single deformation cycle. The model results demonstrate that small changes in the architecture and hydraulic parameters of individual fault zone components can have very large impacts, up to five orders of magnitude, on the permeability structure of the full model domains. Closure of fracture apertures in each fault zone magnifies the magnitude and
Preece, D.S. Perkins, E.D.
1999-02-10
Techniques for modeling oil well sand production have been developed using the formulations for superquadric discrete elements and Darcy fluid flow. Discrete element models are generated using the new technique of particle cloning. Discrete element sources and sinks allow simulation of sand production from the initial state through the transition to an equilibrium state where particles are created and removed at the same rate.
An Integrative Model of Excitation Driven Fluid Flow in a 2D Uterine Channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maggio, Charles; Fauci, Lisa; Chrispell, John
2009-11-01
We present a model of intra-uterine fluid flow in a sagittal cross-section of the uterus by inducing peristalsis in a 2D channel. This is an integrative multiscale computational model that takes as input fluid viscosity, passive tissue properties of the uterine channel and a prescribed wave of membrane depolarization. This voltage pulse is coupled to a model of calcium dynamics inside a uterine smooth muscle cell, which in turn drives a kinetic model of myosin phosphorylation governing contractile muscle forces. Using the immersed boundary method, these muscle forces are communicated to a fluid domain to simulate the contractions which occur in a human uterus. An analysis of the effects of model parameters on the flow properties and emergent geometry of the peristaltic channel will be presented.
Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2016-03-01
Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.
Oxygen isotopic transport and exchange during fluid flow: One-dimensional models and applications
Bowman, J.R. ); Willett, S.D. ); Cook, S.J. Environ Corp., Houston, TX )
1994-01-01
In this work the authors investigate the consequences of fluid flow and fluid-rock interaction to the isotopic evolution of fluids and rock with one-dimensional transport models of fluid flow and oxygen isotope exchange. Transport models dealing with stable isotopes are well established in recent geochemical literature. The authors extend previous treatments by presenting the derivation of both analytical and numerical solutions to the transport equations incorporating simultaneously advection, diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion, and kinetics of isotopic exchange. The increased generality of numerical solutions allows the incorporation of other effects which control the spatial patterns of [delta][sup 18]O values developed in rocks and fluids including multiple reactive species and temperature gradients. The authors discuss the effects of flow parameters, conditions of isotopic exchange, and temperature gradients on the spatial patterns of isotopic shifts produced in rock sequences subjected to fluid flow, and on conventionally calculated W/R ratios for these rock sequences. Finally, the authors examine the implications of oxygen isotope transport for two natural systems where isotopic shifts or gradients could be interpreted in terms of unidirectional fluid infiltration. Solutions of one-dimensional transport equations including the mechanisms of advection, diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion, and non-equilibrium exchange between water and rock indicate that the time-space evolution of oxygen isotopic compositions of rock and infiltrating fluid is dependent on (1) the rate of fluid infiltration, (2) the diffusive and dispersive properties of the rock matrix, (3) the rate of isotopic exchange, and (4) the rock-water mass oxygen ratio in a unit volume of water-saturated, porous rock. 56 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs.
Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.
1976-01-01
A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.
A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys
2016-04-01
Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To
A numerical model of deformation and fluid-flow in an evolving thrust wedge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strayer, Luther M.; Hudleston, Peter J.; Lorig, Loren J.
2001-06-01
To investigate deformation and fluid-flow in an actively deforming tectonic wedge, we model the evolution of a large, two-dimensional (100 km long, 5 km thick), mechanically and hydrologically homogeneous and isotropic pile of sedimentary strata that is deformed to become a thrust wedge. We compare both 'dry' and 'wet' cases, in order to illustrate: (1) the relative importance of fluids on wedge evolution, and (2) the effect of brittle deformation on fluid-flow. We use an elastic-plastic constitutive relation, including a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion and a non-associated flow rule, and coupled fluid flow, with bulk rock properties that approximate typical foreland sedimentary strata. Simulations are made both with and without dilation. The model is fully dynamic, but inertial forces remain small. Results show that deformation within the wedge is accommodated by reverse-slip movement on shear bands, which migrate in both directions through the wedge as both fore- and back-thrusts. The model has features predicted by the critical-taper theory: (1) overall wedge geometry; (2) crudely self-similar growth during evolution; (3) more intense deformation toward the rear of the wedge. The models show strong overall in-sequence faulting behavior with major thrusts isolating relatively undeformed packages, which are moved in a piggyback manner upon the active thrusts. Intermittent out-of-sequence faulting does however occur, in order to maintain the wedge taper. Fluid-flow in the deforming wedge is dominated by topography, but is also strongly affected by dilational plastic deformation. In all simulations, there is focused fluid flow within fault zones. When mechanical time-stepping is shut off (uncoupled), flow systems evolve to steady-state where inflow equals outflow. By subtracting the two 'states' we isolate the mechanical fluid response from the total coupled system response. The mechanical fluid response is manifest as contours of head and pressure difference and
Morin, Kristen T; Lenz, Michelle S; Labat, Caroline A; Tranquillo, Robert T
2015-05-01
Knowledge is limited about fluid flow in tissues containing engineered microvessels, which can be substantially different in topology than native capillary networks. A need exists for a computational model that allows for flow through tissues dense in nonpercolating and possibly nonperfusable microvessels to be efficiently evaluated. A finite difference (FD) model based on Poiseuille flow through a distribution of straight tubes acting as point sources and sinks, and Darcy flow through the interstitium, was developed to describe fluid flow through a tissue containing engineered microvessels. Accuracy of the FD model was assessed by comparison to a finite element (FE) model for the case of a single tube. Because the case of interest is a tissue with microvessels aligned with the flow, accuracy was also assessed in depth for a corresponding 2D FD model. The potential utility of the 2D FD model was then explored by correlating metrics of flow through the model tissue to microvessel morphometric properties. The results indicate that the model can predict the density of perfused microvessels based on parameters that can be easily measured. PMID:25424905
Chemical vapor deposition fluid flow simulation modelling tool
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bullister, Edward T.
1992-01-01
Accurate numerical simulation of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes requires a general purpose computational fluid dynamics package combined with specialized capabilities for high temperature chemistry. In this report, we describe the implementation of these specialized capabilities in the spectral element code NEKTON. The thermal expansion of the gases involved is shown to be accurately approximated by the low Mach number perturbation expansion of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The radiative heat transfer between multiple interacting radiating surfaces is shown to be tractable using the method of Gebhart. The disparate rates of reaction and diffusion in CVD processes are calculated via a point-implicit time integration scheme. We demonstrate the use above capabilities on prototypical CVD applications.
Predictions of bubbly flows in vertical pipes using two-fluid models in CFDS-FLOW3D code
Banas, A.O.; Carver, M.B.; Unrau, D.
1995-09-01
This paper reports the results of a preliminary study exploring the performance of two sets of two-fluid closure relationships applied to the simulation of turbulent air-water bubbly upflows through vertical pipes. Predictions obtained with the default CFDS-FLOW3D model for dispersed flows were compared with the predictions of a new model (based on the work of Lee), and with the experimental data of Liu. The new model, implemented in the CFDS-FLOW3D code, included additional source terms in the {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes} {kappa}-{epsilon} transport equations for the liquid phase, as well as modified model coefficients and wall functions. All simulations were carried out in a 2-D axisymmetric format, collapsing the general multifluid framework of CFDS-FLOW3D to the two-fluid (air-water) case. The newly implemented model consistently improved predictions of radial-velocity profiles of both phases, but failed to accurately reproduce the experimental phase-distribution data. This shortcoming was traced to the neglect of anisotropic effects in the modelling of liquid-phase turbulence. In this sense, the present investigation should be considered as the first step toward the ultimate goal of developing a theoretically sound and universal CFD-type two-fluid model for bubbly flows in channels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dietterich, H. R.; Lev, E.; Chen, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Honor, C.
2015-12-01
Recent eruptions in Hawai'i, Iceland, and Cape Verde highlight the need for improved lava flow models for forecasting and hazard assessment. Existing models used for lava flow simulation range in assumptions, complexity, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess the capabilities of existing models and test the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flows, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, Flow3D, and COMSOL. Using new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (2015) as a guide, we model Newtonian, Herschel-Bulkley and cooling flows over inclined planes, obstacles, and digital elevation models with a wide range of source conditions. Results are compared to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Our study highlights the strengths and weakness of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection. We apply the best-fit codes to simulate the lava flows in Harrat Rahat, a predominately mafic volcanic field in Saudi Arabia. Input parameters are assembled from rheology and volume measurements of past flows using geochemistry, crystallinity, and present-day lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models. With these data, we use our verified models to reconstruct historic and prehistoric events, in order to assess the hazards posed by lava flows for Harrat Rahat.
Geophysical fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Broome, B. G.; Fichtl, G.; Fowlis, W.
1979-01-01
The essential fluid flow processes associated with the solar and Jovian atmospheres will be examined in a laboratory experiment scheduled for performance on Spacelab Missions One and Three. The experimental instrumentation required to generate and to record convective fluid flow is described. Details of the optical system configuration, the lens design, and the optical coatings are described. Measurement of thermal gradient fields by schlieren techniques and measurement of fluid flow velocity fields by photochromic dye tracers is achieved with a common optical system which utilizes photographic film for data recording. Generation of the photochromic dye tracers is described, and data annotation of experimental parameters on the film record is discussed.
Dynamic coupling between fluid flow and vein growth in fractures: a 3D numerical model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, J.-O.; Enzmann, F.
2012-04-01
Fluid flow is one of the main mass transport mechanisms in the Earth's crust and abundant mineral vein networks are important indicators for fluid flow and fluid rock interaction. These systems are dynamic and part of the so called RTM processes (reaction-transport-mechanics). Understanding of mineral vein systems requires coupling of these processes. Here we present a conceptional model for dynamic vein growth of syntaxial, posttectonic veins generated by advective fluid flow and show first results of a numerical model for this scenario. Vein generation requires three processes to occur: (i) fracture generation by mechanical stress e.g. hydro-fracturing, (ii) flow of a supersaturated fluid on that fracture and (iii) crystallization of phase(s) on or in the fracture. 3D synthetic fractures are generated with the SynFrac code (Ogilvie, et al. 2006). Subsequently solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation for this fracture are computed by a computational fluid dynamics code called GeoDict (Wiegmann 2007). Transport (advective and diffusive) of chemical species to growth sites in the fracture and vein growth are computed by a self-written MATLAB script. The numerical model discretizes the wall rock and fracture geometry by volumetric pixels (voxels). Based on this representation, the model computes the three basic functions for vein generation: (a) nucleation, (b) fluid flow with transport of chemical species and (c) growth. The following conditions were chosen for these three modules. Nucleation is heterogeneous and occurs instantaneously at the wall rock/fracture interface. Advective and diffusive flow of a supersaturated fluid and related transport of chemical species occurs according to the computed fluid flow field by GeoDict. Concentration of chemical species at the inflow is constant, representing external fluid buffering. Changes/decrease in the concentration of chemical species occurs only due to vein growth. Growth of nuclei is limited either by transport of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yu-Liang; Zhu, Jie; Luo, Xiao-Shu
2009-09-01
Based on the fluid flow time-delayed model proposed by Misra et al in internet congestion control, one modified time-delayed model is presented, where the influence of the communication delay on the router queue length is investigated in detail. The main advantage of the new model is that its stability domain is larger even without an extra controller. By linear stability analysis and numerical simulation, the effectiveness and feasibility of the novel model in internet congestion control are verified.
Kanyanta, V; Ivankovic, A; Karac, A
2009-08-01
Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) numerical models are now widely used in predicting blood flow transients. This is because of the importance of the interaction between the flowing blood and the deforming arterial wall to blood flow behaviour. Unfortunately, most of these FSI models lack rigorous validation and, thus, cannot guarantee the accuracy of their predictions. This paper presents the comprehensive validation of a two-way coupled FSI numerical model, developed to predict flow transients in compliant conduits such as arteries. The model is validated using analytical solutions and experiments conducted on polyurethane mock artery. Flow parameters such as pressure and axial stress (and precursor) wave speeds, wall deformations and oscillating frequency, fluid velocity and Poisson coupling effects, were used as the basis of this validation. Results show very good comparison between numerical predictions, analytical solutions and experimental data. The agreement between the three approaches is generally over 95%. The model also shows accurate prediction of Poisson coupling effects in unsteady flows through flexible pipes, which up to this stage have only being predicted analytically. Therefore, this numerical model can accurately predict flow transients in compliant vessels such as arteries. PMID:19482285
A coupled fluid flow, deformation and heat transfer model for a twin roll caster
Bradbury, P.J.; Hunt, J.D.
1995-12-31
A numerical model of coupled fluid flow, solidification and plastic deformation for the twin roll casting process has been developed. Non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used to provide a more realistic description of the roll bite geometry while a variable heat transfer coefficient based on the normal pressure at the strip/roll interface, is incorporated through the roll bite.
Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Ingebritsen, S.E.; Hsieh, P.A.
2009-01-01
Ground surface displacement (GSD) in large calderas is often interpreted as resulting from magma intrusion at depth. Recent advances in geodetic measurements of GSD, notably interferometric synthetic aperture radar, reveal complex and multifaceted deformation patterns that often require complex source models to explain the observed GSD. Although hydrothermal fluids have been discussed as a possible deformation agent, very few quantitative studies addressing the effects of multiphase flow on crustal mechanics have been attempted. Recent increases in the power and availability of computing resources allow robust quantitative assessment of the complex time-variant thermal interplay between aqueous fluid flow and crustal deformation. We carry out numerical simulations of multiphase (liquid-gas), multicomponent (H 2O-CO2) hydrothermal fluid flow and poroelastic deformation using a range of realistic physical parameters and processes. Hydrothermal fluid injection, circulation, and gas formation can generate complex, temporally and spatially varying patterns of GSD, with deformation rates, magnitudes, and geometries (including subsidence) similar to those observed in several large calderas. The potential for both rapid and gradual deformation resulting from magma-derived fluids suggests that hydrothermal fluid circulation may help explain deformation episodes at calderas that have not culminated in magmatic eruption.
Fluid friction and wall viscosity of the 1D blood flow model.
Wang, Xiao-Fei; Nishi, Shohei; Matsukawa, Mami; Ghigo, Arthur; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Fullana, Jose-Maria
2016-02-29
We study the behavior of the pulse waves of water into a flexible tube for application to blood flow simulations. In pulse waves both fluid friction and wall viscosity are damping factors, and difficult to evaluate separately. In this paper, the coefficients of fluid friction and wall viscosity are estimated by fitting a nonlinear 1D flow model to experimental data. In the experimental setup, a distensible tube is connected to a piston pump at one end and closed at another end. The pressure and wall displacements are measured simultaneously. A good agreement between model predictions and experiments was achieved. For amplitude decrease, the effect of wall viscosity on the pulse wave has been shown as important as that of fluid viscosity. PMID:26862041
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Yi; Diplas, Panayiotis
2008-01-01
SummaryComplex flow patterns generated by irregular channel topography, such as boulders, submerged large woody debris, riprap and spur dikes, provide unique habitat for many aquatic organisms. Numerical modeling of the flow structures surrounding these obstructions is challenging, yet it represents an important tool for aquatic habitat assessment. In this study, the ability of two- (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics models to reproduce these localized complex flow features is examined. The 3-D model is validated with laboratory data obtained from the literature for the case of a flow around a hemisphere under emergent and submerged conditions. The performance of the 2-D and 3-D models is then evaluated by comparing the numerical results with field measurements of flow around several boulders located at a reach of the Smith River, a regulated mountainous stream, obtained at base and peak flows. Close agreement between measured values and the velocity profiles predicted by the two models is obtained outside the wakes behind the hemisphere and boulders. However, the results suggest that in the vicinity of these obstructions the 3-D model is better suited for reproducing the circulation flow behavior at both low and high discharges. Application of the 2-D and 3-D models to meso-scale stream flows of ecological significance is furthermore demonstrated by using a recently developed spatial hydraulic metric to quantify flow complexity surrounding a number of brown trout spawning sites. It is concluded that the 3-D model can provide a much more accurate description of the heterogeneous velocity patterns favored by many aquatic species over a broad range of flows, especially under deep flow conditions when the various obstructions are submerged. Issues pertaining to selection of appropriate models for a variety of flow regimes and potential implication of the 3-D model on the development of better habitat suitability criteria are discussed. The
Numerical Modeling on Two phase Fluid flow in a Coupled Fracture-Skin-Matrix System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valsala Kumari, R.; G, S. K.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow modeling studies below the ground surface is very essential for designing suitable remediation strategies for contaminated aquifers and for the development of petroleum and geothermal reservoirs. Presence of fractured bedrock beneath the ground surface will make multiphase flow process more complex due to its highly heterogeneous nature. A major challenge in modeling flow within a fractured rock is to capture the interaction between the high permeability fracture and the low permeability rock-matrix. In some instances, weathering and mineral depositions will lead to formation of an additional layer named fracture-skin at the fracture-matrix interface. Porosity and permeability of fracture-skin may significantly vary from the adjacent rock matrix and this variation will result in different flow and transport behavior within the fracture-skin. In the present study, an attempt has been made to model simultaneous flow of two immiscible phases (water and LNAPL) in a saturated coupled fracture-skin-matrix system. A fully-implicit finite difference model has been developed to simulate the variation of pressure and saturation of fluid phases along the fracture and within the rock-matrix. Sensitivity studies have been done to analyze the effect of change of various fracture-skin parameters such as porosity, diffusion coefficient and thickness on pressure and saturation distribution of both wetting and non-wetting fluid phases. It can be concluded from the study that the presence of fracture-skin is significantly affecting the fluid flow at the fracture-matrix interface and it can also be seen from the study that the flow behavior of both fluid phases is sensitive to fracture-skin parameters.
Flow of non-Newtonian blood analog fluids in rigid curved and straight artery models.
Mann, D E; Tarbell, J M
1990-01-01
The influence of non-Newtonian rheology on wall shear rate in steady and oscillatory flow through rigid curved and straight artery models was studied experimentally. Wall shear rates measured by flush mounted hot film anemometry under nearly identical flow conditions are reported for the following four fluids: aqueous glycerin (Newtonian), aqueous polyacrylamide (shear thinning, highly elastic), aqueous Xanthan gum (shear thinning, moderately elastic), and bovine blood. For steady flow conditions there was little difference at any measurement site in the wall shear rate levels measured for the four fluids. However, large differences were apparent for oscillatory flows, particularly at the inner curvature 180 degrees from the entrance of the curved artery model. At that position the peak wall shear rate for polyacrylamide was 5-6 times higher than for glycerin and 2-3 times higher than for bovine blood. It is concluded that polyacylamide is too elastic to provide a good model of blood flow under oscillatory conditions, particularly when there is wall shear reversal. Xanthan gum and glycerin are better analog fluids, but neither is entirely satisfactory. PMID:2271763
Massoudi, M.C.; Tran, P.X.
2007-06-15
After providing a brief review of the constitutive modeling of the stress tensor for granular materials using non-Newtonian fluid models, we study the flow between two horizontal flat plates. It is assumed that the granular media behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid (of the Reiner–Rivlin type); we use the constitutive relation derived by Rajagopal and Massoudi [Rajagopal, K. R. and M. Massoudi, “A Method for measuring material moduli of granular materials: flow in an orthogonal rheometer,” Topical Report, DOE/PETC/TR-90/3, 1990] which can predict the normal stress differences. The lower plate is fixed and heated, and the upper plate (which is at a lower temperature than the lower plate) is set into motion with a constant velocity. The steady fully developed flow and the heat transfer equations are made dimensionless and are solved numerically; the effects of different dimensionless numbers and viscous dissipation are discussed.
Modeling of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows using Eulerian and Lagrangian schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adeniji-Fashola, A.; Chen, C. P.
1990-01-01
Two important aspects of fluid-particulate interaction in dilute gas-particle turbulent flows (the turbulent particle dispersion and the turbulence modulation effects) are addressed, using the Eulerian and Lagrangian modeling approaches to describe the particulate phase. Gradient-diffusion approximations are employed in the Eulerian formulation, while a stochastic procedure is utilized to simulate turbulent dispersion in the Lagrangina formulation. The k-epsilon turbulence model is used to characterize the time and length scales of the continuous phase turbulence. Models proposed for both schemes are used to predict turbulent fully-developed gas-solid vertical pipe flow with reasonable accuracy.
Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation
Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.
1982-08-10
The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.
Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation
Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.
1982-10-01
The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.
Numerical simulation of cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe using multi-fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishimoto, J.; Oike, M.; Kamijo, K.
2002-05-01
The two-dimensional characteristics of the cavitating flow of liquid helium in a pipe are numerically investigated to realize the further development and high performance of new cryogenic engineering applications. First, the governing equations of the cavitating flow of liquid helium based on the unsteady thermal nonequilibrium multi-fluid model are presented and several flow characteristics are numerically calculated, taking into account the effect of superfluidity. Based on the numerical results, the two-dimensional structure of the turbulent cavitating flow of liquid helium passing through the orifice is shown in detail, and it is also found that the phase transition of the normal fluid to the superfluid and the generation of superfluid counterflow against normal fluid flow are conspicuous in the large gas phase volume fraction region where the liquid to gas phase change actively occurs. Furthermore, it is clarified that the mechanism of the He I to He II phase transition caused by the temperature decrease is due to the deprivation of latent heat for vaporization from the liquid phase. According to these theoretical results, the fundamental characteristics of the cryogenic cavitating flow are predicted.
Modeling Fluid Flow and Microbial Reactions in the Peru Accretionary Complex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekins, B. A.; Matmon, D.
2002-12-01
Accretionary complexes are sites where sediment compaction and deeper reactions drive large-scale flow systems that can affect global solute budgets. Extensive modeling and drilling studies have elucidated the origin of the fluids, pore pressures, duration of flow, and major flow paths in these settings. An important research goal is to quantify the effect of these flow systems on global chemical budgets of reactive solutes such as carbon. The Peru margin represents an end member setting that can serve as a basis to extend the results to other margins. The sediments are relatively high in organic carbon with an average value of 2.6%. The subduction rate at ~9 cm/yr and taper angle at 14-17° are among the largest in the world. Recent microbial studies on Ocean Drilling Program Leg 201 at the Peru accretionary margin provide many key elements needed to quantify the processes affecting organic carbon in an accretionary complex. Pore water chemistry data from Site 1230 located in the Peru accretionary prism indicate that sulfate reduction is important in the top 8 mbsf. Below this depth, methanogenesis is the dominant process and methane concentrations are among the highest measured at any site on Leg 201. The presence of high methane concentrations at shallow depths suggests that methane is transported upward in the prism by fluid flow. Measurements of in-situ pore pressures and temperatures also support the presence of upward fluid flow. A single in-situ pressure measurement at ~100 mbsf indicated an overpressure of 0.14 MPa. For a reasonable formation permeability of ~ 10-16 m2, the measured overpressure is adequate to produce flow at a rate of ~5 mm/yr. This rate is comparable to previous model estimates for flow rates in the Peru accretionary prism. In addition, curvature in the downhole temperature profile can best be explained by upward fluid flow of 1-10 mm/yr. These data are used to constrain a two-dimensional coupled fluid flow and reactive transport model
SPH-DCDEM model for arbitrary geometries in free surface solid-fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Canelas, Ricardo B.; Crespo, Alejandro J. C.; Domínguez, Jose M.; Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho
2016-05-01
A unified discretization of rigid solids and fluids is introduced, allowing for resolved simulations of fluid-solid phases within a meshless framework. The numerical solution, attained by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) and a variation of Discrete Element Method (DEM), the Distributed Contact Discrete Element Method (DCDEM) discretization, is achieved by directly considering solid-solid and solid-fluid interactions. The novelty of the work is centred on the generalization of the coupling of the DEM and SPH methodologies for resolved simulations, allowing for state-of-the-art contact mechanics theories to be used in arbitrary geometries, while fluid to solid and vice versa momentum transfers are accurately described. The methods are introduced, analysed and discussed. Initial validations on the DCDEM and the fluid coupling are presented, drawing from test cases in the literature. An experimental campaign serves as a validation point for complex, large scale solid-fluid flows, where a set of blocks in several configurations is subjected to a dam-break wave. Blocks are tracked and positions are then compared between experimental data and the numerical solutions. A Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique allows for the quantification of the flow field and direct comparison with numerical data. The results show that the model is accurate and is capable of treating highly complex interactions, such as transport of debris or hydrodynamic actions on structures, if relevant scales are reproduced.
Evaluation of a vortex model of turbulent cavity flow. [for computing noise generation of fluid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, J. C.; Block, P. J. W.
1979-01-01
A two dimensional discrete vortex model is applied to turbulent flow over a cavity at a Reynolds number based on cavity half length of approximately 500,000. These model predictions are compared with experimental data on a time average and on a spectral basis. The comparisons indicate that the vortex model reproduces the mean velocity profiles of this complex flow, while the turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress profiles are overpredicted in magnitude. Spectral analyses show that the vortex model introduces unrealistic low frequency power which becomes less dominant as the model becomes more disordered. The spectral power distribution of the model in this state is nearly in agreement with that of the data, somewhat too low at the higher frequencies and too high at the lower frequencies. The model is shown to be capable of reproducing the cavity feedback oscillation phenomenon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leggiero, Michael; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2013-11-01
The main objective of this study was to examine inertial effects in a 180-degree model of curved arteries under pulsatile inflow conditions. Two-component, two-dimensional particle image velocimetery (2C-2D PIV) data were acquired upstream of and at several cross-sectional locations in the curved artery model. A blood-analog fluid comprised of 71% saturated sodium iodide solution, 28% glycerol and 1% distilled water (by volume) was subjected to multi-harmonic pulsatile inflow functions. First, signal time-lag was quantified by cross-correlating the input (voltage-time) supplied to a programmable pump and the output PIV (flow rate-time) measurements. The experiment was then treated as a linear, time-invariant system, and frequency response was estimated for phase shifts across a certain spectrum. Input-output signal dissimilarities were attributable to intrinsic inertial effects of flow. By coupling pressure-time and upstream flow rate-time measurements, the experiment was modeled using system identification methods. Results elucidate the role of inertial effects in fluid flow velocity measurements and the effect of these delays on secondary flow structure detection in a curved artery model. Supported by the NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline
2016-04-01
Surface outcrops provide natural analogs for aquifers and they offer an opportunity to study the geometry of geologic heterogeneities in three dimensions over a range of scales. We show photographs, maps, quantitative field data of rock fractures and sedimentary features in outcrops exposed in a unique collection of many different settings. These include small-scale sedimentary structures, carbonate nodules, faults, and other fractures as documented in outcrops of porous sandstone (Utah, USA and Italy), tight sandstones (Bolivia), dolomite (Northern Italy), and carbonates (Central Italy). We simulate the geometries observed in outcrops with simple conceptual and numerical models of flow to show how important it is to recognize the appropriate attributes for the description and the process responsible for the formation of geologic heterogeneities. For example, knowing the type of structural heterogeneities (fault, joint, compaction band, stylolite, and vein) and their development mechanics helps to predict the distribution and preferential orientation of these features within an aquifer. This knowledge is particularly important for modeling of fluid flow where geophysical or borehole data are lacking. Geologic heterogeneities of sedimentary, structural or diagenetic (chemical) nature influence the fluid flow properties in many aquifers and reservoirs at scales varying over several orders of magnitude and with a spatial variability ranging from mm to tens of meters. Heterogeneities may enhance or degrade porosity and permeability, they impart anisotropy to permeability and dispersion and affect mass transport-related processes in groundwater. Furthermore, aquifer heterogeneities control aquifer continuity and compartmentalization. In fractured aquifers, geologic and diagenetic heterogeneities may affect connectivity, aperture of the flow channels or the distribution of permeability buffers, barriers and seals. Also variations in layer thickness and lithology within a
Fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer with loop flow
Rothe, P.H.; Ackerson, M.F.
1982-04-01
This report describes an experimental program of fluid mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale transparent model of the cold leg and downcomer of typical Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors. The results include transient data from a grid of thermocouples and exensive flow visualization photographs. Substantial mixing of cold injected water with hot primary coolant occurred during many of the tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horiuchi, Shun-suke; Iwamori, Hikaru
2016-05-01
Water plays crucial roles in the subduction zone dynamics affecting the thermal-flow structure through the fluid processes. We aim to understand what controls the dynamics and construct a model to solve consistently fluid generation, fluid transport, its reaction with the solid and resultant viscosity, and thermal-flow structure. We highlight the effect of mechanical weakening of rocks associated with hydration. The viscosity of serpentinite (ηserp) in subduction zones critically controls the flow-thermal structure via extent of mechanical coupling between the subducting slab and overlying mantle wedge. When ηserp is greater than 1021 Pa s, the thermal-flow structure reaches a steady state beneath the volcanic zone, and the melting region expands until Cin (initial water content in the subducting oceanic crust) reaches 3 wt %, and it does not expand from 3 wt %. On the other hand, when ηserp is less than 1019 Pa s, the greater water dependence of viscosity (expressed by a larger fv) confines a hot material to a narrower channel intruding into the wedge corner from a deeper part of the back-arc region. Consequently, the overall heat flux becomes less for a larger fv. When ageba (age of back-arc basin as a rifted lithosphere) = 7.5 Ma, the increase in fv weakens but shifts the melting region toward the trench side because of the narrow channel flow intruding into the wedge corner, where as it shuts down melting when ageba=20 Ma. Several model cases (particularly those with ηserp=1020 to 1021 Pa s and a relatively large fv for Cin=2 to 3 wt %) broadly account for the observations in the Northeast Japan arc (i.e., location and width of volcanic chain, extent of serpentinite, surface heat flow, and seismic tomography), although the large variability of surface heat flow and seismic tomographic images does not allow us to constrain the parameter range tightly.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2014-08-06
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns
Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle
2014-03-06
Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.
Reactive fluid flow models and applications to diagenesis, mineral deposits and crustal rocks
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.
1992-01-01
This project is obtaining new results and developing new techniques along three directions: (a) experimental studies of water-rock reactions (b) theoretical modeling of coupled fluid flow-chemical reactions and (c) isotopic measurements of both regional isotopic compositions as well as isotopic zoning within individual mineral grains. An important part of the project is the integration of all three approaches into a concerted effort aimed at new understanding of the behavior of fluids and their chemical reactions with minerals in the crust. The experimental work pioneered in our laboratories has produced several startling results on the kinetic rate laws of silicate-water reactions. The approach to equilibrium has been shown to follow a non-linear path in rate constant-free energy space. This behavior is quite distinct from most work done by geochemists on modeling silicate behavior in diagenesis, weathering, hydrothermal systems or environmental models. The work to date has involved albite, kaolinite and gibbsite, which together with silica would comprise a kinetic granite system prototype''. The theoretical modeling has produced a state-of-the-art computer code that can efficiently handle dozens of chemical species, many mineral reactions and variations of fluid flow properties and temperature in both one and two dimensions. In addition the code can now treat oxidation-reduction reactions and isotopic exchange between fluids and minerals. The main thrust of the theoretical modeling has been to develop further the differences between equilibrium, steady state, and non-steady-state behavior of the chemical evolution of open fluid-rock systems. These differences have not been fully appreciated in previous models.
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.
1992-10-01
This project is obtaining new results and developing new techniques along three directions: (a) experimental studies of water-rock reactions (b) theoretical modeling of coupled fluid flow-chemical reactions and (c) isotopic measurements of both regional isotopic compositions as well as isotopic zoning within individual mineral grains. An important part of the project is the integration of all three approaches into a concerted effort aimed at new understanding of the behavior of fluids and their chemical reactions with minerals in the crust. The experimental work pioneered in our laboratories has produced several startling results on the kinetic rate laws of silicate-water reactions. The approach to equilibrium has been shown to follow a non-linear path in rate constant-free energy space. This behavior is quite distinct from most work done by geochemists on modeling silicate behavior in diagenesis, weathering, hydrothermal systems or environmental models. The work to date has involved albite, kaolinite and gibbsite, which together with silica would comprise a kinetic ``granite system prototype``. The theoretical modeling has produced a state-of-the-art computer code that can efficiently handle dozens of chemical species, many mineral reactions and variations of fluid flow properties and temperature in both one and two dimensions. In addition the code can now treat oxidation-reduction reactions and isotopic exchange between fluids and minerals. The main thrust of the theoretical modeling has been to develop further the differences between equilibrium, steady state, and non-steady-state behavior of the chemical evolution of open fluid-rock systems. These differences have not been fully appreciated in previous models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelaziz, Ramadan; Sussumu Komori, Fabio
2015-04-01
Recently, Lattice Boltzmann Modelling (LBM) techniques attract many scientists in various fields of research. This work shows the capability for LBM to simulate the fluid flow and solute transport in porous and fracture media, additionally, how to study behavior of nanofluids submitted to a temperature gradient, which it is an important process in natural aquatic environments, water treatment, and other water related technologies. LBSim is used in this work as Lattice Boltzmann Model simulator software. In this article, a series of cases using the lattice Boltzmann method are presented, showing the capability of the method in simulating phenomena with fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media. Results show that the lattice Boltzmann method delivers reliable and helpful simulations for the analyses of processes in water related technologies. Thus, LBSim is a recommended tool for simulating fluid flow at laminar and turbulent condition, and heat and mass transport under complex geometry and boundary condition. parameter values. Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Model, LBSim, Fractures Media, Porous Media, nanofluids
Surface flow boundary conditions in modeling land subsidence due to fluid withdrawal.
Baú, Domenico; Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro
2004-01-01
Land subsidence due to subsurface fluid (water, gas, oil) withdrawal is often predicted by either finite element or finite difference numerical models based on coupled poroelastic theory, where the soil is represented as a semi-infinite medium bounded by the traction-free (ground) surface. One of the variables playing a most important role on the final outcome is the flow condition used on the traction-free boundary, which may be assumed as either permeable or impermeable. Although occasionally justified, the assumption of no-flow surface seems to be in general rather unrealistic. A permeable boundary where the fluid pressure is fixed to the external atmospheric pressure appears to be more appropriate. This paper addresses the response, in terms of land subsidence, obtained with a coupled poroelastic finite element model that simulates a distributed pumping from a horizontal aquifer confined between two relatively impervious layers, and takes either a permeable boundary surface, i.e., constant hydraulic potential, or an impermeable boundary, i.e., a zero Neumann flow condition. The analysis reveals that land subsidence is rather sensitive to the flow condition implemented on the traction-free boundary. In general, the no-flow condition leads to an overestimate of the predicted ground surface settlement, which could even be 1 order of magnitude larger than that obtained with the permeable boundary. PMID:15318774
Mauldon, A.D.; Karasaki, K.; Martel, S.J.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfield, M.; Mensch, A. ); Vomvoris, S. )
1993-11-01
One of the characteristics of flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to represent this condition, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model we represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called [open quotes]simulated annealing.[close quotes] The fracture network model is [open quotes]annealed[close quotes] by continually modifying a base model, or [open quotes]template,[close quotes] so that with each modification, the model behaves more and more like the observed system. This template is constructed using geological and geophysical data to identify the regions that possibly conduct fluid an the probable orientations of channels that conduct fluid. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, we have developed a synthetic case. In this case, the geometry of the fracture network is completely known, so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. We also analyze field data from the Migration Experiment at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland. 28 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.
Otto Laporte Lecture: Fluid Dynamics Prize Talk: Simple Models for Turbulent Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pope, Stephen B.
2009-11-01
We focus on the modeling of two turbulent flows: dispersion from a line source in grid turbulence; and, a lifted non-premixed turbulent jet flame. Stochastic Lagrangian models and PDF methods are described, and are shown to model these flows satisfactorily. For the line source, a Lagrangian approach is taken, with the Langevin equation modeling the velocity following a fluid particle, and with a simple relaxation model for the particle temperature. Comparison with experimental data shows that the resulting model describes accurately the dispersion from single and multiple line sources. These simple stochastic Lagrangian models are then applied to the much more challenging case of a lifted non-premixed jet flame. The stochastic Lagrangian models form the basis for a particle/mesh numerical method for solving a modeled transport equation for the Eulerian joint probability density function (PDF) of velocity and composition. The PDF calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data, and exhibit the observed extreme sensitivity of the flame to the temperature of the co-flow. The PDF model calculations presented clearly demonstrate that simple models can be very useful, even though aspects of their behavior may be inaccurate or incomplete. The shortcomings of the Langevin equation are examined, and more advanced models (designed to overcome some of these shortcomings) are described. These include models for fluid-particle acceleration, including the effects of intermittency; models accounting for mean shear, which are correct in the rapid- distortion limit; and models designed for use in conjunction with large-eddy simulations (LES).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.
1988-07-01
A multiple-realization particle trajectory scheme has been developed and applied to the numerical prediction of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows. The example flows investigated include the vertical pipe upflow experimental data of Tsuji et al. and the experimental data of Leavitt for a coaxial jet flow, comprising a particle-laden central jet and a clean annular jet, into a large recirculation chamber. The results obtained from the numerical scheme agree well with the experimental data, lending confidence to the modeling approach. The multiple-realization particle trajectory turbulent flow modeling scheme is believed to be a more elegant and accurate approach to the extension of single-particle hydrodynamics to dilute multi-particle systems than the more commonly employed two-fluid modeling approach. It is also better able to incorporate additional force items such as lift, virtual mass and Bassett history terms directly into the particle equation of motion as appropriate. This makes it a suitable candidate for particle migration studies and an extension to situations involving liquid particulate phases with possible propulsion applications, such as in spray combustion, follows naturally.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adeniji-Fashola, A. A.
1988-01-01
A multiple-realization particle trajectory scheme has been developed and applied to the numerical prediction of confined turbulent fluid-particle flows. The example flows investigated include the vertical pipe upflow experimental data of Tsuji et al. and the experimental data of Leavitt for a coaxial jet flow, comprising a particle-laden central jet and a clean annular jet, into a large recirculation chamber. The results obtained from the numerical scheme agree well with the experimental data, lending confidence to the modeling approach. The multiple-realization particle trajectory turbulent flow modeling scheme is believed to be a more elegant and accurate approach to the extension of single-particle hydrodynamics to dilute multi-particle systems than the more commonly employed two-fluid modeling approach. It is also better able to incorporate additional force items such as lift, virtual mass and Bassett history terms directly into the particle equation of motion as appropriate. This makes it a suitable candidate for particle migration studies and an extension to situations involving liquid particulate phases with possible propulsion applications, such as in spray combustion, follows naturally.
An approximate single fluid 3-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model with toroidal flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Chapman, I. T.; Brunetti, D.; Faustin, J. M.; Graves, J. P.; Pfefferlé, D.; Raghunathan, M.; Sauter, O.; Tran, T. M.; Aiba, N.
2014-09-01
An approximate model for a single fluid three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium with pure isothermal toroidal flow with imposed nested magnetic flux surfaces is proposed. It recovers the rigorous toroidal rotation equilibrium description in the axisymmetric limit. The approximation is valid under conditions of nearly rigid or vanishing toroidal rotation in regions with significant 3D deformation of the equilibrium flux surfaces. Bifurcated helical core equilibrium simulations of long-lived modes in the MAST device demonstrate that the magnetic structure is only weakly affected by the flow but that the 3D pressure distortion is important. The pressure is displaced away from the major axis and therefore is not as noticeably helically deformed as the toroidal magnetic flux under the subsonic flow conditions measured in the experiment. The model invoked fails to predict any significant screening by toroidal plasma rotation of resonant magnetic perturbations in MAST free boundary computations.
Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Karniadakis, George Em; Caswell, Bruce
2010-01-01
Polymer fluids are modeled with dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) as undiluted bead-spring chains and their solutions. The models are assessed by investigating their steady shear-rate properties. Non-Newtonian viscosity and normal stress coefficients, for shear rates from the lower to the upper Newtonian regimes, are calculated from both plane Couette and plane Poiseuille flows. The latter is realized as reverse Poiseuille flow (RPF) generated from two Poiseuille flows driven by uniform body forces in opposite directions along two-halves of a computational domain. Periodic boundary conditions ensure the RPF wall velocity to be zero without density fluctuations. In overlapping shear-rate regimes the RPF properties are confirmed to be in good agreement with those calculated from plane Couette flow with Lees–Edwards periodic boundary conditions (LECs), the standard virtual rheometer for steady shear-rate properties. The concentration and the temperature dependence of the properties of the model fluids are shown to satisfy the principles of concentration and temperature superposition commonly employed in the empirical correlation of real polymer-fluid properties. The thermodynamic validity of the equation of state is found to be a crucial factor for the achievement of time-temperature superposition. With these models, RPF is demonstrated to be an accurate and convenient virtual rheometer for the acquisition of steady shear-rate rheological properties. It complements, confirms, and extends the results obtained with the standard LEC configuration, and it can be used with the output from other particle-based methods, including molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics, smooth particle hydrodynamics, and the lattice Boltzmann method. PMID:20405981
Fluid flow, mineral reactions, and metasomatism
Ferry, J.M.; Dipple, G.M. )
1991-03-01
A general model that relates fluid flow along a temnperature gradient to chemical reaction in rocks can be used to quantitatively interpret petrologic and geochemical data on metasomatism from ancient flow systems in terms of flow direction and time-integrated fluid flux. The model is applied to regional metamorphism, quartz veins, and a metasomatized ductile fault zone.
A case study of fluid flow in fractured rock mass based on 2-D DFN modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jisu; Noh, Young-Hwan; Um, Jeong-Gi; Choi, Yosoon
2014-05-01
A two dimensional steady-state fluid flow through fractured rock mass of an abandoned copper mine in Korea is addressed based on discrete fracture network modeling. An injection well and three observation wells were installed at the field site to monitor the variations of total heads induced by injection of fresh water. A series of packer tests were performed to estimate the rock mass permeability. First, the two dimensional stochastic fracture network model was built and validated for a granitic rock mass using the geometrical and statistical data obtained from surface exposures and borehole logs. This validated fracture network model was combined with the fracture data observed on boreholes to generate a stochastic-deterministic fracture network system. Estimated apertures for each of the fracture sets using permeability data obtained from borehole packer tests were discussed next. Finally, a systematic procedure for fluid flow modeling in fractured rock mass in two dimensional domain was presented to estimate the conductance, flow quantity and nodal head in 2-D conceptual linear pipe channel network. The results obtained in this study clearly show that fracture geometry parameters (orientation, density and size) play an important role in the hydraulic behavior of fractured rock masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Mingming; Browne, David J.
2012-01-01
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics is employed, for the first time, to develop a numerical model for the melting and fluid flow during laser welding process. In this meshlessLagrangian method the gas-melt two phase flow, heat transfer, surface tension, and melting of solid parent material are considered. This model was used to study the evolution of temperature field and fluid flow in the case study of laser spot welding in 2D. The simulation results show a strong influence of the melting process on the flow of liquid metal and a clear influence of the Marangoni flow on the heat transfer is also found.
Optimization of a Two-Fluid Hydrodynamic Model of Churn-Turbulent Flow
Donna Post Guillen
2009-07-01
A hydrodynamic model of two-phase, churn-turbulent flows is being developed using the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) code, NPHASE-CMFD. The numerical solutions obtained by this model are compared with experimental data obtained at the TOPFLOW facility of the Institute of Safety Research at the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The TOPFLOW data is a high quality experimental database of upward, co-current air-water flows in a vertical pipe suitable for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. A five-field CMFD model was developed for the continuous liquid phase and four bubble size groups using mechanistic closure models for the ensemble-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Mechanistic models for the drag and non-drag interfacial forces are implemented to include the governing physics to describe the hydrodynamic forces controlling the gas distribution. The closure models provide the functional form of the interfacial forces, with user defined coefficients to adjust the force magnitude. An optimization strategy was devised for these coefficients using commercial design optimization software. This paper demonstrates an approach to optimizing CMFD model parameters using a design optimization approach. Computed radial void fraction profiles predicted by the NPHASE-CMFD code are compared to experimental data for four bubble size groups.
An improved model of ER fluids in squeeze-flow through model updating of the estimated yield stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Wahed, A. K.; Sproston, J. L.; Stanway, R.; Williams, E. W.
2003-11-01
In the squeeze-flow mode of operation, electrorheological (ER) fluid is placed between two electrodes, which are free to translate in a direction roughly parallel to the direction of the applied electric field. Consequently, the ER fluid is subjected to alternate tensile and compressive strokes and shearing of the fluid also occurs. Available displacements are small but large forces are available from compact devices and there are many potential applications, notably in vibration isolation. The present authors have spent several years developing mathematical models to account for the observed behaviour of ER fluids in squeeze-flow. Previous attempts at modelling squeeze-flow behaviour have been partially successful but there have always been discrepancies. These discrepancies have generally been attributed to the difficulty of estimating the yield stress developed within the ER fluid when an electric field is applied. In the present paper, the authors describe a new approach in which the yield stress is determined iteratively by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted values of the transmitted force. Using this technique, force/displacement and force/velocity plots are predicted and compared with values from an experimental facility. It is shown that agreement between model predictions and experimental observation is excellent and significantly better than those obtained using existing models.
Sanford, Ward E.; Pearson, S.C.P.; Kiyosugi, K.; Lehto, H.L.; Saballos, J.A.; Connor, C.B.
2012-01-01
We investigate geologic controls on circulation in the shallow hydrothermal system of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, and their relationship to surface diffuse degassing. On a local scale (~250 m), relatively impermeable normal faults dipping at ~60° control the flowpath of water vapor and other gases in the vadose zone. These shallow normal faults are identified by modeling of a NE-SW trending magnetic anomaly of up to 2300 nT that corresponds to a topographic offset. Elevated SP and CO2 to the NW of the faults and an absence of CO2 to the SE suggest that these faults are barriers to flow. TOUGH2 numerical models of fluid circulation show enhanced flow through the footwalls of the faults, and corresponding increased mass flow and temperature at the surface (diffuse degassing zones). On a larger scale, TOUGH2 modeling suggests that groundwater convection may be occurring in a 3-4 km radial fracture zone transecting the entire flank of the volcano. Hot water rising uniformly into the base of the model at 1 x 10-5 kg/m2s results in convection that focuses heat and fluid and can explain the three distinct diffuse degassing zones distributed along the fracture. Our data and models suggest that the unusually active surface degassing zones at Masaya volcano can result purely from uniform heat and fluid flux at depth that is complicated by groundwater convection and permeability variations in the upper few km. Therefore isolating the effects of subsurface geology is vital when trying to interpret diffuse degassing in light of volcanic activity.
Multidimensional Model of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Generation-IV Supercritical Water Reactors
Gallaway, Tara; Antal, Steven P.; Podowski, Michael Z.
2006-07-01
This paper is concerned with the mechanistic modeling and theoretical/computational analysis of flow and heat transfer in future Generation-IV Supercritical Water Cooled Reactors (SCWR). The issues discussed in the paper include: the development of analytical models of the properties of supercritical water, and the application of full three-dimensional computational modeling framework to simulate fluid flow and heat transfer in SCWRs. Several results of calculations are shown, including the evaluation of water properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and Prandtl number) near the pseudo-critical temperature for various supercritical pressures, and the CFD predictions using the NPHASE computer code. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach is very promising for future mechanistic analyses of SCWR thermal-hydraulics and safety. (authors)
Zebrafish models of idiopathic scoliosis link cerebrospinal fluid flow defects to spine curvature.
Grimes, D T; Boswell, C W; Morante, N F C; Henkelman, R M; Burdine, R D; Ciruna, B
2016-06-10
Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) affects 3% of children worldwide, yet the mechanisms underlying this spinal deformity remain unknown. Here we show that ptk7 mutant zebrafish, a faithful developmental model of IS, exhibit defects in ependymal cell cilia development and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. Transgenic reintroduction of Ptk7 in motile ciliated lineages prevents scoliosis in ptk7 mutants, and mutation of multiple independent cilia motility genes yields IS phenotypes. We define a finite developmental window for motile cilia in zebrafish spine morphogenesis. Notably, restoration of cilia motility after the onset of scoliosis blocks spinal curve progression. Together, our results indicate a critical role for cilia-driven CSF flow in spine development, implicate irregularities in CSF flow as an underlying biological cause of IS, and suggest that noninvasive therapeutic intervention may prevent severe scoliosis. PMID:27284198
Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2009-07-14
In the subsurface fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids and contaminants (sometimes over long distances), by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes and enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone, water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil and water/oil/gas in oil reservoirs, water/air/non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in contaminated vadose zone systems and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines, and its impact on dynamic contact angles, must also be taken into account, and coupled with the fluid flow. Pore network models and simple statistical physics based models such as the invasion percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models have been used quite extensively. However, these models for multiphase fluid flow are based on simplified models for pore space geometries and simplified physics. Other methods such a lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas models, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, and particle methods such as dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are based more firmly on first principles, and they do not require simplified pore and/or fracture geometries. However, they are less (in some cases very much less) computationally efficient that pore network and statistical physics models. Recently a combination of continuum computation fluid dynamics, fluid-fluid interface tracking or capturing and simple models for the dependence of contact angles on fluid velocity
Paul Meakin; Alexandre Tartakovsky
2009-07-01
In the subsurface fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids and contaminants (sometimes over long distances), by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes and enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone, water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil and water/oil/gas in oil reservoirs, water/air/non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in contaminated vadose zone systems and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines, and its impact on dynamic contact angles, must also be taken into account, and coupled with the fluid flow. Pore network models and simple statistical physics based models such as the invasion percolation and diffusion-limited aggregation models have been used quite extensively. However, these models for multiphase fluid flow are based on simplified models for pore space geometries and simplified physics. Other methods such a lattice Boltzmann and lattice gas models, molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo methods, and particle methods such as dissipative particle dynamics and smoothed particle hydrodynamics are based more firmly on first principles, and they do not require simplified pore and/or fracture geometries. However, they are less (in some cases very much less) computationally efficient that pore network and statistical physics models. Recently a combination of continuum computation fluid dynamics, fluid-fluid interface tracking or capturing and simple models for the dependence of contact angles on fluid velocity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, A. N.
2009-05-01
This paper reports the results of numerical studies of axisymmetric flows in a coaxial plasma accelerator in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field. The calculations were performed using a two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic model taking into account the Hall effect and the conductivity tensor of the medium. The numerical experiments confirmed the main features of the plasmadynamic processes found previously using analytical and one-fluid models and made it possible to study plasma flows near the electrodes.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of a Lithium/Thionyl Chloride Battery with Electrolyte Flow
Gu, W.B.; Jungst, Rudolph G.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Wang, C.Y.; Weidner, John.
1999-06-11
A two-dimensional model is developed to simulate discharge of a lithium/thionyl chloride primary battery. The model accounts for not only transport of species and charge, but also the electrode porosity variations and the electrolyte flow induced by the volume reduction caused by electrochemical reactions. Numerical simulations are performed using a finite volume method of computational fluid dynamics. The predicted discharge curves for various temperatures are compared to the experimental data with excellent agreement. Moreover, the simulation results. in conjunction with computer visualization and animation techniques, confirm that cell utilization in the temperature and current range of interest is limited by pore plugging or clogging of the front side of the cathode as a result of LiCl precipitation. The detailed two-dimensional flow simulation also shows that the electrolyte is replenished from the cell header predominantly through the separator into the front of the cathode during most parts of the discharge, especially for higher cell temperatures.
General Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Secondary Flows in Turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Majumdar, Alok K.; Van Hoosier, Katherine P.
1995-01-01
The complexity and variety of turbomachinery flow circuits created a need for a general fluid system simulation program for test data anomaly resolution as well as design review. The objective of the paper is to present a computer program that has been developed to support Marshall Space Flight Center's turbomachinery internal flow analysis efforts. The computer program solves for the mass. energy and species conservation equation at each node and flow rate equation at each branch of the network by a novel numerical procedure which is a combination of both Newton-Ralphson and successive substitution method and uses a thermodynamic property program for computing real gas properties. A generalized, robust, modular, and 'user-friendly' computer program has been developed to model internal flow rates, pressures, temperatures, concentrations of gas mixtures and axial thrusts. The program can be used for any network for compressible and incompressible flows, choked flow, change of phase and gaseous mixturecs. The code has been validated by comparing the predictions with Space Shuttle Main Engine test data.
Incompressible SPH Model for Simulating Violent Free-Surface Fluid Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Staroszczyk, Ryszard
2014-06-01
In this paper the problem of transient gravitational wave propagation in a viscous incompressible fluid is considered, with a focus on flows with fast-moving free surfaces. The governing equations of the problem are solved by the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method (SPH). In order to impose the incompressibility constraint on the fluid motion, the so-called projection method is applied in which the discrete SPH equations are integrated in time by using a fractional-step technique. Numerical performance of the proposed model has been assessed by comparing its results with experimental data and with results obtained by a standard (weakly compressible) version of the SPH approach. For this purpose, a plane dam-break flow problem is simulated, in order to investigate the formation and propagation of a wave generated by a sudden collapse of a water column initially contained in a rectangular tank, as well as the impact of such a wave on a rigid vertical wall. The results of simulations show the evolution of the free surface of water, the variation of velocity and pressure fields in the fluid, and the time history of pressures exerted by an impacting wave on a wall.
Analysis Of Residence Time Distribution Of Fluid Flow By Axial Dispersion Model
Sugiharto; Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Abidin, Zainal
2010-12-23
Radioactive tracer {sup 82}Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity {+-} 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.
Analysis Of Residence Time Distribution Of Fluid Flow By Axial Dispersion Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sugiharto, Su'ud, Zaki; Kurniadi, Rizal; Waris, Abdul; Abidin, Zainal
2010-12-01
Radioactive tracer 82Br in the form of KBr-82 with activity ± 1 mCi has been injected into steel pipeline to qualify the extent dispersion of water flowing inside it. Internal diameter of the pipe is 3 in. The water source was originated from water tank through which the water flow gravitically into the pipeline. Two collimated sodium iodide detectors were used in this experiment each of which was placed on the top of the pipeline at the distance of 8 and 11 m from injection point respectively. Residence time distribution (RTD) curves obtained from injection of tracer are elaborated numerically to find information of the fluid flow properties. The transit time of tracer calculated from the mean residence time (MRT) of each RTD curves is 14.9 s, therefore the flow velocity of the water is 0.2 m/s. The dispersion number, D/uL, for each RTD curve estimated by using axial dispersion model are 0.055 and 0.06 respectively. These calculations are performed after fitting the simulated axial dispersion model on the experiment curves. These results indicated that the extent of dispersion of water flowing in the pipeline is in the category of intermediate.
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P.; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S.
2015-01-01
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between and m s−1 which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than . Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25808342
Multicomponent model of deformation and detachment of a biofilm under fluid flow.
Tierra, Giordano; Pavissich, Juan P; Nerenberg, Robert; Xu, Zhiliang; Alber, Mark S
2015-05-01
A novel biofilm model is described which systemically couples bacteria, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and solvent phases in biofilm. This enables the study of contributions of rheology of individual phases to deformation of biofilm in response to fluid flow as well as interactions between different phases. The model, which is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics, is derived using an energetic variational approach and phase-field method. Phase-field coupling is used to model structural changes of a biofilm. A newly developed unconditionally energy-stable numerical splitting scheme is implemented for computing the numerical solution of the model efficiently. Model simulations predict biofilm cohesive failure for the flow velocity between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] m s(-1) which is consistent with experiments. Simulations predict biofilm deformation resulting in the formation of streamers for EPS exhibiting a viscous-dominated mechanical response and the viscosity of EPS being less than [Formula: see text]. Higher EPS viscosity provides biofilm with greater resistance to deformation and to removal by the flow. Moreover, simulations show that higher EPS elasticity yields the formation of streamers with complex geometries that are more prone to detachment. These model predictions are shown to be in qualitative agreement with experimental observations. PMID:25808342
A fiber matrix model for fluid flow and streaming potentials in the canaliculi of an osteon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zeng, Y.; Cowin, S. C.; Weinbaum, S.
1994-01-01
A theoretical model is developed to predict the fluid shear stress and streaming potential at the surface of osteocytic processes in the lacunar-canalicular porosity of an osteon when the osteon is subject to mechanical loads that are parallel or perpendicular to its axis. The theory developed in Weinbaum et al. (31) for the flow through a proteoglycan matrix in a canaliculus is employed in a poroelastic model for the osteon. Our formulation is a generalization of that of Petrov et al. (17). Our model predicts that, in order to satisfy the measured frequency dependence of the phase and magnitude of the SGP in macroscopic bone samples, the fiber spacing in the fluid annulus must lie in the narrow range 6-7 nm typical of the spacing of GAG sidechains along a protein monomer. The model predictions for the local SGP profiles in the osteon agree with the experimental observations of Starkebaum et al. (24). The theory predicts that the pore pressure relaxation time, tau d, for a 150-300 microns diameter osteon with the foregoing matrix structure is approximately 0.03-0.13 sec, and that the amplitude of the mean fluid shear stress on the membrane of the osteocytic process at the mean areal radius of the osteon has a maximum at 28 Hz if tau d = 0.06 sec. This maximum, which is independent of the magnitude of the loading, could be important in vivo since the recent experiments of Turner et al. (28) and McLeod et al. (15) have a peak in the strain frequency spectrum between 20 and 30 Hz that also appears to be independent of the type (magnitude) of loading. Numerical predictions for the amplitude of the average fluid shear stress on the osteocytic membrane at the mean areal radius of the osteon show that the fluid shear stress associated with the low amplitude 20-30 Hz spectral strain component is at least as large as the average fluid shear stress associated with the high amplitude 1 Hz stride component, although the latter loading is an order of magnitude larger, and has a
SDEM modelling of deformation associated with a listric fault system and associated fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rasmussen, Marie L.; Clausen, Ole R.; Egholm, David L.; Andresen, Katrine J.
2016-04-01
Numerical modelling of geological structures using FEM, DEM and SDEM methods as well as analogue modelling are widely used in order to achieve a better understanding of the kinematics and dynamics during deformation. The methods are furthermore the ultimate source for mapping (observing) the true geometry of geological structures as well as subsurface fluid flow phenomena in 3D seismic data developed for hydrocarbon exploration. Here we use 3D seismic data and SDEM modelling to suggest a dynamic-kinematic evolution of the deformation in the hangingwall of a listric fault overlying an active salt roller. We use the results to obtain a better understanding of the fluid flow in a complex deformed hangingwall. The case study is focused at the D-1 fault trend in the western part of the Norwegian Danish Basin, at the northern slope of the Ringkøbing-Fyn High. The D-1 main fault detaches along the northern flank of a Zechstein salt roller which was active during the Cenozoic. The seismic analysis shows a system of secondary normal antithetic and synthetic faults dipping approximately 50-60dg within the hangingwall. Shallow gas is trapped in the hangingwall and the secondary faults often confine the accumulations i.e. indicating that the secondary faults are sealing. The modelling confirms that the geometry of the secondary faults is highly controlled by the rheology of different layers in the hangingwall but also on the intensity of the salt movement. The modelling also suggests the presence of vertical deformation zones; structures which are not directly observed on the seismic data. The vertical deformation zones are related to the differential vertical movement of the strata due to salt migration. A neural network trained chimney probability cube shows high probabilities for the presence of minor vertical gas chimneys below the gas accumulations suggesting that vertical fluid migration in the hangingwall occurred in areas with significant vertical salt movements. The
Inverse model of fully coupled fluid flow and stress in fractured rock masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Y.; Rutqvist, J.
2008-12-01
In order to reflect the real behavior of the seepage field and deformation field during the environment change and construction process£¬the basic equations and FEM methods for fully coupled analysis of fluid flow and stress are developed£¬based on the assumptions of small deformation and incompressible water flow in complicated fractured rock masses. Both the equivalent continuum media model and the discrete media model are adopted. And the modified initial flow method is used to deal with the free surface of unconfined seepage. Due to the difficulty in determining the parameters of water flow field, stress field and their coupling relations, an inverse model is presented for the fully coupled problem in which both the data of water head and displacement are taken into consideration. Objective function is defined based on sensitivity analysis of parameters, and the relative values of water head, displacement on parameters are adopted in the establishment of objective function. A hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed as optimization method. The probability of crossover and mutation is determined according to chromosome fitness and a concept of self- adaptive probability is given. In addition, simplex method is also applied to increase the ability of local search, the operation of accelerated cycle is used in order to decrease optimization time.
Nanoscale Pore Imaging and Pore Scale Fluid Flow Modeling in Chalk
Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy
2004-08-19
For many rocks of high economic interest such as chalk, diatomite, tight gas sands or coal, nanometer scale resolution is needed to resolve the 3D-pore structure, which controls the flow and trapping of fluids in the rocks. Such resolutions cannot be achieved with existing tomographic technologies. A new 3D imaging method, based on serial sectioning and using the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has been developed. FIB allows for the milling of layers as thin as 10 nanometers by using accelerated Ga+ ions to sputter atoms from the sample surface. After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed, a 2D image of this surface is generated. Next, the 2D images are stacked to reconstruct the 3D pore or grain structure. Resolutions as high as 10 nm are achievable using such a technique. A new robust method of pore-scale fluid flow modeling has been developed and applied to sandstone and chalk samples. The method uses direct morphological analysis of the pore space to characterize the petrophysical properties of diverse formations. Not only petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, relative permeability and capillary pressures) can be computed but also flow processes, such as those encountered in various IOR approaches, can be simulated. Petrophysical properties computed with the new method using the new FIB data will be presented. Present study is a part of the development of an Electronic Core Laboratory at LBNL/UCB.
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media.
Monteiro, Paulo J M; Rycroft, Chris H; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-12-11
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy (~109-²¹ m² ) or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between -1/2 and -1. Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
A mathematical model of fluid and gas flow in nanoporous media
Monteiro, Paulo J. M.; Rycroft, Chris H.; Barenblatt, Grigory Isaakovich
2012-01-01
The mathematical modeling of the flow in nanoporous rocks (e.g., shales) becomes an important new branch of subterranean fluid mechanics. The classic approach that was successfully used in the construction of the technology to develop oil and gas deposits in the United States, Canada, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics becomes insufficient for deposits in shales. In the present article a mathematical model of the flow in nanoporous rocks is proposed. The model assumes the rock consists of two components: (i) a matrix, which is more or less an ordinary porous or fissurized-porous medium, and (ii) specific organic inclusions composed of kerogen. These inclusions may have substantial porosity but, due to the nanoscale of pores, tubes, and channels, have extremely low permeability on the order of a nanodarcy () or less. These inclusions contain the majority of fluid: oil and gas. Our model is based on the hypothesis that the permeability of the inclusions substantially depends on the pressure gradient. At the beginning of the development of the deposit, boundary layers are formed at the boundaries of the low-permeable inclusions, where the permeability is strongly increased and intensive flow from inclusions to the matrix occurs. The resulting formulae for the production rate of the deposit are presented in explicit form. The formulae demonstrate that the production rate of deposits decays with time following a power law whose exponent lies between and . Processing of experimental data obtained from various oil and gas deposits in shales demonstrated an instructive agreement with the prediction of the model. PMID:23188803
Modeling of flow and heat transfer for fluids at supercritical conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallaway, Tara
2011-12-01
The Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) has been proposed as one of the six Generation IV reactor design concepts under consideration. The key feature of the SCWR is that water at supercritical pressures is used as the reactor coolant. At supercritical pressures, the working fluid does not undergo phase change as it is heated, but rather the fluid properties experience dramatic variations throughout what is known as the pseudo-critical region. Highly nonuniform temperature and uid property distributions are expected in the reactor core, which will have a significant impact on turbulence and heat transfer as well as stability limits for future SCWRs. The goal of this work is to understand and predict the effects of these fluid property variations on turbulence and heat transfer throughout the reactor core and to predict the potential onset of dynamic instabilities. CO2 at supercritical conditions is included in the current study due in some part to its use as a viable simulant fluid in place of water for experimental studies. The use of CO2 at supercritical conditions as a reactor coolant has also gained popularity in recent years. Spline-type property models have been developed for both water and CO2 at supercritical pressures in order to include the property variations into a numerical solver. Turbulence and heat transfer models for fluids at supercritical conditions have been developed and implemented into the NPHASE-CMFD computer code. The results of predictions using the proposed models have been compared to experimental data from the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for various heat transfer regimes. While no model is without some deficiency, the Chien Low-Reynolds k -- epsilon model performs best at predicting the experimental data. A stability model has been developed and is presented in this dissertation as well. This model utilizes three different solution methods and tests the effects of inlet temperature, mass flow rate, local loss
Computer modeling of fluid flow and combustion in the ISV (In Situ Vitrification) confinement hood
Johnson, R.W.; Paik, S.
1990-09-01
Safety and suitability objectives for the application of the In Situ Vitrification (ISV) technology at the INEL require that the physical processes involved in ISVV be modeled to determine their operational behavior. The mathematical models that have been determined to address the modeling needs adequately for the ISV analysis package are detailed elsewhere. The present report is concerned with the models required for simulating the reacting flow that occurs in the ISV confinement hood. An experimental code named COYOTE has been secured that appears adequate to model the combustion in the confinement hood. The COYOTE code is a two-dimensional, transient, compressible, Eulerian, gas dynamics code for modeling reactive flows. It recognizes nonuniform Cartesian and cylindrical geometry and is based on the ICE (Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian) family of solution methods. It includes models for chemical reactions based on chemical kinetics as well as equilibrium chemistry. The mathematical models contained in COYOTE, their discrete analogs, the solution procedure, code structure and some test problems are presented in the report. 12 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
La Pointe, P. R.
2001-12-01
Many significant problems in rock engineering require consideration of fluid flow through natural fractures in rock or the mechanical response of a fractured rock mass. Accurate prediction of flow volumes, rates and mass transport through natural fracture systems, and their mechanical response, is critical for design and licensing of nuclear waste repositories, optimization of recovery from many petroleum reservoirs, and also in solution mining, groundwater resource development and protection, and hardrock civil engineering projects. Many of these projects require a large-scale, 3D numerical model for flow, transport or mechanical simulation or visualization. A fundamental problem in constructing these models is that fracture data from wells, boreholes, geophysical profiles or surface outcrops represents a small portion of the rock volume under consideration. Not only does the data represent a very small proportion of the reservoir or rock mass, it also represents fracturing in very restricted size scales. Thus scaling analysis is critical to accurately constructing a fracture model from the data. This paper describes, through two case examples, how scaling analysis techniques have been used to develop models of natural fracturing to support the design and licensing of a high level nuclear waste repository in Finland, and for optimization of a tertiary recovery project in an aging oil field in the US. A new technique for scaling fracture sizes is presented. Together, these two examples illustrate the importance of the scaling analyses, pitfalls in carrying out the analyses, and new methods to improve the 3D characterization of naturally fractured rock masses.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, J.-L.; Hwang, W.-S.; Chou, C.-L.
1992-10-01
A three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on the incorporation of a computational fluid dynamics technique, called SOLA-SURF, and the K-ɛ turbulence model. Numerical solutions of the three-dimensional turbulent Navier-Stokes equations and the K and ɛ equations together with the free surface treatment are presented to study the turbulent flow behavior of molten steel in tundishes. Computed results describing the three-dimensional flow field, particle path lines, residence time distribution curve during steady-state operation are presented. The values of t min, t peak, and t mean derived from the residence time distribution curve are used to evaluate the effects of using various combinations of flow control devices such as dams, weirs, and dams with a hole in the flow field. The computed results were compared with the experimental data obtained from a full-scale plexiglas/water model of tundish. The comparisons exhibited good consistency.
Kwon, Ronald Y.; Frangos, John A.
2010-01-01
Skeletal adaptation to mechanical loading has been widely hypothesized to involve the stimulation of osteocytes by interstitial fluid flow (IFF). However, direct investigation of this hypothesis has been difficult due in large part to the inability to directly measure IFF velocities within the lacunar–canalicular system. Measurements of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) within individual lacunae could be used to quantify lacunar–canalicular IFF when combined with mathematical modeling. In this study, we used a computational transport model to characterize the relationship between flow frequency (0.5–10 Hz), peak flow velocity (0–300 μm/s), tracer diffusion coefficient (100–300 μm2/s), and transport enhancement (i.e., (k/k0) − 1, where k and k0 are the transport rates in the presence/absence of flow) during lacunar FRAP investigations. We show that this relationship is well described by a simple power law with frequency-dependent coefficients, and is relatively insensitive to variations in lacunar geometry. Using this power law relationship, we estimated peak IFF velocities in hindlimb mice subjected to intramedullary pressurization using values of k and k0 previously obtained from ex vivo lacunar FRAP investigations. Together, our findings suggest that skeletal adaptation in hindlimb suspended mice subjected to dynamic intramedullary pressure occurred in the presence of IFF at levels associated with physiological loading. PMID:21076644
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.
2009-01-15
A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.
Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.
2008-05-29
Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and
Desbonnets, Quentin; Broc, Daniel
2012-07-01
It is well known that a fluid may strongly influence the dynamic behaviour of a structure. Many different physical phenomena may take place, depending on the conditions: fluid flow, fluid at rest, little or high displacements of the structure. Inertial effects can take place, with lower vibration frequencies, dissipative effects also, with damping, instabilities due to the fluid flow (Fluid Induced Vibration). In this last case the structure is excited by the fluid. Tube bundles structures are very common in the nuclear industry. The reactor cores and the steam generators are both structures immersed in a fluid which may be submitted to a seismic excitation or an impact. In this case the structure moves under an external excitation, and the movement is influence by the fluid. The main point in such system is that the geometry is complex, and could lead to very huge sizes for a numerical analysis. Homogenization models have been developed based on the Euler equations for the fluid. Only inertial effects are taken into account. A next step in the modelling is to build models based on the homogenization of the Navier-Stokes equations. The papers presents results on an important step in the development of such model: the analysis of the fluid flow in a oscillating tube bundle. The analysis are made from the results of simulations based on the Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid. Comparisons are made with the case of the oscillations of a single tube, for which a lot of results are available in the literature. Different fluid flow pattern may be found, depending in the Reynolds number (related to the velocity of the bundle) and the Keulegan Carpenter number (related to the displacement of the bundle). A special attention is paid to the quantification of the inertial and dissipative effects, and to the forces exchanges between the bundle and the fluid. The results of such analysis will be used in the building of models based on the homogenization of the Navier
Simulation of the Second Grade Fluid Model for Blood Flow through a Tapered Artery with a Stenosis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadeem, S.; Noreen Sher, Akbar
2010-06-01
We analyze the blood flow through a tapered artery, assuming the blood to be a second order fluid model. The resulting nonlinear implicit system of partial differential equations is solved by the perturbation method. The expressions for shear stress, velocity, flow rate, wall shear stress and longitudinal impedance are obtained. The physical behavior of different parameters is also discussed, as are trapping phenomena.
Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, W.; Ostien, J. T.; Foulk, J. W.; Abdeljawad, F.
2012-12-01
Deformation bands in geological materials refer to narrow zones of inhomogeneous strain. Their onset and propagation may cause significant changes in microstructures and therefore profoundly enhance or suppress fluid flow and induce anisotropy. These changes in hydraulic properties have strong implications in geotechnical engineering, carbon dioxide sequestration and nuclear waste storage. The difficulty in modeling such multiphysics phenomena is threefold. 1. Monolithically coupled promechanics formulation may lead to non-physical oscillation in pore pressure near the undrained limit if identical mesh and basis functions are used for pore pressure and displacement. 2. Onsets of deformation bands may lead to non-converging mesh-dependent results if no length scale is introduced to the finite element formulation. 3. Modeling anisotropy induced by the deformation band may require a very fine mesh to capture the sharp pore pressure gradient and results in a computational intensive system. In this study, we introduce a projection-based technique to stabilize a large deformation finite element model that eliminates the non-physical oscillation in pore pressure. Using a 1D analytical solution as guideline, we introduce a simple scheme that can adaptively update the optimal value for the stabilization parameter that can restore stability without over-diffusing the system. This stabilized model is coupled with a localization element technique used to introduce proper length scale to regularize the governing equations and resolve the fluid flow jumps across the deformation bands. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the properties and performance of the proposed localized models. *Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000
North Cascadia heat flux and fluid flow from gas hydrates: Modeling 3-D topographic effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hong-lin; He, Tao; Spence, George D.
2014-01-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) of gas hydrate is well imaged from two perpendicular seismic grids in the region of a large carbonate mound, informally called Cucumber Ridge off Vancouver Island. We use a new method to calculate 3-D heat flow map from the BSR depths, in which we incorporate 3-D topographic corrections after calibrated by the drilling results from nearby (Integrated) Ocean Drilling Program Site 889 and Site U1327. We then estimate the associated fluid flow by relating it to the topographically corrected heat flux anomalies. In the midslope region, a heat flux anomaly of 1 mW/m2 can be associated with an approximate focused fluid flow rate of 0.09 mm/yr. Around Cucumber Ridge, high rates of focused fluid flow were observed at steep slopes with values more than double the average regional diffusive fluid discharge rate of 0.56 mm/yr. As well, in some areas of relatively flat seafloor, the focused fluid flow rates still exceeded 0.5 mm/yr. On the seismic lines the regions of focused fluid flow were commonly associated with seismic blanking zones above the BSR and sometimes with strong reflectors below the BSR, indicating that the faults/fractures provide high-permeability pathways for fluids to carry methane from BSR depths to the seafloor. These high fluid flow regions cover mostly the western portion of our area with gas hydrate concentration estimations of ~6% based on empirical correlations from Hydrate Ridge in south off Oregon, significantly higher than previously recognized values of ~2.5% in the eastern portion determined from Site U1327.
Han, Byunghyun; Scicchitano, Vincent; Imhoff, Paul T
2011-03-01
Laboratory procedures were developed to obtain constitutive relations for fluid flow in refuse. Five different types of experiments were conducted for the same waste sample: a drainage experiment, multi step outflow experiment, total porosity measurement, saturated hydraulic conductivity test, and gas permeability tests. To investigate fundamental processes affecting water movement and moisture retention, samples consisted entirely of newspaper. Samples were prepared in two particle sizes and two compaction pressures and packed in compression cells to replicate stress conditions in landfills. Data were modeled using HYDRUS-1D, which allowed alternative conceptual models of the pore space to be assessed. A dual-permeability model performed significantly better than a single-porosity model for water movement, suggesting that a dual domain description is required to describe water flow in landfills with significant amounts of paper and paperboard. However, a single-porosity model was adequate for describing gas transport. Results indicated that properties of the fracture domain, the large openings between refuse particles, are significantly affected by the size of waste materials and compaction, and may be best studied with field-scale measurements. On the other hand properties of the matrix domain, the smaller pore openings within and between refuse particles, are likely amenable to laboratory study because representative samples sizes should be much smaller. PMID:20970978
MODIFIED CHOKE FLOW CRITERION FOR THE TWO-PHASE TWO-FLUID MODEL
Suneet Singh; Vincent A. Mousseau
2009-05-01
A choked condition exists when mass flow rate becomes independent of the downstream conditions. In other words, no information can propagate in the upstream direction under this condition. The real part of the solution of the characteristic equation for the model represents velocity of the signal propagation and the imaginary part is the growth (or decay) rate of that signal. Therefore, if the real part of these eigenvalues is positive then no signal propagates in the upstream direction (choosing downstream direction to be the positive direction) resulting in the choke flow. In order to develop the choke criterion, a non-dimensional form of the characteristic equation is derived for the standard two-phase two-fluid model. The equation is in the terms of a slip Mach number Ms. It can be shown that the slip Mach number is small for many applications including nuclear reactor safety simulations. The eigenvalues of the characteristic equation are obtained as a power series expansion about the point Ms = 0. These eigenvalues are used to develop a choking criterion for the compressible two-phase flows.
Interstitial Fluid Flow and Drug Delivery in Vascularized Tumors: A Computational Model
Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko
2013-01-01
Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider–with the help of a theoretical model–the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belferman, Mariana; Katsman, Regina; Agnon, Amotz
2015-04-01
The Levant has been repeatedly devastated by numerous earthquakes since prehistorical time, as recorded in historical documents, archaeological ruins, and sedimentary archives. In order to understand the role of the dynamics of the water bodies in triggering the deformations in the Levant basin, a new theoretical thermo-mechanical model is constructed and extended by including a fluid flow component. The latter is modeled on a basis of two-way poroelastic coupling with momentum equation. This coupling is essential to capture the fluid flow evolution induced by dynamic water loading and to resolve porosity changes. All the components of the model, namely elasticity, creep, plasticity, fluid flow, etc., have been extensively verified and presented. Results of the initial sensitivity analysis addressing the relative importance of each process in earthquakes triggering are discussed. The rich archives of pre-instrumental destructive earthquakes will set constraints for future modeling under the present formulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Yongjia; Hu, Hengshan; Rudnicki, John W.
2016-07-01
Grain-scale local fluid flow is an important loss mechanism for attenuating waves in cracked fluid-saturated poroelastic rocks. In this study, a dynamic elastic modulus model is developed to quantify local flow effect on wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in porous isotropic rocks. The Eshelby transform technique, inclusion-based effective medium model (the Mori-Tanaka scheme), fluid dynamics and mass conservation principle are combined to analyze pore-fluid pressure relaxation and its influences on overall elastic properties. The derivation gives fully analytic, frequency-dependent effective bulk and shear moduli of a fluid-saturated porous rock. It is shown that the derived bulk and shear moduli rigorously satisfy the Biot-Gassmann relationship of poroelasticity in the low-frequency limit, while they are consistent with isolated-pore effective medium theory in the high-frequency limit. In particular, a simplified model is proposed to quantify the squirt-flow dispersion for frequencies lower than stiff-pore relaxation frequency. The main advantage of the proposed model over previous models is its ability to predict the dispersion due to squirt flow between pores and cracks with distributed aspect ratio instead of flow in a simply conceptual double-porosity structure. Independent input parameters include pore aspect ratio distribution, fluid bulk modulus and viscosity, and bulk and shear moduli of the solid grain. Physical assumptions made in this model include (1) pores are inter-connected and (2) crack thickness is smaller than the viscous skin depth. This study is restricted to linear elastic, well-consolidated granular rocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meakin, Paul; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2009-07-01
In the subsurface, fluids play a critical role by transporting dissolved minerals, colloids, and contaminants (sometimes over long distances); by mediating dissolution and precipitation processes; and by enabling chemical transformations in solution and at mineral surfaces. Although the complex geometries of fracture apertures, fracture networks, and pore spaces may make it difficult to accurately predict fluid flow in saturated (single-phase) subsurface systems, well-developed methods are available. The simulation of multiphase fluid flow in the subsurface is much more challenging because of the large density and/or viscosity ratios found in important applications (water/air in the vadose zone; water/oil, water/gas, gas/oil, and water/oil/gas in hydrocarbon reservoirs; water/air/nonaqueous phase liquids (nonaqueous phase liquids/dense nonaqueous phase liquids) in contaminated vadose zone systems; and gas/molten rock in volcanic systems, for example). In addition, the complex behavior of fluid-fluid-solid contact lines and their impact on dynamic contact angles must also be taken into account and coupled with the fluid flow. Here we review the methods that are currently being used to simulate pore-scale multiphase fluid flow and reactive transport in fractured and porous media. After the introduction, the review begins with an overview of the fundamental physics of multiphase fluids flow followed by a more detailed discussion of the complex dynamic behavior of contact lines and contact angles, an important barrier to accurate pore-scale modeling and simulation. The main part of the review focuses on five different approaches: pore network models, lattice gas and lattice Boltzmann methods, Monte Carlo methods, particle methods (molecular dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics, and smoothed particle hydrodynamics), and traditional grid-based computational fluid dynamics coupled with interface tracking and a contact angle model. Finally, the review closes with a
Interpretation and modeling of the averaged equations for a fluid-solid flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shen, Hayley H.; Hwang, Guann-Jiun
1989-01-01
A self-consistent derivation of the conservation laws is given for flows of a fluid-solid mixture. A unified analytical framework for obtaining constitutive relations is provided. This analysis uses a control volume/control surface approach that is widely used in fluid mechanics. All terms in the governing equations and the constitutive relations are written in terms of the mass-weighted averages except solid concentration. It is believed that the mass-weighted average is the natural bridge between micromechanics and constitutive relations. The derived momentum equations contain terms that differ from all existing models except that of Prosperetti and Jones (1984). However, their assumptions are not needed here. Special attention is given to the solid phase pressure. The physical basis of the previously assumed form for this pressure (Givler 1987) becomes clear. A number of related phenomena are also discussed. These include the anti-diffusion and anisotropic normal stresses. The energy equations are also different from existing models.
A unified approach to fluid-flow, geomechanical, and seismic modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarushina, Viktoriya; Minakov, Alexander
2016-04-01
The perturbations of pore pressure can generate seismicity. This is supported by observations from human activities that involve fluid injection into rocks at high pressure (hydraulic fracturing, CO2 storage, geothermal energy production) and natural examples such as volcanic earthquakes. Although the seismic signals that emerge during geotechnical operations are small both in amplitude and duration when compared to natural counterparts. A possible explanation for the earthquake source mechanism is based on a number of in situ stress measurements suggesting that the crustal rocks are close to its plastic yield limit. Hence, a rapid increase of the pore pressure decreases the effective normal stress, and, thus, can trigger seismic shear deformation. At the same time, little attention has been paid to the fact that the perturbation of fluid pressure itself represents an acoustic source. Moreover, non-double-couple source mechanisms are frequently reported from the analysis of microseismicity. A consistent formulation of the source mechanism describing microseismic events should include both a shear and isotropic component. Thus, improved understanding of the interaction between fluid flow and seismic deformation is needed. With this study we aim to increase the competence in integrating real-time microseismic monitoring with geomechanical modelling such that there is a feedback loop between monitored deformation and stress field modelling. We propose fully integrated seismic, geomechanical and reservoir modelling. Our mathematical formulation is based on fundamental set of force balance, mass balance, and constitutive poro-elastoplastic equations for two-phase media consisting of deformable solid rock frame and viscous fluid. We consider a simplified 1D modelling setup for consistent acoustic source and wave propagation in poro-elastoplastic media. In this formulation the seismic wave is generated due to local changes of the stress field and pore pressure induced by
Hsieh, Paul A.
2001-01-01
This report serves as a user?s guide for two computer models: TopoDrive and ParticleFlow. These two-dimensional models are designed to simulate two ground-water processes: topography-driven flow and advective transport of fluid particles. To simulate topography-driven flow, the user may specify the shape of the water table, which bounds the top of the vertical flow section. To simulate transport of fluid particles, the model domain is a rectangle with overall flow from left to right. In both cases, the flow is under steady state, and the distribution of hydraulic conductivity may be specified by the user. The models compute hydraulic head, ground-water flow paths, and the movement of fluid particles. An interactive visual interface enables the user to easily and quickly explore model behavior, and thereby better understand ground-water flow processes. In this regard, TopoDrive and ParticleFlow are not intended to be comprehensive modeling tools, but are designed for modeling at the exploratory or conceptual level, for visual demonstration, and for educational purposes.
Vaughan, T J; Mullen, C A; Verbruggen, S W; McNamara, L M
2015-08-01
Load-induced fluid flow acts as an important biophysical signal for bone cell mechanotransduction in vivo, where the mechanical environment is thought to be monitored by integrin and primary cilia mechanoreceptors on the cell body. However, precisely how integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors interact with the surrounding fluid flow stimulus and ultimately contribute to the biochemical response of bone cells within either the in vitro or in vivo environment remains poorly understood. In this study, we developed fluid-structure interaction models to characterise the deformation of integrin- and primary cilia-based mechanosensors in bone cells under fluid flow stimulation. Under in vitro fluid flow stimulation, these models predicted that integrin attachments on the cell-substrate interface were highly stimulated ε(eq) > 200,000 με, while the presence of a primary cilium on the cell also resulted in significant strain amplifications, arising at the ciliary base. As such, these mechanosensors likely play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vitro. Under in vivo fluid flow stimulation, integrin attachments along the canalicular wall were highly stimulated and likely play a role in mediating cellular responses in vivo. The role of the primary cilium as a flow sensor in vivo depended upon its configuration within the lacunar cavity. Specifically, our results showed that a short free-standing primary cilium could not effectively fulfil a flow sensing role in vivo. However, a primary cilium that discretely attaches the lacunar wall can be highly stimulated, due to hydrodynamic pressure in the lacunocanalicular system and, as such, could play a role in mediating bone mechanotransduction in vivo. PMID:25399300
Qayyum, Mubashir; Khan, Hamid; Rahim, M Tariq; Ullah, Inayat
2015-01-01
The aim of this article is to model and analyze an unsteady axisymmetric flow of non-conducting, Newtonian fluid squeezed between two circular plates passing through porous medium channel with slip boundary condition. A single fourth order nonlinear ordinary differential equation is obtained using similarity transformation. The resulting boundary value problem is solved using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) and fourth order Explicit Runge Kutta Method (RK4). Convergence of HPM solution is verified by obtaining various order approximate solutions along with absolute residuals. Validity of HPM solution is confirmed by comparing analytical and numerical solutions. Furthermore, the effects of various dimensionless parameters on the longitudinal and normal velocity profiles are studied graphically. PMID:25738864
McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.
1993-11-30
A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.
McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel
1993-01-01
A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.
A critical evaluation of various turbulence models as applied to internal fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nallasamy, M.
1985-01-01
Models employed in the computation of turbulent flows are described and their application to internal flows is evaluated by examining the predictions of various turbulence models in selected flow configurations. The main conclusions are: (1) the k-epsilon model is used in a majority of all the two-dimensional flow calculations reported in the literature; (2) modified forms of the k-epsilon model improve the performance for flows with streamline curvature and heat transfer; (3) for flows with swirl, the k-epsilon model performs rather poorly; the algebraic stress model performs better in this case; and (4) for flows with regions of secondary flow (noncircular duct flows), the algebraic stress model performs fairly well for fully developed flow, for developing flow, the algebraic stress model performance is not good; a Reynolds stress model should be used. False diffusion and inlet boundary conditions are discussed. Countergradient transport and its implications in turbulence modeling is mentioned. Two examples of recirculating flow predictions obtained using PHOENICS code are discussed. The vortex method, large eddy simulation (modeling of subgrid scale Reynolds stresses), and direct simulation, are considered. Some recommendations for improving the model performance are made. The need for detailed experimental data in flows with strong curvature is emphasized.
Priyadharshini, S.; Ponalagusamy, R.
2015-01-01
An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = −1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979
Priyadharshini, S; Ponalagusamy, R
2015-01-01
An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = -1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979
Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow
Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory
2010-11-23
An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.
Well-posedness and convergence of cfd two-fluid model for bubbly flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaidheeswaran, Avinash
The current research is focused on developing a well-posed multidimensional CFD two-fluid model (TFM) for bubbly flows. Two-phase flows exhibit a wide range of local flow instabilities such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, plume and jet instabilities. They arise due to the density difference and/or the relative velocity between the two phases. A physically correct TFM is essential to model these instabilities. However, this is not the case with the TFMs in numerical codes, which can be shown to have complex eigenvalues due to incompleteness and hence are ill-posed as initial value problems. A common approach to regularize an incomplete TFM is to add artificial physics or numerically by using a coarse grid or first order methods. However, it eliminates the local physical instabilities along with the undesired high frequency oscillations resulting from the ill-posedness. Thus, the TFM loses the capability to predict the inherent local dynamics of the two-phase flow. The alternative approach followed in the current study is to introduce appropriate physical mechanisms that make the TFM well-posed. First a well-posed 1-D TFM for vertical bubbly flows is analyzed with characteristics, and dispersion analysis. When an incomplete TFM is used, it results in high frequency oscillations in the solution. It is demonstrated through the travelling void wave problem that, by adding the missing short wavelength physics to the numerical TFM, this can be removed by making the model well-posed. To extend the limit of well-posedness beyond the well-known TFM of Pauchon and Banerjee [1], the mechanism of collision is considered, and it is shown by characteristics analysis that the TFM then becomes well-posed for all void fractions of practical interest. The aforementioned ideas are then extended to CFD TFM. The travelling void wave problem is again used to demonstrate that by adding appropriate physics, the problem of ill-posedness is resolved. Furthermore, issues pertaining to
Bhamidipati, J.R.; El-Kaddah, N.
1995-12-31
A mathematical model for the analysis and design of electromagnetic continuous casters (EMC) has been developed. The model addresses all aspects of EMC operation, namely, electromagnetic confinement of the molten pool, and melt solidification, all in terms of basic process variables. A methodology is presented for solving the coupled electromagnetic, heat transfer and fluid flow equations without regridding the solution domain during the search for the equilibrium meniscus shape, which is not known a priori. It is based on the solution of these equations in a fixed computational domain using a variable non-orthogonal coordinate transformation. Within this framework, the electromagnetic field was computed using the technique of mutual inductance, while the temperature and velocity fields in the slab were calculated using the control volume technique. The equilibrium shape of the meniscus was determined from the balance between the magnetic, metallostatic, and surface tension pressures. The model was used to simulate EMC casting of aluminum, and the numerical predictions were found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements reported in the open literature. The model presented in this paper provides a theoretical framework for the analysis and optimization of EMC casters.
Cerebrospinal fluid flow in adults.
Bradley, William G; Haughton, Victor; Mardal, Kent-Andre
2016-01-01
This chapter uses magnetic resonance imaging phase-contrast cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow measurements to predict which clinical normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) patients will respond to shunting as well as which patients with Chiari I are likely to develop symptoms of syringomyelia. Symptomatic NPH patients with CSF flow (measured as the aqueductal CSF stroke volume) which is shown to be hyperdynamic (defined as twice normal) are quite likely to respond to ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The hyperdynamic CSF flow results from normal systolic brain expansion compressing the enlarged ventricles. When atrophy occurs, there is less brain expansion, decreased aqueductal CSF flow, and less likelihood of responding to shunting. It appears that NPH is a "two-hit" disease, starting as benign external hydrocephalus in infancy, followed by deep white-matter ischemia in late adulthood, which causes increased resistance to CSF outflow through the extracellular space of the brain. Using computational flow dynamics (CFD), CSF flow can be modeled at the foramen magnum and in the upper cervical spine. As in the case of NPH, hyperdynamic CSF flow appears to cause the signs and symptoms in Chiari I and can provide an additional indication for surgical decompression. CFD can also predict CSF pressures over the cardiac cycle. It has been hypothesized that elevated pressure pulses may be a significant etiologic factor in some cases of syringomyelia. PMID:27432684
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1998-01-01
Computer simulation of atmospheric flow corresponds well to imges taken during the second Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (BFFC) mission. The top shows a view from the pole, while the bottom shows a view from the equator. Red corresponds to hot fluid rising while blue shows cold fluid falling. This simulation was developed by Anil Deane of the University of Maryland, College Park and Paul Fischer of Argorne National Laboratory. Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
Description of fluid dynamics and coupled transports in models of a laminar flow diffusion chamber.
Trávníčková, Tereza; Havlica, Jaromír; Ždímal, Vladimír
2013-08-14
The aim of this study is to assess how much the results of nucleation experiments in a laminar flow diffusion chamber (LFDC) are influenced by the complexity of the model of the transport properties. The effects of the type of fluid dynamic model (the steady state compressible Navier-Stokes system for an ideal gas/parabolic profile approximation) and the contributions of the coupled terms describing the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion on the predicted magnitude of the nucleation maxima and its location were investigated. This study was performed on the model of the homogeneous nucleation of an n-butanol-He vapor mixture in a LFDC. The isothermal dependencies of the nucleation rate on supersaturation were determined at three nucleation temperatures: 265 K, 270 K, and 280 K. For this purpose, the experimental LFDC data measured by A. P. Hyvärinen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 224304 (2006)] were reevaluated using transport models at different levels of complexity. Our results indicate that the type of fluid dynamical model affects both the position of the nucleation maxima in the LFDC and the maximum value of the nucleation rate. On the other hand, the Dufour effects and thermodiffusion perceptibly influence only the value of the maximal nucleation rate. Its position changes only marginally. The dependence of the maximum experimental nucleation rate on the saturation ratio and nucleation temperature was acquired for each case. Based on this dependence, we presented a method for the comparison and evaluation of the uncertainties of simpler models' solutions for the results, where we assumed that the model with Navier-Stokes equations and both coupled effects taken into account was the basis. From this comparison, it follows that an inappropriate choice of mathematical models could lead to relative errors of the order of several hundred percent in the maximum experimental nucleation rate. In the conclusion of this study, we also provide some general recommendations
A simple model of fluid flow and electrolyte balance in the body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, R. J.; Neal, L.
1973-01-01
The model is basically a three-compartment model, the three compartments being the plasma, interstitial fluid and cellular fluid. Sodium, potassium, chloride and urea are the only major solutes considered explicitly. The control of body water and electrolyte distribution is affected via drinking and hormone levels. Basically, the model follows the effect of various oral input water loads on solute and water distribution throughout the body.
Fluid flows around nanoelectromechanical resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svitelskiy, O.; Sauer, V.; Liu, N.; Vick, D.; Cheng, K. M.; Freeman, M. R.; Hiebert, W. K.
2012-02-01
To explore properties of fluids on a nanosize scale, we fabricated by a standard top down technique a series of nanoelectromechanical resonators (cantilevers and bridges) with widths w and thicknesses t from 100 to 500 nm; lengths l from 0.5 to 12 micron; and resonant frequencies f from 10 to 400 MHz. For the sake of purity of the experiment, the undercut in the widest (w=500 nm) devices was eliminated using the focused ion beam. To model the fluidic environment the devices were placed in the atmosphere of compressed gases (He, N2, CO2, Ar, H2) at pressures from vacuum up to 20 MPa, and in liquid CO2; their properties were studied by the real time stroboscopic optical interferometry. Thus, we fully explored the Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow damping models. Observing free molecular flow extending above atmospheric pressure, we find the fluid relaxation time model to be the best approximation throughout, but not beyond, the non-Newtonian regime, and both, vibrating spheres model and the model based on Knudsen number, to be valid in the viscous limit.
Kenkeremath, D.
1985-05-01
Numerical simulation models and data bases that were developed for DOE as part of a number of geothermal programs have been assessed with respect to their overall stage of development and usefulness. This report combines three separate studies that focus attention upon: (1) economic models related to geothermal energy; (2) physical geothermal system models pertaining to thermal energy and the fluid medium; and (3) geothermal energy data bases. Computerized numerical models pertaining to the economics of extracting and utilizing geothermal energy have been summarized and catalogued with respect to their availability, utility and function. The 19 models that are discussed in detail were developed for use by geothermal operators, public utilities, and lending institutions who require a means to estimate the value of a given resource, total project costs, and the sensitivity of these values to specific variables. A number of the models are capable of economically assessing engineering aspects of geothermal projects. Computerized simulations of heat distribution and fluid flow have been assessed and are presented for ten models. Five of the models are identified as wellbore simulators and five are described as reservoir simulators. Each model is described in terms of its operational characteristics, input, output, and other pertinent attributes. Geothermal energy data bases are reviewed with respect to their current usefulness and availability. Summaries of eight data bases are provided in catalogue format, and an overall comparison of the elements of each data base is included.
Programming fluid flow with microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Hamed; Masaeli, Mahdokht; di Carlo, Dino
2011-11-01
Flow control and fluid interface manipulation in microfluidic platforms are of great importance in a variety of applications. Current approaches to manipulate fluids generally rely on complex designs, difficult-to-fabricate 3D platforms or use of active methods. Here we show that in the presence of simple cylindrical obstacles (i.e. pillars) in a microchannel, at moderate to high flow rates, streamlines tend to turn and stretch in a manner that, unlike intuition for Stokes flow, does not precisely reverse after passing the pillar. The asymmetric flow behavior up- and down-stream of the pillar due to fluid inertia manifests itself as a total deformation of the topology of streamlines that effectively creates a net secondary flow which resembles the recirculating Dean flow in curving channels. Confocal images were taken to investigate the secondary flow for a variety of microstructure settings. We also developed a numerical technique to map the fluid motion in the channel which is utilized to characterize the secondary flow as well as to engineer the fluid patterns within the channel. This passive method creates the possibility of exceptional control of the 3D structure of the fluid within a microfluidic platform which can significantly advance applications requiring fluid interface control (e.g. optofluidics), ultrafast mixing and solution control around cells.
Relaminarization of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Narasimha, R.; Sreenivasan, K. R.
1979-01-01
The mechanisms of the relaminarization of turbulent flows are investigated with a view to establishing any general principles that might govern them. Three basic archetypes of reverting flows are considered: the dissipative type, the absorptive type, and the Richardson type exemplified by a turbulent boundary layer subjected to severe acceleration. A number of other different reverting flows are then considered in the light of the analysis of these archetypes, including radial Poiseuille flow, convex boundary layers, flows reverting by rotation, injection, and suction, as well as heated horizontal and vertical gas flows. Magnetohydrodynamic duct flows are also examined. Applications of flow reversion for turbulence control are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, R. M.; Nicolas, A. N.
2003-04-01
A modeling approach of gas solid flow, taking into account different physical phenomena such as gas turbulence and inter-particle interactions is presented. Moment transport equations are derived for the second order fluctuating velocity tensor which allow to involve practical closures based on single phase turbulence modeling on one hand and kinetic theory of granular media on the other hand. The model is applied to fluid catalytic cracking processes and explosive volcanism. In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are modeled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents oscillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillations of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. Pentadiagonal linear systems are solved in each geometrical direction (the so
Barker, Andrew T. Cai Xiaochuan
2010-02-01
We introduce and study numerically a scalable parallel finite element solver for the simulation of blood flow in compliant arteries. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the fluid and coupled to an incompressible linear elastic model for the blood vessel walls. Our method features an unstructured dynamic mesh capable of modeling complicated geometries, an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian framework that allows for large displacements of the moving fluid domain, monolithic coupling between the fluid and structure equations, and fully implicit time discretization. Simulations based on blood vessel geometries derived from patient-specific clinical data are performed on large supercomputers using scalable Newton-Krylov algorithms preconditioned with an overlapping restricted additive Schwarz method that preconditions the entire fluid-structure system together. The algorithm is shown to be robust and scalable for a variety of physical parameters, scaling to hundreds of processors and millions of unknowns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, H. S.; Qu, K.; Wu, X. G.
2014-09-01
It is now becoming important to develop our capabilities to simulate coastal ocean flows involved with distinct physical phenomena occurring at a vast range of spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a hybrid modeling system for such simulation. The system consists of a fully three dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model, which couple with each other in two-way and march in time simultaneously. Particularly, in the hybrid system, the solver for incompressible flow on overset meshes (SIFOM) resolves fully 3D small-scale local flow phenomena, while the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) captures large-scale background flows. The integration of the two models are realized via domain decomposition implemented with an overset grid method. Numerical experiments on performance of the system in resolving flow patterns and solution convergence rate show that the SIFOM-FVCOM system works as intended, and its solutions compare reasonably with data obtained with measurements and other computational approaches. Its unparalleled capabilities to predict multiphysics and multiscale phenomena with high-fidelity are demonstrated by three typical applications that are beyond the reach of other currently existing models. It is anticipated that the SIFOM-FVCOM system will serve as a new platform to study many emerging coastal ocean problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baumert, Brandon Max; Muller, Susan J.
1997-03-01
Flow visualization of two highly elastic, nonshear-thinning polyisobutylene/polybutene fluids in the gap between concentric cylinders was performed over a range of shear rates and choices of relative cylinder rotations. The observed secondary flows are discussed in terms of destabilizing elastic and centrifugal forces. In the more viscous, more elastic fluid, instabilities are found to be independent of the choice of rotating cylinder and due entirely to elasticity. At the lowest shear rates examined, the first detectable secondary flows are steady counter-rotating vortices forming after a shearing time more than five orders of magnitude greater than the characteristic relaxation time of the fluid. At somewhat higher shear rates, a much more rapidly appearing oscillatory flow is observed to evolve into the steady vortex structure. In the less elastic fluid, the structure first detectable at the lowest shear rates is again steady vortices regardless of the choice of driving cylinder. At all shear rates examined, only elastic stationary vortices are observed in the absence of centrifugal destabilization (outer cylinder rotating). Secondary flows are significantly stronger in the presence of the centrifugal destabilization due to a rotating inner cylinder. Interaction of elasticity and centrifugal forces is found to generate a number of axially translating vortex structures, many of which are described here for the first time. At a shear rate more than five times the critical, another family of instability is observed which closely resembles a purely elastic instability observed by Baumert and Muller (1995). These experimental results are expected to provide a challenging test of numerical simulations of these viscoelastic flows.
Baumert, B.M.; Muller, S.J.
1997-03-01
Flow visualization of two highly elastic, nonshear-thinning polyisobutylene/polybutene fluids in the gap between concentric cylinders was performed over a range of shear rates and choices of relative cylinder rotations. The observed secondary flows are discussed in terms of destabilizing elastic and centrifugal forces. In the more viscous, more elastic fluid, instabilities are found to be independent of the choice of rotating cylinder and due entirely to elasticity. At the lowest shear rates examined, the first detectable secondary flows are steady counter-rotating vortices forming after a shearing time more than five orders of magnitude greater than the characteristic relaxation time of the fluid. At somewhat higher shear rates, a much more rapidly appearing oscillatory flow is observed to evolve into the steady vortex structure. In the less elastic fluid, the structure first detectable at the lowest shear rates is again steady vortices regardless of the choice of driving cylinder. At all shear rates examined, only elastic stationary vortices are observed in the absence of centrifugal destabilization (outer cylinder rotating). Secondary flows are significantly stronger in the presence of the centrifugal destabilization due to a rotating inner cylinder. Interaction of elasticity and centrifugal forces is found to generate a number of axially translating vortex structures, many of which are described here for the first time. At a shear rate more than five times the critical, another family of instability is observed which closely resembles a purely elastic instability observed by Baumert and Muller (1995). These experimental results are expected to provide a challenging test of numerical simulations of these viscoelastic flows. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Guidelines for optimizing multilevel ECN using fluid-flow-based TCP model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quet, Pierre-Francois; Chellappan, Sriram; Durresi, Arjan; Sridharan, Mukundan; Ozbay, Hitay; Jain, Raj
2002-07-01
Congestion avoidance on today's Internet is mainly provided by the combination of the TCP protocol and Active Queue Management (AQM) schemes such as the de facto standard RED (Random Early Detection). When used with ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification), these algorithms can be modeled as a feedback control system in which the feedback information is carried on a single bit. A modification of this scheme called MECN was proposed, where the marking information is carried using 2 bits. MECN conveys more accurate feedback about the network congestion to the source than the current 1-bit ECN. The TCP source reaction was modified so that it takes advantage of the extra information about congestion and adapts faster to the changing congestion scenario leading to a smoother decrease in the sending rates of the sources upon congestion detection and consequently resulting in an increase in the router's throughput. A linearized fluid flow model already developed for ECN is extended to our case. Using control theoretic tools we justify the performance obtained in using the MECN scheme and give guidelines for optimizing its parameters. We use ns simulations to illustrate the performance improvement from the point of better throughput and low level of oscillations in the queue.
Pruess, K.; Karasaki, K.
1982-10-01
Conventional approaches to geothermal reservoir modeling have employed a porous medium approximation, but recently methods have been developed which can take into account the different thermodynamic conditions in rock matrix and fractures. The multiple interacting continua method (MINC) treats the thermal and hydraulic interaction between rock matrix and fractures in terms of a set of geometrical parameters. However, this approach was restricted to idealized fracture distributions with regularly shaped matrix blocks. Fractures in geothermal reservoirs usually occur in nearly parallel sets with a certain scatter in orientation, and a stochastic distribution of spacings and apertures. The MINC-method was extended to realistic fracture systems with stochastic distributions. The interaction between matrix and fractures is parameterized in terms of a proximity function, which represents the volume of matrix rock as a function of distance from the fractures. Monte Carlo techniques were employed to compute proximity functions for a number of two-dimensional systems with regular or stochastic fracture distributions. It is shown how the proximity functions can be used to generate computational grids for modeling fluid and heat flow in fractured reservoirs.
Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding
Zhang, Wei
2011-01-01
MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.
Strongly coupled fluid-particle flows in vertical channels. II. Turbulence modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capecelatro, Jesse; Desjardins, Olivier; Fox, Rodney O.
2016-03-01
In Part I, simulations of strongly coupled fluid-particle flow in a vertical channel were performed with the purpose of understanding, in general, the fundamental physics of wall-bounded multiphase turbulence and, in particular, the roles of the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components of the particle velocity. The exact Reynolds-averaged (RA) equations for high-mass-loading suspensions were presented, and the unclosed terms that are retained in the context of fully developed channel flow were evaluated in an Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) framework. Here, data from the EL simulations are used to validate a multiphase Reynolds-stress model (RSM) that predicts the wall-normal distribution of the two-phase, one-point turbulence statistics up to second order. It is shown that the anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses both near the wall and far away is a crucial component for predicting the distribution of the RA particle-phase volume fraction. Moreover, the decomposition of the phase-average (PA) particle-phase fluctuating energy into the spatially correlated and uncorrelated components is necessary to account for the boundary conditions at the wall. When these factors are properly accounted for in the RSM, the agreement with the EL turbulence statistics is satisfactory at first order (e.g., PA velocities) but less so at second order (e.g., PA turbulent kinetic energy). Finally, an algebraic stress model for the PA particle-phase pressure tensor and the Reynolds stresses is derived from the RSM using the weak-equilibrium assumption.
Quaini, A.; Canic, S.; Glowinski, R.; Igo, S.; Hartley, C.J.; Zoghbi, W.; Little, S.
2011-01-01
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
Quaini, A; Canic, S; Glowinski, R; Igo, S; Hartley, C J; Zoghbi, W; Little, S
2012-01-10
This work presents a validation of a fluid-structure interaction computational model simulating the flow conditions in an in vitro mock heart chamber modeling mitral valve regurgitation during the ejection phase during which the trans-valvular pressure drop and valve displacement are not as large. The mock heart chamber was developed to study the use of 2D and 3D color Doppler techniques in imaging the clinically relevant complex intra-cardiac flow events associated with mitral regurgitation. Computational models are expected to play an important role in supporting, refining, and reinforcing the emerging 3D echocardiographic applications. We have developed a 3D computational fluid-structure interaction algorithm based on a semi-implicit, monolithic method, combined with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian approach to capture the fluid domain motion. The mock regurgitant mitral valve corresponding to an elastic plate with a geometric orifice, was modeled using 3D elasticity, while the blood flow was modeled using the 3D Navier-Stokes equations for an incompressible, viscous fluid. The two are coupled via the kinematic and dynamic conditions describing the two-way coupling. The pressure, the flow rate, and orifice plate displacement were measured and compared with numerical simulation results. In-line flow meter was used to measure the flow, pressure transducers were used to measure the pressure, and a Doppler method developed by one of the authors was used to measure the axial displacement of the orifice plate. The maximum recorded difference between experiment and numerical simulation for the flow rate was 4%, the pressure 3.6%, and for the orifice displacement 15%, showing excellent agreement between the two. PMID:22138194
An adaptive lattice Boltzmann scheme for modeling two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dye, Amanda L.; McClure, James E.; Adalsteinsson, David; Miller, Cass T.
2016-04-01
We formulate a multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM) to simulate two-fluid-phase flow in porous medium systems. The MRT LBM is applied to simulate the displacement of a wetting fluid by a nonwetting fluid in a system corresponding to a microfluidic cell. Analysis of the simulation shows widely varying time scales for the dynamics of fluid pressures, fluid saturations, and interfacial curvatures that are typical characteristics of such systems. Displacement phenomena include Haines jumps, which are relatively short duration isolated events of rapid fluid displacement driven by capillary instability. An adaptive algorithm is advanced using a level-set method to locate interfaces and estimate their rate of advancement. Because the displacement dynamics are confined to the interfacial regions for a majority of the relaxation time, the computational effort is focused on these regions. The proposed algorithm is shown to reduce computational effort by an order of magnitude, while yielding essentially identical solutions to a conventional fully coupled approach. The challenges posed by Haines jumps are also resolved by the adaptive algorithm. Possible extensions to the advanced method are discussed.
Reactive fluid flow models and applications to diagenesis, mineral deposits and crustal rocks
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M.
1993-08-01
Funds are requested for a combined theoretical and field study of coupled fluid flow, heat and mass transport, and chemical reaction in hydrothermal and metamorphic systems. An existing computer code developed by the applicants which numerically treats multi-component, finite-rate reactions combined with advective and dispersive transport in one and two dimensions and which incorporates isotopic exchange and heat and mass transfer will continue to be developed and applied in a variety of geological settings. The code we have developed simultaneously solves for mass transport and reaction, thus offering a significant improvement in computational efficiency over existing ``batch`` reaction path codes. By coupling flow and chemical reaction in a hydrothermal system, we can explicitly investigate the extent to which characteristic flow-reaction paths govern the chemical evolution of the fluids in a hydrothermal system. The concept of a flow-reaction path is particularly important where certain portions of mature hydrothermal systems may exhaust the buffer capacity of the rock as the primary mineralogy is consumed. In these instances 7 fluids traversing distinct regions within the hydrothermal system may experience very different reaction histories, even where the system can be described as nearly isothermal. The study of paleo-hydrothermal systems can yield some important insights into the chemical dynamics of hydrothermal systems in general. As an example of a paleo-hydrothermal system, we have considered the geochemical evolution of ``porphyry-copper`` type mineralization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Čanić, Sunčica; Mikelić, Andro; Tambača, Josip
2005-12-01
We derive a closed system of effective equations describing a time-dependent flow of a viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid through a long and narrow elastic tube. The 3D axially symmetric incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the flow. Two models are used to describe the tube wall: the linear membrane shell model and the linearly elastic membrane and the curved, linearly elastic Koiter shell model. We study the behavior of the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem in the limit when the ratio between the radius and the length of the tube, ɛ, tends to zero. We obtain the reduced equations that are of Biot type with memory. An interesting feature of the reduced equations is that the memory term explicitly captures the viscoelastic nature of the coupled problem. Our model provides significant improvement over the standard 1D approximations of the fluid-structure interaction problem, all of which assume an ad hoc closure assumption for the velocity profile. We performed experimental validation of the reduced model using a mock circulatory flow loop assembled at the Cardiovascular Research Laboratory at the Texas Heart Institute. Experimental results show excellent agreement with the numerically calculated solution. Major applications include blood flow through large human arteries. To cite this article: S. Čanić et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).
Fluid flow modeling at the Lusi mud eruption, East java, Indonesia.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collignon, Marine; Schmid, Daniel; Mazzini, Adriano
2016-04-01
The 29th of may 2006, gas water and mud breccia started to erupt at several localities along the Watukosek fault system, in the Sidoarjo Regency in East java, Indonesia. The most prominent eruption, named Lusi, is still active and covering a surface of nearly 7 km2, resulting in the displacement of ~ 30 000 people. Although the origin and the chemical composition of the erupted fluids have been documented, the mechanical and physical properties of the mud are poorly constrained, and many aspects still remain not understood. Very little is known about the internal dynamics of the Lusi conduit(s). In this study, conducted in the framework of the Lusi Lab project (ERC grant n°308126) we use both analytical and numerical methods to better understand the flow dynamics within the main conduit and to try to explain the longevity of the edifice. The 2D numerical model considers a vertical conduit with a reservoir at its base and solves the stokes equations, discretized on a finite element mesh. Although, three phases (solid, liquid and gas) are present in nature, we only consider the liquid phase. The solid phase is treated as rigid particles in suspension in the liquid. The gaseous phase (methane and carbon dioxide) is treated in an analytical manner using the equations of state of the H2O-CO2 and H2O-CH4 systems. Here, we discuss the effects of density, viscosity, gas concentration and clasts concentration and size on the dynamics of the flow in the conduit as well as implications of the conduit stability.
Mathematical model for blood flow through a bifurcated artery using couple stress fluid.
Srinivasacharya, D; Madhava Rao, G
2016-08-01
In this article, the blood flow through a bifurcated artery with mild stenosis is investigated taking blood as couple stress fluid. The artery configuring bifurcation is assumed to be symmetric about the axis of the artery and straight cylinders of finite length. The governing equations are non-dimensionalized and coordinate transformation is used to convert the irregular boundary to a regular boundary. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The variation of shear stress, flow rate and impedance near the apex with pertinent parameters are studied graphically. It has been noticed that shear stress, flow rate and impedance have been changing suddenly with all the parameters on both sides of the apex. This occurs because of the backflow of the streaming blood at the onset of the lateral junction and secondary flow near the apex in the daughter artery. PMID:27235925
Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.
Cairns, Douglas S.; Rossel, Scott M.
2004-06-01
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.
Improved PISO algorithms for modeling density varying flow in conjugate fluid-porous domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordlund, M.; Stanic, M.; Kuczaj, A. K.; Frederix, E. M. A.; Geurts, B. J.
2016-02-01
Two modified segregated PISO algorithms are proposed, which are constructed to avoid the development of spurious oscillations in the computed flow near sharp interfaces of conjugate fluid-porous domains. The new collocated finite volume algorithms modify the Rhie-Chow interpolation to maintain a correct pressure-velocity coupling when large discontinuous momentum sources associated with jumps in the local permeability and porosity are present. The Re-Distributed Resistivity (RDR) algorithm is based on spreading flow resistivity over the grid cells neighboring a discontinuity in material properties of the porous medium. The Face Consistent Pressure (FCP) approach derives an auxiliary pressure value at the fluid-porous interface using momentum balance around the interface. Such derived pressure correction is designed to avoid spurious oscillations as would otherwise arise with a strictly central discretization. The proposed algorithms are successfully compared against published data for the velocity and pressure for two reference cases of viscous flow. The robustness of the proposed algorithms is additionally demonstrated for strongly reduced viscosity, i.e., higher Reynolds number flows and low Darcy numbers, i.e., low permeability of the porous regions in the domain, for which solutions without unphysical oscillations are computed. Both RDR and FCP are found to accurately represent porous media flow near discontinuities in material properties on structured grids.
Inertial Coupling in Two-Phase Flow: a Few Test Cases and Their Impacts on Two-Fluid Modeling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Xiaolong
Two-phase flow makes up about one-half of all industrial, biological and environmental fluid mechanics. Analytical methods that are presently useful in these are still mostly ad hoc. Unlike in (single phase) fluid mechanics, there are no universal macroscopic fundamental equations existing yet, although the Navier-Stokes equations describe the microscopic details of the motion of each phase. One promising recent theoretical development in two-phase flow is the two-fluid theory. The modeling of the interfacial interaction force terms are very crucial in this theory since they govern the interfacial momentum transfer and couple the two phases together. One of the interaction forces is the inertial coupling force, or the added (virtual) mass force, which plays a significant role in deciding the well -posedness of the model, especially when dynamic interactions (relative acceleration) between phases are important (Drew, 1983). Attention is focused on the inertial coupling aspect of two-phase modeling in this thesis, following Wallis (1989). Although the concept is classic, there is still much to be known about added mass effects in two -phase flow. The boundary (be it fluid boundary or other surfaces) effect on the added mass coefficient of a sphere is studied, resulting in several new, essentially exact solutions which are valuable contributions to the understanding of hydrodynamic interaction in potential flow. The added masses for isotropic and nonisotropic dispersions of spheres in an unbounded flow are studied. Among the new results are: (i) the "conditional" convergence experienced is physically meaningful; (ii) Geurst's conjecture (1985) is correct, contrary to Smereka & Milton's (1991) finding; (iii) predictions from the "tube model" proposed in Cai & Wallis (1992) are further validated by predictions from the image method. Some new phenomena about the added mass of dispersed flow in finite pipes with different end conditions are also studied. Experimental
On the multidimensional modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in SCWRS
Gallaway, T.; Antal, S. P.; Podowski, M. Z.
2012-07-01
The Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) has been proposed as one of the six Generation IV reactor design concepts under consideration. The key feature of the SCWR is that water at supercritical pressures is used as the reactor coolant. Although at such pressures, fluids do not undergo phase change as they are heated, the fluid properties experience dramatic variations throughout what is known as the pseudo-critical region. Highly nonuniform temperature and fluid property distributions are expected in the reactor core, which will have a significant impact on turbulence and heat transfer in future SCWRs. The goal of the present work has been to understand and predict the effects of these fluid property variations on turbulence and heat transfer throughout the reactor core. Spline-type property models have been formulated for water at supercritical pressures in order to include the dependence of properties on both temperature and pressure into a numerical solver. New models of turbulence and heat transfer for variable-property fluids have been developed and implemented into the NPHASE-CMFD software. The results for these models have been compared to experimental data from the Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. (KAERI) for various heat transfer regimes. It is found that the Low-Reynolds {kappa}-{epsilon} model performs best at predicting the experimental data. (authors)
Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method
Jones, Daniel O.
2000-01-01
A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.
Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman
2016-05-01
During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment
Modeling on Fluid Flow and Inclusion Motion in Centrifugal Continuous Casting Strands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Qiangqiang; Zhang, Lifeng; Sridhar, Seetharaman
2016-08-01
During the centrifugal continuous casting process, unreasonable casting parameters can cause violent level fluctuation, serious gas entrainment, and formation of frozen shell pieces at the meniscus. Thus, in the current study, a three-dimensional multiphase turbulent model was established to study the transport phenomena during centrifugal continuous casting process. The effects of nozzle position, casting and rotational speed on the flow pattern, centrifugal force acting on the molten steel, level fluctuation, gas entrainment, shear stress on mold wall, and motion of inclusions during centrifugal continuous casting process were investigated. Volume of Fluid model was used to simulate the molten steel-air two-phase. The level fluctuation and the gas entrainment during casting were calculated by user-developed subroutines. The trajectory of inclusions in the rotating system was calculated using the Lagrangian approach. The results show that during centrifugal continuous casting, a large amount of gas was entrained into the molten steel, and broken into bubbles of various sizes. The greater the distance to the mold wall, the smaller the centrifugal force. Rotation speed had the most important influence on the centrifugal force distribution at the side region. Angular moving angle of the nozzle with 8° and keeping the rotation speed with 60 revolutions per minute can somehow stabilize the level fluctuation. The increase of angular angle of nozzle from 8 to 18 deg and rotation speed from 40 to 80 revolutions per minute favored to decrease the total volume of entrained bubbles, while the increase of distance of nozzle moving left and casting speed had reverse effects. The trajectories of inclusions in the mold were irregular, and then rotated along the strand length. After penetrating a certain distance, the inclusions gradually moved to the center of billet and gathered there. More work, such as the heat transfer, the solidification, and the inclusions entrapment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, H. P.; Kaeppeler, H. J.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.
1998-03-01
The investigation of magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) instabilities in connection with the performance of MPD thrusters has received increased attention for several years. A systematic investigation of macroscopic drift and gradient driven instabilities at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme (IRS), carried out since 1987, showed that the occurrence of acoustic wave and space charge instabilities was possible. The calculation of the linear development of instabilities using a three-fluid theory of the plasma flow will be presented. Furthermore, in order to identify the instabilities found in the three-fluid formalism, two-fluid and one-fluid models are investigated and links established. When possible, analytical approximations for the unstable roots of the linear dispersion relation are derived, giving the explicit dependence of the oscillation frequencies and growth rates on the wavevector and the various plasma parameters.
Modelling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a reciprocating compressor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuhovcak, J.; Hejcik, J.; Jicha, M.
2015-08-01
Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on several parameters. The most important are valve behaviour and heat transfer. Valves affect the flow through the suction and discharge line. Heat flow from the walls to working fluid increases the work of the cycle. Understanding of these phenomena inside the compressor is a necessary step in the development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide range of opportunities how to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor nowadays, however they are too demanding in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several approaches using various correlation equation exist to describe the heat transfer inside the cylinder, however none of them was validated by measurements due to the complicated settings. The goal of this paper is to show a comparison between these correlations using in-house code based on energy balance through the cycle.
Fluid Flow Within Fractured Porous Media
Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Bromhal, G.S.
2006-10-01
Fractures provide preferential flow paths to subterranean fluid flows. In reservoir scale modeling of geologic flows fractures must be approximated by fairly simple formulations. Often this is accomplished by assuming fractures are parallel plates subjected to an applied pressure gradient. This is known as the cubic law. An induced fracture in Berea sandstone has been digitized to perform numerical flow simulations. A commercially available computational fluid dynamics software package has been used to solve the flow through this model. Single phase flows have been compared to experimental works in the literature to evaluate the accuracy with which this model can be applied. Common methods of fracture geometry classification are also calculated and compared to experimentally obtained values. Flow through regions of the fracture where the upper and lower fracture walls meet (zero aperture) are shown to induce a strong channeling effect on the flow. This model is expanded to include a domain of surrounding porous media through which the flow can travel. The inclusion of a realistic permeability in this media shows that the regions of small and zero apertures contribute to the greatest pressure losses over the fracture length and flow through the porous media is most prevalent in these regions. The flow through the fracture is shown to be the largest contributor to the net flow through the media. From this work, a novel flow relationship is proposed for flow through fractured media.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.
2003-01-01
As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.
Wetzel, L.R.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Shock, E.L.
2001-01-01
Coordinated geochemical and hydrological calculations guide our understanding of the composition, fluid flow patterns, and thermal structure of near-ridge oceanic crust. The case study presented here illustrates geochemical and thermal changes taking place as oceanic crust ages from 0.2 to 1.0 Myr. Using a finite element code, we model fluid flow and heat transport through the upper few hundred meters of an abyssal hill created at an intermediate spreading rate. We use a reaction path model with a customized database to calculate equilibrium fluid compositions and mineral assemblages of basalt and seawater at 500 bars and temperatures ranging from 150 to 400??C. In one scenario, reaction path calculations suggest that volume increases on the order of 10% may occur within portions of the basaltic basement. If this change in volume occurred, it would be sufficient to fill all primary porosity in some locations, effectively sealing off portions of the oceanic crust. Thermal profiles resulting from fluid flow simulations indicate that volume changes along this possible reaction path occur primarily within the first 0.4 Myr of crustal aging. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Pattern formation in flowing electrorheological fluids.
von Pfeil, Karl; Graham, Michael D; Klingenberg, Daniel J; Morris, Jeffrey F
2002-05-01
A two-fluid continuum model is developed to describe mass transport in electro- and magnetorheological suspensions. The particle flux is related to the field-induced stresses. Solutions of the resulting mass balance show column formation in the absence of flow, and stripe formation when a suspension is subjected simultaneously to an applied electric field and shear flow. PMID:12005727
Numerical investigation of a space-fractional model of turbulent fluid flow in rectangular ducts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Churbanov, Alexander G.; Vabishchevich, Petr N.
2016-09-01
Models containing fractional derivatives are among the most promising new approaches for description of turbulent flows. In the present work, a steady-state flow in a duct is considered under the condition that the turbulent diffusion is governed by a fractional power of the Laplace operator. To study numerically flows in rectangular channels, finite-difference approximations are employed. The resulting discrete problem is solved by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. At each iteration, the problem with a fractional power of the grid Laplace operator is solved. Predictions of turbulent flows in ducts at different Reynolds numbers are presented via mean velocity fields.
Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Nanotube and Nanowire Forests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Michael
2010-10-01
Bundles of nanotubes, also known as nanotube forests, are under consideration for applications such as chip cooling and pre-concentrators for biodetection. Scaling law analysis shows that the air flow through these forests at atmospheric pressure is in the free-molecular flow regime. Based on the linearized free-molecular flow equations, a model is presented for the pressure drop and heat transfer in these systems. The momentum and energy equations are coupled, requiring that they be solved simultaneously. Results show large pressure drops, and a non-linear pressure distribution, similar to that seen in rarefied micro-channel flows.
Dynamic simulation of wavy-stratified two-phase flow with the one-dimensional two-fluid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fullmer, William D.
The one-dimensional two-fluid model is the basis for the description of the transport of mass, momentum and energy in the thermal-hydraulic codes used for nuclear reactor safety analysis. Unlike other physical transport models, the one-dimensional two-fluid model suffers from the possibility of being ill-posed as an initial-boundary value problem depending on the flow conditions and the relevant physical closure laws. Typically, the ill-posedness is dealt with through either excessive numerical damping or the addition of unphysical closure laws designed for the sole purpose of hyperbolization. Unfortunately both methods eliminate the instability along with the problem of ill-posedness causing the model to undoubtedly lose some of its inherent dynamic capability. In this work, a one-dimensional two-fluid model for horizontal or slightly inclined stratified flow is developed. Higher order physical models that are often neglected, such as surface tension and axial viscous stress, are retained for their short-wavelength stability properties. Characteristic, dispersion and nonlinear analyses are performed to demonstrate that the resulting model is linearly well-posed and nonlinearly well-behaved. While it has been known that higher-order differential terms are able to regularize the short-wavelength problem of ill-posedness without removing the long-wavelength instability, the literature is relatively silent on the consequences of using a model under linearly unstable conditions. Using carefully selected conditions in an idealized infinite domain, it is demonstrated for the first time that the one-dimensional two-fluid model exhibits chaotic behavior in addition to limit cycles and asymptotic stability. The chaotic behavior is a consequence of the long-wavelength linear instability (energy source) the nonlinearity (energy transfer) and the short-wavelength dissipation (energy sink). Since the model is chaotic, solutions exhibit a sensitive dependence on initial
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mushtaq, A.; Abbasbandy, S.; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-01-01
Present work studies the well-known Sakiadis flow of Maxwell fluid along a moving plate in a calm fluid by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This recently developed model has the tendency to describe the characteristics of relaxation time for heat flux. Some numerical local similarity solutions of the associated problem are computed by two approaches namely (i) the shooting method and (ii) the Keller-box method. The solution is dependent on some interesting parameters which include the viscoelastic fluid parameter β, the dimensionless thermal relaxation time γ and the Prandtl number Pr. Our simulations indicate that variation in the temperature distribution with an increase in local Deborah number γ is non-monotonic. The results for the Fourier's heat conduction law can be obtained as special cases of the present study.
A Mathematical Model for the Flow of a Casson Fluid due to Metachronal Beating of Cilia in a Tube
Siddiqui, A. M.; Farooq, A. A.; Rana, M. A.
2015-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to study the transport mechanism of a Casson fluid flow inspired by the metachronal coordination between the beating cilia in a cylindrical tube. A two-dimensional system of nonlinear equations governing the flow problem is formulated by using axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates and then simplified by employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions are derived for the velocity components, the axial pressure gradient, and the stream function. However, the expressions for the pressure rise and the volume flow rate are evaluated numerically. The features of the flow characteristics such as pumping and trapping are illustrated and discussed with the help of graphs. It is observed that the volume flow rate is influenced significantly by the width of plug flow region Hp as well as the cilia length parameter ε. The analysis is also applied and compared with the estimated value of the volume flow rate of epididymal fluid in the ductus efferentes of the human male reproductive tract. PMID:25789334
A mathematical model for the flow of a Casson fluid due to metachronal beating of cilia in a tube.
Siddiqui, A M; Farooq, A A; Rana, M A
2015-01-01
A mathematical model is developed to study the transport mechanism of a Casson fluid flow inspired by the metachronal coordination between the beating cilia in a cylindrical tube. A two-dimensional system of nonlinear equations governing the flow problem is formulated by using axisymmetric cylindrical coordinates and then simplified by employing the long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions are derived for the velocity components, the axial pressure gradient, and the stream function. However, the expressions for the pressure rise and the volume flow rate are evaluated numerically. The features of the flow characteristics such as pumping and trapping are illustrated and discussed with the help of graphs. It is observed that the volume flow rate is influenced significantly by the width of plug flow region H p as well as the cilia length parameter ε. The analysis is also applied and compared with the estimated value of the volume flow rate of epididymal fluid in the ductus efferentes of the human male reproductive tract. PMID:25789334
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zheng-Shou; Kim, Wu-Joan
2012-03-01
This article presents a numerical investigation concerning the effect of two kinds of axially progressing internal flows (namely, upward and downward) on fluid-structure interaction (FSI) dynamics about a marine riser model which is subject to external shear current. The CAE technology behind the current research is a proposed FSI solution, which combines structural analysis software with CFD technology together. Efficiency validation for the CFD software was carried out first. It has been proved that the result from numerical simulations agrees well with the observation from relating model test cases in which the fluidity of internal flow is ignorable. After verifying the numerical code accuracy, simulations are conducted to study the vibration response that attributes to the internal progressive flow. It is found that the existence of internal flow does play an important role in determining the vibration mode (/dominant frequency) and the magnitude of instantaneous vibration amplitude. Since asymmetric curvature along the riser span emerges in the case of external shear current, the centrifugal and Coriolis accelerations owing to up- and downward internal progressive flows play different roles in determining the fluid-structure interaction response. The discrepancy between them becomes distinct, when the velocity ratio of internal flow against external shear current is relatively high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konar, D.
2015-09-01
The uses of ejector for efficient refrigeration are manifold - it has been used, among other applications, in the VCRS to reduce the compression ratio, in the combined ejector absorption cycle to enhance the refrigeration capacity and in the ejector absorber cycle to obtain lower evaporator pressures, higher absorber pressures and pre-absorption of the refrigerant in the ejector. Hence, modeling of flow which may be two phase two fluid as in ejector absorber cycle or two phase single fluid as in VCRS in an ejector assumes utmost importance. However, much work has not been done in this field. The primary objective of the present work is to discuss about the role of ejectors in various refrigeration systems and to model the two phase two fluid flow in the nozzle and the diffuser of an ejector under suitable assumptions. The equations of conservation of mass, momentum and energy have been solved to find the different flow properties like pressure, temperature and velocity of the two phases as function of the length in the diffuser. Different cases pertaining to different flows have been taken care of by appreciating what type of phenomena can actually occur at the interface of the two phases. Higher pressure rise was obtained for a given diffuser length with higher diffuser angles, smaller droplet diameter, higher inlet velocity of the gaseous phase and higher drag coefficients. Among other results, it was also seen that the two phases reached thermal equilibrium faster with higher diffuser angle, smaller droplet diameter and higher heat transfer coefficient.
Rotational fluid flow experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1991-01-01
This project which began in 1986 as part of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) Advanced Space Design Program focuses on the design and implementation of an electromechanical system for studying vortex behavior in a microgravity environment. Most of the existing equipment was revised and redesigned by this project team, as necessary. Emphasis was placed on documentation and integration of the electrical and mechanical subsystems. Project results include reconfiguration and thorough testing of all hardware subsystems, implementation of an infrared gas entrainment detector, new signal processing circuitry for the ultrasonic fluid circulation device, improved prototype interface circuits, and software for overall control of experiment operation.
A model for fluid flow during saturated boiling on a horizontal cylinder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kheyrandish, K.; Dalton, C.; Lienhard, J. H.
1987-01-01
A model has been developed to represent the vapor removal pattern in the vicinity of a cylinder during nucleate flow boiling across a horizontal cylinder. The model is based on a potential flow representation of the liquid and vapor regions and an estimate of the losses that should occur in the flow. Correlation of the losses shows a weak dependence on the Weber number and a slightly stronger dependence on the saturated liquid-to-vapor density ratio. The vapor jet thickness, which is crucial to the prediction of the burnout heat flux, and the shape of the vapor film are predicted. Both are verified by qualitative experimental observations.
Computational fluid dynamics modeling of two-phase flow in a BWR fuel assembly. Final CRADA Report.
Tentner, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division
2009-10-13
A direct numerical simulation capability for two-phase flows with heat transfer in complex geometries can considerably reduce the hardware development cycle, facilitate the optimization and reduce the costs of testing of various industrial facilities, such as nuclear power plants, steam generators, steam condensers, liquid cooling systems, heat exchangers, distillers, and boilers. Specifically, the phenomena occurring in a two-phase coolant flow in a BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) fuel assembly include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. Traditionally, the best analysis tools for this purpose of two-phase flow phenomena inside the BWR fuel assembly have been the sub-channel codes. However, the resolution of these codes is too coarse for analyzing the detailed intra-assembly flow patterns, such as flow around a spacer element. Advanced CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes provide a potential for detailed 3D simulations of coolant flow inside a fuel assembly, including flow around a spacer element using more fundamental physical models of flow regimes and phase interactions than sub-channel codes. Such models can extend the code applicability to a wider range of situations, which is highly important for increasing the efficiency and to prevent accidents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ovaysi, S.; Piri, M.
2009-12-01
We present a three-dimensional fully dynamic parallel particle-based model for direct pore-level simulation of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model was developed from scratch and is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution microtomography images of naturally occurring or man-made porous systems. It reads the images as input where the position of the solid walls are given. The entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is then discretized using particles. The model is based on Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) technique. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. It takes into account viscous pressure drop in addition to the gravity forces. It conserves mass and can automatically detect any false connectivity with fluid particles in the neighboring pores and throats. It includes a sophisticated algorithm to automatically split and merge particles to maintain hydraulic connectivity of extremely narrow conduits. Furthermore, it uses novel methods to handle particle inconsistencies and open boundaries. To handle the computational load, we present a fully parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters and exhibits excellent scalability. The model is used to simulate unsteady-state flow problems under different conditions starting from straight noncircular capillary tubes with different cross-sectional shapes, i.e., circular/elliptical, square/rectangular and triangular cross-sections. We compare the predicted dimensionless hydraulic conductances with the data available in the literature and observe an excellent agreement. We then test the scalability of our parallel model with two samples of an artificial sandstone, samples A and B, with different volumes and different distributions (non-uniform and uniform) of solid particles among the processors. An excellent linear scalability is
Viscoelastic fluid flow in inhomogeneous porous media
Siginer, D.A.; Bakhtiyarov, S.I.
1996-09-01
The flow of inelastic and viscoelastic fluids in two porous media of different permeabilities and same priority arranged in series has been investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The fluids are an oil field spacer fluid and aqueous solutions of polyacrylamide. The porous medium is represented by a cylindrical tube randomly packed with glass spheres. Expressions for the friction factor and the resistance coefficient as a function of the Reynolds number have been developed both for shear thinning and viscoelastic fluids based on the linear fluidity and eight constant Oldroyd models, respectively. The authors show that the energy loss is higher if the viscoelastic fluid flows first through the porous medium with the smaller permeability rather than through the section of the cylinder with the larger permeability. This effect is not observed for Newtonian and shear thinning fluids flowing through the same configuration. Energy requirements for the same volume flow rate are much higher than a Newtonian fluid of the same zero shear viscosity as the polymeric solution. Energy loss increases with increasing Reynolds number at a fixed concentration. At a fixed Reynolds number, the loss is a strong function of the concentration and increases with increasing concentration. The behavior of all fluids is predicted qualitatively except the difference in energy requirements.
Effect of Compressibility on Hyperbolicity and Choke Flow Criterion of the Two-phase Two-fluid Model
Suneet Singh; Vincent A. Mousseau
2008-09-01
The standard two-phase two-fluid model lacks hyperbolicity which results in oscillations in the numerical solutions. For the incompressible two-phase flows an exact correction term can be derived which when added to the momentum equations makes the model hyperbolic. No such straightforward approach exists for the similar compressible flows. In the current work, the effect of the compressibility on the characteristic equation is analyzed. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of the system depends only on the slip velocity and not on the phasic velocities, independently. Moreover, a slip Mach number is defined and a non-dimensional characteristic equation is derived. It is shown that for the small values of slip Mach number the effect of the compressibility on the hyperbolicity can be ignored. To verify the above analysis, the characteristic equation for the two-phase compressible flows is numerically solved and results compared with the values obtained with the analytical solution for incompressible flows. Numerical solution of the two-phase two-fluid model for the benchmark problem is used to further verify the abovementioned analysis. Furthermore, the eigenvalues of the characteristic equation are obtained as a power series expansion about the point where the slip Mach number is zero. These eigenvalues are used to develop a choking criterion for the compressible two-phase flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neustupa, T.
2016-06-01
This paper deals with the mathematical model of a steady flow of a heat-conductive incompressible viscous fluid through a spatially periodic plane profile cascade. The corresponding boundary value problem is reduced to one spatial period. We prove the existence of a weak solution of a coupled problem, with various boundary conditions on the parts of the boundary. Particularly, the condition on the outflow is a variant of the so called "do nothing" boundary condition.
Fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer with vent-valve flow. [PWR
Rothe, P.H.; Marscher, W.D.; Block, J.A.
1982-03-01
This report describes an experimental program of fluid mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale transparent model of the cold leg and downcomer of typical Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactors with vent valves. The results include transient data from a grid of thermocouples and extensive flow visualization photographs. Substantial mixing of cold injected water with hot primary coolant occurred during many of the tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frederick, Jennifer M.; Buffett, Bruce A.
2013-05-01
of cosmogenic iodine, 129I, in the pore fluid of marine sediments often indicate that the pore fluid is much older than the host sediment, even when vertical flow due to sediment compaction is taken into account. Old pore fluid has been used in previous studies to argue for pervasive upward fluid flow and a deep methane source for hydrate deposits. Alternatively, old pore fluid age may reflect more complex flow patterns. We use a two-dimensional numerical transport model to account for the effects of topography and fractures on pore fluid pathlines when sediment permeability is anisotropic. We find that fluid focusing can cause significant lateral migration as well as regions where downward flow reverses direction and returns toward the seafloor. Longer pathlines can produce pore fluid ages much older than that expected with a one-dimensional compaction model. For steady-state models with geometry representative of Blake Ridge (USA), a well-studied hydrate province, we find pore fluid ages beneath regions of topography and within fractured zones that are up to 70 Ma old. Our results suggest that the measurements of 129I/127I reflect a mixture of new and old pore fluid. However, old pore fluid need not originate at great depths. Methane within pore fluids can travel laterally several kilometers, implying an extensive source region around the deposit. This type of focusing should aid hydrate formation beneath topographic highs.
Two-fluid equilibrium with flow: FLOW2
Guazzotto, L.; Betti, R.
2015-09-15
The effects of finite macroscopic velocities on axisymmetric ideal equilibria are examined using the two-fluid (ions and electrons) model. A new equilibrium solver, the code FLOW2, is introduced for the two-fluid model and used to investigate the importance of various flow patterns on the equilibrium of tight aspect ratio (NSTX) and regular tokamak (DIII-D) configurations. Several improvements to the understanding and calculation of two-fluid equilibria are presented, including an analytical and numerical proof of the single-fluid and static limits of the two-fluid model, a discussion of boundary conditions, a user-friendly free-function formulation, and the explicit evaluation of velocity components normal to magnetic surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, J. X.; Shen, X.; Yin, Y. J.; Guo, Z.; Wang, H.
2015-06-01
In this paper, Gas-liquid two phase flow mathematic models of incompressible fluid were proposed to explore the feature of fluid under certain centrifugal force in vertical centrifugal casting (VCC). Modified projection-level-set method was introduced to solve the mathematic models. To validate the simulation results, two methods were used in this study. In the first method, the simulation result of basic VCC flow process was compared with its analytic solution. The relationship between the numerical solution and deterministic analytic solution was presented to verify the correctness of numerical algorithms. In the second method, systematic water simulation experiments were developed. In this initial experiment, special experimental vertical centrifugal device and casting shapes were designed to describe typical mold-filling processes in VCC. High speed camera system and data collection devices were used to capture flow shape during the mold-filling process. Moreover, fluid characteristic at different rotation speed (from 40rpm, 60rpmand 80rpm) was discussed to provide comparative resource for simulation results. As compared with the simulation results, the proposed mathematical models could be proven and the experimental design could help us advance the accuracy of simulation and further studies for VCC.
Pathapati, Subbu-Srikanth; Sansalone, John J
2011-07-01
Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is emerging as a model for resolving the fate of particulate matter (PM) by unit operations subject to rainfall-runoff loadings. However, compared to steady flow CFD models, there are greater computational requirements for unsteady hydrodynamics and PM loading models. Therefore this study examines if integrating a stepwise steady flow CFD model can reproduce PM separation by common unit operations loaded by unsteady flow and PM loadings, thereby reducing computational effort. Utilizing monitored unit operation data from unsteady events as a metric, this study compares the two CFD modeling approaches for a hydrodynamic separator (HS), a primary clarifier (PC) tank, and a volumetric clarifying filtration system (VCF). Results indicate that while unsteady CFD models reproduce PM separation of each unit operation, stepwise steady CFD models result in significant deviation for HS and PC models as compared to monitored data; overestimating the physical size requirements of each unit required to reproduce monitored PM separation results. In contrast, the stepwise steady flow approach reproduces PM separation by the VCF, a combined gravitational sedimentation and media filtration unit operation that provides attenuation of turbulent energy and flow velocity. PMID:21644537
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiao-Lu; Fan, Xiang-Yu; He, Yong-Ming; Nie, Ren-Shi; Huang, Quan-Hua
2013-08-01
Based on material balance and Darcy's law, the governing equation with the quadratic pressure gradient term was deduced. Then the nonlinear model for fluid flow in a multiple-zone composite reservoir including the quadratic gradient term was established and solved using a Laplace transform. A series of standard log-log type curves of 1-zone (homogeneous), 2-zone and 3-zone reservoirs were plotted and nonlinear flow characteristics were analysed. The type curves governed by the coefficient of the quadratic gradient term (β) gradually deviate from those of a linear model with time elapsing. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were implemented to compare the solutions of the linear and nonlinear models. The results showed that differences of pressure transients between the linear and nonlinear models increase with elapsed time and β. At the end, a successful application of the theoretical model data against the field data shows that the nonlinear model will be a good tool to evaluate formation parameters more accurately.
A site-scale model for fluid and heat flow in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yu-Shu; Haukwa, Charles; Bodvarsson, G. S.
1999-05-01
A three-dimensional unsaturated-zone numerical model has been developed to simulate flow and distribution of moisture, gas and heat at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential repository site for high-level radioactive waste. The model takes into account the simultaneous flow dynamics of liquid water, vapor, air and heat in the highly heterogeneous, fractured porous rock in the unsaturated zone (UZ). This model is intended for use in the prediction of the current and future conditions in the UZ so as to aid in the assessment of the system performance of the proposed repository. The modeling approach is based on a mathematical formulation of coupled multiphase, multicomponent fluid and heat flow through porous and fractured rock. Fracture and matrix flow is treated using both dual-permeability and effective-continuum modeling approaches. The model domain covers a total area of approximately 43 km 2, and uses the land surface and the water table as its top and bottom boundaries. In addition, site-specific data, representative surface infiltration, and geothermal conditions are incorporated into the model. The reliability and accuracy of the model have been the subject of a comprehensive model calibration study, in which the model was calibrated against measured data, including liquid saturation, water potential and temperature. It has been found that the model is generally able to reproduce the overall system behavior at Yucca Mountain with respect to moisture profiles, pneumatic pressure variations in different geological units, and ambient geothermal conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damsgaard, A.; Egholm, D. L.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Larsen, N. K.
2014-12-01
The coupled mechanical response of ice, water and sediment may control the flow of warm-based glaciers residing on deformable sediment. This is most clearly expressed by the fast flowing ice streams in Greenland and Antarctica, where low levels of basal friction are thought to support the high flow rates. These ice streams are of particular interest since they are large constituents of the polar ice sheet mass balance. The study of these ice streams and their future impact on the ice sheets necessitates a deeper understanding of their basal dynamics, including the rheology of water-saturated sediment. We present the methodology and first results of a coupled numerical model for computational experiments on granular-fluid mixtures under dynamic conditions similar to those in subglacial settings. The granular phase is simulated on a per-particle basis by the soft body discrete element method. The fluid phase is handled as a continuum by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The particle and fluid phases are coupled by mass conservation and momentum exchanges. The hydraulic diffusivity and permeability is compared to previous laboratory studies on tills. We demonstrate how the onset and halt of granular deformation is an efficient mechanism to create fluid pressure fluctuations due to local porosity changes. These pressure anomalies are driving transient hydraulic flows, and they influence directly the rheology of granular-fluid mixtures. Our results highlight the nonlinear nature of water saturated granular deformation, and demonstrate how the mechanical behaviour of granular materials may include both brittle and viscous components depending on the rates of deformation and the hydrological properties.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Jie; Yu, Sheng-Tao; Jiang, Bo-nan
1996-01-01
In this paper a numerical procedure for simulating two-fluid flows is presented. This procedure is based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method proposed by Hirt and Nichols and the continuum surface force (CSF) model developed by Brackbill, et al. In the VOF method fluids of different properties are identified through the use of a continuous field variable (color function). The color function assigns a unique constant (color) to each fluid. The interfaces between different fluids are distinct due to sharp gradients of the color function. The evolution of the interfaces is captured by solving the convective equation of the color function. The CSF model is used as a means to treat surface tension effect at the interfaces. Here a modified version of the CSF model, proposed by Jacqmin, is used to calculate the tension force. In the modified version, the force term is obtained by calculating the divergence of a stress tensor defined by the gradient of the color function. In its analytical form, this stress formulation is equivalent to the original CSF model. Numerically, however, the use of the stress formulation has some advantages over the original CSF model, as it bypasses the difficulty in approximating the curvatures of the interfaces. The least-squares finite element method (LSFEM) is used to discretize the governing equation systems. The LSFEM has proven to be effective in solving incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and pure convection equations, making it an ideal candidate for the present applications. The LSFEM handles all the equations in a unified manner without any additional special treatment such as upwinding or artificial dissipation. Various bench mark tests have been carried out for both two dimensional planar and axisymmetric flows, including a dam breaking, oscillating and stationary bubbles and a conical liquid sheet in a pressure swirl atomizer.
Two-Phase Acto-Cytosolic Fluid Flow in a Moving Keratocyte: A 2D Continuum Model.
Nikmaneshi, M R; Firoozabadi, B; Saidi, M S
2015-09-01
The F-actin network and cytosol in the lamellipodia of crawling cells flow in a centripetal pattern and spout-like form, respectively. We have numerically studied this two-phase flow in the realistic geometry of a moving keratocyte. Cytosol has been treated as a low viscosity Newtonian fluid flowing through the high viscosity porous medium of F-actin network. Other involved phenomena including myosin activity, adhesion friction, and interphase interaction are also discussed to provide an overall view of this problem. Adopting a two-phase coupled model by myosin concentration, we have found new accurate perspectives of acto-cytosolic flow and pressure fields, myosin distribution, as well as the distribution of effective forces across the lamellipodia of a keratocyte with stationary shape. The order of magnitude method is also used to determine the contribution of forces in the internal dynamics of lamellipodia. PMID:26403420
Fluid/structure interactions. Internal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weaver, D. S.
1991-05-01
Flow-induced vibrations are found wherever structures are exposed to high velocity fluid flows. Internal flows are usually characterized by the close proximity of solid boundaries. There are surfaces against which separated flows may reattach, or from which pressure disturbances may be reflected resulting in acoustic resonance. When the fluid is a liquid, the close proximity of solid boundaries to a vibrating component can produce very high added mass effects. This paper presents three different experimental studies of flow-induced vibration problems associated with internal flows. The emphasis was on experimental techniques developed for understanding excitation mechanisms. In difficult flow-induced vibration problems, a useful experimental technique is flow visualization using a large scale model and strobe light triggered by the phenomenon being observed. This should be supported by point measurements of velocity and frequency spectra. When the flow excitation is associated with acoustic resonance, the sound can be fed back to enhance or eliminate the instability. This is potentially a very useful tool for studying and controlling fluid-structure interaction problems. Some flow-induced vibration problems involve a number of different excitation mechanisms and care must be taken to ensure that the mechanisms are properly identified. Artificially imposing structural vibrations or acoustic fields may induce flow structures not naturally present in the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutchko, Rostyslav; Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Vandehey, Nicholas T.; O'Neil, James P.; Budinger, Thomas F.; Nico, Peter S.; Druhan, Jennifer L.; Saloner, David A.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Moses, William W.
2012-01-01
This paper presents experimental and modeling aspects of applying nuclear emission tomography to study fluid flow in laboratory packed porous media columns of the type frequently used in geophysics, geochemistry and hydrology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are used as non-invasive tools to obtain dynamic 3D images of radioactive tracer concentrations. Dynamic sequences obtained using 18F-FDG PET are used to trace flow through a 5 cm diameter × 20 cm tall sand packed column with and without an impermeable obstacle. In addition, a custom-made rotating column setup placed in a clinical two-headed SPECT camera is used to image 99mTc-DTPA tracer propagation in a through-flowing column (10 cm diameter × 30 cm tall) packed with recovered aquifer sediments. A computational fluid dynamics software package FLUENT is used to model the observed flow dynamics. Tracer distributions obtained in the simulations in the smaller column uniformly packed with sand and in the column with an obstacle are remarkably similar to the reconstructed images in the PET experiments. SPECT results demonstrate strongly non-uniform flow patterns for the larger column slurry-packed with sub-surface sediment and slow upward flow. In the numerical simulation of the SPECT study, two symmetric channels with increased permeability are prescribed along the column walls, which result in the emergence of two well-defined preferential flow paths. Methods and results of this work provide new opportunities in hydrologic and biogeochemical research. The primary target application for developed technologies is non-destructive, non-perturbing, quantitative imaging of flow dynamics within laboratory scale porous media systems.
Visualization of Two-Fluid-Phase Flow Dynamics Using Micro-models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dye, A. L.; McClure, J. E.; Gray, W. G.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Miller, C. T.
2015-12-01
Microfluidic approaches provide an opportunity to observe phase distributions, interfaces, common curves, and curvatures at high spatial and temporal resolutions in two-fluid-phase porous medium systems. Such observations provide an opportunity to visualize mechanisms, determine closure relations needed for existing and evolving models, and provide a means to validate theoretical predictions. We use a 500-micron cell with a circular solid phase to study two-fluid-phase displacement, including a dense pattern of drainage, imbibition, and scanning curves at very high spatial and temporal distribution. Viscous fingering, Haines jumps, and snap-off processes are visualized. A lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to model the experimental data and shows excellent agreement for equilibrium states and certain aspects of the dynamics. Pressure dynamics, displacement processes, and interface curvature change time scales are shown. The fluid pressure, saturation, curvature, and interfacial area data is used to demonstrate that a unique, non-hysteretic closure relation exists. Further, the data is compared to mechanistic predictions based upon the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT), validating key aspects of the theory.
Experimental and numerical modelling of the fluid flow in the continuous casting of steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Timmel, K.; Miao, X.; Wondrak, T.; Stefani, F.; Lucas, D.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.
2013-03-01
This article gives an overview of recent research activities with respect to the mold flow in the continuous casting of steel in presence of DC magnetic fields. The magnetic fields appear to be an attractive tool for controlling the melt flow in a contactless way. Various kinds of magnetic systems are already in operation in industrial steel casting, but the actual impact on the melt flow has not been sufficiently verified by experimental studies. The rapid development of innovative diagnostic techniques in low-melting liquid metals over the last two decades enables new possibilities for systematic flow measurements in liquid metal model experiments. A new research program was initiated at HZDR comprising three experimental facilities providing a LIquid Metal Model for continuous CASTing of steel (LIMMCAST). The facilities operate in a temperature range from room temperature up to 400∘C using the low-melting alloys GaInSn and SnBi, respectively. The experimental program is focused on quantitative flow measurements in the mold, the submerged entry nozzle and the tundish. Local potential probes, Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry (UDV) and Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT) are employed to measure the melt flow. The behavior of two-phase flows in case of argon injection is investigated by means of the Mutual Inductance Tomography (MIT) and X-ray radioscopy. The experimental results provide a substantial data basis for the validation of related numerical simulations. Numerical calculations were performed with the software package ANSYS-CFX with an implemented RANS-SST turbulence model. The non-isotropic nature of MHD turbulence was taken into account by specific modifications of the turbulence model. First results of the LIMMCAST program reveal important findings such as the peculiar, unexpected phenomenon that the application of a DC magnetic field may excite non-steady, non-isotropic large-scale flow oscillations in the mold. Another important result of our
Guidelines in the experimental validation of a 3D heat and fluid flow model of keyhole laser welding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtois, Mickael; Carin, Muriel; Le Masson, Philippe; Gaied, Sadok; Balabane, Mikhaël
2016-04-01
During the past few years, numerous sophisticated models have been proposed to predict in a self-consistent way the dynamics of the keyhole, together with the melt pool and vapor jet. However, these models are only partially compared to experimental data, so the reliability of these models is questionable. The present paper aims to propose a more complete experimental set-up in order to validate the most relevant results calculated by these models. A complete heat transfer and fluid flow three-dimensional (3D) model is first proposed in order to describe laser welding in keyhole regimes. The interface is tracked with a level set method and fluid flows are calculated in liquid and gas. The mechanisms of recoil pressure and keyhole creation are highlighted in a fusion line configuration chosen as a reference. Moreover, a complete validation of the model is proposed with guidelines on the variables to observe. Numerous comparisons with dedicated experiments (thermocouples, pyrometry, high-speed camera) are proposed to estimate the validity of the model. In addition to traditional geometric measurements, the main variables calculated, temperatures, and velocities in the melt pool are at the center of this work. The goal is to propose a reference validation for complex 3D models proposed over the last few years.
Nanometer-scale imaging and pore-scale fluid flow modeling inchalk
Tomutsa, Liviu; Silin, Dmitriy; Radmilovich, Velimir
2005-08-23
For many rocks of high economic interest such as chalk,diatomite, tight gas sands or coal, nanometer scale resolution is neededto resolve the 3D-pore structure, which controls the flow and trapping offluids in the rocks. Such resolutions cannot be achieved with existingtomographic technologies. A new 3D imaging method, based on serialsectioning and using the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has beendeveloped. FIB allows for the milling of layers as thin as 10 nanometersby using accelerated Ga+ ions to sputter atoms from the sample surface.After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed, a 2D image of thissurface is generated. Next, the 2D images are stacked to reconstruct the3D pore or grain structure. Resolutions as high as 10 nm are achievableusing this technique. A new image processing method uses directmorphological analysis of the pore space to characterize thepetrophysical properties of diverse formations. In addition to estimationof the petrophysical properties (porosity, permeability, relativepermeability and capillary pressures), the method is used for simulationof fluid displacement processes, such as those encountered in variousimproved oil recovery (IOR) approaches. Computed with the new methodcapillary pressure curves are in good agreement with laboratory data. Themethod has also been applied for visualization of the fluid distributionat various saturations from the new FIB data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, C. T.; Piggott, M. D.
2015-03-01
This model description paper introduces a new finite element model for the simulation of non-linear shallow water flows, called Firedrake-Fluids. Unlike traditional models that are written by hand in static, low-level programming languages such as Fortran or C, Firedrake-Fluids uses the Firedrake framework to automatically generate the model's code from a high-level abstract language called Unified Form Language (UFL). By coupling to the PyOP2 parallel unstructured mesh framework, Firedrake can then target the code towards a desired hardware architecture to enable the efficient parallel execution of the model over an arbitrary computational mesh. The description of the model includes the governing equations, the methods employed to discretise and solve the governing equations, and an outline of the automated solution process. The verification and validation of the model, performed using a set of well-defined test cases, is also presented along with a road map for future developments and the solution of more complex fluid dynamical systems.
Pearson, Natalie C; Shipley, Rebecca J; Waters, Sarah L; Oliver, James M
2014-12-01
A 2D model is developed for fluid flow, mass transport and cell distribution in a hollow fibre membrane bioreactor. The geometry of the modelling region is simplified by excluding the exit ports at either end and focusing on the upper half of the central section of the bioreactor. Cells are seeded on a porous scaffold throughout the extracapillary space (ECS), and fluid pumped through the bioreactor via the lumen inlet and/or exit ports. In the fibre lumen and porous fibre wall, flow is described using Stokes and Darcy governing equations, respectively, while in the ECS porous mixture theory is used to model the cells, culture medium and scaffold. Reaction-advection-diffusion equations govern the concentration of a solute of interest in each region. The governing equations are reduced by exploiting the small aspect ratio of the bioreactor. This yields a coupled system for the cell volume fraction, solute concentration and ECS water pressure which is solved numerically for a variety of experimentally relevant case studies. The model is used to identify different regimes of cell behaviour, and results indicate how the flow rate can be controlled experimentally to generate a uniform cell distribution under regimes relevant to nutrient- and/or chemotactic-driven behaviours. PMID:24036069
Viscoelastic flow modeling in the extrusion of a dough-like fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dhanasekharan, M.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)
2000-01-01
This work attempts to investigate the effect of viscoelasticity and three-dimensional geometry in screw channels. The Phan-Thien Tanner (PTT) constitutive equation with simplified model parameters was solved in conjunction with the flow equations. Polyflow, a commercially available finite element code was used to solve the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations. The PTT model predicted one log scale lower pressure buildup compared to the equivalent Newtonian results. However, the velocity profile did not show significant changes for the chosen PTT model parameters. Past Researchers neglected viscoelastic effects and also the three dimensional nature of the flow in extruder channels. The results of this paper provide a starting point for further simulations using more realistic model parameters, which may enable the food engineer to more accurately scale-up and design extrusion processes.
Modeling Coupled Processes for Multiphase Fluid Flow in Mechanically Deforming Faults
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenna, S. A.; Pike, D. Q.
2011-12-01
Modeling of coupled hydrological-mechanical processes in fault zones is critical for understanding the long-term behavior of fluids within the shallow crust. Here we utilize a previously developed cellular-automata (CA) model to define the evolution of permeability within a 2-D fault zone under compressive stress. At each time step, the CA model calculates the increase in fluid pressure within the fault at every grid cell. Pressure surpassing a critical threshold (e.g., lithostatic stress) causes a rupture in that cell, and pressure is then redistributed across the neighboring cells. The rupture can cascade through the spatial domain and continue across multiple time steps. Stress continues to increase and the size and location of rupture events are recorded until a percolating backbone of ruptured cells exists across the fault. Previous applications of this model consider uncorrelated random fields for the compressibility of the fault material. The prior focus on uncorrelated property fields is consistent with development of a number of statistical physics models including percolation processes and fracture propagation. However, geologic materials typically express spatial correlation and this can have a significant impact on the results of the pressure and permeability distributions. We model correlation of the fault material compressibility as a multiGaussian random field with a correlation length defined as the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of the kernel used to create the field. The FWHM is varied from < 0.001 to approximately 0.47 of the domain size. The addition of spatial correlation to the compressibility significantly alters the model results including: 1) Accumulation of larger amounts of strain prior to the first rupture event; 2) Initiation of the percolating backbone at lower amounts of cumulative strain; 3) Changes in the event size distribution to a combined power-law and exponential distribution with a smaller power; and 4) Evolution of the
Electro-osmotic flow in bicomponent fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bazarenko, Andrei; Sega, Marcello
The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is a widely used technique that uses the action of external electric fields on solvated ions to move fluids around in microfluidics devices. For homogeneous fluids, the characteristics of the flow can be well approximated by simple analytical models, but in multicomponent systems such as oil-in-water droplets one has to rely to numerical simulations. The purpose of this study is to investigate physical properties of the EOF in a bicomponent fluid by solving the coupled equations of motions of explicit ions in interaction with a continuous model of the flow. To do so we couple the hydrodynamics equations as solved by a Shan-Chen Lattice-Boltzmann method to the molecular dynamics of the ions. The presence of explicit ions allows us to go beyond the simple Poisson-Boltzmann approximations, and investigate a variety of EOF regimes. ETN-COLLDENSE (H2020-MCSA-ITN-2014, Grant No. 642774).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Makuch, Lauren A.
2004-01-01
Humans reach peak bone mass at age 30. After this point, we lose 1 to 2 percent of bone mass each decade. In the microgravity environment of space, astronauts lose bone mass at an accelerated rate of 1 to 2 percent each month. When astronauts travel to Mars, they may be in space for as long as 3 years. During this time, they may lose about half of their bone mass from weight-bearing bones. This loss may be irreversible. The drastic loss in bone that astronauts experience in space makes them much more vulnerable to fractures. In addition, the corresponding removal of calcium from bone results in higher levels of calcium in the blood, which increases the risk of developing kidney stones. Currently, studies are being conducted which investigate factors governing bone adaptation and mechanotransduction. Bone is constantly adapting in response to mechanical stimuli. Increased mechanical loading stimulates bone formation and suppresses bone resorption. Reduction in mechanical loading caused by bedrest, disuse, or microgravity results in decreased bone formation and possibly increased bone resorption. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the two main cell types that participate in bone remodeling. Osteoblasts are anabolic (bone-forming) cells and osteoclasts are catabolic (bone-resorbing) cells. In microgravity, the activity of osteoblasts slows down and the activity of osteoclasts may speed up, causing a loss of bone density. Mechanotransduction, the molecular mechanism by which mechanical stimuli are converted to biochemical signals, is not yet understood. Exposure of cells to fluid flow imposes a shear stress on the cells. Several studies have shown that the shear stress that results from fluid flow induces a cellular response similar to that induced by mechanical loading. Thus, fluid flow can be used as an in vitro model to simulate the mechanical stress that bone cells experience in vivo. Previous in vitro studies have shown that fluid flow induces several responses in
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here. PMID:27093542
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M.
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here. PMID:27093542
Faybishenko, Boris; Doughty, Christine; Stoops, Thomas M.; Wood, thomas R.; Wheatcraft, Stephen W.
1999-12-31
(1) To determine if and when dynamical chaos theory can be used to investigate infiltration of fluid and contaminant transport in heterogeneous soils and fractured rocks. (2) To introduce a new approach to the multiscale characterization of flow and transport in fractured basalt vadose zones and to develop physically based conceptual models on a hierarchy of scales. The following activities are indicative of the success in meeting the project s objectives: A series of ponded infiltration tests, including (1) small-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 0.5 m2) conducted at the Hell s Half Acre site near Shelley, Idaho, and (2) intermediate-scale infiltration tests (ponded area 56 m2) conducted at the Box Canyon site near Arco, Idaho. Laboratory investigations and modeling of flow in a fractured basalt core. A series of small-scale dripping experiments in fracture models. Evaluation of chaotic behavior of flow in laboratory and field experiments using methods from nonlinear dynamics; Evaluation of the impact these dynamics may have on contaminant transport through heterogeneous fractured rocks and soils, and how it can be used to guide remediation efforts; Development of a conceptual model and mathematical and numerical algorithms for flow and transport that incorporate (1) the spatial variability of heterogeneous porous and fractured media, and (2) the description of the temporal dynamics of flow and transport, both of which may be chaotic. Development of appropriate experimental field and laboratory techniques needed to detect diagnostic parameters for chaotic behavior of flow. This approach is based on the assumption that spatial heterogeneity and flow phenomena are affected by nonlinear dynamics, and in particular, by chaotic processes. The scientific and practical value of this approach is that we can predict the range within which the parameters of flow and transport change with time in order to design and manage the remediation, even when we can not predict
Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Takahashi, T.; Niibori, Y.; Hashida, T.
2007-03-01
An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer.
Numerical Model of Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Rock for High Level Radioactive Waste Disposal
Shirai, M.; Chiba, R.; Takahashi, T.; Hashida, T.; Fomin, S.; Chugunov, V.; Niibori, Y.
2007-03-20
An international consensus has emerged that deep geological disposal on land is one of the most appropriate means for high level radioactive wastes (HLW). The fluid transport is slow and radioactive elements are dangerous, so it's impossible to experiment over thousands of years. Instead, numerical model in such natural barrier as fractured underground needs to be considered. Field observations reveal that the equation with fractional derivative is more appropriate for describing physical phenomena than the equation which is based on the Fick's law. Thus, non-Fickian diffusion into inhomogeneous underground appears to be important in the assessment of HLW disposal. A solute transport equation with fractional derivative has been suggested and discussed in literature. However, no attempts were made to apply this equation for modeling of HLW disposal with account for the radioactive decay. In this study, we suggest the use of a novel fractional advection-diffusion equation which accounts for the effect of radioactive disintegration and for interactions between major, macro pores and fractal micro pores. This model is fundamentally different from previous proposed model of HLW, particularly in utilizing fractional derivative. Breakthrough curves numerically obtained by the present model are presented for a variety of rock types with respect to some important nuclides. Results of the calculation showed that for longer distance our model tends to be more conservative than the conventional Fickian model, therefore our model can be said to be safer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chitta, Varun
Modeling of complex flows involving the combined effects of flow transition and streamline curvature using two advanced turbulence models, one in the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) category and the other in the hybrid RANS-Large eddy simulation (LES) category is considered in this research effort. In the first part of the research, a new scalar eddy-viscosity model (EVM) is proposed, designed to exhibit physically correct responses to flow transition, streamline curvature, and system rotation effects. The four equation model developed herein is a curvature-sensitized version of a commercially available three-equation transition-sensitive model. The physical effects of rotation and curvature (RC) enter the model through the added transport equation, analogous to a transverse turbulent velocity scale. The eddy-viscosity has been redefined such that the proposed model is constrained to reduce to the original transition-sensitive model definition in nonrotating flows or in regions with negligible RC effects. In the second part of the research, the developed four-equation model is combined with a LES technique using a new hybrid modeling framework, dynamic hybrid RANS-LES. The new framework is highly generalized, allowing coupling of any desired LES model with any given RANS model and addresses several deficiencies inherent in most current hybrid models. In the present research effort, the DHRL model comprises of the proposed four-equation model for RANS component and the MILES scheme for LES component. Both the models were implemented into a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver and tested on a number of engineering and generic flow problems. Results from both the RANS and hybrid models show successful resolution of the combined effects of transition and curvature with reasonable engineering accuracy, and for only a small increase in computational cost. In addition, results from the hybrid model indicate significant levels of turbulent
Fluid dynamic modeling and numerical simulation of low-density hypersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, H. K.; Wong, Eric Y.
1988-01-01
The concept of a viscous shock-layer and several related versions of continuum theories/methods are examined for their adequacy as a viable framework to study flow physics and aerothermodynamics of relevance to sustained hypersonic flights. Considering the flat plate at angle of attack, or the wedge, as a generic example for the major aerodynamic component of a hypersonic vehicle, the relative importance of the molecular-transport effects behind the shock (in the form of the 'shock slip') and the wall-slip effects are studied. In the flow regime where the shock-transition-zone thickness remains small compared to the shock radius of curvature, a quasi-one-dimensional shock structure under the Burnett/thirteen-moment approximation, as well as particulate/collisional models, can be consistently developed. The fully viscous version of the shock-layer model is shown to provide the crucial boundary condition downstream the shock in this case. The gas-kinetic basis of the continuum description for the flow behind the bow shock, and certain features affecting the non-equilibrium flow chemistry, are also discussed.
Fluid flow along faults in carbonate rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romano, Valentina; Battaglia, Maurizio; Bigi, Sabina
2015-04-01
The study of fluid flow in fractured rocks plays a key role in reservoir management, including CO2 sequestration and waste isolation. We present a mathematical model of fluid flow in a fault zone, based on field data acquired in Majella Mountain, in the Central Apennines (Italy). The Majella is a thrust related, asymmetric, box shaped anticline. The mountain carbonate outcrops are part of a lower Cretaceous-Miocene succession, covered by a siliciclastic sequence of lower Pliocene age. We study a fault zone located in the Bolognano Formation (Oligo-Miocene age) and exposed in the Roman Valley Quarry near the town of Lettomanoppello, in the northern sector of the Majella Mountain. This is one of the best places in the Apennines to investigate a fault zone and has been the subject of numerous field studies. Faults are mechanical and permeability heterogeneities in the upper crust, so they strongly influence fluid flow. The distribution of the main components (core, damage zone) can lead a fault zone to act as a conduit, a barrier or a combined conduit-barrier system. We integrated existing and our own structural surveys of the area to better identify the major fault features (e.g., kind of fractures, statistical properties, geometry and pertrophysical characteristics). Our analytical model describe the Bolognano Formation using a dual porosity/dual permeability model: global flow occurs through the fracture network only, while rock matrix contain the majority of fluid storage and provide fluid drainage to the fractures. Pressure behavior is analyzed by examining the pressure drawdown curves, the derivative plots and the effects of the characteristic parameters. The analytical model has been calibrated against published data on fluid flow and pressure distribution in the Bolognano Formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundgren, P.; Lanari, R.; Manzo, M.; Sansosti, E.; Tizzani, P.; Hutnak, M.; Hurwitz, S.
2008-12-01
Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, located along the Bay of Naples, has a long history of significant vertical deformation, with the most recent large uplift (>1.5m) occurring in 1983-1984. Each episode of uplift has been followed by a period of subsidence that decreases in rate with time and may be punctuated by brief episodes of lesser uplift. The large amplitude of the major uplifts that occur without volcanic activity, and the subsequent subsidence has been argued as evidence for hydrothermal amplification of any magmatic source. The later subsidence and its temporal decay have been argued as due to diffusion of the pressurized caldera fill material into the less porous surrounding country rock. We present satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) time series analysis of ERS and Envisat data from the European Space Agency, based on exploiting the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) approach [Berardino et al., 2002]; this allows us to generate maps of relative surface deformation though time, beginning in 1992 through 2007, that are relevant to both ascending and descending satellite orbits. The general temporal behavior is one of subsidence punctuated by several lesser uplift episodes. The spatial pattern of deformation can be modeled through simple inflation/deflation sources in an elastic halfspace. Given the evidence to suggest that fluids may play a significant role in the temporal deformation of Campi Flegrei, rather than a purely magmatic or magma chamber-based interpretation, we model the temporal and spatial evolution of surface deformation as a hydrothermal fluid flow process. We use the TOUGH2-BIOT2 set of numerical codes [Preuss et al., 1999; Hsieh, 1996], which couple multi-phase (liquid-gas) and multi-component (H2O-CO2) fluid flow in a porous or fractured media with plane strain deformation and fluid flow in a linearly elastic porous medium. We explore parameters related to the depth and temporal history of fluid injection, fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1995-01-01
Using the empirical constraints provided by observations in the inner corona and in interplanetary space. we derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two fluid model. Density and scale height temperatures are derived from White Light coronagraph observations on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa, from 1.16 to 5.5 R, in the two polar coronal holes on 11-12 Apr. 1993. Interplanetary measurements of the flow speed and proton mass flux are taken from the Ulysses south polar passage. By comparing the results of the model computations that fit the empirical constraints in the two coronal hole regions, we show how the effects of the line of sight influence the empirical inferences and subsequently the corresponding numerical results.
Maximal mixing by incompressible fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seis, Christian
2013-12-01
We consider a model for mixing binary viscous fluids under an incompressible flow. We prove the impossibility of perfect mixing in finite time for flows with finite viscous dissipation. As measures of mixedness we consider a Monge-Kantorovich-Rubinstein transportation distance and, more classically, the H-1 norm. We derive rigorous a priori lower bounds on these mixing norms which show that mixing cannot proceed faster than exponentially in time. The rate of the exponential decay is uniform in the initial data.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
These simulations of atmospheric flow use the same experimental parameters but started with slightly different initial conditions in the model. The simulations were part of data analysis for the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC), a planet in a test tube apparatus flown on Spacelab to mimic the atmospheres on gas giant planets and stars. (Credit: Dr. Tim Miller of Global Hydrology and Climate Center at the Marshall Space Flight Center)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raziperchikolaee, S.; Alvarado, V.; Yin, S.
2014-09-01
Studying rock joint deformation including both slippage and opening mechanisms provides an opportunity to investigate the connection between the permeability and seismic source mechanisms. A microscale fluid flow-geomechanics-seismicity model was built to evaluate the transport response and failure mechanism of microcracks developed along a joint in Berea sandstone samples during deformation. The modeling method considers comprehensive grain-cement interactions. Fluid flow behavior is obtained through a realistic network model of the pore space in the compacted assembly. The geometric description of the complex pore structure is characterized to predict permeability of the rock sample as a function of rock deformation by using a dynamic pore network model. As a result of microcracks development, forces and displacements in grains involved in bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. Shear and nonshear displacements are applied to the joint samples to investigate their effects on permeability evolution and failure mechanism of microcracks during joint deformation. In addition, the effect of joint roughness is analyzed by performing numerical compression tests. We also investigate how confining pressure affects volumetric deformation leading to opening or closure of developed microcracks and permeability changes of samples with joints.
Fluid flow electrophoresis in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, R. N.
1975-01-01
Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.
Ferroelectric Fluid Flow Control Valve
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jalink, Antony, Jr. (Inventor); Hellbaum, Richard F. (Inventor); Rohrbach, Wayne W. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
An active valve is controlled and driven by external electrical actuation of a ferroelectric actuator to provide for improved passage of the fluid during certain time periods and to provide positive closure of the valve during other time periods. The valve provides improved passage in the direction of flow and positive closure in the direction against the flow. The actuator is a dome shaped internally prestressed ferroelectric actuator having a curvature, said dome shaped actuator having a rim and an apex. and a dome height measured from a plane through said rim said apex that varies with an electric voltage applied between an inside and an outside surface of said dome shaped actuator.
General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm
1992-03-12
SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denisenko, N. S.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Yanchenko, A. A.; Tulupov, A. A.; Boiko, A. V.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu; Moshkin, M. P.; Akulov, A. E.
2016-06-01
In our experiments, we investigate a flow of a viscous fluid in the model of the common carotid artery bifurcation. The studies are carried out using three hardware equipments: two magnetic resonance scanners by Philips and Bruker, and intravascular guidewire ComboWire. The flux is generated by a special pump CompuFlow that is designed to reproduce a flow similar to the one in the blood vessels. A verification of the obtained data is carried out. Conducted research shows the capabilities of the measurement instruments and reflects the character of fluid flow inside the model.
Shuhaiber, Jeffrey H.; Niehaus, Justin; Gottliebson, William; Abdallah, Shaaban
2013-01-01
OBJECTIVES The theoretical differences in energy losses as well as coronary flow with different band sizes for branch pulmonary arteries (PA) in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) remain unknown. Our objective was to develop a computational fluid dynamic model (CFD) to determine the energy losses and pulmonary-to-systemic flow rates. This study was done for three different PA band sizes. METHODS Three-dimensional computer models of the hybrid procedure were constructed using the standard commercial CFD softwares Fluent and Gambit. The computer models were controlled for bilateral PA reduction to 25% (restrictive), 50% (intermediate) and 75% (loose) of the native branch pulmonary artery diameter. Velocity and pressure data were calculated throughout the heart geometry using the finite volume numerical method. Coronary flow was measured simultaneously with each model. Wall shear stress and the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic volume flow rates were calculated. Computer simulations were compared at fixed points utilizing echocardiographic and catheter-based metric dimensions. RESULTS Restricting the PA band to a 25% diameter demonstrated the greatest energy loss. The 25% banding model produced an energy loss of 16.76% systolic and 24.91% diastolic vs loose banding at 7.36% systolic and 17.90% diastolic. Also, restrictive PA bands had greater coronary flow compared with loose PA bands (50.2 vs 41.9 ml/min). Shear stress ranged from 3.75 Pascals with restrictive PA banding to 2.84 Pascals with loose banding. Intermediate PA banding at 50% diameter achieved a Qp/Qs (closest to 1) at 1.46 systolic and 0.66 diastolic compared with loose or restrictive banding without excess energy loss. CONCLUSIONS CFD provides a unique platform to simulate pressure, shear stress as well as energy losses of the hybrid procedure. PA banding at 50% provided a balanced pulmonary and systemic circulation with adequate coronary flow but without extra energy losses incurred. PMID:23660734
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taheri, Mehrdad
In this thesis analytical and numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer through open cell metal foam heat exchangers are presented. Primarily, different representative unit cell approximations, i.e, tetrakaidecahedron, dodecahedron and cubic are discussed. By applying the thermal resistance analogy, a novel formulation for evaluation of the effective thermal conductivity of metal foams is proposed. The model improves previous models based on cubic or hexagonal cells. By using computer tomography images of a nickel foam sample a realistic 3D geometry is created and the foam's geometrical properties (i.e., porosity and surface area to volume ratio) and effective thermal conductivity are obtained. By using the experimentally found values of permeability, Forchheimer coefficient and solid-fluid interfacial convection coefficient, mathematical models for fluid flow and heat transfer in metal foams are developed. Two different assumptions: local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and local thermal non-equilibrium (LTNE), are used. LTNE yields more accurate results. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of metal foam is made and validated against the experimental data for a square cross sectional nickel foam heat exchanger channel heated from the side walls while cooling air passes through the foam. The simulations are carried out for constant temperature or heat flux and different foam materials with pore densities of 10 and 40 pores per inch. The results show that the bonding of the foam to the walls has a considerable impact on the heat transfer rate. Convective heat transfer coefficients in terms of Nusselt number as functions of Reynolds number are also obtained. The design and CFD modeling of metal foam cross flow heat exchangers are also discussed. The results indicate both effectiveness and number of transfer units (NTU) for the metal foam heat exchangers are higher than those of a hollow channel; however, the effectiveness-NTU curves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoei, A. R.; Hosseini, N.; Mohammadnejad, T.
2016-08-01
In the present paper, a numerical model is developed based on a combination of the extended finite element method and an equivalent continuum model to simulate the two-phase fluid flow through fractured porous media containing fractures with multiple length scales. The governing equations involve the linear momentum balance equation and the flow continuity equation for each fluid phase. The extended finite element method allows for an explicit and accurate representation of cracks by enriching the standard finite element approximation of the field variables with appropriate enrichment functions, and captures the mass transfer between the fracture and the matrix. Due to the high computational cost of X-FEM, this technique is only used to model large fractures. The pre-existing short fractures, which are distributed randomly in the porous medium, contribute to the increase of the effective permeability tensor and are modeled with an equivalent continuum model. Finally, the robustness of the proposed computational model is demonstrated through several numerical examples, and the effects of crack orientation, capillary pressure function, solid skeleton deformation, and existence of short cracks on the pattern of fluid flow are investigated. It is shown that the developed model provides a correct prediction of flow pattern for different crack configurations.
Coupled reactive mass transport and fluid flow: Issues in model verification
Freedman, Vicky L.; Ibaraki, Motomu
2003-01-03
Model verification and validation are both important steps in the development of reactive transport models. In this paper, a distinction is made between verification and validation, and the focus is on codifying the issues of verification for a numerical, reactive transport flow model. First, the conceptual basis of model verification is reviewed, which shows that verification should be understood as a first step in model development, and be followed by a protocol that assures that the model accurately represents system behavior. Second, commonly used procedures and methods of model verification are presented. In the third part of this paper, an intercomparison of models is used to demonstrate that model verification can be performed despite differences in hydrogeochemical transport code formulations. Results of an example simulation of transport are presented in which the numerical model is tested against other hydrogeochemical codes. Different kinetic formulations between solid and aqueous phases used among numerical models complicates model verification. This test problem involves uranium transport under conditions of varying pH and oxidation potential, with reversible precipitation of calcium uranate and coffinite. Results between the different hydrogeochemical transport codes show differences in oxidation potentials, but similarities in mineral assemblages and aqueous transport patterns. Because model verification can be further complicated by differences in the approach for solving redox problems, a comparison of a fugacity approach to both the external approach (based on hypothetical electron activity) and effective internal approach (based on conservation of electrons) is performed. The comparison demonstrates that the oxygen fugacity approach produces different redox potentials and mineral assemblages than both the effective internal and external approaches.
Modelling two-phase flow in porous media at the pore scale using the volume-of-fluid method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raeini, Ali Q.; Blunt, Martin J.; Bijeljic, Branko
2012-07-01
We present a stable numerical scheme for modelling multiphase flow in porous media, where the characteristic size of the flow domain is of the order of microns to millimetres. The numerical method is developed for efficient modelling of multiphase flow in porous media with complex interface motion and irregular solid boundaries. The Navier-Stokes equations are discretised using a finite volume approach, while the volume-of-fluid method is used to capture the location of interfaces. Capillary forces are computed using a semi-sharp surface force model, in which the transition area for capillary pressure is effectively limited to one grid block. This new formulation along with two new filtering methods, developed for correcting capillary forces, permits simulations at very low capillary numbers and avoids non-physical velocities. Capillary forces are implemented using a semi-implicit formulation, which allows larger time step sizes at low capillary numbers. We verify the accuracy and stability of the numerical method on several test cases, which indicate the potential of the method to predict multiphase flow processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.
2006-11-01
This work is the third in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach to modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. Building upon the general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works in this series, we demonstrate the TCAT approach for the case of single-fluid-phase flow. The formulated model is based upon conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy and a general entropy inequality constraint, which is developed to guide model closure. A specific example of a closed model is derived under limiting assumptions using a linearization approach and these results are compared and contrasted with the traditional single-phase-flow model. Potential extensions to this work are discussed. Specific advancements in this work beyond previous averaging theory approaches to single-phase flow include use of macroscale thermodynamics that is averaged from the microscale, the use of derived equilibrium conditions to guide a flux-force pair approach to simplification, use of a general Lagrange multiplier approach to connect conservation equation constraints to the entropy inequality, and a focus on producing complete, closed models that are solvable.
Flow of an electrorheological fluid between eccentric rotating cylinders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Průša, Vít; Rajagopal, K. R.
2012-01-01
Electrorheological fluids have numerous potential applications in vibration dampers, brakes, valves, clutches, exercise equipment, etc. The flows in such applications are complex three-dimensional flows. Most models that have been developed to describe the flows of electrorheological fluids are one-dimensional models. Here, we discuss the behavior of two fully three-dimensional models for electrorheological fluids. The models are such that they reduce, in the case of simple shear flows with the intensity of the electric field perpendicular to the streamlines, to the same constitutive relation, but they would not be identical in more complicated three-dimensional settings. In order to show the difference between the two models, we study the flow of these fluids between eccentrically placed rotating cylinders kept at different potentials, in the setting that corresponds to technologically relevant problem of flow of electrorheological fluid in journal bearing. Even though the two models have quite a different constitutive structure, due to the assumed forms for the velocity and pressure fields, the models lead to the same velocity field but to different pressure fields. This finding illustrates the need for considering the flows of fluids described by three-dimensional constitutive models in complex geometries, and not restricting ourselves to flows of fluids described by one-dimensional models or simple shear flows of fluids characterized by three-dimensional models.
Volcanic termor: Nonlinear excitation by fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julian, Bruce R.
1994-06-01
A nonlinear process analogous to the excitation mechanism of musical wind instruments and human vocal cords can explain many characteristics of volcanic tremor, including (1) periodic and 'chaotic' oscillations, with peaked and irregular spectra respectively, (2) rapid pulsations in eruptions occurring at the same frequency as tremor, (3) systematic changes in tremor amplitude as channel geometry evolves during an eruption, (4) the period doubling reported for Hawaiian deep tremor, and (5) the fact that the onset of termor can be either gradual or abrupt. Volcanic 'long-period' earthquakes can be explained as oscillations excited by transient disturbances produced by nearby earthquakes, fluid heterogeneity, or changes in channel geometry, when the magma flow rate is too low to excite continuous tremor. A simple lumped-parameter tremor model involving the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid through a channel with movable elastic walls leads to a third-order system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. For different driving fluid pressures, numerical solutions exhibit steady flow, simple limit-cycle oscillations, a cascade of period-doubling subharmonic bifurcations, and chaotic oscillations controlled by a strange attractor of Rossler type. In this model, tremor occurs most easily at local constrictions, and fluid discharge is lower than would occur in unstable steady flow.
Analysis of Fluid Flow over a Surface
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCloud, Peter L. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
A method, apparatus, and computer program product for modeling heat radiated by a structure. The flow of a fluid over a surface of a model of the structure is simulated. The surface has a plurality of surface elements. Heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements in response to the fluid flowing over the surface of the model of the structure is identified. An effect of heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other is identified. A model of the heat radiated by the structure is created using the heat radiated by the plurality of surface elements and the effect of the heat radiated by at least a portion of the plurality of surface elements on each other.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, S.; Eastwick, C. N.; Simmons, K. A.; McCartney, D. G.
2001-09-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to predict gas dynamic behavior in a high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray gun in which premixed oxygen and propylene are burnt in a 12 mm combustion chamber linked to a parallel-sided nozzle. The CFD analysis is applied to investigate axisymmetric, steady-state, turbulent, compressible, and chemically combusting flow both within the gun and in a free jet region between the gun and the substrate to be coated. The combustion of oxygen and propylene is modeled using a single-step, finite-rate chemistry model that also allows for dissociation of the reaction products. Results are presented to show the effect of (1) fuel-to-oxygen gas ratio and (2) total gas flow rate on the gas dynamic behavior. Along the centerline, the maximum temperature reached is insensitive to the gas ratio but depends on the total flow. However, the value attained (˜2500 K) is significantly lower than the maximum temperature (˜3200 K) of the annular flame in the combustion chamber. By contrast, the centerline gas velocity depends on both total flow and gas ratio, the highest axial gas velocity being attained with the higher flow and most fuel-rich mixture. The gas Mach number increases through the gun and reaches a maximum value of approximately 1.6 around 5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The numerical calculations also show that the residual oxygen level is principally dependent on the fuel-to-oxygen ratio and decreases by approximately fivefold as the ratio is varied from 90 to 69% of the stoichiometric requirement. The CFD model is also used to investigate the effect of changes in combustion chamber size and geometry on gas dynamics, and the results are compared with the nominal 12 mm chamber baseline calculations.
Finite scale equations for compressible fluid flow
Margolin, Len G
2008-01-01
Finite-scale equations (FSE) describe the evolution of finite volumes of fluid over time. We discuss the FSE for a one-dimensional compressible fluid, whose every point is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations. The FSE contain new momentum and internal energy transport terms. These are similar to terms added in numerical simulation for high-speed flows (e.g. artificial viscosity) and for turbulent flows (e.g. subgrid scale models). These similarities suggest that the FSE may provide new insight as a basis for computational fluid dynamics. Our analysis of the FS continuity equation leads to a physical interpretation of the new transport terms, and indicates the need to carefully distinguish between volume-averaged and mass-averaged velocities in numerical simulation. We make preliminary connections to the other recent work reformulating Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sandbach, S. D.; Hardy, R. J.; Lane, S. N.; Ashworth, P. J.; Parsons, D. R.
2010-12-01
Our understanding of large rivers is limited due to the difficulties in obtaining field data at these large scales. Data rich results may be obtained using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models permitting the investigation of detailed flow patterns that would otherwise not be available. However, the application of these models to large rivers is not without its own complications and has yet to be fully developed. This is the result of two limiting factors, our inability; i) to design numerically stable meshes for complex topographies at these spatial resolutions; and; ii) to collect high resolution data appropriate for the boundary conditions of the numerical scheme. Here, we demonstrate a five-term mass-flux scaling algorithm (MFSA) for including bed topography in a very large river, where the discretised form of the mass and momentum equations are modified using a numerical blockage. Converged solutions were obtained using the Reynolds-averaged Navier stokes (RANS) equations modelling turbulence with a κ-ɛ RNG turbulence model. The boundary conditions were supplied from a field investigation of the Rio Paraná upstream of the Paraguay-Paraná confluence. A 38 km long reach was investigated where topographic and velocity data was collected using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp) and a single beam echo sounder. The model was validated against the aDcp data and in general showed good agreement. The model was then used to explore the impacts of roughness height upon key characteristics of the 3D flow field in large rivers. The results demonstrate the importance of topographic forcing on determining flow structures including the detection of large helical flow structures.
Xu, Chun; Sin, SangHun; McDonough, Joseph M; Udupa, Jayaram K; Guez, Allon; Arens, Raanan; Wootton, David M
2006-01-01
Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis was used to model the effect of airway geometry on internal pressure in the upper airway of three children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), and three controls. Model geometry was reconstructed from magnetic resonance images obtained during quiet tidal breathing, meshed with an unstructured grid, and solved at normative peak resting flow. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved with steady flow boundary conditions in inspiration and expiration, using a two-equation low-Reynolds number turbulence model. Model results were validated using an in-vitro scale model, unsteady flow simulation, and reported nasal resistance measurements in children. Pharynx pressure drop strongly correlated to airway area restriction. Inspiratory pressure drop was primarily proportional to the square of flow, consistent with pressure losses due to convective acceleration caused by area restriction. On inspiration, in OSAS pressure drop occurred primarily between the choanae and the region where the adenoids overlap the tonsils (overlap region) due to airway narrowing, rather than in the nasal passages; in controls the majority of pressure drop was in the nasal passages. On expiration, in OSAS the majority of pressure drop occurred between the oropharynx (posterior to the tongue) and overlap region, and local minimum pressure in the overlap region was near atmospheric due to pressure recovery in the anterior nasopharynx. The results suggest that pharyngeal airway shape in children with OSAS significantly affects internal pressure distribution compared to nasal resistance. The model may also help explain regional dynamic airway narrowing during expiration. PMID:16098533
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kees, C. E.; Farthing, M.; Dimakopoulos, A.; DeLataillade, T.
2015-12-01
Performance analysis and optimization of coastal and navigation structures is becoming feasible due to recent improvements in numerical methods for multiphase flows and the steady increase in capacity and availability of high performance computing resources. Now that the concept of fully three-dimensional air/water flow modelling for real world engineering analysis is achieving acceptance by the wider engineering community, it is critical to expand careful comparative studies on verification,validation, benchmarking, and uncertainty quantification for the variety of competing numerical methods that are continuing to evolve. Furthermore, uncertainty still remains about the relevance of secondary processes such as surface tension, air compressibility, air entrainment, and solid phase (structure) modelling so that questions about continuum mechanical theory and mathematical analysis of multiphase flow are still required. Two of the most popular and practical numerical approaches for large-scale engineering analysis are the Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF) and Level Set (LS) approaches. In this work we will present a publically available verification and validation test set for air-water-structure interaction problems as well as computational and physical model results including a hybrid VOF-LS method, traditional VOF methods, and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) results. The test set repository and test problem formats will also be presented in order to facilitate future comparative studies and reproduction of scientific results.
Coupled Model for CO2 Leaks from Geological Storage: Geomechanics, Fluid Flow and Phase Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gor, G.; Prevost, J.
2013-12-01
Deep saline aquifers are considered as a promising option for long-term storage of carbon dioxide. However, risk of CO2 leakage from the aquifers through faults, natural or induced fractures or abandoned wells cannot be disregarded. Therefore, modeling of various leakage scenarios is crucial when selecting a site for CO2 sequestration and choosing proper operational conditions. Carbon dioxide is injected into wells at supercritical conditions (t > 31.04 C, P > 73.82 bar), and these conditions are maintained in the deep aquifers (at 1-2 km depth) due to hydrostatic pressure and geothermal gradient. However, if CO2 and brine start to migrate from the aquifer upward, both pressure and temperature will decrease, and at the depth of 500-750 m, the conditions for CO2 will become subcritical. At subcritical conditions, CO2 starts boiling and the character of the flow changes dramatically due to appearance of the third (vapor) phase and latent heat effects. When modeling CO2 leaks, one needs to couple the multiphase flow in porous media with geomechanics. These capabilities are provided by Dynaflow, a finite element analysis program [1]; Dynaflow has already showed to be efficient for modeling caprock failure causing CO2 leaks [2, 3]. Currently we have extended the capabilities of Dynaflow with the phase transition module, based on two-phase and three-phase isenthalpic flash calculations [4]. We have also developed and implemented an efficient method for solving heat and mass transport with the phase transition using our flash module. Therefore, we have developed a robust tool for modeling CO2 leaks. In the talk we will give a brief overview of our method and illustrate it with the results of simulations for characteristic test cases. References: [1] J.H. Prevost, DYNAFLOW: A Nonlinear Transient Finite Element Analysis Program. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. http://www.princeton.edu/~dynaflow/ (last update 2013
LI, MING-HSU; SIEGEL, MALCOLM D.; YEH, GOUR-TSYH
1999-09-20
The couplings among chemical reaction rates, advective and diffusive transport in fractured media or soils, and changes in hydraulic properties due to precipitation and dissolution within fractures and in rock matrix are important for both nuclear waste disposal and remediation of contaminated sites. This paper describes the development and application of LEHGC2.0, a mechanistically-based numerical model for simulation of coupled fluid flow and reactive chemical transport including both fast and slow reactions invariably saturated media. Theoretical bases and numerical implementations are summarized, and two example problems are demonstrated. The first example deals with the effect of precipitation-dissolution on fluid flow and matrix diffusion in a two-dimensional fractured media. Because of the precipitation and decreased diffusion of solute from the fracture into the matrix, retardation in the fractured medium is not as large as the case wherein interactions between chemical reactions and transport are not considered. The second example focuses on a complicated but realistic advective-dispersive-reactive transport problem. This example exemplifies the need for innovative numerical algorithms to solve problems involving stiff geochemical reactions.
A Crustal Scale Heat and Fluid Flow Model for the Giant Rio Tinto VMS District, Iberian Pyrite Belt
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrie, C.; Cathles, L. M.; Erendi, A.
2004-05-01
Paleo - seafloor and sub-seafloor deposits of the Rio Tinto District constitute the largest accumulation of volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) on Earth. The deposits are are the type examples of giant bimodal-siliciclastic VMS deposits. This study presents relatively simple, 2D finite element heat and fluid flow models that explain how such a massive hydrothermal system may have formed. Giant VMS deposits require: 1) crustal scale hydrothermal circulation; 2) deep intrusion heat sources to drive hydrothermal convection; and 3) an optimal crustal permeability that supports large scale convection cells. We consider convection to depths of 10 and 15 km in the crust, a felsic intrusion heat source, and bulk crustal permeabilities of 10-14 to 10-16 m2 (0.1-10 millidarcies). The cases have: 1) a felsic magma heat source that is kept at 900oC for 10,000 years and then allowed to cool; 2) a more permeable, crustal-scale fracture/fault and stockwork zone beneath a 2 km2 Rio Tinto District; and 3) a thermal cracking subroutine with increased permeability from 275-475oC, in keeping with fracture development due to thermal contraction where cool, downwelling seawater interacts with conductively heated rock. Results show that at the higher crustal permeabilities, multiple hydrothermal plumes develop in the subsurface, and hydrothermal venting occurs over broad areas of the paleo - seafloor. At lower crustal permeabilities of 10-16 m2, venting is confined to the Rio Tinto District. An appropriate volume of hydrothermal fluid is vented when the crustal-scale fracture is highly permeable at 10-12 m2; at lower permeabilities, the fracture does not allow enough fluids to rise. The depth to the top of the felsic sill affects venting temperatures in the Rio Tinto District, with higher temperature venting for a shallower sill. In the preferred case, the sill is at 8-10 km depth, and fluids vent at 100-220oC for a period of ~200,000 years. In the absence of tectonic or magmatic
Analytical study of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a boundary layer flow of Oldroyd-B fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
F, M. Abbasi; M, Mustafa; S, A. Shehzad; M, S. Alhuthali; T, Hayat
2016-01-01
We investigate the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model for a two-dimensional laminar boundary layer flow of an incompressible Oldroyd-B fluid over a linearly stretching sheet. Mathematical formulation of the boundary layer problems is given. The nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into the ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations. The dimensionless velocity and temperature profiles are obtained through optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). The influences of the physical parameters on the velocity and the temperature are pointed out. The results show that the temperature and the thermal boundary layer thickness are smaller in the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model than those in the Fourier’s law of heat conduction. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR) King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (Grant No. 32-130-36-HiCi).
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1996-07-20
We derive the flow properties of the solar wind using a two-fluid model constrained by the density gradients inferred from white light observations of a south polar coronal hole on 11 April 1993 during the SPARTAN 201-1 flight, and interplanetary observations, e.g. from Ulysses' south polar passage. We present the results of model computations for which we get the best fit to these data. One of the main results of this study is that, for the same energy input to electrons and protons, the proton temperature can be significantly higher than the electron temperature in the inner corona. In addition, we show that different functional forms of the energy addition with the same total energy input can yield different solar wind parameters at 1AU.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Linmin; Liu, Zhongqiu; Cao, Maoxue; Li, Baokuan
2015-07-01
In the ladle metallurgy process, the bubble movement and slag layer behavior is very important to the refining process and steel quality. For the bubble-liquid flow, bubble movement plays a significant role in the phase structure and causes the unsteady complex turbulent flow pattern. This is one of the most crucial shortcomings of the current two-fluid models. In the current work, a one-third scale water model is established to investigate the bubble movement and the slag open-eye formation. A new mathematical model using the large eddy simulation (LES) is developed for the bubble-liquid-slag-air four-phase flow in the ladle. The Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) model is used for tracking the liquid-slag-air free surfaces and the Lagrangian discrete phase model (DPM) is used for describing the bubble movement. The turbulent liquid flow is induced by bubble-liquid interactions and is solved by LES. The procedure of bubble coming out of the liquid and getting into the air is modeled using a user-defined function. The results show that the present LES-DPM-VOF coupled model is good at predicting the unsteady bubble movement, slag eye formation, interface fluctuation, and slag entrainment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Majumdar, Alok
2007-01-01
The present paper describes the verification and validation of a quasi one-dimensional pressure based finite volume algorithm, implemented in Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), for predicting compressible flow with friction, heat transfer and area change. The numerical predictions were compared with two classical solutions of compressible flow, i.e. Fanno and Rayleigh flow. Fanno flow provides an analytical solution of compressible flow in a long slender pipe where incoming subsonic flow can be choked due to friction. On the other hand, Raleigh flow provides analytical solution of frictionless compressible flow with heat transfer where incoming subsonic flow can be choked at the outlet boundary with heat addition to the control volume. Nonuniform grid distribution improves the accuracy of numerical prediction. A benchmark numerical solution of compressible flow in a converging-diverging nozzle with friction and heat transfer has been developed to verify GFSSP's numerical predictions. The numerical predictions compare favorably in all cases.
2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport
1993-03-13
GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jubiao; Krane, Michael; Zhang, Lucy
2013-11-01
Vocal fold vibrations and the glottal jet are successfully simulated using the modified Immersed Finite Element method (mIFEM), a fully coupled dynamics approach to model fluid-structure interactions. A self-sustained and steady vocal fold vibration is captured given a constant pressure input at the glottal entrance. The flow rates at different axial locations in the glottis are calculated, showing small variations among them due to the vocal fold motion and deformation. To further facilitate the understanding of the phonation process, two control volume analyses, specifically with Bernoulli's equation and Newton's 2nd law, are carried out for the glottal flow based on the simulation results. A generalized Bernoulli's equation is derived to interpret the correlations between the velocity and pressure temporally and spatially along the center line which is a streamline using a half-space model with symmetry boundary condition. A specialized Newton's 2nd law equation is developed and divided into terms to help understand the driving mechanism of the glottal flow.
Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobing
2013-05-01
In conventional models for two-phase reactive flow of interior ballistic, the dynamic collision phenomenon of particles is neglected or empirically simplified. However, the particle collision between particles may play an important role in dilute two-phase flow because the distribution of particles is extremely nonuniform. The collision force may be one of the key factors to influence the particle movement. This paper presents the CFD-DEM approach for simulation of interior ballistic two-phase flow considering the dynamic collision process. The gas phase is treated as a Eulerian continuum and described by a computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). The solid phase is modeled by discrete element method (DEM) using a soft sphere approach for the particle collision dynamic. The model takes into account grain combustion, particle-particle collisions, particle-wall collisions, interphase drag and heat transfer between gas and solid phases. The continuous gas phase equations are discretized in finite volume form and solved by the AUSM+-up scheme with the higher order accurate reconstruction method. Translational and rotational motions of discrete particles are solved by explicit time integrations. The direct mapping contact detection algorithm is used. The multigrid method is applied in the void fraction calculation, the contact detection procedure, and CFD solving procedure. Several verification tests demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this approach. The simulation of an experimental igniter device in open air shows good agreement between the model and experimental measurements. This paper has implications for improving the ability to capture the complex physics phenomena of two-phase flow during the interior ballistic cycle and to predict dynamic collision phenomena at the individual particle scale. PMID:24891728
Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2004-01-01
The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.
Monotectic composite growth with fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stöcker, C.; Ratke, L.
It is a well-known fluid-mechanical phenomenon that thermocapillary forces induce surface convection on a fluid-fluid interface. This so-called Marangoni convection depends on the variation of the surface energy along the interface. In our present work we focus our attention on the evolution of a fibrous monotectic microstructure with liquid L 2 fibers. We will show, that the Marangoni convection has a strong influence on the transport of solute in front of the solidification front, despite the flow induced by density differences. The resulting flow field affects the constitutional undercooling and therefore the mean undercooling of a monotectic solidification front. In a previous paper we discussed qualitatively the influence of fluid flow on the microstructure evolution of composite monotetic growth (C. Stöcker, L. Ratke, J. Crystal Growth 203 (1999) 582). We introduced an analytical model that takes the density differences of the phases and the surface convection on the L 1-L 2 surface into consideration. With this extended Jackson and Hunt theory for composite monotectic growth we derived a characteristic equation for the inter-rod distance depending on solidification velocity and temperature gradient. In this paper we develop a more accurate model. We solve numerically the diffusion equation coupled with the Navier-Stokes equation in the L 1 phase to find the minimal undercooling for a given velocity and temperature gradient. We derive a Jackson and Hunt diagram and show that the fluid flow leads to a strong dependence of the inter-rod distance on the temperature gradient opposite to eutectic solidification.
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.
2010-12-01
In 2003, an extension of the existing ice and trash sluiceway was added at Bonneville Powerhouse 2 (B2). This extension started at the existing corner collector for the ice and trash sluiceway adjacent to Bonneville Powerhouse 2 and the new sluiceway was extended to the downstream end of Cascade Island. The sluiceway was designed to improve juvenile salmon survival by bypassing turbine passage at B2, and placing these smolt in downstream flowing water minimizing their exposure to fish and avian predators. In this study, a previously developed computational fluid dynamics model was modified and used to characterized tailrace hydraulics and sluiceway egress conditions for low total river flows and low levels of spillway flow. STAR-CD v4.10 was used for seven scenarios of low total river flow and low spill discharges. The simulation results were specifically examined to look at tailrace hydraulics at 5 ft below the tailwater elevation, and streamlines used to compare streamline pathways for streamlines originating in the corner collector outfall and adjacent to the outfall. These streamlines indicated that for all higher spill percentage cases (25% and greater) that streamlines from the corner collector did not approach the shoreline at the downstream end of Bradford Island. For the cases with much larger spill percentages, the streamlines from the corner collector were mid-channel or closer to the Washington shore as they moved downstream. Although at 25% spill at 75 kcfs total river, the total spill volume was sufficient to "cushion" the flow from the corner collector from the Bradford Island shore, areas of recirculation were modeled in the spillway tailrace. However, at the lowest flows and spill percentages, the streamlines from the B2 corner collector pass very close to the Bradford Island shore. In addition, the very flow velocity flows and large areas of recirculation greatly increase potential predator exposure of the spillway passed smolt. If there is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glass, P.; Sparks, D. W.; Aharonov, E.; Goren, L.; Toussaint, R.
2014-12-01
Slip on faults occurs within very fine-grained granular gouge created by the comminution of highly fractured country rock. Due to this process of fracturing and grinding into powder, the permeability within these gouge zones naturally varies across their width, with the gouge material having relatively low permeability compared to the surrounding damage zone of fractured rock. During shear, the movement of individual grains creates local transient dilations and compactions that generate variations in fluid pressure and gouge permeability. The resulting fluid circulation, controlled by differing permeabilities across the fault, may determine aspects of the evolution of slip, such as at what position individual shear bands will materialize. In order to investigate these phenomena, we extend the coupled discrete element / continuum numerical model of grain motion and fluid flow (Goren et al., 2011) to include fluid flow in the surrounding permeable fault block. We conducted numerical experiments with unconsolidated gouge confined between fault blocks. This system was held at a constant confining stress, and sheared at a constant rate similar to earthquake velocities (on the order of 1 m/s). We find that shear localizes into bands about 10 grains wide, and these bands prefer to form where they will create the least deviations in pressure, i.e. where permeability is highest. Preliminary results with a rigid, fixed-permeability fault block reveal a clear relationship between localization and fault block permeability. When the fault block has low permeability relative to the gouge, shear bands tend to form towards the interior of the gouge. When the fault block is more permeable, shear band formation tends to occur near the boundary between gouge and fault block. We see no further increase in boundary localization for fault block permeabilities on the order of 100 times the gouge permeability. We will also present results from a version of the model in which the wall rock
Flow behaviour of extremely bidisperse magnetizable fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susan-Resiga, Daniela; Bica, Doina; Vékás, L.
2010-10-01
In this paper we investigated the rheological and magnetorheological behaviours of an extremely bidisperse (nano-micro) magnetizable fluid (sample D1) for comparison of a commercial magnetorheological fluid (MRF-140CG; LORD Co. (USA)) with the same magnetic solid volume fraction, using the Physica MCR-300 rheometer with a 20 mm diameter plate-plate magnetorheological cell (MRD180). D1 sample is a suspension of micrometer range Fe particles in a transformer oil based magnetic fluid as carrier. For both types of samples, the experimental data for zero and non-zero magnetic field conditions were fitted to equations derived from the Newtonian and Cross type flow equations, as well as the Herschel-Bulkley model. The main advantage of both rheological equations for the quantitative description of the magnetic field behaviour of samples is that they can be used in regular CFD codes to compute the flow properties of the magnetorheological fluid and of the bidisperse magnetizable fluid for practical applications.
López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.
1994-01-01
The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hasan, Raisul
2016-07-01
In this research paper firstly theoretical analysis and design of the porous matrix for filtration and selection of associated liquid (highly viscous and low viscous liquid) is carried out. Hence, porosity of the bed has been found out followed by a detailed CFD analysis of the flow to identify displacement structure (fingering: due to the nonlinear interactions among viscous, capillary and gravitational forces). Moreover, an experiment will be with synthetic porous medium consists of a single layer of glass beads which are then positioned homogeneously or non-homogeneously between two Perspex sheets and then fluid displacement structure/fingering will be photographed. Then the effort will be made to validate results with the experiment based photograph and then the CFD model will be extended to microgravity condition KEYWORDS: CFD, Fingering, microgravity, Non-homogeneously, Capillary .
Barton, C.C.; Larsen, E.; Page, W.R.; Howard, T.M.
1993-12-31
Fractures have been characterized for fluid-flow, geomechanical, and paleostress modeling at three localities in the vicinity of drill hole USW G-4 at Yucca Mountain in southwestern Nevada. A method for fracture characterization is introduced that integrates mapping fracture-trace networks and quantifying eight fracture parameters: trace length, orientation, connectivity, aperture, roughness, shear offset, trace-length density, and mineralization. A complex network of fractures was exposed on three 214- to 260-m 2 pavements cleared of debris in the upper lithophysal unit of the Tiva Canyon Member of the Miocene Paint-brush Tuff. The pavements are two-dimensional sections through the three-dimensional network of strata-bound fractures. All fractures with trace lengths greater than 0.2 m were mapped and studied.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riasi, M. S.; Huang, G.; Montemagno, C.; Yeghiazarian, L.
2014-12-01
Micro-scale modeling of multiphase flow in porous media is critical to characterize porous materials. Several modeling techniques have been implemented to date, but none can be used as a general strategy for all porous media applications due to challenges presented by non-smooth high-curvature and deformable solid surfaces, and by a wide range of pore sizes and porosities. Finite approaches like the finite volume method require a high quality, problem-dependent mesh, while particle-based approaches like the lattice Boltzmann require too many particles to achieve a stable meaningful solution. Both come at a large computational cost. Other methods such as pore network modeling (PNM) have been developed to accelerate the solution process by simplifying the solution domain, but so far a unique and straightforward methodology to implement PNM is lacking. Pore topology method (PTM) is a new topologically consistent approach developed to simulate multiphase flow in porous media. The core of PTM is to reduce the complexity of the 3-D void space geometry by working with its medial surface as the solution domain. Medial surface is capable of capturing all the corners and surface curvatures in a porous structure, and therefore provides a topologically consistent representative geometry for porous structure. Despite the simplicity and low computational cost, PTM provides a fast and straightforward approach for micro-scale modeling of fluid flow in all types of porous media irrespective of their porosity and pore size distribution. In our previous work, we developed a non-iterative fast medial surface finder algorithm to determine a voxel-wide medial surface of the void space of porous media as well as a set of simple rules to determine the capillary pressure-saturation curves for a porous system assuming quasi-static two-phase flow with a planar w-nw interface. Our simulation results for a highly porous fibrous material and polygonal capillary tubes were in excellent agreement
Fluid Flow Experiment for Undergraduate Laboratory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vilimpochapornkul, Viroj; Obot, Nsima T.
1986-01-01
The undergraduate fluid mechanics laboratory at Clarkson University consists of three experiments: mixing; drag measurements; and fluid flow and pressure drop measurements. The latter experiment is described, considering equipment needed, procedures used, and typical results obtained. (JN)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Daniel
2016-04-01
Evidence of mass extinction events in conjunction with climate change occur throughout the geological record and may be accompanied by pronounced negative carbon isotope excursions. The processes that trigger such globally destructive changes are still under considerable debate. These include mechanisms such as poisoning from trace metals released during large volcanic eruptions (Vogt, 1972), CO2 released from lava degassing during the formation of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) (Courtillot and Renne, 2003) and CH4 release during the destabilization of sub-seafloor methane (Dickens et al., 1995), to name a few. Thermogenic methane derived from contact metamorphism associated with magma emplacement and cooling in sedimentary basins has been recently gaining considerable attention as a potential mechanism that may have triggered global climate events in the past (e.g. Svensen and Jamtveit, 2010). The discovery of hydrothermal vent complexes that are spatially associated with such basins also supports the discharge of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (e.g. Jamtveit et al., 2004; Planke et al., 2005; Svensen et al., 2006). A previous study that investigated this process using a fluid flow model (Iyer et al., 2013) suggested that although hydrothermal plume formation resulting from sill emplacement may indeed release large quantities of methane at the surface, the rate at which this methane is released into the atmosphere is too slow to trigger, by itself, some of the negative δ13C excursions observed in the fossil record over short time scales observed in the fossil record. Here, we reinvestigate the rates of gas release during sill emplacement in a case study from the Harstad Basin off-shore Norway with a special emphasis on vent formation. The presented study is based on a seismic line that crosses multiple sill structures emplaced around 55 Ma within the Lower Cretaceous sediments. A single well-defined vent complex is interpreted above the termination of the
Using toughreact to model reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport in hydrothermal systems
Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Spycher, Nicolas; Pruess, Karsten
2003-07-31
The interaction between hydrothermal fluids and the rocks through which they migrate alters the earlier formed primary minerals and leads to the formation of secondary minerals, resulting in changes in the physical and chemical properties of the system. We have developed a comprehensive numerical simulator, TOUGHREACT, which considers nonisothermal multi-component chemical transport in both liquid and gas phases. A variety of subsurface thermo-physical-chemical processes is considered under a wide range of conditions of pressure, temperature, water saturation, and ionic strength. The code can be applied to problems in fundamental analysis of the hydrothermal systems and in the exploration of geothermal reservoirs including chemical evolution, mineral alteration, mineral scaling, changes of porosity and permeability, and mineral recovery from geothermal fluids.
McHugh, P.R.; Ramshaw, J.D.
1991-11-01
MAGMA is a FORTRAN computer code designed to viscous flow in in situ vitrification melt pools. It models three-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flow and heat transfer. The momentum equation is coupled to the temperature field through the buoyancy force terms arising from the Boussinesq approximation. All fluid properties, except density, are assumed variable. Density is assumed constant except in the buoyancy force terms in the momentum equation. A simple melting model based on the enthalpy method allows the study of the melt front progression and latent heat effects. An indirect addressing scheme used in the numerical solution of the momentum equation voids unnecessary calculations in cells devoid of liquid. Two-dimensional calculations can be performed using either rectangular or cylindrical coordinates, while three-dimensional calculations use rectangular coordinates. All derivatives are approximated by finite differences. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a new fully implicit iterative technique, while the energy equation is differenced explicitly in time. Spatial derivatives are written in conservative form using a uniform, rectangular, staggered mesh based on the marker and cell placement of variables. Convective terms are differenced using a weighted average of centered and donor cell differencing to ensure numerical stability. Complete descriptions of MAGMA governing equations, numerics, code structure, and code verification are provided. 14 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abushaikha, Ahmad S.; Blunt, Martin J.; Gosselin, Olivier R.; Pain, Christopher C.; Jackson, Matthew D.
2015-10-01
We present a new control volume finite element method that improves the modelling of multi-phase fluid flow in highly heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, called the Interface Control Volume Finite Element (ICVFE) method. The method drastically decreases the smearing effects in other CVFE methods, while being mass conservative and numerically consistent. The pressure is computed at the interfaces of elements, and the control volumes are constructed around them, instead of at the elements' vertices. This assures that a control volume straddles, at most, two elements, which decreases the fluid smearing between neighbouring elements when large variations in their material properties are present. Lowest order Raviart-Thomas vectorial basis functions are used for the pressure calculation and first-order Courant basis functions are used to compute fluxes. The method is a combination of Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) and CVFE methods. Its accuracy and convergence are tested using three dimensional tetrahedron elements to represent heterogeneous reservoirs. Our new approach is shown to be more accurate than current CVFE methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, K. H.; Rupke, L.
2013-12-01
In recent years, the emplacement of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) has been closely linked with past climate variations and mass extinctions. The hypothesis is that organic matter present within contact aureole of the surrounding sedimentary rock such as shale undergoes thermal maturation and releases greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide due to the emplacement of hot igneous bodies. These gases are then vented into the atmosphere through hydrothermal pipe structures resulting in climate change. Although, basin-scale estimates of potential methane generation show that these processes alone could trigger global incidents, the rates at which these gases are released into the atmosphere and the transport mechanism are quantitatively unknown. We use a 2D, hybrid FEM/FVM model that solves for fully compressible fluid flow to quantify the thermogenic release of methane and to evaluate flow patterns within these systems. In addition, methane transport within the system is tracked enabling us to constrain the rate of release of methane from the basin surface. The important outcomes of this study are: (1) the location of hydrothermal vents is directly controlled by the flow pattern, even in systems with no vigorous convection, without the explicit need for explosive degassing and/or boiling effects. The merging of fluid flow from the bottom and top edges of the sill result in hydrothermal plumes positioned at the lateral edges of the sill and is consistent with geological observations. (2) Methane generation potential in systems with fluid flow does not significantly differ from that estimated in diffusive systems, e.g. 2200 to 3350 Gt CH4 can be potentially generated within the Vøring and Møre basins with a sediment TOC content of 5 wt% and varying permeability structure. On the other hand, methane venting at the surface occurs in three distinct stages and can last for hundreds of thousands of years. Also, not all of the methane reaches the surface as some
Ben Hadj Ali, A.; Laurien, E.
2012-07-01
A three-fluid model of counter-current air-water flow is suggested. The accurate prediction of droplet entrainment in two-phase flows is relevant to calculate interfacial exchange between the fluids. The present study delivers a model based on the constitutive physics for droplet separation considering re-entrainment of the dispersed water droplets into the continuous water film. A monodisperse distribution of the droplets is taken into account by means of a transport equation for the droplet number density in order to determine the droplet size. (authors)
Sefidgar, Mostafa; Soltani, M.; Bazmara, Hossein
2015-01-01
A solid tumor is investigated as porous media for fluid flow simulation. Most of the studies use Darcy model for porous media. In Darcy model, the fluid friction is neglected and a few simplified assumptions are implemented. In this study, the effect of these assumptions is studied by considering Brinkman model. A multiscale mathematical method which calculates fluid flow to a solid tumor is used in this study to investigate how neglecting fluid friction affects the solid tumor simulation. The mathematical method involves processes such as blood flow through vessels and solute and fluid diffusion, convective transport in extracellular matrix, and extravasation from blood vessels. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network and then fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network. Finally, the two models of porous media are used for modeling fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues in three different shapes of tumors. Simulations of interstitial fluid transport in a solid tumor demonstrate that the simplifications used in Darcy model affect the interstitial velocity and Brinkman model predicts a lower value for interstitial velocity than the values that Darcy model predicts. PMID:25960764
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, B.; Garven, G.; Boles, J. R.
2011-12-01
Major fault systems play a first-order role in controlling fluid migration in the Earth's crust, and also in the genesis/preservation of hydrocarbon reservoirs in young sedimentary basins undergoing deformation, and therefore understanding the geohydrology of faults is essential for the successful exploration of energy resources. For actively deforming systems like the Santa Barbara Basin and Los Angeles Basin, we have found it useful to develop computational geohydrologic models to study the various coupled and nonlinear processes affecting multiphase fluid migration, including relative permeability, anisotropy, heterogeneity, capillarity, pore pressure, and phase saturation that affect hydrocarbon mobility within fault systems and to search the possible hydrogeologic conditions that enable the natural sequestration of prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs in these young basins. Subsurface geology, reservoir data (fluid pressure-temperature-chemistry), structural reconstructions, and seismic profiles provide important constraints for model geometry and parameter testing, and provide critical insight on how large-scale faults and aquifer networks influence the distribution and the hydrodynamics of liquid and gas-phase hydrocarbon migration. For example, pore pressure changes at a methane seepage site on the seafloor have been carefully analyzed to estimate large-scale fault permeability, which helps to constrain basin-scale natural gas migration models for the Santa Barbara Basin. We have developed our own 2-D multiphase finite element/finite IMPES numerical model, and successfully modeled hydrocarbon gas/liquid movement for intensely faulted and heterogeneous basin profiles of the Los Angeles Basin. Our simulations suggest that hydrocarbon reservoirs that are today aligned with the Newport-Inglewood Fault Zone were formed by massive hydrocarbon flows from deeply buried source beds in the central synclinal region during post-Miocene time. Fault permeability, capillarity
Testing the Markov hypothesis in fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Daniel W.; Saggini, Frédéric
2016-05-01
Stochastic Markov processes are used very frequently to model, for example, processes in turbulence and subsurface flow and transport. Based on the weak Chapman-Kolmogorov equation and the strong Markov condition, we present methods to test the Markov hypothesis that is at the heart of these models. We demonstrate the capabilities of our methodology by testing the Markov hypothesis for fluid and inertial particles in turbulence, and fluid particles in the heterogeneous subsurface. In the context of subsurface macrodispersion, we find that depending on the heterogeneity level, Markov models work well above a certain scale of interest for media with different log-conductivity correlation structures. Moreover, we find surprising similarities in the velocity dynamics of the different media considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Rong; She, Zhen-Su; Yin, Lan; State Key Laboratory for Turbulence; Complex Systems Team
Transport properties of vortex fluid in high-temperature superconductors have been described in terms of viscous dynamics of magnetic and thermal vortices. We have constructed a quantitative model by extending the Bardeen-Stephen model of damping viscosity to include the contributions of flux pinning in low temperature and vortex-vortex interaction in high magnetic field. A uniformly accurate description of flux flow resistivity and Nernst signal is achieved for empirical data over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field strength. A discrepancy of three orders of magnitude between data and Anderson model of Nernst signal is pointed out, suggesting the existence of anomalous transport in high-temperature superconductor beyond mere quantum and thermal fluctuations. The model enables to derive a set of physical parameters characterizing the vortex dynamics from the Nernst signal, as we illustrate with an analysis of six samples of Bi2Sr2-yLayCuO6 and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labonte, Alison Louise
Detecting seafloor deformation events in the offshore convergent margin environment is of particular importance considering the significant seismic hazard at subduction zones. Efforts to gain insight into the earthquake cycle have been made at the Cascadia and Costa Rica subduction margins through recent expansions of onshore GPS and seismic networks. While these studies have given scientists the ability to quantify and locate slip events in the seismogenic zone, there is little technology available for adequately measuring offshore aseismic slip. This dissertation introduces an improved flow meter for detecting seismic and aseismic deformation in submarine environments. The value of such hydrologic measurements for quantifying the geodetics at offshore margins is verified through a finite element modeling (FEM) study in which the character of deformation in the shallow subduction zone is determined from previously recorded hydrologic events at the Costa Rica Pacific margin. Accurately sensing aseismic events is one key to determining the stress state in subduction zones as these slow-slip events act to load or unload the seismogenic zone during the interseismic period. One method for detecting seismic and aseismic strain events is to monitor the hydrogeologic response to strain events using fluid flow meters. Previous instrumentation, the Chemical Aqueous Transport (CAT) meter which measures flow rates through the sediment-water interface, can detect transient events at very low flowrates, down to 0.0001 m/yr. The CAT meter performs well in low flow rate environments and can capture gradual changes in flow rate, as might be expected during ultra slow slip events. However, it cannot accurately quantify high flow rates through fractures and conduits, nor does it have the temporal resolution and accuracy required for detecting transient flow events associated with rapid deformation. The Optical Tracer Injection System (OTIS) developed for this purpose is an
Modeling of fiber orientation in viscous fluid flow with application to self-compacting concrete
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolařík, Filip; Patzák, Bořek
2013-10-01
In recent years, unconventional concrete reinforcement is of growing popularity. Especially fiber reinforcement has very wide usage in high performance concretes like "Self Compacting Concrete" (SCC). The design of advanced tailor-made structures made of SCC can take advantage of anisotropic orientation of fibers. Tools for fiber orientation predictions can contribute to design of tailor made structure and allow to develop casting procedures that enable to achieve the desired fiber distribution and orientation. This paper deals with development and implementation of suitable tool for prediction of fiber orientation in a fluid based on the knowledge of the velocity field. Statistical approach to the topic is employed. Fiber orientation is described by a probability distribution of the fiber angle.
Numerical Modeling of Three-Dimensional Fluid Flow with Phase Change
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat
1999-01-01
We present a numerical method to compute phase change dynamics of three-dimensional deformable bubbles. The full Navier-Stokes and energy equations are solved for both phases by a front tracking/finite difference technique. The fluid boundary is explicitly tracked by discrete points that are connected by triangular elements to form a front that is used to keep the stratification of material properties sharp and to calculate the interfacial source terms. Two simulations are presented to show robustness of the method in handling complex phase boundaries. In the first case, growth of a vapor bubble in zero gravity is studied where large volume increase of the bubble is managed by adaptively increasing the front resolution. In the second case, growth of a bubble under high gravity is studied where indentation at the rear of the bubble results in a region of large curvature which challenges the front tracking in three dimensions.
Fluid flow nozzle energy harvesters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sherrit, Stewart; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Winn, Tyler; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Colonius, Tim
2015-04-01
Power generation schemes that could be used downhole in an oil well to produce about 1 Watt average power with long-life (decades) are actively being developed. A variety of proposed energy harvesting schemes could be used to extract energy from this environment but each of these has their own limitations that limit their practical use. Since vibrating piezoelectric structures are solid state and can be driven below their fatigue limit, harvesters based on these structures are capable of operating for very long lifetimes (decades); thereby, possibly overcoming a principle limitation of existing technology based on rotating turbo-machinery. An initial survey [1] identified that spline nozzle configurations can be used to excite a vibrating piezoelectric structure in such a way as to convert the abundant flow energy into useful amounts of electrical power. This paper presents current flow energy harvesting designs and experimental results of specific spline nozzle/ bimorph design configurations which have generated suitable power per nozzle at or above well production analogous flow rates. Theoretical models for non-dimensional analysis and constitutive electromechanical model are also presented in this paper to optimize the flow harvesting system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Runchal, A. K.; Sagar, B.; Baca, R. G.; Kline, N. W.
1985-09-01
Postclosure performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository in flood basalts at Hanford requires that the processes of fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport be numerically modeled at appropriate space and time scales. A suite of computer models has been developed to meet this objective. The theory of one of these models, named PORFLO, is described in this report. Also presented are a discussion of the numerical techniques in the PORFLO computer code and a few computational test cases. Three two-dimensional equations, one each for fluid flow, heat transfer, and mass transport, are numerically solved in PORFLO. The governing equations are derived from the principle of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy in a stationary control volume that is assumed to contain a heterogeneous, anisotropic porous medium. Broad discrete features can be accommodated by specifying zones with distinct properties, or these can be included by defining an equivalent porous medium. The governing equations are parabolic differential equations that are coupled through time-varying parameters. Computational tests of the model are done by comparisons of simulation results with analytic solutions, with results from other independently developed numerical models, and with available laboratory and/or field data. In this report, in addition to the theory of the model, results from three test cases are discussed. A users' manual for the computer code resulting from this model has been prepared and is available as a separate document.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Misawa, Takeharu; Takase, Kazuyuki
Two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method or particle interaction method. Therefore, two-fluid model is useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in large-scale domain such as a rod bundle. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops three dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D that adopts boundary fitted coordinate system in order to simulate complex shape flow channel. In this paper, boiling two-phase flow analysis in a tight-lattice rod bundle was performed by ACE-3D code. The parallel computation using 126 CPUs was applied to this analysis. In the results, the void fraction, which distributes in outermost region of rod bundle, is lower than that in center region of rod bundle. The tendency of void fraction distribution agreed with the measurement results by neutron radiography qualitatively. To evaluate effects of two-phase flow model used in ACE-3D code, numerical simulation of boiling two-phase in tight-lattice rod bundle with no lift force model was also performed. From the comparison of calculated results, it was concluded that the effects of lift force model were not so large for overall void fraction distribution of tight-lattice rod bundle. However, the lift force model is important for local void fraction distribution of fuel bundles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mortensen, Dag
1999-02-01
A finite-element method model for the time-dependent heat and fluid flows that develop during direct-chill (DC) semicontinuous casting of aluminium ingots is presented. Thermal convection and turbulence are included in the model formulation and, in the mushy zone, the momentum equations are modified with a Darcy-type source term dependent on the liquid fraction. The boundary conditions involve calculations of the air gap along the mold wall as well as the heat transfer to the falling water film with forced convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. The mold wall and the starting block are included in the computational domain. In the start-up period of the casting, the ingot domain expands over the starting-block level. The numerical method applies a fractional-step method for the dynamic Navier-Stokes equations and the “streamline upwind Petrov-Galerkin” (SUPG) method for mixed diffusion and convection in the momentum and energy equations. The modeling of the start-up period of the casting is demonstrated and compared to temperature measurements in an AA1050 200×600 mm sheet ingot.
George, David L.; Iverson, Richard M.
2011-01-01
Pore-fluid pressure plays a crucial role in debris flows because it counteracts normal stresses at grain contacts and thereby reduces intergranular friction. Pore-pressure feedback accompanying debris deformation is particularly important during the onset of debrisflow motion, when it can dramatically influence the balance of forces governing downslope acceleration. We consider further effects of this feedback by formulating a new, depth-averaged mathematical model that simulates coupled evolution of granular dilatancy, solid and fluid volume fractions, pore-fluid pressure, and flow depth and velocity during all stages of debris-flow motion. To illustrate implications of the model, we use a finite-volume method to compute one-dimensional motion of a debris flow descending a rigid, uniformly inclined slope, and we compare model predictions with data obtained in large-scale experiments at the USGS debris-flow flume. Predictions for the first 1 s of motion show that increasing pore pressures (due to debris contraction) cause liquefaction that enhances flow acceleration. As acceleration continues, however, debris dilation causes dissipation of pore pressures, and this dissipation helps stabilize debris-flow motion. Our numerical predictions of this process match experimental data reasonably well, but predictions might be improved by accounting for the effects of grain-size segregation.
Piezoelectric energy harvesting in internal fluid flow.
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph's clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting in Internal Fluid Flow
Lee, Hyeong Jae; Sherrit, Stewart; Tosi, Luis Phillipe; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Colonius, Tim
2015-01-01
We consider piezoelectric flow energy harvesting in an internal flow environment with the ultimate goal powering systems such as sensors in deep oil well applications. Fluid motion is coupled to structural vibration via a cantilever beam placed in a converging-diverging flow channel. Two designs were considered for the electromechanical coupling: first; the cantilever itself is a piezoelectric bimorph; second; the cantilever is mounted on a pair of flextensional actuators. We experimentally investigated varying the geometry of the flow passage and the flow rate. Experimental results revealed that the power generated from both designs was similar; producing as much as 20 mW at a flow rate of 20 L/min. The bimorph designs were prone to failure at the extremes of flow rates tested. Finite element analysis (FEA) showed fatigue failure was imminent due to stress concentrations near the bimorph’s clamped region; and that robustness could be improved with a stepped-joint mounting design. A similar FEA model showed the flextensional-based harvester had a resonant frequency of around 375 Hz and an electromechanical coupling of 0.23 between the cantilever and flextensional actuators in a vacuum. These values; along with the power levels demonstrated; are significant steps toward building a system design that can eventually deliver power in the Watts range to devices down within a well. PMID:26473879
Fluid dynamics and vibration of tube banks in fluid flow
Zukauskas, A.; Ulinskas, R.; Katinas, V.
1988-01-01
This work presents results derived in fluid dynamics, hydraulic drag and flow-induced vibrations within transverse and yawed tube banks. The studies encompass banks of smooth, rough and finned tubes at Reynolds numbers from 1 to 2x10/sup 6/. Highlighted in the text are fluid dynamic parameters of tube banks measured at inter-tube spaces and tube surfaces.
Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid
Knapp, Philip A.
1996-01-01
A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.
Fluid Flow Control with Transformation Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.; Smith, David R.
2011-08-01
We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two situations—for an impermeable object placed either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium—we show that the object can be coated with an inhomogeneous, anisotropic permeable medium, such as to preserve the flow that would have existed in the absence of the object. The proposed fluid flow cloak eliminates downstream wake and compensates viscous drag, hinting at the possibility of novel propulsion techniques.
Flow properties of the solar wind obtained from white light data and a two-fluid model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Esser, Ruth; Guhathakurta, Madhulika; Fisher, Richard
1994-01-01
The flow properties of the solar wind from 1 R(sub s) to 1 AU were obtained using a two fluid model constrained by density and scale height temperatures derived from white light observations, as well as knowledge of the electron temperature in coronal holes. The observations were obtained with the white light coronographs on SPARTAN 201-1 and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii), in a north polar coronal hole from 1.16 to 5.5 R(sub s) on 11 Apr. 1993. By specifying the density, temperature, Alfven wave velocity amplitude and heating function at the coronal base, it was found that the model parameters fit well the constraints of the empirical density profiles and temperatures. The optimal range of the input parameters was found to yield a higher proton temperature than electron temperature in the inner corona. The results indicate that no preferential heating of the protons at larger distances is needed to produce higher proton than electron temperatures at 1 AU, as observed in the high speed solar wind.
Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tew, Roy C., Jr.
1988-01-01
NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.
Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in stirling engine modeling
Tew, R.C. Jr.
1988-02-01
NASA Lewis Research Center has been managing Stirling engine development programs for over a decade. In addition to contractual programs, this work has included in-house engine testing and development of engine computer models. Attempts to validate Stirling engine computer models with test data have demonstrated that engine thermodynamic losses need better characterization. Various Stirling engine thermodynamic losses and efforts that are underway to characterize these losses are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Valocchi, A. J.; Kohanpur, A. H.; Freiburg, J. T.
2015-12-01
Direct numerical simulation of multiphase flow in porous media is an important tool for understanding pore-scale processes affecting transport and fate of supercritical CO2 in saline reservoirs. The lattice Boltzmann method, based on microscopic models and mesoscopic kinetic equations, is particularly well suited for fluid flow simulations involving interfacial dynamics and complex boundaries. In this study, we compare the Shan-Chen and color-fluid model in lattice Boltzmann simulation of multiphase flow in porous media. The original models were proposed two decades ago, and suffer from significant spurious currents as well as other numerical limitations. Therefore, the latest developments of the two models are employed, which allows consideration of density and viscosity contrasts relevant to geological sequestration in saline reservoirs. Previous studies of the comparison of the two models were mostly done in simple geometries, and demonstrated that the Shan-Chen model suffered from more serious numerical errors than the color-fluid model, although the latter is more computationally demanding. The real impact on multiphase flow in porous media has not been studied in detail. In this investigation, we employ realistic fluid parameters and perform numerical simulations in geometries based on micro-CT images of rock cores. The fluid displacement patterns and the relative permeability obtained by simulations will be used to evaluate the two models. The computational cost of the two models will also be presented for comparison. This work was supported as part of the Center for Geologic Storage of CO2, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmood, A.; Parveen, S.; Ara, A.; Khan, N. A.
2009-08-01
The velocity field and the associated shear stress corresponding to the torsional oscillatory flow of a generalized Maxwell fluid, between two infinite coaxial circular cylinders, are determined by means of the Laplace and Hankel transforms. Initially, the fluid and cylinders are at rest and after some time both cylinders suddenly begin to oscillate around their common axis with different angular frequencies of their velocities. The solutions that have been obtained are presented under integral and series forms in terms of generalized G and R functions. Moreover, these solutions satisfy the governing differential equation and all imposed initial and boundary conditions. The respective solutions for the motion between the cylinders, when one of them is at rest, can be obtained from our general solutions. Furthermore, the corresponding solutions for the similar flow of ordinary Maxwell fluid are also obtained as limiting cases of our general solutions. At the end, flows corresponding to the ordinary Maxwell and generalized Maxwell fluids are shown and compared graphically by plotting velocity profiles at different values of time and some important results are remarked.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Juan; Qiu, Bing; Tan, Hui-Li
2009-06-01
A lattice Boltzmann model is presented to simulate the deformation and motions of a red blood cell (RBC) in a shear flow. The curvatures of the membrane of a static RBC with different chemical potential drops calculated by our model agree with those computed by a shooting method very well. Our simulation results show that in a shear flow, a biconcave RBC becomes highly flattened and undergoes tank-treading motion. With intrinsically parallel dynamics, this lattice Boltzmann method is expected to find wide applications to both single and multi-vesicles suspension as well as complex open membranes in various fluid flows for a wide range of Reynolds numbers.
Hibi, Yoshihiko; Tomigashi, Akira
2015-09-01
Numerical simulations that couple flow in a surface fluid with that in a porous medium are useful for examining problems of pollution that involve interactions among atmosphere, water, and groundwater, including saltwater intrusion along coasts. Coupled numerical simulations of such problems must consider both vertical flow between the surface fluid and the porous medium and complicated boundary conditions at their interface. In this study, a numerical simulation method coupling Navier-Stokes equations for surface fluid flow and Darcy equations for flow in a porous medium was developed. Then, the basic ability of the coupled model to reproduce (1) the drawdown of a surface fluid observed in square-pillar experiments, using pillars filled with only fluid or with fluid and a porous medium and (2) the migration of saltwater (salt concentration 0.5%) in the porous medium using the pillar filled with fluid and a porous medium was evaluated. Simulations that assumed slippery walls reproduced well the results with drawdowns of 10-30 cm when the pillars were filled with packed sand, gas, and water. Moreover, in the simulation of saltwater infiltration by the method developed in this study, velocity was precisely reproduced because the experimental salt concentration in the porous medium after saltwater infiltration was similar to that obtained in the simulation. Furthermore, conditions across the boundary between the porous medium and the surface fluid were satisfied in these numerical simulations of square-pillar experiments in which vertical flow predominated. Similarly, the velocity obtained by the simulation for a system coupling flow in surface fluid with that in a porous medium when horizontal flow predominated satisfied the conditions across the boundary. Finally, it was confirmed that the present simulation method was able to simulate a practical-scale surface fluid and porous medium system. All of these numerical simulations, however, required a great deal of
Frictional flow characteristics of microconvective flow for variable fluid properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Rajan; Mahulikar, Shripad P.
2015-12-01
The present work investigates the frictional flow characteristics of water flowing through a circular microchannel with variable fluid properties. The computational analysis reveals the importance of physical mechanisms due to variations in thermophysical fluid properties such as viscosity μ(T), thermal conductivity k(T) and density ρ(T) and also their contribution in the characteristics of frictional flow. Various combinations of thermophysical fluid properties have been used to find their effects on fluid friction. It is observed that the fluid friction attains the maximum value in the vicinity of the inlet and diminishes along the flow. The main reasons are attributed to this, (1) near the inlet, there is a flow undevelopment (the reverse process of flow development) due to μ(T) variation. (2) The viscosity of the water decreases with increasing temperature, which reduces fluid friction along the flow. It is noted that the skin friction coefficient (cf) reduces with increasing fluid mean velocity for a same value of constant wall heat flux ({q}{{w}}\\prime\\prime ). In the vicinity of the inlet, the deviation of Poiseuille number (Po) from 64 (constant properties solution) is also investigated in this paper. Additionally, the relationship between Reynolds number (Re) and cf, Po and Re have been proposed for different combinations of thermophysical fluid properties. This investigation also shows that the effect of fluid property variations on pressure drop is highly significant for microconvective water flow.
Measurement of Diffusion in Flowing Complex Fluids
Leonard, Edward F.; Aucoin, Christian P.; Nanne, Edgar E.
2006-01-01
A microfluidic device for the measurement of solute diffusion as well as particle diffusion and migration in flowing complex fluids is described. The device is particularly suited to obtaining diffusivities in such fluids, which require a desired flow state to be maintained during measurement. A method based on the Loschmidt diffusion theory and short times of exposure is presented to allow calculation of diffusivities from concentration differences in the flow streams leaving the cell. PMID:18560469
Tröbs, Monique; Achenbach, Stephan; Röther, Jens; Redel, Thomas; Scheuering, Michael; Winneberger, David; Klingenbeck, Klaus; Itu, Lucian; Passerini, Tiziano; Kamen, Ali; Sharma, Puneet; Comaniciu, Dorin; Schlundt, Christian
2016-01-01
Invasive fractional flow reserve (FFRinvasive), although gold standard to identify hemodynamically relevant coronary stenoses, is time consuming and potentially associated with complications. We developed and evaluated a new approach to determine lesion-specific FFR on the basis of coronary anatomy as visualized by invasive coronary angiography (FFRangio): 100 coronary lesions (50% to 90% diameter stenosis) in 73 patients (48 men, 25 women; mean age 67 ± 9 years) were studied. On the basis of coronary angiograms acquired at rest from 2 views at angulations at least 30° apart, a PC-based computational fluid dynamics modeling software used personalized boundary conditions determined from 3-dimensional reconstructed angiography, heart rate, and blood pressure to derive FFRangio. The results were compared with FFRinvasive. Interobserver variability was determined in a subset of 25 narrowings. Twenty-nine of 100 coronary lesions were hemodynamically significant (FFRinvasive ≤ 0.80). FFRangio identified these with an accuracy of 90%, sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 94%, positive predictive value of 85%, and negative predictive value of 92%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.93. Correlation between FFRinvasive (mean: 0.84 ± 0.11) and FFRangio (mean: 0.85 ± 0.12) was r = 0.85. Interobserver variability of FFRangio was low, with a correlation of r = 0.88. In conclusion, estimation of coronary FFR with PC-based computational fluid dynamics modeling on the basis of lesion morphology as determined by invasive angiography is possible with high diagnostic accuracy compared to invasive measurements. PMID:26596195
Reddy, J. V. Ramana; Srikanth, D.
2015-01-01
The blood flow through an overlapping clogged tapered artery in the presence of catheter is discussed. Since cholesterol deposition is resulting in the stenosis formation, velocity slip at the arterial wall is considered. The equations governing the fluid flow have been solved analytically under the assumption of the mild stenosis. The analysis with respect to various parameters arising out of fluid and geometry considered, on physiological parameters such as impedance and wall shear stress at the maximum height of the stenosis as well as across the entire length of the stenosis has been reported. A table summarizing the locations of extreme heights and the corresponding annular radii is provided. It is observed that the wall shear stress is the same at both the locations corresponding to the maximum height of the stenosis in case of nontapered artery while it varies in case of tapered artery. It is also observed that slip velocity and diverging tapered artery facilitate the fluid flow. Shear stress at the wall is increasing as micropolar parameter is decreasing and the trend is reversed in case of coupling number. The results obtained are validated by comparing them with the experimental and theoretical results. PMID:27018180
Fluid flow through packings of rotating obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, Rafael S.; Andrade, José S.; Andrade, Roberto F. S.
2015-03-01
We investigate through numerical simulation the nonstationary flow of a Newtonian fluid through a two-dimensional channel filled with an array of circular obstacles of distinct sizes. The disks may rotate around their respective centers, modeling a nonstationary, inhomogeneous porous medium. Obstacle sizes and positions are defined by the geometry of an Apollonian packing (AP). To allow for fluid flow, the radii of the disks are uniformly reduced by a factor 0.6 ≤s ≤0.8 for assemblies corresponding to the four first AP generations. The investigation is targeted to elucidate the main features of the rotating regime as compared to the fixed disk condition. It comprises the evaluation of the region of validity of Darcy's law as well as the study of the nonlinear hydraulic resistance as a function of the channel Reynolds number, the reduction factor s , and the AP generation. Depending on a combination of these factors, the resistance of rotating disks may be larger or smaller than that of the corresponding static case. We also analyze the flow redistribution in the interdisk channels as a result of the rotation pattern and characterize the angular velocity of the disks. Here, the striking feature is the emergence of a stable oscillatory behavior of the angular velocity for almost all disks that are inserted into the assemblies after the second generation.
Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.
1998-01-01
Down-hole geochemical anomalies encountered in active accretionary systems can be used to constrain the timing, rates, and localization of fluid flow. Here we combine a coupled flow and solute transport model with a kinetic model for smectite dehydration to better understand and quantify fluid flow in the Nankai accretionary complex offshore of Japan. Compaction of sediments and clay dehydration provide fluid sources which drive the model flow system. We explicitly include the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments in our calculations to evaluate the impact that variations in this unknown quantity have on pressure and chloride distribution. Sensitivity analysis of steady state pressure solutions constrains bulk and flow conduit permeabilities. Steady state simulations with 30% smectite in the incoming sedimentary sequence result in minimum chloride concentrations at site 808 of 550 mM, but measured chlorinity is as low as 447 mM. We simulate the transient effects of hydrofracture or a strain event by assuming an instantaneous permeability increase of 3-4 orders of magnitude along a flow conduit (in this case the de??collement), using steady state results as initial conditions. Transient results with an increase in de??collement permeability from 10-16 m2 to 10-13 m2 and 20% smectite reproduce the observed chloride profile at site 808 after 80-160 kyr. Modeled chloride concentrations are highly sensitive to the consolidation rate of underthrust sediments, such that rapid compaction of underthrust material leads to increased freshening. Pressures within the de??collement during transient simulations rise rapidly to a significant fraction of lithostatic and remain high for at least 160 kyr, providing a mechanism for maintaining high permeability. Flow rates at the deformation front for transient simulations are in good agreement with direct measurements, but steady state flow rates are 2-3 orders of magnitude smaller than observed. Fluid budget calculations
Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Thanh X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1997-01-01
Method and apparatus for making measurements on fluids related to their complex permeability are disclosed. A microwave probe is provided for exposure to the fluids. The probe can be non-intrusive or can also be positioned at the location where measurements are to be made. The impedance of the probe is determined. in part. by the complex dielectric constant of the fluids at the probe. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids. Multiple probes may be selectively positioned to monitor the behavior of the fluids including their flow rate. Fluids may be identified as between two or more different fluids as well as multiple phases of the same fluid based on differences between their complex permittivities.
Debris-flow deposition: Effects of pore-fluid pressure and friction concentrated at flow margins
Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.
1999-01-01
Measurements of pore-fluid pressure and total bed-normal stress at the base of several ???10 m3 experimental debris flows provide new insight into the process of debris-flow deposition. Pore-fluid pressures nearly sufficient to cause liquefaction were developed and maintained during flow mobilization and acceleration, persisted in debris-flow interiors during flow deceleration and deposition, and dissipated significantly only during postdepositional sediment consolidation. In contrast, leading edges of debris flows exhibited little or no positive pore-fluid pressure. Deposition therefore resulted from grain-contact friction and bed friction concentrated at flow margins. This finding contradicts models that invoke widespread decay of excess pore-fluid pressure, uniform viscoplastic yield strength, or pervasive grain-collision stresses to explain debris-flow deposition. Furthermore, the finding demonstrates that deposit thickness cannot be used to infer the strength of flowing debris.
Vibration of a Flexible Pipe Conveying Viscous Pulsating Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
GORMAN, D. G.; REESE, J. M.; ZHANG, Y. L.
2000-02-01
The non-linear equations of motion of a flexible pipe conveying unsteadily flowing fluid are derived from the continuity and momentum equations of unsteady flow. These partial differential equations are fully coupled through equilibrium of contact forces, the normal compatibility of velocity at the fluid- pipe interfaces, and the conservation of mass and momentum of the transient fluid. Poisson coupling between the pipe wall and fluid is also incorporated in the model. A combination of the finite difference method and the method of characteristics is employed to extract displacements, hydrodynamic pressure and flow velocities from the equations. A numerical example of a pipeline conveying fluid with a pulsating flow is given and discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairman, Stephen J.; Johnson, Joseph A.; Walkiewicz, Thomas A.
2003-09-01
Graphical analysis of experimental data that exhibit exponential behavior is typically postponed at many institutions until students are able to understand the theory underlying the concept of radioactive decay or of RC time constants in ac circuits. In 1960 Smithson and Pinkston described a laboratory exercise that uses the flow of water from a vertical column through a long horizontal capillary tube as a source of data that models radioactive decay. Many institutions have used this experiment simply as an early introduction to exponential behavior without reference to radioactive decay or ac circuits. Greenslade2 recently described a modification of this experiment to demonstrate the concept of secular equilibrium in radioactive decay. This paper presents results of similar experiments, but visual measurements are replaced in this work by data obtained with modern sensors interfaced to a computer. Experiments are described from simple exponential decay to an analogue of the complex interactions of three nuclides in a radioactive-series decay chain.
Conjugate Compressible Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Ducts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, M. F.
2011-01-01
A computational approach to modeling transient, compressible fluid flow with heat transfer in long, narrow ducts is presented. The primary application of the model is for analyzing fluid flow and heat transfer in solid propellant rocket motor nozzle joints during motor start-up, but the approach is relevant to a wide range of analyses involving rapid pressurization and filling of ducts. Fluid flow is modeled through solution of the spatially one-dimensional, transient Euler equations. Source terms are included in the governing equations to account for the effects of wall friction and heat transfer. The equation solver is fully-implicit, thus providing greater flexibility than an explicit solver. This approach allows for resolution of pressure wave effects on the flow as well as for fast calculation of the steady-state solution when a quasi-steady approach is sufficient. Solution of the one-dimensional Euler equations with source terms significantly reduces computational run times compared to general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages solving the Navier-Stokes equations with resolved boundary layers. In addition, conjugate heat transfer is more readily implemented using the approach described in this paper than with most general purpose computational fluid dynamics packages. The compressible flow code has been integrated with a transient heat transfer solver to analyze heat transfer between the fluid and surrounding structure. Conjugate fluid flow and heat transfer solutions are presented. The author is unaware of any previous work available in the open literature which uses the same approach described in this paper.
Pruess, K.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Tsang, Y.W.
1988-05-01
Fluid and heat flow in fractured porous media can be of great complexity, and a quantitative description requires the development of simplified mathematical and numerical methods. This report presents a detailed formulation, and partial evaluation, of an ``effective continuum approximation`` for non-isothermal multi-phase flow, which had been introduced previously only in a heuristic fashion. The key concept on which the effective continuum approach must rely is (approximate) local thermodynamic equilibrium between fractures and rock matrix. The applicability of this approximation is discussed and studied by means of numerical simulations for emplacement of high-level waste packages in partially saturated fractured tuff. The simulations demonstrate that the validity of the effective continuum approximation cannot be ascertained in general terms. The approximation will break down for rapid transients in flow systems with low matrix permeability and/or large fracture spacing, so that its applicability needs to be carefully evaluated for the specific processes and conditions under study. The effective continuum approximation has been applied for a preliminary study of fluid and heat flow near a high-level nuclear waste repository on a regional scale, employing a highly simplified strtatigraphic description. It was found that substantial gas phase convection was taking place, with convection velocities being sensitive to permeability, porosity, and tortuosity of the fracture network. 18 refs., 27 figs., 7 tabs.
Unified slip boundary condition for fluid flows.
Thalakkottor, Joseph John; Mohseni, Kamran
2016-08-01
Determining the correct matching boundary condition is fundamental to our understanding of several everyday problems. Despite over a century of scientific work, existing velocity boundary conditions are unable to consistently explain and capture the complete physics associated with certain common but complex problems, such as moving contact lines and corner flows. The widely used Maxwell and Navier slip boundary conditions make an implicit assumption that velocity varies only in the wall normal direction. This makes their boundary condition inapplicable in the vicinity of contact lines and corner points, where velocity gradient exists both in the wall normal and wall tangential directions. In this paper, by identifying this implicit assumption we are able to extend Maxwell's slip model. Here, we present a generalized velocity boundary condition that shows that slip velocity is a function of not only the shear rate but also the linear strain rate. In addition, we present a universal relation for slip length, which shows that, for a general flow, slip length is a function of the principal strain rate. The universal relation for slip length along with the generalized velocity boundary condition provides a unified slip boundary condition to model a wide range of steady Newtonian fluid flows. We validate the unified slip boundary for simple Newtonian liquids by using molecular dynamics simulations and studying both the moving contact line and corner flow problems. PMID:27627398
Thermohydrodynamic analysis of cryogenic liquid turbulent flow fluid film bearings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andres, Luis San
1993-01-01
A thermohydrodynamic analysis is presented and a computer code developed for prediction of the static and dynamic force response of hydrostatic journal bearings (HJB's), annular seals or damper bearing seals, and fixed arc pad bearings for cryogenic liquid applications. The study includes the most important flow characteristics found in cryogenic fluid film bearings such as flow turbulence, fluid inertia, liquid compressibility and thermal effects. The analysis and computational model devised allow the determination of the flow field in cryogenic fluid film bearings along with the dynamic force coefficients for rotor-bearing stability analysis.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3 mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67 kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3 mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7 mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor.
Fluid flow dynamics in MAS systems.
Wilhelm, Dirk; Purea, Armin; Engelke, Frank
2015-08-01
The turbine system and the radial bearing of a high performance magic angle spinning (MAS) probe with 1.3mm-rotor diameter has been analyzed for spinning rates up to 67kHz. We focused mainly on the fluid flow properties of the MAS system. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and fluid measurements of the turbine and the radial bearings have been performed. CFD simulation and measurement results of the 1.3mm-MAS rotor system show relatively low efficiency (about 25%) compared to standard turbo machines outside the realm of MAS. However, in particular, MAS turbines are mainly optimized for speed and stability instead of efficiency. We have compared MAS systems for rotor diameter of 1.3-7mm converted to dimensionless values with classical turbomachinery systems showing that the operation parameters (rotor diameter, inlet mass flow, spinning rate) are in the favorable range. This dimensionless analysis also supports radial turbines for low speed MAS probes and diagonal turbines for high speed MAS probes. Consequently, a change from Pelton type MAS turbines to diagonal turbines might be worth considering for high speed applications. CFD simulations of the radial bearings have been compared with basic theoretical values proposing considerably smaller frictional loss values. The discrepancies might be due to the simple linear flow profile employed for the theoretical model. Frictional losses generated inside the radial bearings result in undesired heat-up of the rotor. The rotor surface temperature distribution computed by CFD simulations show a large temperature gradient over the rotor. PMID:26073599
Effect of dynamic contact angle in a volume of fluid (VOF) model for a microfluidic capillary flow.
Ashish Saha, Auro; Mitra, Sushanta K
2009-11-15
We perform three-dimensional numerical and experimental study of the dynamic contact angle using volume of fluid (VOF) method applied to microfluidic channels with integrated pillars. Initially, we evaluated different dynamic contact angle models (hydrodynamic, molecular kinetic and empirical) for capillary filling of a two-dimensional microchannel using analytical formulation. Further, the models which require a minimum prescription of adjustable parameters are only used for the study of capillary filling of microchannels with integrated pillars using different working fluids such as DI water, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Different microchannel geometry with varying diameter/height/spacing were studied for circular pillars. Effect of square pillars and changing the overall number of pillars on the capillary phenomena were also simulated. Our study demonstrated that the dynamic contact angle models modifies the transient response of the meniscus displacement and also the observed trends are model specific for the various microchannel geometries and working fluids. However, the different models have minimal effect on the meniscus profile. Different inlet boundary conditions were applied to observe the effect of grid resolution selected for numerical study on the capillary filling time. A grid dependent dynamic contact angle model which incorporates effective slip in the model was also used to observe the grid convergence of the numerical results. The grid independence was shown to improve marginally by applying the grid dependent dynamic contact angle model. Further we did numerical experiments of capillary filling considering variable surface wettability on the top and bottom walls of the microchannel with alternate hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterns. The meniscus front pinning was noticed for a high wetting contrast between the patterns. Non uniform streamline patterns indicated mixing of the fluid when using patterned walls. Such a microfluidic device with
Faybishenko, B.
1997-10-01
'Understanding subsurface flow and transport processes is critical for effective assessment, decision-making, and remediation activities for contaminated sites. However, for fluid flow and contaminant transport through fractured vadose zones, traditional hydrogeological approaches are often found to be inadequate. In this project, the authors examine flow and transport through a fractured vadose zone as a deterministic chaotic dynamical process, and develop a model of it in these terms. Initially, they examine separately the geometric model of fractured rock and the flow dynamics model needed to describe chaotic behavior. Ultimately they will put the geometry and flow dynamics together to develop a chaotic-dynamical model of flow and transport in a fractured vadose zone. They investigate water flow and contaminant transport on several scales, ranging from small-scale laboratory experiments in fracture replicas and fractured cores, to field experiments conducted in a single exposed fracture at a basalt outcrop, and finally to a ponded infiltration test using a pond of 7 by 8 m. In the field experiments, the authors measure the time-variation of water flux, moisture content, and hydraulic head at various locations, as well as the total inflow rate to the subsurface. Such variations reflect the changes in the geometry and physics of water flow that display chaotic behavior, which the authors try to reconstruct using the data obtained. In the analysis of experimental data, a chaotic model can be used to predict the long-term bounds on fluid flow and transport behavior, known as the attractor of the system, and to examine the limits of short-term predictability within these bounds. This approach is especially well suited to the need for short-term predictions to support remediation decisions and long-term bounding studies.'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan
2015-04-01
Debris flows are globally abundant threats for settlements and infrastructure in mountainous regions. Crucial influencing factors for hazard zone planning and mitigation strategies are based on numerical models that describe granular flow on general topography by solving a depth-averaged form of the Navier Stokes equations in combination with an appropriate flow resistance law. In case of debris flows, the Voellmy rheology is a widely used constitutive law describing the flow resistance. It combines a velocity independent Coulomb friction term with a term proportional to the square of the velocity as it is commonly used for turbulent flow. Parameters of the Vollemy fluid are determined by back analysis from observed events so that modelled events mimic their historical counterparts. Determined parameters characterizing individual debris flows show a large variability (related to fluid composition and surface roughness). However, there may be several sets of parameters that lead to a similar depositional pattern but cause large differences in flow velocity and momentum along the flow path. Fluid volumes of hazardous debris flows are estimated by analyzing historic events, precipitation time series, hydrographs or empirical relationships that correlate fluid volumes and drainage areas of torrential catchments. Beside uncertainties in the determination of the fluid volume the position and geometry of the initial masses of forthcoming debris flows are in general not well constrained but heavily influence the flow dynamics and the depositional pattern even in the run-out zones. In this study we present a new, freely available numerical description of rapid mass movements based on the GERRIS framework and early results of a Monte Carlo simulation exploring effects of the aforementioned parameters on run-out distance, inundated area and momentum. The novel numerical model describes rapid mass movements on complex topography using the shallow water equations in Cartesian
Method and device for measuring fluid flow
Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson
1976-11-23
This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.
Digital marbling: a multiscale fluid model.
Acar, Rüyam; Boulanger, Pierre
2006-01-01
This paper presents a multiscale fluid model based on mesoscale dynamics and viscous fluid equations as a generic tool for digital marbling purposes. The model uses an averaging technique on the adaptation of a stochastic mesoscale model to obtain the effect of fluctuations at different levels. It allows various user controls to simulate complex flow behaviors as in traditional marbling techniques, as well as laminar and turbulent flows. Material transport is based on an improved advection solution to be able to match the highly detailed, sharp fluid interfaces in marbling patterns. In the transport model, two reaction models are introduced to create different effects and to simulate density fluctuations. PMID:16805267
GUIDELINE FOR FLUID MODELING OF ATMOSPHERIC DIFFUSION
The fundamental principles for fluid modeling of flow and dispersion of pollutants in the atmospheric boundary layer are reviewed. The usefulness of fluid models are evaluated from both scientific and engineering viewpoints. Because many detailed decisions must be made during the...
Engineering fluid flow using sequenced microstructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amini, Hamed; Sollier, Elodie; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Xie, Yu; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Stone, Howard A.; di Carlo, Dino
2013-05-01
Controlling the shape of fluid streams is important across scales: from industrial processing to control of biomolecular interactions. Previous approaches to control fluid streams have focused mainly on creating chaotic flows to enhance mixing. Here we develop an approach to apply order using sequences of fluid transformations rather than enhancing chaos. We investigate the inertial flow deformations around a library of single cylindrical pillars within a microfluidic channel and assemble these net fluid transformations to engineer fluid streams. As these transformations provide a deterministic mapping of fluid elements from upstream to downstream of a pillar, we can sequentially arrange pillars to apply the associated nested maps and, therefore, create complex fluid structures without additional numerical simulation. To show the range of capabilities, we present sequences that sculpt the cross-sectional shape of a stream into complex geometries, move and split a fluid stream, perform solution exchange and achieve particle separation. A general strategy to engineer fluid streams into a broad class of defined configurations in which the complexity of the nonlinear equations of fluid motion are abstracted from the user is a first step to programming streams of any desired shape, which would be useful for biological, chemical and materials automation.
A discrete simulation of 2-D fluid flow on TERASYS
Mullins, P.G.; Krolak, P.D.
1995-12-01
A discrete simulation of two-dimensional (2-D) fluid flow, on a recently designed novel architecture called TERASYS is presented. The simulation uses a cellular automaton approach, implemented in a new language called data-parallel bit C (dbC). A performance comparison between our implementation on TERASYS and an implementation on the Connection Machine is discussed. We comment briefly on the suitability of the TERASYS system for modeling fluid flow using cellular automata.
Laminar flow of two miscible fluids in a simple network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karst, Casey M.; Storey, Brian D.; Geddes, John B.
2013-03-01
When a fluid comprised of multiple phases or constituents flows through a network, nonlinear phenomena such as multiple stable equilibrium states and spontaneous oscillations can occur. Such behavior has been observed or predicted in a number of networks including the flow of blood through the microcirculation, the flow of picoliter droplets through microfluidic devices, the flow of magma through lava tubes, and two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. While the existence of nonlinear phenomena in a network with many inter-connections containing fluids with complex rheology may seem unsurprising, this paper demonstrates that even simple networks containing Newtonian fluids in laminar flow can demonstrate multiple equilibria. The paper describes a theoretical and experimental investigation of the laminar flow of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different density and viscosity through a simple network. The fluids stratify due to gravity and remain as nearly distinct phases with some mixing occurring only by diffusion. This fluid system has the advantage that it is easily controlled and modeled, yet contains the key ingredients for network nonlinearities. Experiments and 3D simulations are first used to explore how phases distribute at a single T-junction. Once the phase separation at a single junction is known, a network model is developed which predicts multiple equilibria in the simplest of networks. The existence of multiple stable equilibria is confirmed experimentally and a criterion for existence is developed. The network results are generic and could be applied to or found in different physical systems.
Hanna, S R; Brown, M J; Camelli, F E; Chan, S T; Coirier, W J; Hansen, O R; Huber, A H; Kim, S; Reynolds, R M
2006-03-06
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model simulations of urban boundary layers have improved so that they are useful in many types of flow and dispersion analyses. The study described here is intended to assist in planning emergency response activities related to releases of chemical or biological agents into the atmosphere in large cities such as New York City. Five CFD models (CFD-Urban, FLACS, FEM3MP, FEFLO-Urban, and Fluent-Urban) have been applied by five independent groups to the same 3-D building data and geographic domain in Manhattan, using approximately the same wind input conditions. Wind flow observations are available from the Madison Square Garden March 2005 (MSG05) field experiment. It is seen from the many side-by-side comparison plots that the CFD models simulations of near-surface wind fields generally agree with each other and with field observations, within typical atmospheric uncertainties of a factor of two. The qualitative results shown here suggest, for example, that transport of a release at street level in a large city could reach a few blocks in the upwind and crosswind directions. There are still key differences seen among the models for certain parts of the domain. Further quantitative examinations of differences among the models and the observations are necessary to understand causal relationships.
Rigano, S; Ferrazzi, E; Boito, S; Pennati, G; Padoan, A; Galan, H
2010-01-01
The primary aim of this pilot study was to study uterine artery (UtA) blood flow volume in uneventful human pregnancies delivered at term, at mid and late gestation by means of 3D and bi-dimensional ultrasound imaging with angio-Doppler combined with fluid-dynamic modeling. Secondary aims were to correlate flow volume to placental site and to UtA Pulsatility Index (PI). Women with singleton, low-risk pregnancies were examined at mid and late gestation. The structure and course of the uterine artery (UtA) was studied in each patient by means of 3D-angio-Doppler and included vessel diameter D, blood flow velocity and PI (measured along the UtA). Fetal weight estimation and placental insertion site were assessed by ultrasound. A robust fluid-dynamic modeling was applied to calculate absolute flow and flow per unit fetal weight. Mean UtA diameter and blood flow velocity increased significantly (p < 0.0001) from mid-gestation to late gestation from 2.6 mm and 67.5 cm/s, to 3.0 mm and 85.3 cm/s, respectively, yielding an increasing absolute flow troughout gestation. h coefficient, derived by fluid-dynamic modeling to calculate mean velocity, increased significantly from 0.52 at mid-gestation to 0.57 at late gestation. UtA blood flow volume ml/min/kg-fetal weight was significantly higher at mid-gestation than at late gestation (535 ml/min/kg vs 193 ml/min/kg; p < 0.0001). In cases with strictly lateral placentas the ipsilateral UtA accommodates at mid and late gestation 63% and 67% of the total UtA flow. In central placentas UtA flow was evenly distributed between the two vessels. An inverse correlation was observed between PI and blood flow volume ml/min/kg (Pearson's coefficient r = -0.54). Our work confirms the technological and methodological limitations in the measurement of uterine artery blood flow. However, Doppler measurements supported by three-dimensional angio imaging of the uterine vessel, high resolution imaging and diameter measurement, and a robust
Akbarzadeh, Pooria
2016-04-01
In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. PMID:26792174
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Jifeng; Dabiri, John O.
2007-11-01
This paper presents an approach to quantify the unsteady fluid forces, moments and mass transport generated by swimming animals, based on measurements of the surrounding flow field. These goals are accomplished within a framework that is independent of the vorticity field, making it unnecessary to directly resolve boundary layers on the animal, body vortex interactions, or interactions among vortex lines in the wake. Instead, the method identifies Lagrangian coherent structures in the flow, whose dynamics in flows with compact vorticity are shown to be well approximated by potential flow concepts, especially the Kirchhoff and deformation potentials from deformable body theory. Examples of the application of these methods are given for pectoral fin locomotion of the bluegill sunfish and undulatory swimming of jellyfish, and the methods are validated by analysis of a canonical starting vortex ring flow. The transition to a Lagrangian approach toward animal swimming measurements suggests the possibility of implementing recently developed particle tracking (vis-à-vis DPIV) techniques for fully three-dimensional measurements of animal swimming.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, J.E.; Thomas, D.G.
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Apparatus for measuring fluid flow
Smith, Jack E.; Thomas, David G.
1984-01-01
Flow measuring apparatus includes a support loop having strain gages mounted thereon and a drag means which is attached to one end of the support loop and which bends the sides of the support loop and induces strains in the strain gages when a flow stream impacts thereon.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.
1996-01-01
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.
Directed flow fluid rinse trough
Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.
1996-07-02
Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.
Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid
Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael
2009-09-01
This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.
Fluid flow dynamics under location uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mémin, Etienne
2014-03-01
We present a derivation of a stochastic model of Navier Stokes equations that relies on a decomposition of the velocity fields into a differentiable drift component and a time uncorrelated uncertainty random term. This type of decomposition is reminiscent in spirit to the classical Reynolds decomposition. However, the random velocity fluctuations considered here are not differentiable with respect to time, and they must be handled through stochastic calculus. The dynamics associated with the differentiable drift component is derived from a stochastic version of the Reynolds transport theorem. It includes in its general form an uncertainty dependent "subgrid" bulk formula that cannot be immediately related to the usual Boussinesq eddy viscosity assumption constructed from thermal molecular agitation analogy. This formulation, emerging from uncertainties on the fluid parcels location, explains with another viewpoint some subgrid eddy diffusion models currently used in computational fluid dynamics or in geophysical sciences and paves the way for new large-scales flow modelling. We finally describe an applications of our formalism to the derivation of stochastic versions of the Shallow water equations or to the definition of reduced order dynamical systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John
2011-01-01
A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.
Instrument continuously measures density of flowing fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, R. B.; Macinko, J.; Miller, C. E.
1967-01-01
Electromechanical densitometer continuously measures the densities of either single-phase or two-phase flowing cryogenic fluids. Measurement is made on actual flow. The instrument operates on the principle that the mass of any vibrating system is a primary factor in determining the dynamic characteristics of the system.
Fluid flow and chemical reaction kinetics in metamorphic systems
Lasaga, A.C.; Rye, D.M. )
1993-05-01
The treatment and effects of chemical reaction kinetics during metamorphism are developed along with the incorporation of fluid flow, diffusion, and thermal evolution. The interplay of fluid flow and surface reaction rates, the distinction between steady state and equilibrium, and the possible overstepping of metamorphic reactions are discussed using a simple analytic model. This model serves as an introduction to the second part of the paper, which develops a reaction model that solves the coupled temperature-fluid flow-chemical composition differential equations relevant to metamorphic processes. Consideration of stable isotopic evidence requires that such a kinetic model be considered for the chemical evolution of a metamorphic aureole. A general numerical scheme is discussed to handle the solution of the model. The results of this kinetic model allow us to reach several important conclusions regarding the factors controlling the chemical evolution of mineral assemblages during a metamorphic event. 41 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.
Electromagnetic probe technique for fluid flow measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. D.; Carl, J. R.
1994-01-01
The probes described herein, in various configurations, permit the measurement of the volume fraction of two or more fluids flowing through a pipe. Each probe measures the instantaneous relative dielectric constant of the fluid in immediate proximity. As long as separation of the relative dielectric constant of the fluid is possible, several or even many fluids can be measured in the same flow stream. By using multiple probes, the velocity of each fluid can generally be determined as well as the distribution of each constituent in the pipe. The values are determined by statistical computation. There are many potential applications for probes of this type in industry and government. Possible NASA applications include measurements of helium/hydrazine flow during rocket tests at White Sands, liquid/gas flow in hydrogen or oxygen lines in Orbiter engines, and liquid/gaseous Freon flow in zero gravity tests with the KS135 aircraft at JSC. Much interest has been shown recently by the oil industry. In this a good method is needed to measure the fractions of oil, water, and natural gas flowing in a pipeline and the velocity of each. This particular problem involves an extension of what has been developed to date and our plans to solve this problem will be discussed herein.
Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube
Nigmatulin, R.I.
1995-09-01
The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.
A framework for estimating potential fluid flow from digital imagery.
Luttman, Aaron; Bollt, Erik M; Basnayake, Ranil; Kramer, Sean; Tufillaro, Nicholas B
2013-09-01
Given image data of a fluid flow, the flow field, , governing the evolution of the system can be estimated using a variational approach to optical flow. Assuming that the flow field governing the advection is the symplectic gradient of a stream function or the gradient of a potential function-both falling under the category of a potential flow-it is natural to re-frame the optical flow problem to reconstruct the stream or potential function directly rather than the components of the flow individually. There are several advantages to this framework. Minimizing a functional based on the stream or potential function rather than based on the components of the flow will ensure that the computed flow is a potential flow. Next, this approach allows a more natural method for imposing scientific priors on the computed flow, via regularization of the optical flow functional. Also, this paradigm shift gives a framework--rather than an algorithm--and can be applied to nearly any existing variational optical flow technique. In this work, we develop the mathematical formulation of the potential optical flow framework and demonstrate the technique on synthetic flows that represent important dynamics for mass transport in fluid flows, as well as a flow generated by a satellite data-verified ocean model of temperature transport. PMID:24089970
Destabilization of confined granular packings due to fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monloubou, Martin; Sandnes, Bjørnar
2016-04-01
Fluid flow through granular materials can cause fluidization when fluid drag exceeds the frictional stress within the packing. Fluid driven failure of granular packings is observed in both natural and engineered settings, e.g. soil liquefaction and flowback of proppants during hydraulic fracturing operations. We study experimentally the destabilization and flow of an unconsolidated granular packing subjected to a point source fluid withdrawal using a model system consisting of a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing a water-grain mixture. The fluid is withdrawn from the cell at a constant rate, and the emerging flow patterns are imaged in time-lapse mode. Using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), we show that the granular flow gets localized in a narrow channel down the center of the cell, and adopts a Gaussian velocity profile similar to those observed in dry grain flows in silos. We investigate the effects of the experimental parameters (flow rate, grain size, grain shape, fluid viscosity) on the packing destabilization, and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed complex flow behaviour.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stier, Bernd; Falco, R. E.
1994-01-01
Optical measurements on an axisymmetrical quartz component engine research model were made to evaluate the flow field encountered during induction. The measurement technique is LIPA (Laser Induced Photochemical Anemometry), a non-intrusive velocimetry concept that provides an investigator of fluid flow with a tool to attain planar information about three-dimensional velocity and vorticity vectors in a single measurement step. The goal of this investigation is to further develop this measurement technique and apply it to study the induction stroke of a water analog model of a four-stroke internal combustion engine. The research conducted in the water analog model is a fundamental scientific inquiry into the flow fields that develop in the induction stroke of an engine at idling engine speeds. As this is the first investigation of its kind using LIPA technique, our goal has been to quantify, in a preliminary manner, the flow field features that develop during the intake stroke. In the process a more comprehensive understanding of the flow field features was developed, and tied to the quantification. The study evaluated the flow field of the intake stroke by estimating fields of velocity and vorticity. On the basis of these data, information about fluid dynamics during induction at engine speeds of 10, 20, and 30 RPM (corresponding to 170, 340, and 510 RPM respectively, when air is the flowing medium) for three different valve lifts was obtained. The overall development of the flow field, its energy content (kinetic, fluctuation) for the different settings of the engine parameters, vorticity information, and cyclic variations have been quantified. These have been discussed in terms of mixing performance.
Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.
2001-01-01
This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.
Anwar, Md Rajib; Camarda, Kyle V; Kieweg, Sarah L
2015-06-25
Topically applied microbicide gels can provide a self-administered and effective strategy to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We have investigated the interplay between vaginal tissue elasticity and the yield-stress of non-Newtonian fluids during microbicide deployment. We have developed a mathematical model of tissue deformation driven spreading of microbicidal gels based on thin film lubrication approximation and demonstrated the effect of tissue elasticity and fluid yield-stress on the spreading dynamics. Our results show that both elasticity of tissue and yield-stress rheology of gel are strong determinants of the coating behavior. An optimization framework has been demonstrated which leverages the flow dynamics of yield-stress fluid during deployment to maximize retention while reaching target coating length for a given tissue elasticity. PMID:25798760
Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Serkowski, John A.; Richmond, Marshall C.
2010-12-01
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers-Portland District (CENWP) has ongoing work to improve the survival of juvenile salmonids (smolt) migrating past The Dalles Dam. As part of that effort, a spillwall was constructed to improve juvenile egress through the tailrace downstream of the stilling basin. The spillwall was designed to improve smolt survival by decreasing smolt retention time in the spillway tailrace and the exposure to predators on the spillway shelf. The spillwall guides spillway flows, and hence smolt, more quickly into the thalweg. In this study, an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was modified and used to characterize tailrace hydraulics between the new spillwall and the Washington shore for six different total river flows. The effect of spillway flow distribution was simulated for three spill patterns at the lowest total river flow. The commercial CFD solver, STAR-CD version 4.1, was used to solve the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations together with the k-epsilon turbulence model. Free surface motion was simulated using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique. The model results were used in two ways. First, results graphics were provided to CENWP and regional fisheries agency representatives for use and comparison to the same flow conditions at a reduced-scale physical model. The CFD results were very similar in flow pattern to that produced by the reduced-scale physical model but these graphics provided a quantitative view of velocity distribution. During the physical model work, an additional spill pattern was tested. Subsequently, that spill pattern was also simulated in the numerical model. The CFD streamlines showed that the hydraulic conditions were likely to be beneficial to fish egress at the higher total river flows (120 kcfs and greater, uniform flow distribution). At the lowest flow case, 90 kcfs, it was necessary to use a non-uniform distribution. Of the three distributions tested, splitting the flow evenly between
Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.; Lewan, M.D.
1999-01-01
Nine basalt dikes, ranging from 6 cm to 40 m thick, intruding the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Strzelecki Group, western onshore Gippsland Basin, were used to study maximum temperatures (Tmax) reached next to dikes. Tmax was estimated from fluid inclusion and vitrinitereflectance geothermometry and compared to temperatures calculated using heat-flow models of contact metamorphism. Thermal history reconstruction suggests that at the time of dike intrusion the host rock was at a temperature of 100-135??C. Fracture-bound fluid inclusions in the host rocks next to thin dikes ( 1.5, using a normalized distance ratio used for comparing measurements between dikes regardless of their thickness. In contrast, the pattern seen next to the thin dikes is a relatively narrow zone of elevated Rv-r. Heat-flow modeling, along with whole rock elemental and isotopic data, suggests that the extended zone of elevated Rv-r is caused by a convection cell with local recharge of the hydrothermal fluids. The narrow zone of elevated Rv-r found next to thin dikes is attributed to the rise of the less dense, heated fluids at the dike contact causing a flow of cooler groundwater towards the dike and thereby limiting its heating effects. The lack of extended heating effects suggests that next to thin dikes an incipient convection system may form in which the heated fluid starts to travel upward along the dike but cooling occurs before a complete convection cell can form. Close to the dike contact at X/D 1.5. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Particle Deposition in a Two-Fluid Flow Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yap, Yit Fatt; Goharzadeh, Afshin; Vargas, Francisco M.; John Chai, Chee Kiong
2014-11-01
The formation of particle deposit on surfaces occurs in many applications. For example, in the oil and gas industry, deposition of wax, hydrates and asphaltene reduces flows and clogs pipelines eventually if left untreated. Removal of the deposits is costly as it disrupts production. To further complicate the problem, the main flow carrying the depositing particles is often of a multi-phase nature. Successful mitigation effort requires good understanding and eventual prediction of the deposition process interacting within a multiphase flow environment. This work presents a model for prediction of particle deposition in a two-fluid flow environment. Modeling of the process is challenging as there are two unknown evolving interfaces, i.e. the fluid-fluid interface and the depositing front. Both interfaces are captured via the level-set method. The deposition at the depositing front is modeled as a first order reaction. The two immiscible fluids are modeled using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Solution of the equations is implemented using a finite volume method. The model is then verified against known solutions. Preliminary results on deposition process in a two-fluid flow environment are presented. ADNOC R&D Oil-Sub Committee.
Hoi, Yiemeng; Ionita, Ciprian N.; Tranquebar, Rekha V.; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Woodward, Scott, H.; Taulbee, Dale B.; Meng, Hui; Rudin, Stephen
2011-01-01
An asymmetric stent with low porosity patch across the intracranial aneurysm neck and high porosity elsewhere is designed to modify the flow to result in thrombogenesis and occlusion of the aneurysm and yet to reduce the possibility of also occluding adjacent perforator vessels. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the flow field induced by an asymmetric stent using both numerical and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) methods and to quantify the flow dynamics of an asymmetric stent in an in vivo aneurysm model. We created a vein-pouch aneurysm model on the canine carotid artery. An asymmetric stent was implanted at the aneurysm, with 25% porosity across the aneurysm neck and 80% porosity elsewhere. The aneurysm geometry, before and after stent implantation, was acquired using cone beam CT and reconstructed for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. Both steady-state and pulsatile flow conditions using the measured waveforms from the aneurysm model were studied. To reduce computational costs, we modeled the asymmetric stent effect by specifying a pressure drop over the layer across the aneurysm orifice where the low porosity patch was located. From the CFD results, we found the asymmetric stent reduced the inflow into the aneurysm by 51%, and appeared to create a stasis-like environment which favors thrombus formation. The DSA sequences also showed substantial flow reduction into the aneurysm. Asymmetric stents may be a viable image guided intervention for treating intracranial aneurysms with desired flow modification features. PMID:21666881
Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity
Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H.
2014-01-01
The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738
Flow over a membrane-covered, fluid-filled cavity.
Thomson, Scott L; Mongeau, Luc; Frankel, Steven H
2007-01-01
The flow-induced response of a membrane covering a fluid-filled cavity located in a section of a rigid-walled channel was explored using finite element analysis. The membrane was initially aligned with the channel wall and separated the channel fluid from the cavity fluid. As fluid flowed over the membrane-covered cavity, a streamwise-dependent transmural pressure gradient caused membrane deformation. This model has application to synthetic models of the vocal fold cover layer used in voice production research. In this paper, the model is introduced and responses of the channel flow, the membrane, and the cavity flow are summarized for a range of flow and membrane parameters. It is shown that for high values of cavity fluid viscosity, the intracavity pressure and the beam deflection both reached steady values. For combinations of low cavity viscosity and sufficiently large upstream pressures, large-amplitude membrane vibrations resulted. Asymmetric conditions were introduced by creating cavities on opposing sides of the channel and assigning different stiffness values to the two membranes. The asymmetry resulted in reduction in or cessation of vibration amplitude, depending on the degree of asymmetry, and in significant skewing of the downstream flow field. PMID:24723738
Hossain, Md Shakhawath; Bergstrom, D J; Chen, X B
2015-11-01
The in vitro chondrocyte cell culture process in a perfusion bioreactor provides enhanced nutrient supply as well as the flow-induced shear stress that may have a positive influence on the cell growth. Mathematical and computational modelling of such a culture process, by solving the coupled flow, mass transfer and cell growth equations simultaneously, can provide important insight into the biomechanical environment of a bioreactor and the related cell growth process. To do this, a two-way coupling between the local flow field and cell growth is required. Notably, most of the computational and mathematical models to date have not taken into account the influence of the cell growth on the local flow field and nutrient concentration. The present research aimed at developing a mathematical model and performing a numerical simulation using the lattice Boltzmann method to predict the chondrocyte cell growth without a scaffold on a flat plate placed inside a perfusion bioreactor. The model considers the two-way coupling between the cell growth and local flow field, and the simulation has been performed for 174 culture days. To incorporate the cell growth into the model, a control-volume-based surface growth modelling approach has been adopted. The simulation results show the variation of local fluid velocity, shear stress and concentration distribution during the culture period due to the growth of the cell phase and also illustrate that the shear stress can increase the cell volume fraction to a certain extent. PMID:25804699
MEANS FOR VISUALIZING FLUID FLOW PATTERNS
Lynch, F.E.; Palmer, L.D.; Poppendick, H.F.; Winn, G.M.
1961-05-16
An apparatus is given for determining both the absolute and relative velocities of a phosphorescent fluid flowing through a transparent conduit. The apparatus includes a source for exciting a narrow trsnsverse band of the fluid to phosphorescence, detecting means such as a camera located downstream from the exciting source to record the shape of the phosphorescent band as it passes, and a timer to measure the time elapsed between operation of the exciting source and operation of the camera.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raba'A, Ali Saleh Bin
2001-09-01
Little Sand Draw field, Hot Springs County, Wyoming, is a fractured and faulted asymmetric anticlinal oil reservoir. The main producing formation is the Permian Phosphoria Formation. Numerical simulation of this reservoir is important for evaluating reservoir quality and past and future performance. This study presents a new integrated methodology which combines reservoir engineering with geology to improve reservoir characterization, simulation, and planning for reservoir management. The goal of this project is to apply a new geological and engineering approach to simulate directional permeability in a faulted and fractured anticlinal oil reservoir. Tear faults, which have apparent strike slip offset and occur at high angles to the fold axis, have been quantified at Thermopolis anticline, an analogous structure 6 mi (10 km) to the south. The observed tear faults could be significant source of permeability anisotropy, and may provide high permeability conduits across structural folds. Anisotropic directional permeabilities, roughly perpendicular to fold axes, are known from pressure- interference tests in the Phosphoria Formation at Little Sand Draw field. The hypothesis is that tear faults are the cause of the observed directional permeability. To accomplish the objectives, this study constructed 3- dimensional geological and fluid-flow models of the Little Sand Draw field. The spacing of faults in outcrop was used as input for fault compartments in the reservoir simulation model. The hypothesis to be tested in this study is whether reservoir models with or without tear faults provide a good history match. The 3-D geological model was built using EarthVision (Dynamic Graphics) software. The geological model correctly honors the structural geology. Petrophysical properties are distributed in 3-D using five zones in the upper Phosphoria Formation and one zone in the Tensleep Formation. The full-field, 3-D reservoir fluid-flow model was built using the ECLIPSE black
Fluid pressure and flow as a cause of bone resorption
Fahlgren, Anna
2010-01-01
Background Unstable implants in bone become surrounded by an osteolytic zone. This is seen around loose screws, for example, but may also contribute to prosthetic loosening. Previous animal studies have shown that such zones can be induced by fluctuations in fluid pressure or flow, caused by implant instability. Method To understand the roles of pressure and flow, we describe the 3-dimensional distribution of osteolytic lesions in response to fluid pressure and flow in a previously reported rat model of aseptic loosening. 50 rats had a piston inserted in the proximal tibia, designed to produce 20 local spikes in fluid pressure of a clinically relevant magnitude (700 mmHg) twice a day. The spikes lasted for about 0.3 seconds. After 2 weeks, the pressure was measured in vivo, and the osteolytic lesions induced were studied using micro-CT scans. Results Most bone resorption occurred at pre-existing cavities within the bone in the periphery around the pressurized region, and not under the piston. This region is likely to have a higher fluid flow and less pressure than the area just beneath the piston. The velocity of fluid flow was estimated to be very high (roughly 20 mm/s). Interpretation The localization of the resorptive lesions suggests that high-velocity fluid flow is important for bone resorption induced by instability. PMID:20718695
Tomographic reconstruction of stratified fluid flow.
Winters, K B; Rouseff, D
1993-01-01
A method for imaging a moving fluid is proposed and evaluated by numerical simulation. A cross-section of a three-dimensional fluid is probed by high-frequency acoustic waves from several different directions. Assuming straight-ray geometric acoustics, the time of flight depends on both the scaler sound speed and the vector fluid velocity. By appropriately combining travel times, projections of both the sound speed and the velocity are isolated. The sound speed is reconstructed using the standard filtered backprojection algorithm. Though complete inversion of velocity is not possible, sufficient information is available to recover the component of fluid vorticity transverse to the plane of insonification. A new filtered backprojection algorithm for vorticity is developed and implemented. To demonstrate the inversion procedure, a 3-D stratified fluid is simulated and travel time data are calculated by path integration. These data are then inverted to recover both the scaler sound speed and the vorticity of the evolving flow. PMID:18263153
Grigioni, M; Daniele, C; Morbiducci, U; D'Avenio, G; Di Benedetto, G; Del Gaudio, C; Barbaro, V
2002-12-01
Vascular access methods, performed by the insertion of cannulae into vessels, may disturb the physiological flow of blood, giving rise to non-physiological pressure variations and shear stresses. To date, the hydrodynamic behaviour of the cannulae has been evaluated comparing their pressure loss-flow rate relationships, as obtained from in vitro experiments using a monodimensional approach; this methodology neither furnish information about the local fluid dynamics nor the established flow field in specific clinical work conditions. Since the shear stress is a critical factor in the design of artificial circulatory devices, more knowledge should be necessary about the local values assumed by the haemodynamic parameters during cannulation. An alternative way to investigate the fluid dynamic as accurately as possible is given by numeric studies. A 3D model of cannula concentrically placed in a rigid wall vessel is presented, with the finite element methodology used to numerically simulate the steady-state flow field in two different venous cannulation case studies, with two cannulae having a central hole and two or four side holes, respectively, with the same boundary conditions. Lower velocity and shear stress peak values have been computed for the model with four side holes upstream of the central hole, in the region of the cannula where the inlet flows meet and towards cannula's outlet, due to the increased flow symmetry and inlet area with respect to the model with two side holes. Starting from the investigation of different cannula designs, numerically assessing the local fluid dynamics, indications can be drawn to support both the design phase and the device optimal clinical use, in order to limit risks of biomechanical origin. Thus the presence of four side holes implied, as a consequence of the greater inlet area and of the increased symmetry, a less disturbed blood flow, together with reduced shear stress values. Furthermore, results show that the numerical
Method and Apparatus for Measuring Fluid Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Nguyen, Than X. (Inventor); Carl, James R. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for monitoring the presence, concentration, and the movement of fluids. It is based on utilizing electromagnetic measurements of the complex permittivity of the fluids for detecting and monitoring the fluid. More particularly the apparatus uses one or more microwave probes which are placed at the locations where the measurements are to be made. A radio frequency signal is transmitted to the probe and the reflected signal is phase and amplitude detected at a rapid rate for the purpose of identifying the fluids, based on their dielectric constant at the probe. The apparatus can be used for multiple purposes including measures of flow rates, turbulence, dispersion, fluid identification, and changes in flow conditions of multiple fluids or multiple states of a single fluid in a flowline or a holding container. The apparatus includes a probe consisting of two electrical conductors separated by an insulator. A radio frequency signal is communicated to the probe and is reflected back from the portion of the probe exposed to the fluid. The radio frequency signal also provides a reference signal. An oscillator generates a second signal which combined with each of the reference signal and the reflected signal to produce signals of lower frequencies to facilitate filtering and amplifying those signals. The two signals are then mixed in a detector to produce an output signal that is representative of the phase and amplitude change caused by the reflection of the signal at the probe exposed to the fluid. The detector may be a dual phase detector that provides two such output signals that are in phase quadrature. A phase shifter may be provided for selectively changing the phase of the reference signal to improve the sensitivity of at least one of the output signals for more accurate readings and/or for calibration purposes. The two outputs that are in quadrature with respect to each other may be simultaneously monitored to account for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobs, C. T.; Piggott, M. D.
2014-08-01
This model description paper introduces a new finite element model for the simulation of non-linear shallow water flows, called Firedrake-Fluids. Unlike traditional models that are written by hand in static, low-level programming languages such as Fortran or C, Firedrake-Fluids uses the Firedrake framework to automatically generate the model's code from a high-level abstract language called UFL. By coupling to the PyOP2 parallel unstructured mesh framework, Firedrake can then target the code in a performance-portable manner towards a desired hardware architecture to enable the efficient parallel execution of the model over an arbitrary computational mesh. The description of the model includes the governing equations, the methods employed to discretise and solve the governing equations, and an outline of the automated solution process. The verification and validation of the model, performed using a set of well-defined test cases, is also presented along with a roadmap for future developments and the solution of more complex fluid dynamical systems.
Fluid Flow in An Evaporating Droplet
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, H.; Larson, R.
1999-01-01
Droplet evaporation is a common phenomenon in everyday life. For example, when a droplet of coffee or salt solution is dropped onto a surface and the droplet dries out, a ring of coffee or salt particles is left on the surface. This phenomenon exists not only in everyday life, but also in many practical industrial processes and scientific research and could also be used to assist in DNA sequence analysis, if the flow field in the droplet produced by the evaporation could be understood and predicted in detail. In order to measure the fluid flow in a droplet, small particles can be suspended into the fluid as tracers. From the ratio of gravitational force to Brownian force a(exp 4)(delta rho)(g)/k(sub B)T, we find that particle's tendency to settle is proportional to a(exp 4) (a is particle radius). So, to keep the particles from settling, the droplet size should be chosen to be in a range 0.1 -1.0 microns in experiments. For such small particles, the Brownian force will affect the motion of the particle preventing accurate measurement of the flow field. This problem could be overcome by using larger particles as tracers to measure fluid flow under microgravity since the gravitational acceleration g is then very small. For larger particles, Brownian force would hardly affect the motion of the particles. Therefore, accurate flow field could be determined from experiments in microgravity. In this paper, we will investigate the fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under normal gravity, and compare experiments to theories. Then, we will present our ideas about the experimental measurement of fluid flow in an evaporating droplet under microgravity.
Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe
2014-05-01
Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and
Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal
2009-01-01
Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 μm aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301
Ma, Baoshun; Ruwet, Vincent; Corieri, Patricia; Theunissen, Raf; Riethmuller, Michel; Darquenne, Chantal
2009-05-01
Accurate modeling of air flow and aerosol transport in the alveolated airways is essential for quantitative predictions of pulmonary aerosol deposition. However, experimental validation of such modeling studies has been scarce. The objective of this study is to validate CFD predictions of flow field and particle trajectory with experiments within a scaled-up model of alveolated airways. Steady flow (Re = 0.13) of silicone oil was captured by particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the trajectories of 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm spherical iron beads (representing 0.7 to 14.6 mum aerosol in vivo) were obtained by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). At twelve selected cross sections, the velocity profiles obtained by CFD matched well with those by PIV (within 1.7% on average). The CFD predicted trajectories also matched well with PTV experiments. These results showed that air flow and aerosol transport in models of human alveolated airways can be simulated by CFD techniques with reasonable accuracy. PMID:20161301
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garven, G.; Dumoulin, J. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Young, L. E.; Kelley, K. D.; Leach, D. L.
2002-12-01
Crustal heat flow can provide a strong mechanism for driving groundwater flow, particularly in submarine basins where other mechanisms for driving pore fluid flow such as topography, compaction and crustal deformation are too weak or too slow to have a significant effect on disturbing conductive heat flow. Fault zones appear to play a crucial role in focusing fluid migration in basins, as inferred in ancient rocks by many examples of hydrothermal deposits of sediment-hosted ores worldwide. Many rift-hosted deposits of lead, zinc, and barite ore appear to have formed at or near the seafloor by focused venting of hot basinal fluids and modified seawater, although the geophysical nature of these systems is not so well known. For example, the upper Kuna Formation, a finely laminated, black, organic-rich siliceous mudstone and shale in the Western Brooks Range of northwest Alaska, is host to the largest resources of zinc yet discovered in the Earth's crust, containing ore reserves in excess of 175 Mt averaging about 16% Zn and 5% Pb. Although situated today in a highly-deformed series of structural allocthonous plates thrusted during the Jurassic to Cretaceous Brookian Orogeny, the stratiform ores are thought to have formed much earlier in the anoxic, mud-rich Carboniferous-age Kuna Basin when adjacent carbonate platforms were drowned by rifting and tectonic subsidence. Fluid inclusion studies of ore-stage sphalerite and gangue minerals indicate sub-seafloor mineralization temperatures less than 200oC and most likely between 120 to 150 oC, during a period of sediment diagenesis and extensional faulting. We have constructed fully-coupled numerical models of heat and fluid flow to test hydrologic theories for free convection, submarine venting and subsequent ore formation, as constrained by paleoheat flow and petrologic observations. A finite element grid was designed and adapted for a cross section of the Kuna Basin, geologically restored to latest Mississippian time
Fluid flow meter for measuring the rate of fluid flow in a conduit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, P. R. (Inventor)
1986-01-01
A tube fluid flow rate meter consists of a reservoir divided by flexible diaphragm into two separate isolated compartments. The incoming and outgoing tubes open into the compartments. The orifice is sized to allow maximum tube fluid flow. Opposing compression springs are secured within the two compartments on opposite sides of the orifice to maintain orifice position when the tube fluid pressure is zero. A tapered element is centered in, and extends through the orifice into the compartment, leaving an annular opening between the element and the perimeter of the oriface. The size varies as the diaphragm flexes with changes in the tube fluid pressure to change the fluid flow through the opening. The light source directs light upon the element which in turn scatters the light through the opening into the compartment. The light detector in the compartment senses the scattered light to generate a signal indicating the amount of fluid.
Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow
Miller, J.R.
1980-06-27
A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zavolzhenskii, M. V.
1982-09-01
Boussinesq equations are used in studying the spectral problem of the stability loss in the equilibrium state of a rotating layer of viscous fluid subjected to temperature inversion. It is shown that this loss can take the form of eddy flows localized around the axis of rotation. It is noted that flows of this type have properties similar to those of waterspouts, tornados, and other vortices.
Automated analysis for fluid flow topology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus
1989-01-01
A new approach for visualizing vector data sets was developed by reducing the original vector field to a set of critical points and their connections, and was applied to fluid flow data sets. The critical point representation allows for considerable reduction in the data complexity. The representations are displayed as surfaces which are much simpler than the original data set, yet retain all the pertinent flow topology information. It is suggested that topological representations may be useful for database comparison.
Advanced designs for fluid flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
Research was carried out on existing and new designs for minimally intrusive measurement of flow fields in the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell and the proposed Atmospheric General Circulation Experiment. The following topics are discussed: (1) identification and removal of foreign particles, (2) search for higher dielectric photochromic solutions, (3) selection of uv light source, (4) analysis of refractive techniques and (5) examination of fresnel lens applicability.
Fluid migration in the subduction zone: a coupled fluid flow approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongliang; Huismans, Ritske; Rondenay, Stéphane
2016-04-01
Subduction zone are the main entry point of water into earth's mantle and play an important role in the global water cycle. The progressive release of water by metamorphic dehydration induce important physical-chemical process in the subduction zone, such as hydrous melting, hydration and weakening of the mantle wedge, creation of pore fluid pressures that may weaken the subduction interface and induce earthquakes. Most previous studies on the role of fluids in subduction zones assume vertical migration or migration according to the dynamic pressure in the solid matrix without considering the pore fluid pressure effect on the deformation of the solid matrix. Here we investigate this interaction by explicitly modeling two-phase coupled poro-plastic flow during subduction. In this approach, the fluid migrates by compaction and decompaction of the solid matrix and affects the subduction dynamics through pore fluid pressure dependent frictional-plastic yield. Our preliminary results indicate that: 1) the rate of fluid migration depends strongly on the permeability and the bulk viscosity of the solid matrix, 2) fluid transfer occurs preferentially along the slab and then propagates into the mantle wedge by viscous compaction driven fluid flow, 3) fluid transport from the surface to depth is a prerequisite for producing high fluid pore pressures and associated hydration induced weakening of the subduction zone interface.
Tentner, Adrian; Lo, Simon; Ioilev, Andrey; Melnikov, Vladimir; Samigulin, Maskhud; Ustinenko, Vasily; Kozlov, Valentin
2006-07-01
A new code, CFD-BWR, is being developed for the simulation of two-phase flow phenomena inside a BWR fuel bundle. These phenomena include coolant phase changes and multiple flow regimes which directly influence the coolant interaction with fuel assembly and, ultimately, the reactor performance. CFD-BWR is a specialized module built on the foundation of the commercial CFD code STAR-CD which provides general two-phase flow modeling capabilities. New models describing the inter-phase mass, momentum, and energy transfer phenomena specific for BWRs have been developed and implemented in the CFD-BWR module. A set of experiments focused on two-phase flow and phase-change phenomena has been identified for the validation of the CFD-BWR code and results of two experiment analyses focused on the radial void distribution are presented. The close agreement between the computed results, the measured data and the correlation results provides confidence in the accuracy of the models. (authors)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cilona, Antonino; Antonellini, Marco; Tondi, Emanuele; Agosta, Fabrizio; Johnson, Gareth; Shackleton, Ryan
2013-04-01
This contribution integrates structural analysis and numerical modelling to build up, from outcrop data, a 3D Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) model, and then to run fluid flow simulations of a porous carbonate reservoir. A semi-automated process of lineament analysis, followed by the use of power law distributions to model sub-seismic scale features, is here proposed as a workflow for reservoir-scale assessment of the control exerted by structural features on the bulk permeability in porous carbonate reservoirs. In Favignana Island (southern Italy), several quarries provide an excellent 3D view of Lower-Pleistocene grainstones crosscut by a strike-slip fault system. This fault system is made up of two main conjugate sets of strike-slip structural features such as Compactive Shear Bands (CSB), Zones of compactive shear Bands (ZB) and faults. The multi-scale properties of the aforementioned elements, distinguished for individual sets, have been previously assessed by mean of detailed scan-line and scan-area measurements. The DFN model was built using the Fracture Modelling module within the MOVE software package from Midland Valley. Analysis of an aerial photo was performed to identify the major faults. The intensity of CSBs and ZBs was computed after a preliminary outcrop analysis. We used the variation in intensity to build a DFN that reflects a pattern of deformation similar to the natural structural framework. It is well known that both CSBs and ZBs reduce permeability, whilst slip surfaces present within faults enhance fault-parallel fluid flow. The obtained DFN was used, hence, to model the effect of deformation on host rock permeability by imposing a reduced porosity of the CSBs and ZBs relative to both host rock and slip surfaces. By taking advantage of the computed distribution of both porosity and permeability within the modelled rock volume, fluid flow simulations have been carried out by solving the flow and transport equations with finite elements. In
An Iterative CT Reconstruction Algorithm for Fast Fluid Flow Imaging.
Van Eyndhoven, Geert; Batenburg, K Joost; Kazantsev, Daniil; Van Nieuwenhove, Vincent; Lee, Peter D; Dobson, Katherine J; Sijbers, Jan
2015-11-01
The study of fluid flow through solid matter by computed tomography (CT) imaging has many applications, ranging from petroleum and aquifer engineering to biomedical, manufacturing, and environmental research. To avoid motion artifacts, current experiments are often limited to slow fluid flow dynamics. This severely limits the applicability of the technique. In this paper, a new iterative CT reconstruction algorithm for improved a temporal/spatial resolution in the imaging of fluid flow through solid matter is introduced. The proposed algorithm exploits prior knowledge in two ways. First, the time-varying object is assumed to consist of stationary (the solid matter) and dynamic regions (the fluid flow). Second, the attenuation curve of a particular voxel in the dynamic region is modeled by a piecewise constant function over time, which is in accordance with the actual advancing fluid/air boundary. Quantitative and qualitative results on different simulation experiments and a real neutron tomography data set show that, in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the proposed algorithm allows reconstruction from substantially fewer projections per rotation without image quality loss. Therefore, the temporal resolution can be substantially increased, and thus fluid flow experiments with faster dynamics can be performed. PMID:26259219
A Causal, Covariant Theory of Dissipative Fluid Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scofield, Dillon; Huq, Pablo
2015-04-01
The use of newtonian viscous dissipation theory in covariant fluid flow theories is known to lead to predictions that are inconsistent with the second law of thermodynamics and to predictions that are acausal. For instance, these problems effectively limit the covariant form of the Navier-Stokes theory (NST) to time-independent flow regimes. Thus the NST, the work horse of fluid dynamical theory, is limited in its ability to model time-dependent turbulent, stellar or thermonuclear flows. We show how such problems are avoided by a new geometrodynamical theory of fluids. This theory is based on a recent result of geometrodynamics showing current conservation implies gauge field creation, called the vortex field lemma and classification of flows by their Pfaff dimension. Experimental confirmation of the theory is reviewed.
The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell Experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hart, J. E.; Ohlsen, D.; Kittleman, S.; Borhani, N.; Leslie, F.; Miller, T.
1999-01-01
The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) experiment performed visualizations of thermal convection in a rotating differentially heated spherical shell of fluid. In these experiments dielectric polarization forces are used to generate a radially directed buoyancy force. This enables the laboratory simulation of a number of geophysically and astrophysically important situations in which sphericity and rotation both impose strong constraints on global scale fluid motions. During USML-2 a large set of experiments with spherically symmetric heating were carried out. These enabled the determination of critical points for the transition to various forms of nonaxisymmetric convection and, for highly turbulent flows, the transition latitudes separating the different modes of motion. This paper presents a first analysis of these experiments as well as data on the general performance of the instrument during the USML-2 flight.
Cryogenic fluid flow instabilities in heat exchangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, R. B.; Staub, F. W.
1969-01-01
Analytical and experimental investigation determines the nature of oscillations and instabilities that occur in the flow of two-phase cryogenic fluids at both subcritical and supercritical pressures in heat exchangers. Test results with varying system parameters suggest certain design approaches with regard to heat exchanger geometry.
Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds
Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.
1992-12-31
A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.
Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds
Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.
1992-01-01
A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.
Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander
2015-11-01
The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.
Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson,Gudmundur S.
2005-05-25
A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), Nevada. The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulations predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields for assessing the repository performance under thermal loading conditions.
Wu, Yu-Shu; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Zhang, Keni; Bodvarsson, G S
2006-06-30
A multidimensional, mountain-scale, thermal-hydrologic (TH) numerical model is presented for investigating unsaturated flow behavior in response to decay heat from the proposed radioactive waste repository in the Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone (UZ), The model, consisting of both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) representations of the UZ repository system, is based on the current repository design, drift layout, thermal loading scenario, and estimated current and future climate conditions. This mountain-scale TH model evaluates the coupled TH processes related to mountain-scale UZ flow. It also simulates the impact of radioactive waste heat release on the natural hydrogeological system, including heat-driven processes occurring near and far away from the emplacement tunnels or drifts. The model simulates predict thermally perturbed liquid saturation, gas- and liquid-phase fluxes, and water and rock temperature elevations, as well as the changes in water flux driven by evaporation/condensation processes and drainage between drifts. These simulations provide insights into mountain-scale thermally perturbed flow fields under thermal loading conditions. PMID:16624442
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souche, A.; Dabrowski, M.; Andersen, T. B.; Medvedev, S.
2012-04-01
The Devonian basins of western Norway are supra-detachment basins located above a large crustal-scale detachment system, so-called the Nordfjord Sogn Detachment Zone. These basins are characterised by a thick succession (>10km) of siliciclastic sediments ranging in size from coarse conglomerates to fine grain sandstones and organized into narrow half-graben systems. Their architecture and geometry is closely controlled by the development of the coeval (i.e. Early to Middle Devonian) detachment acting as a normal fault/shear zone beneath the basins. The exhumation of rocks within the footwall of the detachment was subsequently followed by an increase of the geothermal gradient at the base of the sedimentary successions. Shear heating resulting from the intense rock deformation within the shear zone also played a role in increasing the temperature at the base of the basins. These two significant processes might have in turn contributed to the fluid mobility in the basins. In this study, we explore the feasibility of porous convection to occur spontaneously in sedimentary basins due to a regional increase of the geothermal gradient. Such process can be approximated by Darcy flow through porous media where the fluid density in the system might introduce a buoyancy-driven instability between lighter hot fluids at the base and denser cold fluids at the top of the basin. In geological systems porous flow might be inhibited by the closing of pores with depth, which leads to a reduced permeability and a limited amount of heat carrying fluids. Also, geological heterogeneities inherited from the layered structure of the sedimentary strata introduce large variations in the rock transport properties. We address these problems numerically by modelling heat and mass transport in porous media assuming quasi-incompressible Darcy flow. The fluid (water) density, viscosity, and specific heat are computed from the pore fluid pressure and the temperature. We investigate the onset of
Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan
2013-01-01
Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.
Thrust wedges and fluid overpressures: Sandbox models involving pore fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mourgues, R.; Cobbold, P. R.
2006-05-01
The well-known model for the critical taper of an accretionary wedge includes overpressure as a first-order parameter. Fluid overpressures reduce frictional resistance at the base of a wedge but they also act as body forces on all material particles of the wedge, in addition to that of gravity. By means of sandbox modeling, many workers have tried to verify the predictions of the critical taper model, but few of them have so far incorporated true fluid pressures. We have used scaled experiments, in which compressed air flows through sand packs, so as to model the deformation of overpressured wedges. A new apparatus provides for a horizontally varying fluid pressure, for example, a linear variation, as in the critical taper model. We have done three series of experiments, involving horizontal shortening of homogeneous or multilayered sand models for various gradients of fluid pressure. As predicted by the critical taper model, the apical angle of the resulting wedge depends on the overpressure gradient. In homogeneous sand at a high overpressure gradient, deformation becomes diffuse and looks ductile. In multilayered models, detachments form beneath layers of low permeability, so that thrusts propagate rapidly toward the undeformed foreland. The efficiency of a detachment and its ability to propagate depend not only on the fluid pressure but also on the permeability ratios between the various layers.
Fluid flow in nanopores: Accurate boundary conditions for carbon nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokhan, Vladimir P.; Nicholson, David; Quirke, Nicholas
2002-11-01
Steady-state Poiseuille flow of a simple fluid in carbon nanopores under a gravitylike force is simulated using a realistic empirical many-body potential model for carbon. Building on our previous study of slit carbon nanopores we show that fluid flow in a nanotube is also characterized by a large slip length. By analyzing temporal profiles of the velocity components of particles colliding with the wall we obtain values of the Maxwell coefficient defining the fraction of molecules thermalized by the wall and, for the first time, propose slip boundary conditions for smooth continuum surfaces such that they are equivalent in adsorption, diffusion, and fluid flow properties to fully dynamic atomistic models.
Enhanced fluid flow through nanoscale carbon pipes.
Whitby, Max; Cagnon, Laurent; Thanou, Maya; Quirke, Nick
2008-09-01
Recent experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that pressure driven flow of fluids through nanoscale ( d < 10 nm) carbon pores occurs 4 to 5 orders of magnitude faster than predicted by extrapolation from conventional theory. Here, we report experimental results for flow of water, ethanol, and decane through carbon nanopipes with larger inner diameters (43 +/- 3 nm) than previously investigated. We find enhanced transport up to 45 times theoretical predictions. In contrast to previous work, in our systems, decane flows faster than water. These nanopipes were composed of amorphous carbon deposited from ethylene vapor in alumina templates using a single step fabrication process. PMID:18680352
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Ho Jun; Lee, Hae June
2016-06-01
The wide applicability of capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) deposition has increased the interest in developing comprehensive numerical models, but CCP imposes a tremendous computational cost when conducting a transient analysis in a three-dimensional (3D) model which reflects the real geometry of reactors. In particular, the detailed flow features of reactive gases induced by 3D geometric effects need to be considered for the precise calculation of radical distribution of reactive species. Thus, an alternative inclusive method for the numerical simulation of CCP deposition is proposed to simulate a two-dimensional (2D) CCP model based on the 3D gas flow results by simulating flow, temperature, and species fields in a 3D space at first without calculating the plasma chemistry. A numerical study of a cylindrical showerhead-electrode CCP reactor was conducted for particular cases of SiH4/NH3/N2/He gas mixture to deposit a hydrogenated silicon nitride (SiN x H y ) film. The proposed methodology produces numerical results for a 300 mm wafer deposition reactor which agree very well with the deposition rate profile measured experimentally along the wafer radius.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, William G.; Miller, Cass T.
2009-05-01
This work is the fifth in a series of papers on the thermodynamically constrained averaging theory (TCAT) approach for modeling flow and transport phenomena in multiscale porous medium systems. The general TCAT framework and the mathematical foundation presented in previous works are used to develop models that describe species transport and single-fluid-phase flow through a porous medium system in varying physical regimes. Classical irreversible thermodynamics formulations for species in fluids, solids, and interfaces are developed. Two different approaches are presented, one that makes use of a momentum equation for each entity along with constitutive relations for species diffusion and dispersion, and a second approach that makes use of a momentum equation for each species in an entity. The alternative models are developed by relying upon different approaches to constrain an entropy inequality using mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations. The resultant constrained entropy inequality is simplified and used to guide the development of closed models. Specific instances of dilute and non-dilute systems are examined and compared to alternative formulation approaches.
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, J.W.
1993-10-12
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.
Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus
Kronberg, James W.
1993-01-01
An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.
Scaglione, S; Wendt, D; Miggino, S; Papadimitropoulos, A; Fato, M; Quarto, R; Martin, I
2008-08-01
In this study, we investigated the effect of the long-term (10 days) application of a defined and uniform level of fluid flow (uniform shear stress of 1.2 x 10(-3) N/m(2)) on human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) cultured on different substrates (i.e., uncoated glass or calcium phosphate coated glass, Osteologictrade mark) in a 2D parallel plate model. Both exposure to flow and culture on Osteologic significantly reduced the number of cell doublings. BMSC cultured under flow were more intensely stained for collagen type I and by von Kossa for mineralized matrix. BMSC exposed to flow displayed an increased osteogenic commitment (i.e., higher mRNA expression of cbfa-1 and osterix), although phenotype changes in response to flow (i.e., mRNA expression of osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein) were dependent on the substrate used. These findings highlight the importance of the combination of physical forces and culture substrate to determine the functional state of differentiating osteoblastic cells. The results obtained using a simple and controlled 2D model system may help to interpret the long-term effects of BMSC culture under perfusion within 3D porous scaffolds, where multiple experimental variables cannot be easily studied independently, and shear stresses cannot be precisely computed. PMID:17969030
Lumb, A B; Burns, A D; Figueroa Rosette, J A; Gradzik, K B; Ingham, D B; Pourkashanian, M
2015-05-01
We have used computational fluid dynamic modelling to study the effects of tracheal tube size and position on regional gas flow in the large airways. Using a three-dimensional mathematical model, we simulated flow with and without a tracheal tube, replicating both physiological and artificial breathing. Ventilation through a tracheal tube increased proportional flow to the left lung from 39.5% with no tube to 43.1-47.2%, depending on tube position. Ventilation mode and tube distance from the carina had no effect on flow. Lateral displacement and deflection of the tube increased ventilation to the ipsilateral lung; for example, when deflected 10° to the left of centre, flow to the left lung increased from 43.8 to 53.7%. Because of the small diameter of a tracheal tube relative to the trachea, gas exits a tube at high velocity such that regional ventilation may be affected by changes in the position and angle of the tube. PMID:25581493
A full 3D model of fluid flow and heat transfer in an E.B. heated liquid metal bath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matveichev, A.; Jardy, A.; Bellot, J. P.
2016-07-01
In order to study the dissolution of exogeneous inclusions in the liquid metal during processing of titanium alloys, a series of dipping experiments has been performed in an Electron Beam Melting laboratory furnace. Precise determination of the dissolution kinetics requires knowing and mastering the exact thermohydrodynamic behavior of the melt pool, which implies full 3D modeling of the process. To achieve this goal, one needs to describe momentum and heat transfer, phase change, as well as the development of flow turbulence in the liquid. EB power input, thermal radiation, heat loss through the cooling circuit, surface tension effects (i.e. Marangoni-induced flow) must also be addressed in the model. Therefore a new solver dealing with all these phenomena was implemented within OpenFOAM platform. Numerical results were compared with experimental data from actual Ti melting, showing a pretty good agreement. In the second stage, the immersion of a refractory sample rod in the liquid pool was simulated. Results of the simulations showed that the introduction of the sample slightly disturbs the flow field inside the bath. The amount of such disturbance depends on the exact location of the dipping.
Slip mechanisms in complex fluid flows.
Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G
2015-10-28
The classical no-slip boundary condition of fluid mechanics is not always a valid assumption for the flow of several classes of complex fluids including polymer melts, their blends, polymer solutions, microgels, glasses, suspensions and pastes. In fact, it appears that slip effect in these systems is the rule and not the exemption. The occurrence of slip complicates the analysis of rheological data, although it provides new opportunities to understand their behavior in restricted environments delineating additional molecular mechanisms i.e. entropic restrictions due to limitations in the number of molecular conformations. This article discusses these complexities and provides future research opportunities. PMID:26345121
Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow.
Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza
2012-05-01
This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow d(s) is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided. PMID:23004869
Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balankin, Alexander S.; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza
2012-05-01
This paper is devoted to fractal continuum hydrodynamics and its application to model fluid flows in fractally permeable reservoirs. Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow is developed on the basis of a self-consistent model of fractal continuum employing vector local fractional differential operators allied with the Hausdorff derivative. The generalized forms of Green-Gauss and Kelvin-Stokes theorems for fractional calculus are proved. The Hausdorff material derivative is defined and the form of Reynolds transport theorem for fractal continuum flow is obtained. The fundamental conservation laws for a fractal continuum flow are established. The Stokes law and the analog of Darcy's law for fractal continuum flow are suggested. The pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal metric of fractal continuum flow is derived. The generalization of the pressure-transient equation accounting the fractal topology of fractal continuum flow is proposed. The mapping of fluid flow in a fractally permeable medium into a fractal continuum flow is discussed. It is stated that the spectral dimension of the fractal continuum flow ds is equal to its mass fractal dimension D, even when the spectral dimension of the fractally porous or fissured medium is less than D. A comparison of the fractal continuum flow approach with other models of fluid flow in fractally permeable media and the experimental field data for reservoir tests are provided.
Effect of Non-Uniform Inlet Temperature on Flow Stagnation in a Pumped Fluid Tube Radiator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reavis, Gretchen
2008-01-01
The effect of a non-uniform inlet temperature on the panel fluid tube flow stagnation point is examined using a spacecraft radiator panel model with 20 fluid tubes constructed in Thermal Desktop®. Fluid temperature variations due to panel edge effect and localized hot and cold spots in the flow path were simulated by varying the fluid inlet temperature on one or more tubes. Results show that a large fluid inlet temperature difference between tubes can decrease the fluid system stability and increase the possibility of fluid stagnation with the coldest fluid tube initiating stagnation. Conversely, a small fluid inlet temperature difference between tubes can, in some cases, increase the fluid system stability and decrease the possibility of fluid stagnation. A uniform fluid inlet temperature provides for a near optimization of the stagnation point as compared to fluid temperature gradients across the panel.
Numerical computational of fluid flow through a detached retina
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiann, Lim Yeou; Ismail, Zuhaila; Shafie, Sharidan; Fitt, Alistair
2015-02-01
In this paper, a phenomenon of fluid flow through a detached retina is studied. Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment happens when vitreous humour flow through a detached retina. The exact mechanism of Rhegmatogeneous retinal detachment is complex and remains incomplete. To understand the fluid flow, a paradigm mathematical model is developed and is approximated by the lubrication theory. The numerical results of the velocity profile and pressure distribution are computed by using Finite Element Method. The effects of fluid mechanical on the retinal detachment is discussed and analyzed. Based on the analysis, it is found that the retinal detachment deformation affects the pressure distribution. It is important to comprehend the development of the retinal detachment so that a new treatment method can be developed.
Boles, James R.; Garven, Grant
2015-08-04
Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO_{2} degassing, such as might occur from stored CO_{2} reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vásquez, A.; Tolson, G.
2012-12-01
The quantification of fracture systems is important to understand the phenomenon of fluid flow in naturally fractured petroleum reservoirs. In this work, we present a case of detailed analysis of filled fracture networks (veins) covering four orders of magnitude of scale. For our analysis we selected rocks of the El Doctor platform in the state of Querétaro, Central Mexico, which is an exposed analog of naturally fractured carbonate reservoir rocks common in the near-offshore oil fields in southeast Mexico. The fractal properties of one and two dimensional natural fracture patterns mapped on limestone outcrops, are present and compared to the results obtained in other studies at different scales. The fractal dimension of different fracture properties, such as spacing, thickness, spatial distribution, density, connectivity and length are investigated and measured using different methods. The principal fractal parameters obtained in this study include the cumulative-frequency exponent of spacing and thickness, box-counting dimension, correlation dimension and Lyapunov exponent in 1D analysis; whereas the 2D analysis included the cumulative-length exponent (fragmentation dimension), box-counting dimension, mass dimension (mid and intersection points of fractures), lacunarity and connectivity. In addition, we analyzed the orientation, density and intensity of the fracture arrays. The results of the 1D analysis indicate that the fracture spacing can be characterised using the parameters mentioned before, but the best fractal parameter to characterize the distribution and array of fractures is the Lyapunov exponent, because it's value (1.06-1.42) can differentiate between different types of array. The fractal dimension obtained for cumulative-frequency of the spacing, shows a power law with a negative exponent between -1.08 and -0.70. In the case of box-counting and correlation dimensions, the values of dimension were 0.30-0.68 and 0.40-0.63 respectively. With respect
The origin of massive hydrothermal alterations: what drives fluid flow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Bons, Paul D.; Martín-Martín, Juan-Diego; Corbella, Mercè; Stafford, Sherry L.; Griera, Albert; Teixell, Antonio; Salas, Ramón; Travé, Anna
2014-05-01
Hydrothermal alterations form when fluids warmer than the host rocks flow through them dissolving and precipitating minerals. These fluids typically flow upwards from deeper geologic units using faults as major conduits. In some cases, hydrothermal alterations affect large (km-scale) rock volumes. One example of such process is the massive high-temperature dolostones that crop out at the Benicàssim outcrop analogue (Maestrat Basin, E Spain). In this area, seismic-scale fault-controlled stratabound dolostone bodies extend over several kilometres away from large-scale faults, replacing Lower Cretaceous limestones. The fluid responsible for such alteration is a seawater-derived brine that interacted with underlying Permian-Triassic and Paleozoic basement rocks. The estimated volume of fluid required to produce the Benicàssim dolomitization is huge, with fluid-rock ratios in the order of several tens to a few hundreds, depending on composition and reaction temperature (Gomez-Rivas et al., 2014). An open key question is what brought this warm fluid (80 - 150 ºC) upwards to a depth of less than 1 km, where the dolomitization reaction took place. The driving forces should have been able not only to provide sufficient fluid volumes at shallow depths but also to heat up the whole host rock, including the non-replaced limestones. There are two hyphoteses for driving a warm fluid upwards in the Maestrat Basin: (a) rapid release through faults of overpressured solutions in recurrent pulses and (b) thermal convection. We present a series of heat and fluid flow numerical simulations to constrain the dolomitization conditions under these two end-member cases. The results indicate that in a pulsating model the fluid must flow upwards at velocities higher than cm/s to keep their elevated temperature. Otherwise they cool down quickly, and the host rocks cannot be heated. Such velocities can be reached if the fluid flow velocity equals that of fracture propagation, as in mobile
Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan
2015-05-01
Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.
Bernoulli theorem generalized to rheologically complex viscous fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brutyan, M. A.; Krapivskii, P. L.
1992-08-01
The Bernoulli theorem is generalized to two-dimensional and axisymmetric micropolar incompressible fluid flows. It is shown that the approach developed is also applicable to magnetohydrodynamic flows of a viscous Newtonian fluid.
Zhang, Yan-Hong; Ye, Shu-Jun; Wu, Ji-Chun
2014-06-01
Based on light transmission method in quantification of liquid saturation and its application in two-phase flow system, two groups of sandbox experiments were set up to study the migration of gas or Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in water saturated porous media. The migration of gas or DNAPL was monitored in the study. Two modified Light Intensity-Saturation (LIS) models for water/gas two-phase system were applied and verified by the experiment data. Moreover two new LIS models for NAPL/water system were developed and applied to simulate the DNAPL infiltration experiment data. The gas injection experiment showed that gas moved upward to the top of the sandbox in the form of 'fingering' and finally formed continuous distribution. The results of DNAPL infiltration experiment showed that TCE mainly moved downward as the result of its gravity, eventually formed irregular plume and accumulated at the bottom of the sandbox. The outcomes of two LIS models for water/gas system (WG-A and WG-B) were consistent to the measured data. The results of two LIS models for NAPL/water system (NW-A and NW-B) fit well with the observations, and Model NW-A based on assumption of individual drainage gave better results. It could be a useful reference for quantification of NAPL/water saturation in porous media system. PMID:25158486
Stockman, Harlan Wheelock
2005-01-01
The lattice Boltzmann method is used to model oscillatory flow in the spinal subarachnoid space. The effect of obstacles such as trabeculae, nerve bundles, and ligaments on fluid velocity profiles appears to be small, when the flow is averaged over the length of a vertebra. Averaged fluid flow in complex models is little different from flow in corresponding elliptical annular cavities. However, the obstacles stir the flow locally and may be more significant in studies of tracer dispersion.
Comprehensive Mathematical Model Of Real Fluids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anderson, Peter G.
1996-01-01
Mathematical model of thermodynamic properties of water, steam, and liquid and gaseous hydrogen and oxygen developed for use in computational simulations of flows of mass and heat in main engine of space shuttle. Similar models developed for other fluids and applications. Based on HBMS equation of state.
Two-fluid models of turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spalding, D. B.
1985-01-01
The defects of turbulence models are summarized and the importance of so-called nongradient diffusion in turbulent fluxes is discussed. The mathematical theory of the flow of two interpenetrating continua is reviewed, and the mathematical formulation of the two fluid model is outlined. Results from plane wake, axisymmetric jet, and combustion studies are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finizola, A.; Ricci, T.; Deiana, R.; Cabusson, S. Barde; Rossi, M.; Praticelli, N.; Giocoli, A.; Romano, G.; Delcher, E.; Suski, B.; Revil, A.; Menny, P.; Di Gangi, F.; Letort, J.; Peltier, A.; Villasante-Marcos, V.; Douillet, G.; Avard, G.; Lelli, M.
2010-09-01
deeper system. The concept of shallow hydrothermal level have been compared to similar ERT results recently obtained on Mount Etna and La Fossa cone of Vulcano. This information needs to be taken into account in general fluid flow models on volcanoes. In particular, peripheral thermal waters (as those bordering the north-eastern coast of Stromboli) could be contaminated by hydrothermal and magmatic fluids coming from regional faults but also from the summit.
Squeeze flow of a Carreau fluid during sphere impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Uddin, J.; Marston, J. O.; Thoroddsen, S. T.
2012-07-01
We present results from a combined numerical and experimental investigation into the squeeze flow induced when a solid sphere impacts onto a thin, ultra-viscous film of non-Newtonian fluid. We examine both the sphere motion through the liquid as well as the fluid flow field in the region directly beneath the sphere during approach to a solid plate. In the experiments we use silicone oil as the model fluid, which is well-described by the Carreau model. We use high-speed imaging and particle tracking to achieve flow visualisation within the film itself and derive the corresponding velocity fields. We show that the radial velocity either diverges as the gap between the sphere and the wall diminishes (Ztip → 0) or that it reaches a maximum value and then decays rapidly to zero as the sphere comes to rest at a non-zero distance (Ztip = Zmin) away from the wall. The horizontal shear rate is calculated and is responsible for significant viscosity reduction during the approach of the sphere. Our model of this flow, based on lubrication theory, is solved numerically and compared to experimental trials. We show that our model is able to correctly describe the physical features of the flow observed in the experiments.
Fluid flow near the surface of earth's outer core
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloxham, Jeremy; Jackson, Andrew
1991-01-01
This review examines the recent attempts at extracting information on the pattern of fluid flow near the surface of the outer core from the geomagnetic secular variation. Maps of the fluid flow at the core surface are important as they may provide some insight into the process of the geodynamo and may place useful constraints on geodynamo models. In contrast to the case of mantle convection, only very small lateral variations in core density are necessary to drive the flow; these density variations are, by several orders of magnitude, too small to be imaged seismically; therefore, the geomagnetic secular variation is utilized to infer the flow. As substantial differences exist between maps developed by different researchers, the possible underlying reasons for these differences are examined with particular attention given to the inherent problems of nonuniqueness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handroos, Heikki
An analytical mathematical model for a fluid power valve uses equations based on physical laws. The parameters consist of physical coefficients, dimensions of the internal elements, spring constants, etc. which are not provided by the component manufacturers. The valve has to be dismantled in order to determine their values. The model is only in accordance with a particular type of valve construction and there are a large number of parameters. This is a major common problem in computer aided engineering (CAE) programs for fluid power circuits. Methods for solving this problem by combining a theoretical and an empirical approach are presented. Analytical models for single stage pressure and flow control valves are brought into forms which contain fewer parameters whose values can be determined from measured characteristic curves. The least squares criterion is employed to identify the parameter values describing the steady state of a valve. The steady state characteristic curves that are required data for this identification are quite often provided by the manufacturers. The parameters describing the dynamics of a valve are determined using a simple noncomputational method using dynamic characteristic curves that can be easily measured. The importance of the identification accuracy of the different parameters of the single stage pressure relief valve model is compared using a parameter sensitivity analysis method. A new comparison method called relative mean value criterion is used to compare the influences of variations of the different parameters to a nominal dynamic response.
Physical aspects of computing the flow of a viscous fluid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mehta, U. B.
1984-01-01
One of the main themes in fluid dynamics at present and in the future is going to be computational fluid dynamics with the primary focus on the determination of drag, flow separation, vortex flows, and unsteady flows. A computation of the flow of a viscous fluid requires an understanding and consideration of the physical aspects of the flow. This is done by identifying the flow regimes and the scales of fluid motion, and the sources of vorticity. Discussions of flow regimes deal with conditions of incompressibility, transitional and turbulent flows, Navier-Stokes and non-Navier-Stokes regimes, shock waves, and strain fields. Discussions of the scales of fluid motion consider transitional and turbulent flows, thin- and slender-shear layers, triple- and four-deck regions, viscous-inviscid interactions, shock waves, strain rates, and temporal scales. In addition, the significance and generation of vorticity are discussed. These physical aspects mainly guide computations of the flow of a viscous fluid.
Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.
2003-01-01
The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salahuddin, T.; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Bilal, S.; Awais, M.
2016-03-01
The present analysis inspects the numerical investigation of MHD flow of Williamson fluid model over a sheet with variable thickness. Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model, an amended form of Fourier's law, is used to explore the heat transfer phenomena. The governing non-linear problem is presented and transformed into self-similar form by using similarity approach. The developed non-linear problem is solved numerically by using implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. The effects of relevant physical parameters on velocity and temperature profiles are taken into consideration. The important finds are as follows: influence of Hartmann number M on velocity and temperature profile is opposite. Large values of wall thickness parameter α and Weissenberg number λ are suitable for reduction of velocity profile. A comparative investigation between the previously published results and the present results is found to be in good agreement.
3D topographic correction of the BSR heat flow and detection of focused fluid flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tao; Li, Hong-Lin; Zou, Chang-Chun
2014-06-01
The bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) is a seismic indicator of the bottom of a gas hydrate stability zone. Its depth can be used to calculate the seafloor surface heat flow. The calculated BSR heat flow variations include disturbances from two important factors: (1) seafloor topography, which focuses the heat flow over regions of concave topography and defocuses it over regions of convex topography, and (2) the focused warm fluid flow within the accretionary prism coming from depths deeper than BSR. The focused fluid flow can be detected if the contribution of the topography to the BSR heat flow is removed. However, the analytical equation cannot solve the topographic effect at complex seafloor regions. We prove that 3D finite element method can model the topographic effect on the regional background heat flow with high accuracy, which can then be used to correct the topographic effect and obtain the BSR heat flow under the condition of perfectly flat topography. By comparing the corrected BSR heat flow with the regional background heat flow, focused fluid flow regions can be detected that are originally too small and cannot be detected using present-day equipment. This method was successfully applied to the midslope region of northern Cascadia subducting margin. The results suggest that the Cucumber Ridge and its neighboring area are positive heat flow anomalies, about 10%-20% higher than the background heat flow after 3D topographic correction. Moreover, the seismic imaging associated the positive heat flow anomaly areas with seabed fracture-cavity systems. This suggests flow of warm gas-carrying fluids along these high-permeability pathways, which could result in higher gas hydrate concentrations.
Sill, W.R.; Killpack, T.J.
1982-03-01
The program is applicable to the calculation of self-potential effects due to fluid flow (electrokinetic effects) and heat flow (thermoelectric effects). The geological structure is two dimensional but the sources can be either finite line sources or point sources. The accuracy of the calculated potentials depends on the model discretization and the distance from the source(s). For the default mesh, the accuracy is usually a few percent at a distance of about one unit from the source. Surface boundary conditions for the primary problem require careful consideration as the form of the flow near the air-earth interface can have a profound effect on the resultant electric potentials. For temperature problems the appropriate boundary condition is a constant temperature, which is taken as zero. With this boundary condition there is a normal flux of heat at the surface and there will be induced electrical sources here, if the surface medium has a nonzero coupling coefficient. In the models, zero temperature at the surface is produced by giving the air a very large thermal conductivity.
Centrifuge modelling of granular flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei
2015-04-01
A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.
Fluid flow in solidifying monotectic alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ecker, A.; Frazier, D. O.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1989-01-01
Use of a two-wavelength holographic technique results in a simultaneous determination of temperature and composition profiles during directional solidification in a system with a miscibility gap. The relationships among fluid flow, phase separation, and mass transport during the solidification of the monotectic alloy are discussed. The primary sources of fluid motion in this system are buoyancy and thermocapillary forces. These forces act together when phase separation results in the formation of droplets (this occurs at the solid-liquid interface and in the bulk melt). In the absence of phase separation, buoyancy results from density gradients related to temperature and compositional gradients in the single-phase bulk melt. The effects of buoyancy are especially evident in association with water- or ethanol-rich volumes created at the solid-liquid growth interface.
Fluid flow in solidifying monotectic alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ecker, A.; Frazier, D. O.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.
1989-11-01
Use of a two-wavelength holographic technique results in a simultaneous determination of temperature and composition profiles during directional solidification in a system with a miscibility gap. A shadowgraph technique is employed for flow visualization. By these methods, flow regimes are identified and related to particular melt compositions. We discuss the relationships among fluid flow, phase separation, and mass transport during the solidification of the monotectic alloy. The primary sources of fluid motion in this system are buoyancy and thermocapillary forces. These forces act together when phase separation results in the formation of droplets (this occurs at the solid-liquid interface and in the bulk melt). While buoyancy forces arise due to density differences between the droplet and the host phase, thermocapillary forces (associated with temperature gradients in the droplet surface) may predominate. In the absence of phase separation, buoyancy results from density gradients related to temperature and compositional gradients in the single-phase bulk melt. The effects of buoyancy are especially evident in association with water- or ethanol-rich volumes created at the solid-liquid growth interface.
Xu, Zhijie; Meakin, Paul
2009-06-21
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) is an effective mesoscopic particle model with a lower computational cost than molecular dynamics because of the soft potentials that it employs. However, the soft potential is not strong enough to prevent the DPD particles that are used to represent the fluid from penetrating solid boundaries represented by stationary DPD particles. A phase-field variable, phi(x,t), is used to indicate the phase at point x and time t, with a smooth transition from -1 (phase 1) to +1 (phase 2) across the interface. We describe an efficient implementation of no-slip boundary conditions in DPD models that combines solid-liquid particle-particle interactions with reflection at a sharp boundary located with subgrid scale accuracy using the phase field. This approach can be used for arbitrarily complex flow geometries and other similar particle models (such as smoothed particle hydrodynamics), and the validity of the model is demonstrated by DPD simulations of flow in confined systems with various geometries. PMID:19548707
Fluid and particulate suspension flows at fracture junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Tak S.; Koplik, Joel
2015-03-01
Suspended particles can be a serious problem in geological contexts such as fluid recovery from reservoirs because they alter the rheology of the flowing liquids and may obstruct transport by narrowing flow channels due to deposition or gravitational sedimentation. In particular, the irregular geometry of the fracture walls can trap particles, induce jamming and cause unwanted channeling effects. We have investigated particle suspension flows in tight geological fractures using lattice Boltzmann method in the past. In this work we extend these studies to flows at a junction where two fractures intersect, an essential step towards a complete understanding of flows in fracture networks. The fracture walls are modeled as realistic self-affine fractal surfaces, and we focus on the case of tight fractures, where the wall roughness, the aperture and the particle size are all comparable. The simulations provide complete detail on the particle configurations and the fluid flow field, from which the stresses in the fluid and the forces acting on the bounding walls can be computed. With these information, phenomena such as particle mixing and dispersion, mechanical responses of the solid walls, possible jamming and release at junctions, and other situations of interest can be investigated. Work supported by NERSC and DOE.
Channelized fluid flow in oceanic crust reconciles heat-flow and permeability data
Fisher; Becker
2000-01-01
Hydrothermal fluid circulation within the sea floor profoundly influences the physical, chemical and biological state of the crust and the oceans. Circulation within ridge flanks (in crust more than 1 Myr old) results in greater heat loss and fluid flux than that at ridge crests and persists for millions of years, thereby altering the composition of the crust and overlying ocean. Fluid flow in oceanic crust is, however, limited by the extent and nature of the rock's permeability. Here we demonstrate that the global data set of borehole permeability measurements in uppermost oceanic crust defines a trend with age that is consistent with changes in seismic velocity. This trend-which indicates that fluid flow should be greatly reduced in crust older than a few million years-would appear to be inconsistent with heat-flow observations, which on average indicate significant advective heat loss in crust up to 65 Myr old. But our calculations, based on a lateral flow model, suggest that regional-scale permeabilities are much higher than have been measured in boreholes. These results can be reconciled if most of the fluid flow in the upper crust is channelized through a small volume of rock, influencing the geometry of convection and the nature of fluid-rock interaction. PMID:10638753
COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA
A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...
Fluid Physics of Foam Evolution and Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aref, H.; Thoroddsen, S. T.; Sullivan, J. M.
2003-01-01
The grant supported theoretical, numerical and experimental work focused on the elucidation of the fluid physics of foam structure, evolution and flow. The experimental work concentrated on these subject areas: (a) Measurements of the speed of reconnections within a foam; (b) statistics of bubble rearrangements; and (c) three-dimensional reconstruction of the foam structure. On the numerical simulation and theory side our efforts concentrated on the subjects: (a) simulation techniques for 2D and 3D foams; (b) phase transition in a compressible foam; and (c) TCP structures.
Numerical Simulation of Flow-Induced Structure in Complex Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takehiro
2007-04-01
It is important to investigate the flow-induced structure for the analysis of the mechanism of flow behavior of complex fluids. The present paper includes two topics in which the flow-induced structure is numerically investigated. The first topic treats the suspensions of disc-like particles under simple shear flows. Disc-like particles were modeled by oblate spheroid particles, and the Brownian dynamics simulation was performed for suspensions of the particles interacting via the Gay-Berne potential. This simulation confirmed that this model system was applicable to the analysis of flow of suspension of disc-like particles. The second one is the numerical simulation of the deformation behavior of a droplet in shear flows. The present simulation is the first step for the numerical simulation of the flow-induced structure in emulsions. This simulation can demonstrate the deformation behavior of droplet observed in experiments and predict effects of non-Newtonian property of fluids on the droplet deformation.
Flow Diode and Method for Controlling Fluid Flow Origin of the Invention
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dyson, Rodger W (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A flow diode configured to permit fluid flow in a first direction while preventing fluid flow in a second direction opposite the first direction is disclosed. The flow diode prevents fluid flow without use of mechanical closures or moving parts. The flow diode utilizes a bypass flowline whereby all fluid flow in the second direction moves into the bypass flowline having a plurality of tortuous portions providing high fluidic resistance. The portions decrease in diameter such that debris in the fluid is trapped. As fluid only travels in one direction through the portions, the debris remains trapped in the portions.
Flow rate measurement in aggressive conductive fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovikova, Nataliia; Kolesnikov, Yuri; Karcher, Christian
2014-03-01
Two non-contact experimental methods of flow rate measurements for aggressive conductive liquids are described. The techniques are based on electromagnetic forces and Faraday's law: Lorentz force is induced inside moving conductive liquid under influence of variable magnetic field of permanent magnets. They are mounted along a liquid metal channel or (in case of the second method) inserted into rotated metal wheels. The force acts in the opposite of fluids' velocity direction and hence it is possible to measure reaction force of it that takes place according to Newton's law on magnetic field source - permanent magnets. And by knowing the force, which linearly depends on velocity, one can calculate mean flow rate of liquid. In addition experimental "dry" calibration and its results are described for one of the measurements' techniques.
Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1995-01-01
This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)
Yildiz, B.; Smith, J.; Sofu, T.; Nuclear Engineering Division
2008-06-25
Argonne National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory researchers are analyzing the electrochemical and thermal-fluid behavior of solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) for high temperature steam electrolysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques. The major challenges facing commercialization of steam electrolysis technology are related to efficiency, cost, and durability of the SOECs. The goal of this effort is to guide the design and optimization of performance for high temperature electrolysis (HTE) systems. An SOEC module developed by FLUENT Inc. as part of their general CFD code was used for the SOEC analysis by INL. ANL has developed an independent SOEC model that combines the governing electrochemical mechanisms based on first principals to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the operation of SOECs. The ANL model was embedded into the commercial STAR-CD CFD software, and is being used for the analysis of SOECs by ANL. The FY06 analysis performed by ANL and reported here covered the influence of electrochemical properties, SOEC component resistances and their contributing factors, SOEC size and inlet flow conditions, and SOEC flow configurations on the efficiency and expected durability of these systems. Some of the important findings from the ANL analysis are: (1) Increasing the inlet mass flux while going to larger cells can be a compromise to overcome increasing thermal and current density gradients while increasing the cell size. This approach could be beneficial for the economics of the SOECs; (2) The presence of excess hydrogen at the SOEC inlet to avoid Ni degradation can result in a sizeable decrease in the process efficiency; (3) A parallel-flow geometry for SOEC operation (if such a thing be achieved without sealing problems) yields smaller temperature gradients and current density gradients across the cell, which is favorable for the durability of the cells; (4) Contact resistances can significantly influence the total cell
Geometrodynamical Fluid Theory Applied to Dynamo Flows in Planetary Interiors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Kayla; Miramontes, Diego; Scofield, Dillon
2015-11-01
Due to their reliance on a Newtonian viscous stress model, the traditional Navier-Stokes equations are of parabolic type; this in turn leads to acausal behavior of solutions to these equations, e.g., a localized disturbance at any point instantaneously affects the solution arbitrarily far away. Geometrodynamical fluid theory (GFT) avoids this problem through a relativistically covariant formulation of the flow equations. Using GFT, we derive the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the balance of energy-momentum appropriate for dynamo flows in planetary interiors. These equations include interactions between magnetic and fluid vortex fields. We derive scaling laws from these equations and compare them with scaling laws derived from the traditional approach. Finally, we discuss implications of these scalings for flows in planetary dynamos.
Fluid-dynamical model for antisurfactants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conn, Justin J. A.; Duffy, Brian R.; Pritchard, David; Wilson, Stephen K.; Halling, Peter J.; Sefiane, Khellil
2016-04-01
We construct a fluid-dynamical model for the flow of a solution with a free surface at which surface tension acts. This model can describe both classical surfactants, which decrease the surface tension of the solution relative to that of the pure solvent, and antisurfactants (such as many salts when added to water, and small amounts of water when added to alcohol) which increase it. We demonstrate the utility of the model by considering the linear stability of an infinitely deep layer of initially quiescent fluid. In particular, we predict the occurrence of an instability driven by surface-tension gradients, which occurs for antisurfactant, but not for surfactant, solutions.
Microscale imaging of cilia-driven fluid flow
Huang, Brendan K.; Choma, Michael A.
2015-01-01
Cilia-driven fluid flow is important for multiple processes in the body, including respiratory mucus clearance, gamete transport in the oviduct, right-left patterning in the embryonic node, and cerebrospinal fluid circulation. Multiple imaging techniques have been applied towards quantifying ciliary flow. Here we review common velocimetry methods of quantifying fluid flow. We then discuss four important optical modalities, including light microscopy, epifluorescence, confocal microscopy, and optical coherence tomography, that have been used to investigate cilia-driven flow. PMID:25417211
Preconditioning methods for ideal and multiphase fluid flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Ashish
The objective of this study is to develop a preconditioning method for ideal and multiphase multispecies compressible fluid flow solver using homogeneous equilibrium mixture model. The mathematical model for fluid flow going through phase change uses density and temperature in the formulation, where the density represents the multiphase mixture density. The change of phase of the fluid is then explicitly determined using the equation of state of the fluid, which only requires temperature and mixture density. The method developed is based on a finite-volume framework in which the numerical fluxes are computed using Roe's approximate Riemann solver and the modified Harten, Lax and Van-leer scheme (HLLC). All speed Roe and HLLC flux based schemes have been developed either by using preconditioning or by directly modifying dissipation to reduce the effect of acoustic speed in its numerical dissipation when Mach number decreases. Preconditioning proposed by Briley, Taylor and Whitfield, Eriksson and Turkel are studied in this research, where as low dissipation schemes proposed by Rieper and Thornber, Mosedale, Drikakis, Youngs and Williams are also considered. Various preconditioners are evaluated in terms of development, performance, accuracy and limitations in simulations at various Mach numbers. A generalized preconditioner is derived which possesses well conditioned eigensystem for multiphase multispecies flow simulations. Validation and verification of the solution procedure are carried out on several small model problems with comparison to experimental, theoretical, and other numerical results. Preconditioning methods are evaluated using three basic geometries; 1) bump in a channel 2) flow over a NACA0012 airfoil and 3) flow over a cylinder, which are then compared with theoretical and numerical results. Multiphase capabilities of the solver are evaluated in cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions. For cryogenic conditions the solver is evaluated by predicting
Gravity-Driven Thin Film Flow of an Ellis Fluid.
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Kieweg, Sarah L
2013-12-01
The thin film lubrication approximation has been studied extensively for moving contact lines of Newtonian fluids. However, many industrial and biological applications of the thin film equation involve shear-thinning fluids, which often also exhibit a Newtonian plateau at low shear. This study presents new numerical simulations of the three-dimensional (i.e. two-dimensional spreading), constant-volume, gravity-driven, free surface flow of an Ellis fluid. The numerical solution was validated with a new similarity solution, compared to previous experiments, and then used in a parametric study. The parametric study centered around rheological data for an example biological application of thin film flow: topical drug delivery of anti-HIV microbicide formulations, e.g. hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymer solutions. The parametric study evaluated how spreading length and front velocity saturation depend on Ellis parameters. A lower concentration polymer solution with smaller zero shear viscosity (η 0), τ 1/2, and λ values spread further. However, when comparing any two fluids with any possible combinations of Ellis parameters, the impact of changing one parameter on spreading length depends on the direction and magnitude of changes in the other two parameters. In addition, the isolated effect of the shear-thinning parameter, λ, on the front velocity saturation depended on τ 1/2. This study highlighted the relative effects of the individual Ellis parameters, and showed that the shear rates in this flow were in both the shear-thinning and plateau regions of rheological behavior, emphasizing the importance of characterizing the full range of shear-rates in rheological measurements. The validated numerical model and parametric study provides a useful tool for future steps to optimize flow of a fluid with rheological behavior well-described by the Ellis constitutive model, in a range of industrial and biological applications. PMID:25309029
Gravity-Driven Thin Film Flow of an Ellis Fluid
Kheyfets, Vitaly O.
2014-01-01
The thin film lubrication approximation has been studied extensively for moving contact lines of Newtonian fluids. However, many industrial and biological applications of the thin film equation involve shear-thinning fluids, which often also exhibit a Newtonian plateau at low shear. This study presents new numerical simulations of the three-dimensional (i.e. two-dimensional spreading), constant-volume, gravity-driven, free surface flow of an Ellis fluid. The numerical solution was validated with a new similarity solution, compared to previous experiments, and then used in a parametric study. The parametric study centered around rheological data for an example biological application of thin film flow: topical drug delivery of anti-HIV microbicide formulations, e.g. hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) polymer solutions. The parametric study evaluated how spreading length and front velocity saturation depend on Ellis parameters. A lower concentration polymer solution with smaller zero shear viscosity (η0), τ1/2, and λ values spread further. However, when comparing any two fluids with any possible combinations of Ellis parameters, the impact of changing one parameter on spreading length depends on the direction and magnitude of changes in the other two parameters. In addition, the isolated effect of the shear-thinning parameter, λ, on the front velocity saturation depended on τ1/2. This study highlighted the relative effects of the individual Ellis parameters, and showed that the shear rates in this flow were in both the shear-thinning and plateau regions of rheological behavior, emphasizing the importance of characterizing the full range of shear-rates in rheological measurements. The validated numerical model and parametric study provides a useful tool for future steps to optimize flow of a fluid with rheological behavior well-described by the Ellis constitutive model, in a range of industrial and biological applications. PMID:25309029
Numerical analysis of magnetic field effects on Eyring-Powell fluid flow towards a stretching sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sher Akbar, Noreen; Ebaid, Abdelhalim; Khan, Z. H.
2015-05-01
In the present article, we have examined the two dimensional MHD flow of Eyring-Powell fluid model towards a stretching sheet. The governing equations of Eyring-Powell fluid are modeled and then simplified by using boundary layer approach and similarity transformations and then solved numerically using implicit finite difference method. It was found that the increase in the intensity of the magnetic field as well as Eyring-Powell fluid parameter γ shows resistance to the flow.
Instability of fluid flow over saturated porous medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimova, Tatyana; Kolchanova, Ekaterina; Lyubimov, Dmitry
2013-04-01
We investigate the stability of a fluid flow over a saturated porous medium. The problem is of importance due to the applications to washing out of contaminants from the bottom layer of vegetation, whose properties are similar to the properties of porous medium. In the case of porous medium with the relatively high permeability and porosity the flow involves a part of the fluid saturating the porous medium, with the tangential fluid velocity drop occurring because of the resistance of the solid matrix. The drop leads to the instability analogous to Kelvin-Helmholtz one accompanied by the formation of travelling waves. In the present paper we consider a two-layer system consisting of a pure fluid layer and a porous layer saturated by the fluid located underneath. The system is bounded by a rigid surface at the bottom and a non-deformable free surface at the top. It is under the gravity and inclined at a slight angle to the horizontal axis. The boundary conditions at the interface between the fluid and porous layers are the continuity of fluid velocities and the balance of normal and tangential stresses taking into account the resistance of the solid matrix with respect to the fluid flow near the interface [1-2]. The problem is solved in the framework of the Brinkman model applying the classical shooting algorithm with orthogonalization. The stability boundaries of the stationary fluid flow over the saturated porous medium with respect to the small oscillatory perturbations are obtained for the various values of the Darcy number and the ratio of the porous layer thickness to the full thickness of the system d. It was shown that at the d > 0.5 with increasing the porous layer thickness (or with decreasing of the fluid layer thickness) the stability threshold rises. This is because of the fact that the instability is primarily caused by perturbations located in the fluid layer. At the d < 0.5 the reduction of the porous layer thickness leads to the stability threshold
Space Coffee Cup: Capillary Flow Driven Fluids in Space
Interested in learning more about how fluids react in Space? In this video, Professor Mark Weislogel, and Dr. Marshall Porterfield will discuss the Space Coffee Cup and Capillary Flow Driven Fluids...
Thermal and Fluid Flow Brazing Simulations
HOSKING, FLOYD MICHAEL; GIANOULAKIS,STEVEN E.; GIVLER,RICHARD C.; SCHUNK,P. RANDALL
1999-12-15
The thermal response of fixtured parts in a batch-type brazing furnace can require numerous, time-consuming development runs before an acceptable furnace schedule or joint design is established. Powerful computational simulation tools are being developed to minimize the required number of verification experiments, improve furnace throughput, and increase product yields. Typical furnace simulations are based on thermal, fluid flow, and structural codes that incorporate the fundamental physics of the brazing process. The use of massively parallel computing to predict furnace and joint-level responses is presented. Measured and computed data are compared. Temperature values are within 1-270 of the expected peak brazing temperature for different loading conditions. Sensitivity studies reveal that the thermal response is more sensitive to the thermal boundary conditions of the heating enclosure than variability y in the materials data. Braze flow simulations predict fillet geometry and free surface joint defects. Dynamic wetting conditions, interfacial reactions, and solidification structure add a high degree of uncertainty to the flow results.
Fluid Flow Prediction with Development System Interwell Connectivity Influence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolshakov, M.; Deeva, T.; Pustovskikh, A.
2016-03-01
In this paper interwell connectivity has been studied. First of all, literature review of existing methods was made which is divided into three groups: Statistically-Based Methods, Material (fluid) Propagation-Based Methods and Potential (pressure) Change Propagation-Based Method. The disadvantages of the first and second groups are as follows: methods do not involve fluid flow through porous media, ignore any changes of well conditions (BHP, skin factor, etc.). The last group considers changes of well conditions and fluid flow through porous media. In this work Capacitance method (CM) has been chosen for research. This method is based on material balance and uses weight coefficients lambdas to assess well influence. In the next step synthetic model was created for examining CM. This model consists of an injection well and a production well. CM gave good results, it means that flow rates which were calculated by analytical method (CM) show matching with flow rate in model. Further new synthetic model was created which includes six production and one injection wells. This model represents seven-spot pattern. To obtain lambdas weight coefficients, the delta function was entered using by minimization algorithm. Also synthetic model which has three injectors and thirteen producer wells was created. This model simulates seven-spot pattern production system. Finally Capacitance method (CM) has been adjusted on real data of oil Field Ω. In this case CM does not give enough satisfying results in terms of field data liquid rate. In conclusion, recommendations to simplify CM calculations were given. Field Ω is assumed to have one injection and one production wells. In this case, satisfying results for production rates and cumulative production were obtained.
Fluid Flow Technology that Measures Up
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
From 1994 to 1996, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a Center Director's Discretionary Fund research effort to apply artificial intelligence technologies to the health management of plant equipment and space propulsion systems. Through this effort, NASA established a business relationship with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC), of Kingwood, Texas, to provide hardware modeling and artificial intelligence tools. Very detailed and accurate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) analysis and algorithms were jointly created, which identified several missing, critical instrumentation needs for adequately evaluating the engine health status. One of the missing instruments was a liquid oxygen (LOX) flow measurement. This instrument was missing since the original SSME included a LOX turbine flow meter that failed during a ground test, resulting in considerable damage for NASA. New balanced flow meter technology addresses this need with robust, safe, and accurate flow metering hardware.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henry, Pierre-Yves; Aberle, Jochen; Dijkstra, Jasper; Myrhaug, Dag
2016-04-01
Aquatic vegetation plays a vital role in ecohydrological systems regulating many physical, chemical, and biological processes across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. As a consequence, plant-flow interactions are of particular interest to a wide range of disciplines. While early studies of the interactions between vegetation and flowing water employed simplified and non-flexible structures such as rigid cylinders, recent studies have included flexible plants to identify the main characteristics of the hydrodynamics of vegetated flows. However, the description of plant reconfiguration has often been based on a static approach, i.e. considering the plant's deformation under a static load and neglecting turbulent fluctuations. Correlations between drag fluctuations, plant movements, and upstream turbulence were recently established showing that shear layer turbulence at the surface of the different plant elements (such as blades or stems) can contribute significantly to the dynamic behaviour of the plant. However, the relations between plant movement and force fluctuations might change under varying flow velocities, and although this point is crucial for mixing processes and plant dislodgement by fatigue, these aspects of fluid-structure interactions applied to aquatic vegetation remain largely unexplored. Using an innovative combination of sensing techniques in one set of experiments, this study investigates the relations between turbulence, fluctuating fluid forces and movements of a flexible cylindrical plant surrogate. A silicone-based flexible cylinder was attached at the bottom of a 1m wide flume in fully-developed uniform flow. The lower 22 cm of the plant surrogate were made of plain flexible silicone, while the higher 13cm included a casted rigid sensor, measuring accelerations at the tip of the surrogate. Forces were sampled at high frequencies at the surrogate's base by a 6-degrees-of-freedom force/torque sensor measuring down to the gram
On stability and turbulence of fluid flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heisenberg, Werner
1951-01-01
This investigation is divided into two parts, the treatment of the stability problem of fluid flows on the one hand, and that of the turbulent motion on the other. The first part summarizes all previous investigations under a unified point of view, that is, sets up as generally as possible the conditions under which a profile possesses unstable or stable characteristics, and indicates the methods for solution of the stability equation for any arbitrary velocity profile and for calculation of the critical Reynolds number for unstable profiles. In the second part, under certain greatly idealizing assumptions, differential equations for the turbulent motions are derived and from them qualitative information about several properties of the turbulent velocity distribution is obtained.
Time-Dependent Thermally-Driven Interfacial Flows in Multilayered Fluid Structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Borhan, A.
1996-01-01
A computational study of thermally-driven convection in multilayered fluid structures will be performed to examine the effect of interactions among deformable fluid-fluid interfaces on the structure of time-dependent flow in these systems. Multilayered fluid structures in two models configurations will be considered: the differentially heated rectangular cavity with a free surface, and the encapsulated cylindrical liquid bridge. An extension of a numerical method developed as part of our recent NASA Fluid Physics grant will be used to account for finite deformations of fluid-fluid interfaces.
De Boever, Wesley; Bultreys, Tom; Derluyn, Hannelore; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cnudde, Veerle
2016-06-01
In this paper, we examine the possibility to use on-site permeability measurements for cultural heritage applications as an alternative for traditional laboratory tests such as determination of the capillary absorption coefficient. These on-site measurements, performed with a portable air permeameter, were correlated with the pore network properties of eight sandstones and one granular limestone that are discussed in this paper. The network properties of the 9 materials tested in this study were obtained from micro-computed tomography (μCT) and compared to measurements and calculations of permeability and the capillary absorption rate of the stones under investigation, in order to find the correlation between pore network characteristics and fluid management characteristics of these sandstones. Results show a good correlation between capillary absorption, permeability and network properties, opening the possibility of using on-site permeability measurements as a standard method in cultural heritage applications. PMID:26950624
Optimization of micropillar sequences for fluid flow sculpting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoecklein, Daniel; Wu, Chueh-Yu; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar
2016-01-01
Inertial fluid flow deformation around pillars in a microchannel is a new method for controlling fluid flow. Sequences of pillars have been shown to produce a rich phase space with a wide variety of flow transformations. Previous work has successfully demonstrated manual design of pillar sequences to achieve desired transformations of the flow cross section, with experimental validation. However, such a method is not ideal for seeking out complex sculpted shapes as the search space quickly becomes too large for efficient manual discovery. We explore fast, automated optimization methods to solve this problem. We formulate the inertial flow physics in microchannels with different micropillar configurations as a set of state transition matrix operations. These state transition matrices are constructed from experimentally validated streamtraces for a fixed channel length per pillar. This facilitates modeling the effect of a sequence of micropillars as nested matrix-matrix products, which have very efficient numerical implementations. With this new forward model, arbitrary micropillar sequences can be rapidly simulated with various inlet configurations, allowing optimization routines quick access to a large search space. We integrate this framework with the genetic algorithm and showcase its applicability by designing micropillar sequences for various useful transformations. We computationally discover micropillar sequences for complex transformations that are substantially shorter than manually designed sequences. We also determine sequences for novel transformations that were difficult to manually design. Finally, we experimentally validate these computational designs by fabricating devices and comparing predictions with the results from confocal microscopy.
Yield Hardening of Electrorheological Fluids in Channel Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helal, Ahmed; Qian, Bian; McKinley, Gareth H.; Hosoi, A. E.
2016-06-01
Electrorheological fluids offer potential for developing rapidly actuated hydraulic devices where shear forces or pressure-driven flow are present. In this study, the Bingham yield stress of electrorheological fluids with different particle volume fractions is investigated experimentally in wall-driven and pressure-driven flow modes using measurements in a parallel-plate rheometer and a microfluidic channel, respectively. A modified Krieger-Dougherty model can be used to describe the effects of the particle volume fraction on the yield stress and is in good agreement with the viscometric data. However, significant yield hardening in pressure-driven channel flow is observed and attributed to an increase and eventual saturation of the particle volume fraction in the channel. A phenomenological physical model linking the densification and consequent microstructure to the ratio of the particle aggregation time scale compared to the convective time scale is presented and used to predict the enhancement in yield stress in channel flow, enabling us to reconcile discrepancies in the literature between wall-driven and pressure-driven flows.
This research program was initiated with the overall objective of gaining understanding of the flow and diffusion of pollutants in complex terrain under both neutral and stably stratified conditions. This report covers the first phase of the project; it describes the flow structu...
Numerical Simulation of non-Newtonian Fluid Flows through Fracture Network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dharmawan, I. A.; Ulhag, R. Z.; Endyana, C.; Aufaristama, M.
2016-01-01
We present a numerical simulation of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a twodimensional fracture network. The fracture is having constant mean aperture and bounded with Hurst exponent surfaces. The non-Newtonian rheology behaviour of the fluid is described using the Power-Law model. The lattice Boltzmann method is employed to calculate the solutions for non-Newtonian flow in finite Reynolds number. We use a constant force to drive the fluid within the fracture, while the bounceback rules and periodic boundary conditions are applied for the fluid-solid interaction and inflow outlflow boundary conditions, respectively. The validation study of the simulation is done via parallel plate flow simulation and the results demonstrated good agreement with the analytical solution. In addition, the fluid flow properties within the fracture network follow the relationships of power law fluid while the errors are becoming larger if the fluid more shear thinning.
A stochastic filtering technique for fluid flow velocity fields tracking.
Cuzol, Anne; Mémin, Etienne
2009-07-01
In this paper, we present a method for the temporal tracking of fluid flow velocity fields. The technique we propose is formalized within a sequential Bayesian filtering framework. The filtering model combines an Itô diffusion process coming from a stochastic formulation of the vorticity-velocity form of the Navier-Stokes equation and discrete measurements extracted from the image sequence. In order to handle a state space of reasonable dimension, the motion field is represented as a combination of adapted basis functions, derived from a discretization of the vorticity map of the fluid flow velocity field. The resulting nonlinear filtering problem is solved with the particle filter algorithm in continuous time. An adaptive dimensional reduction method is applied to the filtering technique, relying on dynamical systems theory. The efficiency of the tracking method is demonstrated on synthetic and real-world sequences. PMID:19443925
P. Dixon
2004-02-11
The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.
Theoretical studies of non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluid flow through porous media
Wu, Yu-Shu.
1990-02-01
A comprehensive theoretical study has been carried out on the flow beh