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Sample records for fluid temperature transient

  1. Determination of transient fluid temperature using the inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2014-03-01

    This paper proposes an inverse method to obtain accurate measurements of the transient temperature of fluid. A method for unit step and linear rise of temperature is presented. For this purpose, the thermometer housing is modelled as a full cylindrical element (with no inner hole), divided into four control volumes. Using the control volume method, the heat balance equations can be written for each of the nodes for each of the control volumes. Thus, for a known temperature in the middle of the cylindrical element, the distribution of temperature in three nodes and heat flux at the outer surface were obtained. For a known value of the heat transfer coefficient the temperature of the fluid can be calculated using the boundary condition. Additionally, results of experimental research are presented. The research was carried out during the start-up of an experimental installation, which comprises: a steam generator unit, an installation for boiler feed water treatment, a tray-type deaerator, a blow down flashvessel for heat recovery, a steam pressure reduction station, a boiler control system and a steam header made of martensitic high alloy P91 steel. Based on temperature measurements made in the steam header using the inverse method, accurate measurements of the transient temperature of the steam were obtained. The results of the calculations are compared with the real temperature of the steam, which can be determined for a known pressure and enthalpy.

  2. A High-Temperature Transient Hot-Wire Thermal Conductivity Apparatus for Fluids.

    PubMed

    Perkins, R A; Roder, H M; Nieto de Castro, C A

    1991-01-01

    A new apparatus for measuring both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of fluids at temperatures from 220 to 775 K at pressures to 70 MPa is described. The instrument is based on the step-power-forced transient hot-wire technique. Two hot wires are arranged in different arms of a Wheatstone bridge such that the response of the shorter compensating wire is subtracted from the response of the primary wire. Both hot wires are 12.7 µm diameter platinum wire and are simultaneously used as electrical heat sources and as resistance thermometers. A microcomputer controls bridge nulling, applies the power pulse, monitors the bridge response, and stores the results. Performance of the instrument was verified with measurements on liquid toluene as well as argon and nitrogen gas. In particular, new data for the thermal conductivity of liquid toluene near the saturation line, between 298 and 550 K, are presented. These new data can be used to illustrate the importance of radiative heat transfer in transient hot-wire measurements. Thermal conductivity data for liquid toluene, which are corrected for radiation, are reported. The precision of the thermal conductivity data is ± 0.3% and the accuracy is about ±1%. The accuracy of the thermal diffusivity data is about ± 5%. From the measured thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity, we can calculate the specific heat, Cp , of the fluid, provided that the density is measured, or available through an equation of state.

  3. Transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium during fluid injection

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.C.; Nilson, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the transient, radial temperature distribution in a porous medium which is subjected to a constant-rate injection of an incompressible fluid from a wellbore. The formulation includes energy transfer by conduction and convection, and the Danckwerts boundary condition is applied at the finite-radius wellbore. At late times, the numerical solutions approach a self-similar form which can be described in terms of the incomplete Gamma function. In typical petroleum and geothermal applications, convergence to the asymptotic similarity solutions occurs on a time scale of roughly one hour. The results are generally applicable to a broad range of convection-diffusion phenomena which are best described in radial coordinates.

  4. Fluid pressure and temperature transients detected at the Nankai Trough Megasplay Fault: Results from the SmartPlug borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E. E.; Kopf, A.

    2013-07-01

    The SmartPlug is the first borehole observatory in the IODP Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE). It comprises a retrievable bridge plug with an autonomous instrument for pressure (P) and temperature (T) monitoring. The borehole observatory was installed at Site C0010 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Kumano transect crossing the Nankai Trough, SE offshore Japan, to obtain fluid pressure and temperature data from where the borehole penetrates one of the shallow branches of the subduction megasplay fault at 410 mbsf. In this manuscript, a 15 month-long P-T record collected by the SmartPlug is evaluated. Despite the 1 min sampling interval, pressure variations related to local storms and to tsunami and seismic waves from regional and distant earthquakes are observed. Seismic waves of one regional earthquake appear to have led to a drop in formation pressure that may be the consequence of a seismic-wave-induced increase in permeability. Pressure variations related to Rayleigh waves are typically larger in the formation than in the inadvertently sealed casing above, whereas seafloor loading signals imposed by tides, tsunamis, and storm-generated waves are larger in the casing than in the formation. This difference presumably reflects the different response to strain generated by formation deformation vs. strain caused by loading at the seafloor. No seismogenic or aseismic deformation event at the megasplay fault or within the accretionary prism was observed during this initial 15-month-long recording period. A SmartPlug observatory monitored the Nankai Trough Megasplay Fault for 15 months. In situ borehole pressure (P) and temperature (T) data were collected and evaluated. After the data were de-tided and filtered, several P transients were detected. P transients were caused by storm-induced microseism, seismic and tsunami waves. No indications for recent activity of the Megasplay Fault were found.

  5. Transient cavitation in fluid-structure interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kot, C.A.; Hsieh, B.J.; Youngdahl, C.K.; Valentin, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    A generalized column separation model is extended to predict transient cavitation associated with fluid-structure interactions. The essential feature of the combined fluid-structure interaction calculations is the coupling between the fluid transient, which is computed one dimensionally, and the structural response which can be multidimensional. Proper coupling is achieved by defining an average, one-dimensional, structural velocity and by assuming a spatially uniform pressure loading of the structure. This procedure is found to be effective even for complex finite element structural models for which the required computational time step is orders of magnitude smaller than that for the fluid transient. Computational examples and comparison with experimental data show that neglecting cavitation and setting the fluid velocity at all times equal to that of the structural boundary leads to unreal negative pressure predictions. A properly coupled column separation model reproduces the important features of fluid-structure interactions, converges rapidly, and gives reasonable fluid and structural response predictions. 9 refs.

  6. Transient thermal analysis of fluid systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, G. D.; Trust, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Computer program performs transient thermal analysis of any 2-node to 200-node-thermal network, which transports heat by fluid flow convection. Program can be modified to add conduction along tubes and radiation.

  7. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Amsden, A. A.; Ruppel, H. M.; Hirt, C. W.

    1992-03-12

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.

  8. Low temperature fluid blender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Repas, G. A.

    1971-01-01

    Blender supplies hydrogen at temperatures from 289 deg K to 367 deg K. Hydrogen temperature is controlled by using blender to combine flow from liquid hydrogen tank /276 deg K/ and gaseous hydrogen cylinder /550 deg K/. Blenders are applicable where flow of controlled low-temperature fluid is desired.

  9. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert; Lovely, David

    1999-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one "snap-shot" of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: (1) Shocks, (2) Vortex cores, (3) Regions of recirculation, (4) Boundary layers, (5) Wakes. Three papers and an initial specification for the (The Fluid eXtraction tool kit) FX Programmer's guide were included. The papers, submitted to the AIAA Computational Fluid Dynamics Conference, are entitled : (1) Using Residence Time for the Extraction of Recirculation Regions, (2) Shock Detection from Computational Fluid Dynamics results and (3) On the Velocity Gradient Tensor and Fluid Feature Extraction.

  10. Transient fluid flow and heat transfer in petroleum production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dongqing

    Heat transfer is an important phenomenon in both wellbore and reservoir. The pertinent temperature distribution can provide a valuable perspective in analyzing and optimizing the oil production. In this work, two kinds of co-production, production fluid through the annulus and tubing, and through two independent tubings, have been modeled using steady state analysis. The fluid temperatures in the production string and annulus have been solved analytically in both cases. Furthermore, we extended the theory of steady state energy transport to remedy asphaltene deposition problem by circulating the cooling fluid in the annulus. Due to the complex nature of two-phase flow in the oil/gas production, more reliable mechanistic modeling approaches have been developed since early 1980's. Rooted in Hasan-Kabir model, we have developed a wellbore/reservoir coupling simulator for the transient non-Darcy two-phase flow in the flow-after-flow well test. The entire historical flow behavior has been modeled using superposition method and validated with field data. Our second simulation is for the investigation of a blowout well, which is a great concern in the oil field. When the pressure in the wellbore is sufficiently high, the fluids will attain sonic velocity at the wellhead. We presented a computational algorithm to estimate the blowout rate in a given wellbore/reservoir system and examined four major parameters, such as formation permeability, Gas-Oil-Ratio (GOR), reservoir pressure and tubing diameter. The transient nature of this approach also illustrates the evolution process of a blowout. We have also developed a transient simulator to determine the location and severity of a blockage in a gas pipeline based on the theory of two-phase flow and pressure transient analysis. The presence of a sizeable blockage will affect the outlet gas pressure response by decreasing the available pipe volume and increasing the friction loss of the fluid flow. The simulator solves for the

  11. Transient thermohydraulic modeling of two-phase fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blet, N.; Delalandre, N.; Ayel, V.; Bertin, Y.; Romestant, C.; Platel, V.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents a transient thermohydraulic modeling, initially developed for a capillary pumped loop in gravitational applications, but also possibly suitable for all kinds of two-phase fluid systems. Using finite volumes method, it is based on Navier-Stokes equations for transcribing fluid mechanical aspects. The main feature of this 1D-model is based on a network representation by analogy with electrical. This paper also proposes a parametric study of a counterflow condenser following the sensitivity to inlet mass flow rate and cold source temperature. The comparison between modeling results and experimental data highlights a good numerical evaluation of temperatures. Furthermore, the model is able to represent a pretty good dynamic evolution of hydraulic variables.

  12. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert

    1998-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required to understand the underlying physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of much interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one 'snap-shot' of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense. The following is a list of the important physical phenomena found in transient (and steady-state) fluid flow: Shocks; Vortex ores; Regions of Recirculation; Boundary Layers; Wakes.

  13. The transient performance of a two-phase fluid reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chi, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Thermal control of future large, high power spacecraft will require a two-phase fluid central bus. The two-phase fluid reservoir is a critical component in the two-phase fluid bus. It both controls the saturation temperature and provides a space for volumetric changes. A dynamic reservoir simulation model does not currently exist, but it is needed to expedite efforts and reduce risk. During 1989 an effort was made to develop a simulation model of the transient performance of a two-phase fluid reservoir. As a beginning, a preliminary model was developed. It is based upon component mathematical models in lumped parametric form and build upon five component mathematical models for calculating dynamic responses of two-phase fluid reservoirs, primary feedback elements, controller commands, heater actuators, and reservoir heaters. As much as possible, the model took advantage of the available SINDA'85/FLUINT thermal/fluid integrator. Additional calculation logic and computer subroutines were developed to complete implementation of the model. The model is capable of simulating dynamic response of an equilibrium two-phase fluid reservoir. Modification of the model to include the liquid/vapor nonequilibrium is required for applications of the model to simulate performance of reservoir in which the liquid and vapor phases of the reservoir fluid are not in equilibrium. In addition, the model in its present form, needs to be refined in several respects. More empirical data are needed to guide the model development. The model may then be used to conduct a full parametric study of two-phase fluid reservoirs. More complexities in two-phaes flow regions in laboratory and flight conditions may have to be considered eventually if empirical data cannot be simulated satisfactorily. System with other components arrangement also need to be simulated if optimization is ever to be attained. The present model does, however, preliminarily demonstrates that such analyses are quite possible

  14. Stability Test for Transient-Temperature Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W.

    1984-01-01

    Graphical test helps assure numerical stability of calculations of transient temperature or diffusion in composite medium. Rectangular grid forms basis of two-dimensional finite-difference model for heat conduction or other diffusion like phenomena. Model enables calculation of transient heat transfer among up to four different materials that meet at grid point.

  15. Accurate measurement of unsteady state fluid temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaremkiewicz, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, two accurate methods for determining the transient fluid temperature were presented. Measurements were conducted for boiling water since its temperature is known. At the beginning the thermometers are at the ambient temperature and next they are immediately immersed into saturated water. The measurements were carried out with two thermometers of different construction but with the same housing outer diameter equal to 15 mm. One of them is a K-type industrial thermometer widely available commercially. The temperature indicated by the thermometer was corrected considering the thermometers as the first or second order inertia devices. The new design of a thermometer was proposed and also used to measure the temperature of boiling water. Its characteristic feature is a cylinder-shaped housing with the sheath thermocouple located in its center. The temperature of the fluid was determined based on measurements taken in the axis of the solid cylindrical element (housing) using the inverse space marching method. Measurements of the transient temperature of the air flowing through the wind tunnel using the same thermometers were also carried out. The proposed measurement technique provides more accurate results compared with measurements using industrial thermometers in conjunction with simple temperature correction using the inertial thermometer model of the first or second order. By comparing the results, it was demonstrated that the new thermometer allows obtaining the fluid temperature much faster and with higher accuracy in comparison to the industrial thermometer. Accurate measurements of the fast changing fluid temperature are possible due to the low inertia thermometer and fast space marching method applied for solving the inverse heat conduction problem.

  16. Transient response of high temperature PEM fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, J.; Shin, J. Y.; Song, T. W.

    A transient three-dimensional, single-phase and non-isothermal numerical model of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell with high operating temperature has been developed and implemented in computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. The model accounts for transient convective and diffusive transport, and allows prediction of species concentration. Electrochemical charge double-layer effect is considered. Heat generation according to electrochemical reaction and ohmic loss are involved. Water transportation across membrane is ignored due to low water electro-osmosis drag force of polymer polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane. The prediction shows transient in current density which overshoots (undershoots) the stabilized state value when cell voltage is abruptly decreased (increased). The result shows that the peak of overshoot (undershoot) is related with cathode air stoichiometric mass flow rate instead of anode hydrogen stoichiometric mass flow rate. Current is moved smoothly and there are no overshoot or undershoot with the influence of charge double-layer effect. The maximum temperature is located in cathode catalyst layer and both fuel cell average temperature and temperature deviation are increased with increasing of current load.

  17. Finite element solution of transient fluid-structure interaction problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everstine, Gordon C.; Cheng, Raymond S.; Hambric, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    A finite element approach using NASTRAN is developed for solving time-dependent fluid-structure interaction problems, with emphasis on the transient scattering of acoustic waves from submerged elastic structures. Finite elements are used for modeling both structure and fluid domains to facilitate the graphical display of the wave motion through both media. For the liquid, the use of velocity potential as the fundamental unknown results in a symmetric matrix equation. The approach is illustrated for the problem of transient scattering from a submerged elastic spherical shell subjected to an incident tone burst. The use of an analogy between the equations of elasticity and the wave equation of acoustics, a necessary ingredient to the procedure, is summarized.

  18. TRUMP. Transient & S-State Temperature Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Elrod, D.C.; Turner, W.D.

    1992-03-03

    TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady-state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time-steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.

  19. Numerical Modeling of Fluid Transient in Cryogenic Fluid Network of Rocket Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Flachbart, Robin

    2003-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicles propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shut down. For ground safety reasons, many spacecrafts are launched with the propellant lines dry. These lines are often evacuated by the time the spacecraft reaches orbit. When the propellant isolation valve opens during propulsion system activation, propellant rushes into lines creating a pressure surge. During propellant system shutdown, a pressure surge is created due to sudden closure of a valve. During both activation and shutdown, pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. The method of characteristics is the most widely used method of calculating fluid transients in pipeline [ 1,2]. The method of characteristics, however, has limited applications in calculating flow distribution in complex flow circuits with phase change, heat transfer and rotational effects. A robust cryogenic propulsion system analyzer must have the capability to handle phase change, heat transfer, chemical reaction, rotational effects and fluid transients in conjunction with subsystem flow model for pumps, valves and various pipe fittings. In recent years, such a task has been undertaken at Marshall Space Flight Center with the development of the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), which is based on finite volume method in fluid network [3]. GFSSP has been extensively verified and validated by comparing its predictions with test data and other numerical methods for various applications such as internal flow of turbo-pump [4], propellant tank pressurization [5,6], chilldown of cryogenic transfer line [7] and squeeze film damper rotordynamics [8]. The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the applicability of the finite volume method to predict fluid transient in cryogenic flow

  20. Nanoscale transient porosity controls large-scale metamorphic fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plümper, Oliver; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2016-04-01

    investigations we used non-equilibrium thermodynamics and molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the influence of nanoscale pore transport phenomena on metamorphic mineral replacement reactions. Our findings suggest that fluid transport through nanoscale transient pore networks may control regional-scale metamorphism and metasomatism, at least in the feldspar-dominated crust.

  1. Network Flow Simulation of Fluid Transients in Rocket Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Alak; Hamill, Brian; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Majumdar, Alok

    2011-01-01

    Fluid transients, also known as water hammer, can have a significant impact on the design and operation of both spacecraft and launch vehicle propulsion systems. These transients often occur at system activation and shutdown. The pressure rise due to sudden opening and closing of valves of propulsion feed lines can cause serious damage during activation and shutdown of propulsion systems. During activation (valve opening) and shutdown (valve closing), pressure surges must be predicted accurately to ensure structural integrity of the propulsion system fluid network. In the current work, a network flow simulation software (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) based on Finite Volume Method has been used to predict the pressure surges in the feed line due to both valve closing and valve opening using two separate geometrical configurations. The valve opening pressure surge results are compared with experimental data available in the literature and the numerical results compared very well within reasonable accuracy (< 5%) for a wide range of inlet-to-initial pressure ratios. A Fast Fourier Transform is preformed on the pressure oscillations to predict the various modal frequencies of the pressure wave. The shutdown problem, i.e. valve closing problem, the simulation results are compared with the results of Method of Characteristics. Most rocket engines experience a longitudinal acceleration, known as "pogo" during the later stage of engine burn. In the shutdown example problem, an accumulator has been used in the feed system to demonstrate the "pogo" mitigation effects in the feed system of propellant. The simulation results using GFSSP compared very well with the results of Method of Characteristics.

  2. Groundwater temperature transients on the Armutlu peninsula, eastern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Caka, Deniz; Seyis, Cemil; Italiano, Francesco; Celik, Cengiz; Wang, Rongjiang; Baris, Serif

    2016-04-01

    Since many years MAM and GFZ in co-operation with Kocaeli University (KU) operate fluid monitoring stations around the Sea of Marmara. In the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417) these networks were jointly evaluated for the first time. The on-land fluid monitoring networks continuously monitor the following parameters: soil radon (21 sites), temperature and conductivity of thermal springs (9 sites) operated by MAM covering the whole Marmara region; fluid pressure and water level/temperature (8 sites) within ARNET operated by GFZ/KU. ARNET is a combined seismological/hydrogeological monitoring network covering the Armutlu peninsula located SE of Istanbul. Additional to the geothermal wells and springs - our main target to detect transients of potentially seismo-tectonic origin - three shallow groundwater wells (tenth of meters deep) are being operated to identify and quantify seasonal variations, and meteorological influences like rainfall and snowmelt. But it turned out that these shallow aquifer systems showed very stable conditions with very small annual temperature amplitudes (0.2 - 0.3°C). One of these shallow monitoring wells is located just south of Lake Iznik (in the village of Sölöz) very close to the southern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. Water level showed a steady decreasing trend since June 2012. This trend resulted in a data gap starting in January 2014, when the water level dropped below the sensor position. After adjusting the sensor position, positive spikes in the borehole temperature were recorded in June and August 2014, and again in 2015. The spikes are characterised by a sharp temperature increase followed by a decay lasting several days until the pre-event temperature was reached again. Since the spikes occurred on two independent logger systems, and since they lasted several days, a

  3. Temperature controller for a fluid cooled garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, A. B.; Blackaby, J. R.; Billingham, J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automatic controller for controlling the inlet temperature of the coolant to a fluid cooled garment without requiring skin sensors is described. Temperature is controlled by the wearer's evaporative water loss rate.

  4. Transient computation fluid dynamics modeling of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell with serpentine channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guilin; Fan, Jianren

    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has become a promising candidate for the power source of electrical vehicles because of its low pollution, low noise and especially fast startup and transient responses at low temperatures. A transient, three-dimensional, non-isothermal and single-phase mathematical model based on computation fluid dynamics has been developed to describe the transient process and the dynamic characteristics of a PEMFC with a serpentine fluid channel. The effects of water phase change and heat transfer, as well as electrochemical kinetics and multicomponent transport on the cell performance are taken into account simultaneously in this comprehensive model. The developed model was employed to simulate a single laboratory-scale PEMFC with an electrode area about 20 cm 2. The dynamic behavior of the characteristic parameters such as reactant concentration, pressure loss, temperature on the membrane surface of cathode side and current density during start-up process were computed and are discussed in detail. Furthermore, transient responses of the fuel cell characteristics during step changes and sinusoidal changes in the stoichiometric flow ratio of the cathode inlet stream, cathode inlet stream humidity and cell voltage are also studied and analyzed and interesting undershoot/overshoot behavior of some variables was found. It was also found that the startup and transient response time of a PEM fuel cell is of the order of a second, which is similar to the simulation results predicted by most models. The result is an important guide for the optimization of PEMFC designs and dynamic operation.

  5. Transient Thermal Model and Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Regolith for Cryogenic Fluid Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.; Yasan, Mohammad M.

    2008-01-01

    A transient thermal model of the lunar surface and regolith was developed along with analytical techniques which will be used to evaluate the storage of cryogenic fluids at equatorial and polar landing sites. The model can provide lunar surface and subsurface temperatures as a function of latitude and time throughout the lunar cycle and season. It also accounts for the presence of or lack of the undisturbed fluff layer on the lunar surface. The model was validated with Apollo 15 and Clementine data and shows good agreement with other analytical models.

  6. Transient Thermo-fluid Model of Meniscus Behavior and Slag Consumption in Steel Continuous Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonayat, A. S. M.; Thomas, Brian G.

    2014-10-01

    The behavior of the slag layer between the oscillating mold wall, the slag rim, the slag/liquid steel interface, and the solidifying steel shell, is of immense importance for the surface quality of continuous-cast steel. A computational model of the meniscus region has been developed, that includes transient heat transfer, multi-phase fluid flow, solidification of the slag, and movement of the mold during an oscillation cycle. First, the model is applied to a lab experiment done with a "mold simulator" to verify the transient temperature-field predictions. Next, the model is verified by matching with available literature and plant measurements of slag consumption. A reasonable agreement has been observed for both temperature and flow-field. The predictions show that transient temperature behavior depends on the location of the thermocouple during the oscillation relative to the meniscus. During an oscillation cycle, heat transfer variations in a laboratory frame of reference are more severe than experienced by the moving mold thermocouples, and the local heat transfer rate is increased greatly when steel overflows the meniscus. Finally, the model is applied to conduct a parametric study on the effect of casting speed, stroke, frequency, and modification ratio on slag consumption. Slag consumption per unit area increases with increase of stroke and modification ratio, and decreases with increase of casting speed while the relation with frequency is not straightforward. The match between model predictions and literature trends suggests that this methodology can be used for further investigations.

  7. Plasma-Catalysis During Temperature Transient Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, John

    2001-08-05

    A combination of catalysts is used together with nonthermal plasma in simulated diesel exhaust, while the gas temperature is varied. The catalysts both store and convert pollutants. As a result, pollutant concentrations during temperature ramps are different than those at steady state conditions. The data are presented for plasma followed by BaY, alumina, and Pt catalysts in simulated exhaust. When temperature ramps from high to low, apparent NOx conversion is quite high. However, when temperature is ramped from low to high, lower apparent conversions are seen. In a typical test cycle, average NOx conversion between 100 and 400 C is 60%. Peak conversion during the down ramp is over 90%, and minimum conversion during the up ramp is 30%. The composition of the effluent gas also varies during the temperature cycle. Intermediates such as methyl nitrate and hydrogen cyanide are not present following the combination of catalysts.

  8. Temperature dependence of nucleation in Yukawa fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.-S.; Wilemski, G.

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of gas-liquid nucleation in Yukawa fluids with gradient theory (GT) and density functional theory (DFT). Each of these nonclassical theories exhibits a weaker (i.e. better) temperature dependence than classical nucleation theory. At a given temperature, the difference between GT and DFT for the reversible work to form a critical nucleus gets smaller with increasing superaturation. For the temperature dependence, the reversible work for GT is very close to that for DFT at high temperatures. The difference between the two theories increases with decreasing temperature and supersaturation. Thus, in contrast to the behavior of a Peng-Robinson fluid, we find that GT can improve the temperature dependence over that of classical nucleation theory, although not always to the same degree as DFT.

  9. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Bonner, Richard W.; Dussinger, Peter M.; Hartenstine, John R.; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 725 K (170 to 450 C), including space nuclear power system radiators, fuel cells, and high temperature electronics cooling. Historically, water has been used in heat pipes at temperatures up to about 425 K (150 C). Recent life tests, updated below, demonstrate that titanium/water and Monel/water heat pipes can be used at temperatures up to 550 K (277 C), due to water's favorable transport properties. At temperatures above roughly 570 K (300 C), water is no longer a suitable fluid, due to high vapor pressure and low surface tension as the critical point is approached. At higher temperatures, another working fluid/envelope combination is required, either an organic or halide working fluid. An electromotive force method was used to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This procedure was used to reject aluminum and aluminum alloys as envelope materials, due to their high decomposition potential. Titanium and three corrosion resistant superalloys were chosen as envelope materials. Life tests were conducted with these envelopes and six different working fluids: AlBr3, GaCl3, SnCl4, TiCl4, TiBr4, and eutectic diphenyl/diphenyl oxide (Therminol VP-1/Dowtherm A). All of the life tests except for the GaCl3 are ongoing; the GaCl3 was incompatible. As the temperature approaches 725 K (450 C), cesium is a potential heat pipe working fluid. Life tests results are also presented for cesium/Monel 400 and cesium/70-30 copper/nickel heat pipes operating near 750 K (477 C). These materials are not suitable for long term operation, due to copper transport from the condenser to the evaporator.

  10. Micromechanical transient sensor for measuring viscosity and density of a fluid

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Oden, Patrick I.; Warmack, Robert J.; Finot, Eric Laurent

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring the viscosity and/or specific density of a fluid utilizes a microcantilever vibrated in the analyte fluid. The source of vibration is switched on and off and the transient behavior or decay in amplitude of the vibration is monitored. The method is particularly useful for the measurement of process conditions in remote locations in real time.

  11. Intermediate Temperature Fluids Life Tests - Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Sarraf, David B.; Locci, Ivan E.; Anderson, William G.

    2008-01-01

    There are a number of different applications that could use heat pipes or loop heat pipes (LHPs) in the intermediate temperature range of 450 to 750 K, including space nuclear power system radiators, and high temperature electronics cooling. Potential working fluids include organic fluids, elements, and halides, with halides being the least understood, with only a few life tests conducted. Potential envelope materials for halide working fluids include pure aluminum, aluminum alloys, commercially pure (CP) titanium, titanium alloys, and corrosion resistant superalloys. Life tests were conducted with three halides (AlBr3, SbBr3, and TiCl4) and water in three different envelopes: two aluminum alloys (Al-5052, Al-6061) and Cp-2 titanium. The AlBr3 attacked the grain boundaries in the aluminum envelopes, and formed TiAl compounds in the titanium. The SbBr3 was incompatible with the only envelope material that it was tested with, Al-6061. TiCl4 and water were both compatible with CP2-titanium. A theoretical model was developed that uses electromotive force differences to predict the compatibility of halide working fluids with envelope materials. This theory predicts that iron, nickel, and molybdenum are good envelope materials, while aluminum and titanium halides are good working fluids. The model is in good agreement with results form previous life tests, as well as the current life tests.

  12. Transient performance and temperature field of a natural convection air dehumidifier loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilati, Mohammad Ali; Sedaghat, Ahmad; Alemrajabi, Ali-Akbar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, transient performance of the previously introduced natural convection heat and mass transfer loop is investigated for an air dehumidifier system. The performance of the loop is studied in different conditions of heat source/heat sink temperature and different startup desiccant concentrations. Unlike conventional loops, it is observed that natural convection of the fluid originates from the heat sink towards the heat source. The proper operation of the cycle is highly dependent on the heat sink/heat source temperatures. To reduce the time constant of the system, a proper desiccant concentration should be adopted for charge of the loop.

  13. SALE2D. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Amsden, A.A.; Ruppel, H.M.; Hirt, C.W.

    1981-06-01

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude results from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.

  14. Flow non-normality-induced transient growth in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers.

    PubMed

    Camporeale, C; Gatti, F; Ridolfi, L

    2009-09-01

    In recent years non-normality and transient growths have attracted much interest in fluid mechanics. Here, we investigate these topics with reference to the problem of interfacial instability in superposed Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid layers. Under the hypothesis of the lubrication theory, we demonstrate the existence of significant transient growths in the parameter space region where the dynamical system is asymptotically stable, and show how they depend on the main physical parameters. In particular, the key role of the density ratio is highlighted.

  15. Modeling quantum fluid dynamics at nonzero temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Berloff, Natalia G.; Brachet, Marc; Proukakis, Nick P.

    2014-01-01

    The detailed understanding of the intricate dynamics of quantum fluids, in particular in the rapidly growing subfield of quantum turbulence which elucidates the evolution of a vortex tangle in a superfluid, requires an in-depth understanding of the role of finite temperature in such systems. The Landau two-fluid model is the most successful hydrodynamical theory of superfluid helium, but by the nature of the scale separations it cannot give an adequate description of the processes involving vortex dynamics and interactions. In our contribution we introduce a framework based on a nonlinear classical-field equation that is mathematically identical to the Landau model and provides a mechanism for severing and coalescence of vortex lines, so that the questions related to the behavior of quantized vortices can be addressed self-consistently. The correct equation of state as well as nonlocality of interactions that leads to the existence of the roton minimum can also be introduced in such description. We review and apply the ideas developed for finite-temperature description of weakly interacting Bose gases as possible extensions and numerical refinements of the proposed method. We apply this method to elucidate the behavior of the vortices during expansion and contraction following the change in applied pressure. We show that at low temperatures, during the contraction of the vortex core as the negative pressure grows back to positive values, the vortex line density grows through a mechanism of vortex multiplication. This mechanism is suppressed at high temperatures. PMID:24704874

  16. Temperature-induced transient noise of pyroelectric thermal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Muno; Bae, Seong-Ho

    2000-11-01

    An analysis of temperature-induced transient noise for a thermal detector prepared with Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-Pb(Sb0.5Nb0.5)O3 (PZT-PSN) pyroelectric ceramics as the sensing element is conducted by measuring its oven noise as a function of the junction field-effect transistor (JFET) characteristics, gate resistance, low-temperature heat treatment, chemical composition and the grain size of the pyroelectric ceramic. Pyroelectric wafers are prepared by the mixed oxide technique, and thermal sensors are fabricated with a PZT-PSN ceramic wafer, JFET, chip-type gate resistor, alumina PCB (printed circuit board) and a TO- 5 package with antireflective (AR)-coated Si window. Thermal detector noise depends on the chemical composition of the pyroelectric sensing element. The temperature-induced transient JFET noise varies with its characteristics and gate resistance and is reduced by connecting a pyroelectric sensing element with high capacitance. The pyroelectric ceramic sensing element generates burst noise in the region from 7 to -10 degree(s)C during cooling, which is remarkably reduced by reducing the grain size of the pyroelectric ceramic and/or by cyclic heat treatment at a low temperature. Thus, burst noise as a strong relationship with the elastic energies within the ceramic sensing element and the bonding material between the sensing wafer and the PCB, originating in the different thermal expansion between pyroelectric sensing wafer and alumina PCB.

  17. Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 × 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

  18. Fluid-solid coupled simulation of the ignition transient of solid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Peijin; He, Guoqiang

    2015-05-01

    The first period of the solid rocket motor operation is the ignition transient, which involves complex processes and, according to chronological sequence, can be divided into several stages, namely, igniter jet injection, propellant heating and ignition, flame spreading, chamber pressurization and solid propellant deformation. The ignition transient should be comprehensively analyzed because it significantly influences the overall performance of the solid rocket motor. A numerical approach is presented in this paper for simulating the fluid-solid interaction problems in the ignition transient of the solid rocket motor. In the proposed procedure, the time-dependent numerical solutions of the governing equations of internal compressible fluid flow are loosely coupled with those of the geometrical nonlinearity problems to determine the propellant mechanical response and deformation. The well-known Zeldovich-Novozhilov model was employed to model propellant ignition and combustion. The fluid-solid coupling interface data interpolation scheme and coupling instance for different computational agents were also reported. Finally, numerical validation was performed, and the proposed approach was applied to the ignition transient of one laboratory-scale solid rocket motor. For the application, the internal ballistics were obtained from the ground hot firing test, and comparisons were made. Results show that the integrated framework allows us to perform coupled simulations of the propellant ignition, strong unsteady internal fluid flow, and propellant mechanical response in SRMs with satisfactory stability and efficiency and presents a reliable and accurate solution to complex multi-physics problems.

  19. Transient growth in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we investigate linear transient growth of perturbation energy in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid. The effects of yield stress on transient growth and the structure of the optimal perturbation are mainly considered for both the wide-gap case and the narrow-gap case. For this purpose we complement the linear stability of this flow subjected to axisymmetric disturbances, presented by Landry et al. [M. P. Landry, I. A. Frigaard, and D. M. Martinez, J. Fluid Mech. 560, 321 (2006)], with the transient growth characteristics of both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations. We obtain the variations of the relative amplitude of optimal perturbation with yield stress, analyze the roles played by the Coriolis force and the additional stress in the evolution of meridional perturbations for the axisymmetric modes, and give the explanations for the possible change of the optimal azimuthal mode (featured by the maximum optimal energy growth G(opt)) with yield stress. These results might help us in the understanding of the effect of fluid rheology on transient growth mechanism in vortex flows.

  20. Transient growth in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Wan, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we investigate linear transient growth of perturbation energy in Taylor-Couette flow of a Bingham fluid. The effects of yield stress on transient growth and the structure of the optimal perturbation are mainly considered for both the wide-gap case and the narrow-gap case. For this purpose we complement the linear stability of this flow subjected to axisymmetric disturbances, presented by Landry et al. [M. P. Landry, I. A. Frigaard, and D. M. Martinez, J. Fluid Mech. 560, 321 (2006), 10.1017/S0022112006000620], with the transient growth characteristics of both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations. We obtain the variations of the relative amplitude of optimal perturbation with yield stress, analyze the roles played by the Coriolis force and the additional stress in the evolution of meridional perturbations for the axisymmetric modes, and give the explanations for the possible change of the optimal azimuthal mode (featured by the maximum optimal energy growth Gopt) with yield stress. These results might help us in the understanding of the effect of fluid rheology on transient growth mechanism in vortex flows.

  1. Pressure transient behavior of dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluid composite reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Okpobiri, G.A.; Ikoku, C.U.

    1983-11-01

    This study investigates pressure falloff testing in non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluid composite reservoirs. The non-Newtonian fluids of interest exhibit dilatant behavior. Initial water saturation is accounted for. Application of non-Newtonian well test analysis techniques and conventional Horner (Newtonian) techniques is investigated. The effects of different injection times before shut-in, external radii, flow behavior indexes and non-Newtonian fluid consistencies on the pressure transient behavior constitute the salient features of this work. It is shown that early time falloff pressure data can be analyzed by non-Newtonian techniques while the late shut-in data, under certain conditions, can be analyzed by the conventional Horner method. The time when the Newtonian fluid starts influencing the non-Newtonian falloff curves and the location of the non-Newtonian fluid front can be estimated by using the radius of investigation equation for power-law fluids and volumetric balance equation respectively. Rheological consideration is made to illustrate the pressure transient behavior.

  2. Improving transaxle performance at low temperature with reduced-viscosity automatic transmission fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, J.L.; Kemp, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of automatic transmission fluid viscosity on the low-temperature performance of a front-wheel-drive transaxle were determined in a cold room maintained at a temperature of -20/sup 0/F (-28.9/sup 0/C), using both a cranking apparatus and a vehicle. Cranking and vehicle tests were conducted to determine the effects of fluid viscosity on the power required to crack a transaxle and on transaxle performance under low-temperature transient operation, respectively. Four automatic transmission fluids were tested, ranging in viscosity from 2 600 to 16 000 cP at - 20/sup 0/F. All test fluids contained the same additive package and were blended using the same types of base oils.

  3. Transient analysis and burnout of high temperature superconducting current leads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, S. Y.; Hull, J. R.

    The transient behaviour of high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads operated between liquid helium and liquid nitrogen temperatures is analysed for burnout conditions upon transition of the HTS into the normal state. Leads composed of HTS only and of HTS sheathed by pure silver or silver alloy are investigated numerically for temperature-dependent properties and analytically for temperature-independent properties. For lower values of shape factor (current density times length), the lead can be operated indefinitely without burnout. At higher values of shape factor, the lead reaches burnout in a finite time. With high current densities, the leads heat adiabatically. For a fixed shape factor, low current densities are desired to achieve long burnout times. To achieve a low helium boil-off rate in the superconducting state without danger of burnout, there is a preferred temperature dependence for thermal conductivity, and silver alloy sheaths are preferred to pure silver sheaths. However, for a given current density, pure silver sheaths take longer to burn out.

  4. Laboratory experiments and continuous fluid monitoring at Campi Flegrei to understand pressure transients in hydrothermal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woith, Heiko; Mangiacapra, Annarita; Chiodini, Giovanni; Pilz, Marco; Walter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The hydrothermal system beneath Campi Flegrei is strongly affected by sub-surface processes as manifested by the existence of a geothermal "plume" below Solfatara (Bruno et al. 2007), associated with formation of new fumaroles and the spatial pattern of exhalation vents. Within the frame of MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) under Grant agreement no 308665), pressure tansients in the hydrothermal system of Campi Flegrei shall be studied using a combination of laboratory experiments and continuous pressure/temperature monitoring at fumaroles, mudpools, hot springs, and geothermal wells. Four groundwater monitoring sites were installed in September 2013: one in the Fangaia mud pool inside Solfatara and three within the geothermal area of Agnano, which is located roughly 3 km to the East of the Solfatara crater. In 2014 additional sensors were installed in Pisciarelli. Autonomous devices are being used to record the water level and water temperature at 10 minute intervals. Records reveal significant changes of the hydrothermal system in September 2013 at the Agnano main spring during the night from 23 to 24 September. Both, the water level and the water temperature dropped significantly, confirmed by visual inspection of the spa operators. The pool of the main spring almost emptied and the flow rate was significantly reduced, implying a profound change in the system. Similar water level drops occurred in the following months. Gas bubbles are likely to play a major role with respect to spatio-temporal variations in shallow fluid systems below Solfatara. Thus, additional to the field measurements we investigate potential bubble-related mechanisms capable to increase fluid pressure. The BubbleLab at GFZ has been setup. We are able to simulate earthquake ground motions with a shaking table, track the size and velocity of rising bubbles via a camera system, and quantify transients with a set of

  5. Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.

  6. Fluid transients in fluid-structure interaction - 1987; Proceedings of the Third Symposium, Boston, MA, Dec. 13-18, 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, F. T.; Moody, F. J.

    Papers are presented on a three-dimensional analysis of liquid oxygen sloshing in the Space Shuttle external tank, the flow-induced oscillations of a novel double-wing spring-mass system, added mass and damping coefficents for a hexagonal cylinder, and a new hydraulic pressure intensifier using an oil hammer. Other topics include junction losses in pulsating flow, a finite element analysis of a slender fluid-structure system, two-phase blowdown through a short tube, and check valve behavior under transient flow conditions. Also considered are forces in initially empty pipes subject to rapid filling, a modal analysis of vibrations in liquid-filled piping systems, efficient computation of the pipeline break problem, and fluid dynamics associated with ductile pipeline fracture.

  7. Fluid shear stress induces calcium transients in osteoblasts through depolarization of osteoblastic membrane.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqing; Liu, Xifang; Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Xu, Hao; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Jianbao

    2014-12-18

    Intracellular calcium transient ([Ca(2+)]i transient) induced by fluid shear stress (FSS) plays an important role in osteoblastic mechanotransduction. Changes of membrane potential usually affect [Ca(2+)]i level. Here, we sought to determine whether there was a relationship between membrane potential and FSS-induced [Ca(2+)]i transient in osteoblasts. Fluorescent dyes DiBAC4(3) and fura-2AM were respectively used to detect membrane potential and [Ca(2+)]i. Our results showed that FSS firstly induced depolarization of membrane potential and then a transient rising of [Ca(2+)]i in osteoblasts. There was a same threshold for FSS to induce depolarization of membrane potential and [Ca(2+)]i transients. Replacing extracellular Na(+) with tetraethylammonium or blocking stretch-activated channels (SACs) with gadolinium both effectively inhibited FSS-induced membrane depolarization and [Ca(2+)]i transients. However, voltage-activated K(+) channel inhibitor, 4-Aminopyridine, did not affect these responses. Removing extracellular Ca(2+) or blocking of L-type voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels (L-VSCCs) with nifedipine inhibited FSS-induced [Ca(2+)]i transients in osteoblasts too. Quantifying membrane potential with patch clamp showed that the resting potential of osteoblasts was -43.3mV and the depolarization induced by FSS was about 44mV. Voltage clamp indicated that this depolarization was enough to activated L-VSCCs in osteoblasts. These results suggested a time line of Ca(2+) mobilization wherein FSS activated SACs to promote Na(+) entry to depolarize membrane that, in turn, activated L-VSCCs and Ca(2+) influx though L-VSCCs switched on [Ca(2+)]i response in osteoblasts.

  8. Thermal fluids in low temperature systems. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lynde, P.G.; Yonkers, E.D.

    1996-02-01

    This article focuses on the lifeblood of these systems, the thermal transfer fluid itself. Low-temperature heat-transfer fluids are used to condition engine fluids, test chambers, cooling fluids, or a combination of these in environmental test facilities. To meet the specific test criteria, these fluids may be required to maintain pumpability and function with thermal efficiency at temperatures as low as {minus}120 F. This article presents information related to heat-transfer fluids used in low-temperature cooling applications. Three general groups of fluids are discussed: water-based antifreezes (ethylene and propylene glycol solutions); chlorinated solvents (methylene chloride and trichloroethylene); organic and synthetic coolants (diethylbenzene, two forms of dimethylpolysiloxane, heavy naphtha hydrotreated, and citrus terpene).

  9. Joule heating induced transient temperature field and its effects on electroosmosis in a microcapillary packed with microspheres.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Yang, C; Huang, X

    2005-08-02

    The Joule heating induced transient temperature field and its effect on the electroosmotic flow in a capillary packed with microspheres is analyzed numerically using the control-volume-based finite difference method. The model incorporates the coupled momentum equation for the electroosmotic velocity, the energy equations for the Joule heating induced temperature distributions in both the packed column and the capillary wall, and the mass and electric current continuity equations. The temperature-dependent physical properties of the electrolyte solution are taken into consideration. The characteristics of the Joule heating induced transient development of temperature and electroosmotic flow fields are studied. Specifically, the simulation shows that the presence of Joule heating causes a noticeable axial temperature gradient in the thermal entrance region and elevates a significant temperature increment inside the microcapillary. The temperature changes in turn greatly affect the electroosmotic velocity by means of the temperature-dependent fluid viscosity, dielectric constant, and local electric field strength. Furthermore, the model predicts an induced pressure gradient to counterbalance the axial variation of the electroosmotic velocity so as to maintain the fluid mass continuity. In addition, under specific conditions, the present model is validated by comparing with the existing analytical model and experimental data from the literature.

  10. Quantifying the residence time distribution of surface transient storage in streams: A computational fluid dynamics approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. R.; Drost, K. J.; Haggerty, R.; Apte, S. V.

    2011-12-01

    Transient storage is the sum of surface transient storage (STS) and hyporheic transient storage (HTS) and separating the two storage components is challenging. A number of studies have attempted to determine the relationship between transient storage and stream channel properties; however, difficulties ensue when attempting to calculate STS. The present study attempts to develop a predictive relationship between a stream's STS residence time distribution (RTD) to physically-based and field-measureable properties of natural streams. Our approach is to use field measurements to constrain a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of STS and use both to develop and test a predictive model of STS RTD. Field sites were located on Oak and Soap creeks in the Willamette Valley near Corvallis, Oregon. Data collection included: (1) obtaining detailed stream and STS zone morphologies through dense survey measurements; (2) determining turbulence parameters and CFD model boundary inputs from stream and storage zone velocity measurements with a Marsh-McBirney and acoustic Doppler velocimeter; (3) quantifying the RTD and its mean using salt tracer injections and electrical conductivity probes; and (4) estimating mixing layer parameters using velocity measurements and a visual dye. Preliminary results from the CFD model and comparison to field data will be presented, and resulting insights into the RTD.

  11. Steady and transient fluid shear stress stimulate NO release in osteoblasts through distinct biochemical pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, T. N.; Frangos, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid flow has been shown to be a potent stimulus in osteoblasts and osteocytes and may therefore play an important role in load-induced bone remodeling. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of flow-activated pathways. Previously we reported that fluid flow stimulates rapid and continuous release of nitric oxide (NO) in primary rat calvarial osteoblasts. Here we demonstrate that flow-induced NO release is mediated by shear stress and that this response is distinctly biphasic. Transients in shear stress associated with the onset of flow stimulated a burst in NO production (8.2 nmol/mg of protein/h), while steady flow stimulated sustained NO production (2.2 nmol/mg of protein/h). Both G-protein inhibition and calcium chelation abolished the burst phase but had no effect on sustained production. Activation of G-proteins stimulated dose-dependent NO release in static cultures of both calvarial osteoblasts and UMR-106 osteoblast-like cells. Pertussis toxin had no effect on NO release. Calcium ionophore stimulated low levels of NO production within 15 minutes but had no effect on sustained production. Taken together, these data suggest that fluid shear stress stimulates NO release by two distinct pathways: a G-protein and calcium-dependent phase sensitive to flow transients, and a G-protein and calcium-independent pathway stimulated by sustained flow.

  12. Fluid transients in pipes. Reduction and control of pressure surges in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-11-01

    ESDU 84013 provides a simplified graphical method for predicting maximum pressure changes in liquid filled pipework systems that may be treated as one-line systems. The method applies to pressures induced by partial or total valve closure, covering all common valve types, or pump trips. Data are also given for the estimation of the size of air vessel, situated just downstream of a pump, to protect against excessive upsurge and downsurge pressure changes following pump trip. A computer program is included to analyze transients in one-line systems and does not use the simplifying assumptions necessary for the graphical data. Practical worked examples, illustrating the use of the methods, are included and guidance is given on the data required for a full fluid transients analysis going beyond the scope of ESDU 84013.

  13. Draft tube pressure pulsation predictions in Francis turbines with transient Computational Fluid Dynamics methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melot, M.; Nennemann, B.; Désy, N.

    2014-03-01

    An automatic Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) procedure that aims at predicting Draft Tube Pressure Pulsations (DTPP) at part load is presented. After a brief review of the physics involved, a description of the transient numerical setup is given. Next, the paper describes a post processing technique, namely the separation of pressure signals into synchronous, asynchronous and random pulsations. Combining the CFD calculation with the post-processing technique allows the quantification of the potential excitation of the mechanical system during the design phase. Consequently it provides the hydraulic designer with a tool to specifically target DTPP and thus helps in the development of more robust designs for part load operation of turbines.

  14. WHTSubmersible: a simulator for estimating transient circulation temperature in offshore wells with the semi-submersible platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xun-cheng; Liu, Yong-wang; Guan, Zhi-chuan

    2015-10-01

    Offshore wellbore temperature field is significant to drilling fluids program, equipment selection, evaluations on potential risks caused by casing thermal stress, etc. This paper mainly describes the theoretical basis, module structure and field verification of the simulator WHTSubmersible. This computer program is a useful tool for estimating transient temperature distribution of circulating drilling fluid on semi-submersible platform. WHTSubmersible is based on a mathematical model which is developed to consider radial and axial two-dimensional heat exchange of the inner drill pipe, the annulus, the drill pipe wall, the sea water and the formation in the process of drilling fluid circulation. The solution of the discrete equations is based on finite volume method with an implicit scheme. This scheme serves to demonstrate the numerical solution procedure. Besides, the simulator also considers the heating generated by drilling fluid circulation friction, drill bit penetrating rocks, friction between the drill column and the borehole wall, and the temperature effect on thermal physical properties and rheology of the drilling fluid. These measures ensure more accurate results. The simulator has been programmed as a dynamic link library using Visual C++, the routine interface is simple, which can be connected with other computer programs conveniently. The simulator is validated with an actual well temperature filed developed on a semi-submersible platform in South China, and the error is less than 5 %.

  15. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  16. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Duane E. (Technical Monitor); Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic, and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development is necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500 to 550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  17. Thermo-Physical Properties of Intermediate Temperature Heat Pipe Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devarakonda, Angirasa; Anderson, William G.

    2004-01-01

    Heat pipes are among the most promising technologies for space radiator systems. The paper reports further evaluation of potential heat pipe fluids in the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 700 K in continuation of two recent reports. More thermo-physical property data are examined. Organic, inorganic and elemental substances are considered. The evaluation of surface tension and other fluid properties are examined. Halides are evaluated as potential heat pipe fluids. Reliable data are not available for all fluids and further database development in necessary. Many of the fluids considered are promising candidates as heat pipe fluids. Water is promising as a heat pipe fluid up to 500-550 K. Life test data for thermo-chemical compatibility are almost non-existent.

  18. Transient forcing effects on mixing of two fluids for a stable stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, María.; Dentz, Marco; Post, Vincent E. A.

    2016-09-01

    Mixing and dispersion in coastal aquifers are strongly influenced by periodic temporal flow fluctuations on multiple time scales ranging from days (tides), seasons (pumping and recharge) to glacial cycles (regression and transgressions). Transient forcing effects lead to a complex space and time-dependent flow response which induces enhanced spreading and mixing of dissolved substances. We study effective mixing and solute transport in temporally fluctuating one-dimensional flow for a stable stratification of two fluids of different density using detailed numerical simulation as well as accurate column experiments. We quantify the observed transport behaviors and interface evolution by a time-averaged model that is obtained from a two-scale expansion of the full transport problem, and derive explicit expressions for the center of mass and width of the mixing zone between the two fluids. We find that the magnitude of transient-driven mixing is mainly controlled by the hydraulic diffusivity, the period, and the initial interface location. At an initial time regime, mixing can be characterized by an effective dispersion coefficient and both the interface position and width evolve linearly in time. At larger times, the spatial variability of the flow velocity leads to a deceleration of the interface and a compression of its width, which is manifested by a subdiffusive evolution of its width as t1/2.

  19. A numerical solver for high dimensional transient Fokker-Planck equation in modeling polymeric fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yifei; Kumar, Mrinal

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a tensor decomposition approach combined with Chebyshev spectral differentiation is presented to solve the high dimensional transient Fokker-Planck equations (FPE) arising in the simulation of polymeric fluids via multi-bead-spring (MBS) model. Generalizing the authors' previous work on the stationary FPE, the transient solution is obtained in a single CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD) form for all times via the alternating least squares algorithm. This is accomplished by treating the temporal dimension in the same manner as all other spatial dimensions, thereby decoupling it from them. As a result, the transient solution is obtained without resorting to expensive time stepping schemes. A new, relaxed approach for imposing the vanishing boundary conditions is proposed, improving the quality of the approximation. The asymptotic behavior of the temporal basis functions is studied. The proposed solver scales very well with the dimensionality of the MBS model. Numerical results for systems up to 14 dimensional state space are successfully obtained on a regular personal computer and compared with the corresponding matrix Riccati differential equation (for linear models) or Monte Carlo simulations (for nonlinear models).

  20. Design and transient computational fluid dynamics study of a continuous axial flow ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Song, Xinwei; Untaroiu, Alexandrina; Wood, Houston G; Allaire, Paul E; Throckmorton, Amy L; Day, Steven W; Olsen, Donald B

    2004-01-01

    A ventricular assist device (VAD), which is a miniaturized axial flow pump from the point of view of mechanism, has been designed and studied in this report. It consists of an inducer, an impeller, and a diffuser. The main design objective of this VAD is to produce an axial pump with a streamlined, idealized, and nonobstructing blood flow path. The magnetic bearings are adapted so that the impeller is completely magnetically levitated. The VAD operates under transient conditions because of the spinning movement of the impeller and the pulsatile inlet flow rate. The design method, procedure, and iterations are presented. The VAD's performance under transient conditions is investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two reference frames, rotational and stationary, are implemented in the CFD simulations. The inlet and outlet surfaces of the impeller, which are connected to the inducer and diffuser respectively, are allowed to rotate and slide during the calculation to simulate the realistic spinning motion of the impeller. The flow head curves are determined, and the variation of pressure distribution during a cardiac cycle (including systole and diastole) is given. The axial oscillation of impeller is also estimated for the magnetic bearing design. The transient CFD simulation, which requires more computer resources and calculation efforts than the steady simulation, provides a range rather than only a point for the VAD's performance. Because of pulsatile flow phenomena and virtual spinning movement of the impeller, the transient simulation, which is realistically correlated with the in vivo implant scenarios of a VAD, is essential to ensure an effective and reliable VAD design.

  1. Chemical evolution of a high-temperature fracturing fluid

    SciTech Connect

    La Grone, C.C.; Baumgartner, S.A.; Woodroof, R.A.

    1985-10-01

    The use of conventional fracturing fluids has been limited traditionally to wells with BHT's of 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C) or less. Above 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C), high polymer concentrations and/or large fluid volumes are required to maintain effective fluid viscosities in the fracture. However, high polymer concentrations lead to high friction pressures, high costs, and high gel residue levels. The large fluid volumes also increase significantly the cost of the treatment. Greater understanding of fracturing fluid properties has led to the development of a crosslinked fracturing fluid designed specifically for wells with BHT's above 250/sup 0/F (121/sup 0/C). The specialized chemistry of this fluid combines a high-pH hydroxypropyl guar gum (HPG) solution with a high-temperature gel stabilizer and a proprietary crosslinker. The fluid remains stable at 250 to 350/sup 0/F (121 to 177/sup 0/C) for extended periods of time under shear. This paper describes the rheological evaluations used in the systematic development of this fracturing fluid. In field applications, this fracturing fluid has been used to stimulate successfully wells with BHT's ranging from 250 to 540/sup 0/F (121 to 282/sup 0/C). Case histories that include pretreatment and posttreatment production data are presented.

  2. Low-temperature heat capacity of magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. V.

    2008-12-01

    This paper continues the previous investigation into a recently discovered phenomenon of magnetic fluid solidification at temperatures essentially exceeding the freezing point of the base fluid. Physically, this phenomenon is related to the fact that at decreasing temperatures the magnetic fluid loses fluidity (with its viscosity tending to infinity) at a temperature higher than the freezing point of the base fluid. The main factor determining the freezing point is the type of the surface-active substance covering the particles. A group of different surfactants is examined with the aim of finding the lowest possible solidification temperature. The best result is obtained for linoleic acid (-100°C). In order to gain a deeper insight into the mechanisms of fluid solidification, a series of thermophysical measurements has been done. Heat capacity measurements made for an isooctane-based magnetic fluid stabilized by oleic acid at a temperature ranging from -130°C to 0 did not reveal any noticeable heat capacity anomalies in the vicinity of the solidification temperature. This suggests that the solidification of the magnetic fluid proceeds without phase transition. The highest peak of the heat flux is observed at the freezing point of isooctane. The position of the maximum slightly changes with the concentration of magnetic particles. With an increase of the concentration the temperature of the heat flux maximum decreases. In the presence of free oleic acid in isooctane a low peak is observed at a temperature of about -15°C. The peak position is independent of the oleic acid concentration. Tables 1, Figs 7, Refs 1.

  3. Identification of relaxation parameter of a physical model of vein from fluid transient experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hromádka, David; Chlup, Hynek; Žitný, Rudolf

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a new fluid transient inflation experiment applied on a physical model of vein (short latex tube, 5mm diameter). Aim of experiments is assessment of wall viscous behaviour from attenuated pulsation of the tested sample. Experimental data obtained from dynamic test are compared with numerical simulation and a viscoelastic parameter of Haslach constitutive model is identified. It is verified that the viscoelasticity of wall has a greater impact to the damping of pulsation than the viscosity of water filling the sample and the attached capillary. Volume of sample depends on internal pressure measured by a pressure transducer. The maximum dissipation constitutive model of viscoelastic wall sample was employed for description of viscoelastic behaviour. Frequency of natural oscillation of pressure is determined by inertia of water column within the tested sample and attached capillary and by the tested specimen stiffness. The pressure pulsations are initiated by a sudden pressure drop at water surface.

  4. Syndrome of Headache Accompanied with Transient Neurologic Deficits and Cerebrospinal Fluid Lymphocytosis

    PubMed Central

    ÇOBAN, Arzu; SHUGAIV, Erkingül; TÜZÜN, Erdem

    2013-01-01

    The syndrome of headache accompanied with transient neurologic deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL), is a rare, benign and self limiting syndrome. In the 2nd Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders, HaNDL syndrome was defined in secondary headache group as “Headache attributed to non-vascular intracranial disorder”. The etiology of HaNDL is still unknown. In recent years, some authors have shown that ion channel autoimmunity might at least partially contribute to HaNDL pathogenesis. In this paper, the definition of HaNDL syndrome, clinical picture and epidemiology of HaNDL syndrome, etiopathogenesis, differential diagnosis and treatment will be reviewed with the recent literature.

  5. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  6. Extended Vofire algorithm for fast transient fluid-structure dynamics with liquid-gas flows and interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, Vincent; Kokh, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    The present paper is dedicated to the simulation of liquid-gas flows with interfaces in the framework of fast transient fluid-structure dynamics. The two-fluid interface is modelled as a discontinuity surface in the fluid property. We use an anti-dissipative Finite-Volume discretization strategy for unstructured meshes in order to capture the position of the interface within a thin diffused volume. This allows to control the numerical diffusion of the artificial mixing between components and provide an accurate capture of complex interface motions. This scheme is an extension of the Vofire numerical solver. We propose specific developments in order to handle flows that involved high density ratio between liquid and gas. The resulting scheme capabilities are validated on basic examples and also tested against large scale fluid-structure test derived from the MARA 10 experiment. All simulations are performed using EUROPLEXUS fast transient dynamics software.

  7. Transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Zhang, Zhengfang; Liu, Dengying

    1999-06-01

    In this paper the transient temperature of liquid on micro metal layer heated by pulsed high energy laser is simulated by numerical method, especially around the theoretical homogeneous boiling point(THBP). The relationship between temperature rising rate and laser fluence is obtained; and under different temperature rising rate the distributions of temperature in liquid and metal around the THBP are obtained. With numerical simulation the relation between the temperature rising rate and laser parameters (fluence and pulse width) is known and so in the future the rapid transient boiling phenomenon could be studied and analyzed.

  8. Convective heat transfer to low-temperature fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Research into forced and natural convection processes in low-temperature (cryogenic) fluids is reviewed with primary emphasis on forced convection. Boundaries of the near-critical region are defined, fluid properties near the critical state are discussed, and heat-transfer processes around the critical point are described. The thermodynamics of the critical point is analyzed together with transport properties of a near-critical fluid, and the quantum states of low-temperature molecular hydrogen (para and ortho) are discussed. Experimental work on heat transfer in free, natural, and forced convection systems is briefly summarized. Graham's (1969) penetration model for near-critical fluids is outlined, near-critical heat transfer is discussed in relation to conventional geometric effects, and the effects of curvature on the properties of near-critical hydrogen are noted. Theoretical considerations in free and forced convection are examined.

  9. A review of progress towards understanding the transient global mean surface temperature response to radiative perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimori, Masakazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Shiogama, Hideo; Oka, Akira; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Ohgaito, Rumi; Kamae, Youichi

    2016-12-01

    The correct understanding of the transient response to external radiative perturbation is important for the interpretation of observed climate change, the prediction of near-future climate change, and committed warming under climate stabilization scenarios, as well as the estimation of equilibrium climate sensitivity based on observation data. It has been known for some time that the radiative damping rate per unit of global mean surface temperature increase varies with time, and this inconstancy affects the transient response. Knowledge of the equilibrium response alone is insufficient, but understanding the transient response of the global mean surface temperature has made rapid progress. The recent progress accompanies the relatively new concept of the efficacies of ocean heat uptake and forcing. The ocean heat uptake efficacy associates the temperature response induced by ocean heat uptake with equilibrium temperature response, and the efficacy of forcing compares the temperature response caused by non-CO2 forcing with that by CO2 forcing.

  10. Simulation of intracellular [Formula: see text] transients in osteoblasts induced by fluid shear stress and its application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junqing; Xie, Wenjun; Shi, Liang; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-04-01

    Intracellular [Formula: see text] transient induced by fluid shear stress (FSS) plays an important role in mechanical regulation of osteoblasts, but the cellular mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we constructed a mathematical model combined with experiments to elucidate it. Our simulated and experimental results showed that it was the delay of membrane potential repolarization to produce the refractory period of FSS-induced intracellular calcium transients in osteoblasts. Moreover, the results also demonstrated that the amplitude of FSS-induced intracellular calcium transient is crucial to the proliferation, while its duration is critical to the differentiation, of osteoblasts. Overall, the present study provides a way to understand the cellular mechanism of intracellular calcium transients in osteoblast induced by FSS and explains some of related physiological events.

  11. Measuring transient high temperature thermal phenomena in hostile environment

    SciTech Connect

    Brenden, B.B.; Hartman, J.S.; Reich, F.R.

    1980-01-01

    The design of equipment for measuring temperature and strain in a rapidly heated and pressurized cylinder of stainless steel is discussed. Simultaneous cinematography of the full circumference of the cylinder without interference with temperature and strain measurements is also illustrated. The integrated system uses a reflective chamber for the sample and requires careful consideration of the spectral energy distribution utilized by each instrument.

  12. Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures in a research engine for gas stream temperatures cycling between 1067 and 1567 k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauntner, D. J.; Yeh, F. C.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental transient turbine blade temperatures were obtained from tests conducted on air-cooled blades in a research turbojet engine, cycling between cruise and idle conditions. Transient data were recorded by a high speed data acquisition system. Temperatures at the same phase of each transient cycle were repeatable between cycles to within 3.9 K (7 F). Turbine inlet pressures were repeatable between cycles to within 0.32 N/sq cm (0.47 psia). The tests were conducted at a gas stream temperature of 1567 K (2360 F) at cruise, and 1067 K (1460 F) at idle conditions. The corresponding gas stream pressures were about 26.2 and 22.4 N/sq cm (38 and 32.5 psia) respectively. The nominal coolant inlet temperature was about 811 K (1000 F).

  13. Properties of planetary fluids at high shock pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; McCandless, P.C.

    1991-03-01

    Models of the interiors of Uranus and Neptune are discussed. Pressures and temperatures in the interiors can be achieved in representative constituent molecular fluids by shock compression. Experimental techniques are described and recent results for synthetic Uranus and hydrogen are discussed. 19 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The University of California, Los Angeles, the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  15. Flowmeter measures flow rates of high temperature fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1966-01-01

    Flowmeter in which flow rate is determined by measuring the position and thus the displacement of an internal float acted upon by the flowing fluid determines the flow rates of various liquid metals at elevated temperatures. Viscous forces cause the float to move from its mounted position, affording several means for measuring this motion and the flow rate.

  16. Transient thermal-mechanical behavior of cracked glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1997-06-01

    We consider the transient thermal-mechanical response of cracked G-10CR glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates with temperature-dependent properties. The glass-cloth-reinforced epoxy laminates are suddenly cooled on the surfaces. A generalized plane strain finite element model is used to study the influence of warp angle and crack formation on the thermal shock behavior of two-layer woven laminates at low temperatures. Numerical calculations are carried out, and the transient temperature distribution and the thermal-mechanical stresses are shown graphically.

  17. Computer program simplifies transient and steady-state temperature prediction for complex body shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giebler, K. N.

    1966-01-01

    Computer program evaluates heat transfer modes and calculates either the transient or steady-state temperature distributions throughout an object of complex shape when heat sources are applied to specified points on the object. It uses an electrothermal model to simulate the conductance, heat capacity, and temperature potential of the object.

  18. Evidence that transient changes in sudomotor output with cold and warm fluid ingestion are independently modulated by abdominal, but not oral thermoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nathan B.; Bain, Anthony R.; Cramer, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies were performed to 1) characterize changes in local sweat rate (LSR) following fluid ingestion of different temperatures during exercise, and 2) identify the potential location of thermoreceptors along the gastrointestinal tract that independently modify sudomotor activity. In study 1, 12 men cycled at 50% V̇o2peak for 75 min while ingesting 3.2 ml/kg of 1.5°C, 37°C, or 50°C fluid 5 min before exercise; and after 15, 30, and 45-min of exercise. In study 2, 8 men cycled at 50% V̇o2peak for 75 min while 3.2 ml/kg of 1.5°C or 50°C fluid was delivered directly into the stomach via a nasogastric tube (NG trials) or was mouth-swilled only (SW trials) after 15, 30, and 45 min of exercise. Rectal (Tre), aural canal (Tau), and mean skin temperature (Tsk); and LSR on the forehead, upper-back, and forearm were measured. In study 1, Tre, Tau, and Tsk were identical between trials, but after each ingestion, LSR was significantly suppressed at all sites with 1.5°C fluid and was elevated with 50°C fluid compared with 37°C fluid (P < 0.001). The peak difference in mean LSR between 1.5°C and 50°C fluid after ingestion was 0.29 ± 0.06 mg·min−1·cm−2. In study 2, LSR was similar between 1.5°C and 50°C fluids with SW trials (P = 0.738), but lower at all sites with 1.5°C fluid in NG trials (P < 0.001) despite no concurrent differences in Tre, Tau, and Tsk. These data demonstrate that 1) LSR is transiently altered by cold and warm fluid ingestion despite similar core and skin temperatures; and 2) thermoreceptors that independently and acutely modulate sudomotor output during fluid ingestion probably reside within the abdominal area, but not the mouth. PMID:24577060

  19. Evidence that transient changes in sudomotor output with cold and warm fluid ingestion are independently modulated by abdominal, but not oral thermoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Morris, Nathan B; Bain, Anthony R; Cramer, Matthew N; Jay, Ollie

    2014-04-15

    Two studies were performed to 1) characterize changes in local sweat rate (LSR) following fluid ingestion of different temperatures during exercise, and 2) identify the potential location of thermoreceptors along the gastrointestinal tract that independently modify sudomotor activity. In study 1, 12 men cycled at 50% Vo2peak for 75 min while ingesting 3.2 ml/kg of 1.5°C, 37°C, or 50°C fluid 5 min before exercise; and after 15, 30, and 45-min of exercise. In study 2, 8 men cycled at 50% Vo2peak for 75 min while 3.2 ml/kg of 1.5°C or 50°C fluid was delivered directly into the stomach via a nasogastric tube (NG trials) or was mouth-swilled only (SW trials) after 15, 30, and 45 min of exercise. Rectal (Tre), aural canal (Tau), and mean skin temperature (Tsk); and LSR on the forehead, upper-back, and forearm were measured. In study 1, Tre, Tau, and Tsk were identical between trials, but after each ingestion, LSR was significantly suppressed at all sites with 1.5°C fluid and was elevated with 50°C fluid compared with 37°C fluid (P < 0.001). The peak difference in mean LSR between 1.5°C and 50°C fluid after ingestion was 0.29 ± 0.06 mg·min(-1)·cm(-2). In study 2, LSR was similar between 1.5°C and 50°C fluids with SW trials (P = 0.738), but lower at all sites with 1.5°C fluid in NG trials (P < 0.001) despite no concurrent differences in Tre, Tau, and Tsk. These data demonstrate that 1) LSR is transiently altered by cold and warm fluid ingestion despite similar core and skin temperatures; and 2) thermoreceptors that independently and acutely modulate sudomotor output during fluid ingestion probably reside within the abdominal area, but not the mouth.

  20. THERMIT-2: a two-fluid model for light water reactor subchannel transient analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.E.; Kao, S.P.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1981-04-01

    The broad effort of developing and assessing the two fluid model computer code THERMIT for light water reactor (LWR) subchannel analysis is described. The developmental effort required a reformulation of the coolant-to-fuel rod coupling so that THERMIT is now capable of traditional coolant-centered subchannel analysis. A model that accounts for mass, momentum and energy transport between mesh cells due to turbulent mixing for two-phase conditions has also been introduced. This model is the first such attempt in a two-fluid context. The liquid-vapor interfacial exchange terms in the two-fluid model have been modified for improved accuracy. A systematic evaluation of the exchange models has been performed. The mass and momentum exchange rates between the vapor and the liquid for pre-CHF conditions were evaluated by comparison to void fraction data in over 30 one-dimensional steady-state experiments reported in the open literature. The liquid-vapor energy exchange rate for post-CHF conditions was assessed using 15 steady-state, one-dimensional wall temperature measurements. The mixing model was tested against G.E. and Ispra BWR and PWR rod-bundle measurements. Comparisons with these measurements have shown the appropriateness of this model.

  1. High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.

    2015-04-29

    High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased during set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.

  2. High vacuum measurements and calibrations, molecular flow fluid transient effects

    DOE PAGES

    Leishear, Robert A.; Gavalas, Nickolas A.

    2015-04-29

    High vacuum pressure measurements and calibrations below 1 × 10-8 Torr are problematic. Specifically, measurement accuracies change drastically for vacuum gauges when pressures are suddenly lowered in vacuum systems. How can gauges perform like this? A brief system description is first required to answer this question. Calibrations were performed using a vacuum calibration chamber with attached vacuum gauges. To control chamber pressures, vacuum pumps decreased the chamber pressure while nitrogen tanks increased the chamber pressure. By balancing these opposing pressures, equilibrium in the chamber was maintained at selected set point pressures to perform calibrations. When pressures were suddenly decreased duringmore » set point adjustments, a sudden rush of gas from the chamber also caused a surge of gas from the gauges to decrease the pressures in those gauges. Gauge pressures did not return to equilibrium as fast as chamber pressures due to the sparse distribution of gas molecules in the system. This disparity in the rate of pressure changes caused the pressures in different gauges to be different than expected. This discovery was experimentally proven to show that different gauge designs return to equilibrium at different rates, and that gauge accuracies vary for different gauge designs due to fluid transients in molecular flow.« less

  3. Transient magnetic field and temperature modeling in large magnet applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, H.; Hardy, G.E.; Peck, S.D.; Leung, E. . Space Systems Div.)

    1989-07-01

    This paper discusses a coupled magnetic/thermal model developed to study heat and magnetic field diffusion in conducting materials subject to time-varying external fields. There are numerous applications, both military and commercial. These include: energy storage devices, pulsed power transformers, and electromagnetic launchers. The time scales of interest may range from a magnetic field pulse of a microsecond in an electromagnetic launcher, to hundreds of seconds in an energy storage magnet. The problem can be dominated by either the magnetic field or heat diffusion, depending on the temperature and the material properties of the conductor. In general, heat diffuses much more rapidly in high electrical conductivity materials of cryogenic temperatures. The magnetic field takes longer to diffuse, since screening currents can be rapidly set up which shield the interior of the material from further magnetic field penetration. Conversely, in high resistivity materials, the magnetic field diffuses much more rapidly. A coupled two-dimensional thermal/magnetic model has been developed. The results of this model, showing the time and spatial variation of the magnetic field and temperature, are discussed for the projectile of an electromagnetic launcher.

  4. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Barrier Seals for Extreme Transient Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The assembly joints of modem solid rocket motor cases are generally sealed using conventional O-ring type seals. The 5500+ F combustion gases produced by rocket motors are kept a safe distance away from the seals by thick layers of phenolic insulation. Special compounds are used to fill insulation gaps leading up to the seals to prevent a direct flowpath to them. Design criteria require that the seals should not experience torching or charring during operation, or their sealing ability would be compromised. On limited occasions, NASA has observed charring of the primary O-rings of the Space Shuttle solid rocket nozzle assembly joints due to parasitic leakage paths opening up in the gap-fill compounds during rocket operation. NASA is investigating different approaches for preventing torching or charring of the primary O-rings. One approach is to implement a braided rope seal upstream of the primary O-ring to serve as a thermal barrier that prevents the hot gases from impinging on the O-ring seals. This paper presents flow, resiliency, and thermal resistance for several types of NASA rope seals braided out of carbon fibers. Burn tests were performed to determine the time to burn through each of the seals when exposed to the flame of an oxyacetylene torch (5500 F), representative of the 5500 F solid rocket motor combustion temperatures. Rope seals braided out of carbon fibers endured the flame for over six minutes, three times longer than solid rocket motor burn time. Room and high temperature flow tests are presented for the carbon seals for different amounts of linear compression. Room temperature compression tests were performed to assess seal resiliency and unit preloads as a function of compression. The thermal barrier seal was tested in a subscale "char" motor test in which the seal sealed an intentional defect in the gap insulation. Temperature measurements indicated that the seal blocked 2500 F combustion gases on the upstream side with very little temperature

  5. Equilibrium temperature in a clump of bacteria heated in fluid.

    PubMed Central

    Davey, K R

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model was developed and used to estimate quantitatively the "worst case", i.e., the longest, time to reach equilibrium temperature in the center of a clump of bacteria heated in fluid. For clumps with 10 to 10(6) cells heated in vapor, such as dry and moist air, and liquid fluids such as purees and juices, predictions show that temperature equilibrium will occur with sterilization temperatures up to 130 degrees C in under 0.02 s. Model development highlighted that the controlling influence on time for heating up the clump is the surface convection thermal resistance and that the internal conduction resistance of the clump mass is negligible by comparison. The time for a clump to reach equilibrium sterilization temperature was therefore decreased with relative turbulence (velocity) of the heating fluid, such as occurs in many process operations. These results confirm widely held suppositions that the heat-up time of bacteria in vapor or liquid is not significant with usual sterilization times. PMID:2306095

  6. On monitoring and forecasting of graphite stack temperature in transient modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebaev, A. M.; Ovsyannikova, N. V.; Ramazanov, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a method of monitoring and forecasting of the graphite stack temperature of the RBMK reactor in transient modes. The method is based on processing the in-core information about macro-distribution and mathematical model of distribution of temperature changes of the graphite stack in the reactor core. It is shown that the use of archival neutron field monitoring data allows determining the graphite stack temperature in the on-line mode.

  7. Application of computational fluid dynamics and fluid structure interaction techniques for calculating the 3D transient flow of journal bearings coupled with rotor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Guichang; Liu, Shulian; Zheng, Shuiying

    2012-09-01

    Journal bearings are important parts to keep the high dynamic performance of rotor machinery. Some methods have already been proposed to analysis the flow field of journal bearings, and in most of these methods simplified physical model and classic Reynolds equation are always applied. While the application of the general computational fluid dynamics (CFD)-fluid structure interaction (FSI) techniques is more beneficial for analysis of the fluid field in a journal bearing when more detailed solutions are needed. This paper deals with the quasi-coupling calculation of transient fluid dynamics of oil film in journal bearings and rotor dynamics with CFD-FSI techniques. The fluid dynamics of oil film is calculated by applying the so-called "dynamic mesh" technique. A new mesh movement approach is presented while the dynamic mesh models provided by FLUENT are not suitable for the transient oil flow in journal bearings. The proposed mesh movement approach is based on the structured mesh. When the journal moves, the movement distance of every grid in the flow field of bearing can be calculated, and then the update of the volume mesh can be handled automatically by user defined function (UDF). The journal displacement at each time step is obtained by solving the moving equations of the rotor-bearing system under the known oil film force condition. A case study is carried out to calculate the locus of the journal center and pressure distribution of the journal in order to prove the feasibility of this method. The calculating results indicate that the proposed method can predict the transient flow field of a journal bearing in a rotor-bearing system where more realistic models are involved. The presented calculation method provides a basis for studying the nonlinear dynamic behavior of a general rotor-bearing system.

  8. Imaging of Flame Temperature in a Combustion Chamber of Diesel Engine at Transient Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosaka, Hidenori; Sumi, Nariaki

    In this study, the flame temperature is visualized in a newly designed optical access diesel engine in order to investigate the mechanism of soot emission at transient operation mode. This single cylinder diesel engine has hydraulic variable valve system and an optical access window instead of an exhaust valve. Optical access window has cleaned by the laser cleaning technique in which the soot on the window is vaporized by the Nd:YAG laser incident. Using this optical engine, high speed photographs of flame were taken under transient operation, and flame temperature was analyzed by two color pyrometry.

  9. Method of Generating Transient Equivalent Sink and Test Target Temperatures for Swift BAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Swift mission has a 600-km altitude and a 22 degrees maximum inclination. The sun angle varies from 45 degrees to 180 degrees in normal operation. As a result, environmental heat fluxes absorbed by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) radiator and loop heat pipe (LHP) compensation chambers (CCs) vary transiently. Therefore the equivalent sink temperatures for the radiator and CCs varies transiently. In thermal performance verification testing in vacuum, the radiator and CCs radiated heat to sink targets. This paper presents an analytical technique for generating orbit transient equivalent sink temperatures and a technique for generating transient sink target temperatures for the radiator and LHP CCs. Using these techniques, transient target temperatures for the radiator and LHP CCs were generated for three thermal environmental cases: worst hot case, worst cold case, and cooldown and warmup between worst hot case in sunlight and worst cold case in the eclipse, and three different heat transport values: 128 W, 255 W, and 382 W. The 128 W case assumed that the two LHPs transport 255 W equally to the radiator. The 255 W case assumed that one LHP fails so that the remaining LHP transports all the waste heat from the detector array to the radiator. The 382 W case assumed that one LHP fails so that the remaining LHP transports all the waste heat from the detector array to the radiator, and has a 50% design margin. All these transient target temperatures were successfully implemented in the engineering test unit (ETU) LHP and flight LHP thermal performance verification tests in vacuum.

  10. Numerical Model of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Transport in the Subsurface with Pressure Transient, Density Effects, and Imbibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsell, D.; Rajaram, H.; Dempsey, D.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the transport of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid that is injected into the deep subsurface for shale gas extraction is important to ensure that shallow drinking water aquifers are not contaminated from an environmental and public health perspective and to understand formation damage from an oil and gas production perspective. Upward pressure gradients, permeable pathways such as faults or improperly abandoned wellbores, and the density contrast of the HF fluid to the surrounding brine encourages upward HF fluid migration. In contrast, the very low shale permeability and the imbibition of water into partially-saturated shale may sequester much of the HF fluid. Using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), single-phase flow and transport simulations are performed to quantify how much HF fluid is removed via the wellbore as flowback and produced water and how much reaches overlying aquifers; imbibition is calculated with a semi-analytical one-dimensional solution and treated as a sink term. The travel time for HF fluid to reach the shallow aquifers is highly dependent on the amount of water imbibed and the suction applied to the well. If imbibition rates and suction are small, the pressure transient due to injection and the density contrast allows rapid upward plume migration at early times. The density contrast diminishes considerably within tens to hundreds of years as mixing occurs. We present estimates of HF fluid migration to shallow aquifers during the first 1,000 years after hydraulic fracturing begins for ranges of subsurface properties.

  11. Fluid-fluid-solid triple point on melting curves at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, G. E.; Saitov, I. M.

    2016-11-01

    An analysis is presented of experimental data where fluid-fluid phase transitions are observed for different substances at high temperatures with triple points on melting curves. Viscosity drops point to the structural character of the transition, whereas conductivity jumps remind of both semiconductor-to-metal and plasma nature. The slope of the phase equilibrium dependencies of pressure on temperature and the consequent change of the specific volume, which follows from the Clapeyron-Clausius equation, are discussed. P(V, T) surfaces are presented and discussed for the phase transitions considered in the vicinity of the triple points. The cases of abnormal P(T) dependencies on curves of phase equilibrium are in the focus of discussion. In particular, a P(V, T) surface is presented when both fluid-fluid and melting P(T) curves are abnormal. Particular attention is paid to warm dense hydrogen and deuterium, where remarkable contradictions exist between data of different authors. The possible connection of the P(V, T) surface peculiarities with the experimental data uncertainties is outlined.

  12. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePlus

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... As the baby grows in the womb, the lungs make a special fluid. This fluid fills the ...

  13. Tile Lazor Code: Temperature Transients In Coated-Uncoated Cooled And Uncooled Laser Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, J. R.

    1988-06-01

    Lazar 'Lnc. has recently put on the market a new set of desk top Codes suitable for the Macintosh Plusnt that will allow the optical designer, systems analyst, or anyone that may be interested in the temperature transient when a reflective optical element is subjected to either continuous wave or repetitive pulsed laser radiation.

  14. Numerical solutions of reactive fluid flows during postignition transients in hybrid rocket systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.

    1972-01-01

    A computational method has been developed for the study of the post-ignition transients in hybrid rocket systems. The particular system chosen consisted of a gaseous oxidizer flowing within a tube of solid fuel, resulting in heterogeneous combustion. With the appropriate assumptions, two-dimensional, time-dependent conservation equations were derived for the reacting gas phase, and for the solid phase, in a cylindrical coordinate system. These were then programmed for numerical computation, using two implicit finite-difference schemes, the Lax-Wendroff scheme for the gas phase, and the Crank-Nicolson scheme for the solid phase. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions were represented, including heat and mass conservation at the interface between gas and solid. Initially, no attempt was made to relate the recession rate at the surface to the surface temperature, or to include heat transfer by radiation. A simple case was selected for preliminary calculations, with aluminum and oxygen as fuel and oxidizer, and aluminum oxide as the product.

  15. A Coupled Phase-Temperature Model for Dynamics of Transient Neuronal Signal in Mammals Cold Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Kirana, Firman Ahmad; Husein, Irzaman Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    We propose a theoretical model consisting of coupled differential equation of membrane potential phase and temperature for describing the neuronal signal in mammals cold receptor. Based on the results from previous work by Roper et al., we modified a nonstochastic phase model for cold receptor neuronal signaling dynamics in mammals. We introduce a new set of temperature adjusted functional parameters which allow saturation characteristic at high and low steady temperatures. The modified model also accommodates the transient neuronal signaling process from high to low temperature by introducing a nonlinear differential equation for the “effective temperature” changes which is coupled to the phase differential equation. This simple model can be considered as a candidate for describing qualitatively the physical mechanism of the corresponding transient process. PMID:27774102

  16. Mechanical transients of single toad stomach smooth muscle cells. Effects of lowering temperature and extracellular calcium

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Smooth muscle's slow, economical contractions may relate to the kinetics of the crossbridge cycle. We characterized the crossbridge cycle in smooth muscle by studying tension recovery in response to a small, rapid length change (i.e., tension transients) in single smooth muscle cells from the toad stomach (Bufo marinus). To confirm that these tension transients reflect crossbridge kinetics, we examined the effect of lowering cell temperature on the tension transient time course. Once this was confirmed, cells were exposed to low extracellular calcium [( Ca2+]o) to determine whether modulation of the cell's shortening velocity by changes in [Ca2+]o reflected the calcium sensitivity of one or more steps in the crossbridge cycle. Single smooth muscle cells were tied between an ultrasensitive force transducer and length displacement device after equilibration in temperature-controlled physiological saline having either a low (0.18 mM) or normal (1.8 mM) calcium concentration. At the peak of isometric force, after electrical stimulation, small, rapid (less than or equal to 1.8% cell length in 3.6 ms) step stretches and releases were imposed. At room temperature (20 degrees C) in normal [Ca2+]o, tension recovery after the length step was described by the sum of two exponentials with rates of 40-90 s-1 for the fast phase and 2-4 s-1 for the slow phase. In normal [Ca2+]o but at low temperature (10 degrees C), the fast tension recovery phase slowed (apparent Q10 = 1.9) for both stretches and releases whereas the slow tension recovery phase for a release was only moderately affected (apparent Q10 = 1.4) while unaffected for a stretch. Dynamic stiffness was determined throughout the time course of the tension transient to help correlate the tension transient phases with specific step(s) in the crossbridge cycle. The dissociation of tension and stiffness, during the fast tension recovery phase after a release, was interpreted as evidence that this recovery phase resulted from

  17. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure, high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, K.R.

    1983-06-06

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer include a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. Means are provided to generate an output indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms. The viscometer is comparatively simple, inexpensive, rugged, and does not require shaft seals.

  18. Rotational viscometer for high-pressure high-temperature fluids

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Kenneth R.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotational viscometer which is well adapted for use with fluids at high temperatures and/or pressures. In one embodiment, the viscometer includes a substantially non-magnetic tube having a closed end and having an open end in communication with a fluid whose viscosity is to be determined. An annular drive magnet is mounted for rotation about the tube. The tube encompasses and supports a rotatable shaft assembly which carries a rotor, or bob, for insertion in the fluid. Affixed to the shaft are (a) a second magnet which is magnetically coupled to the drive magnet and (b) a third magnet. In a typical operation, the drive magnet is rotated to turn the shaft assembly while the shaft rotor is immersed in the fluid. The viscous drag on the rotor causes the shaft assembly to lag the rotation of the drive magnet by an amount which is a function of the amount of viscous drag. A first magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the drive magnet. A second magnetic pickup generates a waveform whose phase is a function of the angular position of the third magnet. An output is generated indicative of the phase difference between the two waveforms.

  19. COMPARING SIMULATED AND EXPERIMENTAL HYSTERETIC TWO- PHASE TRANSIENT FLUID FLOW PHENOMENA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hysteretic model for two-phase permeability (k)-saturation (S)-pressure (P) relations is outlined that accounts for effects of nonwetting fluid entrapment. The model can be employed in unsaturated fluid flow computer codes to predict temporal and spatial fluid distributions. Co...

  20. Analytical solution and computer program (FAST) to estimate fluid fluxes from subsurface temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurylyk, Barret L.; Irvine, Dylan J.

    2016-02-01

    This study details the derivation and application of a new analytical solution to the one-dimensional, transient conduction-advection equation that is applied to trace vertical subsurface fluid fluxes. The solution employs a flexible initial condition that allows for nonlinear temperature-depth profiles, providing a key improvement over most previous solutions. The boundary condition is composed of any number of superimposed step changes in surface temperature, and thus it accommodates intermittent warming and cooling periods due to long-term changes in climate or land cover. The solution is verified using an established numerical model of coupled groundwater flow and heat transport. A new computer program FAST (Flexible Analytical Solution using Temperature) is also presented to facilitate the inversion of this analytical solution to estimate vertical groundwater flow. The program requires surface temperature history (which can be estimated from historic climate data), subsurface thermal properties, a present-day temperature-depth profile, and reasonable initial conditions. FAST is written in the Python computing language and can be run using a free graphical user interface. Herein, we demonstrate the utility of the analytical solution and FAST using measured subsurface temperature and climate data from the Sendia Plain, Japan. Results from these illustrative examples highlight the influence of the chosen initial and boundary conditions on estimated vertical flow rates.

  1. Synthetic Temperature-Depth Transients Based On Solar Forcing vs. Observed From Repeated Well Temperature Logs in the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, W.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Safanda, J.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature-logs in boreholes made initially two decades ago, and repeated a single decade ago, were recently repeated in 2006 and 2007. Modelling of the synthetic temperature-depth transients shows that repeated logs in the Canadian Prairies follow surface air temperature change forcing for the time interval between logs with surface temperature changes 0.2°C, and 0.4°C, for time spans of one and two decades, respectively. Composite top of the atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance recorded by satellite since 1978 was scaled to the regional latitude/longitude position of the repeated logging experiment to provide a forcing signal to model subsurface temperatures, as previously done with SAT data. The feedback parameter used is assumed a priori as 3.0*COS(latitude in degrees) - 0.42) Wm-2/°C, which yields 0.71 - 0.59 for latitudes 49-52° and mean sensitivity 1.41 - 1.69 °C/Wm-2. While these sensitivity values correspond to equilibrium models in the transient times before the climate system reaches the equilibrium, the temperature change is smaller and likely closer to 1°C/Wm-2. Even for this higher mean sensitivity, the temperature response is not large enough to explain the ground surface temperature change. As surface air temperature forcing explains the observed sub-surface transients, factors other than solar forcing must be responsible for the observed large recent warming, likely anthropogenic changes related to the greenhouse effect.

  2. Comparison of digital holographic interferometry and constant temperature anemometry for measurement of temperature field in fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít.; Vít, Tomáś; Dančová, Petra; Kopecký, Václav

    2015-05-01

    The presented paper shows possibility of using digital holographic interferometry (DHI) for temperature field measurement in moving fluids. This method uses a modified Twymann-Green setup having double sensitivity instead of commonly used Mach-Zehnder type of interferometer in order to obtain sufficient phases change of the field. On the other hand this setup is not light efficient as Mach-Zehnder interferometer. For measurement of the fast periodical phenomenon is not necessary to use always the high speed camera. One can consider this field to coherent phenomenon. With employing one digital camera synchronized to periodic field and external triggered one can capture whole period of the phenomenon. However the projections form one viewing direction of asymmetrical temperature field maybe misguided. Hence for sufficient examination of the asymmetrical field one should capture a large number of the phenomenon's projections from different viewing directions. This projections are later used for 3D tomographic reconstruction of the whole temperature field and its time evolution. One of the commonly used method for temperature field measurement in moving fluids is hot wire method - constant temperature anemometry (CTA). In contrast to whole field measurement of DHI it is an invasive point temperature measurement method. One of the limiting factor of using CTA in moving fluids is frequency of temperature changes. This changes should not exceed 1 kHz. This limitation could be overcome by using of optical methods such as DHI. The results of temperature field measurement achieved by both method are compared in the paper.

  3. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  4. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, James L.; Vresk, Josip

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  5. Effects of transient temperature conditions on the divergence of activated sludge bacterial community structure and function.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nalina; Allen, D Grant; Fulthorpe, Roberta R

    2007-06-01

    The effect of temperature fluctuations on bacterial community structure and function in lab-scale sequencing batch reactors treating bleached kraft mill effluent was investigated. An increase in temperature from 30 to 45 degrees C caused shifts in both bacterial community structure and function. Triplicate reactors were highly similar for 40 days following startup. After the temperature shift, their community structure and function started to diverge from each other and from the control. A multi-response permutation procedure confirmed that the variability in community structure between transient and control reactors were greater than that among the triplicate transient reactors. The fact that these disturbances manifest themselves in different ways in apparently identical reactors suggests a high degree of variability between replicate systems.

  6. An earthquake transient method for pebble-bed reactors and a fuel temperature model for TRISO fueled reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortensi, Javier

    This investigation is divided into two general topics: (1) a new method for analyzing the safe shutdown earthquake event in a pebble bed reactor core, and (2) the development of an explicit tristructural-isotropic fuel model for high temperature reactors. The safe shutdown earthquake event is one of the design basis accidents for the pebble bed reactor. The new method captures the dynamic geometric compaction of the pebble bed core. The neutronic and thermal-fluids grids are dynamically re-meshed to simulate the re-arrangement of the pebbles in the reactor during the earthquake. Results are shown for the PBMR-400 assuming it is subjected to the Idaho National Laboratory's design basis earthquake. The study concludes that the PBMR-400 can safely withstand the reactivity insertions induced by the slumping of the core and the resulting relative withdrawal of the control rods. This characteristic stems from the large negative Doppler feedback of the fuel. This Doppler feedback mechanism is a major contributor to the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors that use fuel based on TRISO particles. The correct prediction of the magnitude and time-dependence of this feedback effect is essential to the conduct of safety analyses for these reactors. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed in this work and incorporated in the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with more complex methods, requiring multi-TRISO calculations within one control volume. The performance of the code during fast and moderately-slow transients is verified. These analyses show how explicit TRISO models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature, and consequently, of the power escalation. In addition, a brief study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap inside the TRISO particles is included

  7. Transient Response of Arc Temperature and Iron Vapor Concentration Affected by Current Frequency with Iron Vapor in Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    TIG arc welding is chemically a joining technology with melting the metallic material and it can be high quality. However, this welding should not be used in high current to prevent cathode melting. Thus, the heat transfer is poor. Therefore, the deep penetration cannot be obtained and the weld defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed arc welding has been used for the improvement of this defect. The pulsed arc welding can control the heat flux to anode. The convention and driving force in the weld pool are caused by the arc. Therefore, it is important to grasp the distribution of arc temperature. The metal vapor generate from the anode in welding. In addition, the pulsed current increased or decreased periodically. Therefore, the arc is affected by such as a current value and current frequency, the current rate of increment and the metal vapor. In this paper, the transient response of arc temperature and the iron vapor concentration affected by the current frequency with iron vapor in pulsed arc was elucidated by the EMTF (ElectroMagnetic Thermal Fluid) simulation. As a result, the arc temperature and the iron vapor were transient response as the current frequency increase. Thus, the temperature and the electrical conductivity decreased. Therefore, the electrical field increased in order to maintain the current continuity. The current density and electromagnetic force increased at the axial center. In addition, the electronic flow component of the heat flux increased at the axial center because the current density increased. However, the heat conduction component of the heat flux decreased.

  8. Measurement of transient strain and surface temperature on simulated turbine blades using noncontacting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Pollack, F. G.

    1978-01-01

    Noncontacting techniques were used to measure strain and temperature in thermally cycled simulated turbine blades. An electro-optical extensometer was used to measure the displacement between parallel targets mounted on the leading edge of the blades throughout a complete heating and cooling cycle. An infrared photographic pyrometry method was used to measure blade steady state surface temperature. The blade was cyclically heated and cooled by moving it into and out of a Mach 1 hot-gas stream. Transient leading edge strain and steady state surface temperature distributions are presented for blades of three different configurations.

  9. Method and apparatus for controlling combustor temperature during transient load changes

    DOEpatents

    Clingerman, Bruce J.; Chalfant, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a combustor in a fuel cell apparatus includes a fast acting air bypass valve connected in parallel with an air inlet to the combustor. A predetermined excess quantity of air is supplied from an air source to a series connected fuel cell and combustor. The predetermined excess quantity of air is provided in a sufficient amount to control the temperature of the combustor during start-up of the fuel processor when the load on the fuel cell is zero and to accommodate any temperature transients during operation of the fuel cell.

  10. Dating fluid flow in developing passive margins using low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleadow, A. J.; Seiler, C.; Kohn, B. P.

    2012-12-01

    Despite the importance of fluid flow for mass flux and remobilisation in the Earth's crust, the age of past fluid flow events is often difficult to determine, particularly in the low-temperature environment of the shallow crust. This is partly because mineral phases precipitated by low-temperature fluids are either lacking or not very easy to date. Low-temperature thermochronometers such as apatite fission track (AFT) and (U-Th)/He (AHe) systems are, in theory, ideally suited to investigate the temperature interval of hydrothermal fluids near the Earth's surface and could be used to date fluid flow in the shallow crust. In passive margins, however, rift-related faulting, exhumation and post-breakup erosion often result in a much stronger regional cooling signal that relates to tectonic events rather than fluid flow. Moreover, the response of low-temperature thermochronometers to transient and potentially short-lived thermal events associated with hydrothermal fluids has not been studied systematically and is poorly known. In this study, we report AFT and AHe results from two young, regionally important faults that were active at different stages of passive margin evolution in the Gulf of California rift system. In the first case, we investigate the thermal history of the Libertad fault in central Baja California, which represents the breakaway fault for Late Miocene to recent rifting. Regional background AFT and AHe ages range between ~60-35Ma, they predate rifting and are likely associated with steady erosional unroofing of the basement. In contrast, a closely spaced 3D grid of samples from the Libertad escarpment records a distinct Late Miocene thermal event at ~9-8Ma that can be traced several kilometres along the base and a few hundred metres up the escarpment face. In the second case, we collected a 2D grid of samples orthogonal to the Ballenas transform, a transform fault located ~3-5km offshore the coast of central Baja California that is part of the current

  11. Predicting the Reliability of Ceramics Under Transient Loads and Temperatures With CARES/Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Jadaan, Osama M.; Palfi, Tamas; Baker, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    A methodology is shown for predicting the time-dependent reliability of ceramic components against catastrophic rupture when subjected to transient thermomechanical loads (including cyclic loads). The methodology takes into account the changes in material response that can occur with temperature or time (i.e., changing fatigue and Weibull parameters with temperature or time). This capability has been added to the NASA CARES/Life (Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures/Life) code. The code has been modified to have the ability to interface with commercially available finite element analysis (FEA) codes executed for transient load histories. Examples are provided to demonstrate the features of the methodology as implemented in the CARES/Life program.

  12. Transient modeling of the thermohydraulic behavior of high temperature heat pipes for space reactor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Michael L.; Doster, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Many proposed space reactor designs employ heat pipes as a means of conveying heat. Previous researchers have been concerned with steady state operation, but the transient operation is of interest in space reactor applications due to the necessity of remote startup and shutdown. A model is being developed to study the dynamic behavior of high temperature heat pipes during startup, shutdown and normal operation under space environments. Model development and preliminary results for a hypothetical design of the system are presented.

  13. A method for temperature estimation in high-temperature geothermal reservoirs by using synthetic fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggieri, Giovanni; Orlando, Andrea; Chiarantini, Laura; Borrini, Daniele; Weisenberger, Tobias B.

    2016-04-01

    Super-hot geothermal systems in magmatic areas are a possible target for the future geothermal exploration either for the direct exploitation of fluids or as a potential reservoirs of Enhanced Geothermal Systems. Reservoir temperature measurements are crucial for the assessment of the geothermal resources, however temperature determination in the high-temperature (>380°C) zone of super-hot geothermal systems is difficult or impossible by using either mechanical temperature and pressure gauges (Kuster device) and electronic devices. In the framework of Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration (IMAGE) project, we developed a method to measure high reservoir temperature by the production of synthetic fluid inclusions within an apparatus that will be placed in the high-temperature zone of geothermal wells. First experiments were carried out by placing a gold capsule containing pre-fractured quartz and an aqueous solution (10 wt.% NaCl + 0.4 wt.% NaOH) in an externally heated pressure vessel. Experimental pressure-temperature conditions (i.e. 80-300 bars and 280-400°C) were set close to the liquid/vapour curve of pure H2O or along the H2O critical isochore. The experiments showed that synthetic fluid inclusions form within a relatively short time (even in 48 hours) and that temperatures calculated from homogenization temperatures and isochores of newly formed inclusions are close to experimental temperatures. A second set of laboratory experiments were carried out by using a stainless steel micro-rector in which a gold capsule (containing the pre-fractured quartz and the aqueous solution) was inserted together with an amount of distilled water corresponding to the critical density of water. These experiments were conducted by leaving the new micro-reactor within a furnace at 400°C and were aimed to reproduce the temperature existing in super-hot geothermal wells. Synthetic fluid inclusions formed during the experiments had trapping temperature

  14. A New Correction Technique for Strain-Gage Measurements Acquired in Transient-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient-temperature environments if conventional correction methods are applied. As heating or cooling rates increase, temperature gradients between the strain-gage sensor and substrate surface increase proportionally. These temperature gradients introduce strain-measurement errors that are currently neglected in both conventional strain-correction theory and practice. Therefore, the conventional correction theory has been modified to account for these errors. A new experimental method has been developed to correct strain-gage measurements acquired in environments experiencing significant temperature transients. The new correction technique has been demonstrated through a series of tests in which strain measurements were acquired for temperature-rise rates ranging from 1 to greater than 100 degrees F/sec. Strain-gage data from these tests have been corrected with both the new and conventional methods and then compared with an analysis. Results show that, for temperature-rise rates greater than 10 degrees F/sec, the strain measurements corrected with the conventional technique produced strain errors that deviated from analysis by as much as 45 percent, whereas results corrected with the new technique were in good agreement with analytical results.

  15. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations and help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.

  16. One Crystal, Two Temperatures: Cryocooling Penalties Alter Ligand Binding to Transient Protein Sites

    DOE PAGES

    Fischer, Marcus; Shoichet, Brian K.; Fraser, James S.

    2015-05-28

    Interrogating fragment libraries by X-ray crystallography is a powerful strategy for discovering allosteric ligands for protein targets. Cryocooling of crystals should theoretically increase the fraction of occupied binding sites and decrease radiation damage. However, it might also perturb protein conformations that can be accessed at room temperature. Using data from crystals measured consecutively at room temperature and at cryogenic temperature, we found that transient binding sites could be abolished at the cryogenic temperatures employed by standard approaches. Finally, changing the temperature at which the crystallographic data was collected could provide a deliberate perturbation to the equilibrium of protein conformations andmore » help to visualize hidden sites with great potential to allosterically modulate protein function.« less

  17. Ductile creep and compaction: A mechanism for transiently increasing fluid pressure in mostly sealed fault zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleep, Norman H.; Blanpied, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A simple cyclic process is proposed to explain why major strike-slip fault zones, including the San Andreas, are weak. Field and laboratory studies suggest that the fluid within fault zones is often mostly sealed from that in the surrounding country rock. Ductile creep driven by the difference between fluid pressure and lithostatic pressure within a fault zone leads to compaction that increases fluid pressure. The increased fluid pressure allows frictional failure in earthquakes at shear tractions far below those required when fluid pressure is hydrostatic. The frictional slip associated with earthquakes creates porosity in the fault zone. The cycle adjusts so that no net porosity is created (if the fault zone remains constant width). The fluid pressure within the fault zone reaches long-term dynamic equilibrium with the (hydrostatic) pressure in the country rock. One-dimensional models of this process lead to repeatable and predictable earthquake cycles. However, even modest complexity, such as two parallel fault splays with different pressure histories, will lead to complicated earthquake cycles. Two-dimensional calculations allowed computation of stress and fluid pressure as a function of depth but had complicated behavior with the unacceptable feature that numerical nodes failed one at a time rather than in large earthquakes. A possible way to remove this unphysical feature from the models would be to include a failure law in which the coefficient of friction increases at first with frictional slip, stabilizing the fault, and then decreases with further slip, destabilizing it. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. A theoretical model of accelerated irradiation creep at low temperatures by transient interstitial absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, R.E.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Mansur, L.K.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed using the reaction rate theory of radiation effects to explain experimental results that showed higher than expected values of irradiation creep at low temperatures in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The customary assumption that the point defect concentrations are at steady state was not made; rather, the time dependence of the vacancy and interstitial concentrations and the creep rate were explicitly calculated. For temperatures below about 100 to 200{degree}C, the time required for the vacancy concentration to reach steady state exceeds the duration of the experiment. For example, if materials parameters typical of austenitic stainless steel are used, the calculated vacancy transient dose at 100{degree}C is about 100 dpa. At 550{degree}C this transient is over by 10{sup {minus}8} dpa. During the time that the vacancy population remains lower than its steady state value, dislocation climb is increased since defects of primarily one type are being absorbed. Using the time-dependent point defect concentrations, the dislocation climb velocity has been calculated as a function of time and a climb-enabled glide creep model had been invoked. The extended transient time for the vacancies leads to high creep rates at low temperatures. In agreement with the experimental observations, a minimum in the temperature dependence of creep is predicted at a temperature between 50 and 350{degree}C. The temperature at which the minimum occurs decreases as the irradiation dose increases. Predicted values of creep at 8 dpa are in good agreement with the results of the ORR-MFE-6J/7J experiment.

  19. Steady state and transient temperature distributions in the human thigh covered with a cooling pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leo, R. J.; Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was done on the performance of cooling pads attached to a human thigh. Each cooling pad consisted of a long, water cooled tube formed into a serpentine shape with uniform spacing between the parallel sections. The analytical work developed a cylindrical model for the human thigh. The transient times predicted by this model ranged from 25 to 80 minutes, which is reasonably close to the experimental results. Calculated and measured steady state temperature profiles were in fair agreement. The transient times associated with a change from a high metabolic rate of 1800 Btu/hr (528 w) to a low level of 300 Btu/hr (88 w), were found to be about 120 minutes. A change from 300 Btu/hr (264 w) to 300 Btu/hr (88 w) resulted in 90 to 100 minute transients. However, the transient times for a change in metabolic rate in the opposite direction from 300 Btu/hr (88 w) to 1800 Btu/hr (528 w) were 40 to 60 minutes.

  20. Simulation of transient fluid flow in mold region during steel continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Thomas, B. G.; Sengupta, J.

    2012-07-01

    A system of models has been developed to study transient flow during continuous casting and applied to simulate an event of multiple stopper-rod movements. It includes four sub-models to incorporate different aspects in this transient event. A three-dimensional (3-D) porous-flow model of the nozzle wall calculates the rate argon gas flow into the liquid steel, and the initial mean bubble size is estimated. Transient CFD models simulate multiphase flow of steel and gas bubbles in the Submerged Entry Nozzle (SEN) and mold and have been validated with experimental data from both nail dipping and Sub-meniscus Velocity Control (SVC) measurements. To obtain the transient inlet boundary conditions for the simulation, two semi-empirical models, a stopper-rod-position based model and a metal-level-based model, predict the liquid steel flow rate through the SEN based on recorded plant data. Finally the model system was applied to study the effects of stopper rod movements on SEN/mold flow patterns. Meniscus level fluctuations were calculated using a simple pressure method and compared well with plant measurements. Insights were gained from the simulation results to explain the cause of meniscus level fluctuations and the formation of sliver defects during stopper rod movements.

  1. Thermostat for high temperature and transient characterization of thin film thermoelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-02-01

    We have designed and fabricated a vacuum-insulated thermostat capable of measuring the thermoelectric properties of thin films from room temperature to 850 K. High speed Seebeck voltage transients are resolved to 200 ns with 63 dB dynamic range in order to directly measure thermoelectric device figure of merit. In-plane Seebeck coefficient probes measure voltage and temperature difference at identical locations with low parasitic contributions. In-plane electrical conductivity measurement is accomplished at high speed to avoid possible Seebeck voltage effect on van der Pauw measurements.

  2. Extension of Lithium Ion Cell Model to Include Transient and Low-Temperature Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.

    2014-08-01

    Current-interruption resistance measurements have been analysed in detail allowing the ESTEC lithium ion cell electrical/thermal model to be extended to allow modelling of cell voltage in response to imposed current changes at low temperatures and short time scales where activation polarisation becomes important. Whilst an unnecessary complication in most cases, this extension is needed under certain circumstances such as the simulation of Mars rover batteries forced to operate at low temperature and possible effects of battery voltage transients on battery-bus power subsystems. Comparison with test data show that the model is capable of giving a good fit in these circumstances.

  3. Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.

  4. Investigation of transient temperature's influence on damage of high-speed sliding electrical contact rail surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuyan; Sun, Shasha; Guo, Quanli; Yang, Degong; Sun, Dongtao

    2016-11-01

    In the high speed sliding electrical contact with large current, the temperature of contact area rises quickly under the coupling action of the friction heating, the Joule heating and electric arc heating. The rising temperature seriously affects the conductivity of the components and the yield strength of materials, as well affects the contact state and lead to damage, so as to shorten the service life of the contact elements. Therefore, there is vital significance to measure the temperature accurately and investigate the temperature effect on damage of rail surface. Aiming at the problem of components damage in high speed sliding electrical contact, the transient heat effect on the contact surface was explored and its influence and regularity on the sliding components damage was obtained. A kind of real-time temperature measurement method on rail surface of high speed sliding electrical contact is proposed. Under the condition of 2.5 kA current load, based on the principle of infrared radiation non-contact temperature sensor was used to measure the rail temperature. The dynamic distribution of temperature field was obtained through the simulation analysis, further, the connection between temperature changes and the rail surface damage morphology, the damage volume was analyzed and established. Finally, the method to reduce rail damage and improve the life of components by changing the temperature field was discussed.

  5. Fluid simulations of toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, I.; Isliker, H.; Pavlenko, V.P.; Hizanidis, K.; Vlahos, L.

    2006-02-15

    The evolution of the toroidal ion temperature gradient mode instability is numerically studied by using the equations based on the standard reactive fluid model. The long-term dynamics of the instability are investigated using random-phase, small-amplitude fluctuations for initial conditions. The main events during the evolution of the instability that lead to the formation of large-scale coherent structures are described and the role of the dominant nonlinearities is clarified. The polarization drift nonlinearity leads to the inverse energy cascade while the convective ion heat nonlinearity is responsible for the saturation of the instability. Finally, the sensitivity of the saturated state to the initial plasma conditions is examined.

  6. Links between fluid circulation, temperature, and metamorphism in subducting slabs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spinelli, G.A.; Wang, K.

    2009-01-01

    The location and timing of metamorphic reactions in subducting lithosph??re are influenced by thermal effects of fluid circulation in the ocean crust aquifer. Fluid circulation in subducting crust extracts heat from the Nankai subduction zone, causing the crust to pass through cooler metamorphic faci??s than if no fluid circulation occurs. This fluid circulation shifts the basalt-to-eclogite transition and the associated slab dehydration 14 km deeper (35 km farther landward) than would be predicted with no fluid flow. For most subduction zones, hydrothermal cooling of the subducting slab will delay eclogitization relative to estimates made without considering fluid circulation. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Perceptions of temperature, moisture and comfort in clothing during environmental transients.

    PubMed

    Li, Y

    2005-02-22

    A study has been carried out to investigate the psychophysical mechanisms of the perception of temperature and moisture sensations in clothing during environmental transients. A series of wear trials was conducted to measure the psychological perception of thermal and moisture sensations and the simultaneous temperature and humidity at the skin surface, fabric surface and in the clothing under simulated moderate rain conditions. Jumpers made from wool and acrylic fibres were used in the trial. Analysis has been carried out to study the relationship between psychological perceptions of temperature and moisture and the objectively measured skin and fabric temperatures and relative humidity in clothing microclimate. The perception of warmth seems to follow Fechner's law and Stevens' power law, having positive relationships with the skin temperature and fabric temperatures. The perception of dampness appears to follow Fechner's law more closely than Stevens' power law with a negative relationship with skin temperature, and is nonlinearly and positively correlated with relative humidity in clothing microclimate. The perception of comfort is positively related to the perception of warmth and negatively to the perception of dampness. This perception of comfort is positively related to the skin temperature, which appears to follow both Fechner's law and Stevens' law, also non-linearly and negatively related to relative humidity in clothing microclimate.

  8. TEMP: a computer code to calculate fuel pin temperatures during a transient. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, F E; Christensen, B Y; Gneiting, B C

    1980-04-01

    The computer code TEMP calculates fuel pin temperatures during a transient. It was developed to accommodate temperature calculations in any system of axi-symmetric concentric cylinders. When used to calculate fuel pin temperatures, the code will handle a fuel pin as simple as a solid cylinder or as complex as a central void surrounded by fuel that is broken into three regions by two circumferential cracks. Any fuel situation between these two extremes can be analyzed along with additional cladding, heat sink, coolant or capsule regions surrounding the fuel. The one-region version of the code accurately calculates the solution to two problems having closed-form solutions. The code uses an implicit method, an explicit method and a Crank-Nicolson (implicit-explicit) method.

  9. Code System for Transient and Steady-State Temperature Distribution in Multidimensional Systems.

    SciTech Connect

    EDWARDS, ARTHUR L.

    2005-10-24

    Version 01 TRUMP solves a general nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady‑state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables, temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time‑steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state.

  10. Modeling of Transient Heat Pipe Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, G. T.; Hartley, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The major goal of this project is to develop mathematical models of heat pipes which can be used to predict transient behavior under normal and adverse conditions. The models and solution techniques are to be formulated so that they can be incorporated into existing NASA structural design codes. The major parameters of interest are heat flux distribution, temperature distribution, working fluid pressure distribution, fluid and containment thermal and mechanical properties and geometry. Normal transient operation is taken to be operating conditions where the capillary structure remains fully wetted. Adverse transient operation occurs when drying, re-wetting, choking, non-continuum flow, thawing, freezing, etc., occur in the internal heat pipe working fluid.

  11. Estimating transient climate response using consistent temperature reconstruction methods in models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M.; Cowtan, K.; Hawkins, E.; Stolpe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Observational temperature records such as HadCRUT4 typically have incomplete geographical coverage and blend air temperature over land with sea surface temperatures over ocean, in contrast to model output which is commonly reported as global air temperature. This complicates estimation of properties such as the transient climate response (TCR). Observation-based estimates of TCR have been made using energy-budget constraints applied to time series of historical radiative forcing and surface temperature changes, while model TCR is formally derived from simulations where CO2 increases at 1% per year. We perform a like-with-like comparison using three published energy-budget methods to derive modelled TCR from historical CMIP5 temperature series sampled in a manner consistent with HadCRUT4. Observation-based TCR estimates agree to within 0.12 K of the multi-model mean in each case and for 2 of the 3 energy-budget methods the observation-based TCR is higher than the multi-model mean. For one energy-budget method, using the HadCRUT4 blending method leads to a TCR underestimate of 0.3±0.1 K, relative to that estimated using global near-surface air temperatures.

  12. Analytical study of the liquid phase transient behavior of a high temperature heat pipe. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roche, Gregory Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    The transient operation of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe is studied. The study was conducted in support of advanced heat pipe applications that require reliable transport of high temperature drops and significant distances under a broad spectrum of operating conditions. The heat pipe configuration studied consists of a sealed cylindrical enclosure containing a capillary wick structure and sodium working fluid. The wick is an annular flow channel configuration formed between the enclosure interior wall and a concentric cylindrical tube of fine pore screen. The study approach is analytical through the solution of the governing equations. The energy equation is solved over the pipe wall and liquid region using the finite difference Peaceman-Rachford alternating direction implicit numerical method. The continuity and momentum equations are solved over the liquid region by the integral method. The energy equation and liquid dynamics equation are tightly coupled due to the phase change process at the liquid-vapor interface. A kinetic theory model is used to define the phase change process in terms of the temperature jump between the liquid-vapor surface and the bulk vapor. Extensive auxiliary relations, including sodium properties as functions of temperature, are used to close the analytical system. The solution procedure is implemented in a FORTRAN algorithm with some optimization features to take advantage of the IBM System/370 Model 3090 vectorization facility. The code was intended for coupling to a vapor phase algorithm so that the entire heat pipe problem could be solved. As a test of code capabilities, the vapor phase was approximated in a simple manner.

  13. A numerical study of the Kernel-conformation transformation for transient viscoelastic fluid flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, F. P.; Oishi, C. M.; Afonso, A. M.; Alves, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a numerical application of a generic conformation tensor transformation for simulating highly elastic flows of non-Newtonian fluids typically observed in computational rheology. In the Kernel-conformation framework [14], the conformation tensor constitutive law for a viscoelastic fluid is transformed introducing a generic tensor transformation function. The numerical stability of the application of the Kernel-conformation for highly elastic flows is ultimately related with the specific kernel function used in the matrix transformation, but also to the existence of singularities introduced either by flow geometry or by the characteristics of the constitutive equation. In this work, we implement this methodology in a free-surface Marker-And-Cell discretization methodology implemented in a finite differences method. The main contributions of this work are two fold: on one hand, we demonstrate the accuracy of this Kernel-conformation formulation using a finite differences method and free surfaces; on the other hand, we assess the numerical efficiency of specific kernel functions at high-Weissenberg number flows. The numerical study considers different viscoelastic fluid flow problems, including the Poiseuille flow in a channel, the lid-driven cavity flow and the die-swell free surface flow. The numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of this methodology for high Weissenberg number flows using the Oldroyd-B model.

  14. Light intensity and temperature affect systemic spread of silencing signal in transient agroinfiltration studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Fauquet, Claude M

    2015-06-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific post-transcriptional gene inactivation mechanism that operates in diverse organisms and that can extend beyond its site of initiation, owing to the movement of the silencing signal, called non-autonomous gene silencing. Previous studies have shown that several factors manifest the movement of the silencing signal, such as the size (21 or 24 nucleotides) of the secondary small interfering RNA (siRNA) produced, the steady-state concentration of siRNAs and their cognate messenger RNA (mRNA) or a change in the sink-source status of plant parts affecting phloem translocation. Our study shows that both light intensity and temperature have a significant impact on the systemic movement of the silencing signal in transient agroinfiltration studies in Nicotiana benthamiana. At higher light intensities (≥ 450 μE/m(2)/s) and higher temperatures (≥ 30 °C), gene silencing was localized to leaf tissue that was infiltrated, without any systemic spread. Interestingly, in these light and temperature conditions (≥ 450 μE/m(2) /s and ≥ 30 °C), the N. benthamiana plants showed recovery from the viral symptoms. However, the reduced systemic silencing and reduced viral symptom severity at higher light intensities were caused by a change in the sink-source status of the plant, ultimately affecting the phloem translocation of small RNAs or the viral genome. In contrast, at lower light intensities (<300 μE/m(2)/s) with a constant temperature of 25 °C, there was strong systemic movement of the silencing signal in the N. benthamiana plants and reduced recovery from virus infections. The accumulation of gene-specific siRNAs was reduced at higher temperature as a result of a reduction in the accumulation of transcript on transient agroinfiltration of RNA interference (RNAi) constructs, mostly because of poor T-DNA transfer activity of Agrobacterium, possibly also accompanied by reduced phloem translocation.

  15. Characterization of reservoir rocks and fluids by surface electromagnetic transient methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, P.; Blohm, M.W.; Stoyer, C.H.; James, B.A.

    1992-07-17

    The objectives of this research were to improve the interpretations of transient electromagnetic (TEM) measurements over two-dimensional subsurface structures. TEM is a surface electromagnetic method employed in fossil energy reservoir exploration and characterization. Electrical measurements find application in (i) assisting in fossil energy exploration mainly in areas where seismic methods yield inadequate data quality, such as volcanic covered terrain, permafrost areas, and the Rocky Mountain Overthrust; (ii) mapping contacts between hydrocarbon and brines in shallow producing horizon, and (iii) in monitoring enhanced oil recovery processes which cause zones of lower resistivity. The work under this contract consisted of three tasks: (1) Selection of a test site and acquisition of a high density, 3-component data set over the test site; (2) development of finite element modeling algorithms for computing 3-D EM fields over 2-D EM fields over 2-D subsurface structures; and development of TEM 2-D subsurface imaging method. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  16. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados.

    PubMed

    Oxenford, Hazel A; Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world's coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future.

  17. Transient turbid water mass reduces temperature-induced coral bleaching and mortality in Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Vallès, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Global warming is seen as one of the greatest threats to the world’s coral reefs and, with the continued rise in sea surface temperature predicted into the future, there is a great need for further understanding of how to prevent and address the damaging impacts. This is particularly so for countries whose economies depend heavily on healthy reefs, such as those of the eastern Caribbean. Here, we compare the severity of bleaching and mortality for five dominant coral species at six representative reef sites in Barbados during the two most significant warm-water events ever recorded in the eastern Caribbean, i.e., 2005 and 2010, and describe prevailing island-scale sea water conditions during both events. In so doing, we demonstrate that coral bleaching and subsequent mortality were considerably lower in 2010 than in 2005 for all species, irrespective of site, even though the anomalously warm water temperature profiles were very similar between years. We also show that during the 2010 event, Barbados was engulfed by a transient dark green turbid water mass of riverine origin coming from South America. We suggest that reduced exposure to high solar radiation associated with this transient water mass was the primary contributing factor to the lower bleaching and mortality observed in all corals. We conclude that monitoring these episodic mesoscale oceanographic features might improve risk assessments of southeastern Caribbean reefs to warm-water events in the future. PMID:27326377

  18. High temperature creep of SiC densified using a transient liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Jou, Z.C.; Virkar, A.V. ); Cutler, R.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Silicon carbide-based ceramics can be rapidly densified above approximately 1850 {degree}C due to a transient liquid phase resulting from the reaction between alumina and aluminum oxycarbides. The resulting ceramics are fine-grained, dense, and exhibit high strength at room temperature. SiC hot pressed at 1875 {degree}C for 10 min in Ar was subjected to creep deformation in bending at elevated temperatures between 1500 and 1650 {degree}C in Ar. Creep was thermally activated with an activation energy of 743 kJ/mol. Creep rates at 1575 {degree}C were between 10{sup {minus}9}/s and 10{sup {minus}7}/s at an applied stress between 38 and 200 MPa, respectively, resulting in a stress exponent of {approx}1.7.

  19. Temperature and voltage coupling to channel opening in transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8).

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-12-19

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol(-1). The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening.

  20. Temperature and Voltage Coupling to Channel Opening in Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8)*♦

    PubMed Central

    Raddatz, Natalia; Castillo, Juan P.; Gonzalez, Carlos; Alvarez, Osvaldo; Latorre, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    Expressed in somatosensory neurons of the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion, the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channel is a Ca2+-permeable cation channel activated by cold, voltage, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and menthol. Although TRPM8 channel gating has been characterized at the single channel and macroscopic current levels, there is currently no consensus regarding the extent to which temperature and voltage sensors couple to the conduction gate. In this study, we extended the range of voltages where TRPM8-induced ionic currents were measured and made careful measurements of the maximum open probability the channel can attain at different temperatures by means of fluctuation analysis. The first direct measurements of TRPM8 channel temperature-driven conformational rearrangements provided here suggest that temperature alone is able to open the channel and that the opening reaction is voltage-independent. Voltage is a partial activator of TRPM8 channels, because absolute open probability values measured with fully activated voltage sensors are less than 1, and they decrease as temperature rises. By unveiling the fast temperature-dependent deactivation process, we show that TRPM8 channel deactivation is well described by a double exponential time course. The fast and slow deactivation processes are temperature-dependent with enthalpy changes of 27.2 and 30.8 kcal mol−1. The overall Q10 for the closing reaction is about 33. A three-tiered allosteric model containing four voltage sensors and four temperature sensors can account for the complex deactivation kinetics and coupling between voltage and temperature sensor activation and channel opening. PMID:25352597

  1. Fluid structure interaction and transient cavitation tests in a T-piece pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tijsseling, A. S.; Vardy, A. E.

    2005-08-01

    A physical model featuring the combined phenomena of fluid structure interaction (FSI) and vaporous cavitation is presented. The model is a closed, water-filled, T-shaped, laboratory pipe system, where the T-junction and the three closed ends are potential locations for strong FSI coupling and/or column separation. The system is suspended horizontally on long steel wires and is excited through external impact. The impact force and the static pressure of the liquid control the severity of the cavitation phenomenon.

  2. Temperature dependence of magnetic moments of nanoparticles and their dipole interaction in magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements were carried out for magnetite-based fluids over a wide temperature range. The fluids were stabilized with commonly used surfactants (fatty acids) and new surfactants (polypropylene glycol and tallow acids). The coefficients of temperature dependence of the particle magnetic moments were determined by fitting of the measured and calculated values of magnetic susceptibility. The influence of the inter-particle dipole-dipole interaction on the susceptibility was taken into account in the framework of A.O. Ivanov's model. The corrections for thermal expansion were determined by density measurements of the carrier fluid. The obtained values of temperature coefficients correlate to the solidification temperature of the fluid samples. For fluids with a low solidification temperature the value of the temperature coefficient of particle magnetization coincides with its value for bulk magnetite.

  3. Equations of state for fluids: empirical temperature dependence of the second virial coefficients.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianxiang; Gui, Yuanxing

    2007-09-20

    In this paper, an empirical dependence of the second virial coefficients is derived from equations of state. The second virial coefficient B2 is found to be a linear function of 1/T1+beta, where T is the temperature and beta is a constant and has different value for different substances. Excellent experimental supports to this relationship are reported for nonpolar fluids, polar fluids, heavy globular molecule fluids, and quantum fluid He-4.

  4. Room temperature screening of thermal conductivity by means of thermal transient measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Cañadas, Jorge; Cheng, Shudan; Márquez-García, Lourdes; Prest, Martin J.; Akbari-Rahimabadi, Ahmad; Min, Gao

    2016-10-01

    A proof of concept of the possibility to estimate thermal conductivity of bulk disc samples at room temperature by means of thermal decays is demonstrated. An experimental set-up was designed and fabricated, which is able to perform thermal transient measurements by using a specially designed multifunctional probe that has the ability to measure temperature at its tip. Initially, the probe is heated by a heater coil located in its interior until the tip temperature reaches a steady state. Then, the probe is contacted with a disc sample which produces a temperature decay until a new state is reached. The difference between the initial and final states temperatures shows a correlation with the thermal conductivity of the sample. Employing a calibration equation, obtained using reference materials, the thermal conductivity can be calculated. Reasonably good random and systematic errors (<13% and ~9% respectively) are obtained. Theoretical simulations performed using COMSOL show a good qualitative agreement with experimental results. This new method involves an inexpensive and simple set-up which can be especially useful for thermal conductivity screening and high-throughput measurements.

  5. Fluid pressure, sediment compressibility, and secular and transient strain in subduction prisms: Results from ODP CORK borehole hydrologic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. E.; Becker, K.

    2005-12-01

    Instruments for long-term hydrogeological monitoring in Ocean Drilling Program boreholes have been installed in five subduction zone settings, including Cascadia, Barbados, Mariana, Costa Rica, and Nankai. Pressure records reveal a wide range of average formation states that are consistent with formation permeability and proximity to sources of formation fluid. For example, near-hydrostatic pressures (excess pore-pressure ratio λ* ~ 0) are observed in the silty parts of the Nankai accretionary prism and in the upper oceanic crust beneath the Costa Rica prism, where well-drained conditions are inferred to be present, and elevated pressures (λ* up to 0.5) have been recorded in finer-grained sedimentary sections near the toe of prisms (e.g., at the level of the decollement in the fine-grained part of the Barbados accretionary prism). In no instances have high pressures (approaching lithostatic, λ* = 1) been observed, although operational difficulties have thus far precluded installations in underthrust sediment sequences where the highest average pressures are expected to be maintained. Records often reveal non-steady behavior, with variations occurring over a broad frequency range. Tidal-frequency variations present in all records are the consequence of oceanographic loading at the seafloor. The amplitude of these signals provide constraints on formation compressibility. Estimated values vary with depth and consolidation state, and range from 5 x 10-9 to 3.5 x 10-10 Pa-1. Once these signals are removed, other transients can be observed, including ones correlated with both seismic and aseismic deformation. Secular strain has been seen in hydrologically isolated parts of the formations at several sites. At the Mariana forearc site, seismic-frequency pressure variations and persistent positive pressure changes were observed at the time of two large (Mb ~ 7.0) deep (~ 70 km) earthquakes located roughly 200 km away; these signals are inferred to reflect local formation

  6. The role of grain boundaries and transient porosity in rocks as fluid pathways for reaction front propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, Laura; John, Timm; King, Helen E.; Geisler, Thorsten; Putnis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The pseudomorphic replacement of Carrara marble by calcium phosphates was used as a model system in order to study the influence of different fluid pathways for reaction front propagation induced by fluid-rock interaction. In this model, grain boundaries present in the rock as well as the transient porosity structures developing throughout the replacement reaction enable the reaction front to progress further into the rock as well as to the center of each single grain until transformation is complete. Hydrothermal treatment of the marble using phosphate bearing solutions led to the formation of hydroxylapatite and β-TCP; the formation of the latter phase was probably promoted by the presence of ∼ 0.6 wt.% Mg in the parent carbonate phase. Completely transformed single grains show a distinctive zoning, both in composition and texture. Whereas areas next to the grain boundary consist of nearly pure hydroxylapatite and show a coarse porosity, areas close to the center of the single grains show a high amount of β-TCP and a very fine porous microstructure. If fluorine was added as an additional solution component, up to 3 wt.% of F were incorporated into the product apatite and the formation of β-TCP was avoided. The use of the isotope 18O as a chronometer for the replacement reaction makes it possible to reconstruct the chronological development of the calcium phosphate reaction front. Raman analysis revealed that the incorporation of 18O in the PO4 tetrahedron of hydroxylapatite results in the development of distinct profiles in the calcium phosphate reaction front perpendicular to the grain boundaries of the marble. Through the use of the 18O chronometer, it is possible to estimate and compare the time effectiveness of the different fluid pathways in this model system. The results demonstrate that the grain boundaries are an effective pathway enabling the fluid to penetrate the rock more than one order of magnitude faster compared to the newly developing channel

  7. Distributed temperature sensing based on birefringence effect on transient Brillouin grating in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkang; Bao, Xiaoyi; Chen, Liang

    2009-09-01

    We demonstrate a time-domain distributed temperature sensing based on birefringence effect on transient Brillouin grating (TBG) in a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF), which uses two short pump pulses (2 ns) to excite a TBG and a long probe pulse (6 ns) to map the transient Brillouin grating spectrum (TBGS) associated with the birefringence. The 2 ns pump pulses defines a spatial resolution of 20 cm and a temperature measurement range of a few hundred degrees Celsius, and the long probe pulse provides a narrow TBGS with a temperature resolution of 0.07 degrees C.

  8. Temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for unsteady states: Switchable concentrator for transient heat flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Shen, Xiangying; Huang, Jiping; Ni, Yushan

    2016-04-01

    For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial - switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect.

  9. Prediction of transient temperatures for an air-cooled rotating disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. A.; Owen, J. M.

    1985-09-01

    The numerical solution of Fourier's conduction equation is used to compute the transient temperature distribution in a rotating disc. The convective boundary conditions for the disc surfaces are based on simple formulae obtained from the solutions of the boundary-layer equations, and the computed surface temperatures are compared with measurements made on a rotating-disc rig. Free-disc tests, at rotational Reynolds numbers up to Re sub phi = 2.5 x 10(6), are used to provide a datum from which to judge the numerical method. Although the numerical solution tends to overestimate the cooling rate of the heated free disc at high Reynolds numbers, the agreement between computed and measured temperatures is considered reasonable. Rotating-cavity tests, in which a heated disc is cooled by a radial outflow of air, are used to examine the suitability of the simple convective boundary conditions. As the computed temperatures show reasonable agreement with the measured values, it is suggested that the proposed formulae for convection in a rotating cavity might be useful for design purposes.

  10. Chemical reactions accompanying fluid flow through granite held in a temperature gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Morrow, C.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Distilled water was passed at a low rate down a temperature gradient through cylinders of Barre and Westerly Granite. Temperatures ranged from 80-100??C at the outer edges of the cylinders to 250-300??C in central, drilled holes which housed the heating coils. The measured permeabilities of the granite cylinders decreased by as much as two orders of magnitude in experiments of 1-3 weeks' duration. The amount of permeability decrease varied directly with temperature and inversely with the rate of fluid flow. The compositions of the fluids discharged from the granites were functions of temperature and flow rate as well as mineral composition, with dissolved silica concentrations showing trends different from those of the other analyzed species. Fluids from experiments run at higher temperatures but at much lower initial rates of fluid flow had higher concentrations of most ions but substantially lower dissolved silica contents. In contrast, an increase in temperature at similar rates of fluid flow resulted in higher silica concentrations. In the experiments, the distilled water acquired enough dissolved materials at high temperatures to become supersaturated with respect to several minerals at the low-temperature edges of the cylinders. Some of this material, particularly silica, was deposited along grain boundaries and microfractures, causing the observed permeability decreases. The very low rates of fluid flow in some high-temperature experiments significantly increased the rates of SiO2 precipitation and reduced dissolved silica concentrations relative to other species in the discharged fluids. ?? 1983.

  11. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  12. Transient studies of low temperature catalysts for methane conversion. Final report, [September 1992--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, E.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project is to use transient techniques to study gas surface interactions during the oxidative conversion of methane. Two groups of catalysts were studied: a double oxide of vanadium and phosphate or VPO, and double oxides of Ni, Co and Rh and lanthana. The objective of the studies involving the VPO catalyst was to understand gas-surface interactions leading to the formation of formaldehyde. In the second group of catalysts, involving metallo-oxides, the main objective was to study the gas-surface interactions that determine the selectivity to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons or synthesis gas. Transient techniques were used to study the methane-surface interactions and the role of lattice oxygen. The selection of the double oxides was made on the hypothesis that the metal oxide would provide an increase interaction with methane whereas the phosphate or lanthanide would provide the sites for oxygen adsorption. The hypothesis behind this selection of catalysts was that increasing the methane interaction with the catalysts would lower the reaction temperature and thus increase the selectivity to the desired products over the total oxidation reaction. In both groups of catalysts the role of Li as a modifier of the selectivity was also studied in detail.

  13. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System

    SciTech Connect

    Frisani, Angelo; Hassan, Yassin A; Ugaz, Victor M

    2010-11-02

    The design of passive heat removal systems is one of the main concerns for the modular very high temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTR) vessel cavity. The reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) is a key heat removal system during normal and off-normal conditions. The design and validation of the RCCS is necessary to demonstrate that VHTRs can survive to the postulated accidents. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) STAR-CCM+/V3.06.006 code was used for three-dimensional system modeling and analysis of the RCCS. A CFD model was developed to analyze heat exchange in the RCCS. The model incorporates a 180-deg section resembling the VHTR RCCS experimentally reproduced in a laboratory-scale test facility at Texas A&M University. All the key features of the experimental facility were taken into account during the numerical simulations. The objective of the present work was to benchmark CFD tools against experimental data addressing the behavior of the RCCS following accident conditions. Two cooling fluids (i.e., water and air) were considered to test the capability of maintaining the RCCS concrete walls' temperature below design limits. Different temperature profiles at the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) wall obtained from the experimental facility were used as boundary conditions in the numerical analyses to simulate VHTR transient evolution during accident scenarios. Mesh convergence was achieved with an intensive parametric study of the two different cooling configurations and selected boundary conditions. To test the effect of turbulence modeling on the RCCS heat exchange, predictions using several different turbulence models and near-wall treatments were evaluated and compared. The comparison among the different turbulence models analyzed showed satisfactory agreement for the temperature distribution inside the RCCS cavity medium and at the standpipes walls. For such a complicated geometry and flow conditions, the tested turbulence models demonstrated that the

  14. 3D transient model to predict temperature and ablated areas during laser processing of metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghshine, Babak. B.; Kiani, Amirkianoosh

    2017-02-01

    Laser processing is one of the most popular small-scale patterning methods and has many applications in semiconductor device fabrication and biomedical engineering. Numerical modelling of this process can be used for better understanding of the process, optimization, and predicting the quality of the final product. An accurate 3D model is presented here for short laser pulses that can predict the ablation depth and temperature distribution on any section of the material in a minimal amount of time. In this transient model, variations of thermal properties, plasma shielding, and phase change are considered. Ablation depth was measured using a 3D optical profiler. Calculated depths are in good agreement with measured values on laser treated titanium surfaces. The proposed model can be applied to a wide range of materials and laser systems.

  15. Extremely strong room-temperature transient photocurrent-detected magnetic resonance in organic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Rui; Cai, Min; Shinar, Ruth; Shinar, Joseph

    2012-12-01

    An extremely strong room-temperature photocurrent- (PC- or IPC-) detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) that elucidates transport and trapping phenomena in organic devices, in particular solar cells, is described. When monitoring the transient PCDMR in indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl)-hexoxy-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV)/Al devices, where the MEH-PPV film was baked overnight at 100 °C in O2, it is observed that |ΔIPC/IPC| peaks at values ≫1, where ΔIPC is the change in IPC induced by magnetic resonance conditions. Importantly, ΔIPC and IPC are of different origin. The mechanism most likely responsible for this effect is the spin-dependent formation of spinless bipolarons adjacent to negatively charged deep traps, apparently induced in particular by oxygen centers, to form trions.

  16. A thermodynamic framework for understanding temperature sensing by transient receptor potential (TRP) channels.

    PubMed

    Clapham, David E; Miller, Christopher

    2011-12-06

    The exceptionally high temperature sensitivity of certain transient receptor potential (TRP) family ion channels is the molecular basis of hot and cold sensation in sensory neurons. The laws of thermodynamics dictate that opening of these specialized TRP channels must involve an unusually large conformational standard-state enthalpy, ΔH(o): positive ΔH(o) for heat-activated and negative ΔH(o) for cold-activated TRPs. However, the molecular source of such high-enthalpy changes has eluded neurobiologists and biophysicists. Here we offer a general, unifying mechanism for both hot and cold activation that recalls long-appreciated principles of protein folding. We suggest that TRP channel gating is accompanied by large changes in molar heat capacity, ΔC(P). This postulate, along with the laws of thermodynamics and independent of mechanistic detail, leads to the conclusion that hot- and cold-sensing TRPs operate by identical conformational changes.

  17. Impact of combined transient plasma/heat loads on tungsten performance below and above recrystallization temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenhoff, Th.; Bardin, S.; Greuner, H.; Linke, J.; Maier, H.; Morgan, T. W.; Pintsuk, G.; Pitts, R. A.; Riccardi, B.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of recrystallization on thermal shock resistance has been identified as an issue that may influence the long term performance of ITER tungsten (W) divertor components. To investigate this issue a unique series of experiments has been performed on ITER divertor W monoblock mock-ups in three EU high heat flux facilities: GLADIS (neutral beam), JUDITH 2 (electron beam) and Magnum-PSI (plasma beam). To simulate ITER mitigated edge localised modes, heat fluxes between 0.11 and 0.6 GW m-2 were applied for Δt  <  1 ms. Two different base temperatures, Tbase  =  1200 °C and 1500 °C, were chosen on which ~18 000/100 000 transient events were superimposed representing several full ITER burning plasma discharges in terms of number of transients and particle fluence. An increase in roughening for both e-beam and plasma loaded surfaces was observed when loading during or after recrystallization and when loading at higher temperature. However, regarding the formation of cracks and microstructural modifications the response was different for e-beam and plasma loaded surfaces. The samples loaded in Magnum-PSI did not crack nor show any sign of recrystallization, even at Tbase  =  1500 °C. This could be a dynamic hydrogen flux effect, because pre-loading of samples with hydrogen neutrals (GLADIS) or without hydrogen (e-beam JUDITH 2) did not yield this result. These results show clearly that the loading method used when investigating and qualifying the thermal shock performance of materials for ITER and future fusion reactors can play an important role. This should be properly accounted for and in fact should be the subject of further R&D.

  18. Trace elements in migrating high-temperature fluids: Effects of diffusive exchange with the adjoining solid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenyon, Patricia M.

    1993-01-01

    Trace element concentrations and isotopic ratios are frequently used to study the behavior of high-temperature fluids in both metamorphic and igneous systems. Many theoretical formulations of the effects of fluid migration on trace elements have assumed instantaneous reequilibration between the migrating fluid and the solid material through which it is passing. This paper investigates the additional effects which arise when equilibration is not instantaneous due to a limited rate of diffusion in the solid, using an analytical steady state solution to a set of partial differential equations describing the exchange of trace elements between the fluid and the solid during the migration of the fluid.

  19. Temperature and electrical conductivity of the lunar interior from magnetic transient measurements in the geomagnetic tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    Magnetometers were deployed at four Apollo sites on the moon to measure remanent and induced lunar magnetic fields. Measurements from this network of instruments were used to calculate the electrical conductivity, temperature, magnetic permeability, and iron abundance of the lunar interior. Global lunar fields due to eddy currents, induced in the lunar interior by magnetic transients in the geomagnetic tail field, were analyzed to calculate an electrical conductivity profile for the moon: the conductivity increases rapidly with depth from 10 to the minus 9 power mhos/meter at the lunar surface to .0001 mhos/meter at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to .02 mhos/meter at 1000 km depth. A temperature profile is calculated from conductivity: temperature rises rapidly with depth to 1100 K at 200 km depth, then less rapidly to 1800 K at 1000 km depth. Velocities and thicknesses of the earth's magnetopause and bow shock are estimated from simultaneous magnetometer measurements. Average speeds are determined to be about 50 km/sec for the magnetopause and 70 km/sec for the bow shock, although there are large variations in the measurements for any particular boundary crossing.

  20. Transient temperature distributions in simple conducting bodies steadily heated through a laminar boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Hermon M

    1953-01-01

    An analysis is made of the transient heat-conduction effects in three simple semi-infinite bodies: the flat insulated plate, the conical shell, and the slender solid cone. The bodies are assumed to have constant initial temperatures and, at zero time, to begin to move at a constant speed and zero angle of attack through a homogeneous atmosphere. The heat input is taken as that through a laminar boundary layer. Radiation heat transfer and transverse temperature gradients are assumed to be zero. The appropriate heat-conduction equations are solved by an iteration method, the zeroeth-order terms describing the situation in the limit of small time. The method is presented and the solutions are calculated to three orders which are sufficient to give reasonably accurate results when the forward edge has attained one-half the total temperature rise (nose half-rise time). Flight Mach number and air properties occur as parameters in the result. Approximate expressions for the extent of the conduction region and nose half-rise times as functions of the parameters of the problem are presented. (author)

  1. Simplified simulation of the transient behavior of temperatures in the upper shaft of the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Saxen, H.

    1998-06-01

    The blast furnace is the principal process in the world for production of iron for primary steelmaking. The furnace acts as a huge countercurrent heat exchange and chemical reactor with complicated heat and mass transfer phenomena and chemical reactions. The flows of burden and gas in the blast furnace shaft strongly affect the fuel economy of the process. An optimal gas flow distribution, which is obtained by controlling the burden distribution, leads to a high utilization degree of the reducing gas, smooth burden descent, and little wear of the furnace lining. Here, a one-dimensional dynamic model of the upper part of the blast furnace shaft is applied to study the evolution of gas and burden temperatures, mainly in order to shed light on the transient phenomena after charging dumps of burden. The effects of irregularities in the burden descent and charging are also studied briefly. The simulations demonstrate that the temperatures of the burden layers in the lower part of the simulated region assume a quasi-steady state, indicating that the changes in the top gas temperature experienced immediately after a dump of burden arise primarily because of heat transfer between the gas and the dump. These results support the idea that such temporary changes can be interpreted in terms of distribution of the dumps on the burden surface.

  2. Transient temperature rise in a mouse due to low-frequency regional hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trakic, Adnan; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2006-04-01

    A refined nonlinear heat transfer model of a mouse has been developed to simulate the transient temperature rise in a neoplastic tumour and neighbouring tissue during regional hyperthermia using a 150 kHz inductive coil. In this study, we incorporate various bio-energetic enhancements to the heat transfer equation and numerical validations based on experimental findings for the mouse, in terms of nonlinear metabolic heat production, homeothermy, blood perfusion parameters, thermoregulation, psychological and physiological effects. The discretized bio-heat transfer equation has been validated with the commercial software FEMLAB on a canonical multi-sphere object before applying the scheme to the inhomogeneous mouse voxel phantom. The time-dependent numerical results of regional hyperthermia of mouse thigh have been compared with the available experimental temperature results with only a few small disparities. During the first 20 min of local unfocused heating, the temperature in the tumour and the surrounding tissue increased by around 7.5 °C. The objective of this preliminary study was to develop a validated electrothermal numerical scheme for inductive hyperthermia of a small mammal with the intention of expanding the model into a complete numerical solution involving ferromagnetic nanoparticles for targeted heating of tumours at low frequencies. In addition, the numerical scheme herein could assist in optimizing and tailoring of focused electromagnetic fields for hyperthermia.

  3. A numerical comparison with an exact solution for the transient response of a cylinder immersed in a fluid. [computer simulated underwater tests to determine transient response of a submerged cylindrical shell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltrud, M. E.; Lucas, D. S.

    1979-01-01

    The transient response of an elastic cylindrical shell immersed in an acoustic media that is engulfed by a plane wave is determined numerically. The method applies to the USA-STAGS code which utilizes the finite element method for the structural analysis and the doubly asymptotic approximation for the fluid-structure interaction. The calculations are compared to an exact analysis for two separate loading cases: a plane step wave and an exponentially decaying plane wave.

  4. Electric heating for high-temperature heat transport fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, J. T.

    1985-12-01

    Recent experiences with electric resistance heaters at the solar Central Receiver Test Facility are described. These heaters are used to preheat or maintain equipment used with molten nitrate salt or liquid sodium heat transfer fluids. Results of extensive testing performed to improve the reliability of similar heating systems used in the development program for the sodium-cooled liquid metal fast breeder nuclear reactor are also reviewed. Recommendations are made for increasing the reliability of trace heating systems for high-melting-point heat transfer fluids including thermal design, heating element selection, installation, insulation, and controls.

  5. Transient tension changes initiated by laser temperature jumps in rabbit psoas muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Y E; McCray, J A; Ranatunga, K W

    1987-01-01

    1. A technique was developed to generate 2-8 degrees C step temperature perturbations (T-jumps) in single muscle fibres to study the thermodynamics of muscle contraction. A solid-state pulsed holmium laser emitting at 2.065 microns heated the fibre and surrounding solution in approximately 150 mus. The signal from a 100 microns thermocouple fed back to a heating wire maintained the elevated temperature after the laser pulse. 2. Tension of glycerol-extracted muscle fibres from rabbit psoas muscle did not change significantly following T-jumps when the fibre was relaxed. 3. In rigor, tension decreased abruptly on heating indicating normal (not rubber-like) thermoelasticity. The thermoelastic coefficient (negative ratio of relative length change to relative temperature change) of the fibre was estimated to be -0.021 at sarcomere lengths of 2.5-2.8 microns. Rigor tension was constant after the temperature step and returned to the original value on recooling. 4. In maximal Ca2+ activation, tension transients initiated by T-jumps had several phases. An immediate tension decrease suggests that thermoelasticity during contraction is similar to that in rigor. Active tension then recovered to the value before the T-jump with an apparent rate constant of approximately 400 s-1 (at 10-20 degrees C). This rate constant did not have an appreciable dependence on the final temperature. Finally, tension increased exponentially to a new higher level with a rate constant of approximately 20 s-1 at 20 degrees C. This rate constant increased with temperature with a Q10 of 1.4. 5. At submaximal Ca2+ activation the tension rise was followed by a decay to below the value before the T-jump. This decline was expected from the temperature dependence of steady pCa-tension curves. The final tension decline occurred on the 1-5 s time scale. 6. The value and amplitude dependence of the rate constant for the quick recovery following T-jumps were similar to those of the quick recovery following

  6. Shaken. Not stirred-temperature change and heat loss during delivery of IV fluids

    PubMed

    Fields; Hsu

    2000-10-01

    Microwave-heated intravenous fluids are used in the rewarming of hypothermic patients. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of both shaking of the microwaved bag and heat loss during delivery. METHODS: Twenty 1-liter normal saline bags were heated individually in a commercial microwave, immediately randomized into a "shaken" or a "non-shaken" group. The temperature of the fluid was recorded initially out of the bag and then at one-minute intervals by a blinded observer as the fluid ran "wideopen" through ambient temperature tubing. RESULTS: No statistically significant temperature difference occurred in any of the measured time intervals between the shaken and the non-shaken bags. Seventy percent of the overall temperature losses occurred in the first three minutes out of the microwave for both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Absence of shaking of the microwaved fluids does not produce "hot spots." Higher initial temperatures out of the bag should be considered as well as warming of the IV tubing.

  7. Thermographic NDT based on transient temperature field under Joule effect heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sakagami, Takahide; Ogura, Keiji

    1994-12-31

    The thermographic NDT based on the transient temperature distribution under the Joule effect heating by an electric current was discussed. Two different types of inspection methods, i.e., the singular method and the insulation method were examined. The singular method based on the heat concentration at the crack tip was successfully applied to the identification of the through-thickness and surface cracks embedded in steel plates. The resolution of the crack identification by the singular method was examined by the current intensity factor and the thermal diffusion length. The insulation method based on the temperature turbulence appears on the sample surface due to the thermal insulation of the defect was tested for the identification of the delaminated defect in CFRP. Two methods of the Joule effect heating, the direct current application and the induction heating, were successfully applied for the thermographic NDT of the delaminated defects in CFRP samples. The thermographic NDT developed in this study was found to be applicable to nondestructive flaw- and defect-inspection both in metallic and composite materials.

  8. Standard test method for low-temperature viscosity of automotive fluid lubricants measured by Brookfield viscometer

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method describes the use of the Brookfield viscometer for the determination of the low-shear-rate viscosity of automotive fluid lubricants in the temperature range from -5 to -40/sup 0/C. The viscosity range is 1000 to 1,000,000 cP (mPa.s). A lubricant fluid sample is cooled in an air bath at test temperature for 16 h. It is carried in an insulated container to a nearby Brookfield viscometer where its Brookfield viscosity is measured at any test temperature in the range from -5 to -40/sup 0/C. The low-temperature, low-shear-rate viscosity of gear oils, automatic transmission fluids, torque and tractor fluids, and industrial and automotive hydraulic oils are frequently specified by Brookfield viscosities.

  9. Properties of planetary fluids at high pressure and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Holmes, N. C.; Radousky, H. B.; Ree, F. H.; Ross, M.; Young, D. A.; Nicol, M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to derive models of the interiors of Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter and Saturn, researchers studied equations of state and electrical conductivities of molecules at high dynamic pressures and temperatures. Results are given for shock temperature measurements of N2 and CH4. Temperature data allowed demonstration of shock induced cooling in the the transition region and the existence of crossing isotherms in P-V space.

  10. Influence of shear history at bottomhole temperature on fracturing-fluid efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, P.C.; Penny, G.S.

    1989-05-01

    The effects of downhole environmental conditions on fracturing-fluid rheology and leakoff were evaluated in a flow loop at simulated fracture conditions. Linear and crosslinked gel fluids were subjected to shear rates of 50 to 100 seconds/sup -1/ past core for 4 hours at temperatures of 75 to 250/sup 0/F (24 to 121/sup 0/C). Nonlinear effects commonly observed with crosslinked gel fluids diminished as the fluid was sheared. Shearing for 30 minutes to 4 hours at 100 seconds/sup -1/ before a fluid-loss test was run resulted in leakoff following square-root-of-time behavior. Spurt loss increased for crosslinked gel fluids as the fluid degraded, whether by enzyme or oxidative mechanism. The leakoff coefficient decreased slightly with time under shearing conditions. Although the polymer was breaking, the absolute amount of polymer available for deposition did not change. The apparent viscosity of fluid remaining within the fracture was also investigated. During initial fluid leakoff, polymer was concentrated as a gel filter cake at the fracture face. Once an equilibrium filter-cake thickness was achieved, however, fluid loss to the formation resulted in an increase in the polymer concentration in the remaining fluid and hence an increase in apparent viscosity.

  11. Time-resolved nature of exhaust gas emissions and piston wall temperature under transient operation in a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Reksowardojo, I.K.; Ogawa, Hideyuki; Miyamoto, Noboru; Enomoto, Yoshiteru; Kitamura, Toru

    1996-09-01

    Diesel combustion and exhaust gas emissions under transient operation (when fuel amounts abruptly increased) were investigated under a wide range of operating conditions with a newly developed gas sampling system. The relation between gas emissions and piston wall temperatures was also investigated. The results indicated that after the start of acceleration NOx, THC and smoke showed transient behaviors before reaching the steady state condition. Of the three gases, THC was most affected by piston wall temperature; its concentration decreased as the wall temperature increased throughout the acceleration except immediately after the start of acceleration. The number of cycles, at which gas concentrations reach the steady-state value after the start of acceleration, were about 1.2 times the cycle constant of the piston wall temperature for THC, and 2.3 times for smoke.

  12. Charge recombination reactions in photosystem II. 2. Transient absorbance difference spectra and their temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, B; Brettel, K; van Mieghem, F; Kamlowski, A; Rutherford, A W; Schlodder, E

    1995-04-11

    Absorbance difference spectra of the transient states in photosystem II (PS II) have been examined in the Qv absorption region between 660 and 700 nm. The P680+Pheo-/P680Pheo, 3P680/P680, and P680+QA-/P680QA spectra were measured in O2-evolving PS II core complexes from Synechococcus and PS II-enriched membrane fragments from spinach. The low-temperature absorbance difference spectra vary only slightly between both PS II preparations. The 3P680/P680 spectrum is characterized by a bleaching at 685 nm at 25 K and indicates weak exciton coupling with neighboring pigment(s). We conclude that P680 absorbs at 685 nm in more intact PS II preparations at cryogenic temperature. The difference spectra of the radical pairs are strongly temperature dependent. At low temperature the P680+QA-/P680QA- spectrum exhibits the strongest bleaching at 675 nm whereas the P680+Phe-/P680Pheo spectra show two distinct bleaching bands at 674 and 684 nm. It is suggested that an electrochronic red shift resulting in a bleaching at 675 nm and an absorbance increase at about 682 nm dominates the spectral features of the charge-separated states. On the basis of the present results and those in the literature, we conclude that the interactions between the pigments and especially the organization of the primary donor must be quite different in PS II compared to bacterial reaction centers, although the basic structural arrangement of the pigments might be similar. Spectral data obtained with samples in the presence of singly and doubly reduced QA indicate that the primary photochemistry in PS II is not strongly influenced by the redox state of QA at low temperature and confirm the results of the accompanying paper [Van Mieghem, F. J. E., Brettel, K., Hillmann, B., Kamlowski, A., Rutherford, A. W., & Schlodder, E. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 4798-4813]. The spectra of the primary radical pair and the reaction center triplet obtained with more intact PS II preparations differ widely from those of D1/D2

  13. Natural occurrence and significance of fluids indicating high pressure and temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roedder, E.

    1981-01-01

    Most natural minerals have formed from a fluid phase such as a silicate melt or a saline aqueous solution. Fluid inclusions are tiny volumes of such fluids that were trapped within the growing crystals. These inclusions can provide valuable but sometimes ambiguous data on the temperature, pressure, and composition of these fluids, many of which are not available from any other source. They also provide "visual autoclaves" in which it is possible to watch, through the microscope, the actual phase changes take place as the inclusions are heated. This paper reviews the methods of study and the results obtained, mainly on inclusions formed from highly concentrated solutions, at temperatures ???500??C. Many such fluids have formed as a result of immiscibility with silicate melt in igneous or high-temperature metamorphic rocks. These include fluids consisting of CO2, H2O, or hydrosaline melts that were <50% H2O. From the fluid inclusion evidence it is clear that a boiling, very hot, very saline fluid was present during the formation of most of the porphyry copper deposits in the world. Similarly, from the inclusion evidence it is clear that early (common) pegmatites formed from essentially silicate melts and that the late, rare-element-bearing and chamber-type pegmatites formed from a hydrosaline melt or a more dilute water solution. The evidence on whether this change in composition from early to late solutions was generally continuous or involved immiscibility is not as clear. ?? 1981.

  14. Temperature-sensitive transient receptor potential channels in corneal tissue layers and cells.

    PubMed

    Mergler, Stefan; Valtink, Monika; Takayoshi, Sumioka; Okada, Yuka; Miyajima, Masayasu; Saika, Shizuya; Reinach, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    We here provide a brief summary of the characteristics of transient receptor potential channels (TRPs) identified in corneal tissue layers and cells. In general, TRPs are nonselective cation channels which are Ca(2+) permeable. Most TRPs serve as thermosensitive molecular sensors (thermo-TRPs). Based on their functional importance, the possibilities are described for drug-targeting TRP activity in a clinical setting. TRPs are expressed in various tissues of the eye including both human corneal epithelial and endothelial layers as well as stromal fibroblasts and stromal nerve fibers. TRP vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) heat receptor, also known as capsaicin receptor, along with TRP melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) cold receptor, which is also known as menthol receptor, are prototypes of the thermo-TRP family. The TRPV1 functional channel is the most investigated TRP channel in these tissues, owing to its contribution to maintaining tissue homeostasis as well as eliciting wound healing responses to injury. Other thermo-TRP family members identified in these tissues are TRPV2, 3 and 4. Finally, there is the TRP ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) cold receptor. All of these thermo-TRPs can be activated within specific temperature ranges and transduce such inputs into chemical and electrical signals. Although several recent studies have begun to unravel complex roles for thermo-TRPs such as TRPV1 in corneal layers and resident cells, additional studies are needed to further elucidate their roles in health and disease.

  15. Transient 21st Century Changes in Daily-Scale Temperature Extremes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, M.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2012-12-01

    A key question for policy and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We therefore use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment driven by the A1B emission scenario to investigate the transient changes in the frequency, duration and magnitude of six daily-scale hot and cold extreme indices throughout the 21st century in the United States. We evaluate these changes within a time of emergence framework and calculate the emergence of a permanent exceedence above the colder part of the current (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and further analyze whether a new norm, with the distribution centered on the current distribution's maxima/minima, emerges. We find that hot extremes will permanently exceed the current distribution's colder half in large parts of the U.S. during the 21st century, along with the emergence of a new hot extremes norm. The changes are particularly robust for tropical nights in the Eastern U.S. and for the exceedence of the 95th daily-maximum-temperature percentile in the West and the Northeast. Conversely, no widespread emergence for a permanent exceedence or a new norm is found for cold extremes, with the exception of cold spell duration and frost day frequency. Accordingly, our analysis implies unprecedented heat stress in many parts of the U.S. by the mid century under increase radiative forcing, as well as cold extremes that, although less frequent, remain at least occasionally as long and as severe as in the current climate.

  16. Transient simulation of coolant peak temperature due to prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after the vehicle is keyed-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Suh Chyn; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Md. Abul; Hazrat, Md. Ali

    2014-01-01

    Automotive designers should design a robust engine cooling system which works well in both normal and severe driving conditions. When vehicles are keyed-off suddenly after some distance of hill-climbing driving, the coolant temperature tends to increase drastically. This is because heat soak in the engine could not be transferred away in a timely manner, as both the water pump and cooling fan stop working after the vehicle is keyed-off. In this research, we aimed to visualize the coolant temperature trend over time before and after the vehicles were keyed-off. In order to prevent coolant temperature from exceeding its boiling point and jeopardizing engine life, a numerical model was further tested with prolonged fan and/or water pump operation after keying-off. One dimensional thermal-fluid simulation was exploited to model the vehicle's cooling system. The behaviour of engine heat, air flow, and coolant flow over time were varied to observe the corresponding transient coolant temperatures. The robustness of this model was proven by validation with industry field test data. The numerical results provided sensible insights into the proposed solution. In short, prolonging fan operation for 500 s and prolonging both fan and water pump operation for 300 s could reduce coolant peak temperature efficiently. The physical implementation plan and benefits yielded from implementation of the electrical fan and electrical water pump are discussed.

  17. Temperature-stable polymeric fluid-loss reducer tolerant to high electrolyte contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Son, A.J.; Ballard, T.M.; Loftin, R.E.

    1984-09-01

    Drilling deep hot wells with water-based fluids has been limited by lack of additives that would maintain stable rheologies and fluid loss properties at elevated temperatures. The problem is accelerated when high chemical contaminants are encountered, such as salts of sodium, calcium, magnesium, etc. The copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride is stable at temperatures over 400/sup 0/F and it functions as a rheology stabilizer but does not provide fluid loss control. A new synthetic polymer is now available which provides dual function of rheological stabilization and fluid loss control under such unfavorable conditions. The paper discusses the unique functionalities of the new breed of polymers, performance under drastic conditions of temperature and electrolyte contamination and field case histories.

  18. Quasi-Transient Calculation of Surface Temperatures on a Reusable Booster System with High Angles of Attack

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    heat transfer coefficient is investigated by 72 Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) models at angles of attack ranging from 0? to 90? over a range of Mach...of the recovery temperature based heat transfer coefficient is investigated by 72 Computational Fluid Dynamics ( CFD ) models at angles of attack...conductive wall. Then, the heat transfer coefficient is calculated at many steady state CFD solutions for a reusable booster system concept on a given

  19. Transient twenty-first century changes in daily-scale temperature extremes in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Martin; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.

    2014-03-01

    A key question for climate mitigation and adaptation decisions is how quickly significant changes in temperature extremes will emerge as greenhouse gas concentrations increase, and whether that emergence will be uniform between hot and cold extremes and across different geographic areas. We use a high-resolution, multi-member ensemble climate model experiment over the United States (U.S.) to investigate the transient response of the annual frequency, duration and magnitude of 8 daily-scale extreme temperature indices during the twenty-first century of the A1B emissions scenario. We evaluate the time of emergence of a permanent exceedance (PE) above the colder part of the historical (1980-2009) extremes distribution, and the time of emergence of a new norm (NN) centered on the historical maxima (for hot extremes) or minima (for cold extremes). We find that during the twenty-first century, hot extremes permanently exceed the historical distribution's colder half over large areas of the U.S., and that the hot extremes distribution also becomes centered on or above the historical distribution's maxima. The changes are particularly robust for the exceedance of the annual 95th percentile of daily maximum temperature over the West and the Northeast (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2030 and of a NN by 2040), for warm days over the Southwest (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030), and tropical nights over the eastern U.S. (with the earliest emergence of a PE by 2020 and of a NN by 2030). Conversely, no widespread emergence of a PE or a NN is found for most cold extremes. Exceptions include frost day frequency (with a widespread emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2030 and of a NN by 2040 over the western U.S.), and cold night frequency (with an emergence of a PE below the historical median frequency by 2040 and of a NN by 2060 in virtually the entire U.S.). Our analysis implies a transition over the next half century

  20. Simultaneous 2-D Measurements of Transient Velocity and Temperature Fields in a Thermal Starting Plume: Laboratory Models of Entrainment and Structure of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kurita, K.

    2002-12-01

    Both numerical and experimental models of thermal plumes suggest that mantle plumes entrain surrounding mantle and their morphology (temperature and compositional fields in the plume head) evolves as they rise. Recent geochemical and isotopic studies of mantle plume products have revealed mixing of the ambient mantle with the primitive plume source. In order to make a quantitative comparison of the geophysical modeling with geological evidences, it is desired to show a precise image of spatial and temporal evolution of temperature and compositional fields in the plumes. Here, we present preliminary results of our laboratory experiments on thermal starting plumes using a quantitative technique of digital image processing. By coupling Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) with Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) we can measure simultaneous 2-dimensional transient velocity and temperature fields in a thermal plume. Our experiments were conducted in a transparent rectangular tank containing a viscous fluid. Buoyancy in the form of heat was injected into the fluid by operating a heater at the base of the tank. The flow was marked with tracer particles for velocity and with the fluorescence dye, Rhodamine B, for temperature measurements. The particles and the fluorescence dye were illuminated and exited by a thin vertical sheet of laser light that was oriented to contain the axis of symmetry. We succeeded in simultaneous measurements of ascent velocity of the plume head, precise velocity field within the plume head, and evolution of the temperature field. This makes clear their relation and is useful for considering the entrainment process of plumes. Our aim of this study is to clarify the physics of entrainment and mixing phenomena of starting plumes, and to make quantitative geophysical models of mantle plumes connecting with geological and seismic evidences. In this presentation, we will show that this quantitative technique is a powerful tool for approaching these issues.

  1. A New Model for Temperature Jump at a Fluid-Solid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Jian-Jun; Teo, Ji Bin Melvin; Chan, Weng Kong

    2016-01-01

    The problem presented involves the development of a new analytical model for the general fluid-solid temperature jump. To the best of our knowledge, there are no analytical models that provide the accurate predictions of the temperature jump for both gas and liquid systems. In this paper, a unified model for the fluid-solid temperature jump has been developed based on our adsorption model of the interfacial interactions. Results obtained from this model are validated with available results from the literature. PMID:27764230

  2. Model energy landscapes of low-temperature fluids: Dipolar hard spheres.

    PubMed

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2007-07-01

    An analytical model of non-Gaussian energy landscape of low-temperature fluids is developed based on the thermodynamics of the fluid of dipolar hard spheres. The entire excitation profile of the liquid, from the high-temperature liquid to the point of ideal-glass transition, has been obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. The fluid of dipolar hard spheres loses stability close to the point of ideal-glass transition transforming via a first-order transition into a columnar liquid phase of dipolar chains locally arranged in a body-centered-tetragonal order. Significant non-Gaussianity of the energy landscape is responsible for narrowing of the distribution of potential energies and energies of inherent structures with decreasing temperature. We suggest that the proposed functionality of the enumeration function is widely applicable to both polar and nonpolar low-temperature liquids.

  3. Use of infrared thermometry to measure lavage and intravenous fluid temperature.

    PubMed

    Wright, R O; Jay, G D; Becker, B M; Linakis, J G

    1995-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the accuracy of tympanic thermometers for measuring the temperature of warmed fluids in fluid bags and in tubing at the delivery site (ie, beside the intravenous [IV] catheter). One-liter 0.9% saline bags were warmed in a microwave oven. A thermocouple electronic temperature probe was then used to measure the reference temperature. The probe was inserted into each bag and bathed in the fluid. Temperature changes were recorded simultaneously over a 20-minute period using the probe and a First Temp Tympanic Thermometer (Intelligent Medical Systems, Inc, Carlsbad, CA). The warmed fluid was then allowed to run through microdrip IV tubing. Temperature of the effluent was measured in the tubing using the tympanic thermometer externally and the probe internally at the same point. The two measures were compared using linear regression and Student's t tests. Overall, the correlation between the two probes was r = 0.99 for both the fluid bags and the IV tubing. The overall mean differences were small, 0.7 degrees C and 1.2 degrees C for the bags and tubing, respectively, but they were statistically different (P > .05). Data were analyzed in three temperature ranges: < 36 degrees C, 36 degrees C to 41 degrees C, and 41 degrees C. Again, small differences were found on the order of 1 degree C. It was concluded that infrared thermometry is an accurate method for measuring the initial and delivery temperature of warmed fluids. Although tympanic thermometer measurements were statistically different from reference readings in certain temperature ranges, these differences were small and not clinically significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Evaluation of Heat Pipe Working Fluids In The Temperature Range 450 to 700 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William G.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Angirasa, Devarakonda; Mi, Ye

    2004-02-01

    In the temperature range of 450-700 K, there are currently no working fluids that have been validated for heat pipes and loop heat pipes, with the exception of water in the lower portion of the range. This paper reviews a number of potential working fluid including several organic fluids, mercury, sulfur/iodine, and halides. Physical property data are used where available, and estimated where unavailable using standard methods. The halide salts appear to possess attractive properties, with good liquid transport factors, and suitable vapor pressures. Where nuclear radiation is not a consideration, other potential working fluids are aniline, naphthalene, toluene, and phenol. The limited available life test data available suggests that toluene, naphthalene, and some of the halides are compatible with stainless steel, while the other fluids have not been tested.

  5. Measurement of temperature and velocity fields in a convective fluid flow in air using schlieren images.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, A; Moreno-Hernández, D; Guerrero-Viramontes, J A

    2013-08-01

    A convective fluid flow in air could be regulated if the physical process were better understood. Temperature and velocity measurements are required in order to obtain a proper characterization of a convective fluid flow. In this study, we show that a classical schlieren system can be used for simultaneous measurements of temperature and velocity in a convective fluid flow in air. The schlieren technique allows measurement of the average fluid temperature and velocity integrated in the direction of the test beam. Therefore, in our experiments we considered surfaces with isothermal conditions. Temperature measurements are made by relating the intensity level of each pixel in a schlieren image to the corresponding knife-edge position measured at the exit focal plane of the schlieren system. The same schlieren images were also used to measure the velocity of the fluid flow by using optical flow techniques. The algorithm implemented analyzes motion between consecutive schlieren frames to obtain a tracked sequence and finally velocity fields. The proposed technique was applied to measure the temperature and velocity fields in natural convection of air due to unconfined and confined heated rectangular plates.

  6. Two-Phase Working Fluids for the Temperature Range 50 to 350 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Owzarski, P. C.

    1977-01-01

    The decomposition and corrosion of two-phase heat transfer liquids and metal envelopes have been investigated on the basis of molecular bond strengths and chemical thermodynamics. Potentially stable heat transfer fluids for the temperature range 100 C to 350 C have been identified, and reflux heat pipes tests initiated with 10 fluids and carbon steel and aluminum envelopes to experimentally establish corrosion behavior and noncondensable gas generation rates.

  7. Final Report: Ionization chemistry of high temperature molecular fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Fried, L E

    2007-02-26

    With the advent of coupled chemical/hydrodynamic reactive flow models for high explosives, understanding detonation chemistry is of increasing importance to DNT. The accuracy of first principles detonation codes, such as CHEETAH, are dependent on an accurate representation of the species present under detonation conditions. Ionic species and non-molecular phases are not currently included coupled chemistry/hydrodynamic simulations. This LDRD will determine the prevalence of such species during high explosive detonations, by carrying out experimental and computational investigation of common detonation products under extreme conditions. We are studying the phase diagram of detonation products such as H{sub 2}O, or NH{sub 3} and mixtures under conditions of extreme pressure (P > 1 GPa) and temperature (T > 1000K). Under these conditions, the neutral molecular form of matter transforms to a phase dominated by ions. The phase boundaries of such a region are unknown.

  8. Transient temperature and sea level response of a two-dimensional ocean-climate model to greenhouse gas increases

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, L.D.D.

    1994-09-01

    A two-dimensional dynamical ocean model is coupled to an energy balance climate model and used to investigate the transient surface temperature and sea level response to greenhouse gas increases. For most experiments a step function surface-troposphere heating perturbation of 6 W/sq m is applied. A transient reduction in the thermohaline overturning flux of 15-30% occurs in most experiments, although in some cases a near-total circulation collapse occurs within the first 100 years and lasts 700-1000 years. The transient circulation decrease is attributed to the greater rate of downward penetration of the heating anomaly in downwelling rather than in upwelling regions and is not a result of reduced convection. For experiments in which the steady state circulation is qualitatively unchanged after a heating perturbation, the surface temperature response is roughly uniform with latitude, in the absence of ice and snow. However, in some cases a heating perturbation induces the transition from a one-cell to a two-cell overturning circulation, or causes a complete reversal in the direction of overturning when a single cell spans both hemispheres, causing marked latitudinal variations in the surface temperature response.

  9. Fluid-inclusion evidence for previous higher temperatures in the miravalles geothermal field, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, K.E.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Heating and freezing data were obtained for liquid-rich secondary fluid inclusions in magmatic quartz, hydrothermal calcite and hydrothermal quartz crystals from 19 sampled depths in eight production drill holes (PGM-1, 2, 3, 5, 10, 11, 12 and 15) of the Miravalles geothermal field in northwestern Costa Rica. Homogenization temperatures for 386 fluid inclusions range from near the present measured temperatures to as much as 70??C higher than the maximum measured well temperature of about 240??C. Melting-point temperature measurements for 76 fluid inclusions suggest a calculated salinity range of about 0.2-1.9 wt% NaCl equivalent. Calculated salinities as high as 3.1-4.0 wt% NaCl equivalent for 20 fluid inclusions from the lower part of drill hole PGM-15 (the deepest drill hole) indicate that higher salinity water probably was present in the deeper part of the Miravalles geothermal field at the time these fluid inclusions were formed. ?? 1988.

  10. A method of computing the transient temperature of thick walls from arbitrary variation of adiabatic-wall temperature and heat-transfer coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P R

    1958-01-01

    A method of calculating the temperature of thick walls has been developed in which the time series and the response to a unit triangle variation of surface temperature concepts are used, together with essentially standard formulas for transient temperature and heat flow into thick walls. The method can be used without knowledge of the mathematical tools of its development. The method is particularly suitable for determining the wall temperature in one-dimensional thermal problems in aeronautics where there is a continuous variation of the heat-transfer coefficient and adiabatic-wall temperature. The method also offers a convenient means for solving the inverse problem of determining the heat-flow history when temperature history is known.

  11. Localized heating on silicon field effect transistors: device fabrication and temperature measurements in fluid.

    PubMed

    Elibol, Oguz H; Reddy, Bobby; Nair, Pradeep R; Dorvel, Brian; Butler, Felice; Ahsan, Zahab S; Bergstrom, Donald E; Alam, Muhammad A; Bashir, Rashid

    2009-10-07

    We demonstrate electrically addressable localized heating in fluid at the dielectric surface of silicon-on-insulator field-effect transistors via radio-frequency Joule heating of mobile ions in the Debye layer. Measurement of fluid temperatures in close vicinity to surfaces poses a challenge due to the localized nature of the temperature profile. To address this, we developed a localized thermometry technique based on the fluorescence decay rate of covalently attached fluorophores to extract the temperature within 2 nm of any oxide surface. We demonstrate precise spatial control of voltage dependent temperature profiles on the transistor surfaces. Our results introduce a new dimension to present sensing systems by enabling dual purpose silicon transistor-heaters that serve both as field effect sensors as well as temperature controllers that could perform localized bio-chemical reactions in Lab on Chip applications.

  12. Impact of synovial fluid flow on temperature regulation in knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Mohamadreza Nassajian; Abdel-Sayed, Philippe; Camine, Valérie Malfroy; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2015-01-21

    Several studies have reported an increase of temperature in cartilage submitted to cyclic sinusoidal loading. The temperature increase is in part due to the viscous behavior of this tissue, which partially dissipates the input mechanical energy into heat. While the synovial fluid flow within the intra-articular gap and inside the porous cartilage is supposed to play an important role in the regulation of the cartilage temperature, no specific study has evaluated this aspect. In the present numerical study, a poroelastic model of the knee cartilage is developed to evaluate first the temperature increase in the cartilage due to dissipation and second the impact of the synovial fluid flow in the cartilage heat transfer phenomenon. Our results showed that, the local temperature is effectively increased in knee cartilage due to its viscous behavior. The synovial fluid flow cannot significantly preventing this phenomenon. We explain this result by the low permeability of cartilage and the moderate fluid exchange at the surface of cartilage under deformation.

  13. Retrograde methane-dominated fluid inclusions from high-temperature granulites of Rogaland, southwestern Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Kerkhof, A.M. ); Touret, J.L.R. ); Maijer, C.; Jansen, J.B.H. )

    1991-09-01

    Non-aqueous inclusions in the high-grade (800-1,000C; 4kbar) metamorphic Rogaland region, southwestern Norway, consist of mixtures of CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4}-N{sub 2}. In particular the fluid inclusions in quartz veins in migmatites are characterized by high CH{sub 4} concentrations and they were re-equilibrated at temperatures below 500C during isobaric cooling. Observations by microthermometry demonstrated several complicated sequences of phase transitions, including partial and metastable homogenization (at lower temperature than melting), and S-L or S-V transitions. The phase behavior reflects a wide variation in composition and molar volume. Fluid compositions were measured by Raman microspectrometry. By this method, also small amounts of graphite have been detected in CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} inclusions. The instantaneous formation of graphite in a CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} inclusion by induction of the argon laser beam has been observed which points to the metastability of the CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} mixture. The calculated densities of the observed fluid mixtures are relatively low, necessitating a revision of the earlier interpretation of these inclusions as containing pure high-density fluids. Inclusions in quartz, trapped after the peak of metamorphism, record fluid heterogeneity which may present evidence for fluid-deficient metamorphism during the retrograde M2-M3 metamorphism.

  14. Temperature gradients drive radial fluid flow in Petri dishes and multiwell plates.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Stephen M; Yin, John

    2016-06-01

    Liquid in a Petri dish spontaneously circulates in a radial pattern, even when the dish is at rest. These fluid flows have been observed and utilized for biological research, but their origins have not been well-studied. Here we used particle-tracking to measure velocities of radial fluid flows, which are shown to be linked to evaporation. Infrared thermal imaging was used to identify thermal gradients at the air-liquid interface and at the bottom of the dish. Two-color ratiometric fluorescence confocal imaging was used to measure thermal gradients in the vertical direction within the fluid. A finite-element model of the fluid, incorporating the measured temperature profiles, shows that buoyancy forces are sufficient to produce flows consistent with the measured particle velocity results. Such flows may arise in other dish or plate formats, and may impact biological research in positive or negative ways.

  15. Fluid Structure Interaction in a Cold Flow Test and Transient CFD Analysis of Out-of-Round Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph; Brown, Andrew; McDaniels, David; Wang, Ten-See

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes two nozzle fluid flow interactions. They include: 1) Cold flow nozzle tests with fluid-structure interaction at nozzle separated flow; and 2) CFD analysis for nozzle flow and side loads of nozzle extensions with various out-of-round cases.

  16. Single Event Transient Analysis of an SOI Operational Amplifier for Use in Low-Temperature Martian Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laird, Jamie S.; Scheik, Leif; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Mojarradi, Mohammad M; Chen, Yuan; Miyahira, Tetsuo; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Doyle, Barney

    2006-01-01

    The next generation of Martian rover#s to be launched by JPL are to examine polar regions where temperatures are extremely low and the absence of an earth-like atmosphere results in high levels of cosmic radiation at ground level. Cosmic rays lead to a plethora of radiation effects including Single Event Transients (SET) which can severely degrade microelectronic functionality. As such, a radiation-hardened, temperature compensated CMOS Single-On-Insulator (SOI) Operational Amplifier has been designed for JPL by the University of Tennessee and fabricated by Honeywell using the SOI V process. SOI technology has been shownto be far less sensitive to transient effects than both bulk and epilayer Si. Broad beam heavy-ion tests at the University of Texas A&M using Kr and Xebeams of energy 25MeV/amu were performed to ascertain the duration and severity of the SET for the op-amp configured for a low and high gain application. However, some ambiguity regarding the location of transient formation required the use of a focused MeV ion microbeam. A 36MeV O6(+) microbeam. the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) was used to image and verify regions of particular concern. This is a viewgraph presentation

  17. The low temperature differential Stirling engine with working fluid operated on critical condition

    SciTech Connect

    Naso, V.; Dong, W.; Lucentini, M.; Capata, R.

    1998-07-01

    The research and development of low temperature differential Stirling engine has a great potential market since a lot of thermal energy at low temperature can supply it and the cost of this kind of engine is lower than general Stirling engine. The characteristics of low compression ratio and low differential temperature Stirling engine may be satisfied with working fluid compressed on critical conditions. By combining two phase heat transfer with forced convective flow in compression space and through the regenerator in the engine, a new heat transfer coefficient emerges capable of absorbing and releasing high heat fluxes without the corresponding low temperature increase. The current analysis focuses on the study of Stirling engines with working fluid compressed on critical conditions, thus at two-phase heat transfer in compression space and regenerator of the engine under forced convective flow conditions.

  18. Two-phase working fluids for the temperature range of 50 to 350 deg, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Hartl, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several two phase heat transfer fluids were tested in aluminum and carbon steel reflux capsules for over 25,000 hours at temperatures up to 300 C. Several fluids showed very good stability and would be useful for long duration heat transfer applications over the range 100 to 350 C. Instrumentation for the measurement of surface tension and viscosity were constructed for use with heat transfer fluids over the temperature range 0 to 300 C and with pressures from 0 to 10 atmospheres. The surface tension measuring device constructed requires less than a 1.0 cc sample and displays an accuracy of about 5 percent in preliminary tests, while the viscometer constructed for this program requires a 0.05 cc sample and shows an accuracy of about 5 percent in initial tests.

  19. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressure and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Etters, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    This renewal request for DOE grant DE-FG02-86ER45238, is dedicated to providing a complete thermodynamic profile of solids fluids, and fluid mixtures, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. We are partially motivated by technological interest in detonation, combustion, superhard high pressure materials, and high temperature superconductors, which are important components of interest of various DOE laboratories. Our work on fluids and solids, composed of simple molecules, involves the determination of structures, phase transitions, pressure-volume relations, phonon, vibron, and libron modes of excitation, sound velocities, specific heats, thermal expansion, virial coefficients, sublimation energies, and orientational translational, and magnetic correlations. We hope that the study of these systems under extreme thermodynamic conditions will lead to exotic new materials of value, as well as enhanced fundamental understanding.

  20. Noncontact temperature measurements in the microgravity fluids and transport phenomena discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, Jack

    1988-01-01

    The program of activities within the Microgravity Fluids and Transport Phenomena Discipline has been structured to enable the systematic pursuit of an increased understanding of low gravity fluid behavior/phenomena in a way which ensures that the results are appropriate to the widest range of applications. This structure is discussed and an overview of some of the activities which are underway is given. Of significance is the fact that in the majority of the current and planned activities, the measurement and, or control of the fluid temperature is a key experiment requirement. In addition, many of the experiments require that the temperature measurement be nonintrusive. A description of these requirements together with the current techniques which are being employed or under study to make these measurements is also discussed.

  1. A Comparative Study of the Effect of Surfactant and Temperature in Fluid Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes-Estrada, Aldo H.; Ibarra-Bracamontes, Laura A.; Aguilar-Corona, Alicia; Viramontes-Gamboa, Gonzalo

    2016-11-01

    A fluid interface is the boundary region formed when two immiscible fluids come into contact. One of the most important properties of fluid interfaces is the interfacial tension. The interfacial tension between two fluids can be modified by the presence of surfactant. In addition, the temperature is a relevant factor that can also modify the interfacial properties. In this work the behavior of the interface formed by oil and water in the presence of surfactant at different temperatures is presented. Interfacial tension measurements were obtained by the Pendant Drop technique. Two types of surfactant were tested, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS) as a hydrophilic surfactant, and Sorbitan Monooleate (Span 80) as a lipophilic surfactant. The range of variations in temperature was from 25 to 60 Celsius degree. Hexane or Dodecane was used as the oil phase. The main results showed that the lipophilic surfactant showed a greater efficiency with respect to the hydrophilic surfactant used. As the temperature increased in the range considered an exponential decay for the interfacial tension was observed. This decay was dominated by the surfactant concentration. This study was supported by the Mexican Council of Science and Technology (CONACyT) and by the Scientific Research Coordination of the University of Michoacan in Mexico.

  2. Transient Modeling and Analysis of a Metabolic Heat-Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) System for a PLSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iacomini, Christie; Powers, Aaron; Speight, Garland; Padilla, Sebastian; Paul, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    A Metabolic heat-regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption (MTSA) system is being developed for carbon dioxide, water and thermal control in a lunar and martian portable life support system (PLSS). A previous system analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of MTSA on PLSS design. That effort was Mars specific and assumed liquid carbon dioxide (LCO2) coolant made from martian resources. Transient effects were not considered but rather average conditions were used throughout the analysis. This effort takes into further consideration the transient effects inherent in the cycling MTSA system as well as assesses the use of water as coolant. Standard heat transfer, thermodynamic, and heat exchanger methods are presented to conduct the analysis. Assumptions and model verification are discussed. The tool was used to perform various system studies. Coolant selection was explored and takes into account different operational scenarios as the minimum bed temperature is driven by the sublimation temperature of the coolant (water being significantly higher than LCO2). From this, coolant mass is sized coupled with sorbent bed mass because MTSA adsorption performance decreases with increasing sublimation temperature. Reduction in heat exchanger performance and even removal of certain heat exchangers, like a recuperative one between the two sorbent beds, is also investigated. Finally, the coolant flow rate is varied over the cycle to determine if there is a more optimal means of cooling the bed from a mass perspective. Results of these studies and subsequent recommendations for system design are presented.

  3. Loop Heat Pipe Transient Behavior Using Heat Source Temperature for Set Point Control with Thermoelectric Converter on Reservoir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung; Paiva, Kleber; Mantelli, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    The LHP operating temperature is governed by the saturation temperature of its reservoir. Controlling the reservoir saturation temperature is commonly done by cold biasing the reservoir and using electrical heaters to provide the required control power. With this method, the loop operating temperature can be controlled within 0.5K or better. However, because the thermal resistance that exists between the heat source and the LHP evaporator, the heat source temperature will vary with its heat output even if the LHP operating temperature is kept constant. Since maintaining a constant heat source temperature is of most interest, a question often raised is whether the heat source temperature can be used for LHP set point temperature control. A test program with a miniature LHP was carried out to investigate the effects on the LHP operation when the control temperature sensor was placed on the heat source instead of the reservoir. In these tests, the LHP reservoir was cold-biased and was heated by a control heater. Test results show that it was feasible to use the heat source temperature for feedback control of the LHP operation. In particular, when a thermoelectric converter was used as the reservoir control heater, the heat source temperature could be maintained within a tight range using a proportional-integral-derivative or on/off control algorithm. Moreover, because the TEC could provide both heating and cooling to the reservoir, temperature oscillations during fast transients such as loop startup could be eliminated or substantially reduced when compared to using an electrical heater as the control heater.

  4. Temperature-induced changes in soft tissues analyzed by spectral methods and transient elastography: A comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortela, G. A.; Benech, N.; Pereira, W. C. A.; Negreira, C.

    2012-05-01

    Some biological tissues, such as skeletal muscle, have regular or quasi-periodic structures. Periodicity of these structures can be investigated by spectral methods based on ultrasonic backscattered signals. These methods estimate the Mean Scatterer Spacing (MSS). In this work we analyzed the MSS dependence with temperature in bovine skeletal muscle tissue samples. Through spectral analysis we found that the relative variation of the MSS, in the temperature range 20 - 48°C was of ~ 2% /°C. For the same sample and under the same experimental conditions, we analyzed the propagation velocity of shear waves by transient elastography. It was determined that the relative variation of shear elastic modulus was ~ 3% /°C in the same temperature range. The repeatability of the results was tested in three tissue samples, with a set of 6 measurements on each. The relative variation is therefore similar for both parameters. Thus, this study shows that both techniques can be used as a method of noninvasive thermometry for small temperature range. In addition we emphasize the conceptual differences between both methods. As temperature changes, MSS estimation varies due to two physical phenomena. An apparent variation in mean spacing is produced because the sound speed is temperature-dependent, while tissue expansion produces a real change. In practice it is difficult to discriminate the weight of each component in the MSS variation. On the other side, transient elastography is less sensitive to thermal expansion. Thus it measures the actual shear wave speed change with temperature. This differentiation between both methods could be used to construct useful thermoelastic models for soft tissues in the future.

  5. Water Temperature, Voluntary Drinking and Fluid Balance in Dehydrated Taekwondo Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject’s plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key points For athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water. Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water. Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat. PMID:24149564

  6. Water temperature, voluntary drinking and fluid balance in dehydrated taekwondo athletes.

    PubMed

    Khamnei, Saeed; Hosseinlou, Abdollah; Zamanlu, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary drinking is one of the major determiners of rehydration, especially as regards exercise or workout in the heat. The present study undertakes to search for the effect of voluntary intake of water with different temperatures on fluid balance in Taekwondo athletes. Six young healthy male Taekwondo athletes were dehydrated by moderate exercise in a chamber with ambient temperature at 38-40°C and relative humidity between 20-30%. On four separate days they were allowed to drink ad libitum plane water with the four temperatures of 5, 16, 26, and 58°C, after dehydration. The volume of voluntary drinking and weight change was measured; then the primary percentage of dehydration, sweat loss, fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were calculated. Voluntary drinking of water proved to be statistically different in the presented temperatures. Water at 16°C involved the greatest intake, while fluid deficit and involuntary dehydration were the lowest. Intake of water in the 5°C trial significantly correlated with the subject's plasma osmolality change after dehydration, yet it showed no significant correlation with weight loss. In conclusion, by way of achieving more voluntary intake of water and better fluid state, recommending cool water (~16°C) for athletes is in order. Unlike the publicly held view, drinking cold water (~5°C) does not improve voluntary drinking and hydration status. Key pointsFor athletes dehydrated in hot environments, maximum voluntary drinking and best hydration state occurs with 16°C water.Provision of fluid needs and thermal needs could be balanced using 16°C water.Drinking 16°C water (nearly the temperature of cool tap water) could be recommended for exercise in the heat.

  7. Towards adaptive kinetic-fluid simulations of low-temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, Vladimir

    2013-09-01

    The emergence of new types of gaseous electronics in multi-phase systems calls for computational tools with adaptive kinetic-fluid simulation capabilities. We will present an Adaptive Mesh and Algorithm Refinement (AMAR) methodology for multi-scale simulations of gas flows and discuss current efforts towards extending this methodology for weakly ionized plasmas. The AMAR method combines Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) with automatic selection of kinetic or fluid solvers in different parts of computational domains. This AMAR methodology was implemented in our Unified Flow Solver (UFS) for mixed rarefied and continuum flows. UFS uses discrete velocity method for solving Boltzmann kinetic equation under rarefied flow conditions coupled to fluid (Navier-Stokes) solvers for continuum flow regimes. The main challenge of extending AMAR to plasmas comes from the distinction of electron and atom mass. We will present multi-fluid, two-temperature plasma models with AMR capabilities for simulations of glow, corona, and streamer discharges. We will briefly discuss specifics of electron kinetics in collisional plasmas, and deterministic methods of solving kinetic equations for different electron groups. Kinetic solvers with Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) will be introduced to solve Boltzmann equation for electrons in the presence of electric fields, elastic and inelastic collisions with atoms. These kinetic and fluid models are currently being incorporated into AMAR methodology for multi-scale simulations of low-temperature plasmas in multi-phase systems. Supported by AFOSR, NASA, and DoE

  8. Temperature variation in the dark cosmic fluid in the late universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver

    2016-03-01

    A one-component dark energy fluid model of the late universe is considered (w < -1) when the fluid, initially assumed laminar, makes a transition into a turbulent state of motion. Spatial isotropy is assumed so that only the bulk viscosities are included (ζ in the laminar epoch and ζturb in the turbulent epoch). Both viscosities are assumed to be constants. We derive a formula, new as far as we know, for the time dependence of the temperature T(t) in the laminar case when viscosity is included. Assuming that the laminar/turbulent transition takes place at some time ts before the big rip is reached, we then analyze the positive temperature jump experienced by the fluid at t = t∗ if ζturb > ζ. This is just as one would expect physically. The corresponding entropy production is also considered. A special point emphasized in the paper is the analogy that exists between the cosmic fluid and a so-called Maxwell fluid in viscoelasticity.

  9. Temperatures of quartz cementation in Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian continental shelf -- evidence from fluid inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Walderhaug, O. )

    1994-04-01

    Recent studies of fluid inclusions in quartz overgrowths have shown quartz cementation to have taken place at temperatures within the range 60--145 C in several sandstones from the North Sea and offshore mid-Norway (Malley et al. 1986; Konnerup-Madsen and Dypvik 1988; Burley et al. 1989; Walderhaug 1990; Ehrenberg 1990; Saigal et al. 1992; Nedkvitne et al. 1993). This study aims at determining whether these results are typical for quartz cementation of sandstones by presenting homogenization temperatures for 274 aqueous and 366 hydrocarbon inclusions in quartz overgrowths from Jurassic reservoir sandstones on the Norwegian continental shelf, and by reviewing previously published fluid-inclusion data. Possible explanations for different ranges of homogenization temperatures in different sandstones are also discussed, and possible sources of quartz cement and the effect of hydrocarbon emplacement on quartz cementation are considered.

  10. Forearm blood flow during body temperature transients produced by leg exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenger, C. B.; Roberts, M. F.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Nadel, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Subjects exercised for 30 min on a bicycle ergometer at 30, 50, and 70% of maximal aerobic power in ambient temperatures of 15, 25, and 35 C and vapor pressures of less than 18 torr. Exercise was used to vary internal temperature during an experiment, and different ambient temperatures were used to vary skin temperatures independently of internal temperature. Forearm skin temperature was fixed at about 36.5 C. Esophageal temperature was measured with a thermocouple at the level of the left atrium, and mean skin temperature was calculated from a weighted mean of thermocouple temperatures at eight skin sites. Forearm blood flow was measured by electrocapacitance plethysmography. Data are well accounted for by a linear equation independent of exercise intensity, although some subjects showed an equivocal vasodilator effect of exercise.

  11. Global analysis of the effect of fluid flow on subduction zone temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, Holly M. M.; Spinelli, Glenn A.

    2013-08-01

    Knowledge of the controls on temperature distributions at subduction zones is critical for understanding a wide range of seismic, metamorphic, and magmatic processes. Here, we present the results of ˜220 thermal model simulations covering the majority of known subduction zone convergence rates, incoming plate ages, and slab dips. We quantify the thermal effects of fluid circulation in the subducting crust by comparing results with and without advective heat transfer in the oceanic crustal aquifer. We find that hydrothermal cooling of a subduction zone is maximized when the subducting slab is young, slowly converging, steeply dipping, and the crustal aquifer is ventilated near the trench. Incoming plate age is one of the primary controls on the effectiveness of advective heat transfer in the aquifer, and the greatest temperature effects occur with an incoming plate <50 Ma. The thermal effects of fluid circulation decrease dramatically with increasing age of the incoming plate. Temperatures in the Cascadia, Nankai, southern Chile, Colombia/Ecuador, Mexico, and Solomon Islands subduction zones are likely strongly affected by fluid circulation; for these systems, only thermal models of Cascadia and Nankai have included fluid flow in subducting crust.

  12. Nonlinear stresses and temperatures in transient adiabatic and shear flows via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: Three definitions of temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Wm. G.; Hoover, C. G.

    2009-04-01

    We compare nonlinear stresses and temperatures for adiabatic-shear flows, using up to 262 144 particles, with those from corresponding homogeneous and inhomogeneous flows. Two varieties of kinetic temperature tensors are compared to the configurational temperatures. This comparison of temperatures led us to two findings beyond our original goal of analyzing shear algorithms. First, we found an improved form for local instantaneous velocity fluctuations, as calculated with smooth-particle weighting functions. Second, we came upon the previously unrecognized contribution of rotation to the configurational temperature.

  13. Methanethiol abundance in high-temperature hydrothermal fluids from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, E.; Seewald, J. S.; Saccocia, P.; van der Meer, M.

    2008-12-01

    The formation of aqueous organic sulfur compounds in hydrothermal systems remains poorly constrained, despite their potential significance in 'prebiotic' chemistry and the origin of life. The simplest - methanethiol (CH3SH) - has been implicated as a critical abiogenic precursor to the establishment of primitive microbial metabolism in early Earth hydrothermal settings. It also represents a readily-utilized substrate for microbial sulfate-reducing communities and a potential intermediate species in abiotic CH4 formation. To assess the abundance of CH3SH and factors regulating its stability under hydrothermal conditions we measured CH3SH concentrations in a suite of hydrothermal fluids collected from the Rainbow, Lucky Strike, TAG and Lost City hydrothermal sites located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Fluids were collected using isobaric gas-tight samplers and analyzed for CH3SH by shipboard purge-and-trap gas chromatography. Measured concentrations at Rainbow (1.2 -- 223nM), Lucky Strike (1.1 -- 26nM), TAG (8.5 -- 11nM) and Lost City (1.6 -- 3.0nM) are all substantially lower than predicted for thermodynamic equilibrium with CO2, H2 and H2S at measured vent conditions. The highest concentrations (91 -- 223nM), however, were observed at Rainbow in intermediate temperature (128 -- 175°C) H2-rich fluids that may have undergone conductive cooling. Increased concentrations with decreasing temperature is consistent with the thermodynamic drive for the formation from CO2, suggesting a possible abiotic origin for CH3SH in some fluids. Substantially lower concentrations in the low temperature fluids at Lost City are consistent with the extremely low levels of CO2 and H2S in these fluids. Other possible sources of CH3SH to vent fluids must be considered, however, and include thermal alteration of biomass present in low-temperature environments and microbial consortia that produce CH3SH as a byproduct of anaerobic methane oxidation. Current models for the emergence of primordial

  14. The electromagnetic force field, fluid flow field and temperature profiles in levitated metal droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Kaddah, N.; Szekely, J.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical representation was developed for the electromagnetic force field, the flow field, the temperature field (and for transport controlled kinetics), in a levitation melted metal droplet. The technique of mutual inductances was employed for the calculation of the electromagnetic force field, while the turbulent Navier - Stokes equations and the turbulent convective transport equations were used to represent the fluid flow field, the temperature field and the concentration field. The governing differential equations, written in spherical coordinates, were solved numerically. The computed results were in good agreement with measurements, regarding the lifting force, and the average temperature of the specimen and carburization rates, which were transport controlled.

  15. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in the Kilauea East Rift Zone geothermal area, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bargar, K.E.; Keith, T.E.C.; Trusdell, F.A.

    1995-01-01

    Heating and freezing data were obtained for fluid inclusions in hydrothermal quartz, calcite, and anhydrite from several depths in three scientific observation holes drilled along the lower East Rift Zone of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with fluid-inclusion homogenization-temperature (Th) data indicates that only about 15% of the fluid inclusions could have formed under the present thermal conditions. The majority of fluid inclusions studied must have formed during one or more times in the past when temperatures fluctuated in response to the emplacement of nearby dikes and their subsequent cooling. -from Authors

  16. Relationship between recent cave temperatures and noble gas temperatures derived from fluid inclusions of modern soda straw stalactites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo; Major, Zoltan; Molnar, Mihaly

    2010-05-01

    Recently, strong effort is devoted to establish a new method to derive palaeotemperatures from noble gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) concentrations dissolved in fluid inclusions of speleothems [1-2]. It has been already shown that the water content of the speleothems can be determined via the water vapour pressure after the water has been released from the carbonate samples and collected in a cold finger and then heated up to room temperature. Additionally, the noble gas contents can be precisely measured with noble gas mass spectrometers. Based on these noble gas concentration data sets, a so-called noble gas temperature (NGT) can be calculated meaning a temperature at which the noble gases have been dissolved in water. To use these NGT's as a palaeoclimate proxy, one of the main questions is how these noble gas temperatures reflect the prevailing cave temperature in which the carbonate has grown. We studied noble gas significances in recent soda straw stalactites from more than ten Central European caves covering a temperature range of 1 to 14 °C. Kluge et al. (2008) has shown the soda straw stalactites might contain less excess air, hence they are more suitable samples to derive NGT's, because noble gas abundances from large air inclusions can mask the temperature information. The 14C ages of these soda straw dripstones were obtained to be recent or at least Holocene ages. Thus one can assume that the cave temperatures during carbonate formation were as same as at present. We measured the water and noble gas contents of numerous carbonate samples from soda straw stalactites and calculated noble gas temperatures by a precision of 1 °C or better. Comparing these temperatures with cave temperatures we obtained that they agree well within the uncertainty of the noble gas temperature determination. Therefore, we can conclude if diffusion of noble gas isotopes does not play a significant role in the carbonate lattice this new tool helps the palaeoclimate community to gain

  17. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role. PMID:27804981

  18. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur

    2016-11-01

    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  19. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur

    2016-11-02

    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  20. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, K.; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Tamura, K.; Katoh, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M.; Yao, M.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  1. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, K. Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M.; Tamura, K.; Katoh, M.; Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M.; Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y.

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  2. The Pyrexia transient receptor potential channel mediates circadian clock synchronization to low temperature cycles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, Werner; Simoni, Alekos; Gentile, Carla; Stanewsky, Ralf

    2013-10-07

    Circadian clocks are endogenous approximately 24 h oscillators that temporally regulate many physiological and behavioural processes. In order to be beneficial for the organism, these clocks must be synchronized with the environmental cycles on a daily basis. Both light : dark and the concomitant daily temperature cycles (TCs) function as Zeitgeber ('time giver') and efficiently entrain circadian clocks. The temperature receptors mediating this synchronization have not been identified. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels function as thermo-receptors in animals, and here we show that the Pyrexia (Pyx) TRP channel mediates temperature synchronization in Drosophila melanogaster. Pyx is expressed in peripheral sensory organs (chordotonal organs), which previously have been implicated in temperature synchronization. Flies deficient for Pyx function fail to synchronize their behaviour to TCs in the lower range (16-20°C), and this deficit can be partially rescued by introducing a wild-type copy of the pyx gene. Synchronization to higher TCs is not affected, demonstrating a specific role for Pyx at lower temperatures. In addition, pyx mutants speed up their clock after being exposed to TCs. Our results identify the first TRP channel involved in temperature synchronization of circadian clocks.

  3. Numerical simulation of transient temperature profiles for canned apple puree in semi-rigid aluminum based packaging during pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Shafiekhani, Soraya; Zamindar, Nafiseh; Hojatoleslami, Mohammad; Toghraie, Davood

    2016-06-01

    Pasteurization of canned apple puree was simulated for a 3-D geometry in a semi-rigid aluminum based container which was heated from all sides at 378 K. The computational fluid dynamics code Ansys Fluent 14.0 was used and the governing equations for energy, momentum, and continuity were computed using a finite volume method. The food model was assumed to have temperature-dependent properties. To validate the simulation, the apple puree was pasteurized in a water cascading retort. The effect of the mesh structures was studied for the temperature profiles during thermal processing. The experimental temperature in the slowest heating zone in the container was compared with the temperature predicted by the model and the difference was not significant. The study also investigated the impact of head space (water-vapor) on heat transfer.

  4. A variable temperature student refractometer for the study of fluids in the liquid and frozen state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, W. Travis; Minc, Samantha; Tobin, R. G.

    2001-11-01

    While refractive index measurements of transparent fluids and solids are routine, there have been relatively few such measurements on fluids in their frozen state. We have designed and built a simple device to measure the refractive index of frozen liquids. It consists of a trapezoidal prism cell housed in a small vacuum chamber. The cell can be filled with a liquid and cooled to temperatures below -100°C. By measuring the deflection of a He:Ne laser beam as it passes through the cell, we can determine the index of refraction of the fluid to an accuracy of ±0.005 and monitor changes as the fluid is frozen. This versatile system can accurately measure the refractive index of many common transparent fluids, and provides excellent student training in optics, vacuum techniques and error analysis. Measurements in the frozen state are much more challenging because of the difficulty of obtaining clear crystals. We are able to obtain uniformly clear crystals of water ice by cooling the sample slowly while bubbling nitrogen gas through the liquid, and observed the change in refractive index on crystallization.

  5. Transient Scuffing of Candidate Diesel Engine Materials at Temperatures up to 600oC

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, P.

    2003-06-20

    This milestone report summarizes the general characteristics of scuffing damage to solid surfaces, then describes transient effects on scuffing observed during oscillating sliding wear tests of candidate material pairs for high-temperature diesel engine applications, like waste-gate bushings in exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems. It is shown that oxidation and the formation of wear particle layers influence the friction of such components. In the case of metallic materials in cylindrical contacts where there is a generous clearance, debris layers can form which reduce the torque over time. For ceramic combinations, the opposite effect is observed. Here, the accumulation of wear debris leads to an increase in the turning torque. High-temperature transient scuffing behavior is considered in terms of a series of stages in which the composition and morphology of the contact is changing. These changes are used to explain the behavior of 11 material pairs consisting of stainless steels, Ni-based alloys, Co-based alloys, and structural ceramics.

  6. Measured vs. Simulated Transients of Temperature Logs - A Test of Borehole Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Skinner, W.; Gosnold, W.; Safanda, J.

    2005-12-01

    Twenty-seven temperature-depth (T-z) profiles from shallow boreholes of less than 250 m in depth in mostly arid areas of the Canadian Prairie Provinces and northern U.S.A. Great Plains initially measured in the 1980's and early 1990's and repeated in the years 1995, 1999, 2000, 2004 and 2005 are compared with synthetic profiles based on the surface air temperature time series at nearby meteorological stations. Similar comparisons are currently being made for the northern U.S.A. Great Plains. The multiple T-z profiles of southwestern Canadian boreholes indicate a general agreement between ground surface temperature (GST) warming and warming observed in surface air temperature (SAT) series from meteorological stations. GST temperature changes of 0.1 - 0.2° C and 0.4° C are observed between the measurements for the shorter (decade) and longer (two decades) time spans, respectively. Temperature changes for the last 200 years derived from the FSI inversion of the deeper logs in southern Saskatchewan and southern-central Alberta in Canada are 2.5° C. These changes correspond to those changes derived from synthetic profiles in which surface temperature time series are used as forcing signals. Repeated measurements in the U.S.A. northern Great Plains (North Dakota) show similar large relative temperature change as do the Saskatchewan wells. The comparison of changes from repeated temperature logs in the high warming areas of the Canadian Prairies and U.S.A. Great Plains with those simulated from SAT forcing shows that surface temperature forcing is responsible for the majority of the observed deviation of temperature with depth. In some cases however, differences higher than the error of measurements are observed between the model based on surface temperature forcing and observation. These are interpreted in terms of well hydrogeological conditions and the influence of snow cover.

  7. Transient receptor potential is essential for high temperature tolerance in invasive Bemisia tabaci Middle East Asia minor 1 cryptic species.

    PubMed

    Lü, Zhi-Chuang; Li, Qian; Liu, Wan-Xue; Wan, Fang-Hao

    2014-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor in affecting population dynamics and diffusion distribution of organisms. Alien species can successfully invade and colonize to various temperature environments, and one of important reasons is that alien species have a strong resistance to stress temperature. Recently, researchers have focused on the mechanisms of temperature sensing to determine the sensing and regulation mechanisms of temperature adaptation. The transient receptor potential (TRP) is one of the key components of an organism's temperature perception system. TRP plays important roles in perceiving temperature, such as avoiding high temperature, low temperature and choosing the optimum temperature. To assess high temperature sensation and the heat resistance role of the TRP gene, we used 3' and 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends to isolate the full-length cDNA sequence of the TRP gene from Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) MEAM1 (Middle East Asia Minor 1), examined the mRNA expression profile under various temperature conditions, and identified the heat tolerance function. This is the first study to characterize the TRP gene of invasive B. tabaci MEAM1 (MEAM1 BtTRP). The full-length cDNA of MEAM1 BtTRP was 3871 bp, and the open reading frames of BtTRP was 3501 bp, encoding 1166 amino acids. Additionally, the BtTRP mRNA expression level was significantly increased at 35°C. Furthermore, compared with control treatments, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults was significantly decreased under high temperature stress conditions after feeding with dsRNA BtTRP. Collectively, these results showed that MEAM1 BtTRP is a key element in sensing high temperature and plays an essential role in B. tabaci MEAM1 heat tolerance ability. Our data improved our understanding of the mechanism of temperature sensation in B. tabaci MEAM1 at the molecular level and could contribute to the understanding of the thermal biology of B. tabaci MEAM1 within the context of global climate change.

  8. Dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities

    SciTech Connect

    Zaghloul, Mofreh R.

    2015-06-15

    We investigate the dissociation and ionization equilibria of deuterium fluid over a wide range of temperatures and densities. The partition functions for molecular and atomic species are evaluated, in a statistical-mechanically consistent way, implementing recent developments in the literature and taking high-density effects into account. A new chemical model (free energy function) is introduced in which the fluid is considered as a mixture of diatomic molecules, atoms, ions, and free electrons. Intensive short range hard core repulsion is taken into account together with partial degeneracy of free electrons and Coulomb interactions among charged particles. Samples of computational results are presented as a set of isotherms for the degree of ionization, dissociated fraction of molecules, pressure, and specific internal energy for a wide range of densities and temperatures. Predictions from the present model calculations show an improved and sensible physical behavior compared to other results in the literature.

  9. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Agnati, Luigi F.; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-01-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico-physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set-ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio-pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis. PMID:28204813

  10. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature

    PubMed Central

    Alawi, Khadija M.; Aubdool, Aisah A.; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D.; Keeble, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.—Alawi, K. M., Aubdool, A. A., Liang, L., Wilde, E., Vepa, A., Psefteli, M.-P., Brain, S. D., Keeble, J. E. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature. PMID:26136480

  11. Determination of shelf heat transfer coefficients along the shelf flow path of a freeze dryer using the shelf fluid temperature perturbation approach.

    PubMed

    Kuu, Wei Y; Nail, Steven L; Hardwick, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution of local shelf heat transfer coefficients, Ks, was determined by mapping the transient temperature response of the shelf surface along the serpentine internal channels of the shelf while the temperature of the heat transfer fluid was ramped from -40 degrees to 40 degrees C. The solution of a first-order non-steady-state differential equation resulted in a predicted shelf surface temperature as a function of the shelf fluid temperature at any point along the flow path. During the study, the shelf surfaces were maintained under a thermally insulated condition so that the heat transfers by gas conduction and radiation were negligible. To minimize heat conduction by gas, the chamber was evacuated to a low pressure, such as 100 mTorr. To minimize heat transfers between shelves, shelves were moved close together, with a gap of approximately 3 mm between any two shelves, because the shelf surface temperatures at corresponding vertical locations of two shelves are virtually equal. In addition, this also provides a shielding from radiation heat transfer from shelf to walls. Local heat transfer coefficients at the probed locations h(x) ( approximately Ks) were calculated by fitting the experimental shelf temperature response to the theoretical value. While the resulting values of K(s) are in general agreement with previously reported values, the values of Ks close to the inlet are significantly higher than those of other locations of the shelf channel. This observation is most likely attributed to the variation of the flow pattern of heat transfer fluid within the channels.

  12. Temperature gradient-induced fluid pumping inside a single-wall carbon nanotube: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Fahim; Rajabpour, Ali

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we investigate the fluid transport inside a single-wall carbon nanotube induced by a temperature gradient along the tube length, focusing on the effect of fluid-wall interaction strength. It is found that the fluid moves from the hot side of the nanotube towards the cold side. By increasing the fluid-wall interaction strength, the fluid volumetric flux assumes a maximum, increases, and then decreases. Fluid transport is pressure-driven in weak interactions; in contrast, in strong interactions, the fluid is broken into two parts in the radial direction. Fluid transport in the central regions of the tube is pressure-driven, while it is surface-driven in the areas close to the wall.

  13. Reflection and refraction of a transient temperature field at a plane interface using Cagniard-de Hoop approach.

    PubMed

    Shendeleva, M L

    2001-09-01

    An instantaneous line heat source located in the medium consisting of two half-spaces with different thermal properties is considered. Green's functions for the temperature field are derived using the Laplace and Fourier transforms in time and space and their inverting by the Cagniard-de Hoop technique known in elastodynamics. The characteristic feature of the proposed approach consists in the application of the Cagniard-de Hoop method to the transient heat conduction problem. The idea is suggested by the fact that the Laplace transform in time reduces the heat conduction equation to a Helmholtz equation, as for the wave propagation. Derived solutions exhibit some wave properties. First, the temperature field is decomposed into the source field and the reflected field in one half-space and the transmitted field in the other. Second, the laws of reflection and refraction can be deduced for the rays of the temperature field. In this connection the ray concept is briefly discussed. It is shown that the rays, introduced in such a way that they are consistent with Snell's law do not represent the directions of heat flux in the medium. Numerical computations of the temperature field as well as diagrams of rays and streamlines of the temperature field are presented.

  14. ac-Field-induced fluid pumping in microsystems with asymmetric temperature gradients.

    PubMed

    Holtappels, Moritz; Stubbe, Marco; Gimsa, Jan

    2009-02-01

    We present two different designs of electrohydrodynamic micropumps for microfluidic systems. The micropumps have no movable parts, and their simple design allows for fabrication by microsystems technology. The pumps are operated by ac voltages from 1 to 60 V and were tested with aqueous solutions in the conductivity range of 1-112 mS m(-1). The pump effect is induced by an ac electric field across a fluid medium with an inhomogeneous temperature distribution. It is constant over a wide range of the ac field frequency with a conductivity-dependent drop-off at high frequencies. The temperature-dependent conductivity and permittivity distributions in the fluid induce space charges that interact with the electric field and induce fluid motion. The temperature distribution can be generated either by Joule heating in the medium or by external heating. We present experimental results obtained with two prototypes featuring Joule heating and external heating by a heating filament. Experimental and numerical results are compared with an analytical model.

  15. Effects of temperature and pore fluid chemistry on frictional properties of laboratory fault zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bomberger, C. W.; King, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The strength and stability of seismogenic faults depends upon the frictional properties of the gouge material. These frictional properties can be further understood through laboratory experiments designed to determine the material response of fault gouge to imposed sliding. We seek to explore the effects of several different brine compositions, concentrations, and temperatures on frictional stability of quartz and gypsum fault gouge. Groundwater is commonly present in areas of active faulting, and it is known from previous studies (Blanpied et al., 1998) that water decrease the frictional strength of fault gouge while the presence of salts can increase frictional strength (Feucht and Logan, 1989). Some of the common ions dissolved in groundwater are Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, and SO42-. These ions may cause varying effects on the frictional stability of faults when present in groundwater depending on the dissolved ionic species, concentration, temperature, and the lithology of the host rock. Rate-step sliding tests and slide-hold-slide tests were preformed on quartz and gypsum powders which simulated fault gouge. Quartz is used as a representation of the bulk continental lithosphere, while gypsum is used for its faster reaction rates in water. Gypsum is also a useful room temperature analog for quartz at elevated temperatures (Muhuri et al. 2003). The double direct shear experiments were preformed submerged in either DI water or a brine solution containing a single salt, over a range of temperatures. Experimental conditions are varied within a single experiment and among sets of experiments. These methods allow us to investigate the effects of strain, fluid temperature, and brine composition on the mechanical properties of fault gouge. Frictional healing for quartz powder does not depend upon brine concentration. For gypsum, healing is greater in a brine solution than in DI water. Differences in healing are also observed depending upon the salt, with Na2SO4 and CaCl2

  16. On equivalence of high temperature series expansion and coupling parameter series expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Sai Venkata Ramana, A.

    2014-04-21

    The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids.

  17. A XANES study of Cu speciation in high-temperature brines using synthetic fluid inclusions

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Andrew J.; Hack, Alistair C.; Mavrogenes, John A.; Newville, Matthew; Sutton, Stephen R.

    2010-12-03

    Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from individual synthetic brine fluid inclusions as a function of temperature up to 500 C. The inclusions serve as sample cells for high-temperature spectroscopic studies of aqueous Cu-Cl speciation. Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} can both be identified from characteristic pre-edge features. Mixed oxidation states can be deconvoluted using linear combinations of Cu{sup +} and Cu{sup 2+} spectra. This work illustrates how complex Cu XANES spectra can be interpreted successfully. Cu{sup 2+} is the stable oxidation state in solution at room temperature and Cu{sup +} at high temperatures. The change in oxidation state with temperature was completely reversible. Cu{sup +} was found to occur exclusively as the linear species [CuCl{sub 2}]{sup -} in solutions containing KCl with Cu:Cl ratios up to 1:6. In the absence of K{sup +}, there is evidence for higher order coordination of Cu{sup +}, in particular the tetrahedral complex [CuCl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. The importance of such complexes in natural ore-forming fluids is yet to be determined, but may explain the vapor-phase partitioning of Cu as a Cl complex from a Cl-rich brine.

  18. Dynamic measurement of drilling fluid rheology at elevated temperature and pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Moussa, M.M.; Al-Marhoun, M.A.

    1985-03-01

    Due to instability and degradation of the conventional drilling fluids specially under high shear rate, elevated temperatures and chemically complex environments of deep and geothermal wells, it is essential to modify and develop stable batches of clay suspensions that can perform adequately under these conditions. To obtain batches, a reliable set-up should be designed and constructed to examine and measure all the properties that may possibly change under the prevailing conditions. A scaled dynamic flow loop is designed and built in the Department of Petroleum Engineering at the University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran. This set-up can simulate efficiently the bottomhole condition e.g. high temperature up to 450/sup 0/F, high shear rate up to 50,000 sec/sup -1/. The system pressure is maintained above the saturation pressure of water at the test temperature. Dynamic filteration rate and the corrosion rate is monitored instantaneously at wide range of bottomhole conditions. The flow parameters NandK,/tau/, ..gamma.. etc., are obtained by measuring ..delta..P across the 3-tube viscometer using the DP 15-150 pressure differential transducers. The ambient properties are measured by Baroid multi-speed viscometer and compared with data obtained from the loop. Two batches composed of sepiolite and polymer were tested. Effective viscosity is increased significantly at high temperature for the first and second batches. The consistency and thermal stability of these fluids may be attributed to the transfer of sepiolite to smectite at high temperature and high shear.

  19. Unsteady MHD convective flow of Second grade fluid through a porous medium in a Rotating parallel plate channel with temperature dependent source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VeeraKrishna, M.; Subba Reddy, G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we make an initial vale investigation of hydromagnetic convective flow of a viscous electrically conducting second grade fluid through a porous medium in a rotating parallel plate channel in the presence of a temperature dependent heat source. The perturbations in the flow are created by a constant pressure gradient along the plates in addition to non-torsional oscillations of the lower plate. The exact solutions of the velocity and the temperature fields consist of the steady state and the transient components using Laplace transform technique. The time required for the transient effects to decay is discussed in detail and the ultimate steady state consists of boundary layers on the plates and an interior. Attention is focused on the physical nature of the solutions, and the structure of the various kinds of boundary layers formed on the plates. The final steady state velocity and temperature fields are numerically discussed for different values of the governing parameters. The shear stresses and the Nusselt number are tabulated. Particular case when both the plates are at rest has also been computed and analyzed.

  20. On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A

    2015-03-13

    The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of

  1. Temperature and Redox Effect on Mineral Colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge Flank Subsurface Crustal Fluids.

    PubMed

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul M; Ramírez, Gustavo A; Haddad, Amanda G; Toner, Brandy M; Hulme, Samuel; Wheat, Charles G; Edwards, Katrina J; Orcutt, Beth N

    2016-01-01

    To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for 1 year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank) as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B). In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences) and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%). Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the 1-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen.

  2. Temperature and Redox Effect on Mineral Colonization in Juan de Fuca Ridge Flank Subsurface Crustal Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul M.; Ramírez, Gustavo A.; Haddad, Amanda G.; Toner, Brandy M.; Hulme, Samuel; Wheat, Charles G.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Orcutt, Beth N.

    2016-01-01

    To examine microbe-mineral interactions in subsurface oceanic crust, we evaluated microbial colonization on crustal minerals that were incubated in borehole fluids for 1 year at the seafloor wellhead of a crustal borehole observatory (IODP Hole U1301A, Juan de Fuca Ridge flank) as compared to an experiment that was not exposed to subsurface crustal fluids (at nearby IODP Hole U1301B). In comparison to previous studies at these same sites, this approach allowed assessment of the effects of temperature, fluid chemistry, and/or mineralogy on colonization patterns of different mineral substrates, and an opportunity to verify the approach of deploying colonization experiments at an observatory wellhead at the seafloor instead of within the borehole. The Hole U1301B deployment did not have biofilm growth, based on microscopy and DNA extraction, thereby confirming the integrity of the colonization design against bottom seawater intrusion. In contrast, the Hole U1301A deployment supported biofilms dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (43.5% of 370 16S rRNA gene clone sequences) and Gammaproteobacteria (29.3%). Sequence analysis revealed overlap in microbial communities between different minerals incubated at the Hole U1301A wellhead, indicating that mineralogy did not separate biofilm structure within the 1-year colonization experiment. Differences in the Hole U1301A wellhead biofilm community composition relative to previous studies from within the borehole using similar mineral substrates suggest that temperature and the diffusion of dissolved oxygen through plastic components influenced the mineral colonization experiments positioned at the wellhead. This highlights the capacity of low abundance crustal fluid taxa to rapidly establish communities on diverse mineral substrates under changing environmental conditions such as from temperature and oxygen. PMID:27064928

  3. Effect of temperature on steady shear magnetorheology of CoNi microcluster-based MR fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arief, Injamamul; Sahoo, Rasmita; Mukhopadhyay, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We present the study of magnetorheological properties of magnetic fluids containing Co-rich CoNi microcluster that have been measured as a function of both magnetic field and temperature. Co-rich microclusters were synthesized by conventional homogeneous nucleation in liquid polyol. Morphological characterization using FESEM revealed the average diameter of microclusters as 450 nm. Crystal structure and room temperature magnetization measurements were performed by powder XRD and vibrating sample magnetometry. Two MR samples of different particle volume fractions were prepared. Temperature-dependent steady shear MR characterizations for both the samples in the range of 25-55 °C demonstrated systematic decline of MR parameters with increasing temperatures. The temperature-induced thinning of shear stress and viscosity was explained in terms of change in effective volume fraction. To analyze the measured variation in MR response with increasing temperature, suitable temperature-sensitive scaling parameters were also constructed. Finally to generalize the trend, rheological master curves were constructed by using time-temperature-field superposition method.

  4. Reduced-Temperature Transient-Liquid-Phase Bonding of AluminaUsing a Ag-Cu-Based Brazing Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Sung Moo; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2005-12-19

    The mechanical properties and microstructural evolution ofmetal-ceramic bonds produced using a transient liquid phase (TLP) aredescribed. Alumina (Al2O3) was joined at 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C,and 700 degrees C using a multilayer In/Cusil-ABA (R) (commercialcopper-silver eutectic brazing alloy)/In interlayer. The introduction ofthin In cladding layers allows the system to bond at much lowertemperatures than those typically used for brazing with Cusil-ABA (R),thereby protecting temperature-sensitive components. After chemicalhomogenization, the interlayers retain an operating temperature rangesimilar to that of the brazed joints. TLP bonds made at 500 degrees C,600 degrees C, and 700 degrees C with holding times ranging from as lowas 1.5 h to 24 h had average fracture strengths above 220 MPa. Theeffects of bonding temperature and time on fracture strength aredescribed. Preliminary analysis of the interlayers shows that the Ag-Inor Cu-In intermetallic phases do not form. Considerations unique tosystems with two-phase core layers are discussed. Experiments usingsingle-crystal sapphire indicate rapid formation of a reaction layer at700 degrees C, suggesting the possibility of making strong bonds usinglower temperatures and/or shorter processing times.

  5. Pharmacology of modality-specific transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 antagonists that do not alter body temperature.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Regina M; McDonald, Heath A; Puttfarcken, Pamela S; Joshi, Shailen K; Lewis, LaGeisha; Pai, Madhavi; Franklin, Pamela H; Segreti, Jason A; Neelands, Torben R; Han, Ping; Chen, Jun; Mantyh, Patrick W; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Turner, Teresa M; Voight, Eric A; Daanen, Jerome F; Schmidt, Robert G; Gomtsyan, Arthur; Kort, Michael E; Faltynek, Connie R; Kym, Philip R

    2012-08-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channel is involved in the development and maintenance of pain and participates in the regulation of temperature. The channel is activated by diverse agents, including capsaicin, noxious heat (≥ 43°C), acidic pH (< 6), and endogenous lipids including N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA). Antagonists that block all modes of TRPV1 activation elicit hyperthermia. To identify efficacious TRPV1 antagonists that do not affect temperature antagonists representing multiple TRPV1 pharmacophores were evaluated at recombinant rat and human TRPV1 channels with Ca(2+) flux assays, and two classes of antagonists were identified based on their differential ability to inhibit acid activation. Although both classes of antagonists completely blocked capsaicin- and NADA-induced activation of TRPV1, select compounds only partially inhibited activation of the channel by protons. Electrophysiology and calcitonin gene-related peptide release studies confirmed the differential pharmacology of these antagonists at native TRPV1 channels in the rat. Comparison of the in vitro pharmacological properties of these TRPV1 antagonists with their in vivo effects on core body temperature confirms and expands earlier observations that acid-sparing TRPV1 antagonists do not significantly increase core body temperature. Although both classes of compounds elicit equivalent analgesia in a rat model of knee joint pain, the acid-sparing antagonist tested is not effective in a mouse model of bone cancer pain.

  6. Hamiltonian reduced fluid model for plasmas with temperature and heat flux anisotropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, E.

    2016-09-01

    For an arbitrary number of species, we derive a Hamiltonian fluid model for strongly magnetized plasmas describing the evolution of the density, velocity, and electromagnetic fluctuations and also of the temperature and heat flux fluctuations associated with motions parallel and perpendicular to the direction of a background magnetic field. We derive the model as a reduction of the infinite hierarchy of equations obtained by taking moments of a Hamiltonian drift-kinetic system with respect to Hermite-Laguerre polynomials in velocity-magnetic-moment coordinates. We show that a closure relation directly coupling the heat flux fluctuations in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the background magnetic field provides a fluid reduction that preserves the Hamiltonian character of the parent drift-kinetic model. We find an alternative set of dynamical variables in terms of which the Poisson bracket of the fluid model takes a structure of a simple direct sum and permits an easy identification of the Casimir invariants. Such invariants in the limit of translational symmetry with respect to the direction of the background magnetic field turn out to be associated with Lagrangian invariants of the fluid model. We show that the coupling between the parallel and perpendicular heat flux evolutions introduced by the closure is necessary for ensuring the existence of a Hamiltonian structure with a Poisson bracket obtained as an extension of a Lie-Poisson bracket.

  7. Low-temperature, selective catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil in supercritical fluid media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Hong-Shik; Hong, Moon Hyun; Lim, Jong Sung; Kim, Jaehoon

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supercritical fluids on the production of renewable diesel-range hydrocarbons from natural triglycerides were investigated. Various supercritical fluids, which included CO2 (scCO2 ), propane (scC3 H8 ) and n-hexane (scC6 H14 ), were introduced with H2 and soybean oil into a fixed-bed reactor that contained pre-activated CoMo/γ-Al2 O3 . Among these supercritical fluids, scC3 H8 and scC6 H14 efficiently allowed the reduction of the reaction temperature by as much as 50 °C as a result of facilitated heat and mass transfer and afforded similar yields to reactions in the absence of supercritical fluids. The compositional analyses of the gas and liquid products indicated that the addition of scC3 H8 during the hydrotreatment of soybean oil promoted specific deoxygenation pathways, decarbonylation and decarboxylation, which consumed less H2 than the hydrodeoxygenation pathway. As a result, the quantity of H2 required to obtain a high yield of diesel-range hydrocarbons could be reduced to 57 % if scC3 H8 was used. As decarboxylation and decarbonylation are mildly endothermic reactions, the reduced heat transfer resistance in scC3 H8 may drive the deoxygenation reaction to thermodynamically favourable pathways.

  8. Estimation of internal heat transfer coefficients and detection of rib positions in gas turbine blades from transient surface temperature measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidrich, P.; Wolfersdorf, J. v.; Schmidt, S.; Schnieder, M.

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive, non-destructive, transient inverse measurement technique that allows one to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and rib positions of real gas turbine blades from outer surface temperature measurements after a sudden flow heating. The determination of internal heat transfer coefficients is important during the design process to adjust local heat transfer to spatial thermal load. The detection of rib positions is important during production to fulfill design and quality requirements. For the analysis the one-dimensional transient heat transfer problem inside of the turbine blade's wall was solved. This solution was combined with the Levenberg-Marquardt method to estimate the unknown boundary condition by an inverse technique. The method was tested with artificial data to determine uncertainties with positive results. Then experimental testing with a reference model was carried out. Based on the results, it is concluded that the presented inverse technique could be used to determine internal heat transfer coefficients and to detect rib positions of real turbine blades.

  9. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic free convection flow of a second grade fluid in a porous medium with ramped wall temperature.

    PubMed

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown.

  10. Unsteady Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection Flow of a Second Grade Fluid in a Porous Medium with Ramped Wall Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Samiulhaq; Ahmad, Sohail; Vieru, Dumitru; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic field influence on unsteady free convection flow of a second grade fluid near an infinite vertical flat plate with ramped wall temperature embedded in a porous medium is studied. It has been observed that magnitude of velocity as well as skin friction in case of ramped temperature is quite less than the isothermal temperature. Some special cases namely: (i) second grade fluid in the absence of magnetic field and porous medium and (ii) Newtonian fluid in the presence of magnetic field and porous medium, performing the same motion are obtained. Finally, the influence of various parameters is graphically shown. PMID:24785147

  11. Evaluation of Phenylnaphthalenes as Heat Transfer Fluids for High Temperature Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Joanna; Luo, Huimin; Garland, Marc A; Steele, William V.

    2010-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties of 1- and 2-phenyl substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons have been measured and estimated under conditions relevant to heat transport applications almost to the critical point. Densities, vapor pressures, and heat capacity measurements were used to derive critical temperature, pressure and density for the phenylnaphthalenes. The thermal and radiolytic stability of 1-phenylnaphthalene was examined using thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetery, and gamma irradiation. Low vapor pressure and resistance to thermal decomposition may make phenylnaphthalenes suitable for heat transfer applications involving parabolic solar collectors. In particular, 1-phenylnaphthalene has an advantage over high temperature inorganic salts for applications up to 800 K because it is a liquid at temperatures at or close to ambient. Thermal cycling would have to be restricted to temperatures below the critical point to avoid degradation of the fluid. Radiation stability was also tested by a 100 kGy irradiation of 1-phenylnaphthalene in a Co-60 irradiator. NMR analysis indicated 1.7 mol.% degradation, which although lower than observed for tributylphosphate/kerosene benchmark fluids for nuclear applications, is higher than that seen in imidazolium ionic liquids.

  12. Practical development of continuous supercritical fluid process using high pressure and high temperature micromixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shin-Ichiro; Sue, Kiwamu; Ookawara, Ryuto; Wakashima, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Akira

    2015-12-01

    In the synthesis of metal oxide fine particles by continuous supercritical hydrothermal method, the particle characteristics are greatly affected by not only the reaction conditions (temperature, pressure, residence time, concentration, etc.), but also the heating rate from ambient to reaction temperature. Therefore, the heating method by direct mixing of starting solution at room temperature with supercritical water is a key technology for the particle production having smaller size and narrow distribution. In this paper, mixing engineering study through comparison between conventional T-shaped mixers and recently developed swirl mixers was carried out in the hydrothermal synthesis of NiO nanoparticles from Ni(NO3)2 aqueous solution at 400 °C and 30 MPa. Inner diameter in the mixers and total flow rates were varied. Furthermore, the heating rate was calculated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Relationship between the heating rate and the average particle size were discussed. It was clarified that the miniaturization of mixer inner diameter and the use of the swirl flow were effective for improving mixing performance and contributed to produce small and narrow distribution particle under same experimental condition of flow rate, temperature, pressure, residence time, and concentration of the starting materials. We have focused the mixer optimization due to a difference in fluid viscosity.

  13. Phenylnaphthalene as a Heat Transfer Fluid for Concentrating Solar Power: High-Temperature Static Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Jason R; Joseph III, Robert Anthony; McFarlane, Joanna; Qualls, A L

    2012-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) may be an alternative to generating electricity from fossil fuels; however, greater thermodynamic efficiency is needed to improve the economics of CSP operation. One way of achieving improved efficiency is to operate the CSP loop at higher temperatures than the current maximum of about 400 C. ORNL has been investigating a synthetic polyaromatic oil for use in a trough type CSP collector, to temperatures up to 500 C. The oil was chosen because of its thermal stability and calculated low vapor and critical pressures. The oil has been synthesized using a Suzuki coupling mechanism and has been tested in static heating experiments. Analysis has been conducted on the oil after heating and suggests that there may be some isomerization taking place at 450 C, but the fluid appears to remain stable above that temperature. Tests were conducted over one week and further tests are planned to investigate stabilities after heating for months and in flow configurations. Thermochemical data and thermophysical predictions indicate that substituted polyaromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for applications that run at higher temperatures than possible with commercial fluids such as Therminol-VP1.

  14. New environmentally safe high-temperature water-based drilling-fluid system

    SciTech Connect

    Thaemlitz, C.J.; Patel, A.D.; Coffin, G.; Conn, L.

    1999-09-01

    A new, environmentally safe water-based polymer system has been developed for drilling applications with temperatures up to 232 C (450 F) and high pressures. The system components are newly developed synthetic polymers that do not contain chromium or other environmentally harmful materials. These new synthetic polymers are designed to perform specific functions at high temperatures and the innovative designs of these thermally stable polymers allow for the use of a minimum number of products in the formulation of high-temperature fluids. The new system consists of two basic polymeric components for rheology and filtration control at high temperatures. High-temperature fluid formulations are greatly simplified utilizing this new system, with only the two polymeric components being required, along with a pH control additive, weight material,l and small amounts of clay for filter cake quality. This simplicity is a significant advantage over traditional high-temperature systems, which normally require the use of a large number of additives to control or limit the effects of thermal degradation. The new system may be formulated with fresh water or sea water, providing flexibility for a variety of drilling environments. Excellent resistance to common contaminants, such as calcium and magnesium hardness and solids accumulation, is another important characteristic of this new system. This paper will review the previous state of the art with respect to high-temperature, water-based muds and will generically discuss the unique chemistry of the newly developed polymer system components. System formulation and application will be discussed.

  15. Electron temperature response to ECRH on FTU tokamak in transient conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacchia, A.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Sozzi, C.; de Luca, F.; Amadeo, P.; Bracco, G.; Tudisco, O.

    2001-10-01

    Steady-state electron heat transport analysis of FTU high density plasmas under Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECRH) shows "stiff" electron temperature profiles [1,2,3]. Plasma response to off-axis EC heating, in fact, exibits a lower limit to electron temperature gradient length, Lc , below which electron thermal conductivity switches to higher values. Stiffness, however, is attenuated in the plasma core of saw-tooth free discharges with flat-hollow temperature profile and during current ramp-up [3,4,5], in which cases the temperature gradient length can be brought to very low values by means of on-axis ECH. Steady and current ramp-up discharges probed by steady and modulated ECH are analyzed in terms of stiffnes. Critical gradient length dependence on local features of computed current density profile is discussed. [1] Sozzi, C. et al., Paper EXP5/13, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus. Res., Proc.18th IAEA Conf., Sorrento, 2000. [2] Jacchia, A. et al. Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Oxnard, USA, (2001). [3] Cirant, S. et al. Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Oxnard, USA, (2001). [4] Sozzi, C. et al., EPS, Madeira 2001. [5] Bracco, G. et al.,Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus. Res., Proc.18th IAEA Conf., Sorrento, 2000.

  16. Numerical analysis of the transient temperature field of the multilayer insulative systems of Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Weiqun; Yang, Maozhao; Huang, Zhenzhong

    1992-09-01

    The finite difference method and the finite element method have been used to determine the temperature distribution through the multilayer insulative systems of the Space Shuttle. The computed results have been compared with STS-2 flight data and other experimental results; they show good agreement.

  17. A transient hot-wire instrument for thermal conductivity measurements in electrically conducting liquids at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloush, A.; Gosney, W. B.; Wakeham, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a novel type of transient hot-wire cell for thermal conductivity measurements on electrically conducting liquids. A tantalum wire of 25 μm. diameter is used as the sensing element in the cell, and it is insulated from the conducting liquids by an anodic film of tantalum pentoxide, 70 nm thick. The cell is suitable for measurements on conducting liquids at elevated temperatures. The results of test measurements on liquid water at its saturation vapor pressure are reported in order to confirm the correct operation of the thermal conductivity cell. The data, which have an estimated accuracy of ±3%, depart by less than ±1.8% from the correlation proposed by the International Association for the Properties of Steam. Results are also presented for concentrated aqueous solutions of lithium bromide, which are frequently used in absorption refrigerator cycles.

  18. Corrosion of Nickel-Based Alloys in Ultra-High Temperature Heat Transfer Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2017-03-01

    MgCl2-KCl binary system has been proposed to be used as high temperature reactor coolant. Due to its relatively low melting point, good heat capacity and excellent thermal stability, this system can also be used in high operation temperature concentrating solar power generation system as heat transfer fluid (HTF). The corrosion behaviors of nickel based alloys in MgCl2-KCl molten salt system at 1,000 °C were determined based on long-term isothermal dipping test. After 500 h exposure tests under strictly maintained high purity argon gas atmosphere, the weight loss and corrosion rate analysis were conducted. Among all the tested samples, Ni-201 demonstrated the lowest corrosion rate due to the excellent resistance of Ni to high temperature element dissolution. Detailed surface topography and corrosion mechanisms were also determined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).

  19. Choice of optimal working fluid for binary power plants at extremely low temperature brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Shipkov, A. A.; Sorokina, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    The geothermal energy development problems based on using binary power plants utilizing lowpotential geothermal resources are considered. It is shown that one of the possible ways of increasing the efficiency of heat utilization of geothermal brine in a wide temperature range is the use of multistage power systems with series-connected binary power plants based on incremental primary energy conversion. Some practically significant results of design-analytical investigations of physicochemical properties of various organic substances and their influence on the main parameters of the flowsheet and the technical and operational characteristics of heat-mechanical and heat-exchange equipment for binary power plant operating on extremely-low temperature geothermal brine (70°C) are presented. The calculation results of geothermal brine specific flow rate, capacity (net), and other operation characteristics of binary power plants with the capacity of 2.5 MW at using various organic substances are a practical interest. It is shown that the working fluid selection significantly influences on the parameters of the flowsheet and the operational characteristics of the binary power plant, and the problem of selection of working fluid is in the search for compromise based on the priorities in the field of efficiency, safety, and ecology criteria of a binary power plant. It is proposed in the investigations on the working fluid selection of the binary plant to use the plotting method of multiaxis complex diagrams of relative parameters and characteristic of binary power plants. Some examples of plotting and analyzing these diagrams intended to choose the working fluid provided that the efficiency of geothermal brine is taken as main priority.

  20. Water geochemistry of the Lucero Uplift, New Mexico: geothermal investigation of low-temperature mineralized fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; McCormick, T.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Vidale, R.; Charles, R.

    1983-04-01

    A detailed geochemical investigation of 27 waters of the Lucero uplift, central New Mexico, was performed to determine if the fluids originate from a high-temperature geothermal system along the Rio Grande rift. Two types of mineralized water issue from the Lucero region: a relatively saline (high-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type and a relatively dilute (low-Cl, high-SO/sub 4/) type. Emergence temperatures of both types range from 12 to 26/sup 0/C. Chemical data and thermodynamic and geothermometer calculations all indicate that both water types are in equilibrium with carbonate and evaporite minerals found in local Colorado Plateau rocks at surface temperatures or slightly higher. Stable isotope data do not indicate high-temperature rock-water interaction. Although evidence is seen for mixing between mineralized waters and dilute surface waters, no evidence for mixing of a deep hot fluid and surface waters is seen. Dilute mineral waters, which issue from a large area of Chinle Formation on the west side of the Lucero uplift, may be useful for low-temperature geothermal applications with appropriate design of equipment. Saline mineral waters, which leak from a zone of faulted and folded rocks along the Comanche fault zone, do not appear to have much, if any, geothermal potential due to their low-temperature, restricted distribution, and high concentration of dissolved solids. No evidence that saline mineral waters are associated with Quaternary faults of the Rio Grande rift or Quaternary basaltic volcanism within the immediate area is seen.

  1. Tissue temperature transients in resting contra-lateral leg muscle tissue during isolated knee extension.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Reardon, Frank D; Ducharme, Michel B; Reardon, Mark L; Zaleski, Wytek

    2002-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of non-active tissue in the retention and dissipation of heat during and following intense isolated muscle activity. Six subjects performed an incremental isotonic test (constant angular velocity, increases in force output) on a KIN-COM isokinetic apparatus to determine their maximal oxygen consumption during single knee extensions (VO2sp). In a subsequent session, a thin wire multi-sensor temperature probe was inserted into the left vastus medialis under ultrasound guidance at a specific internal marker. The deepest temperature sensor (tip, Tmu10) was located approximately 10 mm from the femur and deep femoral artery with 2 additional sensors located at 15 (Tmu25) and 30 (Tmu40) mm from the tip. Implant site was midway between and medial to a line joining the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. Esophageal temperature (Tes) temperature was measured as an index of core temperature. Subjects rested in a supine position for 60 min followed by 30 min of seated rest in an ambient condition of 22 degree C. Subjects then performed 15 min of isolated single right knee extensions against a dynamic resistance on a KIN COM corresponding to 60% of VO2sp at 60 degree x sec(-1). Exercise was followed by 60 min of seated rest. Resting Tes was 37 degree C while Tmu10, Tmu25, and Tmu40 were 36.58, 36.55 and 36.45 degree C, respectively. Exercise resulted in a Tes increase of 0.31 C above pre-exercise resting. Tmu of the non-exercising leg increased 0.23, 0.19 and 0.09 degree C for Tmu10, Tmu25, and Tmu40, respectively. While Tes decreased to baseline values within approximately 15 min of end-exercise, Tmu10 reached resting values following approximately 40 min of recovery. These results suggest that during isolated muscle activity, convective heat transfer by the blood to non-active muscle tissue may have a significant role in maintaining resting core temperature.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Transient Development of Flame, Temperature and Velocity under Reduced Gravity in a Methane Air Diffusion Flame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowal, Arup Jyoti; Mandal, Bijan Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A methane air co flow diffusion flame has been numerically simulated with the help of an in-house developed code at normal gravity, 0.5 G, and 0.0001 G (microgravity) for the study of transient behavior of the flame in terms of flame shape, temperature profile and velocity (streamlines). The study indicates that lower is the gravity level, the higher is the time of early transience. The flame developments during transience are marked by the formation of a secondary flamelet at different heights above the primary flame at all gravity levels. The development of temperature profile at microgravity takes a much longer time to stabilize than the flame development. At normal gravity and 0.5 G gravity level, streamlines, during transience, show intermediate vortices which are finally replaced by recirculation of ambient air from the exit plane. At microgravity, neither any vortex nor any recirculation at any stage is observed. Centerline temperature plots, at all gravity levels during transience, demonstrate a secondary peak at some instants as a consequence of the secondary flamelet formation. The centerline velocity at microgravity decreases gradually during transience, unlike at other two gravity levels where the fall is very sharp and is indicative of negligible buoyancy at microgravity.

  3. The sympathetic nervous system is controlled by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 in the regulation of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Alawi, Khadija M; Aubdool, Aisah A; Liang, Lihuan; Wilde, Elena; Vepa, Abhinav; Psefteli, Maria-Paraskevi; Brain, Susan D; Keeble, Julie E

    2015-10-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is involved in sensory nerve nociceptive signaling. Recently, it has been discovered that TRPV1 receptors also regulate basal body temperature in multiple species from mice to humans. In the present study, we investigated whether TRPV1 modulates basal sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. C57BL6/J wild-type (WT) mice and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice were implanted with radiotelemetry probes for measurement of core body temperature. AMG9810 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle (2% DMSO/5% Tween 80/10 ml/kg saline) was injected intraperitoneally. Adrenoceptor antagonists or vehicle (5 ml/kg saline) was injected subcutaneously. In WT mice, the TRPV1 antagonist, AMG9810, caused significant hyperthermia, associated with increased noradrenaline concentrations in brown adipose tissue. The hyperthermia was significantly attenuated by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, the mixed α-/β-adrenoceptor antagonist labetalol, and the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin. TRPV1 KO mice have a normal basal body temperature, indicative of developmental compensation. d-Amphetamine (potent sympathomimetic) caused hyperthermia in WT mice, which was reduced in TRPV1 KO mice, suggesting a decreased sympathetic drive in KOs. This study provides new evidence that TRPV1 controls thermoregulation upstream of the SNS, providing a potential therapeutic target for sympathetic hyperactivity thermoregulatory disorders.

  4. Effects of transient and persistent cerebrospinal fluid drainage on sleep disordered breathing in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, B.; Malm, J.; Rabben, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To examine sleep disordered breathing including obstructive sleep apnoea in patients with idiopathic adult hydrocephalus syndrome (IAHS) and to study the effects of CSF drainage and shunting procedure on sleep disordered breathing.
METHODS—In 17 patients with IAHS polysomnographic investigations were performed before and after lumbar CSF drainage and after shunt operation.
RESULTS—Baseline investigations documented a high prevalence of sleep related obstructive respiratory events (respiratory disturbance index >10 in 65% of the patients) and impaired sleep structure. There was no correlation between respiratory disturbance index and CSF pressure. Minimum oxygen saturation was highly correlated with cognitive function. Neither lumbar CSF drainage nor shunting alleviated the respiratory disturbance index. REM and delta sleep increased initially after shunting but there was no sustained effect on sleep quality.
CONCLUSIONS—Sleep disordered breathing is a prevalent finding in patients with IAHS. The shortcoming of CSF drainage to improve sleep disordered breathing either transiently or permanently implies that sleep disordered breathing is a coexistent condition, or an irreversible consequence of the hydrocephalus, with a potential of causing additional dysfunction in IAHS.

 PMID:9771772

  5. Influence of hydrological, biogeochemical and temperature transients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain environment

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, Bhavna; Spycher, Nicolas F.; Steefel, Carl I.; Molins, Sergi; Bill, Markus; Conrad, Mark E.; Dong, Wenming; Faybishenko, Boris; Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2016-02-01

    Flood plains play a potentially important role in the global carbon cycle. The accumulation of organic matter in flood plains often induces the formation of chemically reduced groundwater and sediments along riverbanks. In this study, our objective is to evaluate the cumulative impact of such reduced zones, water table fluctuations, and temperature gradients on subsurface carbon fluxes in a flood plain at Rifle, Colorado located along the Colorado River. 2-D coupled variably-saturated, non-isothermal flow and biogeochemical reactive transport modeling was applied to improve our understanding of the abiotic and microbially mediated reactions controlling carbon dynamics at the Rifle site. Model simulations considering only abiotic reactions (thus ignoring microbial reactions) underestimated CO2 partial pressures observed in the unsaturated zone and severely underestimated inorganic (and overestimated organic) carbon fluxes to the river compared to simulations with biotic pathways. Both model simulations and field observations highlighted the need to include microbial contributions from chemolithoautotrophic processes (e.g., Fe?2 and S-2 oxidation) to match locally-observed high CO2 concentrations above reduced zones. Observed seasonal variations in CO2 concentrations in the unsaturated zone could not be reproduced without incorporating temperature gradients in the simulations. Incorporating temperature fluctuations resulted in an increase in the annual groundwater carbon fluxes to the river by 170 % to 3.3 g m-2 d-1, while including water table variations resulted in an overall decrease in the simulated fluxes. We conclude that spatial microbial and redox zonation as well as temporal fluctuations of temperature and water table depth contribute significantly to subsurface carbon fluxes in flood plains and need to be represented appropriately in model simulations.

  6. Solubility of Aragonite in Aqueous Fluids at High Pressure and High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facq, Sébastien; Daniel, Isabelle; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Cardon, Hervé; Sverjensky, Dimitri

    2014-05-01

    Deep crustal and mantle aqueous fluids play a crucial role in geologic processes occurring in the Earth's interior, especially at high PT conditions. Dissolved carbon appears to be a major element constituting these aqueous fluids, occurring under the form of molecular species (CO2, CO, CH4), ionic species such as carbonate or bicarbonate ions or some more complex organic compounds [1]. However, the nature and the content of the chemical species constituting these C-bearing aqueous fluids may strongly be affected by the environmental geologic conditions such as the pressure and the temperature range. If fluid speciation and solubility of carbonate minerals are well characterized at HT and relatively low pressure, less is evident at pressure above 2 GPa where experimental challenges make trickier speciation and solubility measurements. Thanks to recent advances in theoretical aqueous geochemistry [1-3], combined experimental and theoretical efforts allow now the investigation of speciation and solubility of carbonate minerals with pure water at higher PT conditions than previously feasible [4]. However, direct measurements of solubility of carbonate minerals at HP-HT conditions are still needed to help to the development of quantitative models of carbon transport by aqueous fluids in subduction zones and validate existing aqueous speciation model. In this study, we present recent X-ray fluorescence measurements and thermodynamic model of solubility of carbonate in aqueous fluids at pressure up to 5 GPa. The amount of dissolved aragonite in the fluid has been measured from the intensity of the Ca K-lines at the ESRF-ID27 using an externally-heated membrane-type diamond anvil cell and an incident monochromatic focused X-Ray beam at 20 keV. The combination of the XRF data on dissolution of CaCO3mineral combined to previous speciation results permits now to calculate the solubility KS of aragonite a pressure in excess of 2 GPa. [1] Manning, C. E. et al., Review in

  7. Fast transient infrared studies in material science: development of a novel low dead-volume, high temperature DRIFTS cell.

    PubMed

    Dal Santo, V; Dossi, C; Fusi, A; Psaro, R; Mondelli, C; Recchia, S

    2005-04-30

    A prototype DRIFTS flow reaction chamber was designed and developed in order to find analytical application in the study of heterogeneous catalysts operating at high temperatures under fast transient gas feed conditions. Minimisation of dead-volumes allows gas replacement in 8-10s at 10mLmin(-1) total flow. To overcome problems related to the reactivity of the cell walls under alternating oxidizing/reducing gases, the cell was built with Inconel 600trade mark, which was tested to be very inert even at high temperatures. The sample holder, which was developed to closely resemble a micro plug-flow reactor, poses some problems in terms of heat transfer to the outer body of the cell (limiting then the maximum reachable temperature) and of the correct measurement of the actual sample temperature. These problems were solved with a careful re-design of the upper part of the cell. The second prototype thus derived is able to reach temperatures up to 803K and allows gas replacement in less than 4s at 10mLmin(-1). The cell is inserted in a MCT-FT-IR, which allows to collect high quality spectra with a 1s time-resolution. The downstream flow can be analysed by a quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an enclosed source and by a commercial GC. The performances of this prototype cell are presented showing some tests carried out with ceria-zirconia (Ce(x)Zr(1-x)O(2)) catalysts for CO abatement under real operando conditions.

  8. Temperature and amplitude dependence of tension transients in glycerinated skeletal and insect fibrillar muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, R H; Steiger, G J

    1977-01-01

    1. Quick stretches and releases were applied to small bundles of glycerinated fibres of rabbit psoas and insect fibrillar flight muscle. The resulting tension changes were recorded at various temperatures and amplitudes of length change. The results from the two preparations had many features in common. At temperatures near 0 degrees C the asymmetry of the initial tension recovery after stretch and release originally reported in living frog fibres by Huxley & Simmons (1971 alpha) was very obvious. 2. The complete tension course could be described as an elastic change occurring simultaneously with the length change followed by recovery consisting of the sum of a number of exponential terms. These terms usually corresponded to the phases discernible without curve fitting, but in some cases a monotonic rise or fall of tension was seen to consist of two components only after curve fitting. 3. After either stretch or release there was a phase of rapid tension recovery towards the value before the length change. The rate constant of this phase increased as the amplitude of stretch or release was increased to about 2 nm/half sarcomere. At higher amplitudes it remained nearly constant 4. At temperatures near 0 degrees C there was a second and much slower continuation of the recovery after stretch. The rate constant of this second phase was much more sensitive to temperature than that of the first phase and it became slower with increasing amplitude of stretch. As the temperature was raised the speed of the second phase approached the speed of the first phase so that at room temperatures the initial tension recovery after stretch and release was nearly symmetrical. 5. Under many conditions these processes were followed by a change in the opposite direction, the 'delayed tension' described by earlier workers. This third phase of tension change had about the same temperature sensitivity as the second phase of the recovery seen after stretch. The tension due to stretch

  9. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  10. The role of fluid temperature and form on endurance performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tan, P M S; Lee, J K W

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat often results in an excessive increase in body core temperature, which can be detrimental to health and endurance performance. Research in recent years has shifted toward the optimum temperature at which drinks should be ingested. The ingestion of cold drinks can reduce body core temperature before exercise but less so during exercise. Temperature of drinks does not seem to have an effect on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. Manipulating the specific heat capacity of a solution can further induce a greater heat sink. Ingestion of ice slurry exploits the additional energy required to convert the solution from ice to water (enthalpy of fusion). Body core temperature is occasionally observed to be higher at the point of exhaustion with the ingestion of ice slurry. There is growing evidence to suggest that ingesting ice slurry is an effective and practical strategy to prevent excessive rise of body core temperature and improve endurance performance. This information is especially important when only a fixed amount of fluid is allowed to be carried, often seen in some ultra-endurance events and military operations. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of ice slurry in various exercise and environmental conditions.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Radiation Error of Surface Air Temperature Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qing-Quan; Ding, Ren-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Due to solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a naturally ventilated radiation shield may produce a measurement error that is 0.8 K or higher. To improve air temperature observation accuracy and correct historical temperature of weather stations, a radiation error correction method is proposed. The correction method is based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method and a genetic algorithm (GA) method. The CFD method is implemented to obtain the radiation error of the naturally ventilated radiation shield under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using the GA method. To verify the performance of the correction equation, the naturally ventilated radiation shield and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated temperature measurement platform serves as an air temperature reference. The mean radiation error given by the intercomparison experiments is 0.23 K, and the mean radiation error given by the correction equation is 0.2 K. This radiation error correction method allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 87 %. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the radiation errors given by the correction equation and the radiation errors given by the experiments are 0.036 K and 0.045 K, respectively.

  12. Thin film flow in MHD third grade fluid on a vertical belt with temperature dependent viscosity.

    PubMed

    Gul, Taza; Islam, Saed; Shah, Rehan Ali; Khan, Ilyas; Shafie, Sharidan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we have carried out the influence of temperature dependent viscosity on thin film flow of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) third grade fluid past a vertical belt. The governing coupled non-linear differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved analytically by using Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM). In order to make comparison, the governing problem has also been solved by using Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM). The physical characteristics of the problem have been well discussed in graphs for several parameter of interest.

  13. Fluid simulation of tokamak ion temperature gradient turbulence with zonal flow closure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo

    2016-03-01

    Nonlinear fluid simulation of turbulence driven by ion temperature gradient modes in the tokamak fluxtube configuration is performed by combining two different closure models. One model is a gyrofluid model by Beer and Hammett [Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)], and the other is a closure model to reproduce the kinetic zonal flow response [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. By including the zonal flow closure, generation of zonal flows, significant reduction in energy transport, reproduction of the gyrokinetic transport level, and nonlinear upshift on the critical value of gradient scale length are observed.

  14. Heteromeric heat-sensitive transient receptor potential channels exhibit distinct temperature and chemical response.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Shuang; Colton, Craig K; Wang, Chunbo; Cui, Yuanyuan; Cao, Xu; Zhu, Michael X; Sun, Changsen; Wang, KeWei; Zheng, Jie

    2012-03-02

    TRPV1 and TRPV3 are two heat-sensitive ion channels activated at distinct temperature ranges perceived by human as hot and warm, respectively. Compounds eliciting human sensations of heat or warmth can also potently activate these channels. In rodents, TRPV3 is expressed predominantly in skin keratinocytes, whereas in humans TRPV1 and TRPV3 are co-expressed in sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglion and are known to form heteromeric channels with distinct single channel conductances as well as sensitivities to TRPV1 activator capsaicin and inhibitor capsazepine. However, how heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels respond to heat and other stimuli remains unknown. In this study, we examined the behavior of heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels activated by heat, capsaicin, and voltage. Our results demonstrate that the heteromeric channels exhibit distinct temperature sensitivity, activation threshold, and heat-induced sensitization. Changes in gating properties apparently originate from interactions between TRPV1 and TRPV3 subunits. Our results suggest that heteromeric TRPV1/TRPV3 channels are unique heat sensors that may contribute to the fine-tuning of sensitivity to sensory inputs.

  15. Modeling and Simulation of the Transient Response of Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensors with and without Protective Housing

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Keller Sullivan Oliveira; Martins, José Helvecio; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Ferreira Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima; Saraz, Jairo Alexander Osorio; Filho, Adílio Flauzino Lacerda; Fernandes, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2014-01-01

    Based on the necessity for enclosure protection of temperature and relative humidity sensors installed in a hostile environment, a wind tunnel was used to quantify the time that the sensors take to reach equilibrium in the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Two treatments were used: (1) sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) enclosure protection, and (2) sensors with no enclosure protection. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing the temperature and relative humidity distribution in a wind tunnel using sensors with PVC enclosure protection and sensors with no enclosure protection. A CFD simulation model was developed to describe the temperature distribution and the physics of mass transfer related to the airflow relative humidity. The first results demonstrate the applicability of the simulation. For verification, a sensor device was successfully assembled and tested in an environment that was optimized to ensure fast change conditions. The quantification setup presented in this paper is thus considered to be adequate for testing different materials and morphologies for enclosure protection. The results show that the boundary layer flow regime has a significant impact on the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that the CFD technique is a powerful tool which provides a detailed description of the flow and temperature fields as well as the time that the relative humidity takes to reach equilibrium with the environment in which the sensors are inserted. PMID:24851994

  16. Influence of fluid temperature gradient on the flow within the shaft gap of a PLR pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, W.; Rosic, B.; Zhang, Q.; Khanal, B.

    2016-03-01

    In nuclear power plants the primary-loop recirculation (PLR) pump circulates the high temperature/high-pressure coolant in order to remove the thermal energy generated within the reactor. The pump is sealed using the cold purge flow in the shaft seal gap between the rotating shaft and stationary casing, where different forms of Taylor-Couette flow instabilities develop. Due to the temperature difference between the hot recirculating water and the cold purge water (of order of 200 °C), the flow instabilities in the gap cause temperature fluctuations, which can lead to shaft or casing thermal fatigue cracks. The present work numerically investigated the influence of temperature difference and rotating speed on the structure and dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow instabilities. The CFD solver used in this study was extensively validated against the experimental data published in the open literature. Influence of temperature difference on the fluid dynamics of Taylor vortices was investigated in this study. With large temperature difference, the structure of the Taylor vortices is greatly stretched at the interface region between the annulus gap and the lower recirculating cavity. Higher temperature difference and rotating speed induce lower fluctuating frequency and smaller circumferential wave number of Taylor vortices. However, the azimuthal wave speed remains unchanged with all the cases tested. The predicted axial location of the maximum temperature fluctuation on the shaft is in a good agreement with the experimental data, identifying the region potentially affected by the thermal fatigue. The physical understandings of such flow instabilities presented in this paper would be useful for future PLR pump design optimization.

  17. Fluid dynamic design and experimental study of an aspirated temperature measurement platform used in climate observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qingquan; Dai, Wei; Ding, Renhui

    2016-08-01

    Due to the solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a thermometer screen or radiation shield may produce measurement errors that are 0.8 °C or higher. To improve the observation accuracy, an aspirated temperature measurement platform is designed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to analyze and calculate the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm (GA) method. In order to verify the performance of the temperature sensor, the aspirated temperature measurement platform, temperature sensors with a naturally ventilated radiation shield, and a thermometer screen are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The average radiation errors of the sensors in the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.44 °C and 0.25 °C, respectively. In contrast, the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform is as low as 0.05 °C. This aspirated temperature sensor allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 88.6% compared to the naturally ventilated radiation shield, and allows the error to be reduced by a percentage of approximately 80% compared to the thermometer screen. The mean absolute error and root mean square error between the correction equation and experimental results are 0.032 °C and 0.036 °C, respectively, which demonstrates the accuracy of the CFD and GA methods proposed in this research.

  18. Fluid dynamic design and experimental study of an aspirated temperature measurement platform used in climate observation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qingquan; Dai, Wei; Ding, Renhui

    2016-08-01

    Due to the solar radiation effect, current air temperature sensors inside a thermometer screen or radiation shield may produce measurement errors that are 0.8 °C or higher. To improve the observation accuracy, an aspirated temperature measurement platform is designed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to analyze and calculate the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform under various environmental conditions. Then, a radiation error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm (GA) method. In order to verify the performance of the temperature sensor, the aspirated temperature measurement platform, temperature sensors with a naturally ventilated radiation shield, and a thermometer screen are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The average radiation errors of the sensors in the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.44 °C and 0.25 °C, respectively. In contrast, the radiation error of the aspirated temperature measurement platform is as low as 0.05 °C. This aspirated temperature sensor allows the radiation error to be reduced by approximately 88.6% compared to the naturally ventilated radiation shield, and allows the error to be reduced by a percentage of approximately 80% compared to the thermometer screen. The mean absolute error and root mean square error between the correction equation and experimental results are 0.032 °C and 0.036 °C, respectively, which demonstrates the accuracy of the CFD and GA methods proposed in this research.

  19. Pore fluid constraints on the temperature and oxygen isotopic composition of the glacial ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Schrag, D.P.; Hampt, G.; Murray, D.W.

    1996-06-28

    Pore fluids from the upper 60 meters of sediment 3000 meters below the surface of the tropical Atlantic indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition ({delta}{sup 18}O) of seawater at this site during the last glacial maximum was 0.8 {plus_minus} 0.1 per mil higher than it is today. Combined with the {delta}{sup 18}O change in benthic foraminifera from this region, the elevated ratio indicates that the temperature of deep water in the tropical Atlantic Ocean was 4{degree}C colder during the last glacial maximum. Extrapolation from this site to a global average suggests that the ice volume contribution to the change in {delta}{sup 18}O of foraminifera is 1.0 per mil, which partially reconciles the foraminiferal oxygen isotope record of tropical sea surface temperatures with estimates from Barbados corals and terrestrial climate proxies. 25 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Energy transfer among CP29 chlorophylls: calculated Förster rates and experimental transient absorption at room temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Cinque, G; Croce, R; Holzwarth, A; Bassi, R

    2000-01-01

    The energy transfer rates between chlorophylls in the light harvesting complex CP29 of higher plants at room temperature were calculated ab initio according to the Förster mechanism (Förster T. 1948, Ann. Physik. 2:55-67). Recently, the transition moment orientation of CP29 chlorophylls was determined by differential linear dichroism and absorption spectroscopy of wild-type versus mutant proteins in which single chromophores were missing (Simonetto R., Crimi M., Sandonà D., Croce R., Cinque G., Breton J., and Bassi R. 1999. Biochemistry. 38:12974-12983). In this way the Q(y) transition energy and chlorophyll a/b affinity of each binding site was obtained and their characteristics supported by reconstruction of steady-state linear dichroism and absorption spectra at room temperature. In this study, the spectral form of individual chlorophyll a and b ligands within the protein environment was experimentally determined, and their extinction coefficients were also used to evaluate the absolute overlap integral between donors and acceptors employing the Stepanov relation for both the emission spectrum and the Stokes shift. This information was used to calculate the time-dependent excitation redistribution among CP29 chlorophylls on solving numerically the Pauli master equation of the complex: transient absorption measurements in the (sub)picosecond time scale were simulated and compared to pump-and-probe experimental data in the Q(y) region on the native CP29 at room temperature upon selective excitation of chlorophylls b at 640 or 650 nm. The kinetic model indicates a bidirectional excitation transfer over all CP29 chlorophylls a species, which is particularly rapid between the pure sites A1-A2 and A4-A5. Chlorophylls b in mixed sites act mostly as energy donors for chlorophylls a, whereas site B5 shows high and bidirectional coupling independent of the pigment hosted. PMID:11023879

  1. Cytological analysis of equine bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Part 3: The effect of time, temperature and fixatives.

    PubMed

    Pickles, K; Pirie, R S; Rhind, S; Dixon, P M; McGorum, B C

    2002-05-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples are often subject to time delays, possibly with temperature fluctuations, between collection and processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of time, temperature and 2 different fixatives on equine BALF cytology, in order to develop guidelines for optimal equine BALF storage conditions. Total nucleated cell count (TCC), differential cell counts (DCC), absolute cell counts (ACC), cell viability, cell morphology and bacterial growth of BALF samples stored at 4, 18 (+/- addition of formalin- or alcohol-based fixatives) and 38 degrees C were monitored serially over a 72 h period. The time taken for a significant reduction in TCC and cell viability of unfixed BALF samples decreased as the storage temperature increased. There was no diagnostically significant difference in DCC or ACC over this time-course at any temperature. Unfixed BALF samples showed significant bacterial growth by 24 h at 4 degrees C, and 8 h at 18 and 38 degrees C; and poor morphology by 48 h at 4 degrees C, 24 h at 18 degrees C and 8 h at 38 degrees C. Fixed BALF samples showed poor morphology with Leishman's stain compared to unfixed samples.

  2. Temperature-dependent Physical Properties of a HIFU Blood Mimicking Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yunbo; Maruvada, Subha; King, Randy L.; Herman, Bruce A.; Wear, Keith A.

    2009-04-01

    A blood mimicking fluid (BMF) has been developed and characterized in a temperature dependent manner for high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation devices. The BMF is based on a degassed and de-ionized water solution dispersed with low density polyethylene micro-spheres, nylon particles, gellan gum and glycerol. A broad range of physical parameters, including frequency dependent ultrasound attenuation, speed of sound, viscosity, thermal conductivity and diffusivity were characterized as a function of temperature (20° C to 70° C). The nonlinear parameter B/A and backscatter coefficient were also measured at room temperature. The attenuation coefficient is linearly proportional to the frequency (2 MHz-8 MHz) with a slope of about 0.2 dB cm-1 MHz-1 in the 20° C to 70° C range as has been reported for human blood. All the other temperature dependent physical parameters are also close to the reported values in human blood. These properties make the BMF a useful HIFU research tool for developing standardized exposimetry techniques, validating numerical models, and determining the safety and efficacy of HIFU ablation devices.

  3. Superfluid to Normal Fluid Phase Transition in the Bose Gas Trapped in Two-Dimensional Optical Lattices at Finite Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, M. O. C.; de Passos, E. J. V.

    2017-02-01

    We develop the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory at finite temperature for Bose gas trapped in the two-dimensional optical lattice with the on-site energy low enough that the gas presents superfluid properties. We obtain the condensate density as function of the temperature neglecting the anomalous density in the thermodynamics equation. The condensate fraction provides two critical temperature. Below the temperature T_{C1}, there is one condensate fraction. Above two condensate fractions merger up to the critical temperature T_{C2}. At temperatures larger than T_{C2}, the condensate fraction is null and, therefore, the gas is normal fluid. We resume by a finite-temperature phase diagram where three domains can be identified: the normal fluid, the superfluid with one stable condensate fraction and the superfluid with two condensate fractions being unstable one of them.

  4. Fluid and rock interactions in silicate and aluminosilicate systems at elevated pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Mary Kathleen

    Understanding fluid chemistry in the subduction zone environment is key to unraveling the details of element transport from the slab to the surface. Solubilities of cations, such as silicon, in water strongly affect both the physical and chemical properties of supercritical metamorphic fluids. Modeling the thermodynamics of fluid-rock interactions requires therefore a profound understanding of cation dissolution and aqueous speciation. In situ Raman experiments of the silica-water, alumina-water, and alumina water systems were performed in an externally heated Bassett-type diamond-anvil cell at the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan. Natural quartz samples and synthetic ruby samples were used in the experiments. Samples were loaded in the sample chamber with a water pressure medium. All experiments used rhenium gaskets of uniform thickness with a 500 mum drill hole for the sample chamber. Temperature was measured using K-type thermocouples encompassing both the upper and lower diamond anvils. Pressures are obtained on the basis of the Raman shift of the 464 cm-1 quartz mode where possible or the Raman shift of the tips of the diamond anvils according to a method developed in this work. This work characterizes the state of stress in the diamond anvil cell, which is used as the basis for the pressure calibration using only the diamond anvils. Raman measurements of silicate fluid confirm the presence of H4 SiO4 and H6Si2O7 in solution and expand the pressure range for in-situ structural observations in the silica-water system. Additionally, we identify the presence of another silica species present at mantle conditions, which occurs at long time scales in the diamond cell. This study provides the first in situ data in the alumina-water and alumina-silica-water systems at pressures and temperatures relevant to the slab environment. Al(OH) 3 appears to be the dominant form of alumina present under these conditions and in the alumina

  5. New equations for density, entropy, heat capacity, and potential temperature of a saline thermal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Feistel, Rainer; Koch, Manfred; Markoe, Andrew

    2008-10-01

    A set of fitted polynomial equations for calculating the physical variables density, entropy, heat capacity and potential temperature of a thermal saline fluid for a temperature range of 0-374 °C, pressure range of 0.1-100 MPa and absolute salinity range of 0-40 g/kg is established. The freshwater components of the equations are extracted from the recently released tabulated data of freshwater properties of Wagner and Pruß [2002. The IAPWS formulation 1995 for the thermodynamic properties of ordinary water substance for general and scientific use. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 31, 387-535]. The salt water component of the equation is based on the near-linear relationship between density, salinity and specific heat capacity and is extracted from the data sets of Feistel [2003. A new extended Gibbs thermodynamic potential of seawater. Progress in Oceanography 58, 43-114], Bromley et al. [1970. Heat capacities and enthalpies of sea salt solutions to 200 °C. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 15, 246-253] and Grunberg [1970. Properties of sea water concentrates. In: Third International Symposium on Fresh Water from the Sea, vol. 1, pp. 31-39] in a temperature range 0-200 °C, practical salinity range 0-40, and varying pressure and is also calibrated by the data set of Millero et al. [1981. Summary of data treatment for the international high pressure equation of state for seawater. UNESCO Technical Papers in Marine Science 38, 99-192]. The freshwater and salt water components are combined to establish a workable multi-polynomial equation, whose coefficients were computed through standard linear regression analysis. The results obtained in this way for density, entropy and potential temperature are comparable with those of existing models, except that our new equations cover a wider temperature—(0-374 °C) than the traditional (0-40 °C) temperature range. One can apply these newly established equations to the calculation of in-situ or

  6. Onset of slugging criterion based on characteristics and stability analyses of transient one-dimensional two-phase flow equations of two-fluid model

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, M.H.; Sung, C.K.

    1996-07-01

    A two-step approach has been used to obtain a new criterion for the onset of slug formation: (1) In the first step, a more general expression than the existing models for the onset of slug flow criterion has been derived from the analysis of singular points and neutral stability conditions of the transient one-dimensional two-phase flow equations of two-fluid model. (2) In the second step, introducing simplifications and incorporating a parameter into the general expression obtained in the first step to satisfy a number of physical conditions a priori specified, a new simple criterion for the onset of slug flow has been derived. Comparisons of the present model with existing models and experimental data show that the present model agrees very closely with Taitel and Dukler`s model and experimental data in horizontal pipes. In an inclined pipe ({theta} = 50{degree}), however, the difference between the predictions of the present model and those of existing models is appreciably large and the present model gives the best agreement with Ohnuki et al.`s data.

  7. Effect of porosity and the inlet heat transfer fluid temperature variation on the performance of cool thermal energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheralathan, M.; Velraj, R.; Renganarayanan, S.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the results of numerical and experimental study of an encapsulated cool thermal energy storage system. The storage system is a cylindrical storage tank filled with phase change material encapsulated in spherical container, placed in a refrigeration loop. A simulation program was developed to evaluate the temperature histories of the heat transfer fluid and the phase change material at any axial location during the charging period. The present analysis aims at studying the influence of the inlet heat transfer fluid temperature and porosity on system performance. An experimental setup was designed and constructed to conduct the experiments. The results of the model were validated by comparison with experimental results of temperature profiles for different inlet heat transfer fluid temperatures and porosity. The results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The results reported are much useful for designing cool thermal energy storage systems.

  8. Embedded MicroHeating Elements in Polymeric MicroChannels for Temperature Control and Fluid Flow Sensing.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, Michael; Locascio, Laurie E

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration of temperature control and flow sensing of fluids using integrated circuit (IC)-based microheating elements embedded in microchannels molded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Fluid channels and connections to capillary tubing are molded in PDMS using a silicon wafer template. The PDMS film is then bonded to an IC that contains the micromachined microheating elements. Capillary tubes are inserted and fluids are externally pumped through the channels. Heating of the fluid is observed by the formation of bubbles on the microheating element. Sensing of fluid flow is demonstrated by measuring a change in the large signal resistance of the microheater analogous to a hot wire anemometer with a detection limit of ± 320 pL/s.

  9. The development of new, low-cost perfluoroalkylether fluids with excellent low and high-temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierschenk, Thomas R.; Kawa, Hajimu; Juhlke, Timothy J.; Lagow, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    A series of perfluoroalkylether (PFAE) fluids were synthesized by direct fluorination. Viscosity-temperature properties, oxidation stabilities, oxidation-corrosion properties, and lubricity were determined. The fluids were tested in the presence of common elastomers to check for compatibility. The bulk modulus of each was measured to determine if any could be used as nonflammable aircraft hydraulic fluid. It was determined that as the carbon to oxygen ratio decreases, the viscometric properties improve, the fluids may become poor lubricants, the bulk modulus increases, the surface tension increases, and the fluid density increases. The presence of difluoromethylene oxide units in the polymer does not seriously lower the oxidation and oxidation-corrosion stabilities as long as the difluoromethylene oxide units are separated by other units.

  10. Numerical studies of a confined volatile binary fluid subject to a horizontal temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tongran; Grigoriev, Roman

    2016-11-01

    Our fundamental understanding of convection in a layer of nonisothermal binary fluid with free surface in the presence of noncondensable gases, such as air, is still limited. In relatively thick liquid layers, the flow is driven by a combination of three different forces: buoyancy, thermocapillarity, and solutocapillarity in the liquid layer. Unlike buoyancy, both thermocapillarity and solutocapillarity depend sensitively on the boundary conditions at the liquid-vapor interface. Recent experimental studies showed that the composition of both the liquid and the gas phases have significant effects on the convection pattern. In particular, in a methanol-water mixture, four different flow regimes were identified on a map spanned by the concentration of methanol in the liquid and the concentration of air in the gas, which are thermocapillarity-dominated flow (TDF), solutocapillarity-dominated flow (SDF), unsteady flow (UF) and reversed flow (RF). This talk will present a comprehensive numerical model for a confined volatile binary fluid subject to a horizontal temperature gradient in the presence of noncondensable gases, and illustrate how the composition of both phases affect thermocapillarity and solutocapillarity. The numerical results will also be compared with experiments. Supported by NSF.

  11. How stress and temperature conditions affect rock-fluid chemistry and mechanical deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nermoen, Anders; Korsnes, Reidar; Aursjø, Olav; Madland, Merete; Kjørslevik, Trygve Alexander; Østensen, Geir

    2016-02-01

    We report the results from a series of chalk flow-through-compaction experiments performed at three effective stresses (0.5 MPa, 3.5 MPa and 12.3 MPa) and two temperatures (92° and and 130°). The results show that both stress and temperature are important to both chemical alteration and mechanical deformation. The experiments were conducted on cores drilled from the same block of outcrop chalks from the Obourg quarry within the Saint Vast formation (Mons, Belgium). The pore pressure was kept at 0.7 MPa for all experiments with a continuous flow of 0.219 M MgCl2 brine at a constant flow rate; 1 original pore volume (PV) per day. The experiments have been performed in tri-axial cells with independent control of the external stress (hydraulic pressure in the confining oil), pore pressure, temperature, and the injected flow rate. Each experiment consists of two phases; a loading phase where stress-strain dependencies are investigated (approx. 2 days), and a creep phase that lasts for more than 150-160 days. During creep, the axial deformation was logged, and the effluent samples were collected for ion chromatography analyses. Any difference between the injected and produced water chemistry gives insight into the rock-fluid interactions that occur during flow through of the core. The observed effluent concentration shows a reduction in Mg2+, while the Ca2+ concentration is increased. This, together with SEM-EDS analysis, indicates that magnesium-bearing mineral phases are precipitated leading to dissolution of calcite, an observation . This is in-line with other flow-through experiments reported earlier. The observed dissolution and precipitation are sensitive to the effective stress and test temperature. Typically. H, higher stress and temperature lead to increased concentration differences of Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentration changes.. The observed strain can be partitioned additively into a mechanical and chemical driven component.

  12. Fluid Phase Lipid Areas and Bilayer Thicknesses of Commonly Used Phosphatidylcholines as a Function of Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kucerka, Norbert; Nieh, Mu-Ping; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    The structural parameters of fluid phase bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholines with fully saturated, mixed, and branched fatty acid chains, at several temperatures, have been determined by simultaneously analyzing small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. Bilayer parameters, such as area per lipid and overall bilayer thickness have been obtained in conjunction with intrabilayer structural parameters (e.g. hydrocarbon region thickness). The results have allowed us to assess the effect of temperature and hydrocarbon chain composition on bilayer structure. For example, we found that for all lipids there is, not surprisingly, an increase in fatty acid chain trans-gauche isomerization with increasing temperature. Moreover, this increase in trans-gauche isomerization scales with fatty acid chain length in mixed chain lipids. However, in the case of lipids with saturated fatty acid chains, trans-gauche isomerization is increasingly tempered by attractive chain-chain van der Waals interactions with increasing chain length. Finally, our results confirm a strong dependence of lipid chain dynamics as a function of double bond position along fatty acid chains.

  13. Two-phase working fluids for the temperature range 100-350 C. [in heat pipes for solar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Tower, L.

    1977-01-01

    The decomposition and corrosion of two-phase heat transfer liquids and metal envelopes have been investigated on the basis of molecular, bond strengths and chemical thermodynamics. Potentially stable heat transfer fluids for the temperature range 100 to 350 C have been identified, and reflux heat pipe tests initiated with 10 fluids and carbon steel and aluminum envelopes to experimentally establish corrosion behavior and noncondensable gas generation rates.

  14. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  15. Hydromagnetic Steady Flow of Maxwell Fluid over a Bidirectional Stretching Surface with Prescribed Surface Temperature and Prescribed Surface Heat Flux

    PubMed Central

    Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmad; Hayat, Tasawar

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the steady hydromagnetic three-dimensional boundary layer flow of Maxwell fluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. Both cases of prescribed surface temperature (PST) and prescribed surface heat flux (PHF) are considered. Computations are made for the velocities and temperatures. Results are plotted and analyzed for PST and PHF cases. Convergence analysis is presented for the velocities and temperatures. Comparison of PST and PHF cases is given and examined. PMID:23874523

  16. Design and feasibility of high temperature nanoparticle fluid filter in hybrid thermal/photovoltaic concentrating solar power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Drew; Brekke, Nick; Tunkara, Ebrima; Hari, Parameswar; Roberts, Kenneth; Otanicar, Todd

    2015-09-01

    A nanoparticle fluid filter used with concentrating hybrid solar/thermal collector design is presented. Nanoparticle fluid filters could be situated on any given concentrating system with appropriate customized engineering. This work shows the design in the context of a trough concentration system. Geometric design and physical placement in the optical path was modeled using SolTrace. It was found that a design can be made that blocks 0% of the traced rays. The nanoparticle fluid filter is tunable for different concentrating systems using various PV cells or operating at varying temperatures.

  17. Global Stability for Thermal Convection in a Couple-Stress Fluid with Temperature and Pressure Dependent Viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Bharti, P. K.

    2013-09-01

    We show that the global nonlinear stability threshold for convection in a couple-stress fluid with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. It has also been found that the couplestress fluid is more stable than the ordinary viscous fluid and then the effect of couple-stress parameter (F) and variable dependent viscosity (Γ) on the onset of convection is also analyzed.

  18. Predicting critical temperatures of ionic and non-ionic fluids from thermophysical data obtained near the melting point.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Volker C

    2015-10-14

    In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of βeff = 0.5 than by βeff = 0.33.

  19. Characterization and Optimization of Temperature-Sensitive Microbeads for Simultaneous Thermometry and Velocimetry for Fluid Dynamic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottingham, Trey

    Luminescent paint is an established method for measuring both pressure and temperature distributions on surfaces. These Temperature-Sensitive Paints (TSP) and Pressure-Sensitive Paints (PSP) are commercially available and used regularly in the study of fluids. New microbeads using temperature-sensitive dyes were developed for applications in wind and water tunnel measurement. A novel method was developed to measure their response times to temperature changes. Their sensitivity to temperature change was also measured. A new optical system and software suite were developed. Methods for reducing spatial variations due to excitation energy were also developed.

  20. Temperature effects in supercritical fluid chromatography: a trade-off between viscous heating and decompression cooling.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2014-10-24

    The study of radial and axial temperature profiles always has been an area interest both in liquid chromatography (LC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). Whereas in LC always an increase in temperature is observed due to the dominance of viscous heating, in SFC, especially for low modifier content, a decrease in temperature is found due to the much larger decompression cooling. However, for higher modifier content and higher operating pressure, the temperature effects become a trade-off between viscous heating and decompression cooling, since in SFC the latter is a strong function of operating pressure and mobile phase composition. At a temperature of 40°C and for neat CO2, the effect of decompression cooling and viscous heating cancel each other out at a pressure 450bar. This pressure decreases almost linearly with volume fraction of methanol to 150bar at 25vol%. As a result, both cooling and heating effects can be observed when operating at high back pressure, large column pressure drops or high modifier content. For example at a back pressure of 150bar and a column pressure drop of 270bar decompression cooling is observed throughout the column. However at 300bar back pressure and the same pressure drop, the mobile phase heats up in the first part of the column due to viscous heating and then cools in the second part due to decompression cooling. When coupling columns (2.1mm×150mm, 1.8μm fully porous particles) at very high operating pressure (e.g. 750bar for 8vol%), the situation is even more complex. E.g. at a back pressure of 150bar and using 8vol% methanol, viscous heating is only observed in the first column whereas only decompression cooling in the second. Further increasing the inlet pressure up to 1050bar resulted in no excessive temperature differences along the column. This implies that the inlet pressure of SFC instrumentation could be expanded above 600bar without additional band broadening caused by excessive radial temperature

  1. A study of the proteorhodopsin primary photoreaction by low-temperature FTIR difference and ultrafast transient infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amsden, Jason J.

    Proteorhodopsin (PR), a newly discovered microbial rhodopsin found in marine proteobacteria, functions as a light-driven proton pump similar to bacteriorhodopsin (BR). PR-containing bacteria account for ˜13% of the microorganisms in the oceans' photic zone and are responsible for a significant fraction of the biosphere's solar energy conversion. We study the initial response of proteorhodopsin to photon absorption using a combination of low-temperature (80 K) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy and ultrafast transient infrared (TIR) spectroscopy. Low-temperature FTIR difference spectroscopy combined with site-directed mutagenesis and isotope labeling is used to detect and characterize changes occurring in the conformation of the retinal chromophore, protein, and internal water molecules of green-absorbing PR (GPR) and blue-absorbing PR (BPR) during the initial phototransition. Measurements on cryogenically trapped intermediates do not accurately reflect all native structural changes occurring in PR and other microbial rhodopsins on ultrafast time scales at room temperature. Recent studies demonstrate that photoactive proteins such as photoactive yellow protein, myoglobin, and green-fluorescent protein, can react within several picoseconds to photon absorption by their chromophores. Faster subpicosecond protein responses have been suggested to occur in rhodopsin-like proteins where retinal chromophore photoisomerization may impulsively drive structural changes in nearby protein groups. Here, I test this possibility by investigating the earliest protein and chromophore structural changes occurring in GPR using ultrafast TIR spectroscopy with ˜200 fs time resolution combined with non-perturbing isotope labeling. On the basis of total-15N and retinal C15D (retinal with a deuterium on carbon 15) isotope labeling, the all-trans to 13-cis retinal chromophore isomerization occurs with a 500-700 fs time constant and the amide II mode of one or more

  2. MHD thermosolutal marangoni convection heat and mass transport of power law fluid driven by temperature and concentration gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Chengru; Zheng, Liancun; Ma, Lianxi

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) thermosolutal Marangoni convection heat and mass transfer of power-law fluids driven by a power law temperature and a power law concentration which is assumed that the surface tension varies linearly with both the temperature and concentration. Heat and mass transfer constitutive equation is proposed based on N-diffusion proposed by Philip and the abnormal convection-diffusion model proposed by Pascal in which we assume that the heat diffusion depends non-linearly on both the temperature and the temperature gradient and the mass diffusion depends non-linearly on both the concentration and the concentration gradient with modified Fourier heat conduction for power law fluid. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using suitable similarity transformations. Approximate analytical solution is obtained using homotopy analytical method (HAM). The transport characteristics of velocity, temperature and concentration fields are analyzed in detail.

  3. Effect of drilling fluid systems and temperature on oil mist and vapour levels generated from shale shaker.

    PubMed

    Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Galea, Karen S; Krüger, Kirsti; Peikli, Vegard; Sánchez-Jiménez, Araceli; Sætvedt, Esther; Searl, Alison; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2011-05-01

    Workers in the drilling section of the offshore petroleum industry are exposed to air pollutants generated by drilling fluids. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations have been measured in the drilling fluid processing areas for decades; however, little work has been carried out to investigate exposure determinants such as drilling fluid viscosity and temperature. A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of two different oil-based drilling fluid systems and their temperature on oil mist, oil vapour, and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) levels in a simulated shale shaker room at a purpose-built test centre. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were sampled simultaneously using a sampling arrangement consisting of a Millipore closed cassette loaded with glass fibre and cellulose acetate filters attached to a backup charcoal tube. TVOCs were measured by a PhoCheck photo-ionization detector direct reading instrument. Concentrations of oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC in the atmosphere surrounding the shale shaker were assessed during three separate test periods. Two oil-based drilling fluids, denoted 'System 2.0' and 'System 3.5', containing base oils with a viscosity of 2.0 and 3.3-3.7 mm(2) s(-1) at 40°C, respectively, were used at temperatures ranging from 40 to 75°C. In general, the System 2.0 yielded low oil mist levels, but high oil vapour concentrations, while the opposite was found for the System 3.5. Statistical significant differences between the drilling fluid systems were found for oil mist (P = 0.025),vapour (P < 0.001), and TVOC (P = 0.011). Increasing temperature increased the oil mist, oil vapour, and TVOC levels. Oil vapour levels at the test facility exceeded the Norwegian oil vapour occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 30 mg m(-3) when the drilling fluid temperature was ≥50°C. The practice of testing compliance of oil vapour exposure from drilling fluids systems containing base oils with viscosity of ≤2.0 mm(2) s(-1) at 40

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses on Very High Temperature Reactor Air Ingress

    SciTech Connect

    Chang H Oh; Eung S. Kim; Richard Schultz; David Petti; Hyung S. Kang

    2009-07-01

    A preliminary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to understand density-gradient-induced stratified flow in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) air-ingress accident. Various parameters were taken into consideration, including turbulence model, core temperature, initial air mole-fraction, and flow resistance in the core. The gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) 600 MWt was selected as the reference reactor and it was simplified to be 2-D geometry in modeling. The core and the lower plenum were assumed to be porous bodies. Following the preliminary CFD results, the analysis of the air-ingress accident has been performed by two different codes: GAMMA code (system analysis code, Oh et al. 2006) and FLUENT CFD code (Fluent 2007). Eventually, the analysis results showed that the actual onset time of natural convection (~160 sec) would be significantly earlier than the previous predictions (~150 hours) calculated based on the molecular diffusion air-ingress mechanism. This leads to the conclusion that the consequences of this accident will be much more serious than previously expected.

  5. Emergence of Coherent Localized Structures in Shear Deformations of Temperature Dependent Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Olivier, Julien; Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

    2016-12-01

    Shear localization occurs in various instances of material instability in solid mechanics and is typically associated with Hadamard-instability for an underlying model. While Hadamard instability indicates the catastrophic growth of oscillations around a mean state, it does not by itself explain the formation of coherent structures typically observed in localization. The latter is a nonlinear effect and its analysis is the main objective of this article. We consider a model that captures the main mechanisms observed in high strain-rate deformation of metals, and describes shear motions of temperature dependent non-Newtonian fluids. For a special dependence of the viscosity on the temperature, we carry out a linearized stability analysis around a base state of uniform shearing solutions, and quantitatively assess the effects of the various mechanisms affecting the problem: thermal softening, momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. Then, we turn to the nonlinear model, and construct localized states—in the form of similarity solutions—that emerge as coherent structures in the localization process. This justifies a scenario for localization that is proposed on the basis of asymptotic analysis in uc(Katsaounis) and uc(Tzavaras) (SIAM J Appl Math 69:1618-1643, 2009).

  6. Emergence of Coherent Localized Structures in Shear Deformations of Temperature Dependent Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsaounis, Theodoros; Olivier, Julien; Tzavaras, Athanasios E.

    2017-04-01

    Shear localization occurs in various instances of material instability in solid mechanics and is typically associated with Hadamard-instability for an underlying model. While Hadamard instability indicates the catastrophic growth of oscillations around a mean state, it does not by itself explain the formation of coherent structures typically observed in localization. The latter is a nonlinear effect and its analysis is the main objective of this article. We consider a model that captures the main mechanisms observed in high strain-rate deformation of metals, and describes shear motions of temperature dependent non-Newtonian fluids. For a special dependence of the viscosity on the temperature, we carry out a linearized stability analysis around a base state of uniform shearing solutions, and quantitatively assess the effects of the various mechanisms affecting the problem: thermal softening, momentum diffusion and thermal diffusion. Then, we turn to the nonlinear model, and construct localized states—in the form of similarity solutions—that emerge as coherent structures in the localization process. This justifies a scenario for localization that is proposed on the basis of asymptotic analysis in Katsaounis and Tzavaras (SIAM J Appl Math 69:1618-1643, 2009).

  7. High Pressure, Transport Properties of Fluids: Theory and Data from Levitated Fluid-Drops at Combustion-Relevant Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellan, J.; Ohaska, K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to derive a set of consistent mixing rules for calculating diffusivities and thermal diffusion factors over a thermodynamic regime encompassing the subcritical and supercritical ranges. These should serve for modeling purposes, and therefore for accurate simulations of high pressure phenomena such as fluid disintegration, turbulent flows and sprays. A particular consequence of this work will be the determination of effective Lewis numbers for supercritical conditions, thus enabling the examination of the relative importance of heat and mass transfer at supercritical pressures.

  8. Valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids

    DOEpatents

    De Feo, Angelo

    1982-01-01

    The valve assembly for use with high temperature and high pressure fluids has inner and outer spaced shells and a valve actuator support of inner and outer spaced members which are connected at their end portions to the inner and outer shells, respectively, to extend substantially normal to the longitudinal axis of the inner shell. A layer of resilient heat insulating material covers the outer surfaces of the inner shell and the inner actuator support member and is of a thickness to only occupy part of the spaces between the inner and outer shells and inner and outer actuator support members. The remaining portion of the space between the inner and outer shells and the space between the inner and outer members is substantially filled with a body of castable, rigid refractory material. A movable valve member is disposed in the inner shell. A valve actuator assembly is supported in the valve actuator support to extend into the inner shell for connection with the movable valve member for movement of the movable valve member to positions from a fully open to a fully closed position to control flow of fluid through the inner shell. An anchor mneans is disposed adjacent opposite sides of the axis of the valve actuator support and attached to the inner shell so that relative radial movement between the inner and outer shell is permitted by the layer of resilient heat insulating material and relative longitudinal movement of the inner shell to the outer shell is permitted in opposite directions from the anchor means to thereby maintain the functional integrity of the movable valve member by providing an area of the inner shell surrounding the movable valve member longitdinally stationary, but at the same time allowing radial movement.

  9. Preferential dissolution of SiO2 from enstatite to H2 fluid under high pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozaki, Ayako; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Hirai, Hisako; Ohfuji, Hiroaki; Okada, Taku; Nakano, Satoshi; Yagi, Takehiko

    2016-04-01

    Stability and phase relations of coexisting enstatite and H2 fluid were investigated in the pressure and temperature regions of 3.1-13.9 GPa and 1500-2000 K using laser-heated diamond-anvil cells. XRD measurements showed decomposition of enstatite upon heating to form forsterite, periclase, and coesite/stishovite. In the recovered samples, SiO2 grains were found at the margin of the heating hot spot, suggesting that the SiO2 component dissolved in the H2 fluid during heating, then precipitated when its solubility decreased with decreasing temperature. Raman and infrared spectra of the coexisting fluid phase revealed that SiH4 and H2O molecules formed through the reaction between dissolved SiO2 and H2. In contrast, forsterite and periclase crystals were found within the hot spot, which were assumed to have replaced the initial orthoenstatite crystals without dissolution. Preferential dissolution of SiO2 components of enstatite in H2 fluid, as well as that observed in the forsterite H2 system and the quartz H2 system, implies that H2-rich fluid enhances Mg/Si fractionation between the fluid and solid phases of mantle minerals.

  10. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressure and temperatures. Progress report, July 1, 1989--July 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Etters, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    This renewal request for DOE grant DE-FG02-86ER45238, is dedicated to providing a complete thermodynamic profile of solids fluids, and fluid mixtures, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. We are partially motivated by technological interest in detonation, combustion, superhard high pressure materials, and high temperature superconductors, which are important components of interest of various DOE laboratories. Our work on fluids and solids, composed of simple molecules, involves the determination of structures, phase transitions, pressure-volume relations, phonon, vibron, and libron modes of excitation, sound velocities, specific heats, thermal expansion, virial coefficients, sublimation energies, and orientational translational, and magnetic correlations. We hope that the study of these systems under extreme thermodynamic conditions will lead to exotic new materials of value, as well as enhanced fundamental understanding.

  11. Halide and Oxy-Halide Eutectic Systems for High-Performance, High-Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The University of Arizona, Arizona Statue University (ASU), and Georgia Institute of Technology is one of the 2012 SunShot CSP R&D awardees for their Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI): High Operating Temperature (HOT) Fluids. This fact sheet explains the motivation, description, and impact of the project.

  12. Characteristics of temperature rise in variable inductor employing magnetorheological fluid driven by a high-frequency pulsed voltage source

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ho-Young; Kang, In Man; Shon, Chae-Hwa; Lee, Se-Hee

    2015-05-07

    A variable inductor with magnetorheological (MR) fluid has been successfully applied to power electronics applications; however, its thermal characteristics have not been investigated. To evaluate the performance of the variable inductor with respect to temperature, we measured the characteristics of temperature rise and developed a numerical analysis technique. The characteristics of temperature rise were determined experimentally and verified numerically by adopting a multiphysics analysis technique. In order to accurately estimate the temperature distribution in a variable inductor with an MR fluid-gap, the thermal solver should import the heat source from the electromagnetic solver to solve the eddy current problem. To improve accuracy, the B–H curves of the MR fluid under operating temperature were obtained using the magnetic property measurement system. In addition, the Steinmetz equation was applied to evaluate the core loss in a ferrite core. The predicted temperature rise for a variable inductor showed good agreement with the experimental data and the developed numerical technique can be employed to design a variable inductor with a high-frequency pulsed voltage source.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics analysis and experimental study of a low measurement error temperature sensor used in climate observation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qingquan; Dai, Wei

    2017-02-01

    To improve the air temperature observation accuracy, a low measurement error temperature sensor is proposed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to obtain temperature errors under various environmental conditions. Then, a temperature error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm method. The low measurement error temperature sensor, a naturally ventilated radiation shield, a thermometer screen, and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated platform served as an air temperature reference. The mean temperature errors of the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.74 °C and 0.37 °C, respectively. In contrast, the mean temperature error of the low measurement error temperature sensor is 0.11 °C. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the corrected results and the measured results are 0.008 °C and 0.01 °C, respectively. The correction equation allows the temperature error of the low measurement error temperature sensor to be reduced by approximately 93.8%. The low measurement error temperature sensor proposed in this research may be helpful to provide a relatively accurate air temperature result.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics analysis and experimental study of a low measurement error temperature sensor used in climate observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Liu, Qingquan; Dai, Wei

    2017-02-01

    To improve the air temperature observation accuracy, a low measurement error temperature sensor is proposed. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is implemented to obtain temperature errors under various environmental conditions. Then, a temperature error correction equation is obtained by fitting the CFD results using a genetic algorithm method. The low measurement error temperature sensor, a naturally ventilated radiation shield, a thermometer screen, and an aspirated temperature measurement platform are characterized in the same environment to conduct the intercomparison. The aspirated platform served as an air temperature reference. The mean temperature errors of the naturally ventilated radiation shield and the thermometer screen are 0.74 °C and 0.37 °C, respectively. In contrast, the mean temperature error of the low measurement error temperature sensor is 0.11 °C. The mean absolute error and the root mean square error between the corrected results and the measured results are 0.008 °C and 0.01 °C, respectively. The correction equation allows the temperature error of the low measurement error temperature sensor to be reduced by approximately 93.8%. The low measurement error temperature sensor proposed in this research may be helpful to provide a relatively accurate air temperature result.

  15. Exact analytical solution to a transient conjugate heat-transfer problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sucec, J.

    1973-01-01

    An exact analytical solution is found for laminar, constant-property, slug flow over a thin plate which is also convectively cooled from below. The solution is found by means of two successive Laplace transformations when a transient in the plate and the fluid is initiated by a step change in the fluid inlet temperature. The exact solution yields the transient fluid temperature, surface heat flux, and surface temperature distributions. The results of the exact transient solution for the surface heat flux are compared to the quasi-steady values, and a criterion for the validity of the quasi-steady results is found. Also the effect of the plate coupling parameter on the surface heat flux are investigated.

  16. Fluid chemistry of the low temperature hyperalkaline hydrothermal system of Prony Bay (New Caledonia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnin, C.; Chavagnac, V.; Boulart, C.; Ménez, B.; Gérard, M.; Gérard, E.; Pisapia, C.; Quéméneur, M.; Erauso, G.; Postec, A.; Guentas-Dombrowski, L.; Payri, C.; Pelletier, B.

    2014-10-01

    The terrestrial hyperalkaline springs of Prony Bay (southern lagoon, New Caledonia) have been known since the nineteenth century, but a recent high-resolution bathymetric survey of the seafloor has revealed the existence of numerous submarine structures similar to the well-known Aiguille de Prony, which are also the location of high-pH fluid discharge into the lagoon. During the HYDROPRONY cruise (28 October to 13 November 2011), samples of waters, gases and concretions were collected by scuba divers at underwater vents. Four of these sampling sites are located in Prony Bay at depths up to 50 m. One (Bain des Japonais spring) is also in Prony Bay but uncovered at low tide and another (Rivière des Kaoris spring) is on land slightly above the seawater level at high tide. We report the chemical composition (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, SO4, dissolved inorganic carbon, SiO2(aq)) of 45 water samples collected at six sites of high-pH water discharge, as well as the composition of gases. Temperatures reach 37 °C at the Bain des Japonais and 32 °C at the spring of the Kaoris. Gas bubbling was observed only at these two springs. The emitted gases contain between 12 and 30% of hydrogen in volume of dry gas, 6 to 14% of methane, and 56 to 72% of nitrogen, with trace amounts of carbon dioxide, ethane and propane. pH values and salinities of all the 45 collected water samples range from the seawater values (8.2 and 35 g L-1) to hyperalkaline freshwaters of the Ca-OH type (pH 11 and salinities as low as 0.3 g L-1) showing that the collected samples are always a mixture of a hyperalkaline fluid of meteoric origin and ambient seawater. Cl-normalized concentrations of dissolved major elements first show that the Bain des Japonais is distinct from the other sites. Water collected at this site are three component mixtures involving the high-pH fluid, the lagoon seawater and the river water from the nearby Rivière du Carénage. The chemical compositions of the hyperalkaline endmembers (at p

  17. Sensitivity analysis of effective fluid and rock bulk modulus due to changes in pore pressure, temperature and saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Tuhin; Avseth, Per; Landrø, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Fluid substitution plays a vital role in time-lapse seismic modeling and interpretation. It is, therefore, very important to quantify as exactly as possible the changes in fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters. In this paper, we analyze the sensitivities in effective fluid bulk modulus due to changes in reservoir parameters like saturation, pore-pressure and temperature. The sensitivities are analyzed for two extreme bounds, i.e. the Voigt average and the Reuss average, for various fluid combinations (i.e. oil-water, gas-water and gas-oil). We quantify that the effects of pore-pressure and saturation changes are highest in the case of gas-water combination, while the effect of temperature is highest for oil-gas combination. Our results show that sensitivities vary with the bounds, even for same amount of changes in any reservoir parameter. In 4D rock physics studies, we often neglect the effects of pore-pressure or temperature changes assuming that those effects are negligible compare to the effect due to saturation change. Our analysis shows that pore-pressure and temperature changes can be vital and sometimes higher than the effect of saturation change. We investigate these effects on saturated rock bulk modulus. We first compute frame bulk modulus using the Modified Hashin Shtrikman (MHS) model for carbonate rocks and then perform fluid substitution using the Gassmann equation. We consider upper bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for stiffer rocks and lower bound of the MHS as elastic behavior for softer rocks. We then investigate four various combinations: stiff rock with upper bound (the Voigt bound) as effective fluid modulus, stiff rock with lower bound (Reuss bound) as effective fluid modulus, soft rock with upper bound as effective fluid modulus and soft rock with lower bound as effective fluid modulus. Our results show that the effect of any reservoir parameter change is highest for soft rock and lower bound combination and lowest

  18. Fluid-matrix interactions during high-temperature aquifer storage - lab experiments and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wismeth, Carina; Ueckert, Martina; Muffler, Selina; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    High-temperature aquifer storage is a promising extension to combined heat and power plants because it allows to store excess heat during the summer months and to recuperate the heat in winter when the heat demand exceeds the production. Within a research project funded by the Bavarian State Ministry for Economic Affairs and Media, Energy and Technology and the BMW Group, a pilot scale test was run at the Dingolfing site (Bavaria, Germany) in 2014. Field data and an a priori numerical model suggest dissolution and precipitation of the processes in the calcareous aquifer. In order to quantify the reaction kinetics, lab experiments were run in an autoclave. The experimental results were used to setup and calibrate a numerical hydrogeochemical model based on PhreeqC. Laboratory experiments were performed in a closed system with respect to CO2 and under pre-defined conditions using a high temperature autoclave. Within the dissolution test series original core samples of different depth were heated up with ultrapure water in defined heating cycles up to 110 °C and at defined pressure. For combined dissolution and precipitation processes, tap water from Munich was used. The gas phase was equilibrated with CO2 regarding the pCO2 of tap water. Five water samples were taken for each heating cycle and analyzed by ion chromatography to quantify the calcium/magnesium concentrations and ratio. Additionally the sorption properties of the core materials were tested with respect to the fluorescent dyes used in the field tests. The starting point to model the fluid matrix interactions was literature data of dolomite and calcite rates, which were integrated in the conceptional model. While the model results matched the experimentally determined concentrations nicely, there was a discrepancy with respect to the effective surface areas, which is likely due to impurities of the natural rock materials. The model was able to describe the minor precipitation of calcite during the

  19. Fluid simulations of mirror constraints on proton temperature anisotropy in solar wind turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laveder, D.; Marradi, L.; Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    Non-resonant ion perpendicular heating by low-frequency kinetic Alfvén wave turbulence, together with the constraining effect of the mirror instability on the developing temperature anisotropy observed in the solar wind, are simulated for the first time in a self-consistent way using a fluid model retaining low-frequency kinetic effects. This model which does not include solar wind expansion, concentrates on the influence of small-scale turbulence. It provides a sufficiently refined description of Landau damping and finite Larmor corrections to accurately capture the transverse dynamics at sub-ionic scales, including the self-regulating influence of the developing mirror modes. A fit of the simulation results with the usual mirror-instability threshold is obtained, reproducing the frontier of the slow solar wind WIND/SWE data in the (T$\\perp$i/T$\\parallel$i, β$\\parallel$i) diagram. The quality of the fit is improved in the presence of a small amount of collisions, which suggests that the deviations from bi-Maxwellianity in the slow solar wind are weak enough not to significantly affect the mirror threshold.

  20. Solid-to-fluid DNA transition inside HSV-1 capsid close to the temperature of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Sae-Ueng, Udom; Li, Dong; Zuo, Xiaobing; Huffman, Jamie B.; Homa, Fred L.; Rau, Donald; Evilevitch, Alex

    2014-10-01

    DNA in the human Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) capsid is packaged to a tight density. This leads to tens of atmospheres of internal pressure responsible for the delivery of the herpes genome into the cell nucleus. In this study we show that, despite its liquid crystalline state inside the capsid, the DNA is fluid-like, which facilitates its ejection into the cell nucleus during infection. We found that the sliding friction between closely packaged DNA strands, caused by interstrand repulsive interactions, is reduced by the ionic environment of epithelial cells and neurons susceptible to herpes infection. However, variations in the ionic conditions corresponding to neuronal activity can restrict DNA mobility in the capsid, making it more solid-like. This can inhibit intranuclear DNA release and interfere with viral replication. In addition, the temperature of the human host (37 °C) induces a disordering transition of the encapsidated herpes genome, which reduces interstrand interactions and provides genome mobility required for infection.

  1. Fluid-rock interaction and evolution of a high-pressure/low-temperature vein system in eclogite from New Caledonia: insights into intraslab fluid flow processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl

    2016-11-01

    A complex high-pressure/low-temperature vein system that cross-cuts eclogitic host rocks of the Pouébo Eclogite Melange (northern New Caledonia) records the prograde blueschist-to-eclogite transition and associated formation of garnet-quartz-phengite veins. Geothermobarometry (Grt-Cpx-Ph, Zr-in-rutile) and pseudosection calculations indicate peak metamorphic conditions of ca. 540 °C and 1.9-2.2 GPa. Petrological and geochemical observations as well as pseudosection modelling suggest that the main vein network is formed by dehydration processes that collected internally derived fluids related to the breakdown of hydrous phases (amphibole, chlorite, epidote) during prograde metamorphism. The lower solid volume of the newly formed phases and the associated increase in pore fluid pressure lead to the formation of veins that allowed for accumulation and channelized evacuation of these fluids. Such veins do not show metasomatic alteration selvages because the fluid-rock system had been in chemical equilibrium. A second vein type (transport veins) records the superimposed influx of external fluids with slightly different composition that most likely are related to similar dehydration reactions in other parts of the subducting slab. Due to the source-rock-imposed compositional differences, these fluids are not in equilibrium with the infiltrated rock volume and induce the formation of distinct metasomatic selvages by dissolution-precipitation processes. Mass-balance calculations show that Ca, Na and Li are added to the selvage by the external fluid. LILE and to a lesser extend also HREE are mobilized and removed from the selvage. The LREE are predominantly buffered by newly formed minerals (e.g. epidote). Petrological evidence implies that the studied vein system formed while the sample was still part of a coherent subducting slab. Rb-Sr geochronology indicates that this occurred at 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma. This age is ca. 6 myr younger than the hitherto presumed peak metamorphic

  2. The transient thermal response of a tubular solar collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1976-01-01

    A special analytical solution is provided for the timewise response of the circulating fluid temperatures when a sudden step change of the input solar radiation is imposed and remains constant thereafter. An example which demonstrates the transient temperatures at the exit section of a single collector with two different flow patterns is presented. This study is used to supplement some numerical solutions to provide a fairly complete coverage for this type of solar collector.

  3. One-dimensional modeling of radial heat removal during depressurized heatup transients in modular pebble-bed and prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.G.

    1984-07-01

    A one-dimensional computational model was developed to evaluate the heat removal capabilities of both prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs during depressurized heatup transients. A correlation was incorporated to calculate the temperature- and neutron-fluence-dependent thermal conductivity of graphite. The modified Zehner-Schluender model was used to determine the effective thermal conductivity of a pebble bed, accounting for both conduction and radiation. Studies were performed for prismatic-core and pebble-bed modular HTGRs, and the results were compared to analyses performed by GA and GR, respectively. For the particular modular reactor design studied, the prismatic HTGR peak temperature was 2152.2/sup 0/C at 38 hours following the transient initiation, and the pebble-bed peak temperature was 1647.8/sup 0/C at 26 hours. These results compared favorably with those of GA and GE, with only slight differences caused by neglecting axial heat transfer in a one-dimensional radial model. This study found that the magnitude of the initial power density had a greater effect on the temperature excursion than did the initial temperature.

  4. Syn-deformation temperature and fossil fluid pathways along an exhumed detachment zone, khao khwang fold-thrust belt, Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansberry, Rowan L.; Collins, Alan S.; King, Rosalind C.; Morley, Christopher K.; Giże, Andy P.; Warren, John; Löhr, Stefan C.; Hall, P. A.

    2015-08-01

    Shale detachment zones, their influence on deformational style, and their internal mechanisms of deformation are an understudied aspect of fold-thrust belts. Properties such as deformational temperature, lithology, and mineralogy are often recognized as having a key influence on the rheology and deformational style of detachment zones and overlying fold-thrust belts. However, little work has been conducted on rock properties of known detachment zones. A recently described upper-level detachment zone in the exhumed Khao Khwang Fold-Thrust Belt of central Thailand provides an ideal natural laboratory for investigation of the deformation conditions of the detachment zone, and association with its complex deformational style. The low-grade metamorphic indicator illite crystallinty is used to broadly constrain deformational temperatures, while oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis provides insight into fluid flow history and fluid-rock interaction. Illite crystallinity data indicate deep diagenetic, to low anchizonal conditions, and temperatures of ~ 160-210 °C in the shale detachment, interpreted as reflecting peak metamorphic conditions during the Triassic Indosinian Orogeny. No trend between the intensity (spacing, complexity) of structures and illite crystallinty is observed. However, shale shear zones of continuous-style deformation and inferred higher finite strain display uniformly higher illite crystallinty than surrounding packages of discontinuously faulted shales. We also note a positive association between total organic carbon content in the shales and the spacing and complexity of deformational structures. Data from limestones and syn-tectonic vein fills detail the history of fluid-rock interaction during early mesogenesis, through to orogenesis. The early covariant trend of increasingly negative δ13C and δ18O values is attributed to increasing burial, while a divergent orogenic trend of increasingly negative δ18O values is interpreted as the result

  5. A theory for the retrieval of virtual temperature from winds, radiances and the equations of fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tzvi, G. C.

    1986-01-01

    A technique to deduce the virtual temperature from the combined use of the equations of fluid dynamics, observed wind and observed radiances is described. The wind information could come from ground-based sensitivity very high frequency (VHF) Doppler radars and/or from space-borne Doppler lidars. The radiometers are also assumed to be either space-borne and/or ground-based. From traditional radiometric techniques the vertical structure of the temperature can be estimated only crudely. While it has been known for quite some time that the virtual temperature could be deduced from wind information only, such techniques had to assume the infallibility of certain diagnostic relations. The proposed technique is an extension of the Gal-Chen technique. It is assumed that due to modeling uncertainties the equations of fluid dynamics are satisfied only in the least square sense. The retrieved temperature, however, is constrained to reproduce the observed radiances. It is shown that the combined use of the three sources of information (wind, radiances and fluid dynamical equations) can result in a unique determination of the vertical temperature structure with spatial and temporal resolution comparable to that of the observed wind.

  6. Diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO2 concentration and H2O concentration in a fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Partridge, Jr., William P.; Jatana, Gurneesh Singh; Yoo, Ji-Hyung; Parks, II, James E.

    2017-01-10

    A diagnostic system for measuring temperature, pressure, CO.sub.2 concentration and H.sub.2O concentration in a fluid stream is described. The system may include one or more probes that sample the fluid stream spatially, temporally and over ranges of pressure and temperature. Laser light sources are directed down pitch optical cables, through a lens and to a mirror, where the light sources are reflected back, through the lens to catch optical cables. The light travels through the catch optical cables to detectors, which provide electrical signals to a processer. The processer utilizes the signals to calculate CO.sub.2 concentration based on the temperatures derived from H.sub.2O vapor concentration. A probe for sampling CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2O vapor concentrations is also disclosed. Various mechanical features interact together to ensure the pitch and catch optical cables are properly aligned with the lens during assembly and use.

  7. Pt and Pt-Ru/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites Synthesized in Supercritical Fluid as Electrocatalysts for Low-Temperature Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yuehe; Cui, Xiaoli; Wang, Jun; Yen, Clive; Wai, Chien M.

    2006-06-01

    In recent years, the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs) for the synthesis and processing of nanomaterials has proven to be a rapid, direct, and clean approach to develop nanomaterials and nanocomposites. The application of supercritical fluid technology can result in products (and processes) that are cleaner, less expensive, and of higher quality than those that are produced using conventional technologies and solvents. In this work, carbon nanotube (CNT)-supported Pt and Pt-Ru nanoparticles catalysts have been synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). The experimental results demonstrate that Pt, Pt-Ru/CNT nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical carbon dioxide are effective electrocatalysts for low-temperature fuel cells.

  8. High power densities from high-temperature material interactions. [in thermionic energy conversion and metallic fluid heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs), offering unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing by virtue of operating on working-fluid vaporization/condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures, share complex materials problems. Simplified equations are presented that verify and solve such problems, suggesting the possibility of cost-effective applications in the near term for TEC and MFHP devices. Among the problems discussed are: the limitation of alkali-metal corrosion, protection against hot external gases, external and internal vaporization, interfacial reactions and diffusion, expansion coefficient matching, and creep deformation.

  9. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    PubMed

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  10. Investigation of the temperature dependence of the optical properties of thermal transfer fluids for hybrid CPV-T systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiliang; Everett, Vernie; Thomsen, Elizabeth; Blakers, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of temperature on the spectral absorption characteristics of three heat transfer fluids; propylene glycol, mineral oil, and silicone oil. The region of interest of the liquid absorption spectra ranges from 700 to 2000 nm. The absorbance of propylene glycol was found to have a strong dependence on temperature. Mineral oil and silicone oil did not present significant temperature dependent absorbance. Absorbance peaks for water were found at 750, 985 1175, 1285 and 1680 nm. Propylene glycol also showed absorbance changes in these regions. In addition, propylene glycol displays two other regions of temperature-dependent absorbance. In contrast with silicone oil and mineral oil, the hydroxyl bond is only present in water and propylene glycol. It is thought that resonant absorption of the hydroxyl bond is responsible for the measured temperature-dependent absorption change.

  11. Documentation and verification of VST2D; a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heat-solute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes a model for simulating transient, Variably Saturated, coupled water-heatsolute Transport in heterogeneous, anisotropic, 2-Dimensional, ground-water systems with variable fluid density (VST2D). VST2D was developed to help understand the effects of natural and anthropogenic factors on quantity and quality of variably saturated ground-water systems. The model solves simultaneously for one or more dependent variables (pressure, temperature, and concentration) at nodes in a horizontal or vertical mesh using a quasi-linearized general minimum residual method. This approach enhances computational speed beyond the speed of a sequential approach. Heterogeneous and anisotropic conditions are implemented locally using individual element property descriptions. This implementation allows local principal directions to differ among elements and from the global solution domain coordinates. Boundary conditions can include time-varying pressure head (or moisture content), heat, and/or concentration; fluxes distributed along domain boundaries and/or at internal node points; and/or convective moisture, heat, and solute fluxes along the domain boundaries; and/or unit hydraulic gradient along domain boundaries. Other model features include temperature and concentration dependent density (liquid and vapor) and viscosity, sorption and/or decay of a solute, and capability to determine moisture content beyond residual to zero. These features are described in the documentation together with development of the governing equations, application of the finite-element formulation (using the Galerkin approach), solution procedure, mass and energy balance considerations, input requirements, and output options. The VST2D model was verified, and results included solutions for problems of water transport under isohaline and isothermal conditions, heat transport under isobaric and isohaline conditions, solute transport under isobaric and isothermal conditions, and coupled water

  12. Low temperature extraction and upgrading of oil sands and bitumen in supercritical fluid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Brough, Sarah A; Riley, Sandra H; McGrady, G Sean; Tanhawiriyakul, Supaporn; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Willson, Christopher D

    2010-07-21

    Preliminary results are reported for the extraction and catalytic hydrocracking of Alberta bitumen and oil sands using supercritical fluid mixtures; high levels of extraction and upgrading were attained using reaction conditions significantly milder than those previously reported.

  13. Oxygen isotope exchange in rocks and minerals from the Cerro Prieto geothermal system: Indicators of temperature distribution and fluid flow

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic compositions have been measured in drill cuttings and core samples from more than 40 wells ranging in depth to more than 3.5 km in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field. Profiles of isotopic ratios versus sampling depths provide information on the three-dimensional distribution of temperature and fluid flow. These parameters also indicate variations in the history of hydrothermal processes in different areas of the geothermal field.

  14. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  15. Temperature and volume estimation of under-seafloor fluid from the logging-while-drilling data beneath an active hydrothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Sanada, Y.; Masaki, Y.; Moe, K.; Kido, Y. N.; Kumagai, H.; Takai, K.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-12-01

    In July of 2014, offshore drillings on Iheya-North Knoll, Okinawa Trough, was executed as part of Next-generation technology for ocean resources survey, which is a research program in Cross-ministerial Strategic Innovation Promotion Program (SIP). In this expedition, logging-while- drilling (LWD) and measuring-while-drilling (MWD) were inserted into 6 holes (C9011 - C9016) to investigate spatial distribution of hydrothermal deposit and geothermal fluid reservoir. Both of these tools included annular pressure-while-drilling (APWD). Annular pressure and temperature were monitored by the APWD to detect possible exceedingly-high-temperature geofluid. In addition, drilling fluid was continuously circulated at sufficient flow rate to protect LWD tools against high temperature (non-stop driller system). At C9012 and C9016, the LWD tool clearly detected pressure and temperature anomaly at 234 meter below the seafloor (mbsf) and 80 mbsf, respectively. Annular pressure and temperature quickly increases at that depth and it would reflect the injection of high-temperature fluid. During the drilling, however, drilling water was continuously circulated at high flow-rate (2600L/min) and the measured temperature is not exactly in-situ temperature. To investigate the detail of the heat source, such as in-situ temperature and quantity of heat, we performed numerical analyses of thermal fluid and energy-balance assuming injection of high-temperature fluid. We combined pressure loss theory of double cylinders and temperature equation to replicate the fluid flow and its temperature between borehole wall and drilling pipe during the thermofluid injection. As the result, we estimated the temperature and the volume of injected fluid to be 115oC~ and 17.3 m3, respectively (at C9012) from the calculation. This temperature is lower than that of a hydrothermall vent which had been found near the hole (300oC).

  16. Differential theory of fluids below the critical temperature: Study of the Lennard-Jones fluid and of a model of C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tau, M.; Parola, A.; Pini, D.; Reatto, L.

    1995-09-01

    The hierarchical reference theory (HRT) is applied to the Lennard-Jones fluid below the critical temperature Tc. This study completes a previous one performed above Tc using the same kind of approximate closure for the direct correlation function. Results for several thermodynamic quantities and for the two-particle correlations are reported and compared both with other theories and with simulation data. In the two-phase region the theory correctly yields rigorously flat isotherms; this feature allows a straightforward and accurate determination of the coexistence curve without resorting to the Maxwell construction. In the critical region our analysis is consistent with the previously developed one for T>Tc and displays nontrivial critical exponents. We also study a fluid with the Girifalco model potential for C60. The critical point of the liquid-vapor transition is found at Tc=2138 K and ρc=0.50 nm-3. When the HRT result is supplemented with Verlet's freezing criterion a triple point is found at Tt=1979 K and ρt=0.848 nm-3.

  17. Improved fluid dynamics similarity, analysis and verification. Part 5: Analytical and experimental studies of thermal stratification phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, E. R. F.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Haug, R. I.; Libby, T. L.; Nelson, R. N.; Stevenson, W. H.

    1968-01-01

    The stratification behavior of a contained fluid subjected to transient free convection heat transfer was studied. A rectangular vessel was employed with heat transfer from two opposite walls of the vessel to the fluid. The wall temperature was increased suddenly to initiate the process and was then maintained constant throughout the transient stratification period. Thermocouples were positioned on a post at the center of the vessel. They were adjusted so that temperatures could be measured at the fluid surface and at specific depths beneath the surface. The predicted values of the surface temperature and the stratified layer thickness were found to agree reasonably well with the experimental measurements. The experiments also provided information on the transient centerline temperature distribution and the transient flow distribution.

  18. Coseismic brecciation at fault stepovers and transient fluid pathways in a mid-crustal San Andreas analogue: The Pofadder Shear Zone, Namibia and South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melosh, B. L.; Rowe, C. D.; Gerbi, C. C.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid transport along faults is important throughout the seismic cycle due to the effects on fault strength. Rheological boundaries in the crust such as the quartz brittle-plastic transition coincide with permeability changes, and play an important role in controlling fluid distribution. Here we present a newly recognized mechanism for fluid migration through the brittle-plastic transition in an ancient San Andreas Fault analogue: The Pofadder Shear Zone in Namibia and South Africa. Breccias formed in elongate pods during the passage of an earthquake rupture through a fault stepover. These breccias form subvertical fluid pathways (perpendicular to the slip direction). Over time, many overprinting or adjacent ruptures could have allowed fluid migration over a large (~ kms) scale, facilitating fluid flow through a low porosity region of the crust. These pathways were subsequently closed during breccia compaction by crystal plastic flow, facilitated by the presence of fluids. Thus, fluid migration within and across the brittle-plastic transitional zone is time and rate dependent and can both cause fault weakening and strengthening. We observed breccias formed in slip events with displacements between ~1-15 cm, consistent with small to moderate magnitude earthquakes and/or tectonic tremor, which occurs at similar depths in the San Andreas Fault. In addition to providing a new way of identifying paleo-seismic slip in the rock record, these observations may help explain co- post-seismic fluid advection in mid-crustal faults. This process of local brecciation in stepovers may be the origin of cryptic geophysical signals such as tremor bursts in continental faults.

  19. A procedure for the transient expression of genes by agroinfiltration above the permissive threshold to study temperature-sensitive processes in plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Del Toro, Francisco; Tenllado, Francisco; Chung, Bong-Nam; Canto, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Localized expression of genes in plants from T-DNAs delivered into plant cells by Agrobacterium tumefaciens is an important tool in plant research. The technique, known as agroinfiltration, provides fast, efficient ways to transiently express or silence a desired gene without resorting to the time-consuming, challenging stable transformation of the host, the use of less efficient means of delivery, such as bombardment, or the use of viral vectors, which multiply and spread within the host causing physiological alterations themselves. A drawback of the agroinfiltration technique is its temperature dependence: early studies have shown that temperatures above 29 °C are nonpermissive to tumour induction by the bacterium as a result of failure in pilus formation. However, research in plant sciences is interested in studying processes at these temperatures, above the 25 °C experimental standard, common to many host-environment and host-pathogen interactions in nature, and agroinfiltration is an excellent tool for this purpose. Here, we measured the efficiency of agroinfiltration for the expression of reporter genes in plants from T-DNAs at the nonpermissive temperature of 30 °C, either transiently or as part of viral amplicons, and envisaged procedures that allow and optimize its use for gene expression at this temperature. We applied this technical advance to assess the performance at 30 °C of two viral suppressors of silencing in agropatch assays [Potato virus Y helper component proteinase (HCPro) and Cucumber mosaic virus 2b protein] and, within the context of infection by a Potato virus X (PVX) vector, also assessed indirectly their effect on the overall response of the host Nicotiana benthamiana to the virus.

  20. Nitrogen isotope tracers of high-temperature fluid-rock interactions: Case study of the Catalina Schist, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, Gray E.

    1997-09-01

    Nitrogen isotope data for metasomatized rocks, veins, and pegmatites in the Catalina Schist subduction zone metamorphic complex allow futher characterization of complex, high-P/T metasomatic proceses and evaluation of the scales of isotopic equilibration and fluid transport during subduction-zone metamorphism. Throughout the Catalina Schist, N resides predominantly as NH 4+ in white mica, which occurs in nearly all bulk compositions (i.e., metasedimentary, metamafic and, to a lesser extent, metaultramafic mélange) at all grades. Within each metamorphic unit of the Catalina Schist (ranging in grade from lawsonite-albite to amphibolite facies), δ 15N values of mica in metasomatized metamafic and metaultramafic rocks are consistent with the metasomatic addition of N from nearby, devolatilizing metasedimentary rocks into the initially N-poor mafic and ultramafic rocks. Within each unit, uniformity of mica δ 15N in metasomatized rocks relative to the δ 15N of metasedimentary rocks in the same unit implies mixing of N from nearby, heterogeneous metasedimentary sources, perhaps producing fluids with unifrom δ 15N at up to the kilometer scale. However, the trend in δ 15N of metasedimentary sources, with increasing metamorphic grade is inconsistent with larger scale up-temperature transfer of fluid (in this case, N 2-bearing) in the Catalina Schist paleosubduction zone; such flow (at scales of up to tens of kilometers) has been inferred through previous oxygen isotope study. Nitrogen isotope compositions are instead believed to have been controlled at a more local scale than the O isotope systematics, due to the more rock-dominated fluid-rock mass balance for N. The δ 15N of muscovite in leucosomes and pegmatites in amphibolite-grade metasedimentary exposures matches that of muscovite in metasedimentary hosts, implying minimal N-isotope fractionation during migmatization processes and possible transfer of metasedimentary N-isotope signatures in silicate melts. These

  1. Effect of operating temperature on transient behaviour of a biofilter treating waste-air containing n-butanol vapour during intermittent loading.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Farzaneh; Nasernejad, Bahram; Zamir, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Transient-state removal of n-butanol vapour was investigated in a biofilter (BF) packed with compost and lava rock at different operating temperatures in the range of 30-45°C under intermittent loading (8 h per day). Adsorption on the inactive bed and biodegradation in the microbial-active bed were studied separately at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 1 min and inlet concentrations of 2.6-3.2 g m(-3), respectively. According to the transient experiments, the highest removal efficiency (RE) around 86% was obtained at 40°C due to a high microbial activity. Comparison of CO2 production and pure adsorption of n-butanol showed that adsorption was the major mechanism in the start-up of BF at each operating condition; although the impact of adsorption declined as temperature increased from 30°C to 45°C. The process was reaction limited at all operating conditions. Based on the determination of stoichiometric coefficients of n-butanol biodegradation, the CO2 production level was significantly lower than that of the chemical oxidation process which resulted in a decrease in environmental pollution.

  2. Reduction of pasteurization temperature leads to lower bacterial outgrowth in pasteurized fluid milk during refrigerated storage: a case study.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial numbers over refrigerated shelf-life were enumerated in high-temperature, short-time (HTST) commercially pasteurized fluid milk for 15 mo before and 15 mo after reducing pasteurization temperature from 79.4°C (175°F) [corrected] to 76.1°C (169°F). Total bacterial counts were measured in whole fat, 2% fat, and fat-free milk products on the day of processing as well as throughout refrigerated storage (6°C) at 7, 14, and 21 d postprocessing. Mean total bacterial counts were significantly lower immediately after processing as well as at 21 d postprocessing in samples pasteurized at 76.1°C versus samples pasteurized at 79.4°C. In addition to mean total bacterial counts, changes in bacterial numbers over time (i.e., bacterial growth) were analyzed and were lower during refrigerated storage of products pasteurized at the lower temperature. Lowering the pasteurization temperature for unflavored fluid milk processed in a commercial processing facility significantly reduced bacterial growth during refrigerated storage.

  3. Temperature dependent transient surface photovoltage spectroscopy of a Cu1.95Zn1.1Sn0.96Se4 kesterite single phase powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, Th.; Valle Rios, L. E.; Kapil, S.; Gurieva, G.; Rujisamphan, N.; Schorr, S.

    2017-01-01

    An off-stoichiometric but single phase Cu1.95Zn1.1Sn0.96Se4 kesterite powder was investigated by temperature dependent transient surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy. SPV signals excited at different wavelengths were transformed into SPV spectra that depended on the response time of measurement. Shallow electronic states and states with transition energies at 0.83 eV or 0.78… 0.9 eV were distinguished. The temperature dependence of the band gap of Cu1.95Zn1.1Sn0.96Se4 was obtained. Results were discussed on the basis of defects in Cu-poor and Zn-rich kesterite.

  4. Calc-silicate assemblages from the Kerala Khondalite Belt, southern India: implications for pressure-temperature-fluid histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish-Kumar, M.; Santosh, M.; Harley, S. L.; Yoshida, M.

    This paper reports several new localities of wollastonite- and scapolite-bearing calc-silicate assemblages from the granulite-facies supracrustal Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB), southern India. Based on mineralogy, these calc-silicate rocks are classified into four types: Type I, lacking wollastonite and grossular; Type II, wollastonite-bearing but grossular-absent; Type III, wollastonite- and grossular-bearing; and Type IV, dolomitic marbles. Detailed petrographic studies reveal a variety of reaction textures overprinting the polygonal granoblastic peak metamorphic assemblages in these rocks. The Type II calc-silicate rocks preserve reaction textures, including meionite breaking down to anorthite-calcite-quartz, wollastonite breaking down to calcite-quartz and meionite-quartz symplectites after K-feldspar and wollastonite. Type III calc-silicate rocks have porphyroblastic and coronal grossular. Grossular-quartz coronas separating wollastonite and anorthite and the development of grossular within the anorthite-calcite-quartz pseudomorphs of meionite form important retrograde reaction textures in this type. In Type IV dolomitic marble assemblages, meionite forming in grain boundaries of calcite and feldspars, forsterite rimmed by diopside-dolomite and the formation of grossular in feldspar-rich zones are the important textures. Calculated partial petrogenetic grids in the CaOAl 2O 3SiO 2CO 2 system are used to deduce the pressure-temperature-fluid evolution of the calc-silicate rocks. The Type II assemblages provide CO 2 activity estimates of > 0.5, with a peak metamorphic temperature of about 790°C. Initial cooling followed by later CO 2 influx can be deduced from reaction modelling in these calc-silicate rocks. Type III assemblages are characterized by internal fluid buffering throughout their tectonic history. The formation of coronal grossular indicates an initial cooling from peak metamorphic temperatures of about 830°C deduced from vapour

  5. Transient response of a concentric evacuated tubular solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Jakubowski, Gerald S.; Springman, Richard A.

    The transient and the steady state performances of an evacuated coaxial tubular solar collector were investigated. A purely implicit central finite differencing numerical technique was used to determine the time-varying temperature distributions in the collector components as well as the fluid exit temperature. Experimental indoor transient tests were conducted in which step inputs of insolation were used. Close agreeement between the experimental and the theoretical results was obtained. The computer model was found to be useful to carry out a complete parametric study. The latter showed that the fluid flow rate had the largest effect on the performance of the collector tube. Lower flow rates resulted in lower efficiencies and longer response times.

  6. North Pacific cyclonic and anticyclonic transients in a global warming context: possible consequences for Western North American daily precipitation and temperature extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favre, Alice; Gershunov, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    Trajectories of surface cyclones and anticyclones were constructed using an automated scheme by tracking local minima and maxima of mean daily sea level pressure data in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis and the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques coupled global climate Model (CNRM-CM3) SRES A2 integration. Mid-latitude lows and highs traveling in the North Pacific were tracked and daily frequencies were gridded. Transient activity in the CNRM-CM3 historical simulation (1950-1999) was validated against reanalysis. The GCM correctly reproduces winter trajectories as well as mean geographical distributions of cyclones and anticyclones over the North Pacific in spite of a general under-estimation of cyclones’ frequency. On inter-annual time scales, frequencies of cyclones and anticyclones vary in accordance with the Aleutian Low (AL) strength. When the AL is stronger (weaker), cyclones are more (less) numerous over the central and eastern North Pacific, while anticyclones are significantly less (more) numerous over this region. The action of transient cyclones and anticyclones over the central and eastern North Pacific determines seasonal climate over the West Coast of North America, and specifically, winter weather over California. Relationships between winter cyclone/anticyclone behavior and daily precipitation/cold temperature extremes over Western North America (the West) were examined and yielded two simple indices summarizing North Pacific transient activity relevant to regional climates. These indices are strongly related to the observed inter-annual variability of daily precipitation and cold temperature extremes over the West as well as to large scale seasonally averaged near surface climate conditions (e.g., air temperature at 2 m and wind at 10 m). In fact, they represent the synoptic links that accomplish the teleconnections. Comparison of patterns derived from NCEP-NCAR and CNRM-CM3 revealed that the model reproduces links between cyclone

  7. Transient simulation of a helical-coil sodium/water steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Iwashita, T.

    1982-01-01

    The MINET (Momentum Integral Network) code heat exchanger model was used to analyze transient test data provided by PNC of Japan. Testing of the MINET model is part of a larger effort to facilitate and validate the use of the SSC/MINET code for MONJU plant transient analysis. In MINET, a heat exchanger is modeled using one or more representative tubes, with each tube consisting of the fluid inside the tube, the tube wall, and the fluid outside that is associated with the tube. The heat exchanger tube is divided into one or more axial nodes of equal length. Five time dependent equations are utilized per node, including the wall heat conduction equation and donor-cell differenced conservation of mass and energy equations for the fluids on both sides of the tube. These nodal equations are used to constrain the tube wall temperature, fluid mass flow rates, and fluid enthalpies.

  8. Effects of Solder Temperature on Pin Through-Hole during Wave Soldering: Thermal-Fluid Structure Interaction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Aziz, M. S.; Abdullah, M. Z.; Khor, C. Y.

    2014-01-01

    An efficient simulation technique was proposed to examine the thermal-fluid structure interaction in the effects of solder temperature on pin through-hole during wave soldering. This study investigated the capillary flow behavior as well as the displacement, temperature distribution, and von Mises stress of a pin passed through a solder material. A single pin through-hole connector mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) was simulated using a 3D model solved by FLUENT. The ABAQUS solver was employed to analyze the pin structure at solder temperatures of 456.15 K (183°C) < T < 643.15 K (370°C). Both solvers were coupled by the real time coupling software and mesh-based parallel code coupling interface during analysis. In addition, an experiment was conducted to measure the temperature difference (ΔT) between the top and the bottom of the pin. Analysis results showed that an increase in temperature increased the structural displacement and the von Mises stress. Filling time exhibited a quadratic relationship to the increment of temperature. The deformation of pin showed a linear correlation to the temperature. The ΔT obtained from the simulation and the experimental method were validated. This study elucidates and clearly illustrates wave soldering for engineers in the PCB assembly industry. PMID:25225638

  9. Transient magmatic convection prolonged by solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandeis, Genevieve; Marsh, Bruce D.

    1990-01-01

    Fluid dynamic experiments have been conducted on the solidification of a paraffin layer, in order to elucidate the transient stage of convection created in cooling magma by the fact that strong changes in viscosity with crystallization lock up within an inwardly propagating crust much buoyancy that would otherwise be available to drive convection. The interior of the magma remains isothermal, and the temperature decreases uniformly until it is locked at the convective liquidus; the crystals are fine hairlike dendrites without major compositional differentiations. Measurements over time are presented of crust thickness, convective velocity, and heat transfer.

  10. Numerical study of temperature distribution in a spherical tissue in magnetic fluid hyperthermia using lattice Boltzmann method.

    PubMed

    Lahonian, Mansour; Golneshan, Ali Akbar

    2011-12-01

    This work applies a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), to solve the Pennes bio-heat equation (BHE), in order to predict the temperature distribution in a spherical tissue, with blood perfusion, metabolism and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) heat sources, during magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). So, heat dissipation of MNPs under an alternating magnetic field has been studied and effect of different factors such as induction and frequency of magnetic field and volume fraction of MNPs has been investigated. Then, effect of MNPs dispersion on temperature distribution inside tumor and its surrounding healthy tissue has been shown. Also, effect of blood perfusion, thermal conductivity of tumor, frequency and amplitude of magnetic field on temperature distribution has been explained. Results show that the LBM has a good accuracy to solve the bio-heat transfer problems.

  11. Abundance of volatile and organic species in intermediate temperature fluids from the Von Damm and Piccard deep sea hydrothermal fields, Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Seewald, J.; Reeves, E. P.; German, C. R.; Sylva, S. P.; Klein, F.

    2012-12-01

    Two recently discovered submarine hydrothermal systems at the ultra-slow spreading Mid-Cayman Rise provide a unique opportunity to investigate how mixing and cooling influence hydrothermal fluid chemistry at the deepest-yet discovered, basalt-hosted Piccard vent field (4960m) and at the Von Damm vent field (2300m), postulated to be ultramafic-hosted. Vent fluids were collected in January 2012 during R/V Atlantis cruise AT18-16 with gas-tight samplers deployed by the ROV Jason II, allowing the characterization and quantification of redox-reactive volatile species and organic compounds. Von Damm vent fluids ranged in temperature from 21 to 226°C, whereas Piccard fluids ranged from 45 to 398°C. A key feature of these systems is the variety of fluids that were actively venting from the seafloor at 100 to 200°C, substantially cooler than the hottest fluids observed at either site. The lower temperatures reflect subsurface seawater mixing and/or conductive heat loss. Fluids venting within this temperature range have rarely been sampled at other systems, and the Cayman fluids thus present an excellent opportunity to study the effect of cooling and mixing processes on enriched volatile species such as H2, H2S, CO2 and CH4. Three dominant processes are thought to affect volatile and organic species in intermediate temperature fluids. These include microbial consumption or production, thermal alteration of biomass, and abiotic reactions. The effect of these processes on fluid compositions carries implications for carbon utilization and metabolic activity of modern microbial populations hosted within hydrothermal mineral deposits and ascending plumes, carbon cycling within hydrothermal systems, and net geochemical fluxes to the ocean. Endmember CO2 concentrations at Von Damm range from slightly enriched relative to seawater in the highest temperature fluids, to measurably depleted in the cooler fluids. Such CO2 depletions have not been previously observed in other acidic

  12. Short-term microbial and physico-chemical variability in low-temperature hydrothermal fluids near 5 degrees S on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

    PubMed

    Perner, Mirjam; Bach, Wolfgang; Hentscher, Michael; Koschinsky, Andrea; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Streit, Wolfgang R; Strauss, Harald

    2009-10-01

    This study examines the representativeness of low-temperature hydrothermal fluid samples with respect to their chemical and microbiological characteristics. Within this scope, we investigated short-term temporal chemical and microbial variability of the hydrothermal fluids. For this purpose we collected three fluid samples consecutively from the same spot at the Clueless field near 5 degrees S on the southern Mid-Atlantic Ridge over a period of 50 min. During sampling, the temperature was monitored online. We measured fluid chemical parameters, characterized microbial community compositions and used statistical analyses to determine significant differences between the samples. Overall, the three fluid samples are more closely related to each other than to any other tested habitat. Therefore, on a broad scale, the three collected fluid samples can be regarded as habitat representatives. However, small differences are apparent between all samples. One of the Clueless samples even displayed significant differences (P-value < 0.01) to the other two Clueless samples. Our data suggest that the observed variations in fluid chemical and microbial compositions are not reflecting sampling artefacts but are related to short-term fluid variability due to dynamic subseafloor fluid mixing. Recorded temporal changes in fact reflect spatial heterogeneity found in the subsurface as the fluid flows through distinctive pathways. While conservative elements (Cl, Si, Na and K) indicate variable degrees of fluid-seawater mixing, reactive components, including Fe(II), O(2) and H(2)S, show that chemical and microbial reactions within the mixing zone further modify the emanating fluids on short-time scales. Fluids entrain microorganisms, which modify the chemical microenvironment within the subsurface biotopes. This is the first study focusing on short-term microbial variability linked to chemical changes in hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Spring Fluids from a Low-temperature Hydrothermal System at Dorado Outcrop: The First Samples of a Massive Global Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fisher, A. T.; McManus, J.; Hulme, S.; Orcutt, B.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrothermal circulation through the volcanic ocean crust extracts about one fourth of Earth's lithospheric heat. Most of this advective heat loss occurs through ridge flanks, areas far from the magmatic influence of seafloor spreading, at relatively low temperatures (2-25 degrees Celsius). This process results in a flux of seawater through the oceanic crust that is commensurate with that delivered to the ocean from rivers. Given this large flow, even a modest (1-5 percent) change in concentration during circulation would impact geochemical cycles for many ions. Until recently such fluids that embody this process have not been collected or quantified despite the importance of this process, mainly because no site of focused, low-temperature discharge has been found. In 2013 we used Sentry (an AUV) and Jason II (an ROV) to generate a bathymetric map and locate springs within a geologic context on Dorado Outcrop, a ridge flank hydrothermal system that typifies such hydrothermal processes in the Pacific. Dorado Outcrop is located on 23 M.y. old seafloor of the Cocos Plate, where 70-90 percent of the lithospheric heat is removed. Spring fluids collected in 2013 confirmed small chemical anomalies relative to seawater, requiring new methods to collect, analyze, and interpret samples and data. In 2014 the submersible Alvin utilized these methods to recover the first high-quality spring samples from this system and year-long experiments. These unique data and samples represent the first of their type. For example, the presence of dissolved oxygen is the first evidence of an oxic ridge flank hydrothermal fluid, even though such fluids have been postulated to exist throughout a vast portion of the oceanic crust. Furthermore, chemical data confirm modest anomalies relative to seawater for some elements. Such anomalies, if characteristic throughout the global ocean, impact global geochemical cycles, crustal evolution, and subsurface microbial activity.

  14. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V. Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R.; Grant, B.; Catina, D.; Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C.

    2014-02-15

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175 °C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases

  15. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures.

    PubMed

    Freedman, R; Anand, V; Grant, B; Ganesan, K; Tabrizi, P; Torres, R; Catina, D; Ryan, D; Borman, C; Krueckl, C

    2014-02-01

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175 °C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases

  16. Rayleigh-Benard convection subject to time dependent wall temperature/gravity in a fluid-saturated anisotropic porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malashetty, M. S.; Basavaraja, D.

    The effect of time-periodic temperature/gravity modulation at the onset of convection in a Boussinesq fluid-saturated anisotropic porous medium is investigated by making a linear stability analysis. Brinkman flow model with effective viscosity larger than the viscosity of the fluid is considered to give a more general theoretical result. The perturbation method is applied for computing the critical Rayleigh and wave numbers for small amplitude temperature/gravity modulation. The shift in the critical Rayleigh number is calculated as a function of frequency of the modulation, viscosity ratio, anisotropy parameter and porous parameter. We have shown that it is possible to advance or delay the onset of convection by time-periodic modulation of the wall temperature and to advance convection by gravity modulation. It is also shown that the small anisotropy parameter has a strong influence on the stability of the system. The effect of viscosity ratio, anisotropy parameter, the porous parameter and the Prandtl number is discussed.

  17. Chapter 7: The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) for Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Christian; Chou, I-Ming; Dubessy, J.; Caumon, M.-C.; Rull, F.

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

  18. The Hydrothermal Diamond Anvil Cell (HDAC) for raman spectroscopic studies of geologic fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Christian; Chou, I-Ming; Dubessy, Jean; Caumon, Marie-Camille; Pérez, Fernando Rull

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ⬚~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

  19. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  20. FORTRAN programs for generating fluid inclusion isochores and fugacity coefficients for the system H 2O-CO 2-NaCl at high pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Teresa Suter; Helgeson, Harold C.

    Program DENFIND permits calculation of pressures and temperatures corresponding to isochores for H 2O-CO 2-NaCl fluids which can be used to generate pressure corrections of fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures. Program FUGCO facilitates calculation of fugacity coefficients in the system H 2O-CO 2-NaCl as a function of pressure, temperature and fluid composition. Both programs employ a modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state for the ternary system (Bowers and Helgeson, 1983a), which is applicable to fluids containing up to 35 wt. % NaCl (relative to H 2O + NaCl) at pressures above 500 bars and temperature from 350 to 600°C.

  1. Homeostasis and the concept of 'interstitial fluids hierarchy': Relevance of cerebrospinal fluid sodium concentrations and brain temperature control (Review).

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Marcoli, Manuela; Leo, Giuseppina; Maura, Guido; Guidolin, Diego

    2017-03-01

    In this review, the aspects and further developments of the concept of homeostasis are discussed also in the perspective of their possible impact in the clinical practice, particularly as far as psychic homeostasis is concerned. A brief historical survey and comments on the concept of homeostasis and allostasis are presented to introduce our proposal that is based on the classical assumption of the interstitial fluid (ISF) as the internal medium for multicellular organisms. However, the new concept of a hierarchic role of ISF of the various organs is introduced. Additionally, it is suggested that particularly for some chemico‑physical parameters, oscillatory rhythms within their proper set‑ranges should be considered a fundamental component of homeostasis. Against this background, we propose that the brain ISF has the highest hierarchic role in human beings, providing the optimal environment, not simply for brain cell survival, but also for brain complex functions and the oscillatory rhythms of some parameters, such as cerebrospinal fluid sodium and brain ISF pressure waves, which may play a crucial role in brain physio‑pathological states. Thus, according to this proposal, the brain ISF represents the real internal medium since the maintenance of its dynamic intra-set-range homeostasis is the main factor for a free and independent life of higher vertebrates. Furthermore, the evolutionary links between brain and kidney and their synergistic role in H2O/Na balance and brain temperature control are discussed. Finally, it is surmised that these two interrelated parameters have deep effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS) higher integrative actions such those linked to psychic homeostasis.

  2. Winter stream temperature in the rain-on-snow zone of the Pacific Northwest: influences of hillslope runoff and transient snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, J. A.; Moore, R. D.

    2014-02-01

    Stream temperature dynamics during winter are less well studied than summer thermal regimes, but the winter season thermal regime can be critical for fish growth and development in coastal catchments. The winter thermal regimes of Pacific Northwest headwater streams, which provide vital winter habitat for salmonids and their food sources, may be particularly sensitive to changes in climate because they can remain ice-free throughout the year and are often located in rain-on-snow zones. This study examined winter stream temperature patterns and controls in small headwater catchments within the rain-on-snow zone at the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest, near Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Two hypotheses were addressed by this study: (1) winter stream temperatures are primarily controlled by advective fluxes associated with runoff processes and (2) stream temperatures should be depressed during rain-on-snow events, compared to rain-on-bare-ground events, due to the cooling effect of rain passing through the snowpack prior to infiltrating the soil or being delivered to the stream as saturation-excess overland flow. A reach-scale energy budget analysis of two winter seasons revealed that the advective energy input associated with hillslope runoff overwhelms vertical energy exchanges (net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes, bed heat conduction, and stream friction) and hyporheic energy fluxes during rain and rain-on-snow events. Historical stream temperature data and modelled snowpack dynamics were used to explore the influence of transient snow cover on stream temperature over 13 winters. When snow was not present, daily stream temperature during winter rain events tended to increase with increasing air temperature. However, when snow was present, stream temperature was capped at about 5 °C, regardless of air temperature. The stream energy budget modelling and historical analysis support both of our hypotheses. A key implication is that climatic warming may

  3. Effect of Metal Alloys, Degradation Inhibitors, Temperatures, and Exposure Duration on the Stability of Poly(hexafluoropropene oxide) Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Masuda, Steven R.; Lin, Wen-Huey; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Results of the action of 440C steel, Ti(4Al,4Mn), and Ti(6Al,4V) alloys on poly(hexafluoropropene oxide) fluid and the degradation inhibition by phosphate esters, phosphine, and monophospha-s-triazine are reported. The effects of temperature, exposure duration, and metal surface area are discussed. The studies show clearly the autocatalytic nature of the metal-promoted degradation, which explains the effectiveness of the degradation-arresting additives, even in the case of the highly detrimental titanium alloys.

  4. High power densities from high-temperature materials interactions. [thermionic energy conversion and metallic fluid heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Thermionic energy converters and metallic-fluid heat pipes are well suited to serve together synergistically. The two operating cycles appear as simple and isolated as their material problems seem forebodingly deceptive and complicated. Simplified equations verify material properties and interactions as primary influences on the operational effectiveness of both. Each experiences flow limitations in thermal emission and vaporization because of temperature restrictions redounding from thermophysicochemical stability considerations. Topics discussed include: (1) successful limitation of alkali-metal corrosion; (2) protection against external hot corrosive gases; (3) coping with external and internal vaporization; (4) controlling interfacial reactions and diffusion; and (5) meeting other thermophysical challenges; expansion matches and creep.

  5. Ultrafast transient absorption spectrum of the room temperature Ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide: Confounding effects of photo-degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musat, Raluca M.; Crowell, Robert A.; Polyanskiy, Dmitriy E.; Thomas, Marie F.; Wishart, James F.; Katsumura, Yosuke; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    The photochemistry of the charge transfer (CT) band of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMIm+/Br-) is investigated using near-IR to vis ultrafast transient absorption (TA) and steady-state UV absorption spectroscopies. Continuous irradiation of the CT band at 266 nm results in the formation of photo-products that absorb strongly at 266 nm. It is shown that these photo-products, which are apparently very stable, adversely affect ultrafast TA measurements. Elimination of these effects reveals at least two transient species that exist within the TA detection window of 100 fs to 3 ns and 500-1250 nm. One of the components is a short-lived (<1 ps) species that absorbs at 1080 nm. The second band exhibits a multicomponent spectrum that is very broad with an absorption maximum around 600 nm and a lifetime that is longer than the 3 ns window of our TA spectrometer. Within the signal to noise ratio of the TA spectrometer little to no solvated electron is generated by the CT mechanism.

  6. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and -20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at -20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at -20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  7. Retention of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus infectivity in fish tissue homogenates and fluids stored at three temperatures.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.; Mulcahy, D.

    1983-01-01

    Pools of brain, kidney, spleen, liver and gut tissues from several rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, and whole sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), fry were homogenized with a known amount of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). Virus was also added to ovarian fluids and sera pooled from several rainbow trout. The plaque assay was used to determine the retention of IHNV infectivity after different storage periods at 20°C, 4°C and —20°C. The work was used to evaluate homogenization as a remote field treatment of IHNV samples before shipment to the laboratory. Maintenance of viral infectivity varied widely among different homogenates and fluids. For short-term storage, 4°C was generally the most efficient temperature for preserving infectious virus in ovarian fluids, Sera and homogenates of eggs, spleen, whole fry and brain, while infectivity was most efficiently preserved in kidney and liver homogenates by storage at −20°C. Infectious virus was not detected in any sample stored for one year at −20°C. Variations in retention of viral infectivity make homogenization of samples in the field followed by transfer to the laboratory unacceptable.

  8. Sperry low-temperature geothermal conversion system. Volume 1: Organic-working-fluid properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, C.; Hules, K. R.; Langley, R.; Toekes, B.; Wilson, D. P.

    1981-11-01

    Measurements of the physical properties of R-114 refrigerant in the compressed liquid and dense gas regions are reported. Included are: experimental studies of the thermodynamic properties of R-114, enthalpy measurement by throttling experiment, engineering model of the thermodynamic properties of R-114, feasibility study to dissociate R-114 with a four cycle gasoline engine, transport properties of R-114, analytical procedure to determine impurities in R-114, toxicological information on Freons, and a literature search of published properties of R-114, other refrigerants, and other potential working fluids.

  9. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, C; Krüger, Y; Wilke, M; Marti, D; Rička, J; Frenz, M

    2016-10-12

    We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996-916 kg m(-3)) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: (i) prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We used single ultrashort laser pulses to stimulate vapour bubble nucleation in initially monophase liquid inclusions. Water densities were calculated based on prograde homogenisation temperatures using the IAPWS-95 formulation. We found retrograde liquid-vapour homogenisation temperatures in excellent agreement with IAPWS-95. (ii) Retrograde ice nucleation. Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the nucleation of ice in the absence of the vapour bubble. Our ice nucleation data in the doubly metastable region are inconsistent with the low-temperature trend of the spinodal predicted by IAPWS-95, as liquid water with a density of 921 kg m(-3) remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to a temperature of -30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. (iii) Ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in the absence of the vapour bubble, i.e. in the negative pressure region. (iv) Spontaneous retrograde and, for the first time, prograde vapour bubble nucleation. Prograde bubble nucleation occurred upon heating at temperatures above ice melting. The occurrence of prograde and retrograde vapour bubble nucleation in the same inclusions indicates a maximum of the bubble nucleation curve in the ϱ-T plane at around 40 °C. The new experimental data represent valuable benchmarks to evaluate and further improve theoretical models describing the p-V-T properties of metastable water in the low-temperature region.

  10. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  11. Continuous monitoring of the liver graft temperature: relationship between bacterial contamination of the perfusion fluid and early outcome

    PubMed Central

    Levi Sandri, Giovanni Battista; Meniconi, Roberto Luca; Colasanti, Marco; Guglielmo, Nicola; de Werra, Edoardo; Mascianà, Gianluca; Tortorelli, Giovanni; Ferraro, Daniele; Burocchi, Mirco; Campanelli, Alessandra; Scotti, Andrea; Visco-Comandini, Ubaldo; Santoro, Roberto; Lepiane, Pasquale; Vennarecci, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background A potential mechanism of the infection would be an infected donor, contamination at the time of the infusion and/or packaging, back-table procedure, and finally during the transplantation, all are potential sources of infection. The aim of our study is to analyze the incidence and significance of infection in the preservation solution according with the graft temperature. The second aim was to analyze the impact graft temperature on the clinical infections and the ischemia reperfusion injury. Methods Sixteen donors were prospectively included in this study, including 9 males and 7 females. The liver graft temperature monitoring shows variation in four different phases: at the harvesting beginning, before the graft packaging, at the beginning of the backtable, at the end of the backtable. Results There was no correlation between the functionality of the graft and the temperature of the perfusion fluid. Conclusions In conclusion, we did not found a correlation between graft temperature, culture of the preservation solution and early post-transplant follow up. PMID:27867949

  12. Dress Warm, Focus on the Fluids and Be Patient: Studying Ice Habitats and Constraints on Microbial Life at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Junge, K.; Deming, J.

    2002-12-01

    Studies of low-temperature environments on Earth can help guide exploration of other planetary environments that are of interest in the search for potential traces of life (or absence thereof) elsewhere in the solar system. Ice environments and habitats on Earth range from terrestrial permafrost to the polar ice caps or floating sea and lake ice. Despite the complexity of these different environments, the physical chemistry of unfrozen water - generally deemed a prerequisite for active life - and the pore microstructure can help in describing and categorizing different types of ice from an astrobiological perspective. In northern Alaska, we have studied constraints on microbial life in two types of ice, sea and lake ice, that bracket the range of availability of liquid water and solid surfaces. The latter have been found to be important for bacterial activity at very low temperatures, with active bacterial cells in sea ice documented down to temperatures of -20 C. Standard and epi-fluorescence microscopy adapted to studies at very low in-situ temperatures can help in locating individual cells and yield insight into the distribution of liquids, organisms and potential biomarkers in icy habitats. As the distribution of fluids, organisms and impurities is governed by segregation processes on different spatial scales, such work can aid in the planning of exploration campaigns (e.g., on Mars and Europa) and help guide the identification of intensive-study sites or the design of sampling equipment. Apart from such specific lessons, three major conclusions emerge: (1) The use of improved or new methods continues to push the envelope for activity of microbial life to lower temperatures, boding well for planetary exploration campaigns. (2) While the thermodynamics of water activity in ice may constitute an ultimate boundary, the low-temperature kinetic constraints currently present a significant challenge for the study of low-temperature life processes. This may call for

  13. Temperature dependence of pair correlations and correlation entropy in a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Castro, C.R.; Aidun, J.B.; Straub, G.K.; Wills, J.M.; Wallace, D.C. )

    1994-09-01

    For a system of atoms interacting through a pair potential, the entropy is evaluated by molecular dynamics at temperatures from the liquid to the gas. The pair potential represents aluminum in the liquid regime and the calculated entropy is in close agreement with experiment. The temperature dependence of the entropy is understood in terms of structural changes in the pair correlation function. Of the two approximate entropy expansions evaluated in low orders, the Nettleton-Raveche-Green expansion is more accurate at high temperatures, while the multiparticle irreducible correlation expansion is more accurate for the liquid.

  14. Temperature dependence of pair correlations and correlation entropy in a fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Castro, Carlos R.; Aidun, John B.; Straub, Galen K.; Wills, John M.; Wallace, Duane C.

    1994-09-01

    For a system of atoms interacting through a pair potential, the entropy is evaluated by molecular dynamics at temperatures from the liquid to the gas. The pair potential represents aluminum in the liquid regime and the calculated entropy is in close agreement with experiment. The temperature dependence of the entropy is understood in terms of structural changes in the pair correlation function. Of the two approximate entropy expansions evaluated in low orders, the Nettleton-Raveché-Green expansion is more accurate at high temperatures, while the multiparticle irreducible correlation expansion is more accurate for the liquid.

  15. A modified golden gate attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell for monitoring phase transitions in multicomponent fluids at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Novitskiy, Alexander A; Ke, Jie; Comak, Gurbuz; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2011-08-01

    A new continuous flow method using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy has been developed for monitoring phase transitions in multicomponent fluids at high pressures and temperatures. Our approach uses Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and a modified Golden Gate attenuated total reflection (ATR) cell and exploits the fact that the absorbance of a vapor is much lower than that of the corresponding liquid to monitor the phase transition between vapor and liquid. We demonstrate that this method can provide quantitative measurements on both the dew point and the bubble point. We have validated our approach using three single-component systems (EtOH, MeOH, and H(2)O) and a binary system of EtOH + H(2)O, monitoring phase transitions at temperature up to 300 °C and pressure up to 10 MPa.

  16. Temperature Dependent Capacitance-Voltage And Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy Study Of Self-Assembled Ge Quantum Dots Embedded In P-type Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Chen Gang; Jantsch, Wolfgang

    2011-12-23

    Temperature dependent Capacitance-Voltage (TCV) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) techniques were used to study how Ge Quantum Dots (QDs) embedded in Silicon trap charge. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is used to obtain the density of QDs, which is in the order of 3x10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. Three shallow levels, with activation energies of 40, 65 and 90 meV, and densities around 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, are found and are related to Boron. Four deep levels, with activation energies of 110, 150, 330 and 380 meV, and densities between 2x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3} and 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, are also found. TCV results suggest they are related to the Ge QDs.

  17. Measurement of Transient Tool Internal Temperature Fields by Novel Micro Thin Film Sensors Embedded in Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werschmoeller, Dirk

    Monitoring and control of thermomechanical phenomena in tooling are imperative for advancing fundamental understanding, enhancing reliability, and improving workpiece quality in material removal processes. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) tools are being used heavily in numerous machining processes, e.g., machining of hardened low carbon steel and superalloys. These processes are very sensitive to variations in local cutting conditions at, or close to, the tool-workpiece interface, but lack a thorough understanding of fundamental transient thermo-mechanical phenomena present. As a result, abrupt catastrophic tool failures and degraded machined surfaces frequently occur. Existing sensors are not suitable for process control and monitoring, as they are either destructively embedded and/or do not possess the necessary spatial and temporal resolution to provide relevant data during machining. This research presents a novel approach for obtaining thermomechanical data from the close vicinity (i.e., 10s of micrometers) of the tool-workpiece interface. Arrays of micro thin film thermocouples with junction size 5 x 5 mum were fabricated by standard microfabrication methods and have been successfully embedded into PCBN using diffusion bonding. Electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy were employed to examine material interactions at the bonding interface and to determine optimal bonding parameters. Static and dynamic sensor performances have been characterized. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity up to 1300 °C, fast rise time of 150 ns, and possess good sensitivity. The inserts instrumented with embedded thin film C-type thermocouples were successfully applied to measure internal tool temperatures as close as 70 mum to the cutting edge while machining aluminum and hardened steel workpieces at industrially relevant cutting parameters. Acquired temperature data follow theoretical trends very well. Correlations between temperature and cutting parameters have

  18. Determination of allowable fluid temperature during start-up operation of outlet header under the assumption of constant and temperature-dependent material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rząsa, Dariusz; Duda, Piotr

    2013-09-01

    Modern supercritical power plants operate at very high temperatures and pressures. Thus the construction elements are subjected to both high thermal and mechanical loads. As a result high stresses in those components are created. In order to operate safely, it is important to monitor stresses, especially during start-up and shut-down processes. The maximum stresses in the construction elements should not exceed the allowable stresses that are defined according to boiler regulations. It is important to find optimum operating parameters, that can assure safe heating and cooling processes. The optimum parameters define temperature and pressure histories that can keep the highest stresses within allowable limit and reduce operation time as much as possible. In this paper a new numerical method for determining optimum working fluid parameters is presented. In this method, properties of steel can be assumed as constant or temperature dependent. The constant value is taken usually at the average temperature of the operation cycle. For both cases optimal parameters are determined. Based on these parameters start-up operations for both cases are conducted. During entire processes stresses in the heated element are monitored. The results obtained are compared with German boiler regulations - Technische Regeln fur Dampfkessel 301.

  19. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) Version 6 - General Purpose Thermo-Fluid Network Analysis Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok; Leclair, Andre; Moore, Ric; Schallhorn, Paul

    2011-01-01

    GFSSP stands for Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program. It is a general-purpose computer program to compute pressure, temperature and flow distribution in a flow network. GFSSP calculates pressure, temperature, and concentrations at nodes and calculates flow rates through branches. It was primarily developed to analyze Internal Flow Analysis of a Turbopump Transient Flow Analysis of a Propulsion System. GFSSP development started in 1994 with an objective to provide a generalized and easy to use flow analysis tool for thermo-fluid systems.

  20. Spin relaxation dynamics of holes in intrinsic GaAs quantum wells studied by transient circular dichromatic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Fang, Shaoyin; Zhu, Ruidan; Lai, Tianshu

    2017-03-21

    Spin relaxation dynamics of holes in intrinsic GaAs quantum wells is studied using time-resolved circular dichromatic absorption spectroscopy at room temperature. It is found that ultrafast dynamics is dominated by the cooperative contributions of band filling and many-body effects. The relative contribution of the two effects is opposite in strength for electrons and holes. As a result, transient circular dichromatic differential transmission (TCD-DT) with co- and cross-circularly polarized pump and probe presents different strength at several picosecond delay time. Ultrafast spin relaxation dynamics of excited holes is sensitively reflected in TCD-DT with cross-circularly polarized pump and probe. A model, including coherent artifact, thermalization of nonthermal carriers and the cooperative contribution of band filling and many-body effects, is developed, and used to fit TCD-DT with cross-circularly polarized pump and probe. Spin relaxation time of holes is achieved as a function of excited hole density for the first time at room temperature, and increases with hole density, which disagrees with a theoretical prediction based on EY spin relaxation mechanism, implying that EY mechanism may be not dominant hole spin relaxation mechanism at room temperature, but DP mechanism is dominant possibly.

  1. Quantifying temperature changes in tissue-mimicking fluid phantoms using optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seevaratnam, Subaagari; Bains, Amitpal; Farid, Mashal; Farhat, Golnaz; Kolios, Michael; Standish, Beau A.

    2014-02-01

    Several therapies make use of a hypo or hyperthermia tissue environment to induce cell death in both benign and malignant tumors. Current progression in optical technologies, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors, could potentially provide viable information to explore the response of tissue when these temperature induced treatments are implemented. Studies were conducted with tissue-mimicking phantoms fabricated with polystyrene microspheres and glycerin to observe any relationship between the pixel intensities of the OCT images and their concurring envelope statistics. OCT images of the monitored region of interest were taken at 5°C intervals from 25°C to 60°C. Four probability distribution functions (PDF), Rician, Rayleigh, Normal and Generalized Gamma were used to investigate OCT envelope statistics as the temperature was altered. Using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, it was determined that the Generalized Gamma was the best fit. The scaling and shape parameters associated with the Generalized Gamma PDF were used to quantify the OCT envelope data to identify temperature changes within the tissue mimicking media. The Generalized Gamma PDF was verified as the best fit based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test correlation factor being less than 0.05 (p = 0.0158). In addition to the PDFs, the OCT speckle decorrelation at varying temperature were also measured and quantified to detect the microspheres response to temperature changes. Initial results are very promising with future research focused on extending this methodology to monitor relative temperature changes in tissue during therapy. Clinical utility can be achieved if these optical techniques are used to evaluate the temperature-derived biological response of tissue and provide a feedback mechanism to improve procedural efficiency.

  2. Transient Shifts of Incubation Temperature Reveal Immediate and Long-Term Transcriptional Response in Chicken Breast Muscle Underpinning Resilience and Phenotypic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Naraballobh, Watcharapong; Trakooljul, Nares; Murani, Eduard; Brunner, Ronald; Krischek, Carsten; Janisch, Sabine; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2016-01-01

    transiently decreased incubation temperature, which did not affect the phenotypes, prompts compensatory effects reflecting resilience. In contrast, higher incubation temperature triggers gene expression and has long-term effects on the phenotype. These mechanisms of considerable phenotypic plasticity contribute to the biodiversity and broaden the basis for managing poultry populations. PMID:27611643

  3. Planetary fluids He and NH/sub 3/ at high shock pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Nellis, W.J.; Radousky, H.B.; Mitchell, A.C.; Holmes, N.C.; Ross, M.; Young, D.A.

    1985-04-01

    Liquid He at 4.3 K and 1 atm was shocked to 16 GPa (160 kbar) and 12,000 K and double-shocked to 56 GPa and 21,000 K. Liquid perturbation theory was used to determine an effective interatomic potential from which the equation of state of He can be obtained over a wide range of densities and temperatures in the envelopes of the outer planets. A new fast optical pyrometer and a cryogenic specimen holder for liquid NH/sub 3/ were developed to measure shock temperatures of 4400 and 3600 K at pressures of 59 and 48 GPa. These conditions correspond to those in the ice layers in Uranus and Neptune. The shock temperature data are in reasonable agreement with an equation of state by Ree based on an intermolecular potential derived from NH/sub 3/ Hugoniot data.

  4. Analysis of the single-blow transient testing technique for perforated plate heat exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Jose I.; Mills, Anthony F.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the single-blow transient testing technique for heat exchanger surfaces is made for perforated plate and similar discontinuous surfaces. The model assumes that there is no temperature variation across each plate, and allows for axial conduction in spacers: the resulting axial fluid temperature profile is discontinuous, rather than the usual continuous profile. Numerical solutions are obtained to the resulting set of coupled first-order differential equations for a step change in inlet fluid temperature. Results are presented in tabular form, which allow the heat transfer coefficients to be calculated from test data using the maximum slope technique.

  5. Experimentally-determined carbon isotope fractionation in and between methane-bearing melt and fluid to upper mantle temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2016-07-01

    The behavior of melts and fluids is at the core of understanding formation and evolution of the Earth. To advance our understanding of their role, high-pressure/-temperature experiments were employed to determine melt and fluid structure together with carbon isotope partitioning within and between (CH4 +H2O +H2)-saturated aluminosilicate melts and (CH4 +H2O +H2)-fluids. The samples were characterized with vibrational spectroscopy while at temperatures and pressures from 475° to 850 °C and 92 to 1158 MPa, respectively. The solution equilibrium is 2CH4 + QQn = 2CH3- + H2O + Qn+1 where the superscript, n, in the Qn-notation describes silicate species where n denotes the number of bridging oxygen. The solution equilibrium affects the carbon isotope fractionation factor between melt and fluid, αmelt/fluid. Moreover, it is significantly temperature-dependent. The αmelt/fluid < 1 with temperatures less than about 1050 °C, and is greater than 1 at higher temperature. Methane-bearing melts can exist in the upper mantle at fO2 ≤fO2 (MW) (Mysen et al., 2011). Reduced (Csbnd H)-species in present-day upper mantle magma, therefore, are likely. During melting and crystallization in this environment, the δ13C of melts increases with temperature at a rate of ∼ 0.6 ‰ /°C. From the simple-system data presented here, at T ≤ 1050°C, melt in equilibrium with a peridotite-(CH4 +H2O +H2)-bearing mantle source will be isotopically lighter than fluid. At higher temperatures, melts will be isotopically heavier. Degassing at T ≤ 1050°C will shift δ13C of degassed magma to more positive values, whereas degassing at T ≥ 1050°C, will reduce the δ13C of the degassed magma.

  6. Low Temperature Sorbents for Removal of Sulfur Compounds from Fluid Feed Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani

    2004-06-01

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  7. Low Temperature Sorbents for removal of Sulfur Compounds from fluid feed Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjan

    1999-09-30

    A sorbent material is provided comprising a material reactive with sulfur, a binder unreactive with sulfur and an inert material, wherein the sorbent absorbs the sulfur at temperatures between 30 and 200 C. Sulfur absorption capacity as high as 22 weight percent has been observed with these materials.

  8. CORRELATION OF THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF PLASTICIZED PVC USING A LATTICE FLUID MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A model has been developed to describe the composition dependence of the glass transition temperature (Tg) of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) + plasticizer mixtures. The model is based on Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state and the Gibbs-Di Marzio criterion, which states that th...

  9. Effect of temperature and duration of ensiling on in vitro degradation of maize silages in rumen fluid.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Cone, J W; Khan, N A; Hendriks, W H; Struik, P C

    2015-04-01

    The effects of ensiling temperature and duration of ensiling on the feeding quality of whole-crop maize (Zea mays L.) silages were investigated. Samples of one cultivar of maize plants were collected from two different fields, grown in different years on sandy soils. Samples were collected when the whole-plant dry matter content was approximately 330 g/kg. Maize plants were chopped and ensiled in mini silos at three different ambient temperatures (5, 12 and 18 °C). The ensiling temperature affected the ensiling fermentation processes, causing different rates of pH decline and different final pH values. Samples from the silos were taken after 0 (not ensiled, i.e. control), 4, 8 and 16 weeks of ensiling. The silage samples were not dried, but ground-frozen under liquid nitrogen to pass a 1-mm sieve. The gas production technique was used to evaluate the influence of the ensiling temperature and the duration of ensiling on the degradation of the silage samples in rumen fluid. The gas production was highest when the maize was ensiled at 12 °C (p < 0.0001). An increase in ensiling duration caused a decrease in silage pH, accompanied by a decrease in gas production (p < 0.0001). The decrease in gas production was linearly related to the decrease in pH at the three temperatures. The present study shows that both ensiling temperature and ensiling duration play a significant role in the rumen degradability of maize silage.

  10. Status report on the THROHPUT transient heat pipe modeling code

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, M.L.; Merrigan, M.A.; Reid, R.S.

    1993-11-01

    Heat pipes are structures which transport heat by the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid, giving them a high effective thermal conductivity. Many space-based uses for heat pipes have been suggested, and high temperature heat pipes using liquid metals as working fluids are especially attractive for these purposes. These heat pipes are modeled by the THROHPUT code (THROHPUT is an acronym for Thermal Hydraulic Response Of Heat Pipes Under Transients and is pronounced like ``throughput``). Improvements have been made to the THROHPUT code which models transient thermohydraulic heat pipe behavior. The original code was developed as a doctoral thesis research code by Hall. The current emphasis has been shifted from research into the numerical modeling to the development of a robust production code. Several modeling obstacles that were present in the original code have been eliminated, and several additional features have been added.

  11. Torque Transient of Magnetically Drive Flow for Viscosity Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Su, Ching-Hua; Lin, Bochuan; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2004-01-01

    Viscosity is a good indicator of structural changes for complex liquids, such as semiconductor melts with chain or ring structures. This paper discusses the theoretical and experimental results of the transient torque technique for non-intrusive viscosity measurement. Such a technique is essential for the high temperature viscosity measurement of high pressure and toxic semiconductor melts. In this paper, our previous work on oscillating cup technique was expanded to the transient process of a magnetically driven melt flow in a damped oscillation system. Based on the analytical solution for the fluid flow and cup oscillation, a semi-empirical model was established to extract the fluid viscosity. The analytical and experimental results indicated that such a technique has the advantage of short measurement time and straight forward data analysis procedures

  12. Heat can cool near-critical fluids.

    PubMed

    Beysens, Daniel; Fröhlich, Thomas; Garrabos, Yves

    2011-11-01

    We report experiments with very compressible fluids near the liquid-gas critical point. These experiments are performed (i) under microgravity in low Earth orbit by using SF(6) at liquidlike density and (ii) under Earth's gravity with CO(2) at gaslike density. The sample fluid is filled in an interferometer cell with its walls maintained at constant temperature. In situ thermistors measure the local fluid temperature. One of the thermistors is also used as a heat source to generate heat pulses. With no gravity-induced fluid convection, the evolution of fluid temperature is governed by the balance of heat flux between the thermal boundary layer of the heat source, which compresses the bulk fluid, and the thermal boundary layer at the wall, which expands it. When heat pulses are applied to the fluid under weak or Earth's gravity, a long thermal transient is observed at the end of the heat pulse where the bulk fluid temperature reaches significantly below the initial temperature. This unconventional cooling originates from the fast decompression of the fluid, which is induced by the rapid convectively disappearing hot boundary layer at the heat source, and the persistence of an anomalously thin cold boundary layer convectively induced at the cell wall. This striking phenomenon is observed in a large range of temperature, density, and various thermodynamic conditions. This anomalous cooling effect persists for an appreciable period of time corresponding to the diffusive destruction of the cold boundary layer. We found that the effect is also more pronounced when the free fall acceleration is large. We have analyzed the result by using a simple one-dimensional model with ad hoc convective heat losses.

  13. The effects of temperature, pH and redox state on the stability of glutamic acid in hydrothermal fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Namhey; Foustoukos, Dionysis I.; Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Cody, George D.; Hazen, Robert M.

    2014-06-01

    Natural hydrothermal vent environments cover a wide range of physicochemical conditions involving temperature, pH and redox state. The stability of simple biomolecules such as amino acids in such environments is of interest in various fields of study from the origin of life to the metabolism of microbes at the present day. Numerous previous experimental studies have suggested that amino acids are unstable under hydrothermal conditions and decompose rapidly. However, previous studies have not effectively controlled the redox state of the hydrothermal fluids. Here we studied the stability of glutamate with and without reducing hydrothermal conditions imposed by 13 mM aqueous H2 at temperatures of 150, 200 and 250 °C and initial (25 °C) pH values of 6 and 10 in a flow-through hydrothermal reactor with reaction times from 3 to 36 min. We combined the experimental measurements with theoretical calculations to model the in situ aqueous speciation and pH values. As previously observed under hydrothermal conditions, the main reaction involves glutamate cyclizing to pyroglutamate through a simple dehydration reaction. However, the amounts of decomposition products of the glutamate detected, including succinate, formate, carbon dioxide and ammonia depend on the temperature, the pH and particularly the redox state of the fluid. In the absence of dissolved H2, glutamate decomposes in the sequence glutamate, glutaconate, α-hydroxyglutarate, ketoglutarate, formate and succinate, and ultimately to CO2 and micromolar quantities of H2(aq). Model speciation calculations indicate the CO2, formate and H2(aq) are not in metastable thermodynamic equilibrium. However, with 13 mM H2(aq) concentrations, the amounts of decomposition products are suppressed at all temperatures and pH values investigated. The small amounts of CO2 and formate present are calculated to be in metastable equilibrium with the H2. It is further proposed that there is a metastable equilibrium between glutamate

  14. Development of a high temperature pH electrode for geothermal fluids. Final report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Niedrach, L.W.; Stoddard, W.H.

    1981-04-01

    There has been no serious application of pH measurements above 150/sup 0/C stemming from the fact that there have been no practical probes available that are capable of operation under the required conditions of temperature and pressure. Recently, a new approach to such measurements was developed in which an oxygen ion conducting ceramic membrane (e.g., stabilized zirconia) is being employed in a sensor somewhat analogous to the glass electrode. The new sensor retains the specificity of the glass electrode, is equally insensitive to interference from redox active species, and possesses markedly superior resistance to attack by aqueous media at high temperatures. The status of the new sense at the inception of the contract is summarized and plans for the first year's investigation are outlined.

  15. An experimental investigation of transient fatigue crack growth phenomena under elevated temperature conditions in superalloy 718 and titanium Ti-1100. Ph.D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberger, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Two transient crack growth phenomena are investigated in high temperature structural alloys. The first phenomenon examined is the growth behavior of small cracks under elastic-plastic conditions in Alloy 718 at 650 C. The second phenomenon to be investigated is the mechanism of the creep-fatigue crack growth in a new near-alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100. Understanding these phenomena is essential for accurate fracture mechanics based residual life component management techniques. The first part of the dissertation is an experimental study of the elastic-plastic fatigue behavior of small surface cracks in Alloy 718 at 650 C conducted under conditions of total strain control. During cycling, the crack growth was continuously monitored using a direct current potential drop technique while the influence of crack closure was monitored using a laser interferometry technique measuring the crack mouth opening displacement. The crack tip plastic zone size was also measured using a post-test delta phase decoration technique. Results show that the growth rates of the small cracks correlate well with long crack data when using an appropriate elastic-plastic driving force parameter. The anomalous crack growth rates observed in some experiments were found to be experimental transients dominated by the crack initiation fracture and do not represent an intrinsic behavior of Alloy 718. The second part of this document deals with a series of crack growth experiments performed on the near-alpha titanium alloy, Ti-1100, to determine the mechanism of the creep-fatigue interaction. Based on pure creep crack growth results, the increase in the creep-fatigue crack growth rate is not amenable to separate contributions of creep crack growth and fatigue crack growth. A mechanism has been proposed to account for the increase in creep-fatigue crack growth rate based on the planar slip of titanium alloys which results in the formation of dislocation pileups at the prior beta grain boundaries.

  16. Measurement of soot concentration and bulk fluid temperature and velocity using modulated laser-induced incandescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelling, David R.; Sawchuk, Robert A.; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Thomson, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    The use of a modulated LII two-colour technique to measure soot temperature in a laminar diffusion flame is described, and the results compared to CARS experiments. A sinusoidal modulated diode laser is used to excite the soot, and both the modulated LII intensity and its relative phase to the excitation source are measured with a lock-in amplifier and recorded. Modulation frequencies from 25 to 200,000 Hz were employed. The temperature is derived from the ratio of the modulated LII radiation signal at 445 and 750 nm, and the results compared to values obtained by CARS spectroscopy. The modulated LII temperatures were largely independent of modulation frequency and agreed well with the CARS temperatures. A theory is developed to explain the dependence of the phase delay of the modulated LII signal (with reference to that of the laser excitation source) on gas replacement time in the sample volume, soot cooling rate and soot volume fraction. The theory is shown to give a reasonable fit to the experimental results at all frequencies. At lower frequencies, the phase delay is dominated by the gas replacement time in the sample volume and at higher frequencies by the cooling rate of the heated soot. Time constants for both processes and the soot volume fraction are derived from the data and shown to be largely in agreement with the expected values. Using modulated LII-determined soot volume fraction and inverted and scatter corrected line-of-sight attenuation-determined absorption coefficients, the soot refractive index absorption function E(m) was measured to be between 0.45 and 0.42 over the wavelength range of 436-825 nm.

  17. Two-phase Fluid Selection for High-temperature Automotive Platforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Kerosine 150–300 Mercury 359 Napthalene 218 Nitric acid 120 Nitrobenzene 210 Nonane-n 150 Octane-n 125 Olive oil 300 Petroleum 210 Propionic acid ...exponential increase of intrinsic carrier concentration as temperature increases (4, 5). As a silicon (Si) device approaches 125 °C, the device becomes...fittings can be purchased capable of 60,000 psi without customization. One disadvantage of water is its inherent corrosive , electrically conductive

  18. Acetosyringone, pH and temperature effects on transient genetic transformation of immature embryos of Brazilian wheat genotypes by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Manfroi, Ernandes; Yamazaki-Lau, Elene; Grando, Magali F.; Roesler, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Low transformation efficiency is one of the main limiting factors in the establishment of genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. To determine more favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration after infection, this study investigated combinations of acetosyringone concentration and pH variation in the inoculation and co-cultivation media and co-culture temperatures using immature embryos from two Brazilian genotypes (BR 18 Terena and PF 020037). Based on transient expression of uidA, the most favorable conditions for T-DNA delivery were culture media with pH 5.0 and 5.4 combined with co-culture temperatures of 22 °C and 25 °C, and a 400 μM acetosyringone supplement. These conditions resulted in blue foci in 81% of the embryos. Media with more acidic pH also presented reduced A. tumefaciens overgrowth during co-culture, and improved regeneration frequency of the inoculated explants. BR 18 Terena was more susceptible to infection by A. tumefaciens than PF 020037. We found that it is possible to improve T-DNA delivery and explant regeneration by adjusting factors involved in the early stages of A. tumefaciens infection. This can contribute to establishing a stable transformation procedure in the future. PMID:26537604

  19. Numerical and experimental study of transient natural convection in an inclined wall cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Avila, F.

    1995-09-01

    Transient natural convection in an open cavity with one inclined wall is analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The fluid and the cavity are in thermal equilibrium at the onset of the experiment. The inclined wall is heated in such a way that the wall temperature increases uniformly according to an hyperbolic tangent function. The transport equations are solved using a 2-D transient model with a non-orthogonal body fitted coordinate system and an exponential grid distribution for better spatial resolution near the inclined wall. Measurements of velocity and temperature are performed at some key points of the boundary layer and intrusion layer. The fluid motion and heat transfer are analyzed from the time at which heat is applied though the inclined wall to the time at which its effect is detected at the opposite sidewall. The main patterns of the fluid flow and heat transfer are well predicted as comparisons against experimental results indicate.

  20. Measurement of the properties of liquids and gases using a transient hot-wire technique.

    PubMed

    Parsons, J R; Mulligan, J C

    1978-10-01

    A transient method of making simultaneous, in situ measurements of the thermal conductivity, volumetric specific heat, and kinematic viscosity of liquids and gases is presented. The technique utilizes the temperature response record of a fine horizontal wire, functioning as a resistance thermometer, when subjected to a sudden and constant electrical heating. It is shown that a formulation of the transient mechanisms governing the transition from pure conductive to free convective heat transfer from the wire can be used to produce simultaneous determinations of fluid properties from a single wire temperature versus time record. A simple apparatus is presented, along with the results of its use in determining the properties of air.

  1. Characterization of hyperalkaline fluids produced by low-temperature serpentinization of mantle peridotites in the Oman and Ligurian ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, ValéRie; Monnin, Christophe; Ceuleneer, Georges; Boulart, CéDric; Hoareau, Guilhem

    2013-07-01

    A regional survey of alkaline springs in Oman and Ligurian ophiolites shows that the alkaline water compositions significantly vary from one ophiolite to the other and within the same ophiolite. The first-order correlation between the Na (and K) and Cl concentrations points to fluid compositions only partly due to evaporation. The scatter around the evaporation line implies that Na and Cl may not be conservative during the alteration of the ultramafic rocks. Mg is almost entirely depleted at pH > 10.5 as a result of serpentine formation within the ultramafic body and of brucite (and minor hydrotalcite) precipitation at the springs. Ca accumulates in the high-pH fluids and is consumed by Ca-carbonate formation at the springs, by mixing with river waters or by the CO2 supply from the atmosphere. Thermodynamic calculations show that brucite saturation is reached at pH values around 10.5 which triggers major changes in the water composition. The waters evolve from a quartz-saturated low-pH continental environment to a brucite-dominated high-pH serpentinizing system at low temperature. The highest water salinities are found in springs located along the basal thrust plane of the ophiolite. The highest Al concentrations are found in some springs located on the crustal side of the mantle/crust boundary. This poses the question of the hydrologic pathways and of the role of the mineralogical composition of the altered formations.

  2. Stability of 11 prevalent synthetic cannabinoids in authentic neat oral fluid samples: glass versus polypropylene containers at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Stefan; Speck, Michael; Moosmann, Bjoern; Auwärter, Volker

    2013-07-01

    Although synthetic cannabinoids have been intensively investigated in recent years and oral fluid testing is becoming increasingly popular in suspected driving under the influence of drugs cases, only scarce data on their stability in authentic neat oral fluid (nOF) samples are yet available. However, especially for these new psychoactive drugs, investigations focusing on stability issues are necessary as inappropriate storage conditions may lead to considerable analytical problems. Since it has been shown for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol that adsorption to plastic surfaces may lead to considerable drug loss, we aimed to evaluate whether adsorption also has to be taken into account for synthetic cannabinoids in nOF samples. In this paper, the results of investigations on the recovery of 11 prevalent synthetic cannabinoids from authentic nOF samples stored over 72 h in RapidEASE (high quality borosilicate glass) and Sciteck Saliva Split Collector (polypropylene) tubes at 4 and 25 °C are presented. Our findings clearly demonstrate that lipophilic synthetic cannabinoids present in nOF samples adsorb to the surface of polypropylene containers when stored at room temperature, leading to considerable drug loss. Hence, when using polypropylene tubes, samples should be shipped cooled in order to avoid a substantial decrease of the analyte concentration during transportation.

  3. Ion temperature profiles in front of a negative planar electrode studied by a one-dimensional two-fluid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyergyek, T.; Kovačič, J.

    2016-06-01

    Plasma-wall transition is studied by a one-dimensional steady state two-fluid model. Continuity and momentum exchange equations are used for the electrons, while the continuity, momentum exchange, and energy transport equation are used for the ions. Electrons are assumed to be isothermal. The closure of ion equations is made by the assumption that the heat flux is zero. The model equations are solved for potential, ion and electron density, and velocity and ion temperature as independent variables. The model includes coulomb collisions between ions and electrons and charge exchange collisions between ions and neutral atoms of the same species and same mass. The neutral atoms are assumed to be essentially at rest. The model is solved for finite ratio ɛ = /λ D L between the Debye length and λD and ionization length L in the pre-sheath and in the sheath at the same time. Charge exchange collisions heat the ions in the sheath and the pre-sheath. Even a small increase of the frequency of charge exchange collisions causes a substantial increase of ion temperature. Coulomb collisions have negligible effect on ion temperature in the pre-sheath, while in the sheath they cause a small cooling of ions. The increase of ɛ causes the increase of ion temperature. From the ion density and temperature profiles, the polytropic function κ is calculated according to its definition given by Kuhn et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 013503 (2006)]. The obtained profiles of κ indicate that the ion flow is isothermal only in a relatively narrow region in the pre-sheath, while close to the sheath edge and in the sheath it is closer to adiabatic. The ion sound velocity is space dependent and exhibits a maximum. This maximum indicates the location of the sheath edge only in the limit ɛ → 0 .

  4. Major and trace-element composition and pressure-temperature evolution of rock-buffered fluids in low-grade accretionary-wedge metasediments, Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miron, George D.; Wagner, Thomas; Wälle, Markus; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2013-05-01

    The chemical composition of fluid inclusions in quartz crystals from Alpine fissure veins was determined by combination of microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and LA-ICPMS analysis. The veins are hosted in carbonate-bearing, organic-rich, low-grade metamorphic metapelites of the Bündnerschiefer of the eastern Central Alps (Switzerland). This strongly deformed tectonic unit is interpreted as a partly subducted accretionary wedge, on the basis of widespread carpholite assemblages that were later overprinted by lower greenschist facies metamorphism. Veins and their host rocks from two locations were studied to compare several indicators for the conditions during metamorphism, including illite crystallinity, graphite thermometry, stability of mineral assemblages, chlorite thermometry, fluid inclusion solute thermometry, and fluid inclusion isochores. Fluid inclusions are aqueous two-phase with 3.7-4.0 wt% equivalent NaCl at Thusis and 1.6-1.7 wt% at Schiers. Reproducible concentrations of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, Al, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, Cl, Br, and S could be determined for 97 fluid inclusion assemblages. Fluid and mineral geothermometry consistently indicate temperatures of 320 ± 20 °C for the host rocks at Thusis and of 250 ± 30 °C at Schiers. Combining fluid inclusion isochores with independent geothermometers results in pressure estimates of 2.8-3.8 kbar for Thusis, and of 3.3-3.4 kbar for Schiers. Pressure-temperature estimates are confirmed by pseudosection modeling. Fluid compositions and petrological modeling consistently demonstrate that chemical fluid-rock equilibrium was attained during vein formation, indicating that the fluids originated locally by metamorphic dehydration during near-isothermal decompression in a rock-buffered system.

  5. Lie group analysis for the effect of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity with thermophoresis on magnetohydrodynamic free convective heat and mass transfer over a porous stretching surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, R.; Muhaimin, I.; Amin, Norsarahaida S.

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns with a steady two-dimensional flow of an electrically conducting incompressible fluid over a vertical stretching sheet. A scaling group of transformations is applied to the governing equations. The system remains invariant due to some relations among the parameters of the transformations. Impact of thermophoresis particle deposition in the presence of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity plays an important role on the concentration boundary layer. The results thus obtained are presented graphically and discussed.

  6. Diagenesis associated with subaerial exposure of Miocene strata, southeastern Spain: Implications for sea-level change and preservation of low-temperature fluid inclusions in calcite cement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.H.; Franseen, E.K.; Mills, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    Many ancient carbonate rocks contain calcite cements that precipitated from shallow, fresh groundwater that entered strata during events of subaerial exposure. Such low-temperature cementation may be difficult to interpret from fluid inclusion studies because some of the inclusions may reequilibrate during later thermal events. Miocene rocks of southeast Spain provide an example of the utility of fluid inclusion studies in rocks that have not been subjected to significant heating. In the Mesa Roldan area, one type of calcite cement occurs exclusively below a regional stratigraphic surface of enigmatic origin. The cement has petrographic characteristics indicative of cementation in the vadose zone (generally thought to be a zone of oxidation) but has cathodoluminescent bands containing reduced manganese and iron. Primary fluid inclusions contain mostly fresh water, have variable ratios of vapor to liquid, and are at one atmosphere of pressure. Our observations indicate that calcite precipitated from a freshwater vadose zone, which was subjected to local or repetitive saturation, and minor brackish water. The fluid inclusion data indicate that low-temperature fluid inclusions can be preserved in ancient sequences despite a later history of different pore fluids. This indication of subaerial diagenesis of distal slope deposits suggests a relative sea-level drop of at least 50-55 m during the Late Miocene. Similar petrographic and fluid inclusion observations can be used to interpret sea-level changes in other areas. ?? 1990.

  7. A hybrid coarse and fine mesh solution method for prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactor thermal-fluid analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, Ivor D.

    Evaluations of the fluid flow and heat transfer in prismatic high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) are critical to ensuring the safety of designs. It is in this area that many uncertainties are found. The current generation of full-core prismatic HTGR safety analysis codes employ coarse mesh solution methods for modeling the fluid flow and heat transfer in this reactor. There is, however, no generally accepted procedure for deriving accurate coarse mesh parameters, and the assumptions and approximations made in deriving models for the subscale behavior vary significantly. In contrast, current full-core neutronics analysis methods employ detailed unit cell calculations, combined with formal mathematical homogenization techniques, to obtain consistent and accurate coarse mesh parameters. The resulting coarse mesh solutions are of high quality and accuracy, and the ability to reconstruct the fine scale solution is an inherent part of the approach. In this work a new approach to modeling HTGR thermal-fluids is proposed that combines concepts from modern CFD techniques, formal mathematical homogenization, and full-core neutronics analysis methods. In an attempt to bridge the gap between the current generation of coarse mesh methods and high resolution CFD approaches, a hybrid coarse/fine mesh compressible CFD solution scheme, intended for the safety analysis of prismatic HTGRs, has been developed. The reactor is considered on any scale to consist of a two-phase mixture of fluid and stationary solid components. This solution scheme is accompanied by a new model for the turbulent mixing and thermal dispersion in porous media based in the k-epsilon turbulence model. A new hierarchical solution scheme for modeling solid heat conduction is proposed which combines concepts from the equivalence theory in neutron transport and the field of reduced order modeling. Detailed unit cell calculations are used to obtain homogenized coarse mesh parameters and reduced order

  8. A Transient Liquid Phase Sintering Bonding Process Using Nickel-Tin Mixed Powder for the New Generation of High-Temperature Power Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hongliang; Huang, Jihua; Yang, Jian; Zhou, Shaokun; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shuhai

    2017-02-01

    A transient liquid phase sintering (TLPS) bonding process, Ni-Sn TLPS bonding was developed for the new generation of power semiconductor packaging. A model Ni/Ni-Sn/Ni sandwiched structure was assembled by using 30Ni-70Sn mixed powder as the reactive system. The results show that the bonding layer is composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual fine Ni particles with a small amount of Ni3Sn2 at 340°C for 240 min, which has a heat-resistant temperature higher than 790°C. The microstructural evolution and thermal characteristic of the bonding layer for various times at 300°C and 340°C were also studied, respectively. This reveals that, after isothermally holding for 240 min at 300°C and for 180 min at 340°C, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) and the bonding layer is mainly composed of Ni3Sn4 and residual Ni particles. The analysis result for the mechanical properties of the joint shows that the hardness of the bonding layer at 340°C for 240 min is uniform and that the average value reaches 3.66 GPa, which is close to that of the Ni3Sn4 block material. The shear test shows that, as the holding time increases from 60 min to 180 min at 340°C, because of the existence of Sn, the disparity of shear strength between room temperature and 350°C is large. But when the holding time is 180 min or longer, Sn has been completely transformed into Ni-Sn IMCs. Their performances are very similar whether at room temperature or 350°C.

  9. Hydrogen sensor based on Au and YSZ/HgO/Hg electrode for in situ measurement of dissolved H2 in high-temperature and -pressure fluids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Hu, S M; Zhang, X T; Wang, Y

    2008-11-15

    Gold as a hydrogen-sensing electrode for in situ measurement of dissolved H2 in aqueous solutions under extreme conditions is reported. The dissolved H2 sensor, constructed with a Au-based sensing element and coupled with a YSZ/HgO/Hg electrode, is well suited for determining dissolved H2 concentrations of aqueous fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. The Au electrode is made of Au wire mounted in a quartz bar, which can be pressurized and heated in the high-pressure and -temperature conditions. The Au-YSZ sensor has been tested for its potential response to the concentrations of dissolved H2 in fluids by using a flow-through reactor at high temperatures up to 400 degrees C and pressures to 38 MPa. Good sensitivity and linear response between the hydrogen concentrations in the fluids and the H2 sensor potentials are reported for hydrogen gas in the concentration range of 0.1-0.001 M H2 in aqueous fluids at temperatures up to 340 degrees C and 30 MPa. Nernstian response of the cell potential to dissolved H2 in fluids was determined at 340 degrees C and 30 MPa, described as follows: DeltaE = 0.9444 + 0. 0603 log m H2 The experimental results indicate that the Au-YSZ/HgO/Hg cell can be used to measure the solubility of H2 in aqueous fluid at temperatures and pressures near to the critical state of water. Thus, this type of Au hydrogen sensor could be easily used for in situ measurement of H2 in hydrothermal fluids in a high-pressure vessel, or at midocean ridge, due to its structure of compression resistance.

  10. Combined temperature and density series for fluid-phase properties. I. Square-well spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J. Richard; Schultz, Andrew J.; Kofke, David A.

    2015-09-21

    Cluster integrals are evaluated for the coefficients of the combined temperature- and density-expansion of pressure: Z = 1 + B{sub 2}(β) η + B{sub 3}(β) η{sup 2} + B{sub 4}(β) η{sup 3} + ⋯, where Z is the compressibility factor, η is the packing fraction, and the B{sub i}(β) coefficients are expanded as a power series in reciprocal temperature, β, about β = 0. The methodology is demonstrated for square-well spheres with λ = [1.2-2.0], where λ is the well diameter relative to the hard core. For this model, the B{sub i} coefficients can be expressed in closed form as a function of β, and we develop appropriate expressions for i = 2-6; these expressions facilitate derivation of the coefficients of the β series. Expanding the B{sub i} coefficients in β provides a correspondence between the power series in density (typically called the virial series) and the power series in β (typically called thermodynamic perturbation theory, TPT). The coefficients of the β series result in expressions for the Helmholtz energy that can be compared to recent computations of TPT coefficients to fourth order in β. These comparisons show good agreement at first order in β, suggesting that the virial series converges for this term. Discrepancies for higher-order terms suggest that convergence of the density series depends on the order in β. With selection of an appropriate approximant, the treatment of Helmholtz energy that is second order in β appears to be stable and convergent at least to the critical density, but higher-order coefficients are needed to determine how far this behavior extends into the liquid.

  11. Combined temperature and density series for fluid-phase properties. I. Square-well spheres.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J Richard; Schultz, Andrew J; Kofke, David A

    2015-09-21

    Cluster integrals are evaluated for the coefficients of the combined temperature- and density-expansion of pressure: Z = 1 + B2(β) η + B3(β) η(2) + B4(β) η(3) + ⋯, where Z is the compressibility factor, η is the packing fraction, and the B(i)(β) coefficients are expanded as a power series in reciprocal temperature, β, about β = 0. The methodology is demonstrated for square-well spheres with λ = [1.2-2.0], where λ is the well diameter relative to the hard core. For this model, the B(i) coefficients can be expressed in closed form as a function of β, and we develop appropriate expressions for i = 2-6; these expressions facilitate derivation of the coefficients of the β series. Expanding the B(i) coefficients in β provides a correspondence between the power series in density (typically called the virial series) and the power series in β (typically called thermodynamic perturbation theory, TPT). The coefficients of the β series result in expressions for the Helmholtz energy that can be compared to recent computations of TPT coefficients to fourth order in β. These comparisons show good agreement at first order in β, suggesting that the virial series converges for this term. Discrepancies for higher-order terms suggest that convergence of the density series depends on the order in β. With selection of an appropriate approximant, the treatment of Helmholtz energy that is second order in β appears to be stable and convergent at least to the critical density, but higher-order coefficients are needed to determine how far this behavior extends into the liquid.

  12. Combined temperature and density series for fluid-phase properties. I. Square-well spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J. Richard; Schultz, Andrew J.; Kofke, David A.

    2015-09-01

    Cluster integrals are evaluated for the coefficients of the combined temperature- and density-expansion of pressure: Z = 1 + B2(β) η + B3(β) η2 + B4(β) η3 + ⋯, where Z is the compressibility factor, η is the packing fraction, and the Bi(β) coefficients are expanded as a power series in reciprocal temperature, β, about β = 0. The methodology is demonstrated for square-well spheres with λ = [1.2-2.0], where λ is the well diameter relative to the hard core. For this model, the Bi coefficients can be expressed in closed form as a function of β, and we develop appropriate expressions for i = 2-6; these expressions facilitate derivation of the coefficients of the β series. Expanding the Bi coefficients in β provides a correspondence between the power series in density (typically called the virial series) and the power series in β (typically called thermodynamic perturbation theory, TPT). The coefficients of the β series result in expressions for the Helmholtz energy that can be compared to recent computations of TPT coefficients to fourth order in β. These comparisons show good agreement at first order in β, suggesting that the virial series converges for this term. Discrepancies for higher-order terms suggest that convergence of the density series depends on the order in β. With selection of an appropriate approximant, the treatment of Helmholtz energy that is second order in β appears to be stable and convergent at least to the critical density, but higher-order coefficients are needed to determine how far this behavior extends into the liquid.

  13. Transient Analysis of a Magnetic Heat Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental heat pump that uses a rare earth element as the refrigerant is modeled using NASTRAN. The refrigerant is a ferromagnetic metal whose temperature rises when a magnetic field is applied and falls when the magnetic field is removed. The heat pump is used as a refrigerator to remove heat from a reservoir and discharge it through a heat exchanger. In the NASTRAN model the components modeled are represented by one-dimensional ROD elements. Heat flow in the solids and fluid are analyzed. The problem is mildly nonlinear since the heat capacity of the refrigerant is temperature-dependent. One simulation run consists of a series of transient analyses, each representing one stroke of the heat pump. An auxiliary program was written that uses the results of one NASTRAN analysis to generate data for the next NASTRAN analysis.

  14. Transient Fluid Flow Along Basement Faults and Rupture Mechanics: Can We Expect Injection-Induced Earthquake Behavior to Correspond Directly With Injection Operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbeck, J. H.; Horne, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    We explored injection-induced earthquake behavior in geologic settings where basement faults are connected hydraulically to overlying saline aquifers targeted for wastewater disposal. Understanding how the interaction between natural geology and injection well operations affects the behavior of injection-induced earthquake sequences has important implications for characterizing seismic hazard risk. Numerical experiments were performed to investigate the extent to which seismicity is influenced by the migration of pressure perturbations along fault zones. Two distinct behaviors were observed: a) earthquake ruptures that were confined to the pressurized region of the fault and b) sustained earthquake ruptures that propagated far beyond the pressure front. These two faulting mechanisms have important implications for assessing the manner in which seismicity can be expected respond to injection well operations.Based upon observations from the numerical experiments, we developed a criterion that can be used to classify the expected faulting behavior near wastewater disposal sites. The faulting criterion depends on the state of stress, the initial fluid pressure, the orientation of the fault, and the dynamic friction coefficient of the fault. If the initial ratio of shear to effective normal stress resolved on the fault (the prestress ratio) is less than the fault's dynamic friction coefficient, then earthquake ruptures will tend to be limited by the distance of the pressure front. In this case, parameters that affect seismic hazard assessment, like the maximum earthquake magnitude or earthquake recurrence interval, could correlate with injection well operational parameters. For example, the maximum earthquake magnitude might be expected to grow over time in a systematic manner as larger patches of the fault are exposed to significant pressure changes. In contrast, if the prestress ratio is greater than dynamic friction, a stress drop can occur outside of the pressurized

  15. Finite-element analysis of the fluid temperature distribution in double U-tube Borehole Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchini, E.; Jahanbin, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the evaluation of Thermal Response Tests (TRTs) and in the design of Borehole Heat Exchanger (BHE) fields, the mean temperature of the fluid Tm is usually approximated by the arithmetic mean Tave of inlet and outlet temperatures. This approximation can yield errors in the estimation of the thermal conductivity of the ground, of the BHE thermal resistance, and of the heat pump performance. An expression for the evaluation of Tm has been proposed by Marcotte and Pasquier (Marcotte D, Pasquier P 2008, Renewable Energy, 33 2407) for single U-tube BHEs. In this paper, the difference between Tm and Tave is determined by 3D finite- element simulations for a typical double U-tube BHE in 6 unsteady working conditions. The results are validated qualitatively through an approximate analytical method, and show that the expression proposed by Marcotte and Pasquier underestimates the difference between Tm and Tave when applied to a typical double U-tube BHE. Therefore, new relations to evaluate this difference for double U-tube BHEs would be useful.

  16. Influence of temperature on the degradation of isothiazolone biocides in aqueous media and in a metalworking fluid concentrate

    SciTech Connect

    Barman, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    The degradation of the active component of two isothiazolone biocides has been monitored at 24{degrees}, 40{degrees}, and 60{degrees} by reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The first-order rate constants are measured, and temperature-dependent kinetic data are used to show that the rate of degradation is doubled if the temperature is increased by 5{degrees}C and 6{degrees}C in aqueous media by pH 8.5 and 9.6, respectively. At pH 5.5, the active component is found to be stable at 24{degrees} and 40{degrees}C, and its depletion at60{degrees}C is about 10 percent over a period of three and one-half months. An estimated half-life of the active component in a metalworking fluid concentrate is six months at 24{degrees}C. However, at both 40{degrees} and 60{degrees}C, its degradation appears to be a two-step process. Initially, the concentration remains invariant or decreases slowly. This is followed by a rapid, first-order kinetic process. The overall times required for 50 percent loss of the active component are 12.2 and 1.6 days at 40{degrees} and 60{degrees}C, respectively.

  17. The role of boron and fluids in high temperature, shallow level metamorphism of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisson, V. B.; Leeman, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The possible role of boron (B) involvement in granite equilibria and generation of melts during crustal metamorphism has been a focus of speculation in recent literature. Most of the evidence for such involvement derives from experimental data which implies that the addition of B will lower the temperature of the granite solidus. Also the presence of tourmaline has a minor effect on the temperature of the solidus. Further indirect evidence that B may be involved in partial melting processes is the observation that granulites are commonly depleted in B, whereas the B content of low grade metapelites can be high (up to 2000 ppm). Researchers' measurements of the whole-rock B contents of granulites from the Madras region, India are low, ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 ppm. Ahmad and Wilson suggest that B was mobilized in the fluid phase during granulite facies metamorphism of the Broken Hill Complex, Australia. Thus, it appears that during the amphibolite to granulite transition, B is systematically lost from metasediments. The B that is released will probably partition into the vapor phase and/or melt phase. Preliminary measurements imply that the boron content of rocks in the Chugach Metamorphic Complex is not sufficient to influence the processes of partial melting at low pressures.

  18. Bosonic lasing and trapping of a dressed photon fluid in InGaN at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobet, Munise

    2016-08-01

    The generation of a quantum fluid of dressed photons at room temperature is experimentally demonstrated in an InGaN microcavity which is divided into two- and one-dimensional sections, resulting in single- and switchable multilevel coherent light emission. Ultra-low-threshold operation is attributed to the slight but robust excitonic fraction of the photonic condensate representing a bosonic laser working below the Mott transition (polariton laser). In contrast to equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensates, the nonequilibrium driven-dissipative nature enables the population of higher orbitals if any confinement potential is present to induce enhanced quantum correlations. Trapping inside microwire spacers leads to a polariton harmonic oscillator resulting in discrete states in an equidistant ladder of photonic orbitals. Level occupation and selection of a specific wave function is managed via optical control, mimicking a quantum emitter on a macroscopic level. It shows that exotic states of matter can be realized in rather simple structures at room temperature directly visible to the human eye. It represents also an excellent opportunity to study basic many-body dynamics in one-dimensional bosonic matter by simultaneously settling an optimized fabrication technique for devices enabling practical Boolean quantum logic gates for optical computing.

  19. Experimental determination of barite dissolution and precipitation rates as a function of temperature and aqueous fluid composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen-Wu, B. Y.; Dideriksen, K.; Olsson, J.; Raahauge, P. J.; Stipp, S. L. S.; Oelkers, E. H.

    2016-12-01

    Barite dissolution and precipitation rates were investigated in closed system reactors, in which total aqueous NaCl concentrations ranged from 0 to 1.5 molal, pH from 2 to 9, and temperature from 25 to 90 °C. Measured barite dissolution and precipitation rates exhibited a reaction order of 0.2 and 1, respectively, with respect to the barite saturation state. Although these different reaction orders suggest distinctly different mechanisms for dissolution and precipitation, the rates for both processes approach equilibrium with a similar slope on a rate versus saturation state plot, consistent with the concept of micro-reversibility. Barite dissolution rate constants increase as a linear function of the square root of ionic strength but vary only slightly with pH. The dissolution rate dependence on temperature is consistent with an activation energy of 25 ± 2 kJ mol-1. Barite dissolution and precipitation rates are not significantly affected by the presence of aqueous calcium, magnesium or strontium. The rates measured in the study were generated in fluids similar to those found in sedimentary basins, ocean floor sediments and oil field reservoirs so the data may provide close estimates for the reactivity of barite during a variety of natural and industrial processes.

  20. Using prior information to separate the temperature response to greenhouse gas forcing from that of aerosols - Estimating the transient climate response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurer, Andrew; Hegerl, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The evaluation of the transient climate response (TCR) is of critical importance to policy makers as it can be used to calculate a simple estimate of the expected warming given predicted greenhouse gas emissions. Previous studies using optimal detection techniques have been able to estimate a TCR value from the historic record using simulations from some of the models which took part in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) but have found that others give unconstrained results. At least partly this is due to degeneracy between the greenhouse gas and aerosol signals which makes separation of the temperature response to these forcings problematic. Here we re-visit this important topic by using an adapted optimal detection analysis within a Bayesian framework. We account for observational uncertainty by the use of an ensemble of instrumental observations, and model uncertainty by combining the results from several different models. This framework allows the use of prior information which is found to help separate the response to the different forcings leading to a more constrained estimate of TCR.

  1. Geochemistry of low-temperature springs northwest of Yellowstone caldera: Seeking the link between seismicity, deformation, and fluid flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah; van Soest, Matthias C.; Huebner, Mark; Fitzpatrick, John; Revesz, Kinga M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive geochemical survey of springs outside the northwest margin of the Yellowstone caldera was undertaken in 2003 and 2004. This survey was designed to detect: (1) active leakage from a huge reservoir of CO2 gas recently postulated to extend from beneath the caldera into this area; and (2) lingering evidence for subsurface flow of magmatic fluids into this area during the 1985 seismic swarm and concomitant caldera subsidence. Spring temperatures are low (< 15 °C), but two large-discharge springs contain 14C-dead carbon that can be identified as magmatic from calculated end-member values for δ13C(dead) and 3He/C(dead) of − 4‰ and 1 × 10− 10, respectively, similar to values for intra-caldera fumarolic and hot-spring gases. However, the combined discharge of magmatic C is only 5.4 tonnes/day, < 0.1% of the total output from Yellowstone. The two springs have slightly elevated 3He/4He ratios near 1 RA and anomalous concentrations of Cl, Li, and B, and appear to represent minor leakage of gas-depleted, thermal waters out of the caldera. The small CO2 signal detected in the springs is difficult to reconcile with a large underlying reservoir of gas in faulted and seismically active terrain. When considered with analyses from previous decades, the results provide no evidence to associate the ten-year period of caldera deflation that began in 1985 with expulsion of magmatic fluids through the caldera rim in this area.

  2. Adaptation of Salmonella spp. in juice stored under refrigerated and room temperature enhances acid resistance to simulated gastric fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuk, H G; Schneider, K R

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acid resistance of Salmonella spp. adapted in juices stored under refrigeration and room temperatures to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.5). Five Salmonella serovars, Agona, Gaminara, Michigan, Montevideo, and Poona were used in this study. Apple, orange, and tomato juices inoculated with five serovars were stored at refrigeration (7 degrees C) and room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h for adaptation. Acid resistances of serovars adapted in juice were determined in SGF at 37 degrees C. All acid-adapted Salmonella serovars in juices displayed enhanced survival time compared to non-adapted controls. Among serovars, S. Poona adapted in apple at 20 degrees C and orange juices at 7 and 20 degrees C showed >2.0 log cfu/ml survivors, while the other serovars decreased to non-detectable level or <2.0 log cfu/ml for 100 s in SGF. Unlike apple and orange juices, all serovars adapted in tomato juice survived with >2.0 log cfu/ml for 100 s. For D-values, all Salmonella serovars adapted in apple and tomato juice enhanced their acid resistances compared to orange juices. S. Agona adapted in tomato juice at 7 degrees C and S. Poona in apple juice at 20 degrees C had the highest D-values with 82.9 and 82.5s, respectively. Results showed that the adaptation in juice increased acid resistance in SGF and varied by serovar, juice type, and adaptation temperature. Therefore, this study indicates that the introduction of Salmonella spp. to an acidic juice environment during processing can enhance their ability to survive in a human stomach, possibly increasing the risk of a Salmonella outbreak by juice.

  3. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature LoggingIn Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    2008-08-01

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper [Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008], we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks.

  4. Analysis of ionization wave dynamics in low-temperature plasma jets from fluid modeling supported by experimental investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousfi, M.; Eichwald, O.; Merbahi, N.; Jomaa, N.

    2012-08-01

    This work is devoted to fluid modeling based on experimental investigations of a classical setup of a low-temperature plasma jet. The latter is generated at atmospheric pressure using a quartz tube of small diameter crossed by helium gas flow and surrounded by an electrode system powered by a mono-polar high-voltage pulse. The streamer-like behavior of the fast plasma bullets or ionization waves launched in ambient air for every high-voltage pulse, already emphasized in the literature from experimental or analytical considerations or recent preliminary fluid models, is confirmed by a numerical one-moment fluid model for the simulation of the ionization wave dynamics. The dominant interactions between electron and the main ions present in He-air mixtures with their associated basic data are taken into account. The gradual dilution of helium in air outside the tube along the axis is also considered using a gas hydrodynamics model based on the Navier-Stokes equation assuming a laminar flow. Due to the low magnitude of the reduced electric field E/N (not exceeding 15 Td), it is first shown that consideration of the stepwise ionization of helium metastables is required to reach the critical size of the electron avalanches in order to initiate the formation of ionization waves. It is also shown that a gas pre-ionization ahead of the wave front of about 109 cm-3 (coming from Penning ionization without considering the gas photo-ionization) is required for the propagation. Furthermore, the second ionization wave experimentally observed during the falling time of the voltage pulse, between the powered electrode and the tube exit, is correlated with the electric field increase inside the ionized channel in the whole region between the electrode and the tube exit. The propagation velocity and the distance traveled by the front of the ionization wave outside the tube in the downstream side are consistent with the present experimental measurements. In comparison with the

  5. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  6. Diamond Nucleation from Amorphous Carbon and Graphite with COH Fluids: an in Situ High Pressure and Temperature Laser-Heated Diamond Anvil Cell Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Prakapenka, V.; Kubo, A.; Kavner, A.; Green, H. W.; Dobrzhinetskaya, L. F.

    2007-12-01

    Microdiamonds from orogenic belts contain nanometer size fluid inclusions suggesting diamond formation from supercritical COH fluids. Previous studies have shown that diamonds synthesized from high pressure and temperature experiments with supercritical COH fluids are characterized by skeletal morphology and solid oxide inclusions. However, mechanism and kinetics of graphite/carbon-to-diamond transformation promoted by COH fluids at high pressure and high temperature conditions are not well understood. Here we report in situ observations of diamond nucleation from COH fluids in laser-heated diamond anvil cell. Our experimental starting materials were amorphous carbon (impurity < 2ppm) and graphite (99.9% pure). Oxalic acid dihydrate (COOH)2·2H2O) was added to amorphous carbon and glucose (C6H12O6) was added to both amorphous carbon and graphite. The organic compounds (3 wt.%) provide CO2- and CH4-rich fluid environments respectively during their breakdown at high pressure and temperature. The mixtures were kept at temperature of 1400-1700 °C and pressure of 8-10 GPa for 10-30 minutes. Experiments show that only nanocrystals of diamond were nucleated from amorphous carbon in CO2-rich fluid environment. The fastest rate of diamond nucleation and growth of ~15 micron size crystals was found in the mixture of amorphous carbon with glucose (CH4-rich environment), whereas only nanocrystalline nuclei were produced in the mixture of graphite with glucose. We have also established that under anhydrous conditions, no diamond nucleation occurred in pure graphite, and only nanocrystals of diamond were observed in the amorphous carbon starting material at temperatures 1700-1900 °C. Our results revealed that the kinetics of diamond nucleation depend on the ¡°precursor¡±: diamond nucleates and grows faster from amorphous carbon than from graphite in the presence of COH fluid; in our anhydrous experiments diamond nucleates only from amorphous carbon. These results

  7. Modeled Temperatures and Fluid Source Distributions for the Mexico Subduction Zone: Effects of Hydrothermal Cooling and Implications for Plate Boundary Seismic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, M. R.; Spinelli, G. A.; Wada, I.

    2014-12-01

    In subduction zones, spatial variations in pore fluid pressure are hypothesized to control the distribution and nature of slip behavior (e.g., "normal" earthquakes, slow slip events, non-volcanic tremor, very low frequency earthquakes) on the plate boundary fault. A primary control on the pore fluid pressure distribution in subduction zones is the distribution of fluid release from hydrous minerals in the subducting sediment and rock. The distributions of these diagenetic and metamorphic fluid sources are controlled by the pressure-temperature paths that the subducting material follows. Thus, constraining subduction zone thermal structure is required to inform conceptual models of seismic behavior. Here, we present results of thermal models for the Mexico subduction zone, a system that has received recent attention due to observations of slow-slip events and non-volcanic tremor. We model temperatures in five margin-perpendicular transects from 96 ˚W to 104 ˚W. In each transect, we examine the potential thermal effects of vigorous fluid circulation in a high permeability aquifer within the basaltic basement of the oceanic crust. In the transect at 100˚W, hydrothermal circulation cools the subducting material by up to 140 ˚C, shifting peak slab dehydration landward by ~100 km relative to previous estimates from models that do not include the effects of fluid circulation. The age of the subducting plate in the trench increases from ~3 Ma at 104 ˚W to ~18 Ma at 96 ˚W; hydrothermal circulation redistributes the most heat (and cools the system the most) where the subducting plate is youngest. For systems with <20 Ma subducting lithosphere, hydrothermal circulation in oceanic crust should be considered in estimating subduction zone temperatures and fluid source distributions.

  8. Analyses of ACPL thermal/fluid conditioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, L. A.; Usher, L. H.

    1976-01-01

    Results of engineering analyses are reported. Initial computations were made using a modified control transfer function where the systems performance was characterized parametrically using an analytical model. The analytical model was revised to represent the latest expansion chamber fluid manifold design, and systems performance predictions were made. Parameters which were independently varied in these computations are listed. Systems predictions which were used to characterize performance are primarily transient computer plots comparing the deviation between average chamber temperature and the chamber temperature requirement. Additional computer plots were prepared. Results of parametric computations with the latest fluid manifold design are included.

  9. Verification and validation of COBRA-SFS transient analysis capability

    SciTech Connect

    Rector, D.R.; Michener, T.E.; Cuta, J.M.

    1998-05-01

    This report provides documentation of the verification and validation testing of the transient capability in the COBRA-SFS code, and is organized into three main sections. The primary documentation of the code was published in September 1995, with the release of COBRA-SFS, Cycle 2. The validation and verification supporting the release and licensing of COBRA-SFS was based solely on steady-state applications, even though the appropriate transient terms have been included in the conservation equations from the first cycle. Section 2.0, COBRA-SFS Code Description, presents a capsule description of the code, and a summary of the conservation equations solved to obtain the flow and temperature fields within a cask or assembly model. This section repeats in abbreviated form the code description presented in the primary documentation (Michener et al. 1995), and is meant to serve as a quick reference, rather than independent documentation of all code features and capabilities. Section 3.0, Transient Capability Verification, presents a set of comparisons between code calculations and analytical solutions for selected heat transfer and fluid flow problems. Section 4.0, Transient Capability Validation, presents comparisons between code calculations and experimental data obtained in spent fuel storage cask tests. Based on the comparisons presented in Sections 2.0 and 3.0, conclusions and recommendations for application of COBRA-SFS to transient analysis are presented in Section 5.0.

  10. Fluid-assisted particulate flow of turbidites at very low temperature: A key to tight folding in a submarine Variscan foreland basin of SW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Burg, J.-P.; Lechmann, S. M.; Schmalholz, S. M.

    2010-04-01

    The problem addressed in this article is how sedimentary formations like turbidites in a foreland basin, which include layers with apparently great competence contrast, can be tightly folded in a regular manner under very low temperature and pressure. This raises two major issues: the rheological behavior of the rocks at the time of folding and the role played by fluids. In order to understand very low temperature folding and the structural evolution of a submarine foreland basin, we carried out detailed structural work in turbidites with alternating sandstone and shale, for which estimated peak temperature conditions were top diagenetic to very low grade metamorphism. Folds are tight to isoclinal, with local collapsed hinges, which implies that the incompetent shale was mobile enough to flow away from strongly flattened areas. We did not find evidence for cataclastic flow or crystal plasticity at mesoscopic and microscopic scales. Other structures (mostly boudins, foliations, conjugate brittle faults, and quartz veins) associated with folds denote anisotropic compaction by fluid extraction during regional shortening. This is possible if the folded rocks were unconsolidated, fluid-saturated sediments. The estimated low peak temperature is consistent with the shale being unlithified. Poorly cemented grains are free to slide past one another under shallow burial or high pore pressure conditions. Following this line of thought, we consider independent particulate flow assisted by fluids under very low confining pressure (bean bag analogy) as the rock deformation mechanism active during the described intense folding. Similar deformation is likely occurring (and has occurred) in other submarine accretionary wedges.

  11. Resolving Histories of Magmatic Volatiles in Fluids and Silicate Melts as a Function of Pressure, Temperature, and Melt Composition through Apatite Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, J. D.; Piccoli, P. M.; Goldoff, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Fluids including aqueous or aqueous-carbonic vapor, aqueous liquid, and hydrosaline liquid, if present in magma, influence magmatic and volcanic processes, and the exsolution of fluids from magma sequesters and buffers volatile components from melt thus impacting the textural and chemical evolution of melts and phenocrysts. Establishing the timing of initial magmatic fluid saturation and monitoring changes in fluid chemistry through textural interpretations are often challenging because primary magmatic fluid inclusions are uncommon to most plutonic systems and are extremely rare in phenocrysts of eruptive magmas. Moreover, miarolitic cavities, often interpreted to be a priori evidence of fluid exsolution, are rarely observed in igneous systems. Geochemical tools used to resolve magmatic volatile histories include the analysis and interpretation of melt inclusion compositions and those of hydrous minerals including micas, amphiboles, and apatite. We have conducted more than 50 new hydrothermal experiments involving apatite+rhyodacite melt±fluids at 28, 50, 100, 200, and 400 MPa, and have combined these new data with published results for apatite-saturated melts at 200 MPa. This integrated body of data supports determination of a broadly applicable geochemical relationship that correlates the mole fractions of H2O and Cl in apatite with mole fractions of H2O and Cl in coexisting silicate melt as a function of pressure, temperature, and melt composition (for felsic to basaltic melts). The mathematical expression of this relationship is useful for a wide variety of applications: constraining H2O, Cl, and F concentrations in silicate melts and hence verifying concentrations of magmatic volatiles determined from silicate melt inclusions; establishing pressures or temperatures of apatite crystallization or last equilibration with melt ± fluids (if temperature and pressure, respectively, are constrained from other geothermobarometers); determining concentrations of

  12. An in situ experimental study of Zr4+ transport capacity of water-rich fluids in the temperature and pressure range of the deep crust and upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mysen, Bjorn

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Earth's history, mass transport involved fluids. In order to address the circumstances under which Zr4+ may have been transported in this manner, its solubility behavior in aqueous fluid with and without NaOH and SiO2 in equilibrium with crystalline ZrO2 was determined from 550 to 950 °C and 60 to 1200 MPa. The measurements were carried out in situ while the samples were at the temperatures and pressures of interest. In ZrO2-H2O and ZrO2-SiO2-H2O fluids, the Zr4+ concentration ranges from ≤10 to ~70 ppm with increasing temperature and pressure. Addition of SiO2 to the ZrO2-H2O system does not affect these values appreciably. In these two environments, Zr4+ forms simple oxide complexes in the H2O fluid with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol for the solution equilibrium, ZrO2(solid) = ZrO2(fluid). The Zr4+ concentration in aqueous fluid increases about an order of magnitude upon addition of 1 M NaOH, which reflects the formation of zirconate complexes. The principal solution mechanism is ZrO2 + 4NaOH = Na4ZrO4 + 2H2O with ∆H ~ 200 kJ/mol. Addition of both SiO2 and NaOH to ZrO2-H2O enhances the Zr4+ by an additional factor of about 5 with the formation of partially protonated alkali zircon silicate complexes in the fluid. The principal solution mechanism is 2ZrO2 + 2NaOH + 2SiO2 = Na2Zr2Si2O9 + H2O with ∆H ~ 40 kJ/mol. These results, in combination with other published experimental data, imply that fluid released during high-temperature/high-pressure dehydration of hydrous mineral assemblages in the Earth's interior under some circumstances may carry significant concentrations of Zr and probably other high field strength elements (HFSEs). This suggestion is consistent with the occurrence of Zr-rich veins in high-grade metamorphic eclogite and granulite terranes. Moreover, aqueous fluids transported from dehydrating oceanic crust into overlying mantle source rocks of partial melting also may carry high-abundance HFSE of fluids released from dehydrating slabs and

  13. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation

    PubMed Central

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions. PMID:26574523

  14. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: Probing atomic structure in situ

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Fanelli, Victor R.; Reiche, Helmut M.; ...

    2014-12-24

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2measurements. Asmore » a result, the new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.« less

  15. Unlocking the potential of supported liquid phase catalysts with supercritical fluids: low temperature continuous flow catalysis with integrated product separation.

    PubMed

    Franciò, Giancarlo; Hintermair, Ulrich; Leitner, Walter

    2015-12-28

    Solution-phase catalysis using molecular transition metal complexes is an extremely powerful tool for chemical synthesis and a key technology for sustainable manufacturing. However, as the reaction complexity and thermal sensitivity of the catalytic system increase, engineering challenges associated with product separation and catalyst recovery can override the value of the product. This persistent downstream issue often renders industrial exploitation of homogeneous catalysis uneconomical despite impressive batch performance of the catalyst. In this regard, continuous-flow systems that allow steady-state homogeneous turnover in a stationary liquid phase while at the same time effecting integrated product separation at mild process temperatures represent a particularly attractive scenario. While continuous-flow processing is a standard procedure for large volume manufacturing, capitalizing on its potential in the realm of the molecular complexity of organic synthesis is still an emerging area that requires innovative solutions. Here we highlight some recent developments which have succeeded in realizing such systems by the combination of near- and supercritical fluids with homogeneous catalysts in supported liquid phases. The cases discussed exemplify how all three levels of continuous-flow homogeneous catalysis (catalyst system, separation strategy, process scheme) must be matched to locate viable process conditions.

  16. High Temperature Hydrothermal Circulation in the Deep Oceanic Crust - Sr Isotopes and Trace Elements Modelisation Constraints on the Origin of the Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, D.; Lamour, M.; Jamais, M.; Bodinier, J.

    2003-12-01

    Previous field, petrological and geochemical works have identified high temperature hydrous alteration traces throughout the gabbros of the Samail ophiolite. Temperatures have been calibrated for the successive stages of alteration, starting with orthopyroxene-pargasite coronas (above 975 \\deg C) and ending with the low temperature (LT) lizardite serpentinisation (below 500 \\deg C). Sr isotopic analyses performed on massive gabbros, dikes and veins and associated minerals depart from typical mantle signatures and are characterized by radiogenic Sr isotopic ratios suggesting seawater as the most likely hydrothermal contaminant. The main water channels may be submillimetric microcracks with a dominantly vertical attitude and constituting the recharge hydrothermal system, whereas dikes and veins represent the discharge part. This model requires that these dikes have been generated by hydration of the crystallizing gabbros via seawater penetration, near the internal wall of the LVZ-magma chamber, i.e. at temperatures well above the near 1000 \\deg C temperature recorded so far. We used the numerical plate model of VerniŠres et al. (1997) to simulate the chemical evolution of Sr isotopes and some trace elements in fluids through the gabbro column. This approach takes into account mineralogical and porosity variations due to dissolution-precipitation processes, as well as variations of partition coefficients as a function of distance from the fluid source. The aim of modelling was twofold: (1) to provide estimates of the chemical evolution of fluids as a result of high-temperature interaction with gabbros, and (2) to constrain the fluid-rock ratios throughout the gabbros sequence. Such an approach sheds new lights on the importance of high temperature hydrothermal processes and on the geochemical modifications they induced during oceanic crust formation at fast spreading ridge. VerniŠres J., Godard M., Bodinier J.-L., 1997. A plate model for the simulation of trace

  17. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  18. CLEANING UP PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS: COMPARING EFFECTIVENESS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION WITH SOLVENT EXTRACTION AND LOW TEMPERATURE THERMAL DESORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site that is contaminated with high levels of p,p,-DDT, p,p,-DDD, p,p,-DDE, toxaphene and hexachlorocyclohexane. The effectiveness of supercritical fluid extraction ...

  19. Thermohydrodynamic Analysis of Cryogenic Liquid Turbulent Flow Fluid Film Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanAndres, Luis

    1996-01-01

    Computational programs developed for the thermal analysis of tilting and flexure-pad hybrid bearings, and the unsteady flow and transient response of a point mass rotor supported on fluid film bearings are described. The motion of a cryogenic liquid on the thin film annular region of a fluid film bearing is described by a set of mass and momentum conservation, and energy transport equations for the turbulent bulk-flow velocities and pressure, and accompanied by thermophysical state equations for evaluation of the fluid material properties. Zeroth-order equations describe the fluid flow field for a journal static equilibrium position, while first-order (linear) equations govern the fluid flow for small amplitude-journal center translational motions. Solution to the zeroth-order flow field equations provides the bearing flow rate, load capacity, drag torque and temperature rise. Solution to the first-order equations determines the rotordynamic force coefficients due to journal radial motions.

  20. Modeling of transient heat pipe operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, Gene T.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heat pipes is being considered as a means of reducing the peak temperature and large thermal gradients at the leading edges of reentry vehicles and hypersonic aircraft and in nuclear reactors. In the basic cooling concept, the heat pipe covers the leading edge, a portion of the lower wing surface, and a portion of the upper wing surface. Aerodynamic heat is mainly absorbed at the leading edge and transported through the heat pipe to the upper and lower wing surface, where it is rejected by thermal radiation and convection. Basic governing equations are written to determine the startup, transient, and steady state performance of a haet pipe which has initially frozen alkali-metal as the working fluid.

  1. Fluid inclusion evidence for recent temperature increases at Fenton Hill hot dry rock test site west of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, Masakatsu

    1989-02-01

    The fluid inclusions in calcite veins and those in quartz of the host Precambrian rocks from the GT-2 drill hole have been studied microthermometrically to determine the recent thermal history of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock test site west of the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The calcite veins were collected from 1876 m and 2624 m depth. They contain primary liquid-rich inclusions and secondary liquid-rich and monophase liquid inclusions. The homogenization temperature ( T h) and final melting point of ice ( T m) of these inclusions and the secondary inclusions in quartz from the host Precambrian rocks were measured using α USGS-type gas flow heating/freezing stage. The CO 2 content was also determined semiquantitatively using a microscope crushing stage. The trapping temperature was determined on the isochore under the assumption of lithostatic pressure. NaCl eq. salinity was also determined from T m after correction for CO 2. Microthermometry of primary inclusions in calcite and secondary inclusions in quartz indicates that the calcite veins precipitated from low-salinity geothermal fluids at temperatures at least 10-15°C lower than the thermal maximum recorded in the secondary inclusions in quartz of the Precambrian rocks. The lowest temperature determined from the minimum trapping temperature of secondary inclusions in calcite is 26°C lower than the present borehole temperature of 178°C at 2624 m. After this cooling the temperature increased again up to the present geothermal profile.

  2. Large capacity, multi-fuel, and high temperature working fluid heaters to optimize CSP plant cost, complexity and annual generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterseim, J. H.; Viscuso, L.; Hellwig, U.; McIntyre, P.

    2016-05-01

    This paper analyses the potential to optimize high temperature fluid back-up systems for concentrating solar power (CSP) plants by investigating the cost impact of component capacity and the impact of using multiple fuels on annual generation. Until now back-up heaters have been limited to 20MWth capacity but larger units have been realised in other industries. Installing larger units yields economy-of-scale benefits through improved manufacturing, optimised transport, and minimized on-site installation work. Halving the number of back-up boilers can yield cost reduction of 23% while minimizing plant complexity and on-site construction risk. However, to achieve these benefits it is important to adapt the back-up heaters to the plant's requirements (load change, capacity, minimum load, etc.) and design for manufacture, transport and assembly. Despite the fact that biomass availability is decreasing with increasing direct normal irradiance (DNI), some biomass is available in areas suitable for CSP plants. The use of these biomass resources is beneficial to maximise annual renewable energy generation, substitute natural gas, and use locally/seasonally available biomass resources that may not be used otherwise. Even small biomass quantities of only 50,000 t/a can increase the capacity factor of a 50MWe parabolic trough plant with 7h thermal energy storage from 40 to 49%. This is a valuable increase and such a concept is suitable for new plants and retrofit applications. However, similar to the capacity optimisation of back-up heaters, various design criteria have to be considered to ensure a successful project.

  3. Mid-crustal shear zone development under retrograde conditions: pressure-temperature-fluid constraints from the Kuckaus Mylonite Zone, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diener, Johann F. A.; Fagereng, Åke; Thomas, Sukey A. J.

    2016-09-01

    The Kuckaus Mylonite Zone (KMZ) forms part of the larger Marshall Rocks-Pofadder shear zone system, a 550 km-long, crustal-scale strike-slip shear zone system that is localized in high-grade granitoid gneisses and migmatites of the Namaqua Metamorphic Complex. Shearing along the KMZ occurred ca. 40 Ma after peak granulite-facies metamorphism during a discrete tectonic event and affected the granulites that had remained at depth since peak metamorphism. Isolated lenses of metamafic rocks within the shear zone allow the P-T-fluid conditions under which shearing occurred to be quantified. These lenses consist of an unsheared core that preserves relict granulite-facies textures and is mantled by a schistose collar and mylonitic envelope that formed during shearing. All three metamafic textural varieties contain the same amphibolite-facies mineral assemblage, from which calculated pseudosections constrain the P-T conditions of deformation at 2.7-4.2 kbar and 450-480 °C, indicating that deformation occurred at mid-crustal depths through predominantly viscous flow. Calculated T-MH2O diagrams show that the mineral assemblages were fluid saturated and that lithologies within the KMZ must have been rehydrated from an external source and retrogressed during shearing. Given that the KMZ is localized in strongly dehydrated granulites, the fluid must have been derived from an external source, with fluid flow allowed by local dilation and increased permeability within the shear zone. The absence of pervasive hydrothermal fractures or precipitates indicates that, even though the KMZ was fluid bearing, the fluid/rock ratio and fluid pressure remained low. In addition, the fluid could not have contributed to shear zone initiation, as an existing zone of enhanced permeability is required for fluid infiltration. We propose that, following initiation, fluid infiltration caused a positive feedback that allowed weakening and continued strain localization. Therefore, the main

  4. Analysis of Transient and Steady State Neutral Flows in a Field Reversed Configuration Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-03

    stagnation temperature of 300 K. The carrier gas was molecular nitrogen in a ll cases except for one where neon was used. Transient evolution of gas flow...Navier-Stokes equations is CFD++ 8 developed by Metacomp Technologies, Inc. CFD++ is a flexible computational fluid dynamics software suite for the...intermolecular potential was assumed to be a variable hard sphere. Energy redistribution in molecular colli- sions between the internal and translational modes

  5. Automated Fluid Feature Extraction from Transient Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimes, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the past, feature extraction and identification were interesting concepts, but not required in understanding the physics of a steady flow field. This is because the results of the more traditional tools like iso-surfaces, cuts and streamlines, were more interactive and easily abstracted so they could be represented to the investigator. These tools worked and properly conveyed the collected information at the expense of a great deal of interaction. For unsteady flow-fields, the investigator does not have the luxury of spending time scanning only one 'snap-shot' of the simulation. Automated assistance is required in pointing out areas of potential interest contained within the flow. This must not require a heavy compute burden (the visualization should not significantly slow down the solution procedure for co-processing environments like pV3). And methods must be developed to abstract the feature and display it in a manner that physically makes sense.

  6. Comparison of clumped isotope signatures of dolomite cements to fluid inclusion thermometry in the temperature range of 74-180 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Came, R. E.; Azmy, K.; Tripati, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Widespread application of the novel clumped isotope paleothermometer (Δ47) using carbonate samples from shallow crustal settings has been hindered by a lack of knowledge about clumped isotope systematics in carbonate minerals forming at temperatures greater than 50ºC. Furthermore, the utility of the Δ47 proxy in the mineral dolomite is limited because calibration data for dolomites that formed at any temperature are lacking. Consequently, applications involving diagenetic temperatures have required extrapolations beyond the range of most Δ47-temperature calibrations. Here we compare Δ47 values in dolomite cements to temperatures independently determined using fluid-inclusion microthermometry, and compare this rock-based "calibration" to previously published laboratory-derived calibrations for synthetic carbonates. This combination of approaches yields results that are consistent with the shallow calibration slope that has been reported from some laboratory experiments.

  7. Ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor with resolved temperature cross-sensitivity employing microfiber-assisted modal interferometer integrated with magnetic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Bo; Song, Binbin; Wu, Jixuan; Lin, Lie

    2016-07-01

    A compact and ultra-sensitive magnetic field sensor has been proposed by exploiting a microfiber-assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer functionalized by magnetic fluids. We have experimentally investigated the transmission spectral responses of the proposed sensor to the variation of applied magnetic field intensity and environmental temperature. The interference dips exhibit a magnetic field sensitivity as large as -1.193 nm/Oe for a low magnetic field intensity range of 3 Oe to 21 Oe. By using the sensing matrix containing the magnetic field as well as temperature sensitivities for different interference dips, the temperature cross-sensitivity issue could be effectively resolved. Our proposed sensor is anticipated to find potential applications in weak magnetic field detection, and moreover, the immunity to temperature cross-sensitivity effect ensures its applicability in temperature-fluctuated environments.

  8. Transient thermal stress recovery for structural models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, William

    1992-01-01

    A method for computing transient thermal stress vectors from temperature vectors is described. The three step procedure involves the use of NASTRAN to generate an influence coefficient matrix which relates temperatures to stresses in the structural model. The transient thermal stresses are then recovered and sorted for maximum and minimum values. Verification data for the procedure is also provided.

  9. Intraosseous generation of heat during guided surgical drilling: an ex vivo study of the effect of the temperature of the irrigating fluid.

    PubMed

    Boa, Kristof; Barrak, Ibrahim; Varga, Endre; Joob-Fancsaly, Arpad; Varga, Endre; Piffko, Jozsef

    2016-10-01

    We measured the rise in the intraosseous temperature caused by freehand drilling or drilling through a surgical guide, by comparing different temperatures of irrigation fluid (10°C, 15°C, and 20°C), for every step of the drilling sequence (diameters 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5mm) and using a constant drilling speed of 1200rpm. The axial load was controlled at 2.0kg. Bovine ribs were used as test models. In the guided group we used 3-dimensional printed surgical guides and temperature was measured with a thermocouple. The significance of differences was assessed with the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. Guided drilling with 10°C irrigation yielded a significantly lower increment in temperature than the 20°C-guided group. When compared with the 20°C freehand group, the reduction in temperature in the 10°C guided group was significantly more pronounced at all diameters except 3.5mm. Finally, when the 10°C-guided group was compared with the 15°C groups, the temperature rise was significantly less at 2.5 and 3.0mm than with the guided technique, and at 3.0mm compared with the freehand technique. We suggest that the use of 10°C pre-cooled irrigation fluid is superior to warmer fluid for keeping temperature down, and this reduces the difference between guided and freehand drilling.

  10. PVTx properties of H 2 O-H 2 S fluid mixtures at elevated temperature and pressure based on new experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, Denis Yu.; Migdisov, Artashes A.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2011-10-01

    The volumetric properties of H 2O-H 2S fluid mixtures have been determined experimentally at temperatures of 150 to 400 °C and pressures up to 240 bar. Using these data and existing equations of state, we have developed a thermodynamic model for H 2O-H 2S fluid mixtures. This model is based on an asymmetric description of phases, which includes an activity model and a P-T-dependent Henry's law constant for the liquid, and equations of state with mixing rules for the vapour. The fugacity of the vapour was calculated using the cubic equations of state of Peng and Robinson (1976) and Patel and Teja (1982) with density-dependent and composition-dependent mixing rules. Sets of binary interaction parameters for these equations were fitted to the experimental data obtained in this study supplemented by high-temperature PVTx data for H 2O-H 2S fluid mixtures reported in the literature. The Peng-Robinson equation used in conjunction with density-dependent mixing rules was found to be the most accurate of the available equations in representing the properties of the vapour phase. The errors in the pressure of the homogeneous vapour mixtures estimated using the above equations of state (relative deviation from the experimentally determined pressure) were comparatively low, ˜5% to 8%. However, the errors were significantly higher for the estimated pressure of vapour saturated with liquid, i.e., along the vapour-liquid phase boundary (11-15%), due to the polar nature of H 2O and H 2S and the resulting highly non-ideal behaviour of the fluid mixtures. The results of this study make it possible to reliably estimate the volumetric properties of aqueous fluids containing H 2S at temperatures and pressures up to 400 °C and 240 bar, i.e., for conditions commonly encountered in natural hydrothermal systems.

  11. Fluid-controlled grain boundary migration and switch in slip systems in a high strain, high temperature contact aureole, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Sven S.; Nabelek, Peter I.; Student, James; Sadorski, Joseph F.

    2016-04-01

    Within the highly strained aureole surrounding the Eureka Valley-Joshua Flat-Beer Creek (EJB) composite pluton of eastern California, an inversion in microstructures and crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) exists with distance from the contact. An inner aureole (< 250 m from the contact) consists of quartzites that are interbedded with marbles and calc-silicates. These quartzites are incompletely recrystallized. Most grain boundaries have migrated, although it is clear that grain boundary migration (GBM) is not extensive. Multiple data sets indicate that temperatures of deformation were above 650 °C. CPOs are indicative of < a > slip in quartz. Within the outer aureole (250 m to 1500 m from the contact), quartzites are interbedded with pelitic schist and are completely recrystallized and microstructures are indicative of extensive GBM. CPOs are indicative of prism [c] slip. Oxygen isotope ratios in the inner aureole are only slightly shifted from their original values. Oxygen isotopes from the outer aureole are shifted more, which is consistent with equilibration with locally derived fluids. We suggest that recrystallization in the outer aureole was aided by pore water, water derived from fluid inclusions, and water generated by prograde reactions in the schists. The pore fluids in the inner aureole were also probably initially water-rich. However, during prograde reactions in the intervening calc-silicate rocks, and perhaps more importantly, between calcite cement and quartz in the quartzites, the pore fluid composition in the inner aureole changed to become dominated by CO2, which acted as a non-wetting phase and decreased the fugacity of water slowing grain boundary mobility. Low water fugacity also suppressed the activity of prism [c] slip. Therefore, we propose that dry conditions or a grain boundary fluid with a significant non-wetting component (CO2) can result in apparent temperatures of deformation that are more than 100 °C lower than the real

  12. Simulation of the Velocity and Temperature Distribution of Inhalation Thermal Injury in a Human Upper Airway Model by Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yang; Zhao, Xiao-zhuo; Wang, Cheng; Ning, Fang-gang; Zhang, Guo-an

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation injury is an important cause of death after thermal burns. This study was designed to simulate the velocity and temperature distribution of inhalation thermal injury in the upper airway in humans using computational fluid dynamics. Cervical computed tomography images of three Chinese adults were imported to Mimics software to produce three-dimensional models. After grids were established and boundary conditions were defined, the simulation time was set at 1 minute and the gas temperature was set to 80 to 320°C using ANSYS software (ANSYS, Canonsburg, PA) to simulate the velocity and temperature distribution of inhalation thermal injury. Cross-sections were cut at 2-mm intervals, and maximum airway temperature and velocity were recorded for each cross-section. The maximum velocity peaked in the lower part of the nasal cavity and then decreased with air flow. The velocities in the epiglottis and glottis were higher than those in the surrounding areas. Further, the maximum airway temperature decreased from the nasal cavity to the trachea. Computational fluid dynamics technology can be used to simulate the velocity and temperature distribution of inhaled heated air.

  13. Pharmacological properties of traditional medicines. XXV. Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D; Komatsu, K; Cui, Z; Kano, Y

    1999-02-01

    Effects of ephedrine, amygdalin, glycyrrhizin, gypsum and their combinations on body temperature and body fluid were studied in rats using the method developed in our previous reports. Ephedrine significantly increased respiratory evaporative water loss and heat loss in response to a marked elevation of body temperature. There was a small but significant increase in body temperature when amygdalin was orally given rats at a dose of 46.32 mg/kg. Glycyrrhizin and gypsum were unable to affect body temperature. However, gypsum was able to prevent the increased action of ephedrine on body temperature, amygdalin exhibited a preventive tendency to it, and glycyrrhizin did not affect it. The results are in good agreement with classical claims of Makyo-kanseki-to and the related crude drugs in traditional medicine. Moreover, a combination of the four components reproduced the effects of Makyo-kanseki-to on body temperature and body fluid. This report suggests that the co-administration of ephedrine and gypsum is physiologically more desirable than ephedrine alone for dry-type asthmatic patients with a fever. Also, it experimentally supports the clinical efficacy of Makyo-kanseki-to.

  14. Pressure, temperature and density drops along supercritical fluid chromatography columns. I. Experimental results for neat carbon dioxide and columns packed with 3- and 5-micron particles.

    PubMed

    Poe, Donald P; Veit, Devon; Ranger, Megan; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Tarafder, Abhijit; Guiochon, Georges

    2012-08-10

    The pressure drop and temperature drop on columns packed with 3- and 5-micron particles were measured using neat CO(2) at a flow rate of 5 mL/min, at temperatures from 20°C to 100°C, and outlet pressures from 80 to 300 bar. The density drop was calculated based on the temperature and pressure at the column inlet and outlet. The columns were suspended in a circulating air bath either bare or covered with foam insulation. The results show that the pressure drop depends on the outlet pressure, the operating temperature, and the thermal environment. A temperature drop was observed for all conditions studied. The temperature drop was relatively small (less than 3°C) for combinations of low temperature and high pressure. Larger temperature drops and density drops occurred at higher temperatures and low to moderate pressures. Covering the column with thermal insulation resulted in larger temperature drops and corresponding smaller density drops. At 20°C the temperature drop was never more than a few degrees. The largest temperature drops occurred for both columns when insulated at 80°C and 80 bar, reaching a maximum value of 21°C for the 5-micron column, and 26°C for the 3-micron column. For an adiabatic column, the temperature drop depends on the pressure drop, the thermal expansion coefficient, and the density and the heat capacity of the mobile phase fluid, and can be described by a simple mathematical relationship. For a fixed operating temperature and outlet pressure, the temperature drop increases monotonically with the pressure drop.

  15. A low-temperature method for improving the performance of sputter-deposited ZnO thin-film transistors with supercritical fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Minchen; Huang Shengyao; Chen Shihching; Chang Tingchang; Chang Kuanchang; Li Hungwei; Lu Jin; Shi Yi

    2009-04-20

    A low-temperature method, supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}) fluid technology, is employed to improve the device properties of ZnO TFT at 150 deg. C. In this work, the undoped ZnO films were deposited by sputter at room temperature and treated by SCCO{sub 2} fluid which is mixed with 5 ml pure H{sub 2}O. After SCCO{sub 2} treatment, the on/off current ratios and threshold voltage of the device were improved significantly. From x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses, the enhancements were attributed to the stronger Zn-O bonds, the hydrogen-related donors, and the reduction in dangling bonds at the grain boundary by OH passivation.

  16. A coupled numerical analysis of shield temperatures, heat losses and residual gas pressures in an evacuated super-insulation using thermal and fluid networks - Part I: Stationary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, H.

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes numerical simulations, using thermal networks, of shield temperatures and radiative and conductive heat losses of a super-insulated cryogenic storage tank operating at 77 K. Interactions between radiation and conductive heat transfer modes in the shields are investigated, by calculation of local shield temperatures. As a new method, fluid networks are introduced for calculation of stationary residual gas pressure distribution in the evacuated multilayer super-insulation. Output from the fluid network is coupled to the iterative thermal network calculations. Parameter tests concern thickness and emissivity of shields, degree of perforation, residual gas sources like desorption from radiation shields, spacers and container walls, and permeation from the inner container to the evacuated insulation space. Variations of either a conductive (thickness of Al-film on Mylar) or a radiative parameter (thermal emissivity) exert crosswise influences on the radiative or conductive heat losses of the tank, respectively.

  17. Temperature-based versus enthalpy-based numerical simulations of non-isothermal subsurface fluid flow in heterogeneous porous or fractured media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiger, S.; Driesner, T.; Coumou, D.

    2005-12-01

    We compare temperature-based and enthalpy-based numerical schemes for compressible non-isothermal subsurface fluid flow. We formulate a diffusion equation for the fluid pressure, a diffusion equation for heat conduction, and an equation for the advective transport of temperature or enthalpy in the fluid. These equations can readily be solved by a combination of finite element and higher-order finite volume methods, which are capable of preserving steep temperature gradients in advection dominated flows and handling complex two- and three-dimensional geologic structures with orders of magnitude variation in permeability. Since the time-scale of pressure diffusion is slower than the time-scale for advective fluid flow, it is possible to decouple the equations and use implicit finite element methods for the parabolic (diffusion) equations and explicit finite volume methods for the hyperbolic (advection) equations. For single-phase flow, we use the thermal wave speed to compute the advection of the temperature field on the finite volumes. Since the thermal front is advected at a slower rate than the actual fluid flow, a significant (i.e., a factor 10 at liquid and a factor 1000 at vapor conditions) computational speedup can be achieved in comparison to the formulation where enthalpy is advected. The results for temperature-based and enthalpy-based formulations at vapor or liquid conditions, however, are identical and compare extremely well with results obtained from other codes that use fully coupled solution techniques. Our results do not improve if we use Picard iteration to couple the pressure, conduction, and advection equations. For the enthalpy-based transport schemes, we use a Newton iteration to equilibrate the energy in the fluid and rock. This also allows us to use more modern equation of states for complex multi-component systems, that are formulated in terms of pressure p, temperature T, and composition X, and hence cannot use the specific enthalpy h to

  18. Two- and three-phase equilibria of polydisperse Yukawa hard-sphere fluids confined in random porous media: high temperature approximation and scaled particle theory.

    PubMed

    Hvozd, Taras V; Kalyuzhnyi, Yurij V

    2017-02-15

    We have studied the phase behavior of polydisperse Yukawa hard-sphere fluid confined in random porous media using extension and combination of high temperature approximation and scaled particle theory. The porous media are represented by the matrix of randomly placed hard-sphere obstacles. Due to the confinement, polydispersity effects are substantially enhanced. At an intermediate degree of fluid polydispersity and low density of the matrix, we observe two-phase coexistence with two critical points, and cloud and shadow curves forming closed loops of ellipsoidal shape. With the increase of the matrix density and the constant degree of polydispersity, these two critical points merge and disappear, and at lower temperatures the system fractionates into three coexisting phases. A similar phase behavior was observed in the absence of the porous media caused, however, by the increase of the polydispersity.

  19. Parametric performance of circumferentially grooved heat pipes with homogeneous and graded-porosity slab wicks at cryogenic temperatures. [methane and ethane working fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groll, M.; Pittman, R. B.; Eninger, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed, potentially high-performance nonarterial wick was extensively tested. This slab wick has an axially varying porosity which can be tailored to match the local stress imposed on the wick. The purpose of the tests was to establish the usefulness of the graded-porosity slab wick at cryogenic temperatures between 110 and 260 K, with methane and ethane as working fluids. For comparison, a homogeneous (i.e., uniform porosity) slab wick was also tested. The tests included: maximum heat pipe performance as a function of fluid inventory, maximum performance as a function of operating temperature, maximum performance as a function of evaporator elevation, and influence of slab wick orientation on performance. The experimental data were compared with theoretical predictions obtained with the GRADE computer program.

  20. Point kinetics calculations with fully coupled thermal fluids reactivity feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Zou, L.; Andrs, D.; Zhao, H.; Martineau, R.

    2013-07-01

    The point kinetics model has been widely used in the analysis of the transient behavior of a nuclear reactor. In the traditional nuclear reactor system safety analysis codes such as RELAP5, the reactivity feedback effects are calculated in a loosely coupled fashion through operator splitting approach. This paper discusses the point kinetics calculations with the fully coupled thermal fluids and fuel temperature feedback implemented into the RELAP-7 code currently being developed with the MOOSE framework. (authors)

  1. Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1992-12-31

    A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.

  2. Understanding heat and fluid flow in linear GTA welds

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharia, T.; David, S.A.; Vitek, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    A transient heat flow and fluid flow model was used to predict the development of gas tungsten arc (GTA) weld pools in 1.5 mm thick AISI 304 SS. The welding parameters were chosen so as to correspond to an earlier experimental study which produced high-resolution surface temperature maps. The motivation of the present study was to verify the predictive capability of the computational model. Comparison of the numerical predictions and experimental observations indicate good agreement.

  3. Hydrothermal Fluid Permeability, Temperature, and Nutrient Fluxes: Three Controls on the Structure and the Dynamics of Subsurface Extremophilic Microbe Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, M. P.; Yang, J.

    2002-05-01

    We continue to develop a set of models whose aim is to provide broad constraints on the range of possible community structures for subsurface thermally-tolerant microbes. We combine studies of the three-dimensional internal structure of the dike and sill complexes of active volcanoes, studies of the scale- and direction-dependent 3-D in-situ permeability of intrusive and extrusive rocks from in-situ and laboratory data, numerical modelling of hydrothermal convection in volcanic interiors, data on the optimal metabolic and life-limiting thermal requirements of extremophilic microbes, with the set of nutrients and nutrient pathways required for the survival of given species of thermophiles and hyperthermophiles. With this mix of data bases and analysis tools, we can begin to divine a set of broad theoretical guidelines for constraining the structure and dynamics of extremophilic communities in the subsurface environments of volcanoes. We are searching for the first-order controls on transport. The effects of mineral attachment, detachment, and microbial reproduction may be incorporated in refinements of this basic model. Critical thermal intervals and/or isotherms that correlate with (1) optimal metabolic and (2) life-limiting temperatures for thermophilic microbes are, e.g., in degrees Celcius: Thermus thermophilius [70, 85]; Thermomicrobium roseum [70-75, 85]; Thermus aquaticus [70, 79]; and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius [70-75, 90]. Numerical models of the convective migration of thermophilic (50-80 C), and hyperthermophilic (80-113 C) microbes and their macromolecular amino acid building blocks (113- ~200 C) have been developed that explicitly incorporate the roles of fractures and fluid properties. Fluid transport properties are evaluated through the optimal metabolic and life-limiting temperate ranges and beyond. These models quantify our intuition with respect to controls on community structure and dynamics. Important relationships appear to be: (1) Great

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of C-ether formulations for use as high temperature lubricants and hydraulic fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, F. S.; Green, R. L.; Miller, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    The formulation and evaluation of C-ether fluids for use in the hydraulic and lubrication systems of the space shuttle and advanced air breathing engines were studied to lower the pour point of a reference C-ether from -29 C to -40 C without changing its evaporation loss. Use of disiloxanes mixed with C-ethers gave a -40 C pour point fluid with little change in the desired evaporation loss or in oxidative stability. A second -40 C pour point fluid containing only C-ethers was also developed. A screening program tested lubrication additives for C-ethers and the new fluids. Six additive packages were chosen for evaluation in 316 C bearing tests, two for evaluation in 260 C pump tests. The goal of the bearing test was a 100 hour run. The rig was a specially designed 80-mm axially loaded ball bearing. The C-ether base fluid ran only one hour at 316 C before cage wear failure occurred. The best additive blends ran 47, 94 and 100 hours. The 96 hour test gave excessive deposits. The 100 hour test had no wear failures; an unexplained loss of cage silver occurred from areas of direct fluid impingement on the cage.

  5. Comment on “General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation” [Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)

    SciTech Connect

    Hietala, Niklas Hänninen, Risto

    2014-11-15

    Van Gorder considers a formulation of the local induction approximation, which allows the vortex to move in the direction of the reference axis [“General rotating quantum vortex filaments in the low-temperature Svistunov model of the local induction approximation,” Phys. Fluids 26, 065105 (2014)]. However, in his analytical and numerical study he does not use it. A mistake in the torsion of a helical vortex is also corrected.

  6. Electrochemistry in Near-Critical and Supercritical Fluids. 4. Nitrogen Heterocycles, Nitrobenzene, and Solvated Electrons in Ammonia at Temperatures to 150C.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    of pyraz ne quinoxaline, phenazine and solvated electrons in near-critical and supercritical ammonia was investigated by cycU-i Voltanimetry and...Crooks and Allen J. Bard Department of Chemistry, University of Texas Austin, Texas 78712 ABSTRACT The electrochemistry of pyrazine, quinoxaline, phenazine ...in liquid ammonia at -40° C. The reductions of pyrazine, quinoxaline and phenazine at room temperature, and in the supercritical fluid (SCF), occur

  7. Conditional stability for thermal convection in a rotating couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunil; Choudhary, Shalu; Mahajan, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A nonlinear stability threshold for rotation in a couple-stress fluid heated from below saturating a porous medium with temperature and pressure dependent viscosity is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. This optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. The effects of couple-stress parameter, variable dependent viscosity, medium permeability, Taylor number and Darcy-Brinkman number on the onset of convection are also analysed.

  8. Transient-Absorption Spectroscopy of Cis-Trans Isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-Azodianiline with 3D-Printed Temperature-Controlled Sample Holder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosenkov, Dmytro; Shaw, James; Zuczek, Jennifer; Kholod, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory unit demonstrates a project based approach to teaching physical chemistry laboratory where upper-division undergraduates carry out a transient-absorption experiment investigating the kinetics of cis-trans isomerization of N,N-dimethyl-4,4'-azodianiline. Students participate in modification of a standard flash-photolysis spectrometer…

  9. Experimental rock-water interactions at temperatures to 300/sup 0/C: implications for fluid flow, solute transport, and silicate mineral zoning in crustal geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal reservoirs commonly occur in permeable volcanic rock (rhyolite, andesite, basalt) or sedimentary (sandstone) strata at temperatures below 300/sup 0/C. Knowledge of how these reservoirs develop chemically and physically has been based almost entirely on field studies. Four types of experiments were conducted to supplement available data on the chemistry, mineralogy, and fluid flow aspects of hydrothermal processes occurring in crustal geothermal systems: (1) agitated rock-water experiments; (2) high temperature flow through experiments; (3) low temperature permeability experiments; and (4) corrosion monitoring experiments. Initial experiments reacted rhyolite glass and holocrystalline basalt with water-NaCl solutions at 300/sup 0/C in agitated hydrothermal equipment. Concentrations of components in solution depend on initial salinity, rock type, and particle size. The secondary phases consist of zeolites, clay, and feldspar minerals and the alteration assemblage is dependent on both initial salinity, rock type, and duration of the experiment. A second set of experiments were conducted at 300/sup 0/C using the rhyolite glass in a flow through type of apparatus. Compositions of outlet fluids show a dependence of fluid flow rate and core length.

  10. Thermal convection of temperature-dependent viscous fluids within three-dimensional faulted geothermal systems: Estimation from linear and numerical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkovsky, Victor I.; Magri, Fabien

    2016-04-01

    Linear stability analysis and numerical simulations of density-driven flow are presented in order to estimate the effects of temperature-dependent fluid viscosity variation on the onset of free thermal convection within a three-dimensional fault embedded into impermeable rocks. The strongly coupled equations of density-driven flow are linearized. The solution was obtained through expansion into Fourier series. Simple polynomial expressions fitting the neutral stability curves are given for a range of fault aspect ratios, fluid viscosity properties, and thermal conductivity heterogeneity, providing a new tool for the estimation of critical Rayleigh numbers in faulted systems. The results are validated against the limiting case of temperature-invariant viscosity (i.e., constant). 3-D numerical simulations of free convection within a fault are run using the finite element technique in order to verify the theoretical results. It turned out that at average geothermal temperature conditions, thermal convection can develop within faults which permeability is up to 4 times lower than the case of a fluid with constant viscosity, in agreement with the developed linear theory. The polynomial expressions of this study can be applied to any numerical model for testing the feasibility of fault convection in 3-D geothermal basin.

  11. Temperature and Concentration Stratification Effects in Mixed Convection Flow of an Oldroyd-B Fluid with Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the mixed convection flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid in a doubly stratified surface. Both temperature and concentration stratification effects are considered. Thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects are accounted. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations are converted to coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. Resulting nonlinear systems are solved for the convergent series solutions. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the non-dimensional temperature and concentration distributions. The local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number are computed and analyzed numerically. PMID:26102200

  12. Temperature and Concentration Stratification Effects in Mixed Convection Flow of an Oldroyd-B Fluid with Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Tasawar; Muhammad, Taseer; Shehzad, Sabir Ali; Alsaedi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This research addresses the mixed convection flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid in a doubly stratified surface. Both temperature and concentration stratification effects are considered. Thermal radiation and chemical reaction effects are accounted. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations are converted to coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations using appropriate transformations. Resulting nonlinear systems are solved for the convergent series solutions. Graphs are plotted to examine the impacts of physical parameters on the non-dimensional temperature and concentration distributions. The local Nusselt number and the local Sherwood number are computed and analyzed numerically.

  13. New design of fiber-optic reflectometer for determining the phase boundary of multicomponent fluid mixtures at high pressures and high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weize; Ke, Jie; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2006-02-01

    A dynamic synthetic method based on an optic fiber sensor has been developed to measure phase boundaries of multicomponent fluid at high temperatures >300°C and pressures >30MPa. The breakthrough has been the design of the equilibrium cell containing the optic fiber, which gives highly reproducible signals for the phase transition. We demonstrate that this method can clearly distinguish between dew points and bubble points in the phase transitions of mixtures. Overall, the method is characterized by speed, simplicity, high pressures, and high temperatures.

  14. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  15. Temperature - Fluid Pressure controls on the mechanical evolution of shale-carbonate composite gouge: Implications for natural faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, J. C.; Kennedy, L.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Carbonate and phyllosilicate-rich fault gouges are common in fault zones worldwide, particularly in fold and thrust belts. Limestone-on-shale thrust faults are commonly comprised of a carbonate hangingwall and a shale footwall. Generally a cataclasite develops in both the carbonate and shale materials and between them is a zone of mixing in which the shale cataclasite contains clasts of carbonate cataclasite. Both hangingwall and footwall cataclasites are commonly foliated but the extent of partitioning of strain between shale and carbonate cataclasites is unknown. Frictional sliding experiments were conducted on carbonate and shale composite gouges to examine the effect of gouge composition, temperature (T) and pore fluid pressure (Pf) on the strength, stability, and microstructural evolution of these gouge zones. Triaxial frictional sliding experiments were conducted at a displacement rate of 4.5 µm/s on 20mm diameter by 50mm length cores containing a 1 mm thick, gouge layer coating a 30° angle sawcut. Porous Berea Sandstone (φ ~ 17%) comprised the upper forcing block while impermeable Badshot Dolomite comprised the lower forcing block. The synthetic gouge was a mixture of quartz-bearing phyllosilicate-rich shale (31% quartz, 39% muscovite, 18% clinochlore, 11% feldspar) and reagent grade calcite powder (80% calcite, 20% dolomite). Experiments were performed on endmember compositions and on 75%, 50% and 25% mixtures of shale and carbonate. Baseline, room temperature experiments on water saturated (but drained) gouge were conducted at 70 MPa confining pressure (Pc). Under these conditions, the 100% shale gouge is the weakest (μ ~ .65). The 100% carbonate gouge is the strongest (μ ~.87), and the composite gouges are intermediate in strength (μ ~ .7 - .75). All gouge compositions show stable sliding and slight strain hardening. Experiments at 150°C were conducted with a Pf of 15 MPa and a Pc of 85MPa (Pc effective = 70 MPa). Under these conditions, 100% shale

  16. Simulation of a solar evacuated collector with black fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Samano, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1983-06-01

    The use of black fluids in an evacuated tube solar collector for intermediate temperatures is analyzed, and an operation mathematical model is proposed. The model is unidimensional and the integral equation for the mass, momentum and energy conservation balances are used. An expression for the pressure drop in the tube is obtained by integrating the momentum equation. The energy conservation equation is integrated analytically for constant insolation and numerically for transient insolation. An adjustment in the global emissivity value for the black fluid was made to make the representation in the mathematical model, and a discussion between the calculated and the experimental results is made.

  17. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  18. Transient analysis of the 1991 Hijiori Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test

    SciTech Connect

    Hyodo, M.; Shinohara, N.; Takasugi, S.; Wright, C.A.; Conant, R..

    1996-01-24

    Like any dynamic system, HDR reservoirs cannot be fully characterized by their steady-state behavior. Circulation tests analysis should be performed on both the steady-state response and the transient response of HDR systems. Transient analysis allows not only estimation of critical reservoir parameters and how these parameters change with operating conditions / history, but transient analysis also aids in evaluating the feasibility of various modes of HDR system operation (base load, load following, etc.). This paper details the transient analysis of NEDO's FY 1991 Shallow Reservoir Circulation Test at the Hijiori HDR site in Japan. Reservoir fluid storage is carefully bounded through the employment of two distinct methods for calculation of the fluid storage from the observed transient response. A brief discussion is also included of the distribution of reservoir fluid storage; the relationship between pressure, reservoir stress, and apparent reservoir capacitance; and appropriate circulation test design to facilitate transient analysis.

  19. Initiation of a coronal transient

    SciTech Connect

    Low, B.C.; Munro, R.H.; Fisher, R.R.

    1982-03-01

    This paper analyzes the coronal transient/eruptive prominence event of 1980 August 5 observed by the Mauna Loa experiment system. This event yielded data on the early development of the transient in the low corona between 1.2 R/sub sun/ and 2.2 R/sub sun/, information which was not available when earlier attempts were made to explain transient phenomena. The transient's initial appearance in the form of a rising density-depleted structure, prior to the eruption of the associated prominence, can be explained as an effect of magnetic buoyancy. The data indicate that this transient has a density depletion of 17% to 33% relative to an undisturbed corona which is approximately isothermal with a temperature of 1.5 x 10/sup 6/ K and a coronal density of 1.0 x 10/sup 9/ cm/sup -3/ at the base of the corona. The height versus base length relationship of the evolving transient resembles, remarkably well, the theoretical predictions obtained from a quasi-static model of a margnetically buoyant loop system. By matching this relationship with the theoretical model, we estimate the magnetic field at the base of the transient to be between 2 and 3 gauss. It is also shown that the initial, nearly constant speed of the top of the transient, 80 +- 20 km s/sup -1/, is consistent with a theoretical estimate calculated from the quasi-static model. These results suggest that some transients are not initiated impulsively, the initial stage of the development being driven by a quasi-static response to a slow change in magnetic field conditions at the base of the corona.

  20. Speciation in Aqueous MgSO4 Fluid at High Pressures and Temperatures Studied by First-Principles Modeling and Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, S.; Schmidt, C.

    2008-12-01

    Aqueous fluids play an essential role in mass and energy transfer in the lithosphere. Their presence has also a large effect on physical properties of rocks, e.g. the electrical conductivity. Many chemical and physical properties of aqueous fluids strongly depend on the speciation, but very little is known about this fundamental parameter at high pressures and temperatures, e.g. at subduction zone conditions. Here we use a combined approach of first-principles molecular dynamics simulation and Raman spectroscopy to study the molecular structure of aqueous 2~mol/kg MgSO4 fluids up to pressures of 3~GPa and temperatures of 750~°C. MgSO4-H2O is selected as a model system for sulfate bearing subduction zone fluids. The simulations are performed using Car-Parrinello dynamics, a system size of 120 water and four MgSO4 molecules with production runs of at least 10~ps at each P and T. Raman spectra were obtained in situ using a Bassett-type hydrothermal diamond anvil cell with external heating. Both simulation and spectroscopic data show a dynamic co-existence of various associated molecular species as well as dissociated Mg2+ and SO42- in the single phase fluid. Fitting the Raman signal in the frequency range of the ν1-SO42- stretching mode yields the P-T dependence of the relative proportions of different peaks. The latter can be assigned to species based on literature data and related to the species found in the simulation. The dominant associated species found in the P-T range of interest here are Mg-SO4 ion pairs with one (monodentate) and two (bidentate) binding sites. At the highest P and T, an additional peak is identified. At low pressures and high temperature (T>230~°C), kieserite, MgSO4·H2O, nucleated in the experiment. At the same conditions the simulations show a clustering of Mg, which is interpreted as a precursor of precipitation. In conclusion, the speciation of aqueous MgSO4 fluid shows a complex behavior at high P and T that cannot be extrapolated

  1. Transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe with variable heat load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jong Hoon

    1990-01-01

    The transient characteristics of a grooved water heat pipe were studied by using variable heat load. First, the effects of the property variations of the working fluid with temperature were investigated by operating the water heat pipe at several different temperatures. The experimental results show that, even for the same heat input profile and heat pipe configuration, the heat pipe transports more heat at higher temperature within the tested temperature range. Adequate liquid return to the evaporator due to decreasing viscosity of the working fluid permits continuous vaporization of water without dry-out. Second, rewetting of the evaporator was studied after the evaporator had experienced dry-out. To rewet the evaporator, the elevation of the condenser end was the most effective way. Without elevating the condenser end, rewetting is not straight-forward even with power turned off unless the heat pipe is kept at isothermal condition for sufficiently long time.

  2. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of