Federau, Christian; Mlynash, Michael; Christensen, Soren; Zaharchuk, Greg; Cha, Brannon; Lansberg, Maarten G; Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W
Purpose To analyze both volume and signal evolution on magnetic resonance (MR) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images between the images after endovascular therapy and day 5 (which was the prespecified end point for infarct volume in the Diffusion and Perfusion Imaging Evaluation for Understanding Stroke Evolution [DEFUSE 2] trial) in a subset of patients enrolled in the DEFUSE 2 study. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the local ethics committee at all participating sites. Informed written consent was obtained from all patients. In this post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 2 study, 35 patients with FLAIR images acquired both after endovascular therapy (median time after symptom onset, 12 hours) and at day 5 were identified. Patients were separated into two groups based on the degree of reperfusion achieved on time to maximum greater than 6-second perfusion imaging (≥90% vs <90%). After coregistration and signal normalization, lesion volumes and signal intensity were assessed by using FLAIR imaging for the initial lesion (ie, visible after endovascular therapy) and the recruited lesion (the additional lesion visible on day 5, but not visible after endovascular therapy). Statistical significance was assessed by using Wilcoxon signed-rank, Mann-Whitney U, and Fisher exact tests. Results All 35 patients had FLAIR lesion growth between the after-revascularization examination and day 5. Median lesion growth was significantly larger in patients with <90% reperfusion (27.85 mL) compared with ≥90% (8.12 mL; P = .003). In the initial lesion, normalized signal did not change between after endovascular therapy (median, 1.60) and day 5 (median, 1.58) in the ≥90% reperfusion group (P = .97), but increased in the <90% reperfusion group (from 1.60 to 1.73; P = .01). In the recruited lesion, median normalized signal increased significantly in both groups between after endovascular therapy and day 5 (after endovascular therapy, from 1.19 to 1.56, P
Jeong, Jong Yeong; Han, Sang Kuk; Shin, Dong Hyuk; Na, Ji Ung; Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi, Pil Cho; Lee, Jeong Hun
To investigate differences in the effect of intravenous (IV) thrombolysis regarding the mismatch of diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (DWI-FLAIR) among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the emergency department (ED) within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms. Among ED patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and May 2013 at a tertiary hospital, those who underwent magnetic resonance imaging before IV thrombolytic therapy were included in this retrospective study. Patients were divided into DWI-FLAIR mismatch and match groups. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores obtained initially, 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy, and on discharge, and early neurologic improvement (ENI) and major neurologic improvement (MNI) were compared. During the study period, 50 of the 213 acute ischemic stroke patients who presented to the ED were included. The DWI-FLAIR mismatch group showed a statistically significantly greater reduction in NIHSS both at 24 hours after thrombolytic therapy and upon discharge than did the match group (5.5 vs. 1.2, P<0.001; 6.0 vs. 2.3, P<0.01, respectively). Moreover, ENI and MNI were significantly greater for the DWI-FLAIR mismatch group than for the match group (27/36 vs. 2/14, P<0.001; 12/36 vs. 0/14, P=0.012, respectively). Among acute ischemic stroke patients who visited the ED within 3 hours from the onset of symptoms, patients who showed DWI-FLAIR mismatch showed a significantly better response to IV thrombolytic therapy than did the DWI-FLAIR match group in terms of neurologic outcome.
Correa-Gallego, Camilo; Tan, Kay See; Arslan-Carlon, Vittoria; Gonen, Mithat; Denis, Stephanie C; Langdon-Embry, Liana; Grant, Florence; Kingham, T Peter; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Allen, Peter J; D'Angelica, Michael I; Jarnagin, William R; Fischer, Mary
The optimal perioperative fluid resuscitation strategy for liver resections remains undefined. Goal-directed therapy (GDT) embodies a number of physiologic strategies to achieve an ideal fluid balance and avoid the consequences of over- or under-resuscitation. In a prospective randomized trial, patients undergoing liver resection were randomized to GDT using stroke volume variation as an end point or to standard perioperative resuscitation. Primary outcomes measure was 30-day morbidity. Between 2012 and 2014, one hundred and thirty-five patients were randomized (GDT: n = 69; standard perioperative resuscitation: n = 66). Median age was 57 years and 56% were male. Metastatic disease comprised 81% of patients. Overall (35% GDT vs 36% standard perioperative resuscitation; p = 0.86) and grade 3 morbidity (28% GDT vs 18% standard perioperative resuscitation; p = 0.22) were equivalent. Patients in the GDT arm received less intraoperative fluid (mean 2.0 L GDT vs 2.9 L standard perioperative resuscitation; p < 0.001). Perioperative transfusions were required in 4% (6% GDT vs 2% standard perioperative resuscitation; p = 0.37) and boluses in the postanesthesia care unit were administered to 24% (29% GDT vs 20% standard perioperative resuscitation; p = 0.23). Mortality rate was 1% (2 of 135 patients; both in GDT). On multivariable analysis, male sex, age, combined procedures, higher intraoperative fluid volume, and fluid boluses in the postanesthesia care unit were associated with higher 30-day morbidity. Stroke volume variation-guided GDT is safe in patients undergoing liver resection and led to less intraoperative fluid. Although the incidence of postoperative complications was similar in both arms, lower intraoperative resuscitation volume was independently associated with decreased postoperative morbidity in the entire cohort. Future studies should target extensive resections and identify patients receiving large resuscitation volumes, as this population is more likely
Sohrabji, Farida; Park, Min Jung; Mahnke, Amanda H
Stroke is the 5th leading cause of death and acquired disability in aged populations. Women are disproportionally affected by stroke, having a higher incidence and worse outcomes than men. Numerous preclinical studies have discovered novel therapies for the treatment of stroke, but almost all of these were found to be unsuccessful in clinical trials. Despite known sex differences in occurrence and severity of stroke, few therapeutics, both preclinically and clinically, take into account possible sex differences in treatment. Reanalysis of data from the only currently FDA-approved stroke therapy, tPA, has shown to not only improve stroke outcomes for both sexes, but to also show sexual dimorphism by more robust improvement in stroke outcome in females. Experimental evidence supports the inclusion of sex as a variable in the study of a number of novel stroke drugs and therapies, including preclinical studies of anti-inflammatory drugs (minocycline), stimulators of cell survival (IGF-1), and inhibitors of cell death pathways (pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1, NO production, and caspase activation), as well as in current clinical trials of stem cell therapy and cortical stimulation. Overall, study design and analyses in clinical trials, as well as in preclinical studies, must include both sexes equally, consider possible sex differences in the analyses, and report the differences/similarities in more systemized/structured way to translate promising therapies to both sexes and increase stroke recovery. PMID:27870437
Jammer, Ib; Tuovila, Mari; Ulvik, Atle
Perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) may improve outcome after high-risk surgery. Minimal invasive measurement of stroke volume variation (SVV) has been recommended to guide fluid therapy. We intended to study how perioperative GDFT with arterial-based continuous SVV monitoring influences postoperative complications in a high-risk surgical population. From February 1st 2012, all ASA 3 and 4 patients undergoing abdominal surgery in two university hospitals were assessed for randomization into a control group or GDFT group. An arterial-line cardiac output monitor was used to measure SVV, and fluid was given after an algorithm in the intervention group. Restrictions of the method excluded patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery, patients with atrial fibrillation and patients with severe mitral/aortal stenosis. To detect a decrease in number of complication from 40 % in the control group to 20 % in the GDFT group, n = 164 patients were needed (power 80 %, alpha 0.05, two-sided test). To include the needed amount of patients, the study was estimated to last for 2 years. After 1 year, 30 patients were included and the study was halted due to slow inclusion rate. Of 732 high-risk patients scheduled for abdominal surgery, 391 were screened for randomization. Of those, n = 249 (64 %) were excluded because a laparoscopic technique was preferred and n = 95 (24 %) due to atrial fibrillation. Our study was stopped due to a slow inclusion rate. Methodological restrictions of the arterial-line cardiac output monitor excluded the majority of patients. This leaves the question if this method is appropriate to guide fluid therapy in high-risk surgical patients. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01473446.
Sohrabji, Farida; Park, Min Jung; Mahnke, Amanda H
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and acquired disability in aged populations. Women are disproportionally affected by stroke, having a higher incidence and worse outcomes than men. Numerous preclinical studies have discovered novel therapies for the treatment of stroke, but almost all of these have been shown to be unsuccessful in clinical trials. Despite known sex differences in occurrence and severity of stroke, few preclinical or clinical therapeutics take into account possible sex differences in treatment. Reanalysis of data from studies of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), the only currently FDA-approved stroke therapy, has shown that tPA improves stroke outcomes for both sexes and also shows sexual dimorphism by more robust improvement in stroke outcome in females. Experimental evidence supports the inclusion of sex as a variable in the study of a number of novel stroke drugs and therapies, including preclinical studies of anti-inflammatory drugs (minocycline), stimulators of cell survival (insulin-like growth factor-1), and inhibitors of cell death pathways (pharmacological inhibition of poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase-1, nitric oxide production, and caspase activation) as well as in current clinical trials of stem cell therapy and cortical stimulation. Overall, study design and analysis in clinical trials as well as in preclinical studies must include both sexes equally, consider possible sex differences in the analyses, and report the differences/similarities in more systematic/structured ways to allow promising therapies for both sexes and increase stroke recovery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xia, Juan; He, Zhiyong; Cao, Xiaoying; Che, Xuehua; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Jun; Liang, Weimin
Compared with goal-directed crystalloid therapy, goal-directed colloid therapy during high-risk surgery may improve postoperative outcome. Whether intraoperative fluid therapy based on goal-directed protocol with different types of fluid has distinctive effects on brain relaxation and cerebral metabolism during craniotomy remains unclear. Forty patients with supratentorial brain tumors undergoing craniotomy were randomly assigned to either a Ringer's Lactate-based goal-directed group (LR group, n=20) or a 6% hydroxyethyl starch-based goal-directed group (HES group, n=20). The goal was achieved by maintaining a target stroke volume variation (SVV<13%) by volume loading with LR or HES throughout the procedure. The primary outcome is brain relaxation scales, an indirect evaluation of ICP; secondary endpoints include cerebral metabolism variables (jugular venous oxygen saturation [SjvO(2)], arterial-jugular venous differences in oxygen [CajvO(2)], glucose [A-JvGD], lactate [A-JvLD], and cerebral extraction ratio for oxygen [CERO(2)]) and fluid volumes. There is no significant difference between the LR and HES groups on brain relaxation scales (P=0.845), or measures of cerebral oxygenation and metabolism. Intragroup comparisons showed that CERO(2) increased by 14.3% (P=0.009, LR group) and 13.2% (P=0.032, HES group), respectively, and SjvO(2) was decreased by 8.8% (P=0.016, LR group) and 8.1% (P=0.026, HES group), respectively, after tumor removal, compared with baseline. During surgery, the LR group (3070±1138 mL) received more fluid than the HES group (2041±758 mL, P=0.002). In patients undergoing supratentorial tumor resection, goal-directed HES therapy was not superior to goal-directed LR therapy for brain relaxation or cerebral metabolism, although less fluid was needed to maintain the target SVV in the HES-based group than in the LR-based group.
Marik, Paul E; Desai, Himanshu
The cornerstone of treating patients with shock remains as it has for decades, intravenous fluids. Surprisingly, dosing intravenous fluid during resuscitation of shock remains largely empirical. Recent data suggests that early aggressive resuscitation of critically ill patients may limit and/or reverse tissue hypoxia, progression to organ failure and improve outcome. However, overzealous fluid resuscitation has been associated with increased complications, increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital stay and increased mortality. This review focuses on methods to assess fluid responsiveness and the application of these methods for goal directed fluid therapy in critically ill and peri-operative patients.
Mandell, D C; King, L G
The goal of treatment for all types of shock is the improvement of tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The mainstay of therapy for hypovolemic and septic shock is the expansion of the intravascular volume by fluid administration, including crystalloids, colloids, and blood products. Frequent physical examinations and monitoring enable the clinician to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation and thus the success of the fluid therapy.
Kampmeier, Tim; Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian
The human organism consists of evolutionary conserved mechanisms to prevent death from hypovolaemia. Intravenous fluid therapy to support these mechanisms had first been published about 180 years ago. The present review depicts the evolution of fluid therapy from early, not well-defined solutions up to modern balanced fluids. Notably, evidence accumulates that the most commonly used fluid (i.e. 0.9% saline) has no advantage over balanced solutions, increases the risk of acute kidney injury and should therefore be abandoned. Notably, in published trials, the prognostically important 'golden hours' of shock, where fluid therapy may be essential, have not been adequately addressed. It is therefore unclear whether negative data on colloids in some trials reflect real harm or rather inadequate use. Future studies should focus on optimal protocols for initiation, dosing and discontinuation of fluid therapy in specific disease entities. Moreover, the practice of de-resuscitation after fluid-based haemodynamic stabilization should be further investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Smith, Geof W; Berchtold, Joachim
Early and aggressive fluid therapy is critical in correcting the metabolic complications associated with calf diarrhea. Oral electrolyte therapy can be used with success in calves, but careful consideration should be given to the type of oral electrolyte used. Electrolyte solutions with high osmolalities can significantly slow abomasal emptying and can be a risk factor for abomasal bloat in calves. Milk should not be withheld from calves with diarrhea for more than 12 to 24 hours. Hypertonic saline and hypertonic sodium bicarbonate can be used effectively for intravenous fluid therapy on farms when intravenous catheterization is not possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Catanese, Luciana; Tarsia, Joseph; Fisher, Marc
The treatment of acute ischemic stroke has undergone dramatic changes recently subsequent to the demonstrated efficacy of intra-arterial (IA) device-based therapy in multiple trials. The selection of patients for both intravenous and IA therapy is based on timely imaging with either computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, and if IA therapy is considered noninvasive, angiography with one of these modalities is necessary to document a large-vessel occlusion amenable for intervention. More advanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies are available that can be used to identify a small ischemic core and ischemic penumbra, and this information will contribute increasingly in treatment decisions as the therapeutic time window is lengthened. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator remains the mainstay of acute stroke therapy within the initial 4.5 hours after stroke onset, despite the lack of Food and Drug Administration approval in the 3- to 4.5-hour time window. In patients with proximal, large-vessel occlusions, IA device-based treatment should be initiated in patients with small/moderate-sized ischemic cores who can be treated within 6 hours of stroke onset. The organization and implementation of regional stroke care systems will be needed to treat as many eligible patients as expeditiously as possible. Novel treatment paradigms can be envisioned combining neuroprotection with IA device treatment to potentially increase the number of patients who can be treated despite long transport times and to ameliorate the consequences of reperfusion injury. Acute stroke treatment has entered a golden age, and many additional advances can be anticipated. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Kim, Ji Yoon; Yu, Jihion; Lim, Jinwook; Hwang, Jai-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kug
Radical cystectomy, which is performed to treat muscle-invasive bladder tumors, is among the most difficult urological surgical procedures and puts patients at risk of intraoperative blood loss and transfusion. Fluid management via stroke volume variation (SVV) is associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of SVV-guided fluid therapy for reducing blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy.This study included 48 patients who underwent radical cystectomy, and these patients were randomly allocated to the control group and maintained at <10% SVV (n = 24) or allocated to the trial group and maintained at 10% to 20% SVV (n = 24). The primary endpoints were comparisons of the amounts of intraoperative blood loss and transfused red blood cells (RBCs) between the control and trial groups during radical cystectomy. Intraoperative blood loss was evaluated through the estimated blood loss and estimated red cell mass loss. The secondary endpoints were comparisons of the postoperative outcomes between groups.A total of 46 patients were included in the final analysis: 23 patients in the control group and 23 patients in the trial group. The SVV values in the trial group were significantly higher than in the control group. Estimated blood loss, estimated red cell mass loss, and RBC transfusion requirements in the trial group were significantly lower than in the control group (734.3 ± 321.5 mL vs 1096.5 ± 623.9 mL, P = 0.019; 274.1 ± 207.8 mL vs 553.1 ± 298.7 mL, P <0.001; 0.5 ± 0.8 units vs 1.9 ± 2.2 units, P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in postoperative outcomes between the two groups.SVV-guided fluid therapy (SVV maintained at 10%-20%) can reduce blood loss and transfusion requirements in patients undergoing radical cystectomy without resulting in adverse outcomes. These findings provide useful information for
Brewer, L; Horgan, F; Hickey, A; Williams, D
Despite advances in the acute management of stroke, a large proportion of stroke patients are left with significant impairments. Over the coming decades the prevalence of stroke-related disability is expected to increase worldwide and this will impact greatly on families, healthcare systems and economies. Effective neuro-rehabilitation is a key factor in reducing disability after stroke. In this review, we discuss the effects of stroke, principles of stroke rehabilitative care and predictors of recovery. We also discuss novel therapies in stroke rehabilitation, including non-invasive brain stimulation, robotics and pharmacological augmentation. Many trials are currently underway, which, in time, may impact on future rehabilitative practice.
Li, Xin; Wang, Qiang
Acupuncture is one of the most important parts of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been used for more than 3000 years as prevention and treatment for various diseases in China as well as in adjacent regions, and is widely accepted in western countries in recent years. More and more clinical trials revealed that acupuncture shows positive effect in stroke, not only as a complementary and alternative medicine for poststroke rehabilitation but also as a preventive strategy which could induce cerebral ischemic tolerance, especially when combined with modern electrotherapy. Acupuncture has some unique characteristics, which include acupoint specificity and parameter-dependent effect. It also involves complicated mechanism to exert the beneficial effect on stroke. Series of clinical trials have shown that acupuncture primarily regulates the release of neurochemicals, hemorheology, cerebral microcirculation, metabolism, neuronal activity, and the function of specific brain region. Animal studies showed that the effects of acupuncture therapy on stroke were possibly via inhibition of postischemic inflammatory reaction, stimulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and influence on neural plasticity. Mechanisms for its preconditioning effect include activity enhancement of antioxidant, regulation of the endocannabinoid system, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although being controversial, acupuncture is a promising preventive and treatment strategy for stroke, but further high-quality clinical trials would be needed to provide more confirmative evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suslina, Z A; Federova, T N; Maksimova, M Iu; Riasina, T V; Stvolinskiĭ, S L; Khrapova, E V; Boldyrev, A A
The paper presents the results of investigation of emoxipin, an antioxidant synthetic drug, for treatment of patients with ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation. The drug produced a beneficial clinical effect in patients with lacunar and cardioembolic strokes of moderate severity. Therapy with emoxipin increased endogenic antioxidant activity and improved a clinical status of the patients. The protective effect of carnosine was demonstrated in experimental acute hypobaric hypoxia and cerebral ischemia in rats. The results obtained permit to recommend an inclusion of both emoxipin and carnosine in a combined treatment of ischemic disorders of cerebral circulation.
White, Christopher J; Abou-Chebl, Alex; Cates, Christopher U; Levy, Elad I; McMullan, Paul W; Rocha-Singh, Krishna; Weinberger, Jesse M; Wholey, Mark H
The majority (>80%) of the three-quarters of a million strokes that will occur in the United States this year are ischemic in nature. The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is very similar to acute myocardial infarction, which requires timely reperfusion therapy for optimal results. The majority of patients with acute ischemic stroke do not receive any form of reperfusion therapy, unlike patients with acute myocardial infarction. Improving outcomes for acute stroke will require patient education to encourage early presentation, an aggressive expansion of qualified hospitals, and willing providers and early imaging strategies to match patients with their best options for reperfusion therapy to minimize complications. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carsetti, Andrea; Cecconi, Maurizio; Rhodes, Andrew
When a condition of hypoperfusion has been identified, clinicians must decide whether fluids may increase blood flow or whether other therapeutic approaches are needed. For this purpose, several tests and parameters have been introduced in clinical practice to predict fluid responsiveness and guide therapy. Fluid challenge is the gold standard test to assess the preload dependence of the patients. Moreover, several parameters and tests avoiding fluid administration are now available. Pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation are based on heart-lung interaction and can be used to assess fluid responsiveness. These parameters have several limitations and can really be used in a limited number of critically ill patients. End-expiratory occlusion test and passive leg raising have been proposed to overcome these limitations. The aim of resuscitation is to increase blood flow and perfusion pressure. Dynamic arterial elastance has been recently proposed to predict the pressure response after fluid challenge in preload-dependent patients. Finally, the effects of volume expansion of hemodynamic parameters do not necessarily reach the microcirculation, which should also be assessed. Nowadays, several parameters are available to assess fluid responsiveness. Clinicians need to know all of them, with their limitations, without forgetting that the final aim of all therapies is to improve the microcirculation.
Rozanski, Elizabeth; Lynch, Alex
Fluid therapy is the cornerstone of supportive care in veterinary medicine. In dogs and cats with preexisting confirmed or suspected pulmonary disease, concerns may exist that the fluid therapy may impair gas exchange, either through increases in hydrostatic pressures or extravasation. Colloidal therapy is more likely to magnify lung injury compared with isotonic crystalloids. Radiographic evidence of fluid overload is a late-stage finding, whereas point-of-care ultrasound may provide earlier information that can also be assessed periodically at the patient side. Cases should be evaluated individually, but generally a conservative fluid therapy plan is preferred with close monitoring of its tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rivers, Emanuel P; Jaehne, Anja Kathrin; Eichhorn-Wharry, Laura; Brown, Samantha; Amponsah, David
To examine the role of fluid therapy in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis and septic shock. The type, composition, titration, management strategies and complications of fluid administration will be examined in respect to outcomes. Fluids have a critical role in the pathogenesis and treatment of early resuscitation of severe sepsis and septic shock. Although this pathogenesis is evolving, early titrated fluid administration modulates inflammation, improves microvascular perfusion, impacts organ function and outcome. Fluid administration has limited impact on tissue perfusion during the later stages of sepsis and excess fluid is deleterious to outcome. The type of fluid solution does not seem to influence these observations.
Chang, Won Hyuk; Kim, Yun-Hee
Research into rehabilitation robotics has grown rapidly and the number of therapeutic rehabilitation robots has expanded dramatically during the last two decades. Robotic rehabilitation therapy can deliver high-dosage and high-intensity training, making it useful for patients with motor disorders caused by stroke or spinal cord disease. Robotic devices used for motor rehabilitation include end-effector and exoskeleton types; herein, we review the clinical use of both types. One application of robot-assisted therapy is improvement of gait function in patients with stroke. Both end-effector and the exoskeleton devices have proven to be effective complements to conventional physiotherapy in patients with subacute stroke, but there is no clear evidence that robotic gait training is superior to conventional physiotherapy in patients with chronic stroke or when delivered alone. In another application, upper limb motor function training in patients recovering from stroke, robot-assisted therapy was comparable or superior to conventional therapy in patients with subacute stroke. With end-effector devices, the intensity of therapy was the most important determinant of upper limb motor recovery. However, there is insufficient evidence for the use of exoskeleton devices for upper limb motor function in patients with stroke. For rehabilitation of hand motor function, either end-effector and exoskeleton devices showed similar or additive effects relative to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke. The present evidence supports the use of robot-assisted therapy for improving motor function in stroke patients as an additional therapeutic intervention in combination with the conventional rehabilitation therapies. Nevertheless, there will be substantial opportunities for technical development in near future.
Jain, Anil Kumar; Khan, Asma M
: The potential for fluid overload in large-volume liposuction is a source of serious concern. Fluid management in these patients is controversial and governed by various formulas that have been advanced by many authors. Basically, it is the ratio of what goes into the patient and what comes out. Central venous pressure has been used to monitor fluid therapy. Dynamic parameters, such as stroke volume and pulse pressure variation, are better predictors of volume responsiveness and are superior to static indicators, such as central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Stroke volume variation was used in this study to guide fluid resuscitation and compared with one guided by an intraoperative fluid ratio of 1.2 (i.e., Rohrich formula). : Stroke volume variation was used as a guide for intraoperative fluid administration in 15 patients subjected to large-volume liposuction. In another 15 patients, fluid resuscitation was guided by an intraoperative fluid ratio of 1.2. The amounts of intravenous fluid administered in the groups were compared. : The mean amount of fluid infused was 561 ± 181 ml in the stroke volume variation group and 2383 ± 1208 ml in the intraoperative fluid ratio group. The intraoperative fluid ratio when calculated for the stroke volume variation group was 0.936 ± 0.084. All patients maintained hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure). Renal and metabolic indices remained within normal limits. : Stroke volume variation-guided fluid application could result in an appropriate amount of intravenous fluid use in patients undergoing large-volume liposuction. : Therapeutic, II.
Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated.
Cell-based therapy for stroke represents a third wave of therapeutics for stroke and one focused on restorative processes with a longer time window of opportunity than neuroprotective therapies. An early time window, within the first week after stroke, is an opportunity for intravenously delivered bone-marrow and perinatally-derived cells that can home to areas of tissue injury and target brain remodeling. Allogeneic cells will likely be the most scalable and commercially viable product. Later time windows, months after stroke, may be opportunities for intracerebral transplantation of neuronally-differentiated cell types. An integrated approach of cell-based therapy with early phase clinical trials and continued pre-clinical work with focus on mechanisms of action is needed. PMID:18671663
Fantoni, Denise; Shih, Andre C
Anesthesia can lead to pathophysiologic changes that dramatically alter the fluid balance of the body compartments and the intravascular space. Fluid administration can be monitored and evaluated using static and dynamic indexes. Guidelines for fluid rates during anesthesia begin with 3 mL/kg/h in cats and 5 mL/kg/h in dogs. If at all possible, patients should be stabilized and electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before general anesthesia.
Lee, Justine A; Cohn, Leah A
Young puppies and kittens have unique physiologic needs in regards to fluid therapy, which must address hydration, vascular fluid volume, electrolyte disturbances, or hypoglycemia. Pediatric patients have a higher fluid requirement compared with adults and can rapidly progress from mild dehydration to hypovolemia. Simultaneously, their small size makes overhydration a real possibility. Patient size complicates fluid administration because catheters used in larger pets may be difficult to place. Routes of fluid administration used in the neonate or pediatric patient include oral, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal, intraosseous, and intravenous. Clinicians should be aware of the pros and cons of each route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandercock, Peter A G; Counsell, Carl; Tseng, Mei-Chiun; Cecconi, Emanuela
In people with acute ischaemic stroke, platelets become activated and can cause blood clots to form and block an artery in the brain, resulting in damage to part of the brain. Such damage gives rise to the symptoms of stroke. Antiplatelet therapy might reduce the volume of brain damaged by ischaemia and also reduce the risk of early recurrent ischaemic stroke, thereby reducing the risk of early death and improving long-term outcomes in survivors. However, antiplatelet therapy might also increase the risk of fatal or disabling intracranial haemorrhage. To assess the efficacy and safety of immediate oral antiplatelet therapy (that is started as soon as possible and no later than two weeks after stroke onset) in people with acute presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 16 October 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2013), MEDLINE (June 1998 to May 2013), and EMBASE (June 1998 to May 2013). In 1998, for a previous version of this review, we searched the register of the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration, MedStrategy and contacted relevant drug companies. Randomised trials comparing oral antiplatelet therapy (started within 14 days of the stroke) with control in people with definite or presumed ischaemic stroke. Two review authors independently applied the inclusion criteria and assessed trial quality. For the included trials, they extracted and cross-checked the data. We included eight trials involving 41,483 participants. No new trials have been added since the last update.Two trials testing aspirin 160 mg to 300 mg once daily, started within 48 hours of onset, contributed 98% of the data. The risk of bias was low. The maximum follow-up was six months. With treatment, there was a significant decrease in death or dependency at the end of follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91 to 0.99). For every 1000 people treated with
Alberts, Mark J
: Antithrombotic therapy is a key component of any strategy for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke. A better understanding of the various therapeutic options will lead to improved stroke prevention, better medication adherence, and fewer complications. : Antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants are the two major classes of antithrombotic therapy used for stroke prevention. The etiology and mechanism of the stroke must be considered in order to make the best decision regarding which agent(s) to use for secondary stroke prevention. The recent Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes (PRoFESS) study showed that clopidogrel and aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole had similar event rates in terms of recurrent stroke, but clopidogrel was better tolerated, with fewer bleeding events. Several new anticoagulants are poised to replace warfarin for stroke prevention in the setting of atrial fibrillation. These include dabigatran (a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor) and possibly apixaban (a new oral factor Xa inhibitor). These new medications are much easier to use than warfarin and may be more effective and safer, with fewer drug and food interactions and no need for routine blood monitoring. Thus, these new medications may improve adherence as well as clinicians' inclination to treat with anticoagulation. : Because each antiplatelet agent or anticoagulant has certain advantages and disadvantages, clinicians must choose an agent that the patient can afford and tolerate in terms of side effects and adherence. The hope and expectation is that the proper use of these medications in accordance with current guidelines will reduce the risk of a recurrent stroke.
Lansberg, Maarten G.; O’Donnell, Martin J.; Khatri, Pooja; Lang, Eddy S.; Nguyen-Huynh, Mai N.; Schwartz, Neil E.; Sonnenberg, Frank A.; Schulman, Sam; Vandvik, Per Olav; Spencer, Frederick A.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Guyatt, Gordon H.
Objectives: This article provides recommendations on the use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Methods: We generated treatment recommendations (Grade 1) and suggestions (Grade 2) based on high (A), moderate (B), and low (C) quality evidence. Results: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, we recommend IV recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) if treatment can be initiated within 3 h (Grade 1A) or 4.5 h (Grade 2C) of symptom onset; we suggest intraarterial r-tPA in patients ineligible for IV tPA if treatment can be initiated within 6 h (Grade 2C); we suggest against the use of mechanical thrombectomy (Grade 2C) although carefully selected patients may choose this intervention; and we recommend early aspirin therapy at a dose of 160 to 325 mg (Grade 1A). In patients with acute stroke and restricted mobility, we suggest the use of prophylactic-dose heparin or intermittent pneumatic compression devices (Grade 2B) and suggest against the use of elastic compression stockings (Grade 2B). In patients with a history of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA, we recommend long-term treatment with aspirin (75-100 mg once daily), clopidogrel (75 mg once daily), aspirin/extended release dipyridamole (25 mg/200 mg bid), or cilostazol (100 mg bid) over no antiplatelet therapy (Grade 1A), oral anticoagulants (Grade 1B), the combination of clopidogrel plus aspirin (Grade 1B), or triflusal (Grade 2B). Of the recommended antiplatelet regimens, we suggest clopidogrel or aspirin/extended-release dipyridamole over aspirin (Grade 2B) or cilostazol (Grade 2C). In patients with a history of stroke or TIA and atrial fibrillation we recommend oral anticoagulation over no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin, and combination therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel (Grade 1B). Conclusions: These recommendations can help clinicians make evidence-based treatment decisions with their patients who have had strokes. PMID:22315273
Nilsen, Dawn; Gillen, Glen; Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah
Evidence Connection articles provide a clinical application of systematic reviews developed in conjunction with the American Occupational Therapy Association's (AOTA's) Evidence-Based Practice project. The clinical condition discussed in this inaugural Evidence Connection article is adults with stroke. Findings from the systematic reviews on this topic were published in the January/February 2015 issue of the American Journal of Occupational Therapy and in AOTA's Occupational Therapy Practice Guidelines for Adults With Stroke (Wolf & Nilsen, 2015). Each article in this series will summarize the evidence from the published reviews on a given topic and presents an application of the evidence to a related clinical case. Evidence Connection articles illustrate how the research evidence from the reviews can be used to inform and guide clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Rossiter, Holly E; Borrelli, Mimi R; Borchert, Robin J; Bradbury, David; Ward, Nick S
Mirror therapy is a new form of stroke rehabilitation that uses the mirror reflection of the unaffected hand in place of the affected hand to augment movement training. The mechanism of mirror therapy is not known but is thought to involve changes in cerebral organization. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to measure changes in cortical activity during mirror training after stroke. In particular, we examined movement-related changes in the power of cortical oscillations in the beta (15-30 Hz) frequency range, known to be involved in movement. Ten stroke patients with upper limb paresis and 13 healthy controls were recorded using MEG while performing bimanual hand movements in 2 different conditions. In one, subjects looked directly at their affected hand (or dominant hand in controls), and in the other, they looked at a mirror reflection of their unaffected hand in place of their affected hand. The movement-related beta desynchronization was calculated in both primary motor cortices. Movement-related beta desynchronization was symmetrical during bilateral movement and unaltered by the mirror condition in controls. In the patients, movement-related beta desynchronization was generally smaller than in controls, but greater in contralesional compared to ipsilesional motor cortex. This initial asymmetry in movement-related beta desynchronization between hemispheres was made more symmetrical by the presence of the mirror. Mirror therapy could potentially aid stroke rehabilitation by normalizing an asymmetrical pattern of movement-related beta desynchronization in primary motor cortices during bilateral movement. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Turner, Alyna; Dean, Olivia; Sureda, Antoni; Mohammad, Seyed
Post-stroke depression is an important psychological consequence of ischemic stroke, and affects around one third of stroke patients at any time post-stroke. It has a negative impact on patient morbidity and mortality, and as such development of effective post-stroke recognition and treatment strategies are very important. There are several therapeutic strategies for post-stroke depression, including both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. In this review, we present evidence regarding the underlying biology of post-stroke depression, commonalities between post-stroke depression and Major Depressive Disorder and explore several treatment approaches, including antidepressant therapy, psychotherapy, surgical therapy, electroconvulsive therapy, acupuncture, music therapy and natural products. Further experimental and clinical studies are required, particularly in emerging fields such as the role of nutraceuticals in the treatment of stroke.
Ueyama, Hiroshi; Kiyonaka, Sawami
Fluid overdose can be harmful in critically ill patients. Since central venous pressure (CVP) is currently considered to be an inappropriate indicator of preload, much attention is being given to predicting fluid responsiveness, i.e., the response of stroke volume (SV) or cardiac output (CO) to fluid challenge. However, when fluid responsiveness was evaluated in critically ill patients, including sepsis, only 40-50% of the patients responded. Moreover, most fluid responders do not show significant hemodynamic improvement after fluid administration. In this review, we discuss why fluid responsiveness based on the Starling mechanism did not work well in the clinical setting. According to the Starling mechanism, a patient whose SV/CO significantly increases after a fluid challenge is considered to be a fluid responder and judged to need fluid therapy. However, the currently recommended fluid challenge dose of crystalloid 250-500 mL has little effect on increasing blood volume and is not sufficient to increase the preload of the Starling curve. Especially in septic patients, due to their vascular hyperpermeability, increase in blood volume is even smaller. Furthermore, Infusion induced hemodilution is known to reduce blood viscosity and hematocrit, as a result, decreasing afterload. This indicates that the increased SV/CO after fluid challenge is caused not only by increased preload but also by decreased afterload. For these reasons, fluid responsiveness with small crystalloid challenge is questionable as a clinical indicator of fluid therapy.
This is the case report of a 44-year-old woman presented with an acute stroke immediately after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). The patient had no significant medical history other than chronic depression. She was taking sertraline, and she had had multiple previous ECT treatments without any complications. While being monitored in the recovery room within 10 minutes after the last ECT session, she was found to have sudden onset of left-sided flaccid hemiplegia and numbness along with slurred speech. On arrival to our hospital, she was found to have flaccid hemiplegia on the left side involving the face, arm, and leg (face and arm more than the leg involvement), severe dysarthria, and mild neglect syndrome (National Health Institute Stroke Scale of 14). Noncontrast computed tomography (CT) of the head showed no signs of early ischemia, and iodine contrast CT angiography revealed right middle cerebral artery (MCA) (distal M1 segment) clot. Patient received intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen (rt-PA) at 2.5 hours after the onset of symptoms, and then a total of 3.0 mg of intra-arterial (IA) rt-PA. Angiography at the end of the procedure showed successful recanalization of the M1 segment and normal vessel caliber with adequate distal flow. After the procedure, the patient made rapid improvements in all of her initial symptoms during the first 24 hours. An extensive stroke workup failed to reveal any cause of the stroke, including usual stroke and hypercoagulable risk factors. This was an acute embolic stroke immediately following an ECT, and without the aggressive thrombolytic therapy, the patient's outcome would have been poor because there was an M1 segment clot with a major MCA syndrome with relatively high National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The neurological side effect profile of ECT is reported to be minimal with most common symptoms being headache, disorientation, and memory complaints. There is no clear cause-and-effect relationship in this case
Govender, Paran; Kalra, Lalit
Stroke is the largest single cause of severe physical disability and rehabilitation to reduce functional deficits is the most effective treatment. Occupational therapists play a central role in rehabilitation as members of a multidisciplinary team. Occupational therapy is a client-centered profession that uses meaningful activities across the spectrum of physical and mental domains to reduce limitations after stroke. Where remediation is not possible, occupational therapists implement compensatory strategies to promote independence. Rehabilitation is based on the concept of brain plasticity, which implies that it is possible to modulate or facilitate cerebral reorganization by external inputs. Occupational therapy activities are specifically geared to promote this re-education process and encourage the development of lost skills while accommodating for specific physical, cognitive or affective impairments. Principles of motor, sensory, cognitive and affective rehabilitation are incorporated into effective task-specific activities and environments are adapted to create the optimum conditions for successful rehabilitation. Several promising new rehabilitation approaches, based on neuropsychology and technological advances, have been developed to complement therapy inputs and exploit the brain's capacity to recover from stroke.
Kwakkel, Gert; Veerbeek, Janne M.; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Wolf, Steven L.
Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) was developed to overcome upper limb impairments after stroke and is the most investigated intervention for treating stroke patients in the previous decades. This review describes the current evidence regarding: original CIMT and modified versions of CIMT (mCIMT). Meta-analysis showed strong evidence favoring both types of CIMT in terms of motor function, arm-hand activities and self-reported arm-hand functioning in daily life, immediately after treatment and at long-term follow-up, whereas no evidence was found for constraining alone (Forced Use (FU) therapy). No evidence was found that type of CIMT, intensity of practice or timing did affect outcome. Although the underlying mechanism that drive (m)CIMT is still poorly understood, recent kinematic conducted studies suggests that improvements introduced by original CIMT or mCIMT are mainly based on adaptation by learning to optimize the use of intact end-effectors by selecting patients with some voluntary motor control of wrist and finger extensors post stroke. PMID:25772900
Eum, Yeongcheol; Yim, Jongeun
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and long-term disability worldwide, and post-stroke depression (PSD) is a common and serious psychiatric complication of stroke. PSD makes patients have more severe deficits in activities of daily living, a worse functional outcome, more severe cognitive deficits and increased mortality as compared to stroke patients without depression. Therefore, to reduce or prevent mental problems of stroke patients, psychological treatment should be recommended. Literature and art therapy are highly effective psychological treatment for stroke patients. Literature therapy divided into poetry and story therapy is an assistive tool that treats neurosis as well as emotional or behavioral disorders. Poetry can add impression to the lethargic life of a patient with PSD, thereby acting as a natural treatment. Story therapy can change the gloomy psychological state of patients into a bright and healthy story, and therefore can help stroke patients to overcome their emotional disabilities. Art therapy is one form of psychological therapy that can treat depression and anxiety in stroke patients. Stroke patients can express their internal conflicts, emotions, and psychological status through art works or processes and it would be a healing process of mental problems. Music therapy can relieve the suppressed emotions of patients and add vitality to the body, while giving them the energy to share their feelings with others. In conclusion, literature and art therapy can identify the emotional status of patients and serve as a useful auxiliary tool to help stroke patients in their rehabilitation process.
Mousavi, Maryam; Khalili, Hossein; Dashti-Khavidaki, Simin
Intravenous fluid therapy remains an essential part of patients' care during hospitalization. There are only few studies that focused on fluid therapy in the hospitalized patients, and there is not any consensus statement about fluid therapy in patients who are hospitalized in medical wards. The aim of the present study was to assess intravenous fluid therapy status and related errors in the patients during the course of hospitalization in the infectious diseases wards of a referral teaching hospital. This study was conducted in the infectious diseases wards of Imam Khomeini Complex Hospital, Tehran, Iran. During a retrospective study, data related to intravenous fluid therapy were collected by two clinical pharmacists of infectious diseases from 2008 to 2010. Intravenous fluid therapy information including indication, type, volume and rate of fluid administration was recorded for each patient. An internal protocol for intravenous fluid therapy was designed based on literature review and available recommendations. The data related to patients' fluid therapy were compared with this protocol. The fluid therapy was considered appropriate if it was compatible with the protocol regarding indication of intravenous fluid therapy, type, electrolyte content and rate of fluid administration. Any mistake in the selection of fluid type, content, volume and rate of administration was considered as intravenous fluid therapy errors. Five hundred and ninety-six of medication errors were detected during the study period in the patients. Overall rate of fluid therapy errors was 1.3 numbers per patient during hospitalization. Errors in the rate of fluid administration (29.8%), incorrect fluid volume calculation (26.5%) and incorrect type of fluid selection (24.6%) were the most common types of errors. The patients' male sex, old age, baseline renal diseases, diabetes co-morbidity, and hospitalization due to endocarditis, HIV infection and sepsis are predisposing factors for the
Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Portillo-Gonzales, Gabriel S.; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Pabon, Mibel; Dela Peña, Ike; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A.; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.
Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investigations have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of the cell transplantation for stroke. PMID:25165432
Tajiri, Naoki; Acosta, Sandra; Portillo-Gonzales, Gabriel S; Aguirre, Daniela; Reyes, Stephanny; Lozano, Diego; Pabon, Mibel; Dela Peña, Ike; Ji, Xunming; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Solomita, Marianna A; Antonucci, Ivana; Stuppia, Liborio; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V
Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells' therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investigations have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells' therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of the cell transplantation for stroke.
Tsivgoulis, Georgios; Safouris, Apostolos; Krogias, Christos; Arthur, Adam S; Alexandrov, Andrei V
Ischemic stroke is a major cause of death and disability and intravenous thrombolysis has been the only approved acute reperfusion therapy (RT) for many years. Seven randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) have been recently published. These studies have changed the treatment paradigm by establishing mechanical thrombectomy (MT) as the most effective acute stroke therapy for improving functional outcome in anterior circulation ELVO with a NNT of 6. The present review will critically evaluate the results of these RCTs and of the existing meta-analyses investigating the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy for AIS. Points of debate such as acute stroke imaging, posterior circulation stroke and general anesthesia will be addressed. We will also discuss health policies aiming to increase the availability of endovascular treatment for stroke patients.
Kalladka, Dheeraj; Muir, Keith W
Stroke affects one in every six people worldwide, and is the leading cause of adult disability. Some spontaneous recovery is usual but of limited extent, and the mechanisms of late recovery are not completely understood. Endogenous neurogenesis in humans is thought to contribute to repair, but its extent is unknown. Exogenous cell therapy is promising as a means of augmenting brain repair, with evidence in animal stroke models of cell migration, survival, and differentiation, enhanced endogenous angiogenesis and neurogenesis, immunomodulation, and the secretion of trophic factors by stem cells from a variety of sources, but the potential mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. In the animal models of stroke, both mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and neural stem cells (NSCs) improve functional recovery, and MSCs reduce the infarct volume when administered acutely, but the heterogeneity in the choice of assessment scales, publication bias, and the possible confounding effects of immunosuppressants make the comparison of effects across cell types difficult. The use of adult-derived cells avoids the ethical issues around embryonic cells but may have more restricted differentiation potential. The use of autologous cells avoids rejection risk, but the sources are restricted, and culture expansion may be necessary, delaying treatment. Allogeneic cells offer controlled cell numbers and immediate availability, which may have advantages for acute treatment. Early clinical trials of both NSCs and MSCs are ongoing, and clinical safety data are emerging from limited numbers of selected patients. Ongoing research to identify prognostic imaging markers may help to improve patient selection, and the novel imaging techniques may identify biomarkers of recovery and the mechanism of action for cell therapies. PMID:24627643
Li, Chuanbin; Guy, Robert; Thomases, Becca
It is observed in experiments that as the fluid rheology is changed, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits changes in both flagellar kinematics and the swimming speed. To understand this phenomenon, we develop a computational model of the swimmer, using flagellar strokes fit from experimental data. We conduct numerical simulations by changing strokes and fluid rheology independently to dissect the effects of these two factors. We discover that stroke patterns extracted from viscoelastic fluids generate much lower stress and have higher efficiency at the cost of lower swimming speed. We also discover that higher fluid elasticity hinders swimming for a fixed stroke pattern.
Venkat, Poornima; Shen, Yi; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli
Ischemic stroke remains one of most common causes of death and disability worldwide. Stroke triggers a cascade of events leading to rapid neuronal damage and death. Neuroprotective agents that showed promise in preclinical experiments have failed to translate to the clinic. Even after decades of research, tPA remains the only FDA approved drug for stroke treatment. However, tPA is effective when administered 3-4.5 h after stroke onset and the vast majority of stroke patients do not receive tPA therapy. Therefore, there is a pressing need for novel therapies for ischemic stroke. Since stroke induces rapid cell damage and death, neuroprotective strategies that aim to salvage or replace injured brain tissue are challenged by treatment time frames. To overcome the barriers of neuroprotective therapies, there is an increasing focus on neurorestorative therapies for stroke. In this review article, we provide an update on neurorestorative treatments for stroke using cell therapy such as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs), human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) and select pharmacological approaches including Minocycline and Candesartan that have been employed in clinical trials. This review article discusses the present understanding of mechanisms of neurorestorative therapies and summarizes ongoing clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horie, Nobutaka; Kaminogo, Makio; Izumo, Tsuyoshi; Hayashi, Kentaro; Tsujino, Akira; Nagata, Izumi
Randomised trials have shown the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol to prevent secondary ischaemic stroke. Recently, cilostazol has been reported to prevent the development and/or recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), which can potentially prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. Herein, we examined the impact of prior antiplatelet therapy with cilostazol on the incidence of cardioembolic stroke, which had not been fully investigated. Using the multicenter retrospective study of stroke risk in antithrombotic therapy (RESTATE) database, we analysed consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke under single antiplatelet therapy. We evaluated the characteristics of ischaemic stroke based on the type of antiplatelet agent used: aspirin, ticlopidine/clopidogrel or cilostazol. Of 1069 consecutive patients with primary or secondary stroke during antithrombotic therapy from January to December 2012, 615 patients received single antiplatelet therapy (293 and 322 cases of primary and secondary strokes, respectively). Interestingly, the percentage of cardioembolic infarction was significantly lower in patients taking cilostazol compared with other agents. Multivariate regression analysis found that age (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06, P = 0.0029), serum creatinine (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03-1.34, P = 0.0198), aspirin (OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00-3.22, P = 0.0486), cilostazol (OR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.03-0.73, P = 0.0125), and smoking (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.16-2.94, P = 0.0102) were independently associated with cardioembolic stroke. Cilostazol may prevent cardioembolic stroke in patients undergoing antiplatelet therapy. This could be a novel strategy for cardioembolic stroke prevention potentially by affecting cardiac remodelling, in contrast to secondary anticoagulant therapy.
Byers, Christopher G
Administration of appropriate types and volumes of parenteral fluids is of paramount importance when treating sick and debilitated patients, especially those fighting critical illness. Fluid selection and accurate calculations must be performed logically and accurately to maximize positive outcomes. Knowledge of fluid types, as well as the complex relationship of the body's fluid compartments, helps clinicians develop rational fluid therapy plans for their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gustafsson, Louise; Nugent, Nicole; Biros, Lenka
Occupational therapy after stroke represents a complex intervention. The aim of this observational study was to document the content of occupational therapy stroke rehabilitation in an Australian general rehabilitation ward. A behavioural mapping tool recorded 22 occupational therapy sessions at five-minute intervals for nine participants with stroke (mean age 70.6 years, 88.9% female). The mean session length was 41 minutes. The focus of therapy was predominantly at body functions (mean 16.5 minutes) and motor and perceptual impairments were addressed most often. The overall amount of occupational therapy provided was consistent with session lengths reported from effective stroke units and recommended by stroke guidelines. However, the results highlight the difficulties for occupational therapists working within the hospital environment, including practice that was largely restricted to the level of impairment and basic activities of daily living.
Carcaillon, Laure; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; Oger, Emmanuel; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Elbaz, Alexis; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves
Background and Purpose— The benefit/risk analysis of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women is not straightforward and depends on cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the safety of transdermal estrogens and the importance of progestogens for thrombotic risk. However, the differential association of oral and transdermal estrogens with stroke remains poorly investigated. Furthermore, there are no data regarding the impact of progestogens. Methods— We set up a nested case–control study of ischemic stroke (IS) within all French women aged 51 to 62 years between 2009 and 2011 without personal history of cardiovascular disease or contraindication to hormone therapy. Participants were identified using the French National Health Insurance database, which includes complete drug claims for the past 3 years and French National hospital data. We identified 3144 hospitalized IS cases who were matched for age and zip code to 12 158 controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results— Compared with nonusers, the adjusted ORs of IS were1.58 (95% CI, 1.01–2.49) in oral estrogen users and 0.83 (0.56–1.24) in transdermal estrogens users (P<0.01). There was no association of IS with use of progesterone (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.49–1.26), pregnanes (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.60–1.67), and nortestosterones (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.62–2.58), whereas norpregnanes increased IS risk (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05–4.81). Conclusions— Both route of estrogen administration and progestogens were important determinants of IS. Our findings suggest that transdermal estrogens might be the safest option for short-term hormone therapy use. PMID:27256671
Koyuncu, Engin; Çam, Pınar; Altınok, Nermin; Çallı, Duygu Ekinci; Duman, Tuba Yarbay; Özgirgin, Neşe
The aim of this study was to investigate the time window, duration and intensity of optimal speech and language therapy applied to aphasic patients with subacute stroke in our hospital. The study consisted of 33 patients being hospitalized for stroke rehabilitation in our hospital with first stroke but without previous history of speech and language therapy. Sixteen sessions of impairment-based speech and language therapy were applied to the patients, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks. Aphasia assessment in stroke patients was performed with Gülhane Aphasia Test-2 before and after treatment. Compared with before treatment, fluency of speech, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, oral motor evaluation, automatic speech, repetition and naming were improved after treatment. This suggests that 16 seesions of speech and language therapy, 30–60 minutes per day, 2 days a week, for 8 successive weeks, are effective in the treatment of aphasic patients with subacute stroke. PMID:27904489
The clinical determination of the intravascular volume can be extremely difficult in critically ill and injured patients as well as those undergoing major surgery. This is problematic because fluid loading is considered the first step in the resuscitation of hemodynamically unstable patients. Yet, multiple studies have demonstrated that only approximately 50% of hemodynamically unstable patients in the intensive care unit and operating room respond to a fluid challenge. Whereas under-resuscitation results in inadequate organ perfusion, accumulating data suggest that over-resuscitation increases the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Cardiac filling pressures, including the central venous pressure and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, have been traditionally used to guide fluid management. However, studies performed during the past 30 years have demonstrated that cardiac filling pressures are unable to predict fluid responsiveness. During the past decade, a number of dynamic tests of volume responsiveness have been reported. These tests dynamically monitor the change in stroke volume after a maneuver that increases or decreases venous return (preload) and challenges the patients' Frank-Starling curve. These dynamic tests use the change in stroke volume during mechanical ventilation or after a passive leg raising maneuver to assess fluid responsiveness. The stroke volume is measured continuously and in real-time by minimally invasive or noninvasive technologies, including Doppler methods, pulse contour analysis, and bioreactance. PMID:21906322
Min, Ling-kun; Wu, Zhi-zheng; Huang, Ming-shuang; Kong, Xiang-hui
A liquid deformable mirror, which can provide a large stroke deflection more than 100 μm, is proposed for focus control. The deformable mirror utilizes the concept of magnetic fluid deformation shaped with electromagnetic fields to achieve concave or convex surface and to change the optical focus depth of the mirrors. The free surface of the magnetic fluid is coated with a thin layer of metal-liquid-like film (MELLF) prepared from densely packed silver nanoparticles to enhance the reflectance of the deformable mirror. The experimental results on the fabricated prototype magnetic fluid deformable mirror (MFDM) show that the desired concave/convex surface shape can be controlled precisely with a closed-loop adaptive optical system.
Spence, J David
On the basis of the results of several recent clinical trials, many researchers have concluded that vitamin therapy designed to lower total homocysteine concentrations is not effective in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events. However, whereas almost all myocardial infarctions are due to plaque rupture, stroke has many more pathophysiological mechanisms, and thrombosis-which is increased by raised total homocysteine concentrations-has an important role in many of these processes. Thus, stroke and myocardial infarction could respond differently to vitamin therapy. A detailed assessment of the results of the recent HOPE-2 trial and a reanalysis of the VISP trial restricted to patients capable of responding to vitamin therapy suggest that higher doses of vitamin B12 and perhaps new approaches to lowering total homocysteine besides routine vitamin therapy with folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 could reduce the risk of stroke. Thus, therapy to lower homocysteine could still help to prevent stroke, if not other vascular outcomes.
Chen, Fan; Qi, Zhifeng; Luo, Yuming; Hinchliffe, Taylor; Ding, Guanghong; Xia, Ying; Ji, Xunming
Stroke is deemed a worldwide leading cause of neurological disability and death, however, there is currently no promising pharmacotherapy for acute ischemic stroke aside from intravenous or intra-arterial thrombolysis. Yet because of the narrow therapeutic time window involved, thrombolytic application is very restricted in clinical settings. Accumulating data suggest that non-pharmaceutical therapies for stroke might provide new opportunities for stroke treatment. Here we review recent research progress in the mechanisms and clinical implications of non-pharmaceutical therapies, mainly including neuroprotective approaches such as hypothermia, ischemic/hypoxic conditioning, acupuncture, medical gases, transcranial laser therapy, etc. In addition, we briefly summarize mechanical endovascular recanalization devices and recovery devices for the treatment of the chronic phase of stroke and discuss the relative merits of these devices. PMID:24407111
Aditianingsih, Dita; George, Yohanes W H
Fluid therapy is a core concept in the management of perioperative and critically ill patients for maintenance of intravascular volume and organ perfusion. Recent evidence regarding the vascular barrier and its role in terms of vascular leakage has led to a new concept for fluid administration. The choice of fluid used should be based on the fluid composition and the underlying pathophysiology of the patient. Avoidance of both hypo- and hypervolaemia is essential when treating circulatory failure. In daily practice, the assessment of individual thresholds in order to optimize cardiac preload and avoid hypovolaemia or deleterious fluid overload remains a challenge. Liberal versus restrictive fluid management has been challenged by recent evidence, and the ideal approach appears to be goal-directed fluid therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:27733032
Bang, Oh Young; Kim, Eun Hee; Cha, Jae Min; Moon, Gyeong Joon
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and physical disability among adults. It has been 15 years since clinical trials of stem cell therapy in patients with stroke have been conducted using adult stem cells like mesenchymal stem cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells. Results of randomized controlled trials showed that adult stem cell therapy was safe but its efficacy was modest, underscoring the need for new stem cell therapy strategies. The primary limitations of current stem cell therapies include (a) the limited source of engraftable stem cells, (b) the presence of optimal time window for stem cell therapies, (c) inherited limitation of stem cells in terms of growth, trophic support, and differentiation potential, and (d) possible transplanted cell-mediated adverse effects, such as tumor formation. Here, we discuss recent advances that overcome these hurdles in adult stem cell therapy for stroke.
Jäkälä, Pekka; Jolkkonen, Jukka
Stroke remains one of the main causes of death and disability worldwide. The aging of the population is likely to result in a dramatic increase in the burden of stroke. Thus, it is not surprising that the pharmaceutical industry has invested much money in the development of pharmacotherapies for ischemic stroke. Promising experimental data, however, have almost consistently failed to produce a clinically effective neuroprotective or neurorestorative drug. Only intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) has been approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Many pharmaceutical companies have scaled down their stroke programs and despite the unmet need, activity in the field is almost frozen. Trafermin, a recombinant form of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), is a good example of a translational failure in neuroprotection. However, trafermin may also promote neuronal plasticity after cerebral insults. Thus, clinical trials with trafermin in stroke are warranted but should be based on neuronal restoration rather than acute neuroprotection.
Allen, Sara J
The use of intravenous fluids is routine in patients undergoing surgery or critical illness; however, controversy still exists regarding optimum fluid therapy. Recent literature has examined the effects of different types, doses, and timing of intravenous fluid therapy. Each of these factors may influence patient outcomes. Crystalloids consist of isotonic saline or balanced electrolyte solutions and widely distribute across extracellular fluid compartments, whereas colloids contain high-molecular-weight molecules suspended in crystalloid carrier solution and do not freely distribute across the extracellular fluid compartments. Colloids vary in composition and associated potential adverse effects. Recent evidence has highlighted safety and ethical concerns regarding the use of colloid solutions in critically ill patients, particularly the use of synthetic starch solutions, which have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Crystalloid solutions with a chloride-rich composition (e.g., isotonic saline) have been associated with metabolic acidosis, hyperchloremia, increased incidence of acute kidney injury, and increased requirement for renal replacement therapy. An optimum dose of intravenous fluids remains controversial with no definitive evidence to support restrictive versus liberal approaches. Further high-quality trials are needed to elucidate the optimum fluid therapy for patients, but currently a balanced approach to type, dose, and timing of fluids is recommended.
Grünewald, Matthias; Broch, Ole; Bein, Berthold
Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT) is one important step in perioperative therapy as it improves complication rate and mortality by optimisation of oxygen delivery. There is a convincing evidence for GDT when used early, before organ failure occurs, and in high-risk patients. Moderne algorithms use goals derived from advanced haemodynamic monitoring and are based on the concept of fluid responsiveness and optimisation of global perfusion. Future investigations will have to prove the advantage of using the new less or non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring devices or automatic closed-loop fluid administration systems for GDT.
The ultimate purpose of fluid administration in states of hypovolemia is to correct cardiac output to improve microcirculatory perfusion and tissue oxygenation. Observation of the microcirculation using handheld microscopes gives insight into the nature of convective and diffusive defect in hypovolemia. The purpose of this article is to introduce a new platform for hemodynamic-targeted fluid therapy based on the correction of tissue and microcirculatory perfusion assumed to be at risk during hypovolemia. Targeting systemic hemodynamic targets and/or clinical surrogates of hypovolemia gives inadequate guarantee for the correction of tissue perfusion by fluid therapy especially in conditions of distributive shock as occur in inflammation and sepsis. Findings are presented, which support the idea that only clinical signs of hypovolemia associated with low microcirculatory flow can be expected to benefit from fluid therapy and that fluid overload causes a defect in the diffusion of oxygen transport. We hypothesized that the optimal amount of fluid needed for correction of hypovolemia is defined by a physiologically based functional microcirculatory hemodynamic platform where convection and diffusion need to be optimized. Future clinical trials using handheld microscopes able to automatically evaluate the microcirculation at the bedside will show whether such a platform will indeed optimize fluid therapy.
Misra, Vivek; Ritchie, Michael M; Stone, Laura L; Low, Walter C; Janardhan, Vallabh
Cell-based therapies are being investigated as an adjunct to IV thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke. This review summarizes the potential applications as well as challenges of intravascular cell delivery in ischemic stroke. We conducted a search of Medline as well as the clinicaltrials.gov Web site for all ongoing human clinical studies using stem cells in ischemic stroke patients. The pros and cons of the various donor cell types and routes of cell delivery, including intravascular delivery, in ischemic stroke are discussed. In addition, the potential challenges in translation from bench to bedside, the optimal techniques for intravascular cell delivery, and an updated comprehensive list of ongoing clinical trials in ischemic stroke are highlighted. Stem cells have shown a promising role in ischemic stroke, in preclinical studies as well as initial pilot studies. Further studies are needed to assess intravascular cell therapy as a potential adjunct to thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy in ischemic stroke.
Liska, Michael G; Crowley, Marci G; Nguyen, Hung; Borlongan, Cesar V
Stroke causes a significant social and economic burden to the society. Despite advancement in awareness and prevention of stroke, there are still limited treatment options for stroke patients. One of the emerging experimental therapies for stroke is stem cell transplantation. The conventional belief of stem cell mechanisms is that the protective effects are produced by either cell replacement or releasing trophic factors. While the exact mechanisms of action of stem cells are not completely understood, recent evidence demonstrates another possible mechanism of stem cells. This new approach emphasizes on the formation of a biobridge between the damage area and the endogenous neurogenic niches of the brain. The transplanted cells can form a pathway which promotes the proliferation and migration of the endogenous stem cells. This paper discusses the use of stem cell transplantation for stroke with an emphasis on the new biobridge concept. Also discussed are the current challenges faced before this approach can advance to the clinical setting.
Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Otero-Ortega, Laura; Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Fuentes, Blanca; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio
Cell-based therapy has demonstrated safety and efficacy in experimental animal models of stroke, as well as safety in stroke patients. However, various questions remain regarding the therapeutic window, dosage, route of administration, and the most appropriate cell type and source, as well as mechanisms of action and immune-modulation to optimize treatment based on stem cell therapy. Various delivery routes have been used in experimental stroke models, including intracerebral, intraventricular, subarachnoid, intra-arterial, intraperitoneal, intravenous, and intranasal routes. From a clinical point of view, it is necessary to demonstrate which is the most feasible, safest, and most effective for use with stroke patients. Therefore, further experimental studies concerning the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of action involved in these therapeutic effects are required to determine their optimal clinical use.
Cho, Hyuk-Shin; Cha, Hyun-Gyu
[Purpose] Physical therapy for recovery of function in people with stroke is known to be effective, but which type of physical therapy intervention is most effective is uncertain because a concrete and detailed record of interventions is done. This study aimed to record, analyze, and describe the content of physical therapy interventions for recovery of function after stroke using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool (SPIRIT). [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 23 physical therapists from a rehabilitation hospital in Chung-nam recorded the interventions for 73 patients with stroke who were treated for 30 minutes in 670 treatment sessions. Treatment session contents were recorded using SPIRIT. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the interventions accurately and to investigate the differences according to time since stroke. [Results] Facilitation techniques were the most frequently used interventions (n=1,342, 35.1%), followed by practice (n=1,056, 27.6%), and exercise (n=748, 19.6%) in the physical therapists' clinical practice. [Conclusion] This pattern shows that physical therapists were focused on functional activity. Organizing or teaching patient activities for independent practice interventions (n=286, 7.5%) were used to encourage patient activity and independence outside the treatment sessions. Interventions according to time since stroke were not significantly different.
Cho, Hyuk-shin; Cha, Hyun-gyu
[Purpose] Physical therapy for recovery of function in people with stroke is known to be effective, but which type of physical therapy intervention is most effective is uncertain because a concrete and detailed record of interventions is done. This study aimed to record, analyze, and describe the content of physical therapy interventions for recovery of function after stroke using stroke physiotherapy intervention recording tool (SPIRIT). [Subjects and Methods] A convenience sample of 23 physical therapists from a rehabilitation hospital in Chung-nam recorded the interventions for 73 patients with stroke who were treated for 30 minutes in 670 treatment sessions. Treatment session contents were recorded using SPIRIT. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the interventions accurately and to investigate the differences according to time since stroke. [Results] Facilitation techniques were the most frequently used interventions (n=1,342, 35.1%), followed by practice (n=1,056, 27.6%), and exercise (n=748, 19.6%) in the physical therapists’ clinical practice. [Conclusion] This pattern shows that physical therapists were focused on functional activity. Organizing or teaching patient activities for independent practice interventions (n=286, 7.5%) were used to encourage patient activity and independence outside the treatment sessions. Interventions according to time since stroke were not significantly different. PMID:27313368
Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Jung Hwa; Im, Sang-Hee; Jung, Kang Jae; Cha, Young A; Jung, Chul Oh; Yoon, Yeo Hoon
Purpose To investigate the effects of music therapy on depressive mood and anxiety in post-stroke patients and evaluate satisfaction levels of patients and caregivers. Materials and Methods Eighteen post-stroke patients, within six months of onset and mini mental status examination score of over 20, participated in this study. Patients were divided into music and control groups. The experimental group participated in the music therapy program for four weeks. Psychological status was evaluated with the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) before and after music therapy. Satisfaction with music therapy was evaluated by a questionnaire. Results BAI and BDI scores showed a greater decrease in the music group than the control group after music therapy, but only the decrease of BDI scores were statistically significant (p=0.048). Music therapy satisfaction in patients and caregivers was affirmative. Conclusion Music therapy has a positive effect on mood in post-stroke patients and may be beneficial for mood improvement with stroke. These results are encouraging, but further studies are needed in this field. PMID:22028163
Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F; Andersen, Grethe; Iversen, Helle K; Nielsen-Kudsk, Jens E; Settergren, Magnus; Sjöstrand, Christina; Roine, Risto O; Hildick-Smith, David; Spence, J David; Thomassen, Lars
The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new brain infarctions. In this multinational trial involving patients with a PFO who had had a cryptogenic stroke, we randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo PFO closure plus antiplatelet therapy (PFO closure group) or to receive antiplatelet therapy alone (antiplatelet-only group). Imaging of the brain was performed at the baseline screening and at 24 months. The coprimary end points were freedom from clinical evidence of ischemic stroke (reported here as the percentage of patients who had a recurrence of stroke) through at least 24 months after randomization and the 24-month incidence of new brain infarction, which was a composite of clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarction detected on imaging. We enrolled 664 patients (mean age, 45.2 years), of whom 81% had moderate or large interatrial shunts. During a median follow-up of 3.2 years, clinical ischemic stroke occurred in 6 of 441 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group and in 12 of 223 patients (5.4%) in the antiplatelet-only group (hazard ratio, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.62; P=0.002). The incidence of new brain infarctions was significantly lower in the PFO closure group than in the antiplatelet-only group (22 patients [5.7%] vs. 20 patients [11.3%]; relative risk, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29 to 0.91; P=0.04), but the incidence of silent brain infarction did not differ significantly between the study groups (P=0.97). Serious adverse events occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PFO closure group and in 27.8% of the patients in the antiplatelet-only group (P=0.22). Serious device-related adverse events occurred in 6 patients (1.4%) in the PFO closure group, and atrial fibrillation occurred in 29
Fletcher-Smith, Joanna C; Walker, Marion F; Cobley, Christine S; Steultjens, Esther M J; Sackley, Catherine M
Stroke is a worldwide problem and is a leading cause of adult disability, resulting in dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) for around half of stroke survivors. It is estimated that up to 25% of all care home residents in the USA and in the UK have had a stroke. Stroke survivors who reside in care homes are likely to be more physically and cognitively impaired and therefore more dependent than those able to remain in their own home. Overall, 75% of care home residents are classified as severely disabled, and those with stroke are likely to have high levels of immobility, incontinence and confusion, as well as additional co-morbidities. It is not known whether this clinically complex population could benefit from occupational therapy in the same way as community-dwelling stroke survivors. The care home population with stroke differs from the general stroke population living at home, and a review was needed to examine the benefits of occupational therapy provided to this specific group. This review therefore focused on occupational therapy interventions for ADL for stroke survivors residing in care homes. To measure the effects of occupational therapy interventions (provided directly by an occupational therapist or under the supervision of an occupational therapist) targeted at improving, restoring and maintaining independence in ADL among stroke survivors residing in long-term institutional care, termed collectively as 'care homes'. As a secondary objective, we aimed to evaluate occupational therapy interventions for reducing complications such as depression and low mood. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (August 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, September 2012), MEDLINE (1948 to September 2012), EMBASE (1980 to September 2012), CINAHL (1982 to September 2012) and 10 additional bibliographic databases and six trials registers. We also handsearched seven journals, checked
Morgenstern, Lewis B; Staub, Lara; Chan, Wenyaw; Wein, Theodore H; Bartholomew, L Kay; King, Mary; Felberg, Robert A; Burgin, W Scott; Groff, Janet; Hickenbottom, Susan L; Saldin, Kamaldeen; Demchuk, Andrew M; Kalra, Anjali; Dhingra, Anupma; Grotta, James C
Only a small minority of acute stroke patients receive approved acute stroke therapy. We performed a community and professional behavioral intervention project to increase the proportion of stroke patients treated with approved acute stroke therapy. This study used a quasi-experimental design. Intervention and comparison communities were compared at baseline and during educational intervention. The communities were based in 5 nonurban East Texas counties. The multilevel intervention worked with hospitals and community physicians while changing the stroke identification skills, outcome expectations, and social norms of community residents. The primary goal was to increase the proportion of patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) from 1% to 6% of all cerebrovascular events in the intervention community. We prospectively evaluated 1733 patients and validated 1189 cerebrovascular events. Intravenous rTPA treatment increased from 1.38% to 5.75% among all cerebrovascular event patients in the intervention community (P=0.01) compared with a change from 0.49% to 0.55% in the comparison community (P=1.00). Among the ischemic stroke patients, an increase from 2.21% to 8.65% was noted in the intervention community (P=0.02). The comparison group did not appreciably change (0.71% to 0.86%, P=1.00). Of eligible intravenous rTPA candidates, treatment increased in the intervention community from 14% to 52% (P=0.003) and was unchanged in the comparison community (7% to 6%, P=1.00). An aggressive, multilevel stroke educational intervention program can increase delivery of acute stroke therapy. This may have important public health implications for reducing disability on a national level.
Hsieh, Ching-Hui; Putman, Koen; Nichols, Diane; McGinty, Molly E; DeJong, Gerben; Smout, Randall J; Horn, Susan
To understand the use of therapy extenders in stroke rehabilitation. Descriptive analysis of a prospective observational cohort study. Two hundred ninety-eight patients with moderate stroke and 284 with severe stroke from 5 inpatient rehabilitation facilities with complete physical and occupational therapy data are included in the study. Overall, occupational therapists and assistants contributed ∼70% and 21% of all occupational therapy hours, respectively. For physical therapy, these percentages in moderate group (60% vs. 31%) differ from those in severe group (65% vs. 23%). Some variations in the use of therapy extenders are noted in both disciplines across sites. Physical and occupational therapists spend more time in delivering advanced activities that include ongoing integrated evaluation and treatment planning or modification. Their assistants spend more time in delivering lower-level activities, such as bed mobility, transfers, dressing, or nonfunctional activities. Also, therapists are more likely to assign responsibility to assistants to treat moderate motor impairment among patients with stroke. Characterizing therapy practice in stroke rehabilitation is not straightforward. It is multifactorial and takes into account the (1) type of therapy, (2) therapy activity, (3) therapy provider including extender personnel, (4) specific training in stroke, and (5) years of experience. Future research to examine the association between use of therapy extenders and outcomes is recommended.
Hansen, Bernie; Vigani, Alessio
The goal of maintenance fluid therapy in small animals is to replace normal ongoing losses of water and salts when oral intake is withheld. Hospitalized dogs and cats may have multiple stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release that disrupt normal osmoregulation and predispose to water retention. Severe illness promotes retention of both sodium and water as edema. Commercially available fluids have electrolyte concentrations that are very different from dietary maintenance requirements, and potential consequences include development of hypoosmolality, edema, or both when excesses of water or sodium are administered. Suggestions for tailoring fluid administration toward specific goals are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thornberg, Kerstin; Josephsson, Staffan; Lindquist, Ingrid
The aim of this study was to investigate how persons with stroke experience participation in rhythm and music therapy. To gain knowledge of the qualitatively different ways persons with stroke experience participation in Ronnie Gardiner Rhythm and Music (RGRM) therapy, a phenomenographic approach was chosen. Interviews with 17 persons with stroke were done. Selection criteria were set to capture the variations in how the phenomenon appeared to the informants. Two qualitatively different ways of experiencing the RGRM therapy were identified: (A) challenge leading to connection with the body and (B) being able. A feeling of being connected to the body was achieved as a result of the challenging tasks. By gaining a feeling of body awareness joy, energy and desire to do things increased. Learning new skills was promoted by having to be concentrated during therapy sessions and a sense of being able to carry out difficult tasks was achieved. Participation in RGRM seems to have helped the persons come to terms with their changed bodies, leading to feelings of being connected with their bodies. A feeling of change in competence occurred when an ability to carry out the tasks was simultaneously achieved. Stroke may cause considerable functional limitations with needs of rehabilitation services as a consequence. Participation in rhythm and movement activities may help persons who have had a stroke come to terms with their "new" bodies. The rhythm and movement activities were considered demanding and helped return to a meaningful life.
Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine
Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction.
Wu, Xiaotian; Guarino, Peter; Lo, Albert C; Peduzzi, Peter; Wininger, Michael
Background While recent clinical trials involving robot-assisted therapy have failed to show clinically significant improvement versus conventional therapy, it is possible that a broader strategy of intensive therapy-to include robot-assisted rehabilitation-may yield clinically meaningful outcomes. Objective To test the immediate and sustained effects of intensive therapy (robot-assisted therapy plus intensive conventional therapy) on outcomes in a chronic stroke population. Methods A multivariate mixed-effects model adjusted for important covariates was established to measure the effect of intensive therapy versus usual care. A total of 127 chronic stroke patients from 4 Veterans Affairs medical centers were randomized to either robot-assisted therapy (n = 49), intensive comparison therapy (n = 50), or usual care (n = 28), in the VA-ROBOTICS randomized clinical trial. Patients were at least 6 months poststroke, of moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. The primary outcome measure was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment at 12 and 36 weeks. Results There was significant benefit of intensive therapy over usual care on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment at 12 weeks with a mean difference of 4.0 points (95% CI = 1.3-6.7); P = .005; however, by 36 weeks, the benefit was attenuated (mean difference 3.4; 95% CI = -0.02 to 6.9; P = .05). Subgroup analyses showed significant interactions between treatment and age, treatment and time since stroke. Conclusions Motor benefits from intensive therapy compared with usual care were observed at 12 and 36 weeks posttherapy; however, this difference was attenuated at 36 weeks. Subgroups analysis showed that younger age, and a shorter time since stroke were associated with greater immediate and long-term improvement of motor function. © The Author(s) 2015.
Carpenter, Christopher R.; Keim, Samuel M.; Milne, William Kenneth; Meurer, William J.; Barsan, William G.
Background Ischemic cerebrovascular accidents remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke within 3 h of symptom onset of highly select patients has been advocated by some groups since 1995, but trials have yielded inconsistent outcomes. One recent trial demonstrated significant improvement when the therapeutic window was extended to 4.5 h. Clinical Question Does the intravenous systemic administration of tPA within 4.5 h to select patients with acute ischemic stroke improve functional outcomes? Evidence Review All randomized controlled trials enrolling patients within 4.5 h were identified, in addition to a meta-analysis of these trial data. Results The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) and European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study III (ECASS III) clinical trials demonstrated significantly improved outcomes at 3 months, with increased rates of intracranial hemorrhage, whereas ECASS II and the Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke (ATLANTIS) study showed increased hemorrhagic complications without improving outcomes. Meta-analysis of trial data from all ECASS trials, NINDS, and ATLANTIS suggest that thrombolysis within 4.5 h improves functional outcomes. Conclusion Ischemic stroke tPA treatment within 4.5 h seems to improve functional outcomes and increases symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage rates without significantly increas ing mortality. PMID:20576390
Wolf, Timothy J.; Baum, Carolyn; Connor, Lisa Tabor
Stroke is one of the most life-altering syndromes affecting the world population. Rehabilitation for people experiencing stroke is focused almost exclusively on self-care activities and being able to return home and has little to no focus on work rehabilitation or community reintegration. The Cognitive Rehabilitation Research Group (CRRG) at the Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis was formed with the vision of improving everyday life for people after stroke by translating knowledge from neuroscience into treatment programs for productive living. Descriptive analysis of the intake assessment from the CRRG Clinical Core (N = 7,740) revealed three important findings: The age at stroke is decreasing, most strokes are neurologically mild to moderate in nature, and discharge placement decisions are being made largely on the basis of measures of impairment. The changes in the stroke population require occupational therapy to expand rehabilitation beyond the acute management of stroke to address full participation in work, family, and community life. PMID:19785261
Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen
Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141
Rantanen, Kirsi; Tatlisumak, Turgut
Stroke is a devastating disease affecting millions of people worldwide every year. Female stroke victims have higher mortality rates and they do not re-cover as well as men. Women's longevity and different vascular risk factor burden like a larger prevalence of atrial fibrillation play a role. Women also have unique risk factors such as oral contraception, pregnancy, estrogen decrease after the menopause and hormone replacement therapy, which should all be evaluated and taken into consideration in treatment decisions both in the acute phase of stroke and in secondary prevention. In this review, the evidence regarding these hormonal aspects and the risk of stroke in women are evaluated. The relevant guidelines are studied and research gaps identified. Future topics for research are recommended and current treatment possibilities and their risks discussed.
Riley, Jeff D; Le, Vu; Der-Yeghiaian, Lucy; See, Jill; Newton, Jennifer M; Ward, Nick S; Cramer, Steven C
Many therapies are emerging that aim to improve motor function in people with stroke. Identifying key biological substrates needed for treatment gains would help to predict treatment effects and to maximize treatment impact. The current study addressed the hypothesis that behavioral gains from therapy targeting distal upper extremity are predicted by the structural integrity of key motor system white matter tracts. Twenty-three subjects with chronic left-sided stroke underwent robotic therapy targeting the distal right upper extremity. MRI was obtained at baseline and used to outline the infarct. For each subject, the degree to which stroke injured each of 4 descending white matter tracts (from the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, dorsal premotor cortex, and ventral premotor cortex, respectively) was determined. Correlations between tract-specific injury and behavioral gains from therapy were then examined. Numerous examples were found whereby tract-specific injury predicted treatment gains. The strongest correlations pertained to stroke injury to tracts descending from the primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex. Infarct volume and baseline behavior were weak predictors of treatment gains. Extent of injury to specific motor tracts predicts behavioral gains from treatment in subjects with chronic stroke. This supports a role for these tracts in mediating treatment effects and reinforces the importance of lesion location in stroke. Tract-specific injury was stronger than infarct volume or baseline clinical status at predicting gains, identifies subjects with sufficient biological substrate to improve from therapy, and so might be useful as an entry criterion in repair-based trials.
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dynamic disease that requires regular reassessment of an affected patient. Typical treatment regimens include crystalloid fluid therapy, insulin, and supplementation of dextrose, phosphorus, and potassium. This article presents an approach to and considerations for treatment of a diabetic ketoacidotic dog or cat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cachia, David; Singh, Charanjeet; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Penas-Prado, Marta
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common manifestation of cryptococcosis and is caused by the encapsulated yeast organism Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most commonly in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity such as in HIV infection; patients with hematological malignancies; patients post solid-organ transplantation; on chronic steroids or immunosuppressants. Clinically, stroke can arise as a complication of cryptococcal meningitis. While cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is usually not indicated for evaluation of stroke patients, demonstration of cryptococcal yeast forms in CSF is valuable in guiding appropriate therapy in arterial stroke caused by Cryptococci. Herein, we describe the CSF and radiologic correlation in a female patient who presented with disseminated cryptococcosis, cryptococcal meninigitis and a middle cerebral artery infarct.
Opinion statement Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the elderly, affecting 1 in 20 adults over the age of 70 years. Stroke is a major yet highly preventable complication of AF, and the strokes related to AF often are disabling and fatal. Warfarin is the treatment of choice in high-risk patients with AF, and its superior efficacy over aspirin for preventing stroke in these patients is widely recognized. However, several eligible patients with AF are not being treated with warfarin or are being treated inadequately, largely because of concerns regarding the attendant strict monitoring, drug interactions, and risk of major bleeding. As such, alternative antithrombotic therapies that can rival or exceed the efficacy of warfarin, yet compare favorably with its administration and side effect profile, are being sought. One such strategy, the use of a combination antiplatelet regimen, for stroke prevention in high-risk patients with nonvalvular AF was investigated recently in two clinical trials. This article reviews the role of combination antiplatelet regimens in stroke prevention for patients with AF. Other therapies discussed include oral anticoagulation, single antiplatelet therapies, oral anticoagulation plus antiplatelet treatment, direct thrombin inhibitors, and factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:20461116
Mücke, Sabine; Grotemeyer, Karl-Heinz; Stahlhut, Leandra; Husstedt, Ingo W; Evers, Stefan
Recommended fluid intake is regarded as an important factor for stroke prevention. In mass media, drinking of at least 2000 ml water per day is recommended for any condition. However, no prospective trials are available which examined the impact of the amount of daily fluid intake on primary stroke prevention or on stroke recurrence. We performed a prospective study evaluating the daily fluid intake over a period of two years in stroke patients. Patients (n=465) with a complete stroke (i.e., proven ischaemic cerebral infarction) were followed for two years with a regular visit every three months. At every visit the average daily amount of fluid intake was evaluated by a drinking diary. Patients had to protocol all kinds of fluid they were drinking during the day for a whole week. They were divided into two groups: daily intake of more and of less than 2000 ml. The rate of primary endpoint (stroke including transient ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, or death from any cause) and of secondary endpoint (stroke) was calculated for the two groups. In addition, haemorheological parameters such as platelet reactivity, erythrocyte aggregation, and osmolarity were measured at every visit. The mean observation period was 17 months. In this period, the patients with recommended fluid intake (mean amount 2427 ml) had a primary event rate of 12.3% whereas the patients with the low fluid intake (mean amount 1625 ml) had a primary event rate of 16.8%. The Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly better outcome of the patient group with recommended fluid intake with respect to the primary endpoint (p<0.013) and to the secondary endpoint (p<0.007). We observed a lower platelet reactivity in the patient group with recommended fluid intake as the only significant haemorheological factor influenced by the fluid intake. We observed no association between the amount of fluid intake and conventional vascular risk factors except a higher fluid intake in smokers. Our data
Srinivasa, Sanket; Taylor, Matthew H G; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; MacCormick, Andrew D; Hill, Andrew G
Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy (GDFT) has been previously shown to decrease complications and hospital length of stay in major colorectal surgery but the data are not specific to rectal surgery and may be potentially outdated. This study investigated whether GDFT provides clinical benefits in patients undergoing major elective rectal surgery. There were 81 consecutive patients in this cohort study. Twenty-seven patients were allotted to GDFT using the Oesophageal Doppler Monitor (ODM) and received boluses of colloid fluid based on corrected flow time and stroke volume. These patients were compared with a historical cohort of the previous 54 patients managed without the ODM. The primary endpoint of the study was 30-day total complications which were defined and graded. Secondary endpoints included hospital length of stay (LOS) and fluid volumes administered. There were no differences at baseline between the two groups. Patients in the treatment group received a higher volume of colloid fluids (1000 mL vs. 500 mL; p < 0.01) but there were no differences in overall fluid volumes administered intraoperatively (3000 mL vs. 3000 mL; p = 0.41). A non-significant trend (p = 0.06) suggested that patients allotted to GDFT had decreased fluid requirement in the first 24 h after surgery. There were no differences in median total fluid volumes (12700 mL vs. 10407 mL; p = 0.95), total complications (22 [81%] vs. 44 [81%]; p = 1.00) or median hospital LOS (9 days vs. 10 days; p = 0.92) between the two groups. Intraoperative GDFT did not improve clinical outcomes following major elective rectal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei
Stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating stroke. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Molecular imaging provides the possibility of the visual representation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand the stem cells therapeutic mechanisms, we need to further develop means of monitoring these cells noninvasively, longitudinally and repeatedly. Because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo imaging of stem cells therapy for stroke has unique challenges. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging (OI). Each of the imaging techniques has advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we describe multimodality imaging strategies as a more comprehensive and potential method to monitor transplanted stem cells for stroke. PMID:24222920
Chao, Fangfang; Shen, Yehua; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei
Stem cells have been proposed as a promising therapy for treating stroke. While several studies have demonstrated the therapeutic benefits of stem cells, the exact mechanism remains elusive. Molecular imaging provides the possibility of the visual representation of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level. In order to facilitate research efforts to understand the stem cells therapeutic mechanisms, we need to further develop means of monitoring these cells noninvasively, longitudinally and repeatedly. Because of tissue depth and the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo imaging of stem cells therapy for stroke has unique challenges. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine imaging, and optical imaging (OI). Each of the imaging techniques has advantages and drawbacks. Finally, we describe multimodality imaging strategies as a more comprehensive and potential method to monitor transplanted stem cells for stroke.
Holliday, Malcolm A; Ray, Patricio E; Friedman, Aaron L
Fluid therapy restores circulation by expanding extracellular fluid. However, a dispute has arisen regarding the nature of intravenous therapy for acutely ill children following the development of acute hyponatraemia from overuse of hypotonic saline. The foundation on which correct maintenance fluid therapy is built is examined and the difference between maintenance fluid therapy and restoration or replenishment fluid therapy for reduction in extracellular fluid volume is delineated. Changing practices and the basic physiology of extracellular fluid are discussed. Some propose changing the definition of "maintenance therapy" and recommend isotonic saline be used as maintenance and restoration therapy in undefined amounts leading to excess intravenous sodium chloride intake. Intravenous fluid therapy for children with volume depletion should first restore extracellular volume with measured infusions of isotonic saline followed by defined, appropriate maintenance therapy to replace physiological losses according to principles established 50 years ago.
Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Naoshi; Yamada, Koji; Ono, Hajime; Kumai, Junichiro; Tsumura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Kazunari; Nozaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hitoshi; Takumi, Ichiro; Nikaido, Hirofumi; Katabami, Tuyoshi; Ueda, Toshihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwai, Ryosei; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Shigeno, Taku
There is no prehospital stratification tool specifically for predicting thrombolytic therapy after transportation. We developed a new prehospital scale named the Maria Prehospital Stroke Scale (MPSS) by modifying the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale. Our objective is to evaluate its utility in a citywide bypass transportation protocol for intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In the MPSS, facial droop, arm drift, and speech disturbance are tested by emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Facial droop is graded as normal (0) or abnormal (1), and the other 2 items are graded in 3 levels as normal (0), not severe (1), and severe (2). Thus, the total MPSS score ranges from 0 to 5. The predictive value of MPSS for thrombolytic therapy after bypass transportation was evaluated in 1057 patients. The MPSS scored by EMTs was significantly correlated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score in the emergency room (Spearman rho = .67, P = .000). The onset-to-door time was significantly longer with a low MPSS score (analysis of variance, F5,4.21 = .001). The rate of thrombolytic therapy was increased when the MPSS score increased from 0 to 5: 0%, 4.1%, 8.8%, 13.0%, 20.3%, and 31.5%, respectively. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the correct diagnosis of stroke and prediction of IV tPA therapy were calculated as .737 (95% confidence interval [CI]: .688-.786) and .689 (95% CI: .645-.732), respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the MPSS score and the detection-to-door time were independent predictors of tPA use after transportation. The MPSS is a novel prehospital stratification tool for the prediction of thrombolytic therapy after transportation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Umemoto, Seiji; Ogihara, Toshio; Rakugi, Hiromi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ito, Sadayoshi; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Ohashi, Yasuo; Saruta, Takao; Matsuzaki, Masunori
The Combination Therapy of Hypertension to Prevent Cardiovascular Events (COPE) trial compared the dihydropyridine T/L-type calcium channel blocker benidipine-based therapies when combined with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), a β-blocker (BB) or a thiazide diuretic (TD). The results suggested that benidipine combined with a BB appeared to be less beneficial in reducing the risk of stroke compared with the benidipine-TD combination (hazard ratio (HR): 2.31, P=0.0109). We further evaluated the treatment effects on different stroke subtypes among the three benidipine-based regimens. The COPE trial was an investigator-initiated, multicenter study with PROBE design. Patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter were excluded from the study. All stroke events were subclassified with the Trial of Org 10,172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) criteria. The total incidence of stroke was 4.7, hemorrhagic stroke was 1.6 and ischemic stroke was 2.5 per 1000 person-years. The incidence of lacunar stroke was 1.1, large-artery stroke was 0.6, cardioembolic stroke was 0.3, unknown ischemic type was 0.6 and transient ischemic attack was 0.6 per 1000 person-years. Although few differences in stroke subtypes were observed among the three treatment groups, multi-adjusted HRs for the incidence rates of all types of stroke, hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were significantly higher with the benidipine-BB regimen than with the benidipine-TD regimen. The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke in the benidipine-ARB regimen was not different compared with the other two treatment regimens. This prespecified sub-analysis suggested that a blood pressure-lowering therapy with a benidipine-TD regimen might be beneficial for hypertensive patients to prevent both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke.
Aked, Joseph; Delavaran, Hossein; Lindvall, Olle; Norrving, Bo; Kokaia, Zaal; Lindgren, Arne
Preclinical studies suggest that stem cell therapy (SCT) may improve poststroke recovery, and clinical trials investigating safety are ongoing. However, knowledge about patients' attitudes to SCT in stroke is limited. We evaluated the knowledge and attitudes to this therapeutic approach as well as possible factors influencing this among stroke patients potentially suitable for SCT. Consecutive first-ever acute ischemic stroke patients aged 20-75 years with NIH stroke scale scores 1-18 were included. Exclusion criteria were severe comorbidities or infratentorial stroke. Clinical follow-up after 3-5 years assessed severity of residual stroke symptoms, cognitive function, functional status, patient-reported outcome, and comorbidity, and after receiving standardized information, the participants also completed an eight-item questionnaire on knowledge and attitudes about SCT. The relationships between clinical variables and positive attitude to SCT were assessed with logistic regression analyses. Of 108 patients included at baseline, 84 participated at follow-up and completed the questionnaire. In total, 12% had prior knowledge of SCT. When informed, 63% were positive toward it and 36% reported willingness to participate in SCT trials. Only 5%-8% expressed ethical considerations regarding different stem cell sources. Positive attitudes to SCT were associated with male gender (OR: 3.74; 95% CI: 1.45-9.61; P < 0.01) and better patient-reported outcome (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.00-1.04; P < 0.05). In conclusion, stroke patients had limited prior knowledge of SCT, yet attitudes were positive among the majority after receiving standardized and neutral information. Gender and degree of stroke recovery may influence attitudes to SCT, indicating a need for targeted information to improve knowledge about SCT.
Huang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Wei-Te; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chen, Guan-Yu; Lin, Li-Fong
To analyze how acupuncture therapy affects balance in patients experiencing their first stroke and to identify the stroke group with greatest improvement in balance after acupuncture intervention. Retrospective case-control study. Ward of a medical university hospital. A total of 629 stroke patients were enrolled initially; 345 patients met the study criteria and 132 were analyzed (66 each in the study and control groups). The study group received physiotherapy combined with acupuncture and the control group received only physiotherapy. The Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke patients (PASS) was used to evaluate balance. This balance scale system can be subdivided into static balance (PASS-MP, maintain posture) and dynamic balance (PASS-CP, change posture). This study revealed no statistically significant improvement of balance in the study group (t test). When patients with high Brunnstrom stage (Br stage) and low Br stage were analyzed separately, once again no statistical difference was detected between the study and control groups of those with high Br stage. However, among low-Br stage patients, the study group showed significant improvement in static balance (mean PASS-MP score±standard deviation: 4.7±3.7) compared with the control group (PASS-MP score: 2.8±2.7) (p<0.05). In first-ever stroke patients with a low Br stage, acupuncture therapy can improve static balance during rehabilitation. However, the effect on balance was limited among high-Br stage patients. This study provides information valuable to patients with hemiplegic stroke because it suggests that acupuncture can be used to improve balance. A prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled study design is recommended for future studies in patients with hemiplegic stroke.
Mukherjee, Debanjan; Padilla, Jose; Shadden, Shawn C.
Roughly one-third of all strokes are caused by an embolus traveling to a cerebral artery and blocking blood flow in the brain. The objective of this study is to gain a detailed understanding of the dynamics of embolic particles within arteries. Patient computed tomography image is used to construct a three-dimensional model of the carotid bifurcation. An idealized carotid bifurcation model of same vessel diameters was also constructed for comparison. Blood flow velocities and embolic particle trajectories are resolved using a coupled Euler-Lagrange approach. Blood is modeled as a Newtonian fluid, discretized using the finite volume method, with physiologically appropriate inflow and outflow boundary conditions. The embolus trajectory is modeled using Lagrangian particle equations accounting for embolus interaction with blood as well as vessel wall. Both one- and two-way fluid-particle coupling are considered, the latter being implemented using momentum sources augmented to the discretized flow equations. It was observed that for small-to-moderate particle sizes (relative to vessel diameters), the estimated particle distribution ratio—with and without the inclusion of two-way fluid-particle momentum exchange—were found to be similar. The maximum observed differences in distribution ratio with and without the coupling were found to be higher for the idealized bifurcation model. Additionally, the distribution was found to be reasonably matching the volumetric flow distribution for the idealized model, while a notable deviation from volumetric flow was observed in the anatomical model. It was also observed from an analysis of particle path lines that particle interaction with helical flow, characteristic of anatomical vasculature models, could play a prominent role in transport of embolic particle. The results indicate therefore that flow helicity could be an important hemodynamic indicator for analysis of embolus particle transport. Additionally, in the presence
Long, Elliot; Duke, Trevor
Sepsis and septic shock are the final common pathway for many decompensated paediatric infections. Fluid resuscitation therapy has been the cornerstone of haemodynamic resuscitation in these children. Good evidence for equivalence between 0.9% saline and 4% albumin, with the relative expense of the latter, has meant that 0.9% saline is currently the most commonly used resuscitation fluid world-wide. Evidence for harm from the chloride load in 0.9% saline has generated interest in balanced solutions as first line resuscitation fluids. Their safety has been well established in observational studies, and they may well be the most reasonable default fluid for resuscitation. Semi-synthetic colloids have been associated with renal dysfunction and death and should be avoided. There is evidence for harm from excessive administration of any resuscitation fluid. Resuscitation fluid volumes should be treated in the same way as the dose of any other intravenously administered medication, and the potential benefits versus harms for the individual patient weighed prior to administration. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Thieme, Holm; Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann; Dohle, Christian
Mirror therapy is used to improve motor function after stroke. During mirror therapy, a mirror is placed in the patient's midsagittal plane, thus reflecting movements of the non-paretic side as if it were the affected side. To summarise the effectiveness of mirror therapy for improving motor function, activities of daily living, pain and visuospatial neglect in patients after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2011) and PEDro (June 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, trials and research registers, checked reference lists and contacted trialists, researchers and experts in our field of study. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and randomised cross-over trials comparing mirror therapy with any control intervention for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials based on the inclusion criteria, documented the methodological quality of studies and extracted data. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables. We included 14 studies with a total of 567 participants that compared mirror therapy with other interventions. When compared with all other interventions, mirror therapy may have a significant effect on motor function (post-intervention data: SMD 0.61; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22 to 1.0; P = 0.002; change scores: SMD 1.04; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.51; P < 0.0001). However, effects on motor function are influenced by the type of control intervention. Additionally, mirror therapy may improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.60; P = 0.02). We found a significant positive effect on pain (SMD -1.10; 95% CI -2.10 to -0.09; P = 0.03) which is influenced by patient population
Dobkin, Bruce H.; Dorsch, Andrew
Neurologic rehabilitation aims to reduce impairments and disabilities so that persons with serious stroke can return to participation in usual self-care and daily activities as independently as feasible. New strategies to enhance recovery draw from a growing understanding of how types of training, progressive task-related practice of skills, exercise for strengthening and fitness, neurostimulation, and drug and biological manipulations can induce adaptations at multiple levels of the nervous system. Recent clinical trials provide evidence for a range of new interventions to manage walking, reach and grasp, aphasia, visual field loss, and hemi-inattention. PMID:23591673
Dobkin, Bruce H; Dorsch, Andrew
Neurologic rehabilitation aims to reduce impairments and disabilities so that persons with serious stroke can return to participation in usual self-care and daily activities as independently as feasible. New strategies to enhance recovery draw from a growing understanding of how types of training, progressive task-related practice of skills, exercise for strengthening and fitness, neurostimulation, and drug and biological manipulations can induce adaptations at multiple levels of the nervous system. Recent clinical trials provide evidence for a range of new interventions to manage walking, reach and grasp, aphasia, visual field loss, and hemi-inattention.
Jiang, Mei; Lv, Lei; Ji, Haifeng; Yang, Xuelian; Zhu, Wei; Cai, Liying; Gu, Xiaju; Chai, Changfeng; Huang, Shu; Sun, Jian; Dong, Qiang
Stroke can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and even death. However, there is no treatment exists to restore its lost function. Human embryonic stems transplantation therapy was a novel and potential therapeutic approach for stroke. However, as we have seen, the ethical controversy pertains to embryonic stem cell research. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are the latest generation of stem cells that may be a solution to the controversy of using embryonic cells. In our study, we generated iPSCs from adult human fibroblasts by introduction of four defined transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin-28). And then, we investigated the efficacy of iPSCs transplantation therapy for stroke on the animal models of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Surprisingly, we found that transplanted iPSCs migrated to injured brain areas, and differentiated into neuron-like cells successfully. After 4-16 days iPSCs grafting, sensorimotor function of rats has been improved significantly. In one word, we may prove that iPSCs therapy in stroke to be an effective form of treatment.
Andres, Robert H; Choi, Raymond; Steinberg, Gary K; Guzman, Raphael
Despite state-of-the-art therapy, clinical outcome after stroke remains poor, with many patients left permanently disabled and dependent on care. Stem cell therapy has evolved as a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of stroke in experimental studies, and recent clinical trials have proven its feasibility and safety in patients. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of different cell types, such as embryonic, fetal or adult stem cells, human fetal tissue and genetically engineered cell lines. Adult neural stem cells offer the advantage of avoiding the ethical problems associated with embryonic or fetal stem cells and can be harvested as autologous grafts from the individual patients. Furthermore, stimulation of endogenous adult stem cell-mediated repair mechanisms in the brain might offer new avenues for stroke therapy without the necessity of transplantation. However, important scientific issues need to be addressed to advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the critical steps in cell-based repair to allow the introduction of these experimental techniques into clinical practice. This review describes up-to-date experimental concepts using adult neural stem cells for the treatment of stroke.
Souvenir, Rhonda; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping
Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO), over the past decade, was hailed as an auspicious therapeutic strategy for various types of brain injuries. The promising results from experiments conducted in animal models of stroke led to a hurried clinical trial that was swiftly aborted in Phase II. The multiple neuroprotective modalities of rhEPO failed to translate smoothly to human adult ischemic brain injury and provided limited aid to neonates. In light of the antithetical results, several questions were raised as to why and how this clinical trial failed. There was bolstering evidence from the preliminary studies that pointed to a bright future. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address these questions by discussing the signaling pathways of rhEPO that are reported to mediate the neuroprotective effect in various animal models of brain injury. Major biomedical bibliographical databases (MEDLINE, ISI, PubMed, and Cochrane Library) were searched with the use of keywords such as erythropoietin, stroke, neonatal hypoxia ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage, etc. This article will discuss the confounding factors that influence the efficacy of rhEPO treatment hence challenging its clinical translatability. Lastly, rhEPO may still be a promising therapeutic candidate for neonates in spite of its shortcoming in clinical trial if caution is taken with the dose and duration of its administration. PMID:25620101
Choi, Ji-Won; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Lee, Seung-Won; Park, Jung-Bo; Lee, Gyu-Hong
To evaluate the clinical efficacy of intravenous (IV) fluid warming in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery were randomly assigned to receive either IV fluids at room temperature (control group) or warmed IV fluids (warm fluids group). Each patient received a standardized goal-directed fluid regimen based on stroke volume variances. Oesophageal temperature was measured at 15 min intervals for 2 h after induction of anaesthesia. A total of 52 patients were enrolled in the study. The drop in core temperature in the warm fluids group was significantly less than in the control group 2 h after the induction of anaesthesia. This significant difference was seen from 30 min after induction. IV fluid warming was associated with a smaller drop in core temperature than room temperature IV fluids in laparoscopic colorectal surgery incorporating goal-directed fluid therapy. © The Author(s) 2016.
Manley, Nathan C; Steinberg, Gary K
Stem cell transplantation has emerged as a promising treatment strategy for stroke. The development of effective ways to monitor transplanted stem cells is essential to understand how stem cell transplantation enhances stroke recovery and ultimately will be an indispensable tool for advancing stem cell therapy to the clinic. In this review, we describe existing methods of tracking transplanted stem cells in vivo, including optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), with emphasis on the benefits and drawbacks of each imaging approach. Key considerations such as the potential impact of each tracking system on stem cell function, as well as its relative applicability to humans are discussed. Finally, we describe multi-modal imaging strategies as a more comprehensive method to track transplanted stem cells in the stroke-injured brain.
Hao, Lei; Zou, Zhongmin; Tian, Hong; Zhang, Yubo; Zhou, Huchuan; Liu, Lei
In recent years, stem cell-based approaches have attracted more attention from scientists and clinicians due to their possible therapeutical effect on stroke. Animal studies have demonstrated that the beneficial effects of stem cells including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), neural stem cells (NSCs), and mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) might be due to cell replacement, neuroprotection, endogenous neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and modulation on inflammation and immune response. Although several clinical studies have shown the high efficiency and safety of stem cell in stroke management, mainly MSCs, some issues regarding to cell homing, survival, tracking, safety, and optimal cell transplantation protocol, such as cell dose and time window, should be addressed. Undoubtably, stem cell-based gene therapy represents a novel potential therapeutic strategy for stroke in future.
Hu, Sheng-li; Feng, Hua; Xi, Guo-hua
To date, the therapeutic methods for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke are still limited. The lack of oxygen supply is critical for brain injury following stroke. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), an approach through a process in which patients breathe in 100% pure oxygen at over 101 kPa, has been shown to facilitate oxygen delivery and increase oxygen supply. Hence, HBO possesses the potentials to produce beneficial effects on stroke. Actually, accumulated basic and clinical evidences have demonstrated that HBO therapy and preconditioning could induce neuroprotective functions via different mechanisms. Nevertheless, the lack of clinical translational study limits the application of HBO. More translational studies and clinical trials are needed in the future to develop effective HBO protocols. PMID:28217297
Hoffmann, Tammy; Bennett, Sally; Koh, Chia-Lin; McKenna, Kryss T
Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke and can impact on a person's ability to perform everyday activities. There are a number of different intervention strategies that occupational therapists may use when working with people who have cognitive impairment post-stroke. To determine whether occupational therapy improves functional performance of basic activities of daily living (ADL) and specific cognitive abilities in people who have cognitive impairment following a stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched May 2009), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2009), EMBASE (1980 to April 2009), CINAHL (1982 to April 2009), PsycINFO (1840 to April 2009), PsycBITE, OTseeker and Dissertation Abstracts (the latest three were searched up to April 2009). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we also tracked relevant references through the cited reference search in Science Citation Index (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), reviewed the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews, handsearched relevant occupational therapy journals, and contacted key researchers in the area. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that evaluated an intervention focused on providing cognitive retraining to adults with clinically defined stroke and confirmed cognitive impairment. The intervention needed either to be provided by an occupational therapist or given under the supervision of an occupational therapist. Two review authors independently examined the abstracts that might meet the inclusion criteria, assessed the quality and extracted data. We have presented results using mean differences. We included one trial with 33 participants in this review. We found no difference between groups for the two relevant outcomes that were measured: improvement in time judgement skills and improvement in
Fisher, Marc; Feuerstein, Giora; Howells, David W.; Hurn, Patricia D.; Kent, Thomas A.; Savitz, Sean I.; Lo, Eng H.
The initial Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations published in 1999 were intended to improve the quality of preclinical studies of purported acute stroke therapies. Although recognized as reasonable, they have not been closely followed nor rigorously validated. Substantial advances have occurred regarding the appropriate quality and breadth of preclinical testing for candidate acute stroke therapies for better clinical translation. The updated STAIR preclinical recommendations reinforce the previous suggestions that reproducibly defining dose response and time windows with both histological and functional outcomes in multiple animal species with appropriate physiological monitoring is appropriate. The updated STAIR recommendations include: the fundamentals of good scientific inquiry should be followed by eliminating randomization and assessment bias, a priori defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, performing appropriate power and sample size calculations, and disclosing potential conflicts of interest. After initial evaluations in young, healthy male animals, further studies should be performed in females, aged animals, and animals with comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Another consideration is the use of clinically relevant biomarkers in animal studies. Although the recommendations cannot be validated until effective therapies based on them emerge from clinical trials, it is hoped that adherence to them might enhance the chances for success. PMID:19246690
Haydock, Matthew D; Mittal, Anubhav; Wilms, Heath R; Phillips, Anthony; Petrov, Maxim S; Windsor, John A
The aim of this study was to systematically review and evaluate the quality of current evidence about fluid therapy (FT) in acute pancreatitis (AP). Intravenous FT is thought to be important in the early management of patients with AP. Clinically relevant questions remain regarding the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and the goal of FT. A comprehensive literature search for human studies was performed using online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library). The quality of the entire body of evidence was then graded according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group guidelines in relation to 3 key areas: type of fluid, rate of fluid administration, and goal-directed FT. The initial search yielded 410 studies, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. Only 2 randomized studies compared types of fluids. Nine studies looked at aggressive versus nonaggressive resuscitation protocols, of which 4 concluded that an aggressive approach yielded better outcomes and 5 concluded that a nonaggressive approach was better. Two studies investigated goal-directed FT, using different goals; one demonstrating benefit and the other none. Analysis of the body of evidence as per the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group revealed that the majority of evidence was of low or very low quality. FT is considered a cornerstone of the early management of patients with AP and yet the evidence on which it is based remains paltry and of poor quality. This systematic review has demonstrated the equipoise necessary for the design of randomized controlled trials to answer pressing questions relating to the type of fluid, the rate of administration, and how FT should be guided.
Gómez-Izquierdo, Juan C; Trainito, Alessandro; Mirzakandov, David; Stein, Barry L; Liberman, Sender; Charlebois, Patrick; Pecorelli, Nicolò; Feldman, Liane S; Carli, Franco; Baldini, Gabriele
Inadequate perioperative fluid therapy impairs gastrointestinal function. Studies primarily evaluating the impact of goal-directed fluid therapy on primary postoperative ileus are missing. The objective of this study was to determine whether goal-directed fluid therapy reduces the incidence of primary postoperative ileus after laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Randomized patient and assessor-blind controlled trial conducted in adult patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Patients were assigned randomly to receive intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy (goal-directed fluid therapy group) or fluid therapy based on traditional principles (control group). Primary postoperative ileus was the primary outcome. One hundred twenty-eight patients were included and analyzed (goal-directed fluid therapy group: n = 64; control group: n = 64). The incidence of primary postoperative ileus was 22% in the goal-directed fluid therapy and 22% in the control group (relative risk, 1; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.9; P = 1.00). Intraoperatively, patients in the goal-directed fluid therapy group received less intravenous fluids (mainly less crystalloids) but a greater volume of colloids. The increase of stroke volume and cardiac output was more pronounced and sustained in the goal-directed fluid therapy group. Length of hospital stay, 30-day postoperative morbidity, and mortality were not different. Intraoperative goal-directed fluid therapy compared with fluid therapy based on traditional principles does not reduce primary postoperative ileus in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery in the context of an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program. Its previously demonstrated benefits might have been offset by advancements in perioperative care.
Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep
Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. This is the latest update of a review first published in 2005 and updated in 2008 and 2014. To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae. For this 2016 update we searched the following databases up to March 2016: the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Global Health, and Web of Science. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of differing volumes of fluid given in the initial management of bacterial meningitis were eligible for inclusion. All four of the original review authors extracted data and assessed trials for quality in the first publication of this review (one author, ROW, has passed away since the original review; see Acknowledgements). The current authors combined data for meta-analysis using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used a fixed-effect statistical model. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included three trials with a total of 420 children; there were no trials in adult populations. The largest of the three trials was conducted in settings with high mortality rates and was judged to have low risk of bias for all domains, except performance bias which was high risk. The other two smaller trials were not of high quality.The meta-analysis found no significant difference between the maintenance-fluid and restricted-fluid groups in number of deaths (RR 0.82, 95
Isobe, Chiaki; Abe, Takashi; Terayama, Yasuo
The goal of our study was whether free radicals contribute to the pathogenesis of the lacunar stroke to investigate the day after hospitalization, the concentrations of 3-nitrotyrosine and tyrosine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from living patients. The subjects included 20 living patients with lacunar stroke and 20 controls. The NIH stroke scale score was used to assess the severity of the stroke, including that the patients were mild cases. There was no expansion of the infarct lesion in the brain, as assessed by CT on the day following admission. The concentration of 3-nitrotyrosine was significantly higher in patients with lacunar stroke. In contrast, the concentration of tyrosine did not differ between the two groups. Furthermore, the 3-nitrotyrosine/tyrosine ratio was significantly higher in patients with lacunar stroke than in controls. Our results show that free radicals are produced in the CSF of lacunar stroke patients and that nitration of neuronal proteines is enhanced under this condition. These obsetvations suggest that lacunar stroke patients should be treated with edaravon, which is a free radical scavenger usually prescribed for cases of major strokes, as it will likely improve the prognosis of these patients.
Hoste, E A; Maitland, K; Brudney, C S; Mehta, R; Vincent, J-L; Yates, D; Kellum, J A; Mythen, M G; Shaw, A D
I.V. fluid therapy plays a fundamental role in the management of hospitalized patients. While the correct use of i.v. fluids can be lifesaving, recent literature demonstrates that fluid therapy is not without risks. Indeed, the use of certain types and volumes of fluid can increase the risk of harm, and even death, in some patient groups. Data from a recent audit show us that the inappropriate use of fluids may occur in up to 20% of patients receiving fluid therapy. The delegates of the 12th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Conference sought to obtain consensus on the use of i.v. fluids with the aim of producing guidance for their use. In this article, we review a recently proposed model for fluid therapy in severe sepsis and propose a framework by which it could be adopted for use in most situations where fluid management is required. Considering the dose-effect relationship and side-effects of fluids, fluid therapy should be regarded similar to other drug therapy with specific indications and tailored recommendations for the type and dose of fluid. By emphasizing the necessity to individualize fluid therapy, we hope to reduce the risk to our patients and improve their outcome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mirela Cristina, Luca; Matei, Daniela; Ignat, Bogdan; Popescu, Cristian Dinu
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of mirror therapy program in addition with physical therapy methods on upper limb recovery in patients with subacute ischemic stroke. 15 subjects followed a comprehensive rehabilitative treatment, 8 subjects received only control therapy (CT) and 7 subjects received mirror therapy (MT) for 30 min every day, five times a week, for 6 weeks in addition to the conventional therapy. Brunnstrom stages, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (upper extremity), the Ashworth Scale, and Bhakta Test (finger flexion scale) were used to assess changes in upper limb motor recovery and motor function after intervention. After 6 weeks of treatment, patients in both groups showed significant improvements in the variables measured. Patients who received MT showed greater improvements compared to the CT group. The MT treatment results included: improvement of motor functions, manual skills and activities of daily living. The best results were obtained when the treatment was started soon after the stroke. MT is an easy and low-cost method to improve motor recovery of the upper limb.
Boix, E; Vicente, R; Pérez-Artacho, J
The anesthetist has 2 major tools for optimizing haemodynamics in cardiac surgery: Vasoactive drugs and the intravascular volume. It is necessary to identify which patients would benefit from one or the other therapies for a suitable response to treatment. Hemodynamic monitoring with the different existing parameters (pressure, volumetric static, volumetric functional and echocardiography) allows the management of these patients to be optimized. In this article a review is presented on the most recent and relevant publications, and the different tools available to control the management of the fluid therapy in this context, and to suggest a few guidelines for the haemodynamics monitoring of patients submitted to cardiac surgery. A systematic search has been made in PubMed, limiting the results to the publications over the last five years up to February 2012.
Morrison, M Tracy; Edwards, Dorothy F; Giles, Gordon Muir
Age at first stroke is decreasing, and most strokes are mild to moderate in severity. Executive function (EF) deficits are increasingly recognized in the stroke population, but occupational therapists have not altered their evaluation methods to fully accommodate changing patient needs. We present a hierarchical performance-based testing (PBT) pathway using data to illustrate how PBT could identify patients with mild stroke-related EF deficits in need of occupational therapy intervention. Data suggest that a substantial number of patients with EF deficits after mild stroke could benefit from occupational therapy services. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Following cerebral ischemia, various biochemical reactions are provoked in a stepwise manner leading neuronal cells to ischemic death. The prevention of these biochemical reactions may exert neuroprotective actions and consequently reduce the magnitude of ischemic cerebral injury. On the basis of such a view, numerous neuroprotective drugs have been developed during the last decade. Quite a few drugs were found effective in reducing the infarct volume in experimental studies, and more than 15 of them were subjected to clinical phase III trials to see a therapeutic effectiveness. However, the results of phase III trials were disappointing in the majority drugs. Only three drugs, nicaravene, ebselen and edaravone, all radical scavengers, were judged effective by small-sized trials with a wide therapeutic window, 48-72 hours after stroke, in Japan. The fact suggests that a one-point prevention of biochemical reactions by single drug is unable to rescue ischemic neuronal cells. Ischemic insult causes damages of vascular wall including the endothelium which play an important role in the development of hemorrhagic changes or cerebral edema. Vascular protection is considered as important as neuroprotection in treatment of clinical stroke. Mild hypothermia has neuroprotective and vascular protective actions and hence may be more effective than neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of stroke. The prevention of fever, which often occurs in severe stroke, may exert the similar effect as hypothermia in neuroprotection. Neuroprotective therapy in the future should proceed toward the simultaneous protections of neurons and vessels using combination of multiple drugs.
Tsoupikova, Daria; Stoykov, Nikolay S; Corrigan, Molly; Thielbar, Kelly; Vick, Randy; Li, Yu; Triandafilou, Kristen; Preuss, Fabian; Kamper, Derek
Stroke is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. Impairment of upper extremity function is a common outcome following stroke, often to the detriment of lifestyle and employment opportunities. While the upper extremity is a natural target for therapy, treatment may be hampered by limitations in baseline capability as lack of success may discourage arm and hand use. We developeda virtual reality (VR) system in order to encourage repetitive task practice. This system combined an assistive glove with a novel VR environment. A set of exercises for this system was developed to encourage specific movements. Six stroke survivors with chronic upper extremity hemiparesis volunteered to participate in a pilot study in which they completed 18 one-hour training sessions with the VR system. Performance with the system was recorded across the 18 training sessions. Clinical evaluations of motor control were conducted at three time points: prior to initiation of training, following the end of training, and 1 month later. Subjects displayed significant improvement on performance of the virtual tasks over the course of the training, although for the clinical outcome measures only lateral pinch showed significant improvement. Future expansion to multi-user virtual environments may extend the benefits of this system for stroke survivors with hemiparesis by furthering engagement in the rehabilitation exercises.
Yoon, Jin A; Koo, Bon Il; Shin, Myung Jun; Shin, Yong Beom; Ko, Hyun-Yoon; Shin, Yong-Il
To evaluate the effectiveness of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and combined mirror therapy for inpatient rehabilitation of the patients with subacute stroke. Twenty-six patients with subacute stroke were enrolled and randomly divided into three groups: CIMT combined with mirror therapy group, CIMT only group, and control group. Two weeks of CIMT for 6 hours a day with or without mirror therapy for 30 minutes a day were performed under supervision. All groups received conventional occupational therapy for 40 minutes a day for the same period. The CIMT only group and control group also received additional self-exercise to substitute for mirror therapy. The box and block test, 9-hole Pegboard test, grip strength, Brunnstrom stage, Wolf motor function test, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index were performed prior to and two weeks after the treatment. After two weeks of treatment, the CIMT groups with and without mirror therapy showed higher improvement (p<0.05) than the control group, in most of functional assessments for hemiplegic upper extremity. The CIMT combined with mirror therapy group showed higher improvement than CIMT only group in box and block test, 9-hole Pegboard test, and grip strength, which represent fine motor functions of the upper extremity. The short-term CIMT combined with mirror therapy group showed more improvement compared to CIMT only group and control group, in the fine motor functions of hemiplegic upper extremity for the patients with subacute stroke.
Kyle, Stuart; Saha, Sikha
Over the years, nanotechnology has greatly developed, moving from careful design strategies and synthesis of novel nanostructures to producing them for specific medical and biological applications. The use of nanotechnology in diagnostics, drug delivery, and tissue engineering holds great promise for the treatment of stroke in the future. Nanoparticles are employed to monitor grafted cells upon implantation, or to enhance the imagery of the tissue, which is coupled with a noninvasive imaging modality such as magnetic resonance imaging, computed axial tomography or positron emission tomography scan. Contrast imaging agents used can range from iron oxide, perfluorocarbon, cerium oxide or platinum nanoparticles to quantum dots. The use of nanomaterial scaffolds for neuroregeneration is another area of nanomedicine, which involves the creation of an extracellular matrix mimic that not only serves as a structural support but promotes neuronal growth, inhibits glial differentiation, and controls hemostasis. Promisingly, carbon nanotubes can act as scaffolds for stem cell therapy and functionalizing these scaffolds may enhance their therapeutic potential for treatment of stroke. This Progress Report highlights the recent developments in nanotechnology for the detection and therapy of stroke. Recent advances in the use of nanomaterials as tissue engineering scaffolds for neuroregeneration will also be discussed.
Sikora Newsome, Andrea; Casciere, Bryan C; Jordan, J Dedrick; Rhoney, Denise H; Sullivan, Kelly A; Morbitzer, Kathryn A; Moore, Joseph D; Durr, Emily A
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are the most widely utilized class of cholesterol-lowering agents, carrying multiple indications for both primary and secondary cardiovascular risk reduction. Concern was raised by previously published post hoc analyses and observational studies that noted an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke in patients receiving a statin. Subsequent studies have demonstrated conflicting results regarding the role of statin therapy on hemorrhagic stroke risk and patient outcomes. New evidence suggests that statins taken prior to or continued during admission for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) may be associated with positive outcomes. Evidence also suggests deleterious outcomes resulting from the abrupt discontinuation of statins upon hospital admission for multiple disease states including ICH. Conflicting data also exist for the use of statins following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Recent evidence suggests statins started during admission for aSAH confer no additional benefit in reducing delayed ischemic neurologic deficits despite initial positive results. Larger scale evaluation of the role of statin therapy following hemorrhagic stroke is warranted. The available literature is reviewed to provide guidance for therapeutic decision making. © 2015 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Boisserand, Ligia S. B.; Kodama, Tomonobu; Papassin, Jérémie; Auzely, Rachel; Moisan, Anaïck; Rome, Claire; Detante, Olivier
Stroke is an important health issue corresponding to the second cause of mortality and first cause of severe disability with no effective treatments after the first hours of onset. Regenerative approaches such as cell therapy provide an increase in endogenous brain structural plasticity but they are not enough to promote a complete recovery. Tissue engineering has recently aroused a major interesting development of biomaterials for use into the central nervous system. Many biomaterials have been engineered based on natural compounds, synthetic compounds, or a mix of both with the aim of providing polymers with specific properties. The mechanical properties of biomaterials can be exquisitely regulated forming polymers with different stiffness, modifiable physical state that polymerizes in situ, or small particles encapsulating cells or growth factors. The choice of biomaterial compounds should be adapted for the different applications, structure target, and delay of administration. Biocompatibilities with embedded cells and with the host tissue and biodegradation rate must be considerate. In this paper, we review the different applications of biomaterials combined with cell therapy in ischemic stroke and we explore specific features such as choice of biomaterial compounds and physical and mechanical properties concerning the recent studies in experimental stroke. PMID:27274738
English, Coralie; Hillier, Susan L; Lynch, Elizabeth A
Circuit class therapy (CCT) offers a supervised group forum for people after stroke to practise tasks, enabling increased practice time without increasing staffing. This is an update of the original review published in 2010. To examine the effectiveness and safety of CCT on mobility in adults with stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched January 2017), CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library, Issue 12, 2016), MEDLINE (1950 to January 2017), Embase (1980 to January 2017), CINAHL (1982 to January 2017), and 14 other electronic databases (to January 2017). We also searched proceedings from relevant conferences, reference lists, and unpublished theses; contacted authors of published trials and other experts in the field; and searched relevant clinical trials and research registers. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including people over 18 years old, diagnosed with stroke of any severity, at any stage, or in any setting, receiving CCT. Review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias in all included studies, and extracted data. We included 17 RCTs involving 1297 participants. Participants were stroke survivors living in the community or receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Most could walk 10 metres without assistance. Ten studies (835 participants) measured walking capacity (measuring how far the participant could walk in six minutes) demonstrating that CCT was superior to the comparison intervention (Six-Minute Walk Test: mean difference (MD), fixed-effect, 60.86 m, 95% confidence interval (CI) 44.55 to 77.17, GRADE: moderate). Eight studies (744 participants) measured gait speed, again finding in favour of CCT compared with other interventions (MD 0.15 m/s, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.19, GRADE: moderate). Both of these effects are considered clinically meaningful. We were able to pool other measures to demonstrate the superior effects of CCT for aspects of walking and balance (Timed Up and Go: five studies, 488
Maconochie, Ian K; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep
Acute bacterial meningitis remains a disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. However, with prompt and adequate antimicrobial and supportive treatment, the chances for survival have improved, especially among infants and children. Careful management of fluid and electrolyte balance is an important supportive therapy. Both over- and under-hydration are associated with adverse outcomes. To evaluate treatment of acute bacterial meningitis with differing volumes of initial fluid administration (up to 72 hours after first presentation) and the effects on death and neurological sequelae. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10), MEDLINE (1966 to October week 5, 2013), EMBASE (1980 to November 2013), CINAHL (1981 to November 2013), LILACS (1982 to November 2013) and Web of Science (2010 to 2013). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of differing volumes of fluid given in the initial management of bacterial meningitis were eligible for inclusion. For this update we identified two abstracts, but after obtaining full texts we excluded them. Previous searches had identified six trials; on careful inspection three trials (415 children) met the inclusion criteria. All four of the original review authors extracted data and assessed trials for quality (one author, ROW, has died since the original review; see Acknowledgements). We combined data for meta-analysis using risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or mean difference (MD) for continuous data. We used a fixed-effect statistical model. We assessed overall evidence quality using the GRADE approach. There were no trials in adult populations. All included trials were on paediatric patient groups. The largest of the three trials was conducted in settings with high mortality rates. The meta-analysis found no significant difference between the maintenance-fluid and restricted-fluid groups in number of deaths (RR 0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53 to 1.27; 407
Wei, Ling; Wei, Zheng Z; Jiang, Michael Qize; Mohamad, Osama; Yu, Shan Ping
One of the exciting advances in modern medicine and life science is cell-based neurovascular regeneration of damaged brain tissues and repair of neuronal structures. The progress in stem cell biology and creation of adult induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has significantly improved basic and pre-clinical research in disease mechanisms and generated enthusiasm for potential applications in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases including stroke. Endogenous neural stem cells and cultured stem cells are capable of self-renewal and give rise to virtually all types of cells essential for the makeup of neuronal structures. Meanwhile, stem cells and neural progenitor cells are well-known for their potential for trophic support after transplantation into the ischemic brain. Thus, stem cell-based therapies provide an attractive future for protecting and repairing damaged brain tissues after injury and in various disease states. Moreover, basic research on naïve and differentiated stem cells including iPS cells has markedly improved our understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms of neurological disorders, and provides a platform for the discovery of novel drug targets. The latest advances indicate that combinatorial approaches using cell based therapy with additional treatments such as protective reagents, preconditioning strategies and rehabilitation therapy can significantly improve therapeutic benefits. In this review, we will discuss the characteristics of cell therapy in different ischemic models and the application of stem cells and progenitor cells as regenerative medicine for the treatment of stroke.
Kristensen, Hanne Kaae; Persson, Dennis; Nygren, Carita; Boll, Mette; Matzen, Peter
Evidence-based practice creates practice that integrates research-driven evidence with clinical expertise and patients' preferences in clinical decision-making. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the quality and applicability of scientific research in occupational therapy intervention related to the use of everyday life occupations and client-centred practice within stroke rehabilitation. Systematic searches of research studies published in English during 2000-2007 in peer-reviewed journals were undertaken. Thirty-nine articles and one Cochrane review were appraised and the quality evaluated using an evidence taxonomy and an evidence hierarchy. Evidence arose providing support for a client-centred approach, entailing outcome related to better ability to recall goals, the patients feeling more involved and able to manage more everyday life occupations after rehabilitation. There is also considerable evidence for the use of everyday life occupations in occupational therapy. Occupational therapy was evaluated as an important aspect of stroke rehabilitation improving outcomes in everyday life occupations including activities of daily living (ADL) and participation. As research of relevance for the profession to a large extent includes qualitative research it gives rise to reflection on including more tools than the evidence hierarchy while evaluating evidence within occupational therapy.
Lauterbach, Sarah A; Foreman, Matt H; Engsberg, Jack R
Stroke affects approximately 800,000 individuals each year, with 65% having residual impairments. Studies have demonstrated that mass practice leads to regaining motor function in affected extremities; however, traditional therapy does not include the repetitions needed for this recovery. Videogames have been shown to be good motivators to complete repetitions. Advances in technology and low-cost hardware bring new opportunities to use computer games during stroke therapy. This study examined the use of the Microsoft (Redmond, WA) Kinect™ and Flexible Action and Articulated Skeleton Toolkit (FAAST) software as a therapy tool to play existing free computer games on the Internet. Three participants attended a 1-hour session where they played two games with upper extremity movements as game controls. Video was taken for analysis of movement repetitions, and questions were answered about participant history and their perceptions of the games. Participants remained engaged through both games; regardless of previous computer use all participants successfully played two games. Five minutes of game play averaged 34 repetitions of the affected extremity. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory showed a high level of satisfaction in two of the three participants. The Kinect Sensor with the FAAST software has the potential to be an economical tool to be used alongside traditional therapy to increase the number of repetitions completed in a motivating and engaging way for clients.
Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-Il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun; Koh, Seong-Ho
Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00-1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10-3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information.
Kim, Young Seo; Chung, Dan-il; Choi, Hojin; Baek, Wonki; Kim, Hyun Young; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Chang, Dae-Il; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, Seung Hyun
Stem cell therapy (SCT) has been proposed for the treatment of neurological disorders. Although there is insufficient clinical evidence to support its efficacy, unproven SCTs are being performed worldwide. In this study, we investigated the perspectives and expectations of chronic ischemic stroke patients and physicians about SCTs. A total of 250 chronic ischemic stroke patients were interviewed at 4 hospitals. Structured open and closed questions about SCT for chronic stroke were asked by trained interviewers using the conventional in-person method. In addition, 250 stroke-related physicians were randomly interviewed via an e-mail questionnaire. Of the 250 patients (mean 63 years, 70% male), 121 (46%) responded that they wanted to receive SCT in spite of its unknown side effects. Around 60% of the patients anticipated physical, emotional, and psychological improvement after SCT, and 158 (63%) believed that SCT might prevent strokes. However, physicians had much lower expectations about the effectiveness of SCTs, which was not in line with patient expectations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the male gender [odds ratio (OR): 2.00, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–3.64], longer disease duration (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 1.00–1.02), higher modified Rankin Scale score (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06–1.60), and familiarity with stem cells (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.10–3.15) were independently associated with wanting SCT. The major source of information about SCT was television (68%), and the most reliable source was physicians (49%). Patients have unfounded expectations that SCT will improve their functioning. Considering our finding that the major source of information on stem cells is media channels, but not the physician, to decrease patients' inappropriate exposure, doctors should make more effort to educate patients using mass media with accurate information. PMID:22784218
Traditional Eastern Medicine (TEM) has a long history in stroke therapy and its therapeutic efficacy has been confirmed by clinical studies. Extensive experience and abundant clinical data on TEM in stroke treatment have been accumulated over the past thousand years. Basic and clinical research in TEM constitutes a potentially rich source for new drug discovery and development with the integration of TEM and Western pharmacology. In recent years, many attempts have been made to document research data from extracts of composite formulas, single herbs, or single compounds from TEM herbs, according to orthodox pharmacological actions. This article reviews herbs and prescriptions that have been documented to have a neuroprotective effect in in vitro and in vivo ischemic model systems, and the neuroprotective compounds isolated from them. I also discuss the neuroprotective mechanisms of prescriptions, herbs, and single compounds relevant to the treatment of brain ischemia, including anti-oxidant, anti-excitotoxic, and anti-inflammatory effects.
Wang, Jing; Yu, Peng; Zeng, Ming; Gu, Xudong; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Mingyue
The aim of the study was to confirm whether paraffin therapy offer clinical value in the treatment of spasticity due to stroke. Fifty-two patients with spasticity in the upper limb were included. The patients were randomized into the experimental group with paraffin therapy (n = 27) and the control group with placebo therapy (n = 25). The outcome measures besides temperature examination were undertaken at time points of 0 (T0), 2 (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) following therapy treatment. The extent of spasticity was measured using Modified Ashworth Score (MAS) during passive movement at the shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate the hemiplegic upper limb pain and functional activity of the upper limb motor function was evaluated by Brunnstrom recovery stage. All adverse events were recorded. MAS decreased significantly in Exp group compared with Con group, at the time points of T1 and T2, both before and immediately after paraffin therapy. Paraffin treatment failed to show remarkable improvement in pain compared with placebo-treated patient at movement at any time point. But VAS in Exp exhibited a tendency to decrease over time in shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand. With regard to the Brunnstrom score, patients in Exp showed significant improvement at the end of trial compared to the beginning. The values of temperature showed significant increment immediately after paraffin therapy at each time point in Exp group. Paraffin therapy may be a kind of noninvasive, promising method to reduce spasticity of stroke patients.
Tello, Luis; Perez-Freytes, Rossana
Fluid therapy is generally the most life saving and important therapeutic measure in a critical pet suffering from dehydration due to gastrointestinal losses (vomiting and/or diarrhea). Fluid therapy should be personalized to the patient's history, complaint, physical examination and laboratory findings. It is directed to the patients needs and modified based of the physical and laboratory findings until fluid therapy resuscitation end points are achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, Helen K; Gavins, Felicity N E
Substantial developments in the field of stem cell research point toward novel therapies for the treatment of diseases such as stroke. This review covers the establishment of tissue damage in stroke and the status of current therapies. We evaluate stem cell therapy with respect to other treatments, including clinical, preclinical, and failed, and provide a comprehensive account of stem cell clinical trials for stroke therapy currently underway. Finally, we describe mechanisms through which stem cells improve outcome in experimental stroke as well as potential pitfalls this basic research has identified.
Plow, E B; Sankarasubramanian, V; Cunningham, D A; Potter-Baker, K; Varnerin, N; Cohen, L G; Sterr, A; Conforto, A B; Machado, A G
A great challenge facing stroke rehabilitation is the lack of information on how to derive targeted therapies. As such, techniques once considered promising, such as brain stimulation, have demonstrated mixed efficacy across heterogeneous samples in clinical studies. Here, we explain reasons, citing its one-type-suits-all approach as the primary cause of variable efficacy. We present evidence supporting the role of alternate substrates, which can be targeted instead in patients with greater damage and deficit. Building on this groundwork, this review will also discuss different frameworks on how to tailor brain stimulation therapies. To the best of our knowledge, our report is the first instance that enumerates and compares across theoretical models from upper limb recovery and conditions like aphasia and depression. Here, we explain how different models capture heterogeneity across patients and how they can be used to predict which patients would best respond to what treatments to develop targeted, individualized brain stimulation therapies. Our intent is to weigh pros and cons of testing each type of model so brain stimulation is successfully tailored to maximize upper limb recovery in stroke.
Corea, Francesco; Amici, Serena; Murgia, Nicola; Tambasco, Nicola
Despite only sporadic observations, the use of medical oxygen-ozone therapy is a largely diffused treatment for lumbar disk herniation that has failed to respond to conservative management. Combined intradiscal and periganglionic injection of medical ozone and periganglionic injection of steroids are presumed to have a cumulative effect enhancing the overall outcome of treatment for pain caused by disk herniation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of stroke during such medical application. The patient had Anton's syndrome as a result of top of the basilar hypoperfusion.
Liu, Kaiyin; Khan, Hajra; Geng, Xiaokun; Zhang, Jun; Ding, Yuchuan
Mild physical hypothermia after stroke has been associated with positive outcomes. Despite the well-studied beneficial effects of hypothermia in the treatment of stroke, lack of precise temperature control, intolerance for the patient, and immunosuppression are some of the reasons which limit its clinical translation. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia has been explored as a possible treatment option following stroke in animal models. Currently, there are eight classes of pharmacological agents/agonists with hypothermic effects affecting a multitude of systems including cannabinoid, opioid, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), neurotensin, thyroxine derivatives, dopamine, gas, and adenosine derivatives. Interestingly, drugs in the TRPV1, neurotensin, and thyroxine families have been shown to have effects in thermoregulatory control in decreasing the compensatory hypothermic response during cooling. This review will briefly present drugs in the eight classes by summarizing their proposed mechanisms of action as well as side effects. Reported thermoregulatory effects of the drugs will also be presented. This review offers the opinion that these agents may be useful in combination therapies with physical hypothermia to achieve faster and more stable temperature control in hypothermia.
Brady, Marian C; Kelly, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Enderby, Pam; Campbell, Pauline
Aphasia is an acquired language impairment following brain damage that affects some or all language modalities: expression and understanding of speech, reading, and writing. Approximately one third of people who have a stroke experience aphasia. To assess the effects of speech and language therapy (SLT) for aphasia following stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 9 September 2015), CENTRAL (2015, Issue 5) and other Cochrane Library Databases (CDSR, DARE, HTA, to 22 September 2015), MEDLINE (1946 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), AMED (1985 to September 2015), LLBA (1973 to September 2015), and SpeechBITE (2008 to September 2015). We also searched major trials registers for ongoing trials including ClinicalTrials.gov (to 21 September 2015), the Stroke Trials Registry (to 21 September 2015), Current Controlled Trials (to 22 September 2015), and WHO ICTRP (to 22 September 2015). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials we also handsearched the International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders (1969 to 2005) and reference lists of relevant articles, and we contacted academic institutions and other researchers. There were no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing SLT (a formal intervention that aims to improve language and communication abilities, activity and participation) versus no SLT; social support or stimulation (an intervention that provides social support and communication stimulation but does not include targeted therapeutic interventions); or another SLT intervention (differing in duration, intensity, frequency, intervention methodology or theoretical approach). We independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of included trials. We sought missing data from investigators. We included 57 RCTs (74 randomised comparisons) involving 3002 participants in this review (some appearing in
Kwok, Chun Shing; Shoamanesh, Ashkan; Copley, Hannah Charlotte; Myint, Phyo Kyaw; Loke, Yoon K; Benavente, Oscar R
Lacunar stroke accounts for ≈25% of ischemic stroke, but optimal antiplatelet regimen to prevent stroke recurrence remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of antiplatelet agents in secondary stroke prevention after a lacunar stroke. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane library for randomized controlled trials that reported risk of recurrent stroke or death with antiplatelet therapy in patients with lacunar stroke. We used random effects meta-analysis and evaluated heterogeneity with I(2). We included 17 trials with 42,234 participants (mean age 64.4 years, 65% male) and follow up ranging from 4 weeks to 3.5 years. Compared with placebo, any single antiplatelet agent was associated with a significant reduction in recurrence of any stroke (risk ratio [RR] 0.77, 0.62-0.97, 2 studies) and ischemic stroke (RR 0.48, 0.30-0.78, 2 studies), but not for the composite outcome of any stroke, myocardial infarction, or death (RR 0.89, 0.75-1.05, 2 studies). When other antiplatelet agents (ticlodipine, cilostazol, and dipyridamole) were compared with aspirin, there was no consistent reduction in stroke recurrence (RR 0.91, 0.75-1.10, 3 studies). Dual antiplatelet therapy did not confer clear benefit over monotherapy (any stroke RR 0.83, 0.68-1.00, 3 studies; ischemic stroke RR 0.80, 0.62-1.02, 3 studies; composite outcome RR 0.90, 0.80-1.02, 3 studies). Our results suggest that any of the single antiplatelet agents compared with placebo in the included trials is adequate for secondary stroke prevention after lacunar stroke. Dual antiplatelet therapy should not be used for long-term stroke prevention in this stroke subtype. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Rinehart, J; Le Manach, Y; Douiri, H; Lee, C; Lilot, M; Le, K; Canales, C; Cannesson, M
Intraoperative haemodynamic optimization based on fluid management and stroke volume optimization (Goal Directed Fluid Therapy [GDFT]) can improve patients' postoperative outcome. We have described a closed-loop fluid management system based on stroke volume variation and stroke volume monitoring. The goal of this system is to apply GDFT protocols automatically. After conducting simulation, engineering, and animal studies the present report describes the first use of this system in the clinical setting. Prospective pilot study. Patients undergoing major surgery. Twelve patients at two institutions had intraoperative GDFT delivered by closed-loop controller under the direction of an anaesthesiologist. Compliance with GDFT management was defined as acceptable when a patient spent more than 85% of the surgery time in a preload independent state (defined as stroke volume variation<13%), or when average cardiac index during the case was superior or equal to 2.5l/min/m(2). Closed-loop GDFT was completed in 12 patients. Median surgery time was 447 [309-483] min and blood loss was 200 [100-1000] ml. Average cardiac index was 3.2±0.8l/min/m(2) and on average patients spent 91% (76 to 100%) of the surgery time in a preload independent state. Twelve of 12 patients met the criteria for compliance with intraoperative GDFT management. Intraoperative GDFT delivered by closed-loop system under anaesthesiologist guidance allowed to obtain targeted objectives in 91% of surgery time. This approach may provide a way to ensure consistent high-quality delivery of fluid administration and compliance with perioperative goal directed therapy. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Burton, Christopher R; Bennett, Bev; Gibbon, Bernard
As the basis for the design of career development opportunities for current and aspiring nursing and therapy consultants, we aimed to explore the factors that shape how these roles have embedded in UK stroke services. The non-medical consultant role has been introduced into UK health care services to provide opportunities for experienced practitioners to progress their careers in clinical practice. Whilst there have been evaluations of the impact of the role on service delivery, little attention has been paid to the pathways towards consultantship. An exploratory design, incorporating focus group discussions, was used to address the research questions. Participating consultants, both nurses and allied health professionals, worked in stroke services, although it is anticipated that the results will have wider application. Two focus groups were held with non-medical consultants in stroke from across the UK. Participants had the opportunity to comment on an interim paper prior to publication of the results. Thirteen consultants took part in the study. A lack of consensus about the nature of clinical expertise and a diverse range of pathways towards consultantship were identified. Health care policy had presented the opportunity for consultants to be entrepreneurial in the development of stroke services, although this had limited the scope for the development of professional knowledge. Inflexible programmes to support aspiring consultants may limit the opportunities to develop these entrepreneurial skills. This study challenges health care organizations and the education and research departments that support them to think creatively in the way that the non-medical consultant role is embedded, and that this should draw on the commitment of existing consultants to support succession planning. The identification of those aspects of career pathways that current consultants have found to be helpful will be useful in designing opportunities for aspiring consultants.
Lyu, Peter F; Murphy, David J
Fluid therapy practices are an ongoing debate in critical care as evidence continues to emerge on the clinical effectiveness of different fluids and regimens. Although fluid therapy is a frequent and often costly treatment in the ICU, cost considerations have been largely absent from these studies. To facilitate a more structured approach to understanding fluid therapy costs and their role in clinical practice, we summarize currently available options and describe a framework for identifying and organizing relevant costs. Fluid therapy is a complex area of care that has been rarely studied from a cost-effectiveness perspective. We identify seven cost areas that capture fluid therapy-related costs during preutilization, point-of-utilization, and postutilization periods. These costs are driven by decisions on the type of fluid and administration strategy. Although estimates for some cost areas could be informed by medical literature, other cost areas remain unclear and require further investigation. Given the growing emphasis on the value of care, providers must recognize the important cost consequences of clinical decisions in fluid therapy. Future research into fluid therapy costs is needed and can be guided by this framework. Developing a complete cost picture is an initial and necessary step for improving values for patients, hospitals, and healthcare systems.
Ní Chróinín, Danielle; Callaly, Elizabeth L; Duggan, Joseph; Merwick, Áine; Hannon, Niamh; Sheehan, Órla; Marnane, Michael; Horgan, Gillian; Williams, Emma B; Harris, Dawn; Kyne, Lorraine; McCormack, Patricia M E; Moroney, Joan; Grant, Tim; Williams, David; Daly, Leslie; Kelly, Peter J
Statins improve infarct volume and neurological outcome in animal stroke models. We investigated the relationship between statin therapy and ischemic stroke outcome in the North Dublin Population Stroke Study. A population-based prospective cohort study was performed using rigorous ascertainment methods. Prestroke and acute (≤72 hours) poststroke medications were recorded. Modified Rankin score and fatality were assessed at 7, 28, and 90 days and 1 year. Of 448 ischemic stroke patients, statins were prescribed before stroke onset in 30.1% (134/445) and were begun acutely (≤72 hours) in an additional 42.5% (189/445). On logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, prestroke disability (modified Rankin scale), NIHSS score, hypertension, and aspirin, new poststroke statin therapy was independently associated with improved early and late survival (compared with statin untreated patients: OR for death, 0.12; CI, 0.03-0.54 at 7 days; OR, 0.19; CI, 0.07-0.48 at 90 days; OR, 0.26; CI, 0.12-0.55 at 1 year; P≤0.006 for all). Similar findings were observed for statin therapy before stroke onset (adjusted OR for death compared with statin-untreated-patients, 0.04; CI, 0.00-0.33; P=0.003 at 7 days; OR, 0.23; CI, 0.09-0.58; P=0.002 at 90 days; OR, 0.48; CI, 0.23-1.01; P=0.05 at 1 year). Statin therapy at stroke onset and newly begun statins were associated with improved early and late outcomes, supporting data from experimental studies. Randomized trials of statin therapy for treatment of acute stroke are needed.
McDermid, Robert C; Raghunathan, Karthik; Romanovsky, Adam; Shaw, Andrew D; Bagshaw, Sean M
Fluid therapy is perhaps the most common intervention received by acutely ill hospitalized patients; however, a number of critical questions on the efficacy and safety of the type and dose remain. In this review, recent insights derived from randomized trials in terms of fluid type, dose and toxicity are discussed. We contend that the prescription of fluid therapy is context-specific and that any fluid can be harmful if administered inappropriately. When contrasting ''crystalloid vs colloid'', differences in efficacy are modest but differences in safety are significant. Differences in chloride load and strong ion difference across solutions appear to be clinically important. Phases of fluid therapy in acutely ill patients are recognized, including acute resuscitation, maintaining homeostasis, and recovery phases. Quantitative toxicity (fluid overload) is associated with adverse outcomes and can be mitigated when fluid therapy based on functional hemodynamic parameters that predict volume responsiveness and minimization of non-essential fluid. Qualitative toxicity (fluid type), in particular for iatrogenic acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis, remain a concern for synthetic colloids and isotonic saline, respectively. Physiologically balanced crystalloids may be the ''default'' fluid for acutely ill patients and the role for colloids, in particular hydroxyethyl starch, is increasingly unclear. We contend the prescription of fluid therapy is analogous to the prescription of any drug used in critically ill patients.
Thieme, Holm; Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann; Dohle, Christian
This systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of mirror therapy for improving motor function, activities of daily living, pain, and visuospatial neglect in patients after stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group’s Trials Register (June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL (1982 to June 2011), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2011), and PEDro (June 2011). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, trials, and research registers; checked reference lists; and contacted trialists, researchers, and experts in our field of study. We included randomized controlled trials and randomized crossover trials comparing mirror therapy with any control intervention for patients after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials based on the inclusion criteria, documented the methodological quality of studies, and extracted data. The primary outcome was motor function. We analyzed the results as standardized mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables. We included 14 studies with a total of 567 participants, which compared mirror therapy with other interventions. When compared with all other interventions, mirror therapy was found to have a significant effect on motor function (postintervention data: SMD 0.61; 95% CI 0.22 to 1.0; P=0.002; change scores: SMD 1.04; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.51; P<0.0001) ; Figure). However, effects on motor function are influenced by the type of control intervention. Additionally, mirror therapy was found to improve activities of daily living (SMD 0.33; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.60; P=0.02). We found a significant positive effect on pain (SMD −1.10; 95% CI −2.10 to −0.09; P=0.03), which is influenced by patient population. We found limited evidence for improving visuospatial neglect (SMD 1.22; 95% CI 0.24 to 2.19; P=0.01). The effects on motor function were stable at follow
Farook, Naureen; Haussen, Diogo; Sur, Samir; Snelling, Brian; Gersey, Zachary; Yavagal, Dileep; Peterson, Eric
Systemic heparinization has become the mainstay anticoagulant in neurointerventional procedures to prevent thromboembolic complications. Its benefit during endovascular therapy for acute stroke however has not been established. The purpose of this study is to retrospectively evaluate the impact of heparin during endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We performed a retrospective review of our interventional stroke database from February 2009 to September 2012 for patients with anterior circulation AIS with ICA-T or MCA M1 occlusions. 76 patients were categorized into 2 groups: intraprocedural vs. no intraprocedural heparin use. Outcomes measured included reperfusion (modified TICI scale), cerebral hemorrhages (ECASS criteria), and 90-day outcomes (modified Rankin scale). Baseline characteristics were similar between heparin and non-heparin treated patients, except for presence of CAD (6% vs. 30%, p=0.01), Coumadin (0% vs. 11%, p=0.04), and NIHSS (15.6±5.0 vs. 18.1±4.6, p=0.03). There was a nonsignificantly higher reperfusion rate achieved in heparin-treated patients compared to non heparin-treated patients (63% vs. 50%, p=0.35). Patients who received heparin had significantly lower rates of hemorrhage (p=0.02). Multivariate logistic regression for good outcome revealed only age (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.78-0.95; p<0.01), ASPECTS (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.01-4.50; p=0.04), and successful reperfusion (OR 19.25; 95% CI 2.37-155.95; p<0.01) independently associated with mRS 0-2 at 90 days. The use of intraprocedural heparin in patients with AIS from MCA M1 or ICA-T occlusion was found safe. The impact of heparinization is unclear and warrants further evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Berger, M M; Gradwohl-Matis, I; Brunauer, A; Ulmer, H; Dünser, M W
Perioperative fluid management plays a fundamental role in maintaining organ perfusion, and is considered to affect morbidity and mortality. Targets according to which fluid therapy should be administered are poorly defined. This systematic review aimed to identify specific targets for perioperative fluid therapy. The PubMed database (January 1993-December 2013) and reference lists were searched to identify clinical trials which evaluated specific targets of perioperative fluid therapy and reported clinically relevant perioperative endpoints in adult patients. Only studies in which targeted fluid therapy was the sole intervention were included into the main data analysis. A pooled data analysis was used to compare mortality between goal-directed fluid therapy and control interventions. Thirty-six clinical studies were selected. Sixteen studies including 1224 patients specifically evaluated targeted fluid therapy and were included into the main data analysis. Three specific targets for perioperative fluid therapy were identified: a systolic or pulse pressure variation <10-12%, an increase in stroke volume <10%, and a corrected flow time of 0.35-0.4 s in combination with an increase in stroke volume <10%. Targeting any one of these goals resulted in less postoperative complications (pooled data analysis: OR 0.53; CI95, 0.34-0.83; P=0.005) and a shorter length of intensive care unit/hospital stay, but no difference in postoperative mortality (pooled data analysis: OR 0.61; CI95, 0.33-1.11; P=0.12). This systematic review identified three goals for perioperative fluid administration, targeting of which appeared to be associated with less postoperative complications and shorter intensive care unit/hospital lengths of stay. Perioperative mortality remained unaffected.
Lu, Chung-Yen; Huang, Hsin-Chia; Chang, Hen-Hong; Yang, Tsung-Hsien; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Pei-Chun
We investigated whether use of acupuncture within a 3-month poststroke period after hospital discharge is associated with reduced risk of depression. This cohort study included 16 046 patients aged ≥18 years with an initial hospitalization for stroke during 2000 and 2012 in the claims database of a universal health insurance program. Patients who had received acupuncture therapies within 3 months of discharge were defined as acupuncture users (n=1714). All patients were followed up for incidence of depression until the end of 2013. We assessed the association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression using Cox proportional hazards models in all subjects and in propensity score-matched samples consisting of 1714 pairs of users and nonusers. During the follow-up period, the incidence of depression per 1000 person-years was 11.1 and 9.7 in users and nonusers, respectively. Neither multivariable-adjusted Cox models (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.29) nor the propensity score-matching model (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-1.42) revealed an association between use of acupuncture and incidence of depression. In patients admitted to hospital for stroke, acupuncture therapy within 3 months after discharge was not associated with subsequent incidence of depression. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Navarro, Lais Helena Camacho; Bloomstone, Joshua A; Auler, Jose Otavio Costa; Cannesson, Maxime; Rocca, Giorgio Della; Gan, Tong J; Kinsky, Michael; Magder, Sheldon; Miller, Timothy E; Mythen, Monty; Perel, Azriel; Reuter, Daniel A; Pinsky, Michael R; Kramer, George C
Perioperative fluid therapy remains a highly debated topic. Its purpose is to maintain or restore effective circulating blood volume during the immediate perioperative period. Maintaining effective circulating blood volume and pressure are key components of assuring adequate organ perfusion while avoiding the risks associated with either organ hypo- or hyperperfusion. Relative to perioperative fluid therapy, three inescapable conclusions exist: overhydration is bad, underhydration is bad, and what we assume about the fluid status of our patients may be incorrect. There is wide variability of practice, both between individuals and institutions. The aims of this paper are to clearly define the risks and benefits of fluid choices within the perioperative space, to describe current evidence-based methodologies for their administration, and ultimately to reduce the variability with which perioperative fluids are administered. Based on the abovementioned acknowledgements, a group of 72 researchers, well known within the field of fluid resuscitation, were invited, via email, to attend a meeting that was held in Chicago in 2011 to discuss perioperative fluid therapy. From the 72 invitees, 14 researchers representing 7 countries attended, and thus, the international Fluid Optimization Group (FOG) came into existence. These researches, working collaboratively, have reviewed the data from 162 different fluid resuscitation papers including both operative and intensive care unit populations. This manuscript is the result of 3 years of evidence-based, discussions, analysis, and synthesis of the currently known risks and benefits of individual fluids and the best methods for administering them. The results of this review paper provide an overview of the components of an effective perioperative fluid administration plan and address both the physiologic principles and outcomes of fluid administration. We recommend that both perioperative fluid choice and therapy be individualized
Lim, Sue Yin; Brooke, Jonathan; Dineen, Robert; O'Donoghue, Michael
We describe a patient who experienced a prolonged episode of headache, drowsiness, seizure, unilateral weakness, delusion and hallucination due to a stroke-like migraine attack after cranial radiation therapy. Stroke-like migraine attack after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare complication of therapeutic brain irradiation.
Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Mauldin, Patrick D; Hill, Michael D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Spilker, Judith A; Foster, Lydia D; Khatri, Pooja; Martin, Renee; Jauch, Edward C; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P
The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III study tested the effect of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone when compared with intravenous tPA followed by endovascular therapy and collected cost data to assess the economic implications of the 2 therapies. This report describes the factors affecting the costs of the initial hospitalization for acute stroke subjects from the United States. Prospective cost analysis of the US subjects was treated with intravenous tPA alone or with intravenous tPA followed by endovascular therapy in the IMS III trial. Results were compared with expected Medicare payments. The adjusted cost of a stroke admission in the study was $35 130 for subjects treated with endovascular therapy after intravenous tPA treatment and $25 630 for subjects treated with intravenous tPA alone (P<0.0001). Significant factors related to costs included treatment group, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, time from stroke onset to intravenous tPA, age, stroke location, and comorbid diabetes mellitus. The mean cost for subjects who had routine use of general anesthesia as part of endovascular therapy was $46 444 when compared with $30 350 for those who did not have general anesthesia. The costs of embolectomy for IMS III subjects and patients from the National Inpatient Sample cohort exceeded the Medicare diagnosis-related group payment in ≥75% of patients. Minimizing the time to start of intravenous tPA and decreasing the use of routine general anesthesia may improve the cost-effectiveness of medical and endovascular therapy for acute stroke. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.
Løkkegaard, Ellen; Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Keiding, Niels
Double-blind randomized studies on the effects of oral postmenopausal hormone therapies were stopped mainly because of increased risk of stroke. We aimed to assess the risk of all strokes and various subtypes associated with hormone therapy and explore the influence of regimens and routes of administration. A national historical cohort of women aged 51 to 70 years from 1995 to 2010 was established by linking 5 Danish registries. The National Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics provided information on hormone therapy exposure and the National Patient or Cause of Death Registries supplied data regarding stroke diagnoses (ischemic/hemorrhagic/subarachnoid hemorrhage). Multiply adjusted rate ratios with time-varying covariates were fitted in Poisson regression models. Of the 980 003 included women, 20 199 suffered a stroke (78% ischemic, 12% hemorrhagic, and 10% subarachnoid hemorrhage). In total, 36% of women used hormone therapy. Current use conferred a relative rate of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.22). Compared with never users, the increased rate ratio of all stroke with continuous, cyclic combined estrogen/progestin, and estrogen only oral therapies were 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.21-1.37), 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.20), and 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.26), respectively. The increased risk was because of ischemic stroke, but not hemorrhagic stroke. Transdermal application of hormone therapy was not associated with risk of stroke. Vaginal estrogen was associated with a decreased risk of stroke. In a national setting, we found an increased risk of stroke, based on ischemic stroke, with oral hormone therapies that was comparable to findings from randomized studies. We found no risk of stroke with transdermal application and a reduced risk with vaginal estrogen. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Intravenous fluids are frequently used in paediatrics but have been associated with significant adverse outcomes. Understanding the composition of fluid prescribed and administering an appropriate rate is essential for safe fluid administration, along with regular monitoring. Recent evidence has shown that using an isotonic fluid with a sodium concentration similar to plasma can decrease the risk of hyponatraemia without an increase in adverse effects. This should lead to a change in guidelines: isotonic fluid should now be used as the primary maintenance intravenous fluid given to the majority of children. © 2016 The Author Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Ferretti, Francesca; Gisslen, Magnus; Cinque, Paola; Price, Richard W
CNS infection is a nearly constant facet of systemic CNS infection and is generally well controlled by suppressive systemic antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there are instances when HIV can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) despite suppression of plasma viruses below the clinical limits of measurement. We review three types of CSF viral escape: asymptomatic, neuro-symptomatic, and secondary. The first, asymptomatic CSF escape, is seemingly benign and characterized by lack of discernable neurological deterioration or subsequent CNS disease progression. Neuro-symptomatic CSF escape is an uncommon, but important, entity characterized by new or progressive CNS disease that is critical to recognize clinically because of its management implications. Finally, secondary CSF escape, which may be even more uncommon, is defined by an increase of CSF HIV replication in association with a concomitant non-HIV infection, as a consequence of the local inflammatory response. Understanding these CSF escape settings not only is important for clinical diagnosis and management but also may provide insight into the CNS HIV reservoir.
Wilms, Heath; Mittal, Anubhav; Haydock, Matthew D; van den Heever, Marc; Devaud, Marcello; Windsor, John A
To review the literature on goal directed fluid therapy and evaluate the quality of evidence for each combination of goal and monitoring method. A search of major digital databases and hand search of references was conducted. All studies assessing the clinical utility of a specific fluid therapy goal or set of goals using any monitoring method were included. Data was extracted using a pre-determined pro forma and papers were evaluated using GRADE principles to assess evidence quality. Eighty-one papers met the inclusion criteria, investigating 31 goals and 22 methods for monitoring fluid therapy in 13052 patients. In total there were 118 different goal/method combinations. Goals with high evidence quality were central venous lactate and stroke volume index. Goals with moderate quality evidence were sublingual microcirculation flow, the oxygen extraction ratio, cardiac index, cardiac output, and SVC collapsibility index. This review has highlighted the plethora of goals and methods for monitoring fluid therapy. Strikingly, there is scant high quality evidence, in particular for non-invasive G/M combinations in non-operative and non-intensive care settings. There is an urgent need to address this research gap, which will be helped by methodologies to compare utility of G/M combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, Melissa J; Schneck, Michael J; Biller, José
Growing evidence suggests that perioperative withdrawal of ASA for secondary stroke prevention increases thromboembolic risk without the associated benefit of decreased bleeding complications. ASA maintenance is acceptable in many procedures, including invasive ones. Many procedures, in particular ophthalmologic, dermatologic, and dental surgeries, also are safe while continuing oral AC. Warfarin has been continued successfully even in some surgeries that have high bleeding risk. When the risk is too high, temporary bridging therapy with LWMH is safe in many populations. Although the exact thromboembolic risks associated with temporary cessation of AP and AC are unknown and likely low, morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolism are high. Further studies investigating the risks and benefits of maintaining AP and AC during procedures, particularly invasive ones, are needed. Meanwhile, it is critical that physicians understand the risks and benefits of perioperative AP and AC and the variety of procedures in which these agents can be safely continued.
Zhang, Chun-hong; Bian, Jin-ling; Meng, Zhi-hong; Meng, Li-na; Ren, Xue-song; Wang, Zhi-lin; Guo, Xiao-yan; Shi, Xue-min
Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy has been shown to effectively treat dysphagia after stroke-based pseudobulbar paralysis. We presumed that this therapy would be effective for dysphagia after bulbar paralysis in patients with brainstem infarction. Sixty-four patients with dysphagia following brainstem infarction were recruited and divided into a medulla oblongata infarction group (n = 22), a midbrain and pons infarction group (n = 16), and a multiple cerebral infarction group (n = 26) according to their magnetic resonance imaging results. All patients received Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture for 28 days. The main acupoints were Neiguan (PC6), Renzhong (DU26), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Fengchi (GB20), Wangu (GB12), and Yifeng (SJ17). Furthermore, the posterior pharyngeal wall was pricked. Before and after treatment, patient swallowing functions were evaluated with the Kubota Water Test, Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale, and the Standard Swallowing Assessment. The Barthel Index was also used to evaluate their quality of life. Results showed that after 28 days of treatment, scores on the Kubota Water Test and Standard Swallowing Assessment had decreased, but scores on the Fujishima Ichiro Rating Scale and Barthel Index had increased in each group. The total efficacy rate was 92.2% after treatment, and was most obvious in patients with medulla oblongata infarction (95.9%). These findings suggest that Tongguan Liqiao acupuncture therapy can repair the connection of upper motor neurons to the medulla oblongata motor nucleus, promote the recovery of brainstem infarction, and improve patient's swallowing ability and quality of life. PMID:27073382
Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.
Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…
Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.
Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…
Kanda, Hirotsugu; Hirasaki, Yuji; Iida, Takafumi; Kanao, Megumi; Toyama, Yuki; Kunisawa, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Hiroshi
Purpose The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate changes in stroke volume variability (SVV) and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) after a fluid bolus of crystalloid or colloid using real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) and the Vigileo-FloTrac™ system. Materials and methods After obtaining Institutional Review Board approval, and informed consent from the research participants, 22 patients undergoing scheduled peripheral vascular bypass surgery were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to receive 500 mL of hydroxyethyl starch (HES; HES group, n=11) or normal saline (Saline group, n=11) for fluid replacement therapy. SVV was measured using the Vigileo-FloTrac system. LVEDV, stroke volume, and cardiac output were measured by 3D-TEE. The measurements were performed over 30 minutes before and after the fluid bolus in both groups. Results SVV significantly decreased after fluid bolus in both groups (HES group, 14.7%±2.6% to 6.9%±2.7%, P<0.001; Saline group, 14.3%±3.9% to 8.8%±3.1%, P<0.001). LVEDV significantly increased after fluid loading in the HES group (87.1±24.0 mL to 99.9±27.2 mL, P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected in the Saline group (88.8±17.3 mL to 91.4±17.6 mL, P>0.05). Stroke volume significantly increased after infusion in the HES group (50.6±12.5 mL to 61.6±19.1 mL, P<0.01) but not in the Saline group (51.6±13.4 mL to 54.1±12.8 mL, P>0.05). Cardiac output measured by 3D-TEE significantly increased in the HES group (3.5±1.1 L/min to 3.9±1.3 L/min, P<0.05), whereas no significant change was seen in the Saline group (3.4±1.1 L/min to 3.3±1.0 L/min, P>0.05). Conclusion Administration of colloid and crystalloid induced similar responses in SVV. A higher plasma-expanding effect of HES compared to normal saline was demonstrated by the significant increase in LVEDV. PMID:26491368
Wei, Yi-Chia; Sun, Mao-Feng; Chang, Ku-Chou; Chang, Chee-Jen; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Jr; Chiu, Hsien-Hsueh Elley
To reduce the health care burden of strokes, the Taiwan Department of Health launched the Pilot Scheme of the Health Policy in Stroke Adjuvant Acupuncture Therapy (HPSAAT) in 2006. This cross-sectional, hospital-based, match-controlled study at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center during 2006∼2008 retrospectively evaluated the clinical characteristics of acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients who electively joined the HPSAAT. The study also evaluated the safety and clinical benefits of adjuvant acupuncture in treating acute and subacute ischemic stroke patients. Twenty-six HPSAAT participants and 52 age-sex matched random controls were enrolled. The stroke baseline of the HPSAAT participants was more severe than the non-HPSAAT controls. Although the stroke severity closely correlates to mortality and comorbidity, this study noted no significant complications in the HPSAAT participants during the acupuncture treatment course. Adjuvant acupuncture was considered safe at the acute and subacute stages of ischemic stroke. Due to uneven baseline severity, the clinical benefits in reducing neurological deficits and functional recovery were not concluded in this study. PMID:21584251
Dual antiplatelet therapy simultaneously blocks different platelet activation pathways and might thus be more potent at inhibiting platelet activation and more effective at reducing major ischemic vascular events compared to antiplatelet monotherapy. Aspirin plus clopidogrel dual therapy is now the standard therapy for patients with acute coronary syndrome and for those undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, dual antiplatelet therapy carries an increased risk of bleeding. Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) are generally older and likely to have a fragile cerebrovascular bed, which further increases the risk of systemic major bleeding events and intracranial hemorrhage. Clinical trials and meta-analyses suggest that in comparison to antiplatelet monotherapy, dual antiplatelet therapy initiated early after noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA further reduces the rate of recurrent stroke and major vascular events without significantly increasing the rate of major bleeding events. In contrast, studies of long-term therapy in patients with noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIA have yielded inconsistent data regarding the benefit of dual antiplatelet therapy over monotherapy. However, the harm associated with major bleeding events, including intracranial hemorrhage, which is generally more disabling and more fatal than ischemic stroke, is likely to increase with dual antiplatelet therapy. Physicians should carefully assess the benefits and risks of dual antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet monotherapy when managing patients with ischemic stroke or TIA.
Murugan, Raghavan; Hoste, Eric; Mehta, Ravindra L; Samoni, Sara; Ding, Xiaoqiang; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio
Fluid management during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in critically ill patients is a dynamic process that encompasses 3 inter-related goals: maintenance of the patency of the CRRT circuit, maintenance of plasma electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and regulation of patient fluid balance. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations of the 2016 Acute Disease Quality Initiative XVII conference on 'Precision Fluid Management in CRRT'. We discuss the principles of fluid management, describe various prescription methods to achieve circuit integrity and introduce the concept of integrated fluid balance for tailoring fluid balance to the needs of the individual patient. We suggest that these recommendations could serve to develop the best clinical practice and standards of care for fluid management in patients undergoing CRRT. Finally, we identify and highlight areas of uncertainty in fluid management and set an agenda for future research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang
Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108
Rathore, Abhishek; Singh, Shalendra; Lamsal, Ritesh; Taank, Priya; Paul, Debashish
Objective Static monitors for assessing the fluid status during major surgeries and in critically ill patients have been gradually replaced by more accurate dynamic monitors in modern-day anaesthesia practice. Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are the two commonly used dynamic indices for assessing fluid responsiveness. Methods In this prospective observational study, 50 patients undergoing major surgeries were monitored for PPV and SPV: after the induction of anaesthesia and after the administration of 500 mL of isotonic crystalloid bolus. Following the fluid bolus, patients with a cardiac output increase of more than 15% were classified as responders and those with an increase of less than 15% were classified as non-responders. Results There were no significant differences in the heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), PPV, SVV, central venous pressure (CVP) and cardiac index (CI) between responders and non-responders. Before fluid bolus, the stroke volume was significantly lower in responders (p=0.030). After fluid bolus, MAP was significantly higher in responders but there were no significant changes in HR, CVP, CI, PPV and SVV. In both responders and non-responders, PPV strongly correlated with SVV before and after fluid bolus. Conclusion Both PPV and SVV are useful to predict cardiac response to fluid loading. In both responders and non-responders, PPV has a greater association with fluid responsiveness than SVV. PMID:28868168
Investigators developing cellular therapy for stroke face many challenges. Preclinical models used for cellular therapy studies should be relevant to human stroke and predictive of benefit despite differences in stroke size, cerebrovascular anatomy, immune status, and neurological responses. Translating preclinical testing to human trials is compounded by consideration of delivery method and translation of dosing with cell survival. Many issues must be approached in designing clinical trials of cellular therapy for stroke, including appropriate outcome measures, controlling for confounding factors such as rehabilitation therapy, and possible surrogate outcomes using imaging such as MRI and newer imaging techniques. It is also important to establish standardized clinical protocols and clinical database registries in advance of early proof-of-concept studies. Investigators must adopt a standardized nomenclature and characterization schema for cell products to accurately define potency and determine clinical outcome from early proof-of-concept studies. The Stem Cell Therapies as an Emerging Paradigm in Stroke (STEPS) meeting was organized to bring together clinical and basic researchers with industry and regulatory representatives to assess the critical issues in the field and to create a framework to guide future investigations.
Lapchak, Paul A.
Today, there is an enormous amount of excitement in the field of stroke victim care due to the recent success of MR. CLEAN, SWIFT PRIME, ESCAPE, EXTEND-IA, and REVASCAT endovascular trials. Successful intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activation (rt-PA) clinical trials [i.e.: National Institutes of Neurodegenerative Disease and Stroke (NINDS) stroke trial; Third European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASSIII) and Third International Stroke study (IST-3)] also need to be emphasized. In the recent endovascular and thrombolytic trials, there is statistically significant improvement using both the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the modified Rankin Score (mRS) scale, but neither approach promotes complete recovery in patients enrolled within any particular NIHSS or mRS score tier. Absolute improvement (mRS 0–2 at 90 days) with endovascular therapy is 13.5–31%, whereas thrombolytics alone also significantly improve patient functional independence, but to a lesser degree (NINDS rt-PA trial 13%). This article has 3 main goals: (1) first to emphasize the utility and cost-effectiveness of rt-PA to treat stroke; (2) second to review the recent endovascular trials with respect to efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness as a stroke treatment; and (3) to further consider and evaluate strategies to develop novel neuroprotective drugs. A thesis will be put forth so that future stroke trials and therapy development can optimally promote recovery so that stroke victims can return to “normal” life. PMID:26314402
Toyoda, Kazunori; Koga, Masatoshi; Hayakawa, Mikito; Yamagami, Hiroshi
The current status of and prospects for acute stroke care in Asia in the situation where both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapies have been recognized as established strategies for acute stroke are reviewed. Of 15 million people annually having stroke worldwide, ≈9 million are Asians. The burdens of both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes are severe in Asia. The unique features of stroke in Asia include susceptibility to intracranial atherosclerosis, high prevalence of intracerebral hemorrhage, effects of dietary and lifestyle habits, and several disorders with genetic causes. These features affect acute stroke care, such as the dosage of alteplase for thrombolysis and consideration of bleeding complications during antithrombotic therapy. Acute endovascular thrombectomy, as well as intravenous thrombolysis, is relatively prevalent in East Asia, but most of the other Asian countries need to develop their human resources and fundamental medical infrastructure for stroke care. A limitation of endovascular therapy in East Asia is the high prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis that can cause recanalization failure and require additional angioplasty or permanent stent insertion although intracranial stenting is not an established strategy. Multinational collaboration on stroke research among Asian countries is infrequent. Asians should collaborate to perform their own thrombolytic and endovascular trials and seek the optimal strategy for stroke care specific to Asia.
Yang, Juan; Zheng, Min; Chen, Shuqun; Ou, Shu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Ni; Cao, Yingying; Wang, Jian
Thrombolytic therapy rate for acute ischemic stroke remains low, and improving public awareness of thrombolytic therapy may be helpful to reduce delay and increase chances of thrombolytic therapy. Our purpose was to survey the level of knowledge about thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke among community residents in Yuzhong district, Chongqing, China. In 2011, a population-based face-to-face interview survey was conducted in Yuzhong district, Chongqing. A total of 1500 potential participants aged ≥18 years old were selected using a multi-stage sampling method. A total of 1101 participants completed the survey. Only 23.3% (95% CI = 20.8 to 25.8) were aware of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke, of whom 59.9% (95% CI = 53.9 to 65.9) knew the time window. Awareness of thrombolytic therapy was higher among young people, those with higher levels of education and household income, those with health insurance, and those who knew all 5 stroke warning signs, while awareness of the time window was higher among those aged 75 years or older. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that awareness of thrombolytic therapy was independently associated with age, education level, health insurance and knowledge of stroke warning signs (P<0.05). In this population-based survey the community residents have poor awareness of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke.
Moretti, Antonio; Ferrari, Federica; Villa, Roberto F
Acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Its incidence and prevalence increase considerably with age and numbers will grow with an ageing population. Consequently, the impact of AIS on costs is soaring. AIS is caused by the abrupt occlusion of an intracranial vessel resulting in reduced blood flow to the brain region supplied. The ischaemic core (which is irreversibly lesioned) is surrounded by the penumbra region with less severe flow reduction, lower functional impairment and potential recovery. Therefore, the fundamental treatment of AIS relies on prompt recanalisation and reperfusion of the threatened, but potentially salvageable, ischaemic penumbra. With this aim, intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) remains the current strategy. However, thrombolysis is underused, owing to various exclusion criteria that limit the number of treated patients. Other thrombolytics are under investigation. Endovascular therapy with mechanical recanalisation devices is also increasingly applied, though definite evidence of its benefit is lacking. Moreover, hypertension and hyperglycaemia are acute complications to be treated in AIS. This review analyses the current status, the problems, the perspectives and the cost-effectiveness of the pharmacological therapy for AIS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) often accompanies cardiovascular complications, causing postoperative morbidity and even mortality. Since fluid and electrolyte homeostasis is deregulated in CKD patients, fluid therapy itself may cause postoperative morbidity. Recent studies have shown that forced diuresis through fluid overload offers no renoprotective effect and instead has harmful consequences. Fluid overload should be avoided, and the volume load should be used as the rationale for controlling hemodynamics. The emerging concept of a "zero-fluid balance policy" may be beneficial even for CKD patients. Hydroxyethylstarch might not be preferentially used for CKD patients. Hydroxyethylstarch is not contraindicated for CKD patients except in cases with long-term accumulation caused by increased vascular permeability, such as cases with sepsis, as long as an efficient volume expansion is beneficial to the patient. The regulation of renal function through the endocrine system (i.e., renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and vasopressin) is a key target for protecting the kidney in CKD. The recent development of a receptor blocker targeting these endocrine systems may be beneficial for correcting the fluid balance caused by excess intraoperative fluid therapy. The main issue for fluid therapy in surgical CKD patients may not be the quantity of fluid, but rational intervention affecting the endocrine system.
Hilton, Andrew K; Pellegrino, Vincent A; Scheinkestel, Carlos D
Inappropriate intravenous fluid therapy is a significant cause of patient morbidity and mortality and may result from either incorrect volume (too much or too little) or incorrect type of fluid. Fluid overload has no precise definition, but complications usually arise in the context of pre-existing cardiorespiratory disease and severe acute illness. Insufficient fluid administration is readily identified by signs and symptoms of inadequate circulation and decreased organ perfusion. Administration of the wrong type of fluid results in derangement of serum sodium concentration, which, if severe enough, leads to changes in cell volume and function, and may result in serious neurological injury. In patients whose condition is uncomplicated, we recommend a restrictive approach to perioperative intravenous fluid replacement, with initial avoidance of hypotonic fluids, and regular measurement of serum concentration of electrolytes, especially sodium.
Holliday, M A
The development of body fluid physiology and fluid therapy in pediatrics has special importance in the history of medicine because this development introduced physiology into clinical practice. James Gamble and Dan Darrow were leaders in this enterprise. Gamble was part of the group John Howland attracted to Johns Hopkins to establish the first organized program for clinical investigators in pediatrics. This group initiated fluid therapy as effective treatment for diarrheal dehydration and, led by Gamble, developed the discipline of body fluid physiology. Gamble was the first to describe the nature of extracellular fluid (ECF) to clinicians, using the new terminology for characterizing electrolytes in solution. In doing so, he became the teacher of body fluid physiology to a generation of medical students. Inexplicably, in his later years he failed to adopt yet newer terminology defining cations, anions, and acid-base status. This failure compromised his legacy. Dan Darrow extended our understanding of how body fluids react to hyper- and hyponatremia and to potassium deficiency. He was the first to add potassium to parenteral fluid therapy. In doing so, he broadened clinicians' understanding of body fluids but changed the emphasis of fluid therapy from rapid ECF restoration to replacement of estimated deficits. Unfortunately, this change in concept, taught by his successors as deficit therapy, slowed the adoption of oral rehydration therapy for treating diarrheal dehydration. The lapses noted for each of these men, now seen in hindsight, pale in comparison to their contributions. Pediatrics, medicine, and surgery are all indebted to the research of each, which emphasized the value of basic physiology in clinical practice.
Boller, Elise; Boller, Manuel
Perioperative patients can be highly dynamic and have various metabolic, physiologic, and organ system derangements that necessitate smart monitoring strategies and careful fluid therapy. The interplay between changing patient status, therapeutic interventions, and patient response makes effective monitoring crucial to successful treatment. Monitoring the perioperative patient and an approach to fluid therapy are discussed in this text. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hou, Boru; Ma, Junning; Guo, Xiumei; Ju, Furong; Gao, Junwei; Wang, Dengfeng; Liu, Jixing; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Shengxiang; Ren, Haijun
Stroke is considered as the second leading cause of death worldwide. The survivors of stroke experience different levels of impairment in brain function resulting in debilitating disabilities. Current therapies for stroke are primarily palliative and may be effective in only a small population of stroke patients. In this study, we explore the transplantation of exogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) as the potential therapy for the photothrombotic ischemia stroke in a Kunming mice model. After stroke, mice receiving NSC transplantation demonstrated a better recovery of brain function during the neurobehavioral tests. Histology analysis of the brain samples from NSC transplanted mice demonstrated a reduction of brain damage caused by stroke. Moreover, immunofluorescence assay for biomarkers in brain sections confirmed that transplanted NSCs indeed differentiated to neurons and astrocytes, consistent with the improved brain function after stroke. Taken together, our data suggested that exogenous NSC transplantation could be a promising therapy for stroke.
Fogg-Rogers, Laura; Buetow, Stephen; Talmage, Alison; McCann, Clare M; Leão, Sylvia H S; Tippett, Lynette; Leung, Joan; McPherson, Kathryn M; Purdy, Suzanne C
People with stroke or Parkinson's disease (PD) live with reduced mood, social participation and quality of life (QOL). Communication difficulties affect 90% of people with PD (dysarthria) and over 33% of people with stroke (aphasia). These consequences are disabling in many ways. However, as singing is typically still possible, its therapeutic use is of increasing interest. This article explores the experiences of and factors influencing participation in choral singing therapy (CST) by people with stroke or PD and their significant others. Participants (eight people with stroke, six with PD) were recruited from a community music therapy choir running CST. Significant others (seven for stroke, two for PD) were also recruited. Supported communication methods were used as needed to undertake semi-structured interviews (total N = 23). Thematic analysis indicated participants had many unmet needs associated with their condition, which motivated them to explore self-management options. CST participation was described as an enjoyable social activity, and participation was perceived as improving mood, language, breathing and voice. Choral singing was perceived by people with stroke and PD to help them self-manage some of the consequences of their condition, including social isolation, low mood and communication difficulties. Choral singing therapy (CST) is sought out by people with stroke and PD to help self-manage symptoms of their condition. Participation is perceived as an enjoyable activity which improves mood, voice and language symptoms. CST may enable access to specialist music therapy and speech language therapy protocols within community frameworks.
SHICHINOHE, Hideo; HOUKIN, Kiyohiro
Stroke is still a leading cause of death and disability, and despite intensive research, few treatment options exist. A recent breakthrough in cell therapy is expected to reverse the neurological sequelae of stroke. Although some pioneer studies on the use of cell therapy for the treatment of stroke have been reported, certain problems still remain unsolved. We investigated the use of autologous bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) transplantation for the treatment of stroke, to develop it as the next-generation cell therapy. In this study, we introduce the preparation of a new clinical trial, the Research on Advanced Intervention using Novel Bone marrow stem cell (RAINBOW) study. The trial will start in 2016, and we hope that it will not only be helpful for treating patients but also for clarifying the therapeutic mechanisms. Moreover, we review stem cell therapeutics as an emerging paradigm in stroke (STEPS) and the guidelines for the development of cell therapy for stroke in the United States as well as introduce the development of new guidelines in Japan. These guidelines are expected to encourage the development of cell therapy for stroke management. PMID:27302193
Lapchak, Paul A; Araujo, Dalia M
Treatments for spontaneous intracerebral, thrombolytic-induced and intraventricular hemorrhages (IVH) are still at the preclinical or early clinical investigational stages. There has been some renewed interest in the use of surgical evacuation surgery or thrombolytics to remove hematomas, but these techniques can be used only for specific types of brain bleeding. The STICH (Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage) clinical trials should provide some insight into the potential for such techniques to counteract hematoma-induced damage and subsequently, morbidity and mortality. More recently, clinical trials (ATACH [Antihypertensive Treatment in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage] and INTERACT [Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial]) have begun testing whether or not regulating blood pressure affects the well-being of hemorrhage patients, but the findings thus far have not conclusively demonstrated a positive result. More promising trials, such as the early stage CHANT (Cerebral Hemorrhagic And NXY-059 Treatment) and the late stage FAST (Factor VIIa for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke Treatment), have addressed whether or not manipulating oxidative stress and components of the blood coagulation cascade can achieve an improved prognosis following spontaneous hemorrhages. However, CHANT was halted prematurely because although it showed that the spin trap agent NXY-059 was safe, it also demonstrated that the drug was ineffective in treating acute ischemic stroke. In addition, the recombinant activated factor VII FAST trial recently concluded with only modestly positive results. Despite a beneficial effect on the primary end point of reducing hemorrhage volume, controlling the coagulation cascade with recombinant factor VIIa did not decrease the mortality rate. Consequently, Novo Nordisk has abandoned further development of the drug for the treatment of intracerebral hemorrhaging. Even though progress in hemorrhage therapy that successfully reduces the
Tang, Yao-Hui; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Yong-Ting; Yang, Guo-Yuan
Stem cell-based therapy for ischemic stroke has been widely explored in animal models and provides strong evidence of benefits. In this review, we summarize the types of stem cells, various delivery routes, and tracking tools for stem cell therapy of ischemic stroke. MSCs, EPCs, and NSCs are the most explored cell types for ischemic stroke treatment. Although the mechanisms of stem cell-based therapies are not fully understood, the most possible functions of the transplanted cells are releasing growth factors and regulating microenvironment through paracrine mechanism. Clinical application of stem cell-based therapy is still in its infancy. The next decade of stem cell research in stroke field needs to focus on combining different stem cells and different imaging modalities to fully explore the potential of this therapeutic avenue: from bench to bedside and vice versa. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ji, Sang Gu; Kim, Myoung Kwon
To investigate the effect of mirror therapy on the gait of patients with subacute stroke. Randomized controlled experimental study. Outpatient rehabilitation hospital. Thirty-four patients with stroke were randomly assigned to two groups: a mirror therapy group (experimental) and a control group. The stroke patients in the experimental group underwent comprehensive rehabilitation therapy and mirror therapy for the lower limbs. The stroke patients in the control group underwent sham therapy and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy. Participants in both groups received therapy five days per week for four weeks. Temporospatial gait characteristics, such as single stance, stance phase, step length, stride, swing phase, velocity, and cadence, were assessed before and after the four weeks therapy period. A significant difference was observed in post-training gains for the single stance (10.32 SD 4.14 vs. 6.54 SD 3.23), step length (8.47 SD 4.12 vs. 4.83 SD 2.14), and stride length (17.03 SD 6.57 vs 10.54 SD 4.34) between the experimental group and the control group (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on stance phase, swing phase, velocity, cadence, and step width (P > 0.05). We conclude that mirror therapy may be beneficial in improving the effects of stroke on gait ability. © The Author(s) 2014.
Huang, Kun-Ling; Liu, Ting-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Chi; Leong, Chau-Peng; Lin, Wei-Che; Pong, Ya-Ping
Dysphagia after stroke is associated with mortality and increased pulmonary complications. Swallowing therapies may decrease pulmonary complications and improve patients' quality of life after stroke. This study used clinical swallowing assessments and videofluoroscopy (VFS) to assess the functional recovery of acute stroke patients with dysphagia after different swallowing therapies. We enrolled 29 acute stroke patients with dysphagia and randomly divided them into 3 therapy groups: traditional swallowing (TS), oropharyngeal neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES), and combined NMES/TS. All patients were assessed using the clinical functional oral intake scale (FOIS), 8-point penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and functional dysphagia scale (FDS) of VFS before and after treatment. There were no differences in the clinical parameters and swallowing results of the FOIS and VFS before swallowing treatment among the 3 groups (P > .05). TS therapy and combined therapy both had significant swallowing improvement after therapy according to the FOIS and 8-point PAS (P < .05). When comparing the results of the VFS among the 3 groups, we found significant improvements in patients eating cookies and thick liquid after combined NMES/TS therapy (P < .05). In acute stroke patients with dysphagia, combined NMES/TS therapy is the most effective swallowing therapy in taking solid diets and thick liquids.
Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young; Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Chun, Sae-il
This case report discusses the potential for art therapy to aid in the recovery of early-chronic stroke patients. The patient was diagnosed with having a subarachnoid hemorrhage from a cerebral aneurysm rupture 1 year prior to hospitalization. Therapies used as part of the patient's treatment included 10 weeks of art therapy conducted twice a…
Arnemann, Philip; Seidel, Laura; Ertmer, Christian
The ultimate goal of fluid therapy is to improve the oxygenation of cells by improving the cardiac output, thus improving microcirculation by optimizing macrocirculation. This haemodynamic coherence is often altered in patients with haemorrhagic shock and sepsis. The loss of haemodynamic coherence is associated with adverse outcomes. It may be influenced by the mechanisms of the underlying disease and properties of different fluids used for resuscitation in these critically ill patients. Monitoring microcirculation and haemodynamic coherence may be an additional tool to predict the response to fluid administration. In addition, microcirculatory analysis may support the clinician in his decision to not administer fluids when microcirculatory blood flow is preserved. In future, the indication, guidance and termination of fluid therapy may be assessed by bedside microvascular analysis in combination with standard haemodynamic monitoring. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds ... blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused ...
Ballas, Samir K; Martinez, Ubaldo; Savage, Michael
The most common cause of stroke in children with sickle cell anemia is infarction due to ischemia. In adults, however, stroke is most commonly hemorrhagic in nature. Other causes of stroke in patients with sickle cell disease are very rare. In this short communication, we describe a woman with sickle cell anemia responsive to hydroxyurea (HU) therapy who had primary stroke due to paradoxical embolization caused by a large atrial septal defect. Successful management of the stroke included surgical closure of the defect with trans-esophageal echocardiographic guidance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first patient with sickle cell anemia and stroke due to congenital heart disease who did not require open heart surgery for successful management.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with an increased incidence and severity of strokes. The burden of AF-related stroke is expected to increase in parallel with the aging of the population. Oral anticoagulation with warfarin has been the pharmacologic standard for stroke risk reduction in patients with AF. When used with close attention to dosing and monitoring, warfarin is effective prophylactic therapy against thromboembolic stroke. However, it is underused by physicians, in part because of the known risks of adverse events with warfarin. Consequently, many patients with AF live with an avoidably elevated risk of stroke. New options, ie, oral anticoagulants with novel mechanisms of action, have recently been approved to reduce the risk of stroke in AF, and others are in development. These newer agents may address some of the complexities of warfarin use while providing similar or better efficacy and safety.
Voldby, Anders Winther; Brandstrup, Birgitte
Perioperative hypovolemia and fluid overload have effects on both complications following surgery and on patient survival. Therefore, the administration of intravenous fluids before, during, and after surgery at the right time and in the right amounts is of great importance. This review aims to analyze the literature concerning perioperative fluid therapy in abdominal surgery and to provide evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. Preoperative oral or intravenous administration of carbohydrate containing fluids has been shown to improve postoperative well-being and muscular strength and to reduce insulin resistance. Hence, the intake of fluid (preferably containing carbohydrates) should be encouraged up to 2 h prior to surgery in order to avoid dehydration. Excessive intravenous fluid administration adds to tissue inflammation and edema formation, thereby compromising tissue healing. During major abdominal surgery a "zero-balance" intraoperative fluid strategy aims at avoiding fluid overload (and comparable to the so-called restrictive approach) as well as goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT). Both proved to significantly reduce postoperative complications when compared to "standard fluid therapy". Trials comparing "restrictive" or zero-balance and GDT have shown equal results, as long as fluid overload is avoided in the GDT group as well (categorized as "zero-balance GDT"). It is possible that high-risk surgical patients, such as those undergoing acute surgery, may benefit from the continuous monitoring of circulatory status that the GDT provides. Data on this group of patients is not available at present, but trials are ongoing. In elective surgery, the zero-balance approach has shown to reduce postoperative complications and is easily applied for most patients. It is less expensive and simpler than the zero-balance GDT approach and therefore recommended in this review. In outpatient surgery, 1-2 L of balanced crystalloids reduces postoperative nausea
Rothlisberger, Julia M; Ovbiagele, Bruce
Stroke exacts a huge toll physically, mentally and economically. Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of secondary stroke prevention, and proven drugs available to successfully realize this therapeutic strategy for the long term include aspirin, dipyridamole plus aspirin and clopidogrel. However, government agencies, corporations, health plans and patients desire more information about the clinical- and cost–effectiveness of these established therapies in real-world settings. This paper provides an update on evidence-based secondary stroke prevention with antiplatelet medications, discusses cost-related issues and offers perspective about the future. PMID:26274799
Rothlisberger, Julia M; Ovbiagele, Bruce
Stroke exacts a huge toll physically, mentally and economically. Antiplatelet therapy is the cornerstone of secondary stroke prevention, and proven drugs available to successfully realize this therapeutic strategy for the long term include aspirin, dipyridamole plus aspirin and clopidogrel. However, government agencies, corporations, health plans and patients desire more information about the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of these established therapies in real-world settings. This paper provides an update on evidence-based secondary stroke prevention with antiplatelet medications, discusses cost-related issues and offers perspective about the future.
Klehmet, Juliane; Rogge, Witold; Drenckhahn, Christoph; Göhler, Jos; Bereswill, Stefan; Göbel, Ulf; Wernecke, Klaus Dieter; Wolf, Tilo; Arnold, Guy; Halle, Elke; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Meisel, Andreas
Background Pneumonia is a major risk factor of death after acute stroke. In a mouse model, preventive antibacterial therapy with moxifloxacin not only prevents the development of post-stroke infections, it also reduces mortality, and improves neurological outcome significantly. In this study we investigate whether this approach is effective in stroke patients. Methods Preventive ANtibacterial THERapy in acute Ischemic Stroke (PANTHERIS) is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 80 patients with severe, non-lacunar, ischemic stroke (NIHSS>11) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. Patients received either intravenous moxifloxacin (400 mg daily) or placebo for 5 days starting within 36 hours after stroke onset. Primary endpoint was infection within 11 days. Secondary endpoints included neurological outcome, survival, development of stroke-induced immunodepression, and induction of bacterial resistance. Findings On intention-to treat analysis (79 patients), the infection rate at day 11 in the moxifloxacin treated group was 15.4% compared to 32.5% in the placebo treated group (p = 0.114). On per protocol analysis (n = 66), moxifloxacin significantly reduced infection rate from 41.9% to 17.1% (p = 0.032). Stroke associated infections were associated with a lower survival rate. In this study, neurological outcome and survival were not significantly influenced by treatment with moxifloxacin. Frequency of fluoroquinolone resistance in both treatment groups did not differ. On logistic regression analysis, treatment arm as well as the interaction between treatment arm and monocytic HLA-DR expression (a marker for immunodepression) at day 1 after stroke onset was independently and highly predictive for post-stroke infections. Interpretation PANTHERIS suggests that preventive administration of moxifloxacin is superior in reducing infections after severe non-lacunar ischemic stroke compared to placebo. In addition, the results emphasize the
Inoue, Isao; Chen, Lihua; Zhou, Li; Zeng, Xiaorong; Wang, Hongdu
Scalp acupuncture (SA) therapy on strokes has been empirically established and widely used in clinics in China. SA is particularly effective at ameliorating paralyses and speech disturbances, and the recovery rate is twice that for those treated with medication alone. To investigate the effects of SA on a scientific basis, we have developed a new experimental system that provides reliable controls and excludes psychological effects by using a genetic strain of rats, spontaneous hypertensive rats-stroke prone. Here we report that SA indeed has rapid and powerful effects to remove limb paralyses caused either by cerebral infarct or by cerebral haemorrhage. This model is well suited to study the mechanism of the effects of SA in parallel with clinical studies, and to describe the whole recovery process after the stroke onset. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
Arbesman, Marian; Lieberman, Deborah; Berlanstein, Debra R
Evidence-based reviews of the literature relevant to adults with stroke are important to the practice of occupational therapy. We describe the four questions that served as the focus for the evidence-based reviews of the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for adults with stroke. The questions include occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve occupational performance and social participation after stroke, as well as interventions for motor, cognitive, and psychological and emotional impairments after stroke. We include the background for the reviews; the process followed for addressing each question, including search terms and search strategy; the databases searched; and the methods used to summarize and critically appraise the literature. The final number of articles included in each evidence-based review; a summary of the themes of the results; the strengths and limitations of the findings; and implications for practice, education, and research are presented. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Bang, Oh Young
Stem cell therapy is considered a potential regenerative strategy for patients with neurologic deficits. Studies involving animal models of ischemic stroke have shown that stem cells transplanted into the brain can lead to functional improvement. With current advances in the understanding regarding the effects of introducing stem cells and their mechanisms of action, several clinical trials of stem cell therapy have been conducted in patients with stroke since 2005, including studies using mesenchymal stem cells, bone marrow mononuclear cells, and neural stem/progenitor cells. In addition, several clinical trials of the use of adult stem cells to treat ischemic stroke are ongoing. This review presents the status of our understanding of adult stem cells and results from clinical trials, and introduces ongoing clinical studies of adult stem cell therapy in the field of stroke.
Pérez-Cruzado, David; Merchán-Baeza, Jose Antonio; González-Sánchez, Manuel; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I
Stroke is a leading cause of disability in developed countries. One of the most widespread techniques in clinical practice is mirror therapy (MT). To determine the effectiveness of MT over other methods of intervention in the recovery of upper limb function in people who have had a stroke. A systematic review was conducted. The search string was established based on the last systematic review about MT that dated from 2009: "upper extremity" OR "upper limb "AND "mirror therapy" AND stroke. For this search Pubmed, Scopus and SciELO databases were used. Fifteen studies were included in the systematic review. Recovery of the upper limb, upper limb function and gross manual dexterity were frequently measured in these studies. In the primary variables in promoting recovery, MT alone showed better results in acute and chronic stroke patients in upper limb functioning than either conventional rehabilitation (CR) or CR plus MT. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015026869. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
Ellis, Michael J; Amlie-Lefond, Catherine; Orbach, Darren B
This review provides a summary of the currently available data pertaining to the interventional management of acute ischemic stroke in children. The literature is scarce and is lacking much-needed prospective trials. No study in the literature on the well-established systemic or local thrombolysis trials has included children. Mechanical thrombectomy trials using clot retriever devices have also excluded patients younger than 18 years. The current review is limited to case series of interventional acute ischemic stroke therapy in children and the potential future of endovascular ischemic stroke therapy in this patient population. Recommendations in this review represent the opinion of the authors, based on review of the limited literature covering endovascular acute ischemic stroke therapy in children.
Yan, Dong; Shan, Jin; Ze, Yu; Xiao-Yan, Zeng; Xiao-Hua, Hu
[Purpose] To observe the effect of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy on patients with post-stroke depression. [Subjects] Ninety patients with post-stroke depression were randomly divided into 3 groups: fluoxetine treatment group (n = 30), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group (n = 30), and hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group (n = 30). [Methods] Fluoxetine treatment group received anti-depression drugs (fluoxetine, 20 mg/day), hyperbaric oxygen therapy group received hyperbaric oxygen (once a day, 5 days/week), hyperbaric oxygen combined treatment group received fluoxetine and hyperbaric oxygen treatments as described above. All patients received routine rehabilitation therapy. Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD), and Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) scores were evaluated before and at the end of 4th week. The total effective rate of depression release between the 3 groups was also compared at the end of study. [Results] The end scores of HAMD and SSS in the 3 groups were significantly lower than those before treatment. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy group after treatment was higher than the other two groups. [Conclusions] Combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy plays an important role in the treatment of patients with post-stroke depression. The total effective rate of combined hyperbaric oxygen therapy was higher than other routine anti post-stroke depression treatments.
Loubinoux, Isabelle; Kronenberg, Golo; Endres, Matthias; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Freret, Thomas; Filipkowski, Robert K; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Popa-Wagner, Aurel
The interaction between depression and stroke is highly complex. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most frequent neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke. Depression also negatively impacts stroke outcome with increased morbidity, mortality and poorer functional recovery. Antidepressants such as the commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve stroke outcome, an effect that may extend far beyond depression, e.g., to motor recovery. The main biological theory of PSD is the amine hypothesis. Conceivably, ischaemic lesions interrupt the projections ascending from midbrain and brainstem, leading to a decreased bioavailability of the biogenic amines – serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Acetylcholine would also be involved. So far, preclinical and translational research on PSD is largely lacking. The implementation and characterization of suitable animal models is clearly a major prerequisite for deeper insights into the biological basis of post-stroke mood disturbances. Equally importantly, experimental models may also pave the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. If we cannot prevent stroke, we shall try to limit its long-term consequences. This review therefore presents animal models of PSD and summarizes potential underlying mechanisms including genomic signatures, neurotransmitter and neurotrophin signalling, hippocampal neurogenesis, cellular plasticity in the ischaemic lesion, secondary degenerative changes, activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroinflammation. As stroke is a disease of the elderly, great clinical benefit may especially accrue from deciphering and targeting basic mechanisms underlying PSD in aged animals. PMID:22348642
Holloway, Paul M; Smith, Helen K; Renshaw, Derek; Flower, Roderick J; Getting, Stephen J; Gavins, Felicity N E
The melanocortin receptors are a subfamily of G-protein-coupled, rhodopsin-like receptors that are rapidly being acknowledged as an extremely promising target for pharmacological intervention in a variety of different inflammatory pathologies, including stroke. Stroke continues to be a leading cause of death worldwide, with risk factors including smoking, diabetes, hypertension and obesity. The pathophysiology of stroke is highly complex: reintroduction of blood flow to the infarcted brain region is paramount in limiting ischaemic damage caused by stroke, yet a concomitant inflammatory response can compound tissue damage. The possibilities of pro-resolving treatments that target this inflammatory response have only recently begun to be explored. This review discusses the endogenous roles of the melanocortin system in reducing characterized aspects of inflammation, and how these, together with potent neuroprotective actions, suggest its potential as a therapeutic target in stroke. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jong S.
Post-stroke mood and emotional disturbances are frequent and diverse in their manifestations. Out of the many post-stroke disturbances, post-stroke depression, post-stroke anxiety, post-stroke emotional incontinence, post-stroke anger proneness, and post-stroke fatigue are frequent and important symptoms. These symptoms are distressing for both the patients and their caregivers, and negatively influence the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, these emotional disturbances are not apparent and are therefore often unnoticed by busy clinicians. Their phenomenology, predicting factors, and pathophysiology have been under-studied, and are under-recognized. In addition, well-designed clinical trials regarding these symptoms are rare. Fortunately, these mood and emotional disturbances may be treated or prevented by various methods, including pharmacological therapy. To administer the appropriate therapy, we have to understand the phenomenology and the similarities and differences in the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with these emotional symptoms. This narrative review will describe some of the most common or relevant post-stroke mood and emotional disturbances. The phenomenology, factors or predictors, and relevant lesion locations will be described, and pharmacological treatment of these emotional disturbances will be discussed based on presumable pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:27733031
Duncan, Kelsey; Gonzales-Portillo, Gabriel S; Acosta, Sandra A; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V; Tajiri, Naoki
Distinguished by an infarct core encased within a penumbra, stroke remains a primary source of mortality within the United States. While our scientific knowledge regarding the pathology of stroke continues to improve, clinical treatment options for patients suffering from stroke are extremely limited. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the sole FDA-approved drug proven to be helpful following stroke. However, due to the need to administer the drug within 4.5h of stroke onset its usefulness is constrained to less than 5% of all patients suffering from ischemic stroke. One experimental therapy for the treatment of stroke involves the utilization of stem cells. Stem cell transplantation has been linked to therapeutic benefit by means of cell replacement and release of growth factors; however the precise means by which this is accomplished has not yet been clearly delineated. Using a traumatic brain injury model, we recently demonstrated the ability of transplanted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to form a biobridge connecting the area of injury to the neurogenic niche within the brain. We hypothesize that MSCs may also have the capacity to create a similar biobridge following stroke; thereby forming a conduit between the neurogenic niche and the stroke core and peri-infarct area. We propose that this biobridge could assist and promote interaction of host brain cells with transplanted stem cells and offer more opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of stem cell therapy in stroke. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Li, Yi; Liu, Zhongwu; Xin, Hongqi; Chopp, Michael
Astrocytes have not been a major therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke, with most research emphasis on the neuron. Given the essential role that astrocytes play in maintaining physiological function of the central nervous system and the very rapid and sensitive reaction astrocytes have in response to cerebral injury or ischemic insult, we propose to replace the neurocentric view for treatment with a more nuanced astrocytic centered approach. In addition, after decades of effort in attempting to develop neuroprotective therapies, which target reduction of the ischemic lesion, there are no effective clinical treatments for stroke, aside from thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator, which is used in a small minority of patients. A more promising therapeutic approach, which may affect nearly all stroke patients, may be in promoting endogenous restorative mechanisms, which enhance neurological recovery. A focus of efforts in stimulating recovery post stroke is the use of exogenously administered cells. The present review focuses on the role of the astrocyte in mediating the brain network, brain plasticity, and neurological recovery post stroke. As a model to describe the interaction of a restorative cell-based therapy with astrocytes, which drives recovery from stroke, we specifically highlight the subacute treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Yi; Liu, Zhongwu; Xin, Hongqi; Chopp, Michael
Astrocytes have not been a major therapeutic target for the treatment of stroke, with most research emphasis on the neuron. Given the essential role that astrocytes play in maintaining physiological function of the central nervous system and the very rapid and sensitive reaction astrocytes have in response to cerebral injury or ischemic insult, we propose to replace the neurocentric view for treatment with a more nuanced astrocytic centered approach. In addition, after decades of effort in attempting to develop neuroprotective therapies, which target reduction of the ischemic lesion, there are no effective clinical treatments for stroke, aside from thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator, which is used in a small minority of patients. A more promising therapeutic approach, which may affect nearly all stroke patients, may be in promoting endogenous restorative mechanisms, which enhance neurological recovery. A focus of efforts in stimulating recovery post stroke is the use of exogenously administered cells. The present review focuses on the role of the astrocyte in mediating the brain network, brain plasticity, and neurological recovery post stroke. As a model to describe the interaction of a restorative cell-based therapy with astrocytes, which drives recovery from stroke, we specifically highlight the subacute treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy. PMID:24272702
Effect of intraoperative transesophageal Doppler-guided fluid therapy versus central venous pressure-guided fluid therapy on renal allograft outcome in patients undergoing living donor renal transplant surgery: a comparative study.
Srivastava, Divya; Sahu, Sandeep; Chandra, Abhilash; Tiwari, Tanmay; Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, P K
Transesophageal Doppler (TED)-guided intraoperative fluid therapy has shown to noninvasively optimize intravascular volume and reduce postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Doppler-guided intraoperative fluid administration and central venous pressure (CVP)-guided fluid therapy on renal allograft outcome and postoperative complications. A prospective nonrandomized active controlled study was conducted on end-stage renal disease patients scheduled for living donor renal transplant surgery. 110 patients received intraoperative fluid guided by corrected flow time (FTc) and variation in stroke volume values obtained by continuous TED monitoring. Data of 104 patients in whom intraoperative fluid administration was guided by CVP values were retrospectively obtained for a control. The amount of intraoperative fluid given in the study group (12.20 ± 4.24 ml/kg/h) was significantly lower than in the controls (22.21 ± 4.67 ml/kg/h). The amount of colloid used was also significantly less and fewer recipients were seen to require colloid (69 vs 85%). The mean arterial pressures were comparable throughout. CVP reached was 7.18 ± 3.17 mmHg in the study group. It was significantly higher in the controls (13.42 ± 3.12 mmHg). The postoperative graft function and rate of dysfunction were comparable. Side-effects like postoperative dyspnoea (4.8 vs 0%) and tissue edema (9.6 vs 2.7%) were higher in the controls. FTc-guided intraoperative fluid therapy achieved the same rate of immediate graft function as CVP-guided fluid therapy but used a significantly less amount of fluid. The incidence of postoperative complications related to fluid overload was also reduced. The use of TED may replace invasive central line insertions in the future.
Geiger, Ann M; Fischberg, Glenn M; Chen, Wansu; Bernstein, Leslie
Tamoxifen, which is used widely to treat, and increasingly to prevent, breast cancer, has been associated with increased risk of stroke. We assessed the impact of tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer on the risk of stroke, considering dose, duration, and recency of use of tamoxifen and known stroke risk factors. We conducted a nested case-control study of stroke after breast cancer among female Los Angeles County residents enrolled in a large health maintenance organization when diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1, 1980, and July 1, 2000. We obtained information on breast cancer treatment and stroke risk factors through medical record review and telephone interviews. The association (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI]) between tamoxifen and stroke risk was determined by using a conditional logistic regression model, adjusting for menopausal status and history of hypertension and diabetes. All statistical tests were two-sided. Of 11 045 women with breast cancer, 179 met stroke eligibility criteria and were individually matched to two stroke-free control subjects with breast cancer on age and year of breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at breast cancer diagnosis was 66.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 12.3 years), and the mean at-risk period (i.e., the time between breast cancer diagnosis and first stroke or comparable time period for control subjects) was 5.7 years (SD = 4.5 years). Tamoxifen use was not associated with risk of stroke, either overall (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6 to 1.6) or in subgroups defined by duration, dose, or recency of use. Chemotherapy, but not a specific chemotherapy regimen, was associated with an increased risk of stroke, regardless of tamoxifen use (no tamoxifen use, OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3 to 6.3; tamoxifen use OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2 to 4.1). Tamoxifen use is not associated with increased stroke risk. Further exploration of possible increased stroke risk following chemotherapy treatment for breast cancer is
Hemodynamic monitoring has traditionally relied on such static pressure measurements as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure to guide fluid therapy. Over the past 15 years, however, there's been a shift toward less invasive or noninvasive monitoring methods, which use "functional" hemodynamic indicators that reflect ventilator-induced changes in preload and thereby more accurately predict fluid responsiveness. The author reviews the physiologic principles underlying functional hemodynamic indicators, describes how the indicators are calculated, and discusses when and how to use them to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients.
Gutierrez, Maria Cristina; Moore, Peter G.; Liu, Hong
Intraoperative fluid management is pivotal to the outcome and success of surgery, especially in high-risk procedures. Empirical formula and invasive static monitoring have been traditionally used to guide intraoperative fluid management and assess volume status. With the awareness of the potential complications of invasive procedures and the poor reliability of these methods as indicators of volume status, we present a case scenario of a patient who underwent major abdominal surgery as an example to discuss how the use of minimally invasive dynamic monitoring may guide intraoperative fluid therapy. PMID:24086168
Hsieh, Ming-Ju; Tang, Sung-Chun; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Huang, Kuang-Yu; Chang, Anna Marie; Ko, Patrick Chow-In; Tsai, Li-Kai; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Ma, Matthew Huei-Ming
To determine whether utilization of emergency medical service (EMS) can increase use and expedite delivery of the thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke patients. We analyzed consecutive patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an ischemic stroke within 72 hours of symptom onset from a prospective stroke registry. Variables associated with early ED arrival (within 3 hours of stroke onset) and administration of intravenous thrombolytic therapy were analyzed. From January 1, 2010 to July 31, 2011, there were 1081 patients (62.3% men, age 69.6 ± 13 years) included in this study. Among them, 289 (26.7%) arrived in the ED within 3 hours, and 88 (8.1%) received thrombolytic therapy. Patients who arrived at the ED by EMS (n = 279, 25.8%) were independently associated with earlier ED arrival (adjusted odds ratio = 3.68, 95% confidence interval = 2.54-5.33), and higher chance of receiving thrombolytic therapy (adjusted odds ratio = 3.89, 95% confidence interval = 1.86-8.17). Furthermore, utilization of EMS significantly decreased onset-to-needle time by 26 minutes in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy. Utilization of EMS can not only help acute ischemic stroke patients in early presentation to ED, but also effectively facilitate thrombolytic therapy and shorten the onset-to-needle time. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Benes, Jan; Kirov, Mikhail; Kuzkov, Vsevolod; Lainscak, Mitja; Molnar, Zsolt; Voga, Gorazd; Monnet, Xavier
Fluid therapy is still the mainstay of acute care in patients with shock or cardiovascular compromise. However, our understanding of the critically ill pathophysiology has evolved significantly in recent years. The revelation of the glycocalyx layer and subsequent research has redefined the basics of fluids behavior in the circulation. Using less invasive hemodynamic monitoring tools enables us to assess the cardiovascular function in a dynamic perspective. This allows pinpointing even distinct changes induced by treatment, by postural changes, or by interorgan interactions in real time and enables individualized patient management. Regarding fluids as drugs of any other kind led to the need for precise indication, way of administration, and also assessment of side effects. We possess now the evidence that patient centered outcomes may be altered when incorrect time, dose, or type of fluids are administered. In this review, three major features of fluid therapy are discussed: the prediction of fluid responsiveness, potential harms induced by overzealous fluid administration, and finally the problem of protocol-led treatments and their timing.
Benes, Jan; Kirov, Mikhail; Kuzkov, Vsevolod; Lainscak, Mitja; Molnar, Zsolt; Voga, Gorazd; Monnet, Xavier
Fluid therapy is still the mainstay of acute care in patients with shock or cardiovascular compromise. However, our understanding of the critically ill pathophysiology has evolved significantly in recent years. The revelation of the glycocalyx layer and subsequent research has redefined the basics of fluids behavior in the circulation. Using less invasive hemodynamic monitoring tools enables us to assess the cardiovascular function in a dynamic perspective. This allows pinpointing even distinct changes induced by treatment, by postural changes, or by interorgan interactions in real time and enables individualized patient management. Regarding fluids as drugs of any other kind led to the need for precise indication, way of administration, and also assessment of side effects. We possess now the evidence that patient centered outcomes may be altered when incorrect time, dose, or type of fluids are administered. In this review, three major features of fluid therapy are discussed: the prediction of fluid responsiveness, potential harms induced by overzealous fluid administration, and finally the problem of protocol-led treatments and their timing. PMID:26798642
Biais, Matthieu; Lanchon, Romain; Sesay, Musa; Le Gall, Lisa; Pereira, Bruno; Futier, Emmanuel; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine
Lung recruitment maneuver induces a decrease in stroke volume, which is more pronounced in hypovolemic patients. The authors hypothesized that the magnitude of stroke volume reduction through lung recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness. Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated patients with low tidal volume during general anesthesia were included. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, stroke volume, and pulse pressure variations were recorded before lung recruitment maneuver (application of continuous positive airway pressure of 30 cm H2O for 30 s), during lung recruitment maneuver when stroke volume reached its minimal value, and before and after volume expansion (250 ml saline, 0.9%, infused during 10 min). Patients were considered as responders to fluid administration if stroke volume increased greater than or equal to 10%. Sixteen patients were responders. Lung recruitment maneuver induced a significant decrease in mean arterial pressure and stroke volume in both responders and nonresponders. Changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver were correlated with those induced by volume expansion (r = 0.56; P < 0.0001). A 30% decrease in stroke volume during lung recruitment maneuver predicted fluid responsiveness with a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI, 62 to 98) and a specificity of 92% (95% CI, 62 to 99). Pulse pressure variations more than 6% before lung recruitment maneuver discriminated responders with a sensitivity of 69% (95% CI, 41 to 89) and a specificity of 75% (95% CI, 42 to 95). The area under receiver operating curves generated for changes in stroke volume induced by lung recruitment maneuver (0.96; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.99) was significantly higher than that for pulse pressure variations (0.72; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.88; P < 0.05). The authors' study suggests that the magnitude of stroke volume decrease during lung recruitment maneuver could predict preload responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients in the operating room.
Thomases, Becca; Guy, Robert D.
The role of passive body dynamics on the kinematics of swimming micro-organisms in complex fluids is investigated. Asymptotic analysis of small amplitude motions of a finite-length undulatory swimmer in a Stokes-Oldroyd-B fluid is used to predict shape changes that result as body elasticity and fluid elasticity are varied. Results from the analysis are compared with numerical simulations, and the small amplitude analysis of shape changes is quantitatively accurate at both small and large amplitudes, even for strongly elastic flows. We compute a stroke-induced swimming speed that accounts for the shape changes, but not additional effects of fluid elasticity. Elastic induced shape changes lead to larger amplitude strokes for sufficiently soft swimmers in a viscoelastic fluid, and these stroke boosts can lead to swimming speed-ups, but we find that additional effects of fluid elasticity generically slow down swimmers. High amplitude strokes in strongly elastic flows lead to a qualitatively different regime in which highly concentrated elastic stresses accumulate near swimmer bodies and where dramatic slow-downs are seen.
Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian
Summary Intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is well recognized as a common cause of hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke. HT after acute ischemic stroke contributes to early mortality and adversely affects functional recovery. The risk of HT is especially high when patients receive thrombolytic reperfusion therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only available treatment for ischemic stroke. Although many important publications address preclinical models of ischemic stroke, there are no current recommendations regarding the conduct of research aimed at understanding the mechanisms and prediction of HT. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms for HT after ischemic stroke, provide an overview of the models commonly used for the study of HT, and discuss biomarkers that might be used for early detection of this challenging clinical problem. PMID:25367883
Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Snow, Wilaiwan M.; Wang, Tien-Ni
OBJECTIVE. We identified the predictive factors of change in quality of life (QOL) after a distributed form of constraint-induced therapy (dCIT) among stroke survivors. METHOD. Seventy-four participants were treated with dCIT. We identified eight potential determinants of change: age, gender, side of lesion, time since stroke, cognitive status, motor impairment of the upper extremity, activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental ADLs (IADLs). The Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS–QOL) was used to assess QOL. RESULTS. Right-sided lesion and onset >17 mo earlier determined greater improvement in the SS–QOL Energy domain. Onset >10 mo earlier, poorer IADL performance, and age >68 yr predicted improvement in the Family Role, Mobility, and Mood domains, respectively. CONCLUSION. Side of lesion, time since stroke, IADL performance, and age were the most important determinants of QOL in patients receiving stroke motor rehabilitation. PMID:23245783
Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Chen, Qianxue; Wang, Jian
Intracerebral hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is well recognized as a common cause of hemorrhage in patients with ischemic stroke. HT after acute ischemic stroke contributes to early mortality and adversely affects functional recovery. The risk of HT is especially high when patients receive thrombolytic reperfusion therapy with tissue plasminogen activator, the only available treatment for ischemic stroke. Although many important publications address preclinical models of ischemic stroke, there are no current recommendations regarding the conduct of research aimed at understanding the mechanisms and prediction of HT. In this review, we discuss the underlying mechanisms for HT after ischemic stroke, provide an overview of the models commonly used for the study of HT, and discuss biomarkers that might be used for the early detection of this challenging clinical problem.
Ebinger, Martin; Galinovic, Ivana; Rozanski, Michal; Brunecker, Peter; Endres, Matthias; Fiebach, Jochen B
It has recently been proposed that fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging may serve as a surrogate marker for time of symptom onset after stroke. We assessed the hypothesis that FLAIR imaging could be used to decide if an MRI was performed within 4.5 hours from symptom onset or later. All consecutive patients with presumed stroke who underwent an MRI within 12 hours after known symptom onset were included regardless of stroke subtype and severity between May 2008 and May 2009. Blinded to time of symptom onset, 2 raters judged the visibility of lesions on FLAIR. Apparent diffusion coefficient values, lesion volume on diffusion-weighted imaging, and relative signal intensity of FLAIR lesions were determined. In 94 consecutive patients with stroke, we found that median time from symptom onset for FLAIR-positive patients (189 minutes; interquartile range, 110 to 369 minutes) was significantly longer compared with FLAIR-negative patients (103 minutes; interquartile range, 75 to 183 minutes; P=0.011). Negative FLAIR had a sensitivity of 46% and a specificity of 79% for allocating patients to a time window of less than 4.5 hours. FLAIR positivity increased with diffusion-weighted imaging lesion volume (P<0.001) but showed no correlation with apparent diffusion coefficient values (P=0.795). There was no significant correlation between relative signal intensity and time from symptom onset (Spearman correlation coefficient -0.152, P=0.128). Based on our findings, we cannot recommend the use of FLAIR visibility as an estimate of time from symptom onset within the first 4.5 hours.
Suehiro, Koichi; Okutani, Ryu
To investigate the ability of stroke volume variation (SVV) calculated by the Vigileo-FloTrac system (Edwards Lifescience, Irvine, CA) to predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation (OLV). Prospective, observational study. Clinical hospital. Thirty patients scheduled for a pulmonary lobectomy requiring OLV for at least 1 hour under combined epidural/general anesthesia. After starting OLV, hydroxyethyl starch, 500 mL, was administered for 30 minutes. Hemodynamic variables including heart rate, mean arterial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index (SVI), and SVV were measured before and after volume loading. SVV before volume loading was significantly correlated with the absolute changes in SVV (ΔSVV) and percentage changes in stroke volume index (ΔSVI) after volume loading (ΔSVV: p < 0.05, r = -0.893; ΔSVI: p < 0.05, r = 0.866). Of the 30 patients, 15 (50%) were responders to intravascular volume expansion (an increase in SVI ≥ 25%), and 15 (50%) were nonresponders (an increase in SVI <25%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.900 for SVV (95% confidence interval, 0.809-0.991), whereas the optimal threshold value of SVV to discriminate between responders and nonresponders was 10.5% (sensitivity: 82.4%, specificity: 92.3%). The authors found that SVV measured by the Vigileo-FloTrac system was able to predict fluid responsiveness in patients undergoing surgery with OLV with acceptable levels of sensitivity and specificity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hadidi, Niloufar Niakosari; Lindquist, Ruth; Buckwalter, Kathleen; Savik, Kay
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of problem-solving therapy (PST) on stroke survivors' depressive symptoms and function in the rehabilitation stage of recovery. This study employed a repeated measures experimental design. We recruited a convenience sample of 22 ischemic stroke survivors and randomized to treatment group receiving PST and control group receiving standard care. Our recruitment and retention rates were 54% and 81%, respectively. Results for depression scores in the treatment group as compared to the control group indicated clinical significance but not statistical significance (p>.05). Function was not statistically significant. Problem-solving therapy is potentially therapeutic for stroke survivors. Rehabilitation nurses could be educated on the use of PST as a potential intervention for stroke survivors. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
Su, Qiaoer; Cheng, Yifan; Jin, Kunlin; Cheng, Jianhua; Lin, Yuanshao; Lin, Zhenzhen; Wang, Liuqing; Shao, Bei
The present study investigated the effect of exogenous estrogen on post-stroke depression. Rats were exposed to chronic mild stress following middle cerebral artery occlusion. The occurrence of post-stroke depression was evaluated according to the changes in preference for sucrose and performance in a forced swimming test. Estrogen therapy significantly improved these neurological symptoms, indicating that estrogen is effective in treating post-stroke depression. Increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression was reported in the hippocampus of rats that had been treated with estrogen for two weeks, suggesting that BDNF expression may be an important contributor to the improvement of post-stroke depression that is observed following estrogen therapy. PMID:27602095
Regli, Adrian; De Keulenaer, Bart; De Laet, Inneke; Roberts, Derek; Dabrowski, Wojciech; Malbrain, Manu L N G
Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are consistently associated with morbidity and mortality among the critically ill or injured. Thus, avoiding or potentially treating these conditions may improve patient outcomes. With the aim of improving the outcomes for patients with IAH/ACS, the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome recently updated its clinical practice guidelines. In this article, we review the association between a positive fluid balance and outcomes among patients with IAH/ACS and how optimisation of fluid administration and systemic/regional perfusion may potentially lead to improved outcomes among this patient population.Evidence consistently associates secondary IAH with a positive fluid balance. However, despite increased research in the area of non-surgical management of patients with IAH and ACS, evidence supporting this approach is limited. Some evidence exists to support implementing goal-directed resuscitation protocols and restrictive fluid therapy protocols in shocked and recovering critically ill patients with IAH. Data from animal experiments and clinical trials has shown that the early use of vasopressors and inotropic agents is likely to be safe and may help reduce excessive fluid administration, especially in patients with IAH. Studies using furosemide and/or renal replacement therapy to achieve a negative fluid balance in patients with IAH are encouraging. The type of fluid to be administered in patients with IAH remains far from resolved. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of abdominal perfusion pressure as a resuscitation endpoint in patients with IAH. However, it is important to recognise that IAH either abolishes or increases threshold values for pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness, while the presence of IAH may also result in a false negative passive leg raising test.Correct fluid therapy and perfusional
Loubinoux, Isabelle; Kronenberg, Golo; Endres, Matthias; Schumann-Bard, Pascale; Freret, Thomas; Filipkowski, Robert K; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Popa-Wagner, Aurel
The interaction between depression and stroke is highly complex. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is among the most frequent neuropsychiatric consequences of stroke. Depression also negatively impacts stroke outcome with increased morbidity, mortality and poorer functional recovery. Antidepressants such as the commonly prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve stroke outcome, an effect that may extend far beyond depression, e.g., to motor recovery. The main biological theory of PSD is the amine hypothesis. Conceivably, ischaemic lesions interrupt the projections ascending from midbrain and brainstem, leading to a decreased bioavailability of the biogenic amines--serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Acetylcholine would also be involved. So far, preclinical and translational research on PSD is largely lacking. The implementation and characterization of suitable animal models is clearly a major prerequisite for deeper insights into the biological basis of post-stroke mood disturbances. Equally importantly, experimental models may also pave the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. If we cannot prevent stroke, we shall try to limit its long-term consequences. This review therefore presents animal models of PSD and summarizes potential underlying mechanisms including genomic signatures, neurotransmitter and neurotrophin signalling, hippocampal neurogenesis, cellular plasticity in the ischaemic lesion, secondary degenerative changes, activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuroinflammation. As stroke is a disease of the elderly, great clinical benefit may especially accrue from deciphering and targeting basic mechanisms underlying PSD in aged animals. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2012 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Saver, Jeffrey L; Carroll, John D; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L
Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded adjudication of end-point events, we randomly assigned patients 18 to 60 years of age who had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke to undergo closure of the PFO (PFO closure group) or to receive medical therapy alone (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin combined with extended-release dipyridamole; medical-therapy group). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of recurrent nonfatal ischemic stroke, fatal ischemic stroke, or early death after randomization. The results of the analysis of the primary outcome from the original trial period have been reported previously; the current analysis of data from the extended follow-up period was considered to be exploratory. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. Patients were followed for a median of 5.9 years. Treatment exposure in the two groups was unequal (3141 patient-years in the PFO closure group vs. 2669 patient-years in the medical-therapy group), owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 18 patients in the PFO closure group and in 28 patients in the medical-therapy group, resulting in rates of 0.58 events per 100 patient-years and 1.07 events per 100 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.999; P=0.046 by the log-rank test). Recurrent ischemic stroke of undetermined cause occurred in 10 patients in the PFO closure group and in 23 patients in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.79; P=0.007). Venous thromboembolism (which comprised events of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis) was more common in the PFO closure group
Kate, Mahesh; Gioia, Laura; Buck, Brian; Sivakumar, Leka; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Shuaib, Ashfaq; Butcher, Kenneth
Acute ischemic stroke patients are at risk of early recurrence. We tested the feasibility and safety of initiating dabigatran in patients, within 24 hours of minor stroke in patients without atrial fibrillation. Minor stroke patients (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) without atrial fibrillation and evidence of acute infarction on magnetic resonance imaging were treated with dabigatran. Treatment began within 24 hours of onset and was continued for 30 days. The primary end point was symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. A total of 53 patients with median (interquartile range) age of 68 (57-77) years and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 1 (0-2) were enrolled. Baseline diffusion-weighted imaging volume was 0.8 (0.3-2.4) mL. No patients experienced symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation. Three patients had evidence of asymptomatic petechial hemorrhagic transformation on day 7, which remained stable at day 30, while continuing dabigatran. Dabigatran treatment within 24 hours of minor stroke is feasible. A larger randomized trial is required to confirm the safety and efficacy of this treatment approach. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT 01769703. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
... Is a Stroke? A stroke occurs if the flow of oxygen-rich blood to a portion of the brain ... pressure from the leaked blood damages brain cells. High blood pressure and ... A TIA occurs if blood flow to a portion of the brain is blocked ...
Tripp, Florian; Krakow, Karsten
To evaluate the effects of an aquatic physiotherapy method (Halliwick-Therapy) upon mobility in the post-acute phase of stroke rehabilitation. Randomized controlled trial. Hospital for neurological rehabilitation. Adult patients after first-ever stroke in post-acute inpatient rehabilitation at least two weeks after the onset of stroke (n = 30). In the Halliwick-Therapy group (n = 14) the treatment over a period of two weeks included 45 minutes of aquatic therapy three times per week and a conventional physiotherapeutic treatment twice a week. Subjects in the control group (n = 16) received conventional physiotherapeutic treatment over a period of two weeks five times per week. The primary outcome variable was postural stability (Berg Balance Scale). Secondary outcome variables were functional reach, functional gait ability and basic functional mobility. Compared to the control group, significantly more subjects in the Halliwick-Therapy group (83.3% versus 46.7%) attained significant improvement of the Berg Balance Scale (P < 0.05). Improvement of the functional gait ability was significantly higher in the Halliwick-Therapy group (mean (SD) 1.25(0.86)) than in the control group (mean (SD) 0.73 (0.70)) (P < 0.1). The mean differences of improvements in functional reach and basic functional mobility were not statistically significant between groups. This study indicates that Halliwick-Therapy is safe and well tolerated in stroke patients in post-acute rehabilitation and has positive effects upon some aspects of mobility.
Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae
Aim: Preoperative fluid and electrolyte management is usually performed by intravenous therapy. We investigated the safety and effectiveness of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of surgical patients. Methods: The study consisted of two studies, designed as a prospective observational study. In a pilot study, 20 surgical patients consumed 1000 mL of an oral rehydration solution (ORS) until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia. Parameters such as serum electrolyte concentrations, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) as an index of renal blood flow, volume of esophageal-pharyngeal fluid and gastric fluid (EPGF), and patient satisfaction with ORT were assessed. In a follow-up study to assess the safety of ORT, 1078 surgical patients, who consumed ORS until 2 h before induction of general anesthesia, were assessed. Results: In the pilot study, water, electrolytes, and carbohydrate were effectively and safely supplied by ORT. The FENa value was increased at 2 h following ORT. The volume of EPGF collected following the induction of anesthesia was 5.3±5.6 mL. In the follow-up study, a small amount of vomiting occurred in one patient, and no aspiration occurred in the patients. Conclusion: These results suggest that ORT is a safe and effective therapy for the preoperative fluid and electrolyte management of selected surgical patients. PMID:21897763
Recently, several stem cell-based approaches have been considered as a novel treatment for stroke, such as delivery of non neural stem cells, stimulation of endogenous neural stem cells, and transplantation of neural stem cells. Among them, transplantation of neural stem cells is thought to have an advantage for functional recovery through neuronal replacement rather than other mechanisms. We demonstrated that human iPS cells derived neural stem cells form functional neurons and improve recovery after grafting in stroke-damaged rodents without tumor formation. Here we discuss about the potential and clinical application of iPS cells for stroke therapy.
Dulamea, Adriana Octaviana
Stroke is the second main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The rationale for the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in stroke is based on the capacity of MSCs to secrete a large variety of bioactive molecules such as growth factors, cytokines and chemokines leading to reduction of inflammation, increased neurogenesis from the germinative niches of central nervous system, increased angiogenesis, effects on astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and axons. This review presents the data derived from experimental studies and the evidence available from clinical trials about the use of MSCs in stroke therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A; Granger, Andrew S; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J
Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke) and again at follow-up (6 months). This study compared two cohorts from successive studies conducted in four Australian acute/sub-acute hospitals. The studies had near identical recruitment, blinded assessment and data-collection protocols. The Very Early Rehabilitation (VER) cohort (N = 20) had mild-severe aphasia and received up to 20 1-h sessions of impairment-based aphasia therapy, up to 5 weeks. The control cohort (n = 27) also had mild-severe aphasia and received usual care (UC) therapy for up to 4 weeks post-stroke. The primary outcome measure was the Aphasia Quotient (AQ) and a measure of communicative efficiency (DA) at therapy completion. Outcomes were measured at baseline, therapy completion and 6 months post-stroke and were compared using Generalised Estimating Equations (GEE) models. After controlling for initial aphasia and stroke disability, the GEE models demonstrated that at the primary end-point participants receiving VER achieved 18% greater recovery on the AQ and 1.5% higher DA scores than those in the control cohort. At 6 months, the VER participants maintained a 16% advantage in recovery on the AQ and 0.6% more on DA scores over the control cohort participants. A prescribed, impairment-based aphasia therapy regimen, provided daily in very early post-stroke recovery, resulted in significantly greater communication gains in people with mild-severe aphasia at completion of therapy and at 6 months, when compared with a historical control cohort. Further research is required to demonstrate large-scale and long-term efficacy. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Brewer, Karen M
Stroke-related communication disorders can have a substantial impact on Māori whānau (extended family). Timely and appropriate speech-language therapy is required, but there are many challenges in providing this. In this article we discuss the need for a kaupapa Māori approach to speech-language therapy that is designed by Māori for Māori, and undertaken in a Māori way. We report the results of a literature review that revealed a small but significant body of literature describing Māori experiences of stroke, aphasia and speech-language therapy, and evidence that a Māori-specific therapy programme can improve outcomes for people with stroke. We then consider the social and political context that impacts the design and delivery of such an approach. Informed by the literature, we propose a hierarchy of skill and resource acquisition for speech-language therapists, in which they learn why to be culturally safe, how to be culturally safe, and how to interact before creating resources to build relationships, resources for education and for therapy. The creation of a kaupapa Māori speech-language therapy approach should bring together people with stroke, whānau members and service providers to create therapy that crosses sectors and disciplines and acknowledges the wider social and political context.
Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Razi, Zahra; Delavari, Somayeh; Shakibajahromi, Benafsheh; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Kazemi, Sepehr; Semsar, Maryam
Brain stroke is the second most important events that lead to disability and morbidity these days. Although, stroke is important, there is no treatment for curing this problem. Nowadays, cell therapy has opened a new window for treating central nervous system disease. In some previous studies the Mesenchymal stem cells and neural stem cells. In this study, we have designed an experiment to assess the combination cell therapy (Mesenchymal and Neural stem cells) effects on brain stroke. The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from adult rat bone marrow and the neural stem cells were isolated from ganglion eminence of rat embryo 14 days. The Mesenchymal stem cells were injected 1 day after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the neural stem cells transplanted 7 day after MCAO. After 28 days, the neurological outcomes and brain lesion volumes were evaluated. Also, the activity of Caspase 3 was assessed in different groups. The group which received combination cell therapy had better neurological examination and less brain lesion. Also the combination cell therapy group had the least Caspase 3 activity among the groups. The combination cell therapy is more effective than Mesenchymal stem cell therapy and neural stem cell therapy separately in treating the brain stroke in rats.
Meyer, J S; Rauch, G M
Intravenous thrombolytic therapy using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtpa) has been approved for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in the USA, if treatment is initiated within 3-hours (NINDS tpa Stroke Study Group) but not 6 hours (ECASS II) after time of onset. Favorable outcome in the placebo arm was much higher than expected possibly because patients with TIA's are likely to be included as progressive ischemic stroke subjects when a brief 3-6 hours duration of stroke is defined as the therapeutic window. Yonas' group at the University of Pittsburg demonstrated that adding stable xenon inhalation to routine CT scanning performed during emergency screening of acute stroke, predicted which cases became irreversibly infarcted if thrombolytic therapy was not administered within a few hours of stroke onset, since non-contrasted CT scans are usually normal this early. Adding a few minutes for inhalation of 26% xenon is justified in order to measure LCBF values which predict size, severity and volumes of impending cerebral infarctions and rule out TIA's which have relatively normal CT-CBF values. CT-CBF measures provide positive indications for thrombolytic therapy. This is not possible by MRI and SPECT methods which are not sufficiently quantitative to discern LCBF values persistently below ischemic thresholds of 16 mls/100 gm/min, thereby predicting impending infarction.
Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Lei, Qingtao; Tang, Zhouping; Hua, Qiang; Zhang, Yangpu; Zhu, Suiqiang
To investigate the effects of VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training on recovery of post-stroke dysphagia, a total of 120 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: conventional swallowing therapy group, VitalStim therapy group, and VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing therapy group. Prior to and after the treatment, signals of surface electromyography (sEMG) of swallowing muscles were detected, swallowing function was evaluated by using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) tests, and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QOL) was evaluated using the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA, VFSS, and SWAL-QOL scores in each group between prior to and after treatment. After 4-week treatment, sEMG value, SSA, VFSS and SWAL-QOL scores were significantly greater in the VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing training group than in the conventional swallowing training group and VitalStim therapy group, but no significant difference existed between conventional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim therapy group. It was concluded that VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training was conducive to recovery of post-stroke dysphagia.
Chen, Li-Fang; Fang, Jian-Qiao; Chen, Lu-Ni; Wang, Chao
Up to now, in the treatment of stroke patients by acupuncture therapy, three main representative achievements involving scalp acupuncture intervention, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" (restoring consciousness and inducing resuscitation) acupuncture technique and nape acupuncture therapy have been got. Regarding their neurobiological mechanisms, the scalp acupuncture therapy is based on the functional localization of the cerebral cortex, "Xing Nao Kai Qiao" acupuncture therapy is closely related to nerve stem stimulation, and the nape acupuncture therapy is based on the nerve innervation of the regional neck-nape area in obtaining therapeutic effects. In fact, effects of these three acupuncture interventions are all closely associated with the modern neuroanatomy. In the treatment of post-stroke spastic paralysis, cognitive disorder and depression with acupuncture therapy, modern neuroanatomical knowledge should be one of the key theoretical basis and new therapeutic techniques should be explored and developed continuously.
Endovascular Therapy Is Effective and Safe for Patients With Severe Ischemic Stroke: Pooled Analysis of Interventional Management of Stroke III and Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands Data.
Broderick, Joseph P; Berkhemer, Olvert A; Palesch, Yuko Y; Dippel, Diederik W J; Foster, Lydia D; Roos, Yvo B W E M; van der Lugt, Aad; Tomsick, Thomas A; Majoie, Charles B L M; van Zwam, Wim H; Demchuk, Andrew M; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Khatri, Pooja; Lingsma, Hester F; Hill, Michael D; Roozenbeek, Bob; Jauch, Edward C; Jovin, Tudor G; Yan, Bernard; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Molina, Carlos A; Goyal, Mayank; Schonewille, Wouter J; Mazighi, Mikael; Engelter, Stefan T; Anderson, Craig S; Spilker, Judith; Carrozzella, Janice; Ryckborst, Karla J; Janis, L Scott; Simpson, Kit N
We assessed the effect of endovascular treatment in acute ischemic stroke patients with severe neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, ≥20) after a prespecified analysis plan. The pooled analysis of the Interventional Management of Stroke III (IMS III) and Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN) trials included participants with an National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of ≥20 before intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) treatment (IMS III) or randomization (MR CLEAN) who were treated with intravenous tPA ≤3 hours of stroke onset. Our hypothesis was that participants with severe stroke randomized to endovascular therapy after intravenous tPA would have improved 90-day outcome (distribution of modified Rankin Scale scores), when compared with those who received intravenous tPA alone. Among 342 participants in the pooled analysis (194 from IMS III and 148 from MR CLEAN), an ordinal logistic regression model showed that the endovascular group had superior 90-day outcome compared with the intravenous tPA group (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-2.66). In the logistic regression model of the dichotomous outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-2, or functional independence), the endovascular group had superior outcomes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.56). Functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2) at 90 days was 25% in the endovascular group when compared with 14% in the intravenous tPA group. Endovascular therapy after intravenous tPA within 3 hours of symptom onset improves functional outcome at 90 days after severe ischemic stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424 (IMS III) and ISRCTN10888758 (MR CLEAN). © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Vahidy, F S; Rahbar, M H; Lal, A P; Grotta, J C; Savitz, S I
To determine factors associated with patients refusing IV t-PA for suspected acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and to compare the outcomes of patients who refused t-PA (RT) with those treated with t-PA. Patients who were treated with and refused t-PA at our stroke center were identified retrospectively. Demographics, clinical presentation, and outcome measures were collected and compared. Clinical outcome was defined as excellent (mRS: 0-1), good (mRS: 0-2), and poor (mRS: 3-6). Over 7·5 years, 30 (4·2%) patients refused t-PA. There were no demographic differences between the treated and RT groups. The rate of RT decreased over time (OR 0·63, 95% CI 0·50-0·79). Factors associated with refusal included a later symptom onset to emergency department presentation time (OR 1·02, 95% CI 1·01-1·03), lower NIHSS (OR 1·11, 95% CI 1·03-1·18), a higher proportion of stroke mimics (OR 17·61, 95% CI 6·20-50·02) and shorter hospital stay (OR 1·32, 95% CI 1·09-1·61). Among patients who were subsequently diagnosed with ischemic stroke, only length of stay was significantly shorter for refusal patients (OR 1·37, 95% CI 1·06-1·78). After controlling for mild strokes and stroke mimics, clinical outcome was not different between the groups (OR 1·61, 95% CI 0·69-3·73). The incidence of patients refusing t-PA has decreased over time, yet it may be a cause for t-PA under-utilization. Patients with milder symptoms were more likely to refuse t-PA. Refusal patients presented later to the hospital and had shorter hospital stays. One out of six refusal patients (16·6%) had a stroke mimic. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.
Thieme, Holm; Bayn, Maria; Wurg, Marco; Zange, Christian; Pohl, Marcus; Behrens, Johann
To evaluate the effects of individual or group mirror therapy on sensorimotor function, activities of daily living, quality of life and visuospatial neglect in patients with a severe arm paresis after stroke. Randomized controlled trial. Inpatient rehabilitation centre. Sixty patients with a severe paresis of the arm within three months after stroke. Three groups: (1) individual mirror therapy, (2) group mirror therapy and (3) control intervention with restricted view on the affected arm. Motor function on impairment (Fugl-Meyer Test) and activity level (Action Research Arm Test), independence in activities of daily living (Barthel Index), quality of life (Stroke Impact Scale) and visuospatial neglect (Star Cancellation Test). After five weeks, no significant group differences for motor function were found (P > 0.05). Pre-post differences for the Action Research Arm Test and Fugl-Meyer Test: individual mirror therapy: 3.4 (7.1) and 3.2 (3.8), group mirror therapy: 1.1 (3.1) and 5.1 (10.0) and control therapy: 2.8 (6.7) and 5.2 (8.7). However, a significant effect on visuospatial neglect for patients in the individual mirror therapy compared to control group could be shown (P < 0.01). Furthermore, it was possible to integrate a mirror therapy group intervention for severely affected patients after stroke. This study showed no effect on sensorimotor function of the arm, activities of daily living and quality of life of mirror therapy compared to a control intervention after stroke. However, a positive effect on visuospatial neglect was indicated.
Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Szeto, Samuel S. W.; Law, Henry C. H.; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Yu, Pei; Sho, Eiketsu; Siu, Michael K. W.; Lee, Simon M. Y.; Chu, Ivan K.; Wang, Yuqiang
TBN, a novel tetramethylpyrazine derivative armed with a powerful free radical-scavenging nitrone moiety, has been reported to reduce cerebral infarction in rats through multi-functional mechanisms of action. Here we study the therapeutic effects of TBN on non-human primate model of stroke. Thirty male Cynomolgus macaques were subjected to stroke with 4 hours ischemia and then reperfusion. TBN were injected intravenously at 3 or 6 hours after the onset of ischemia. Cerebral infarction was examined by magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 4 weeks post ischemia. Neurological severity scores were evaluated during 4 weeks observation. At the end of experiment, protein markers associated with the stroke injury and TBN treatment were screened by quantitative proteomics. We found that TBN readily penetrated the blood brain barrier and reached effective therapeutic concentration after intravenous administration. It significantly reduced brain infarction and modestly preserved the neurological function of stroke-affected arm. TBN suppressed over-expression of neuroinflammatory marker vimentin and decreased the numbers of GFAP-positive cells, while reversed down-regulation of myelination-associated protein 2′, 3′-cyclic-nucleotide 3′-phosphodiesterase and increased the numbers of NeuN-positive cells in the ipsilateral peri-infarct area. TBN may serve as a promising new clinical candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke. PMID:27841332
Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Sun, Yewei; Szeto, Samuel S W; Law, Henry C H; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Yu, Pei; Sho, Eiketsu; Siu, Michael K W; Lee, Simon M Y; Chu, Ivan K; Wang, Yuqiang
TBN, a novel tetramethylpyrazine derivative armed with a powerful free radical-scavenging nitrone moiety, has been reported to reduce cerebral infarction in rats through multi-functional mechanisms of action. Here we study the therapeutic effects of TBN on non-human primate model of stroke. Thirty male Cynomolgus macaques were subjected to stroke with 4 hours ischemia and then reperfusion. TBN were injected intravenously at 3 or 6 hours after the onset of ischemia. Cerebral infarction was examined by magnetic resonance imaging at 1 and 4 weeks post ischemia. Neurological severity scores were evaluated during 4 weeks observation. At the end of experiment, protein markers associated with the stroke injury and TBN treatment were screened by quantitative proteomics. We found that TBN readily penetrated the blood brain barrier and reached effective therapeutic concentration after intravenous administration. It significantly reduced brain infarction and modestly preserved the neurological function of stroke-affected arm. TBN suppressed over-expression of neuroinflammatory marker vimentin and decreased the numbers of GFAP-positive cells, while reversed down-regulation of myelination-associated protein 2', 3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase and increased the numbers of NeuN-positive cells in the ipsilateral peri-infarct area. TBN may serve as a promising new clinical candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Lunøe, M; Overgaard-Steensen, C
Large amounts of fluids are daily prescribed to hospitalised patients across different medical specialities. Unfortunately, inappropriate fluid administration commonly causes iatrogenic hyponatraemia with associated increase in morbidity and mortality. Fundamental for prevention of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia is an understanding of what determines plasma sodium concentration (P-[Na(+) ]) in the individual patient. P-[Na(+) ] is determined by balances of water and cations according to Edelman. This paper discusses the mechanisms influencing water and cation balances. In the hospitalised patient, non-osmotic antidiuretic hormone secretion is frequent and results in a reduced renal electrolyte-free water clearance (EFWC). This condition puts the patient at risk of hyponatraemia upon infusion of fluids that are hypotonic such as 5% glucose, Darrow-glucose, NaKglucose and 0.45% NaCl in 5% glucose. It is suggested that individualised fluid therapy includes the following: Firstly, bolus therapy with Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate/0.9% NaCl in the hypovolaemic patient to minimise the risk of fluid under-/overload. Secondly, P-[Na(+) ] should be monitored together with the balances influencing P-[Na(+) ]. This may include EFWC in patients at additional risk of hyponatraemia. In patients with potentially reduced intracranial compliance (e.g. meningitis, intracranial bleeding, cerebral contusion and brain oedema), even a small decrease in P-[Na(+) ] induced by slightly hypotonic fluids like Ringer-acetate/Ringer-lactate can increase the intracranial pressure dramatically. Consequently, 0.9 % NaCl is recommended as first-line fluid for such patients. The occurrence of hospital-acquired hyponatraemia may be reduced by prescribing fluids, type and amount, with the same dedication as shown for other drugs. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Yuan, Kristy; Kim, Anthony S
For secondary stroke prevention, long-term dual antiplatelet therapy is not recommended due to increased bleeding risks. There is no specific evidence for using dual antiplatelet therapy for cervical artery dissection or for adding a second antiplatelet agent after a stroke while taking aspirin monotherapy. For patients with atrial fibrillation and stroke/TIA unable to tolerate warfarin, aspirin monotherapy is reasonable. Dual antiplatelet therapy carries a similar risk of major bleeding as warfarin that offsets reductions in stroke risk. Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for endovascular cerebrovascular stenting procedures, although the optimal duration of therapy is not well established. Short-term dual antiplatelet therapy when initiated acutely after minor stroke/TIA, particularly in Asian populations or for intracranial atherosclerosis, holds promise though studies to evaluate this approach more generally are ongoing. New antiplatelet agents and additional data on the pharmacogenetics of clopidogrel metabolism have the potential to help to individualize these recommendations moving forward.
Kim, Suk Jae; Bang, Oh Young
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as reduced glomerular filtration rate and/or proteinuria, is a serious worldwide health problem. The incidence and prevalence of CKD are increasing with age, and patients with CKD are a population at very high risk for developing stroke. CKD may increase the risk for incident stroke independent of conventional stroke risk factors. A common pathological process including anemia, homocysteine, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, inflammation, and conditions promoting coagulation may be related to the development of stroke in the course of CKD. CKD can also serve as a marker of brain injury, because the cerebral microvascular system has similar hemodynamic features with the vascular beds of the kidney. CKD has been linked with markers of cerebral small artery disease including white matter lesions, lacunar infarctions, and cerebral microbleeds. CKD has been implicated with neurological deterioration during hospitalization, poor functional outcome, and hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke. Recurrence of stroke may also be higher in CKD patients compared with those having normal kidney function. However, there have been no specific recommendations for antiplatelet therapy in patients with ischemic stroke plus CKD. As CKD patients have distinct characteristics including high bleeding complications and poor response to antiplatelet agents, selecting and adjusting platelet aggregation inhibitors should be individualized. In addition, it should be noted that aspirin may aggravate renal dysfunction. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors restore endothelial dysfunction and may serve as a target for preventing stroke in CKD patients. Aside from antiplatelet therapy, other treatments including lipid control, blood pressure lowering, and renal transplantation are also important. Further studies are warranted for optimal treatment in stroke prevention in CKD patients.
Wang, Qian; Duan, Feng; Wang, Ming-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Peng; Ma, Li-Zhi
Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Cell-based therapies improve neural functional recovery in pre-clinical studies, but clinical results require evaluation. We aimed to assess the effects of mesenchymal stem cells on ischemic stroke treatment. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases until July 2015 and selected the controlled trials using mesenchymal stem cells for ischemic stroke treatment compared with cell-free treatment. We assessed the results by meta-analysis using the error matrix approach, and we assessed the association of mesenchymal stem cell counts with treatment effect by dose-response meta-analysis. Seven trials were included. Manhattan plots revealed no obvious advantage of the application of stem cells to treat ischemic stroke. For the comprehensive evaluation index, stem cell treatment did not significantly reduce the mortality of ischemic stroke patients (relative risk (RR) 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.29-1.19; ln(RR) 0.54, 95% CI -0.18 to 1.25, p=0.141). The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was also not significantly improved by stem cell treatment (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.94, 95% CI -0.13 to 2.01, p=0.072). The European Stroke Scale was significantly improved using the stem cell treatment (SMD 1.15, 95% CI 0.37-1.92). The dose-response meta-analysis did not reveal a significant linear regression relationship between the number of stem cells and therapeutic effect, except regarding the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale index. In conclusion, our assessments indicated no significant difference between stem cell and cell-free treatments. Further research is needed to discover more effective stem cell-based therapies for ischemic stroke treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Selewski, David T; Cornell, Timothy T; Blatt, Neal B; Han, Yong Y; Mottes, Theresa; Kommareddi, Mallika; Gaies, Michael G; Annich, Gail M; Kershaw, David B; Shanley, Thomas P; Heung, Michael
In pediatric patients, fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation is associated with increased mortality. The aim of this study was to characterize the association between fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation, fluid removal during continuous renal replacement therapy, the kinetics of fluid removal and mortality in a large pediatric population receiving continuous renal replacement therapy while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Retrospective chart review. Tertiary children's hospital. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy from July 2006 to September 2010. None. Overall intensive care unit survival was 34% for 53 patients that were initiated on continuous renal replacement therapy while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period. Median fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation was significantly lower in survivors compared to nonsurvivors (24.5% vs. 38%, p = .006). Median fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy discontinuation was significantly lower in survivors compared to nonsurvivors (7.1% vs. 17.5%, p = .035). After adjusting for percent fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation, age, and severity of illness, the change in fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy discontinuation was not significantly associated with mortality (p = .212). Models investigating the rates of fluid removal in different periods, age, severity of illness, and fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation found that fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation was the most consistent predictor of survival. Our data demonstrate an association between fluid overload at continuous renal replacement therapy initiation and mortality in pediatric patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. The degree of fluid overload at continuous
Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Kyeong Woo
Objective To evaluate the effect of prolonged inpatient rehabilitation therapy in subacute stroke patients. Method We enrolled 52 subacute stroke patients who had received 3 months of inpatient rehabilitation therapy. Thirty stroke patients received additional inpatient rehabilitation therapy for 3 months and 22 control patients received only home-based care. The evaluation was measured at 3 and at 6 months after stroke occurrence. Functional improvement was measured using the modified motor assessment scale (MMAS), the timed up and go test (TUG), the 10-meter walking time (10 mWT), the Berg balance scale (BBS) and the Korean-modified Barthel index (K-MBI). The health-related quality of life was evaluated using the medical outcome study, 36-item short form survey (SF-36). Results In the experimental group, significant improvements were observed for all parameters at 6 months (p<0.05). However, significant improvements were observed only in MMAS, BBS, and K-MBI at 6 months in the Control group (p<0.05). In comparing the 2 groups, significant difference were observed in all parameters (p<0.05) except 10 meter walking time (p=0.73). The improvement in SF-36 was meaningfully higher in experimental group compared to control group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that subacute stroke patients can achieve functional improvements and an enhanced quality of life through prolonged inpatient rehabilitation therapy. PMID:22506231
Chen, P-S; Cheng, C-L; Kao Yang, Y-H; Yeh, P-S; Li, Y-H
Statin therapy has demonstrated benefits in ischemic stroke patients. However, little is known about whether the timing of statin initiation affects clinical outcomes. The possible association of statin use and cerebral hemorrhage is also a concern for early statin therapy after stroke. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the initiation timing of statins in acute ischemic stroke. A cohort study was performed using 5-year National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Patients without prior statin therapy admitted for their new ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were enrolled. Patients were recognized as inhospital use group (2019 patients, statin initiation during hospitalization), intermediate use group (2266 patients, statin initiation within 1 year after discharge) or late use group (2958 patients, statin initiation 1 year later after discharge). The study endpoint was the composite outcome of ischemic stroke, TIA, hemorrhagic stroke, or acute coronary event. As compared with inhospital use, patients with late use had a 49% increased risk (adjusted HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.26-1.76) of composite endpoint. In contrast, patients with intermediate use had similar risk of endpoint as those with inhospital use. The risk of cerebral hemorrhage was similar in patients receiving inhospital, intermediate, or late statin treatment. In acute ischemic stroke, patients receiving late statin treatment carried a poorer clinical outcome than those with earlier statin initiation. Inhospital statin use after an acute ischemic stroke did not increase the risk of cerebral hemorrhage. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kim, Tae Gon; Bae, Sea Hyun; Kim, Gye Yeop; Kim, Kyung Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of stroke patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 10 stroke patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis who were administered 3 sessions of extracorporeal shock wave therapy per week. After the last session, they performed stretching exercises for their Achilles tendon and plantar fascia for 30 min/day, 5 times a week for 6 months. The following parameters were measured and compared prior to therapy, 6 weeks after therapy, and 6 months after therapy: thickness of the plantar fascia, using an ultrasonic imaging system; degree of spasticity, using a muscle tension measuring instrument; degree of pain, using the visual analogue scale; and gait ability, using the Functional Gait Assessment. [Results] Decreased plantar fascia thickness, spasticity, and pain and increased gait ability were noted after therapy. These changes were significantly greater at 6 months after therapy than at 6 weeks after therapy. [Conclusion] These results indicated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduced tension in the plantar fascia, relieving pain and improving gait ability in stroke patients. PMID:25729207
Kim, Tae Gon; Bae, Sea Hyun; Kim, Gye Yeop; Kim, Kyung Yoon
[Purpose] The purpose of this research was to analyze the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of stroke patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] This study included 10 stroke patients diagnosed with plantar fasciitis who were administered 3 sessions of extracorporeal shock wave therapy per week. After the last session, they performed stretching exercises for their Achilles tendon and plantar fascia for 30 min/day, 5 times a week for 6 months. The following parameters were measured and compared prior to therapy, 6 weeks after therapy, and 6 months after therapy: thickness of the plantar fascia, using an ultrasonic imaging system; degree of spasticity, using a muscle tension measuring instrument; degree of pain, using the visual analogue scale; and gait ability, using the Functional Gait Assessment. [Results] Decreased plantar fascia thickness, spasticity, and pain and increased gait ability were noted after therapy. These changes were significantly greater at 6 months after therapy than at 6 weeks after therapy. [Conclusion] These results indicated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy reduced tension in the plantar fascia, relieving pain and improving gait ability in stroke patients.
Simpson, Kit N.; Simpson, Annie N.; Mauldin, Patrick D.; Hill, Michael D; Yeatts, Sharon D.; Spilker, Judith A.; Foster, Lydia D.; Khatri, Pooja; Martin, Renee; Jauch, Edward C.; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Palesch, Yuko Y.; Broderick, Joseph P.
Background and Purpose The IMS III study tested the effect of IV t-PA alone as compared to IV t-PA followed by endovascular therapy and collected cost data to assess the economic implications of the two therapies. This report describes the factors affecting the costs of the initial hospitalization for acute stroke subjects from the US. Methods Prospective cost analysis of US subjects treated with IV t-PA alone or IV t-PA followed by endovascular therapy in the IMS III trial. Results compared to expected Medicare payments. Results The adjusted cost of a stroke admission in the study was $35,130 for subjects treated with endovascular therapy following IV t-PA treatment and $25,630 for subjects treated with IV t-PA alone (p<0.0001). Significant factors related to costs included treatment group, baseline NIH Stroke Scale, time from stroke onset to IV t-PA, age, stroke location, and comorbid diabetes. The mean cost for subjects who had routine use of general anesthesia as part of endovascular therapy was $46,444 as compared to $30,350 for those who did not have general anesthesia. The costs of embolectomy for IMS III subjects and patients from the NIS cohort exceeded the Medicare DRG payment in more than 75% of patients. Conclusion Minimizing the time to start of IV t-PA and decreasing the use of routine general anesthesia, may improve the cost-effectiveness of medical and endovascular therapy for acute stroke. PMID:24876261
Sale, Patrizio; Franceschini, Marco; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Palma, Enzo; Agosti, Maurizio; Posteraro, Federico
There is little evidence available on the use of robot-assisted therapy in subacute stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial was carried out to evaluate the short-time efficacy of intensive robot-assisted therapy compared to usual physical therapy performed in the early phase after stroke onset. Fifty-three subacute stroke patients at their first-ever stroke were enrolled 30 ± 7 days after the acute event and randomized into two groups, both exposed to standard therapy. Additional 30 sessions of robot-assisted therapy were provided to the Experimental Group. Additional 30 sessions of usual therapy were provided to the Control Group.The following impairment evaluations were performed at the beginning (T0), after 15 sessions (T1), and at the end of the treatment (T2): Fugl-Meyer Assessment Scale (FM), Modified Ashworth Scale-Shoulder (MAS-S), Modified Ashworth Scale-Elbow (MAS-E), Total Passive Range of Motion-Shoulder/Elbow (pROM), and Motricity Index (MI). Evidence of significant improvements in MAS-S (p = 0.004), MAS-E (p = 0.018) and pROM (p < 0.0001) was found in the Experimental Group. Significant improvement was demonstrated in both Experimental and Control Group in FM (EG: p < 0.0001, CG: p < 0.0001) and MI (EG: p < 0.0001, CG: p < 0.0001), with an higher improvement in the Experimental Group. Robot-assisted upper limb rehabilitation treatment can contribute to increasing motor recovery in subacute stroke patients. Focusing on the early phase of stroke recovery has a high potential impact in clinical practice.
Derakhshanrad, Seyed Alireza; Piven, Emily F; Zeynalzadeh Ghoochani, Bahareh
This paper explores the role of perturbance and attractor, two key nonlinear features described by the Neuro-occupation model in shaping human behavior. A convenience sample of eleven Iranian participants who had both strokes and demonstrated high resilience were recruited for this study. To explore the process of how participants fell under the influence of the perturbance and attractor, the content analysis with pre-determined categories using deductive reasoning was used. The findings suggest that perturbance and attractor exerted considerable influences on adaptation to stroke and assist in the understanding of the Neuro-occupation model.
Choi, Ko-Eun; Hall, Casey L.; Sun, Jin-Mei; Wei, Ling; Mohamad, Osama; Dix, Thomas A.; Yu, Shan P.
Compelling evidence from preclinical and clinical studies has shown that mild to moderate hypothermia is neuroprotective against ischemic stroke. Clinical applications of hypothermia therapy, however, have been hindered by current methods of physical cooling, which is generally inefficient and impractical in clinical situations. In this report, we demonstrate the potential of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) by the novel neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) agonist ABS-201 in a focal ischemic model of adult mice. ABS-201 (1.5–2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) reduces body and brain temperature by 2–5°C in 15–30 min in a dose-dependent manner without causing shivering or altering physiological parameters. Infarct volumes at 24 h after stroke are reduced by ∼30–40% when PIH therapy is initiated either immediately after stroke induction or after 30–60 min delay. ABS-201 treatment increases bcl-2 expression, decreases caspase-3 activation, and TUNEL-positive cells in the peri-infarct region, and suppresses autophagic cell death compared to stroke controls. The PIH therapy using ABS-201 improves recovery of sensorimotor function as tested 21 d after stroke. These results suggest that PIH induced by neurotensin analogs represented by ABS-201 are promising candidates for treatment of ischemic stroke and possibly for other ischemic or traumatic injuries. Choi, K.-E., Hall, C. L., Sun, J.-M., Wei, L., Mohamad, O., Dix, T. A., Yu, S. P. A novel stroke therapy of pharmacologically induced hypothermia after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. PMID:22459147
Sen, Chandan K; Khanna, Savita; Harris, Hallie; Stewart, Richard; Balch, Maria; Heigel, Mallory; Teplitsky, Seth; Gnyawali, Surya; Rink, Cameron
The efficacy and optimization of poststroke physical therapy paradigms is challenged in part by a lack of objective tools available to researchers for systematic preclinical testing. This work represents a maiden effort to develop a robot-assisted mechanical therapy (RAMT) device to objectively address the significance of mechanical physiotherapy on poststroke outcomes. Wistar rats were subjected to right hemisphere middle-cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion. After 24 h, rats were split into control (RAMT(-)) or RAMT(+) groups (30 min daily RAMT over the stroke-affected gastrocnemius) and were followed up to poststroke d 14. RAMT(+) increased perfusion 1.5-fold in stroke-affected gastrocnemius as compared to RAMT(-) controls. Furthermore, RAMT(+) rats demonstrated improved poststroke track width (11% wider), stride length (21% longer), and travel distance (61% greater), as objectively measured using software-automated testing platforms. Stroke injury acutely increased myostatin (3-fold) and lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression (0.6-fold) in the stroke-affected gastrocnemius, as compared to the contralateral one. RAMT attenuated the stroke-induced increase in myostatin and increased BDNF expression in skeletal muscle. Additional RAMT-sensitive myokine targets in skeletal muscle (IL-1ra and IP-10/CXCL10) were identified from a cytokine array. Taken together, outcomes suggest stroke acutely influences signal transduction in hindlimb skeletal muscle. Regimens based on mechanical therapy have the clear potential to protect hindlimb function from such adverse influence.-Sen, C. K., Khanna, S., Harris, H., Stewart, R., Balch, M., Heigel, M., Teplitsky, S., Gnyawali, S., Rink, C. Robot-assisted mechanical therapy attenuates stroke-induced limb skeletal muscle injury. © FASEB.
Low, Audrey S. L.; Lunt, Mark; Mercer, Louise K.; Watson, Kath D.; Dixon, William G.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.
Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) may influence risk and mortality after ischemic stroke by reducing inflammation. This study was undertaken to examine the association of TNFi with the risk of incident ischemic stroke and with 30‐day and 1‐year mortality after ischemic stroke. Methods Patients with RA starting therapy with TNFi and a biologics‐naive comparator group treated with synthetic disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only were recruited to the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis from 2001 to 2009. Patients were followed up via clinical and patient questionnaires as well as the national death register. Incident strokes were classified as ischemic if brain imaging reports suggested ischemia or if ischemic stroke was reported as the underlying cause of death on a death certificate. Patients with a previous stroke were excluded. Risk of ischemic stroke was compared between patients receiving synthetic DMARDs only and those ever‐exposed to TNFi using a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for potential confounders. Mortality after ischemic stroke was compared between synthetic DMARD–treated patients and TNFi‐treated patients using logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex. Results To April 2010, 127 verified incident ischemic strokes (21 in 3,271 synthetic DMARD–treated patients and 106 in 11,642 TNFi‐treated patients) occurred during 11,973 and 61,226 person‐years of observation, respectively (incidence rate 175 versus 173 per 100,000 person‐years). After adjustment for confounders, there was no association between ever‐exposure to TNFi and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.54–1.81]). Mortality 30 days or 1 year after ischemic stroke was not associated with concurrent TNFi exposure (odds ratio 0.18 [95% CI 0.03–1.21] and 0.60 [95
Sattler, Margriet G.A.; Vroomen, Patrick C.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Schers, Henk J.; Berg, Gerrit van den; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Bergh, Alphons C.M. van den; Beek, André P. van
Purpose: To assess and compare the incidence of stroke and stroke subtype in pituitary adenoma patients treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) and surgery alone. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 462 pituitary adenoma patients treated between 1959 and 2008 at the University Medical Center Groningen in The Netherlands was studied. Radiation therapy was administered in 236 patients. The TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) and the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification methods were used to determine causative mechanism and anatomic localization of stroke. Stroke incidences in patients treated with RT were compared with that observed after surgery alone. Risk factors for stroke incidence were studied by log–rank test, without and with stratification for other significant risk factors. In addition, the stroke incidence was compared with the incidence rate in the general Dutch population. Results: Thirteen RT patients were diagnosed with stroke, compared with 12 surgery-alone patients. The relative risk (RR) for stroke in patients treated with postoperative RT was not significantly different compared with surgery-alone patients (univariate RR 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-1.35, P=.23). Stroke risk factors were coronary or peripheral artery disease (univariate and multivariate RR 10.4, 95% CI 4.7-22.8, P<.001) and hypertension (univariate RR 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.8, P=.002). There was no difference in TOAST and Oxfordshire classification of stroke. In this pituitary adenoma cohort 25 strokes were observed, compared with 16.91 expected (standard incidence ratio 1.48, 95% CI 1.00-1.96, P=.049). Conclusions: In pituitary adenoma patients, an increased incidence of stroke was observed compared with the general population. However, postoperative RT was not associated with an increased incidence of stroke or differences in causative mechanism or anatomic localization of stroke compared with surgery alone. The primary stroke risk
Hamilton, Robert; Baldwin, Kevin; Fuller, Jennifer; Vespa, Paul; Hu, Xiao; Bergsneider, Marvin
This study identifies a novel relationship between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) stroke volume through the cerebral aqueduct and the characteristic peaks of the intracranial pulse (ICP) waveform. ICP waveform analysis has become much more advanced in recent years; however, clinical practice remains restricted to mean ICP, mainly due to the lack of physiological understanding of the ICP waveform. Therefore, the present study set out to shed some light on the physiological meaning of ICP morphological metrics derived by the morphological clustering and analysis of continuous intracranial pulse (MOCAIP) algorithm by investigating their relationships with a well defined physiological variable, i.e., the stroke volume of CSF through the cerebral aqueduct. Seven patients received both overnight ICP monitoring along with a phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI) of the cerebral aqueduct to quantify aqueductal stroke volume (ASV). Waveform morphological analysis of the ICP signal was performed by the MOCAIP algorithm. Following extraction of morphological metrics from the ICP signal, nine temporal ICP metrics and two amplitude-based metrics were compared with the ASV via Spearman's rank correlation. Of the nine temporal metrics correlated with the ASV, only the width of the P2 region (ICP-Wi2) reached significance. Furthermore, both ICP pulse pressure amplitude and mean ICP did not reach significance. In this study, we showed the width of the second peak (ICP-Wi2) of an ICP pulse wave is positively related to the volume of CSF movement through the cerebral aqueduct. This finding is an initial step in bridging the gap between ICP waveform morphology research and clinical practice.
Jones, Douglas W.; Goodney, Philip P.; Conrad, Mark F.; Nolan, Brian W.; Rzucidlo, Eva M.; Powell, Richard J.; Cronenwett, Jack L.; Stone, David H.
Objective Controversy persists regarding the perioperative management of clopidogrel among patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA). This study examined the effect of preoperative dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) on in-hospital CEA outcomes. Methods Patients undergoing CEA in the Vascular Quality Initiative were analyzed (2003–2014). Patients on clopidogrel and aspirin (dual therapy) were compared with patients taking aspirin alone preoperatively. Study outcomes included reoperation for bleeding and thrombotic complications defined as transient ischemic attack (TIA), stroke, or myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital death and composite stroke/death. Univariate and multivariable analyses assessed differences in demographics and operative factors. Propensity score-matched cohorts were derived to control for subgroup heterogeneity. Results Of 28,683 CEAs, 21,624 patients (75%) were on aspirin and 7059 (25%) were on dual therapy. Patients on dual therapy were more likely to have multiple comorbidities, including coronary artery disease (P < .001), congestive heart failure (P < .001), and diabetes (P < .001). Patients on dual therapy were also more likely to have a drain placed (P < .001) and receive protamine during CEA (P < .001). Multivariable analysis showed that dual therapy was independently associated with increased reoperation for bleeding (odds ratio [OR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–2.42; P = .003) but was protective against TIA or stroke (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43–0.87; P = .007), stroke (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41–0.97; P = .03), and stroke/death (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.44–0.98; P = .04). Propensity score matching yielded two groups of 4548 patients and showed that patients on dual therapy were more likely to require reoperation for bleeding (1.3% vs 0.7%; P = .004) but less likely to suffer TIA or stroke (0.9% vs 1.6%; P = .002), stroke (0.6% vs 1.0%; P = .04), or stroke/death (0.7% vs 1.2%; P
Yoo, Doo Han; Kim, Se Yun
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of upper limb robot-assisted therapy in the rehabilitation of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen stroke patients with no visual or cognitive problems were enrolled. All subjects received robot-assisted therapy and comprehensive rehabilitation therapy for 30 minutes each. The experimental group received a conventional therapy and an additional half hour per weekday of robot therapy. The patients participated in a total of 20 sessions, each lasting 60 minutes (conventional therapy 30 min, robot-assisted therapy 30 min), which were held 5 days a week for 4 weeks. [Result] The patients showed a significant difference in smoothness and reach error of the point to point test, circle size and independence of the circle in the circle test, and hold deviation of the playback static test between before and after the intervention. On the other hand, no significant difference was observed in the displacement of the round dynamic test. The patients also showed significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Modified Barthel Index after the intervention. [Conclusion] These kinematic factors can provide good information when analyzing the upper limb function of stroke patients in robot-assisted therapy. Nevertheless, further research on technology-based kinematic information will be necessary.
Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mònica; Dávalos, Antoni
Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This narrow window for treatment leads to a small proportion of eligible patients to be treated. Intravenous or intra-arterial trials, combined intravenous/intra-arterial trials, and newer devices to mechanically remove the clot from intracranial arteries have been investigated or are currently being explored to increase patient eligibility and to improve arterial recanalization and clinical outcome. New retrievable stent-based devices offer higher revascularization rates with shorter time to recanalization and are now generally preferred to first generation thrombectomy devices such as Merci Retriever or Penumbra System. These devices have been shown to be effective for opening up occluded vessels in the brain but its efficacy for improving outcomes in patients with acute stroke has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. We summarize the results of the major systemic thrombolytic trials and the latest trials employing different endovascular approaches to ischemic stroke.
Dorado, Laura; Millán, Mònica; Dávalos, Antoni
Acute ischemic stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Intravenous thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 hours of symptoms onset significantly improves clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This narrow window for treatment leads to a small proportion of eligible patients to be treated. Intravenous or intra-arterial trials, combined intravenous/intra-arterial trials, and newer devices to mechanically remove the clot from intracranial arteries have been investigated or are currently being explored to increase patient eligibility and to improve arterial recanalization and clinical outcome. New retrievable stent-based devices offer higher revascularization rates with shorter time to recanalization and are now generally preferred to first generation thrombectomy devices such as Merci Retriever or Penumbra System. These devices have been shown to be effective for opening up occluded vessels in the brain but its efficacy for improving outcomes in patients with acute stroke has not yet been demonstrated in a randomized clinical trial. We summarize the results of the major systemic thrombolytic trials and the latest trials employing different endovascular approaches to ischemic stroke. PMID:24646159
Wang, Shan; Shi, Xiangde; Li, Hao; Pang, Pei; Pei, Lei; Shen, Huiyong; Lu, Youming
Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase, plays important roles in diverse apoptosis pathways not only in tumor suppression but also in neuronal cell death. The requirement of DAPK1 catalytic activity for its proposed cell functions and the elevation of catalytic activity of DAPK1 in injured neurons in models of neurological diseases, such as ischemia and epilepsy, validate that DAPK1 can be taken as a potential therapeutic target in these diseases. Recent studies show that DAPK1-NR2B, DAPK1-DANGER, DAPK1-p53, and DAPK1-Tau are currently known pathways in stroke-induced cell death, and blocking these cascades in an acute treatment effectively reduces neuronal loss. In this review, we focus on the role of DAPK1 in neuronal cell death after stroke. We hope to provide exhaustive summaries of relevant studies on DAPK1 signals involved in stroke damage. Therefore, disrupting DAPK1-relevant cell death pathway could be considered as a promising therapeutic approach in stroke.
Neimark, Matthew A; Konstas, Angelos-Aristeidis; Laine, Andrew F; Pile-Spellman, John
A 3-dimensional hemispheric computational brain model is developed to simulate infusion of cold saline in the carotid arteries in terms of brain cooling for stroke therapy. The model is based on the Pennes bioheat equation, with four tissue layers: white matter, gray matter, skull, and scalp. The stroke lesion is simulated by reducing blood flow to a selected volume of the brain by a factor of one-third, and brain metabolism by 50%. A stroke penumbra was also generated surrounding the core lesion (blood volume reduction 25%, metabolism reduction 20%). The finite difference method was employed to solve the system of partial differential equations. This model demonstrated a reduction in brain temperature, at the stroke lesion, to 32 degrees C in less than 10 minutes.
Asmaro, Karam; Fu, Paul; Ding, Yuchuan
Effective efforts to screen for agents that protect against the devastating effects of stroke have not produced viable results thus far. As a result this article reviews the possible role of ethanol as a neuroprotective agent in stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Previous studies have associated ethanol consumption with a decreased risk of ischemic stroke, suggesting a neuroprotective mechanism. The translation of this clinical knowledge into basic science research with the goal of new therapy for acute stroke patients remains in its initial stages. In a recent study involving rats, we have shown that ethanol administration, in the correct dose after stroke onset, protects against ischemia-induced brain injury. The purpose of this paper is to discuss ethanol's neuroprotective properties in stroke when consumed as a preconditioning agent, in TBI with a positive blood alcohol content, and finally in stroke treatment, with the goal of using post-ischemia ethanol (PIE) therapy to ameliorate brain damage in the future.
Sawan, Salah; Abd-Allah, Foad; Hegazy, Montasser M; Farrag, Mohammad A; El-Den, Nancy Hosney Sharf
Large number of patients with first-ever stroke developed spasticity. Spasticity can reduce the range of motion, hinder voluntary movements, provoke pain, and result in impairment of functional activities of daily living. Demonstrate the effect of shock wave therapy on ankle plantar flexors spasticity in stroke patients. We included forty ischemic stroke patients divided into 2 groups; group I were subjected to the selected physical therapy program and shock wave therapy whereas group II received the selected physical therapy program as well as placebo shock wave for six weeks. Both groups were subjected to pre- and post-treatment assessment by H/M ratio, dorsiflexion active range of motion, and time of ten-meters walking. Baseline characteristics showed no significant difference between the two groups regarding the grades of spasticity. Whereas After treatment, there were a highly significant difference between both groups regarding the grades of spasticity according to the 3 parameters, H/M ratio, dorsiflexion active range of motion, and time of ten-meters walking test (P values; <0.001, 0.006, and 0.009 respectively). Shock wave therapy is effective in controlling spasticity, increase dorsiflexion active range of motion of ankle and improving ten- meters walking test in stroke patients.
Objective To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. Methods A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House–Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. Results Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. Conclusion Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke. PMID:28758071
Kang, Jung-A; Chun, Min Ho; Choi, Su Jin; Chang, Min Cheol; Yi, You Gyoung
To investigate the effects of mirror therapy using a tablet PC for post-stroke central facial paresis. A prospective, randomized controlled study was performed. Twenty-one post-stroke patients were enrolled. All patients performed 15 minutes of orofacial exercise twice daily for 14 days. The mirror group (n=10) underwent mirror therapy using a tablet PC while exercising, whereas the control group (n=11) did not. All patients were evaluated using the Regional House-Brackmann Grading Scale (R-HBGS), and the length between the corner of the mouth and the ipsilateral earlobe during rest and smiling before and after therapy were measured bilaterally. We calculated facial movement by subtracting the smile length from resting length. Differences and ratios between bilateral sides of facial movement were evaluated as the final outcome measure. Baseline characteristics were similar for the two groups. There were no differences in the scores for the basal Modified Barthel Index, the Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, R-HBGS, and bilateral differences and ratios of facial movements. The R-HBGS as well as the bilateral differences and ratios of facial movement showed significant improvement after therapy in both groups. The degree of improvement of facial movement was significantly larger in the mirror group than in the control group. Mirror therapy using a tablet PC might be an effective tool for treating central facial paresis after stroke.
Tran, Duc A.; Pajaro-Blazquez, Marta; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Gallegos, Jaime G.; Pons, Jose; Fregni, Felipe; Bonato, Paolo; Zafonte, Ross
ABSTRACT Despite aggressive conventional therapy, lasting hemiplegia persists in a large percentage of stroke survivors. The aim of this article is to critically review the rationale behind targeting multiple sites along the motor learning network by combining robotic therapy with pharmacotherapy and virtual reality–based reward learning to alleviate upper extremity impairment in stroke survivors. Methods for personalizing pharmacologic facilitation to each individual’s unique biology are also reviewed. At the molecular level, treatment with levodopa was shown to induce long-term potentiation-like and practice-dependent plasticity. Clinically, trials combining conventional therapy with levodopa in stroke survivors yielded statistically significant but clinically unconvincing outcomes because of limited personalization, standardization, and reproducibility. Robotic therapy can induce neuroplasticity by delivering intensive, reproducible, and functionally meaningful interventions that are objective enough for the rigors of research. Robotic therapy also provides an apt platform for virtual reality, which boosts learning by engaging reward circuits. The future of stroke rehabilitation should target distinct molecular, synaptic, and cortical sites through personalized multimodal treatments to maximize motor recovery. PMID:26829074
Tran, Duc A; Pajaro-Blazquez, Marta; Daneault, Jean-Francois; Gallegos, Jaime G; Pons, Jose; Fregni, Felipe; Bonato, Paolo; Zafonte, Ross
Despite aggressive conventional therapy, lasting hemiplegia persists in a large percentage of stroke survivors. The aim of this article is to critically review the rationale behind targeting multiple sites along the motor learning network by combining robotic therapy with pharmacotherapy and virtual reality-based reward learning to alleviate upper extremity impairment in stroke survivors. Methods for personalizing pharmacologic facilitation to each individual's unique biology are also reviewed. At the molecular level, treatment with levodopa was shown to induce long-term potentiation-like and practice-dependent plasticity. Clinically, trials combining conventional therapy with levodopa in stroke survivors yielded statistically significant but clinically unconvincing outcomes because of limited personalization, standardization, and reproducibility. Robotic therapy can induce neuroplasticity by delivering intensive, reproducible, and functionally meaningful interventions that are objective enough for the rigors of research. Robotic therapy also provides an apt platform for virtual reality, which boosts learning by engaging reward circuits. The future of stroke rehabilitation should target distinct molecular, synaptic, and cortical sites through personalized multimodal treatments to maximize motor recovery.
Detweiler, Mark B; Warf, Carlena
An increasing amount of literature suggests the positive effects of nature in healthcare. The extended life expectancy in the US and the consequent need for long-term care indicates a future need for restorative therapy innovations to reduce the expense associated with long-term care. Moving carefully selected stroke patients' sessions to the peaceful setting of a dementia wander garden, with its designed paths and natural stimuli, may be beneficial. Natural settings have been shown to improve attention and reduce stress--both important therapy objectives in many post-stroke rehabilitation programs. In this case study, using the dementia wander garden for restorative therapy of a non-dementia patient was a novel idea for the restorative therapy group, which does not have a horticultural therapy program. The dementia wander garden stage of the post-stroke rehabilitation helped the patient through a period of treatment resistance. The garden provided both an introduction to the patient's goal of outdoor rehabilitation and a less threatening environment than the long-term care facility hallways. In part because the patient was less self-conscious about manifesting his post-stroke neurological deficits, falling, and being viewed as handicapped when in the dementia wander garden setting, he was able to resume his treatment plan and finish his restorative therapy. In many physical and mental rehabilitation plans, finding a treatment modality that will motivate an individual to participate is a principal goal. Use of a dementia wander garden may help some patients achieve this goal in post-stroke restorative therapy.
Sucar, L. Enrique; Azcárate, Gildardo; Leder, Ron S.; Reinkensmeyer, David; Hernández, Jorge; Sanchez, Israel; Saucedo, Pedro
Each year millions of people in the world survive a stroke, in the U.S. alone the figure is over 600,000 people per year. Movement impairments after stroke are typically treated with intensive, hands-on physical and occupational therapy for several weeks after the initial injury. However, due to economic pressures, stroke patients are receiving less therapy and going home sooner, so the potential benefit of the therapy is not completely realized. Thus, it is important to develop rehabilitation technology that allows individuals who had suffered a stroke to practice intensive movement training without the expense of an always-present therapist. Current solutions are too expensive, as they require a robotic system for rehabilitation. We have developed a low-cost, computer vision system that allows individuals with stroke to practice arm movement exercises at home or at the clinic, with periodic interactions with a therapist. The system integrates a web based virtual environment for facilitating repetitive movement training, with state-of-the art computer vision algorithms that track the hand of a patient and obtain its 3-D coordinates, using two inexpensive cameras and a conventional personal computer. An initial prototype of the system has been evaluated in a pilot clinical study with promising results.
Liu, F.; Benashski, S. E.; Xu, Y.; Siegel, M.; McCullough, L. D.
The effect of oestrogen replacement therapy (ERT) on stroke incidence and severity has been extensively debated. Clinical trials of ERT have demonstrated an increased risk of stroke in treated women, although the study participants were well past menopause when therapy was initiated. It has been suggested that detrimental effects of ERT may be unmasked after prolonged periods of hypoestrogenicity. To date, very few studies have examined the effect of ERT in aged animals, although the timing of replacement may be critical to the neuroprotective effects of ERT. We hypothesised that chronic ERT initiated in late middle age would decrease infarct size in the brain after an induced stroke, whereas acute ERT would have no beneficial effects in aged females. To test this hypothesis, two paradigms of ERT were administered to aged mice of both sexes aiming to determine the effects on stroke outcome and to explore the possible mechanisms by which ERT interacts with age. Female mice that received chronic ERT from 17–20 months of age showed improved stroke outcomes after experimental stroke, whereas females that had acute ERT initiated at 20 months of age did not. Chronic ERT females exhibited diminished levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation compared to acute ERT females after stroke. Acute ERT females demonstrated both an increase in nuclear NF-κB and enhanced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, a sexual dimorphic effect of ERT was seen because males benefited from ERT, regardless of the timing of initiation. Aged males had significantly reduced expression of pro-inflammatory markers after stroke compared to age-matched females, suggesting a pro-inflammatory milieu emerges with age in females. These results are consistent with the emerging clinical literature suggesting that ERT should be initiated at the time of menopause to achieve beneficial effects. The present study demonstrates the importance of using appropriate animal models in
Koumoutsakos, Petros; Pivkin, Igor; Milde, Florian
Fluid mechanics is involved in the growth, progression, metastasis, and therapy of cancer. Blood vessels transport oxygen and nutrients to cancerous tissues, provide a route for metastasizing cancer cells to distant organs, and deliver drugs to tumors. The irregular and leaky tumor vasculature is responsible for increased interstitial pressure in the tumor microenvironment, whereas multiscale flow-structure interaction processes control tumor growth, metastasis, and nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery. We outline these flow-mediated processes, along with related experimental and computational methods for the diagnosis, predictive modeling, and therapy of cancer.
Chow, Esther O W
To describe a theoretical and practical framework of using a train metaphor in narrative therapy for stroke rehabilitation in group practice. There is a paucity of literature on the application of narrative therapy in meeting the psycho-social-spiritual needs of stroke survivors in rehabilitation. In the current article, the use of narrative therapy being evaluated in a formal randomized study in stroke survivors is described in detail. The metaphor may be of practical interest to those working with populations confronted with unpredictable life challenges. Narrative practice using the metaphor of 'Train of life' is an alternative practice to psychopathology, which provides a means for the participants to deconstruct from the illness experience, re-author their lives, and reconstruct their identity with hopes and dreams. This therapeutic conversations, primarily using questions, can be divided into six steps: (1) engaging participants to a Concord station; (2) unfolding the experience with Stroke: where each of the participants are coming from; (3) dialoging directly with Stroke; (4) co-constructing the train carriage; (5) planning for a future life journey with Stroke; and (6) celebrating the unlocking of a new journey. Along with the train of life metaphor, therapeutic documents and outsider witness conversations are used to strengthen the preferred identity, as opposed to the problem-saturated identity of the participants. This metaphor poses an alternative methodology in stroke rehabilitation by reconnecting the survivors' inner resources, skills, and competencies. Eventually, it could re-author the survivors' identity developed from previous life challenges and reconstruct their purpose in life. © The Author(s) 2014.
Crespo Araico, L A; Vera Lechuga, R; Cruz-Culebras, A; Matute Lozano, C; de Felipe Mimbrera, A; Agüero Rabes, P; Viedma Guiard, E; Estévez Fraga, C; Masjuan Vallejo, J
Cervical artery dissection (CAD) is responsible for up to 20% of all ischaemic strokes in patients younger than 45. The benefits of acute-phase reperfusion therapy in these patients have yet to be confirmed. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with CAD admitted to a comprehensive stroke centre between 2010 and 2015. We recorded baseline clinical characteristics, treatments, functional outcomes, and mortality. We identified 35 cases of CAD (23 carotid/12 vertebral); mean age was 43.5 ± 9.5 years and 67.7% were men. Ten patients (32.3%) had a history of trauma. The most frequent risk factors were arterial hypertension (29%) and smoking (35.5%). The most common clinical presentation was ischaemic stroke (29 patients, 93.5%). The median baseline National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score was 6 (range, 0-41). The most frequently used diagnostic method was CT angiography (74.2%), followed by MRI (64.5%) and digital subtraction angiography (45.6%). Seven patients (22.6%) were treated with intravenous fibrinolysis and 11 (35.5%) with endovascular treatment plus intravenous fibrinolysis; at 3 months, functional independence (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2) was achieved by 57.1% and 63.6% of these cases, respectively. One patient died (3.2%). In our sample, the most common form of presentation of CAD was ischaemic stroke. Reperfusion therapy seems to be a safe and effective option for these patients, and outcomes resemble those of other patients with ischaemic stroke. Larger comparative studies are necessary to better assess response to reperfusion therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
K Ward, Susan; Turner, Alyna; A Hambridge, John; A Halpin, Sean; E Valentine, Megan; L Sweetapple, Anne; H White, Jennifer; Hackett, Maree L
Depression in stroke survivors is common, leads to poorer outcomes and often not treated. A group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) program (Brainstorm) for stroke survivors with depression, and their carers has been running as part of usual care since 2007. To evaluate the implementation and acceptability of Brainstorm, a closed group intervention consisting of up to 10 sessions of education, activity planning, problem solving and thought challenging. Participating stroke survivors and their carers complete assessment measures at baseline, post-treatment and 1-month and 6-months follow-up. A mixed models for repeated measures data was conducted with depression and anxiety scores for stroke survivors (Beck Depression Inventory-II; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and the assessment of depression, anxiety and carer burden for carers. Acceptability was assessed by session attendance and written and open participant feedback upon completion of the program. Forty-eight community dwelling stroke survivors and 34 carers attended Brainstorm, with a median attendance of 88% of sessions. Follow-up assessments were completed by 77% (post-treatment), 46% (1-month) and 38% (6-month) of stroke survivors. Stroke survivors' depression scores decreased from baseline to post-treatment (p<.001); maintained at 1-month (p<.001) but not at 6-month (p=.056). Anxiety scores decreased between baseline and 1-month (p=.013). Carer burden, depression and anxiety scores at 1-month and 6-month follow-up, for carers, were all reduced when compared with baseline (p<.05). The Brainstorm group intervention for depression in stroke survivors appears to have been effectively implemented and is acceptable to stroke survivors and carers.
Singh, Balwinder; Parsaik, Ajay K; Prokop, Larry J; Mittal, Manoj K
To consolidate the evidence from randomized trials for the use of endovascular therapy (ET) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We searched major databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus) from their inception to February 12, 2013, for randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of ET compared with standard of care for acute ischemic stroke. Pooled absolute and relative risk estimates were synthesized by using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed by using Q statistic and I(2) statistic. Subset analysis was performed for patients with severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥20). The study was conducted from January 15, 2013 to April 30, 2013. Of the 1252 retrieved articles, 5 randomized trials enrolling 1197 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Seven hundred eleven patients received ET, and 486 received intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator. There was no significant improvement in any of the outcomes in patients receiving ET compared with those receiving IV thrombolysis. On subgroup analysis, ET was found to have better outcomes in patients with severe stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ≥20), showing a dose-response gradient and improving excellent, good, and fair outcomes by an additional 4%, 7%, and 13%, respectively, compared with IV thrombolysis. Overall, ET is not superior to IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic strokes (level B recommendation). However, ET showed promise and improved outcomes in patients with severe strokes, but the evidence is limited due to sample size. There is a need for further trials evaluating the role of ET in this high-risk group. Copyright © 2013 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Castellar-Leones, Sandra Milena; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael
The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various supportive therapeutic strategies in the pre-hospital and pre-operative stages is essential for optimal care. The immediate rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure is now the standard treatment of patients with combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The fluid in patients with brain trauma and especially in patients with brain injur y is a critical issue. In this context we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regarding the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy. PMID:27162857
Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Garosi, Laurent; Rusbridge, Clare; Anthony, Daniel; Møller, Arne; Finsen, Bente; Deierborg, Tomas; Lambertsen, Kate L; Berendt, Mette
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P=0.04) and CSF (P=0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor and IL-2, were unchanged. Plasma IL-8 levels correlated significantly with infarct volume (Spearman's r=0.8, P=0.013). The findings showed increased concentrations of IL-6 in the plasma and CSF of dogs with acute ischaemic stroke comparable to humans. We believe that dogs with spontaneous stroke offer a unique, noninvasive means of studying the inflammatory processes that accompany stroke while reducing confounds that are unavoidable in experimental models.
Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B.; Boza-Serrano, Antonio; Garosi, Laurent; Rusbridge, Clare; Anthony, Daniel; Møller, Arne; Finsen, Bente; Deierborg, Tomas; Lambertsen, Kate L.
Inflammatory cytokines are potential modulators of infarct progression in acute ischaemic stroke, and are therefore possible targets for future treatment strategies. Cytokine studies in animal models of surgically induced stroke may, however, be influenced by the fact that the surgical intervention itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P=0.04) and CSF (P=0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor and IL-2, were unchanged. Plasma IL-8 levels correlated significantly with infarct volume (Spearman’s r=0.8, P=0.013). The findings showed increased concentrations of IL-6 in the plasma and CSF of dogs with acute ischaemic stroke comparable to humans. We believe that dogs with spontaneous stroke offer a unique, noninvasive means of studying the inflammatory processes that accompany stroke while reducing confounds that are unavoidable in experimental models. PMID:28079628
Leng, Xinyi; Scalzo, Fabien; Ip, Hing Lung; Johnson, Mark; Fong, Albert K.; Fan, Florence S. Y.; Chen, Xiangyan; Soo, Yannie O. Y.; Miao, Zhongrong; Liu, Liping; Feldmann, Edward; Leung, Thomas W. H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Wong, Ka Sing
Background Patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) of ≥70% luminal stenosis are at high risk of stroke recurrence. We aimed to evaluate the relationships between hemodynamics of ICAS revealed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and risk of stroke recurrence in this patient subset. Methods Patients with a symptomatic ICAS lesion of 70–99% luminal stenosis were screened and enrolled in this study. CFD models were reconstructed based on baseline computed tomographic angiography (CTA) source images, to reveal hemodynamics of the qualifying symptomatic ICAS lesions. Change of pressures across a lesion was represented by the ratio of post- and pre-stenotic pressures. Change of shear strain rates (SSR) across a lesion was represented by the ratio of SSRs at the stenotic throat and proximal normal vessel segment, similar for the change of flow velocities. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Results Overall, 32 patients (median age 65; 59.4% males) were recruited. The median pressure, SSR and velocity ratios for the ICAS lesions were 0.40 (−2.46–0.79), 4.5 (2.2–20.6), and 7.4 (5.2–12.5), respectively. SSR ratio (hazard ratio [HR] 1.027; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004–1.051; P = 0.023) and velocity ratio (HR 1.029; 95% CI, 1.002–1.056; P = 0.035) were significantly related to recurrent territorial ischemic stroke within 1 year by univariate Cox regression, respectively with the c-statistics of 0.776 (95% CI, 0.594–0.903; P = 0.014) and 0.776 (95% CI, 0.594–0.903; P = 0.002) in receiver operating characteristic analysis. Conclusions Hemodynamics of ICAS on CFD models reconstructed from routinely obtained CTA images may predict subsequent stroke recurrence in patients with a symptomatic ICAS lesion of 70–99% luminal stenosis. PMID:24818753
Hoermann, Simon; Ferreira Dos Santos, Luara; Morkisch, Nadine; Jettkowski, Katrin; Sillis, Moran; Devan, Hemakumar; Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Schmidt, Henning; Krüger, Jörg; Dohle, Christian; Regenbrecht, Holger; Hale, Leigh; Cutfield, Nicholas J
New rehabilitation strategies for post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation employing visual stimulation show promising results, however, cost-efficient and clinically feasible ways to provide these interventions are still lacking. An integral step is to translate recent technological advances, such as in virtual and augmented reality, into therapeutic practice to improve outcomes for patients. This requires research on the adaptation of the technology for clinical use as well as on the appropriate guidelines and protocols for sustainable integration into therapeutic routines. Here, we present and evaluate a novel and affordable augmented reality system (Augmented Reflection Technology, ART) in combination with a validated mirror therapy protocol for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. We evaluated components of the therapeutic intervention, from the patients' and the therapists' points of view in a clinical feasibility study at a rehabilitation centre. We also assessed the integration of ART as an adjunct therapy for the clinical rehabilitation of subacute patients at two different hospitals. The results showed that the combination and application of the Berlin Protocol for Mirror Therapy together with ART was feasible for clinical use. This combination was integrated into the therapeutic plan of subacute stroke patients at the two clinical locations where the second part of this research was conducted. Our findings pave the way for using technology to provide mirror therapy in clinical settings and show potential for the more effective use of inpatient time and enhanced recoveries for patients. Implications for Rehabilitation Computerised Mirror Therapy is feasible for clinical use Augmented Reflection Technology can be integrated as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention for subacute stroke patients in an inpatient setting Virtual Rehabilitation devices such as Augmented Reflection Technology have considerable potential to enhance stroke rehabilitation.
Hama, Yuka; Koga, Masatoshi; Tokunaga, Keisuke; Takizawa, Hotake; Miyashita, Kotaro; Iba, Yutaka; Toyoda, Kazunori
Acute aortic dissection is the most common acute aortic condition requiring urgent surgical therapy. Due to lack of typical symptoms, it is sometimes difficult to identify acute aortic dissection causing ischemic stroke. We report a case of a patient with acute ischemic stroke who was deemed ineligible for intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment based on a finding of acute aortic dissection detected by carotid ultrasonography. After urgent aortic replacement surgery, the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. This case underscores the crucial role of carotid ultrasonography for the investigation of possible underlying acute aortic dissection when considering the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy for hyperacute stroke. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.
Nouwens, Femke; Visch-Brink, Evy G; Van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke M E; Dippel, Diederik W J; Koudstaal, Peter J; de Lau, Lonneke M L
Aphasia due to stroke affects communication and quality of life. Most stroke survivors with aphasia receive speech and language therapy. Although an early start of treatment is advocated in clinical practice, evidence for "The earlier, the better" in aphasia rehabilitation is weak. Hence, clinicians are faced with the dilemma of when to initiate intensive treatment: as early as possible, when most of the spontaneous recovery occurs but when patients are often ill, or later, when the patients' condition is more stabilized. Here we discuss whether aphasia outcome is affected by timing of treatment in relation to stroke onset and whether there is evidence for an optimal window of time during which language therapy should be provided. Findings from various rehabilitation research fields are discussed and combined to provide principles for future research.
Paula Caleffi Segura, Ana; Veloso Fontes, Sissy; Maiumi Fukujima, Marcia; de Andrade Matas, Sandro Luiz
This study aimed to evaluate the impact of physical therapy on the quality of life of patients presenting with a motor deficit caused by ischemic stroke at the median cerebral artery. Physical therapeutic intervention consisted of three sessions per week of conventional kinesiotherapy; 50 min each, for three consecutive months. The sample comprised 18 patients aged between 18 and 72 years old, evaluated according to the Stroke Impact Scale. There was a significant difference for the following domains: strength (P < 0.001), daily life activities (P < 0.001), mobility (P = 0.001), manual function (P = 0.004) and social participation (P=0.001). We were able to conclude that physical therapy, performed for up to three 50-min weekly sessions for 3 consecutive months, resulted in the reduction of motor deficits and functional improvement, consequently promoting favorable effects on the quality of life of patients presenting with motor deficit due to ischemic stroke.
Catanzaro, Brian E.; Streeter, Jackson; de Taboada, Luis
Stroke is the one of the leading causes of mortality in the United States, claiming 600,000 lives each year. Evidence suggests that near infrared (NIR) illumination has a beneficial effect on a variety of cells when these cells are exposed to adverse conditions. Among these conditions is the hypoxic state produced by acute ischemic stroke (AIS). To demonstrate the impact NIR Transcranial Laser Therapy (TLT) has on AIS in humans, a series of double blind, placebo controlled clinical trials were designed using the NeuroThera(R) System (NTS). The NTS was designed and developed to treat subjects non-invasively using 808 nm NIR illumination. TLT, as it applies to stroke therapy, and the NTS will be described. The results of the two clinical trials: NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 1 (NEST-1) and NeuroThera(R) Safety and Efficacy Trial 2 (NEST-2) will be reviewed and discussed.
Hulbert, Monica L.; McKinstry, Robert C.; Lacey, JoAnne L.; Moran, Christopher J.; Panepinto, Julie A.; Thompson, Alexis A.; Sarnaik, Sharada A.; Woods, Gerald M.; Casella, James F.; Inusa, Baba; Howard, Jo; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Anie, Kofi A.; Mullin, Jonathan E.; Ichord, Rebecca; Noetzel, Michael; Yan, Yan; Rodeghier, Mark
Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and strokes receive blood transfusion therapy for secondary stroke prevention; despite this, approximately 20% experience second overt strokes. Given this rate of second overt strokes and the clinical significance of silent cerebral infarcts, we tested the hypothesis that silent cerebral infarcts occur among children with SCD being transfused for secondary stroke prevention. A prospective cohort enrolled children with SCD and overt strokes at 7 academic centers. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography of the brain were scheduled approximately every 1 to 2 years; studies were reviewed by a panel of neuroradiologists. Eligibility criteria included regularly scheduled blood transfusion therapy. Forty children were included; mean pretransfusion hemoglobin S concentration was 29%. Progressive cerebral infarcts occurred in 45% (18 of 40 children) while receiving chronic blood transfusion therapy; 7 had second overt strokes and 11 had new silent cerebral infarcts. Worsening cerebral vasculopathy was associated with new cerebral infarction (overt or silent; relative risk = 12.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.65-60.5, P = .001). Children with SCD and overt strokes receiving regular blood transfusion therapy experience silent cerebral infarcts at a higher rate than previously recognized. Additional therapies are needed for secondary stroke prevention in children with SCD. PMID:20940417
Carrico, Cheryl; Chelette, Kenneth C; Westgate, Philip M; Salmon-Powell, Elizabeth; Nichols, Laurie; Sawaki, Lumy
Constraint-based therapy and peripheral nerve stimulation can significantly enhance movement function after stroke. No studies have investigated combining these interventions for cases of chronic, mild-to-moderate hemiparesis following stroke. This study aims to determine the effects of peripheral nerve stimulation paired with a modified form of constraint-induced therapy on upper extremity movement function after stroke. Nineteen adult stroke survivors with mild-to-moderate hemiparesis more than 12 mo after stroke received 2 hours of either active (n = 10) or sham (n = 9) peripheral nerve stimulation preceding 4 hours of modified constraint-induced therapy (10 sessions). Active peripheral nerve stimulation enhanced modified constraint-induced therapy more than sham peripheral nerve stimulation (significance at P < 0.05), both immediately after intervention (Wolf Motor Function Test: P = 0.006 (timed score); P = 0.001 (lift score); Fugl-Meyer Assessment: P = 0.022; Action Research Arm Test: P = 0.007) and at 1-mo follow-up (Wolf Motor Function Test: P = 0.025 (timed score); P = 0.007 (lift score); Fugl-Meyer Assessment: P = 0.056; Action Research Arm Test: P = 0.028). Pairing peripheral nerve stimulation with modified constraint-induced therapy can lead to significantly more improvement in upper extremity movement function than modified constraint-induced therapy alone. Future research is recommended to help establish longitudinal effects of this paired intervention, particularly as it affects movement function and daily life participation. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES:: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand the role that afferent input plays with regard to movement function; (2) Understand general concepts of delivering modified constraint-based therapy in stroke rehabilitation research; and (3) Understand the rationale for applying an
Bhasin, Ashu; Padma Srivastava, M V; Kumaran, Senthil S; Bhatia, Rohit; Mohanty, Sujata
Recovery in stroke is mediated by neural plasticity. Neuro-restorative therapies improve recovery after stroke by promoting repair and function. Mirror neuron system (MNS) has been studied widely in humans in stroke and phantom sensations. Study subjects included 20 patients with chronic stroke and 10 healthy controls. Patients had clinical disease-severity scores, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) at baseline, 8 and at 24 weeks. Block design with alternate baseline and activation cycles was used with a total of 90 whole brain echo planar imaging (EPI) measurements (timed repetition (TR) = 4520 ms, timed echo (TE) = 44 ms, slices = 31, slice thickness = 4 mm, EPI factor 127, matrix = 128 × 128, FOV = 230 mm). Whole brain T1-weighted images were acquired using 3D sequence (MPRage) with 120 contiguous slices of 1.0 mm thickness. The mirror therapy was aimed via laptop system integrated with web camera, mirroring the movement of the unaffected hand. This therapy was administered for 5 days in a week for 60-90 min for 8 weeks. All the patients showed statistical significant improvement in Fugl Meyer and modified Barthel Index (P < 0.05) whereas the change in Medical Research Council (MRC) power grade was not significant post-therapy (8 weeks). There was an increase in the laterality index (LI) of ipsilesional BA 4 and BA 6 at 8 weeks exhibiting recruitment and focusing principles of neural plasticity. Mirror therapy simulated the "action-observation" hypothesis exhibiting recovery in patients with chronic stroke. Therapy induced cortical reorganization was also observed from our study.
Eng, Kynan; Siekierka, Ewa; Pyk, Pawel; Chevrier, Edith; Hauser, Yves; Cameirao, Monica; Holper, Lisa; Hägni, Karin; Zimmerli, Lukas; Duff, Armin; Schuster, Corina; Bassetti, Claudio; Verschure, Paul; Kiper, Daniel
We present a virtual reality (VR)-based motor neurorehabilitation system for stroke patients with upper limb paresis. It is based on two hypotheses: (1) observed actions correlated with self-generated or intended actions engage cortical motor observation, planning and execution areas ("mirror neurons"); (2) activation in damaged parts of motor cortex can be enhanced by viewing mirrored movements of non-paretic limbs. We postulate that our approach, applied during the acute post-stroke phase, facilitates motor re-learning and improves functional recovery. The patient controls a first-person view of virtual arms in tasks varying from simple (hitting objects) to complex (grasping and moving objects). The therapist adjusts weighting factors in the non-paretic limb to move the paretic virtual limb, thereby stimulating the mirror neuron system and optimizing patient motivation through graded task success. We present the system's neuroscientific background, technical details and preliminary results.
Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice Elizabeth; Baggaley, Jessica; Watson, Rose Mary; Rapley, Tim
Perinatal stroke is the leading cause of unilateral (hemiparetic) cerebral palsy, with life-long personal, social and financial consequences. Translational research findings indicate that early therapy intervention has the potential for significant improvements in long-term outcome in terms of motor function. By involving families and health professionals in the development and design stage, we aimed to produce a therapy intervention which they would engage with. Nine parents of children with hemiparesis and fourteen health professionals involved in the care of infants with perinatal stroke took part in peer review and focus groups to discuss evolving therapy materials, with revisions made iteratively. The materials and approach were also discussed at a meeting of the London Child Stroke Research Reference Group. Focus group data were coded using Normalisation Process Theory constructs to explore potential barriers and facilitators to routine uptake of the intervention. We developed the Early Therapy in Perinatal Stroke (eTIPS) program - a parent-delivered, home-based complex intervention addressing a current gap in practice for infants in the first 6 months of life after unilateral perinatal stroke and with the aim of improving motor outcome. Parents and health professionals saw the intervention as different from usual practice, and valuable (high coherence). They were keen to engage (high cognitive participation). They considered the tasks for parents to be achievable (high collective action). They demonstrated trust in the approach and felt that parents would undertake the recommended activities (high collective action). They saw the approach as flexible and adaptable (high reflexive monitoring). Following suggestions made, we added a section on involving the extended family, and obtained funding for a website and videos to supplement written materials. Focus groups with parents and health professionals provided meaningful feedback to iteratively improve the
Pashapour, Ali; Atalu, Abolfazl; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Taheraghdam, Ali-Akbar; Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; NajafiNeshli, Mehdi
Objectives: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy has established acceptable results in treating ischemic stroke. However, there is little information on treatment outcome especially in different subtypes. The aim of current study was to evaluate early and intermediate prognosis in intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke subtypes. Methodology: Forty eligible patients (57.5% male with mean age of 63.18±13.49 years) with definite ischemic stroke who were admitted to emergency department of Imam Reza University Hospital, in the first 180 minutes after occurrence received recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. All investigation findings were recorded and stroke subtypes were determined according to the Causative Classification of Stroke System. Stroke severity forms including modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were recorded for all patients in first, seven and 90 days after stroke and disease outcome was evaluated. Results: The etiology of stroke was large artery atherosclerosis in 20%, cardio-aortic embolism in 45%, small artery occlusion in 17.5% and undetermined causes in 17.5%. NIHSS and mRS scores were significantly improved during time (P < 0.001 in both cases). Three months mortality rate was 25%. Among the etiologies, patients with small artery occlusion and then cardio-aortic embolism had lower NIHSS score at arrival (P = 0.04). Caplan-meier analysis showed that age, sex and symptom to needle time could predict disease outcome. Conclusion: Intravenous thrombolytic therapy is accompanied by good early and intermediate outcome in most patients with ischemic stroke. Small artery occlusion subtype had less disease severity and higher improvement. PMID:24353536
Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Silva, Eliézer; de Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar
Early resuscitation of septic shock patients reduces the sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. The main goals of septic shock resuscitation include volemic expansion, maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery, guided by central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, mixed or central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels. An aggressive fluid resuscitation, possibly in association with vasopressors, inotropes and red blood cell concentrate transfusion may be necessary to achieve those hemodynamic goals. Nonetheless, even though fluid administration is one of the most common interventions offered to critically ill patients, the most appropriate type of fluid to be used remains controversial. According to recently published clinical trials, crystalloid solutions seem to be the most appropriate type of fluids for initial resuscitation of septic shock patients. Balanced crystalloids have theoretical advantages over the classic solutions, but there is not enough evidence to indicate it as first-line treatment. Additionally, when large amounts of fluids are necessary to restore the hemodynamic stability, albumin solutions may be a safe and effective alternative. Hydroxyethyl starches solutions must be avoided in septic patients due to the increased risk of acute renal failure, increased need for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. Our objective was to present a narrative review of the literature regarding the major types of fluids and their main drawbacks in the initial resuscitation of the septic shock patients.
Corrêa, Thiago Domingos; Rocha, Leonardo Lima; Pessoa, Camila Menezes Souza; Silva, Eliézer; de Assuncao, Murillo Santucci Cesar
Early resuscitation of septic shock patients reduces the sepsis-related morbidity and mortality. The main goals of septic shock resuscitation include volemic expansion, maintenance of adequate tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery, guided by central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, mixed or central venous oxygen saturation and arterial lactate levels. An aggressive fluid resuscitation, possibly in association with vasopressors, inotropes and red blood cell concentrate transfusion may be necessary to achieve those hemodynamic goals. Nonetheless, even though fluid administration is one of the most common interventions offered to critically ill patients, the most appropriate type of fluid to be used remains controversial. According to recently published clinical trials, crystalloid solutions seem to be the most appropriate type of fluids for initial resuscitation of septic shock patients. Balanced crystalloids have theoretical advantages over the classic solutions, but there is not enough evidence to indicate it as first-line treatment. Additionally, when large amounts of fluids are necessary to restore the hemodynamic stability, albumin solutions may be a safe and effective alternative. Hydroxyethyl starches solutions must be avoided in septic patients due to the increased risk of acute renal failure, increased need for renal replacement therapy and increased mortality. Our objective was to present a narrative review of the literature regarding the major types of fluids and their main drawbacks in the initial resuscitation of the septic shock patients. PMID:26313437
Muir, Keith W; Ford, Gary A; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Ford, Ian; Murray, Alicia; Clifton, Andrew; Brown, Martin M; Madigan, Jeremy; Lenthall, Rob; Robertson, Fergus; Dixit, Anand; Cloud, Geoffrey C; Wardlaw, Joanna; Freeman, Janet; White, Philip
Objective The Pragmatic Ischaemic Thrombectomy Evaluation (PISTE) trial was a multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial comparing intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone with IVT and adjunctive intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in patients who had acute ischaemic stroke with large artery occlusive anterior circulation stroke confirmed on CT angiography (CTA). Design Eligible patients had IVT started within 4.5 hours of stroke symptom onset. Those randomised to additional MT underwent thrombectomy using any Conformité Européene (CE)-marked device, with target interval times for IVT start to arterial puncture of <90 min. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients achieving independence defined by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 at day 90. Results Ten UK centres enrolled 65 patients between April 2013 and April 2015. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 16 (IQR 13–21). Median stroke onset to IVT start was 120 min. In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in disability-free survival at day 90 with MT (absolute difference 11%, adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 0.65 to 6.94, p=0.20). Secondary analyses showed significantly greater likelihood of full neurological recovery (mRS 0–1) at day 90 (OR 7.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 37.2, p=0.010). In the per-protocol population (n=58), the primary and most secondary clinical outcomes significantly favoured MT (absolute difference in mRS 0–2 of 22% and adjusted OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 19.7, p=0.021). Conclusions The trial did not find a significant difference between treatment groups for the primary end point. However, the effect size was consistent with published data and across primary and secondary end points. Proceeding as fast as possible to MT after CTA confirmation of large artery occlusion on a background of intravenous alteplase is safe, improves excellent clinical outcomes and, in the per-protocol population, improves disability
Poli, Patrizia; Morone, Giovanni; Rosati, Giulio; Masiero, Stefano
The role of robotics in poststroke patients' rehabilitation has been investigated intensively. This paper presents the state-of-the-art and the possible future role of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation, for both upper and lower limbs. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, and PeDRO databases using as keywords "robot AND stroke AND rehabilitation." In upper limb robotic rehabilitation, training seems to improve arm function in activities of daily living. In addition, electromechanical gait training after stroke seems to be effective. It is still unclear whether robot-assisted arm training may improve muscle strength, and which electromechanical gait-training device may be the most effective for walking training implementation. In the field of robotic technologies for stroke patients' rehabilitation we identified currently relevant growing points and areas timely for developing research. Among the growing points there is the development of new easily transportable, wearable devices that could improve rehabilitation also after discharge, in an outpatient or home-based setting. For developing research, efforts are being made to establish the ideal type of treatment, the length and amount of training protocol, and the patient's characteristics to be successfully enrolled to this treatment.
Poli, Patrizia; Morone, Giovanni; Rosati, Giulio; Masiero, Stefano
Introduction. The role of robotics in poststroke patients' rehabilitation has been investigated intensively. This paper presents the state-of-the-art and the possible future role of robotics in poststroke rehabilitation, for both upper and lower limbs. Materials and Methods. We performed a comprehensive search of PubMed, Cochrane, and PeDRO databases using as keywords “robot AND stroke AND rehabilitation.” Results and Discussion. In upper limb robotic rehabilitation, training seems to improve arm function in activities of daily living. In addition, electromechanical gait training after stroke seems to be effective. It is still unclear whether robot-assisted arm training may improve muscle strength, and which electromechanical gait-training device may be the most effective for walking training implementation. Conclusions. In the field of robotic technologies for stroke patients' rehabilitation we identified currently relevant growing points and areas timely for developing research. Among the growing points there is the development of new easily transportable, wearable devices that could improve rehabilitation also after discharge, in an outpatient or home-based setting. For developing research, efforts are being made to establish the ideal type of treatment, the length and amount of training protocol, and the patient's characteristics to be successfully enrolled to this treatment. PMID:24350244
Fridfinnson, Jason A.; Kumar, Anand; Blanchard, Laurie; Rabbani, Rasheda; Bell, Dean; Funk, Duane; Turgeon, Alexis F.; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M.; Zarychanski, Ryan
Objective: Dynamic tests of fluid responsiveness have been developed and investigated in clinical trials of goal-directed therapy. The impact of this approach on clinically relevant outcomes is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether fluid therapy guided by dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness compared with standard care improves clinically relevant outcomes in adults admitted to the ICU. Data Sources: Randomized controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to December 2016, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. Study Selection: Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials comparing dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness with standard care for acute volume resuscitation in adults admitted to the ICU. Data Extraction: Two reviewers independently abstracted trial-level data including population characteristics, interventions, clinical outcomes, and source of funding. Our primary outcome was mortality at longest duration of follow-up. Our secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and frequency of renal complications. The internal validity of trials was assessed in duplicate using the Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool. Data Synthesis: We included 13 trials enrolling 1,652 patients. Methods used to assess fluid responsiveness included stroke volume variation (nine trials), pulse pressure variation (one trial), and stroke volume change with passive leg raise/fluid challenge (three trials). In 12 trials reporting mortality, the risk ratio for death associated with dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.42–0.83; I2 = 0%; n = 1,586). The absolute risk reduction in mortality associated with dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness was –2.9% (95% CI, –5.6% to –0.2%). Dynamic assessment of
Bednarczyk, Joseph M; Fridfinnson, Jason A; Kumar, Anand; Blanchard, Laurie; Rabbani, Rasheda; Bell, Dean; Funk, Duane; Turgeon, Alexis F; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Zarychanski, Ryan
Dynamic tests of fluid responsiveness have been developed and investigated in clinical trials of goal-directed therapy. The impact of this approach on clinically relevant outcomes is unknown. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether fluid therapy guided by dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness compared with standard care improves clinically relevant outcomes in adults admitted to the ICU. Randomized controlled trials from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to December 2016, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant articles. Two reviewers independently identified randomized controlled trials comparing dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness with standard care for acute volume resuscitation in adults admitted to the ICU. Two reviewers independently abstracted trial-level data including population characteristics, interventions, clinical outcomes, and source of funding. Our primary outcome was mortality at longest duration of follow-up. Our secondary outcomes were ICU and hospital length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and frequency of renal complications. The internal validity of trials was assessed in duplicate using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. We included 13 trials enrolling 1,652 patients. Methods used to assess fluid responsiveness included stroke volume variation (nine trials), pulse pressure variation (one trial), and stroke volume change with passive leg raise/fluid challenge (three trials). In 12 trials reporting mortality, the risk ratio for death associated with dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.42-0.83; I = 0%; n = 1,586). The absolute risk reduction in mortality associated with dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness was -2.9% (95% CI, -5.6% to -0.2%). Dynamic assessment of fluid responsiveness was associated with reduced duration of ICU length of stay
Archer, S. K.; Wellwood, I.; Smith, C. H.; Newham, D. J.
Background: Dysphagia is common after stroke, leading to adverse outcome. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence for dysphagia therapy, thus making it difficult to determine the best approaches to treatment. Clinical decisions are often based on usual practice, however no formal method of monitoring practice patterns exists. Aims: To…
Kootker, Joyce A; Rasquin, Sascha M C; Smits, Peter; Geurts, Alexander C; van Heugten, Caroline M; Fasotti, Luciano
Currently, no evidence-based treatment is available for mood problems after stroke. We present a new psychological intervention designed to reduce depressive complaints after stroke. This intervention was based on cognitive behavioural therapy principles and was shown feasible in a pilot study. In order to meet the specific needs of stroke patients (concerning both sensori-motor, cognitive, and behavioural problems), we incorporated motivational interviewing, grief resolution, and psycho-education. We emphasised for each session to take into account the cognitive deficits of the patients (i.e. be concrete, accessible, structured, specific, and repeat information). Moreover, we augmented the psychologist-administered therapy with the contribution of an occupational or movement therapist aimed at facilitating patients' goal-setting and attainment. The intervention consisted of 12 one-hour sessions with a psychologist and three or four one-hour sessions with an occupational or movement therapist. Currently, the effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. The proposed psychological treatment protocol is innovative, as it applies cognitive behavioural therapy in a stroke-specific manner; moreover, it supports goal attainment by incorporating occupational or movement therapy sessions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Archer, S. K.; Wellwood, I.; Smith, C. H.; Newham, D. J.
Background: Dysphagia is common after stroke, leading to adverse outcome. There is a paucity of high-quality evidence for dysphagia therapy, thus making it difficult to determine the best approaches to treatment. Clinical decisions are often based on usual practice, however no formal method of monitoring practice patterns exists. Aims: To…
Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Dambinova, S A; Raevskiy, K S; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Kovalenko, A V; Kudrin, V S; Yakovleva, E V
The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the safety and the efficacy of the pharmaceutic drug glycine in 200 patients with acute (<6 h) ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory. Fifty patients received placebo, 49 glycine 0.5 g/day, 51 glycine 1.0 g/day and 50 glycine 2.0 g/day for 5 days in each group. The efficacy of glycine was assessed by clinical analysis, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of levels of blood serum autoantibodies to NMDA-binding proteines, by detection of excitatory (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory (glycine, GABA) amino acid concentrations and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) in CSF. The trial confirmed the safety profile of the glycine treatment. Slight sedation was observed in 9 patients (4. 5%) as a side-effect. Other marked side-effects or adverse events were absent. The glycine treatment at the dose of 1.0-2.0 g/day was accompanied by a tendency to a decreased 30-day mortality (5.9% in 1. 0 g/day glycine and 10% in 2.0 g/day glycine groups vs. 14% in the placebo and 14.3% in 0.5 g/day glycine groups), to an improved clinical outcome on the Orgogozo Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and to a favourable functional outcome on the Barthel index (p < 0.01 in 1.0 g/day glycine vs. placebo group in patients with no or mild disability). An early normalization of autoantibody titres to NMDA-binding proteins in serum was found (p < 0.01 vs. placebo), a reduction of glutamate and aspartate levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo), an increase in GABA concentrations (p < 0.01 vs. placebo in severe stroke patients) and also a reduction of TBARS levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo) in CSF by day 3. Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a
Carroll, John D; Saver, Jeffrey L; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; Berry, Scott; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L
Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale is effective in the prevention of recurrent ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke is unknown. We conducted a trial to evaluate whether closure is superior to medical therapy alone in preventing recurrent ischemic stroke or early death in patients 18 to 60 years of age. In this prospective, multicenter, randomized, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned patients, in a 1:1 ratio, to medical therapy alone or closure of the patent foramen ovale. The primary results of the trial were analyzed when the target of 25 primary end-point events had been observed and adjudicated. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. The medical-therapy group received one or more antiplatelet medications (74.8%) or warfarin (25.2%). Treatment exposure between the two groups was unequal (1375 patient-years in the closure group vs. 1184 patient-years in the medical-therapy group, P=0.009) owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat cohort, 9 patients in the closure group and 16 in the medical-therapy group had a recurrence of stroke (hazard ratio with closure, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22 to 1.11; P=0.08). The between-group difference in the rate of recurrent stroke was significant in the prespecified per-protocol cohort (6 events in the closure group vs. 14 events in the medical-therapy group; hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.14 to 0.96; P=0.03) and in the as-treated cohort (5 events vs. 16 events; hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.75; P=0.007). Serious adverse events occurred in 23.0% of the patients in the closure group and in 21.6% in the medical-therapy group (P=0.65). Procedure-related or device-related serious adverse events occurred in 21 of 499 patients in the closure group (4.2%), but the rate of atrial fibrillation or device thrombus was not increased. In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant benefit associated
Kim, Mi Kyoung
Purpose Patients with stroke suffer from physical disabilities, followed by mental instability. Their caregivers also suffer from mental instability. The present study attempted to address the degree and the change of the level of Purpose in Life (PIL) in patients with stroke and caregivers by applying art therapy using colors. Materials and Methods Twenty-eight stroke patients with a good functional recovery or a moderate disability and their 28 caregivers were selected and evaluated. The period of the study between the stroke and color therapy was more than 6 months. Patients and caregivers were divided into the color therapy (28) and control groups (28). A questionnaire, which measures the level of PIL was conducted separately for patients and caregivers prior to the first session of color therapy (2 hours per week, total 16 sessions). The final examination was performed 5 months after the last color therapy session. Results There was significant difference between before and after color therapy when the level of PIL was measured both in patients and caregivers (p<0.01). These were the same between the color therapy group, compared with the control group (p<0.01). As color therapy progressed to the late phase, patients and caregivers applied increasing number of colors and color intensity. Conclusion These results prove that color therapy will improve PIL of the patients with post-stroke disability and caregivers. Furthermore, color therapy would be a useful adjuvant for improving the quality of life of the patients with stroke and their caregivers. PMID:23225793
Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kang, Sung Don
Patients with stroke suffer from physical disabilities, followed by mental instability. Their caregivers also suffer from mental instability. The present study attempted to address the degree and the change of the level of Purpose in Life (PIL) in patients with stroke and caregivers by applying art therapy using colors. Twenty-eight stroke patients with a good functional recovery or a moderate disability and their 28 caregivers were selected and evaluated. The period of the study between the stroke and color therapy was more than 6 months. Patients and caregivers were divided into the color therapy (28) and control groups (28). A questionnaire, which measures the level of PIL was conducted separately for patients and caregivers prior to the first session of color therapy (2 hours per week, total 16 sessions). The final examination was performed 5 months after the last color therapy session. There was significant difference between before and after color therapy when the level of PIL was measured both in patients and caregivers (p<0.01). These were the same between the color therapy group, compared with the control group (p<0.01). As color therapy progressed to the late phase, patients and caregivers applied increasing number of colors and color intensity. These results prove that color therapy will improve PIL of the patients with post-stroke disability and caregivers. Furthermore, color therapy would be a useful adjuvant for improving the quality of life of the patients with stroke and their caregivers.
Amengual, Julià L.; Rojo, Nuria; Veciana de las Heras, Misericordia; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Schneider, Sabine; Vaquero, Lucía; Juncadella, Montserrat; Montero, Jordi; Mohammadi, Bahram; Rubio, Francisco; Rueda, Nohora; Duarte, Esther; Grau, Carles; Altenmüller, Eckart; Münte, Thomas F.; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni
Background Several recently developed therapies targeting motor disabilities in stroke sufferers have shown to be more effective than standard neurorehabilitation approaches. In this context, several basic studies demonstrated that music training produces rapid neuroplastic changes in motor-related brain areas. Music-supported therapy has been recently developed as a new motor rehabilitation intervention. Methods and Results In order to explore the plasticity effects of music-supported therapy, this therapeutic intervention was applied to twenty chronic stroke patients. Before and after the music-supported therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied for the assessment of excitability changes in the motor cortex and a 3D movement analyzer was used for the assessment of motor performance parameters such as velocity, acceleration and smoothness in a set of diadochokinetic movement tasks. Our results suggest that the music-supported therapy produces changes in cortical plasticity leading the improvement of the subjects' motor performance. Conclusion Our findings represent the first evidence of the neurophysiological changes induced by this therapy in chronic stroke patients, and their link with the amelioration of motor performance. Further studies are needed to confirm our observations. PMID:23613966
Donoso Brown, Elena V; Fichter, Renae
Upper extremity hemiparesis is an impairment post-stroke that impacts quality of life. Home programs are an intervention strategy used by many occupational therapists to support continued motor recovery post-stroke, yet little is known about how these programs are designed and implemented. The purpose of this study was to describe how occupational therapy practitioners approach this task and specifically what strategies they use to support adherence and what types of technology are most commonly used. An on-line survey methodology was used. Participants were recruited through multiple sources including state associations and occupational therapy educational program directors. A total of 73 occupational therapy practitioners submitted complete surveys. It was found that majority of occupational therapy practitioners in the sample (n = 53) reported creating home programs focused on upper extremity motor recovery more than 80% of the time. Range of motion and strengthening were reported as being in the top three most commonly used interventions by more than half the sample, however incorporating clients' goals and interests were reported most often as strategies to create meaning in the home program. Respondents also reported limited incorporation of technology and strategies to support adherence. Personal motivation was reported by occupational therapy practitioners to be a key moderator of adherence to a home program. Occupational therapy practitioners often provide home programs for individuals post-stroke focusing on upper extremity function. Future research that aims to understand stakeholders' perspectives on home programs and determine effective strategies for ensuring adherence is needed.
Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun
To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day, for three weeks. NMES was applied on the surface of the extensor digitorum communis and extensor pollicis brevis for open-hand motion. Muscle tone, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and power of wrist and hand were evaluated before and after treatment. There were significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer assessment score in the wrist, hand and coordination, as well as power of wrist and hand in all groups after treatment. The mirror and NMES group showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer scores of hand, wrist, coordination and power of hand extension compared to the other groups. However, the power of hand flexion, wrist flexion, and wrist extension showed no significant differences among the three groups. Muscle tone also showed no significant differences in the three groups. Our results showed that there is a synergic effect of mirror therapy and NMES on hand function. Therefore, a hand rehabilitation strategy combined with NMES and mirror therapy may be more helpful for improving hand function in stroke patients than NMES or mirror therapy only.
O'Donnell, Martin J; Hankey, Graeme J; Eikelboom, John W
For patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack caused by atherothromboembolism, immediate and long-term aspirin reduces the relative risk of recurrent stroke, MI, and death attributable to vascular causes. Oral anticoagulation is not more effective than aspirin. Long-term clopidogrel reduces the relative risk of stroke, MI, or vascular death by about 9% (0.3% to 16.5%) compared with aspirin. Any long-term benefits of clopidogrel combined with aspirin, compared with aspirin or clopidogrel alone, appear to be offset by increased major bleeding. The combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole reduces the relative odds of stroke, MI, or vascular death by about 18% (odds ratio 0.82, 0.74 to 0.91) compared with aspirin alone without causing more bleeding. Cilostazole reduces the risk of stroke, MI, or vascular death by 39% compared to placebo. A large clinical trial comparing clopidogrel with the combination of aspirin and dipyridamole, in >20 000 patients with recent (<120 days) atherothrombotic ischemic stroke, is expected to report in 2008. Emerging antiplatelet therapies presently being evaluated for secondary prevention of atherothromboembolism include other P(2)Y(12) ADP receptor antagonists (prasugrel, cangrelor, AZD 6140), thromboxane receptor antagonists (eg, S18886 - terutroban), and thrombin receptor (PAR-1) antagonists (eg, SCH530348).
Peschke, D; Kohler, M; Schenk, L; Kuhlmey, A
This article examines the provision of physiotherapy and occupational therapy for stroke patients from a cross-sectorial perspective, from acute to rehabilitative care to outpatient services. The sample comprises all clients of the Deutsche BKK, a large German health insurance company, who received acute care for stroke in 2007, who survived the initial hospital stay, and who had a secondary diagnosis of motor deficits (n = 1 929). For 60.4% of these stroke patients, no further treatment was provided after acute care. The odds of receiving early rehabilitation treatment while in hospital stay decreased by 1% with each year of life. Only 18.8% of patients received a form of treatment that was largely in line with current recommendations for stroke care, beginning with early rehabilitation and including further treatment in the context of rehabilitation measures or outpatient care. Patients who were in long-term nursing care before stroke were at increased risk of not being placed on this treatment pathway, which has been positively evaluated. 20.7% of patients did not receive any early rehabilitation treatment, but received further rehabilitation treatment and/or outpatient services after hospital discharge. We recommend that receipt of long-term nursing care should routinely be regarded as a risk factor for underprovision of treatment after stroke (yellow flag). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Verma, Rajesh; Garg, R K
This paper is a review conducted to provide an overview of accumulated evidence on contemporary rehabilitation methods for stroke survivors. Loss of functional movement is a common consequence of stroke for which a wide range of interventions has been developed. Traditional therapeutic approaches have shown limited results for motor deficits as well as lack evidence for their effectiveness. Stroke rehabilitation is now based on the evidence of neuroplasticity, which is responsible for recovery following stroke. The neuroplastic changes in the structure and function of relevant brain areas are induced primarily by specific rehabilitation methods. The therapeutic method which induces neuroplastic changes, leads to greater motor and functional recovery than traditional methods. Further, the recovery is permanent in nature. During the last decade various novel stroke rehabilitative methods for motor recovery have been developed. This review focuses on the methods that have evidence of associated cortical level reorganization, namely task-specific training, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotic training, mental imaging, and virtual training. All of these methods utilize principles of motor learning. The findings from this review demonstrated convincing evidence both at the neural and functional level in response to such therapies. The main aim of the review was to determine the evidence for these methods and their application into clinical practice.
Kaneko, Yuji; Dailey, Travis; Weinbren, Nathan L; Rizzi, Jessica; Tamboli, Cyrus; Allickson, Julie G; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V
Cell therapy is a major discipline of regenerative medicine that has been continually growing over the last two decades. The aging of the population necessitates discovery of therapeutic innovations to combat debilitating disorders, such as stroke. Menstrual blood and Sertoli cells are two gender-specific sources of viable transplantable cells for stroke therapy. The use of autologous cells for the subacute phase of stroke offers practical clinical application. Menstrual blood cells are readily available, display proliferative capacity, pluripotency and angiogenic features, and, following transplantation in stroke models, have the ability to migrate to the infarct site, regulate the inflammatory response, secrete neurotrophic factors, and have the possibility to differentiate into neural lineage. Similarly, the testis-derived Sertoli cells secrete many growth and trophic factors, are highly immunosuppressive, and exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurological disorders. We highlight the practicality of experimental and clinical application of menstrual blood cells and Sertoli cells to treat stroke, from cell isolation and cryopreservation to administration.
Cook, Chad; Stickley, Lois; Ramey, Kevin; Knotts, Valerie J
Many studies have reported the benefits of a comprehensive stroke team including occupational therapy/physical therapy (OT/PT) services; however, factors associated with access to these services are less known. This study used a subsample of the Health and Retirement Study database, a cross-sectional survey of more than 11,126 Americans aged 65 to 106 years within the contiguous United States. The purposes of this study were to determine the associational factors that contribute to attending OT/PT and determine if attending OT/PT leads to a reduced report of stroke-related problems. The findings indicated that fewer than 10% of stroke survivors in a noninstitutionalized, community-based setting were currently accessing OT/PT. Additionally, access to OT/PT services was highly associated with report of having an attending physician, report of stroke-related weakness, higher monthly income, and older age. The increased odds of reported continued problems associated with a past stroke were associated with failure to access OT/PT services, lower monthly income, Hispanic culture, and age. OT/PT services were typically provided to patients who reported a higher level of physical dysfunction. Despite the greater degree of severity, OT/PT intervention led to reports of lower levels of disability and problems over time.
Rubin, Mark N.; Chong, Brian W.
Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator continues to be first-line therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting within the appropriate time window, but one potential limitation is the low rate of recanalization in the setting of large artery occlusions. Intra-arterial (IA) treatment is effective for emergency revascularization of proximal intracranial arterial occlusions, but proof of benefit has been lacking until recently. Our goal is to outline the history of endovascular therapy and review both IA thrombolysis and mechanical interventions. In addition, we will discuss the impact of important trials such as the Third Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS3) trial, and the more recent trials Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE), Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits—Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA), and Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME) on acute stroke management and the implications for the practicing neurohospitalist. PMID:26288670
O'Carroll, Cumara B; Rubin, Mark N; Chong, Brian W
Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator continues to be first-line therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke presenting within the appropriate time window, but one potential limitation is the low rate of recanalization in the setting of large artery occlusions. Intra-arterial (IA) treatment is effective for emergency revascularization of proximal intracranial arterial occlusions, but proof of benefit has been lacking until recently. Our goal is to outline the history of endovascular therapy and review both IA thrombolysis and mechanical interventions. In addition, we will discuss the impact of important trials such as the Third Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS3) trial, and the more recent trials Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke (ESCAPE), Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA), and Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME) on acute stroke management and the implications for the practicing neurohospitalist.
Rizzi, Jessica; Tamboli, Cyrus; Allickson, Julie G.; Kuzmin-Nichols, Nicole; Sanberg, Paul R.; Eve, David J.; Tajiri, Naoki; Borlongan, Cesar V.
Cell therapy is a major discipline of regenerative medicine that has been continually growing over the last two decades. The aging of the population necessitates discovery of therapeutic innovations to combat debilitating disorders, such as stroke. Menstrual blood and Sertoli cells are two gender-specific sources of viable transplantable cells for stroke therapy. The use of autologous cells for the subacute phase of stroke offers practical clinical application. Menstrual blood cells are readily available, display proliferative capacity, pluripotency and angiogenic features, and, following transplantation in stroke models, have the ability to migrate to the infarct site, regulate the inflammatory response, secrete neurotrophic factors, and have the possibility to differentiate into neural lineage. Similarly, the testis-derived Sertoli cells secrete many growth and trophic factors, are highly immunosuppressive, and exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurological disorders. We highlight the practicality of experimental and clinical application of menstrual blood cells and Sertoli cells to treat stroke, from cell isolation and cryopreservation to administration. PMID:23469849
Stonesifer, Connor; Corey, Sydney; Ghanekar, Shaila; Diamandis, Zachary; Acosta, Sandra A; Borlongan, Cesar V
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. A key secondary cell death mechanism mediating neurological damage following the initial episode of ischemic stroke is the upregulation of endogenous neuroinflammatory processes to levels that destroy hypoxic tissue local to the area of insult, induce apoptosis, and initiate a feedback loop of inflammatory cascades that can expand the region of damage. Stem cell therapy has emerged as an experimental treatment for stroke, and accumulating evidence supports the therapeutic efficacy of stem cells to abrogate stroke-induced inflammation. In this review, we investigate clinically relevant stem cell types, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), neural stem cells (NSCs), extraembryonic stem cells, adipose tissue-derived stem cells, breast milk-derived stem cells, menstrual blood-derived stem cells, dental tissue-derived stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), teratocarcinoma-derived Ntera2/D1 neuron-like cells (NT2N), c-mycER(TAM) modified NSCs (CTX0E03), and notch-transfected mesenchymal stromal cells (SB623), comparing their potential efficacy to sequester stroke-induced neuroinflammation and their feasibility as translational clinical cell sources. To this end, we highlight that MSCs, with a proven track record of safety and efficacy as a transplantable cell for hematologic diseases, stand as an attractive cell type that confers superior anti-inflammatory effects in stroke both in vitro and in vivo. That stem cells can mount a robust anti-inflammatory action against stroke complements the regenerative processes of cell replacement and neurotrophic factor secretion conventionally ascribed to cell-based therapy in neurological disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Könönen, M; Tarkka, I M; Niskanen, E; Pihlajamäki, M; Mervaala, E; Pitkänen, K; Vanninen, R
The clinical benefits of intensive stroke rehabilitation vary individually. We used multimodal functional imaging to assess the relationship of clinical gain and imaging changes in patients with chronic stroke whose voluntary motor control improved after constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Eleven patients (37.6 ± 36.8 months from stroke) were studied by functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and behavioral assessment of hand motor control (Wolf Motor Function Test) before and after 2 weeks of CIMT. Individual and group-level changes in imaging and behavioral parameters were investigated. Increase in fMRI activation in the sensorimotor areas was greater amongst those subjects who had poor hand motor behavior before therapy and/or whose motor behavior improved notably because of therapy than amongst subjects with relatively good motor behavior already before therapy. The magnitude of CIMT-induced changes in task-related fMRI activation differed between lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres, and the fMRI laterality index was different for paretic and non-paretic hand tasks. The corticospinal conduction time in TMS was significantly decreased after CIM therapy. Alterations in sensorimotor cortical activations (fMRI) and corticospinal conductivity (TMS) were observed after intensive rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke. Activation and functional changes in fMRI and TMS correlated significantly with the degree of clinical improvement in hand motor behavior. The present data advance the understanding of the functional underpinnings of motor recovery, which may be obtained even years after the stroke. © 2011 The Author(s). European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.
Petruseviciene, Daiva; Krisciūnas, Aleksandras
In Lithuania, the stroke is not only medical, but social issue as well, since only 20% of patients suffering from stroke remain active at work. Yearly stroke incidence in Lithuania is 7000-8000 cases. The most common outcome of stroke is unilateral paralysis (hemiplegia) followed by disorders of coordination, balance, and movements. Due to dysfunctions of movements, self-care, cognition, behavior, and communication, some part of stroke patients remains disabled. They need assistance and care provided by other people. Occupational therapy, which is part of rehabilitation of patients after stroke, is directed to independence training. There are scarce data related to effectiveness of occupational therapy depending on motor, cognitive, and psychosocial dysfunctions. Goals of study were to estimate effectiveness of occupational therapy at the early stage of rehabilitation depending on type of stroke, localization of brain injury, grade of lesion, age, and gender, to identify factors influencing effectiveness of occupational therapy, and to estimate their positive predictive value. The study included 106 patients at the early stage of rehabilitation, who were admitted to Department of Neurorehabilitation after stabilization of clinical condition from Departments of Neurology and Neurosurgery (mean duration of 14+/-2 days after stroke). The program of occupational therapy was not fulfilled by 6 patients: 2 patients were transferred to Nursing Hospital due to severe condition, and 4 patients were discharged prematurely and continued rehabilitation in outpatient setting. Hence, study population consisted of 100 subjects (47 men and 53 women) who were diagnosed with stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic). Patient's functional status and disorders of activities were evaluated using Barthel Index and Functional Independence Measure. Complexes of occupational therapy were adjusted according to examination of patient's disorders of activities, age, grade of lesion, other diseases
dela Peña, Ike; Borlongan, Cesar V.
Among recently investigated stroke therapies, stem cell treatment holds great promise by virtue of their putative ability to replace lost cells, promote endogenous neurogenesis and produce behavioral and functional improvement through their “bystander effects.” Translating stem cell in the clinic, however, presents a number of technical difficulties. A strategy suggested to enhance therapeutic utility of stem cells is combination therapy, i.e., cotransplantation of stem cells or adjunct treatment with pharmacological agents and substrates, which is assumed to produce more profound therapeutic benefits by circumventing limitations of individual treatments, and facilitating complementary brain repair processes. We previously demonstrated enhanced functional effects of co-treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and human umbilical cord blood cell (hUCB) transplantation in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we suggest that the aforementioned combination therapy may also produce synergistic effects in stroke. Accordingly, G-CSF treatment may reduce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance neurogenesis rendering a receptive microenvironment for hUCB engraftment. Adjunct treatment of G-CSF with hUCB may facilitate stemness maintenance and guide neural lineage commitment of hUCB cells. Moreover, regenerative mechanisms afforded by G-CSF-mobilized endogenous stem cells, secretion of growth factors by hUCB grafts and G-CSF-recruited endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) , as well as the potential graft–host integration that may promote synaptic circuitry re-establishment could altogether produce more pronounced functional improvement in stroked rats subjected to a combination G-CSF treatment and hUCB transplantation. Nevertheless, differences in pathology and repair processes underlying TBI and stroke deserve consideration when testing effects of combinatorial G-CSF and hUCB cell transplantation for stroke treatment
Peña, Ike dela; Borlongan, Cesar V
Among recently investigated stroke therapies, stem cell treatment holds great promise by virtue of their putative ability to replace lost cells, promote endogenous neurogenesis,and produce behavioral and functional improvement through their "bystander effects." Translating stem cell in the clinic, however, presents a number of technical difficulties. A strategy suggested to enhance therapeutic utility of stem cells is combination therapy, i.e., co-transplantation of stem cells or adjunct treatment with pharmacological agents and substrates,which is assumed to produce more profound therapeutic benefits by circumventing limitations of individual treatments and facilitating complementary brain repair processes. We previously demonstrated enhanced functional effects of cotreatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF)and human umbilical cord blood cell (hUCB) transplantation in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here,we suggest that the aforementioned combination therapy may also produce synergistic effects in stroke. Accordingly, G-CSF treatment may reduce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhance neurogenesis rendering a receptive microenvironment for hUCB engraftment. Adjunct treatment of GCSF with hUCB may facilitate stemness maintenance and guide neural lineage commitment of hUCB cells. Moreover, regenerative mechanisms afforded by G-CSF-mobilized endogenous stem cells, secretion of growth factors by hUCB grafts and G-CSF-recruited endothelial progenitor cells(EPCs), as well as the potential graft–host integration that may promote synaptic circuitry re-establishment could altogether produce more pronounced functional improvement in stroked rats subjected to a combination G-CSF treatment and hUCB transplantation. Nevertheless, differences in pathology and repair processes underlying TBI and stroke deserve consideration when testing the effects of combinatorial G-CSF and hUCB cell transplantation for stroke treatment. Further
Mas, Jean-Louis; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Amarenco, Pierre; Arquizan, Caroline; Aubry, Pierre; Barthelet, Martine; Bertrand, Bernard; Brochet, Eric; Cabanes, Laure; Donal, Erwan; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Ernande, Laura; Finet, Gérard; Fraisse, Alain; Giroud, Maurice; Guérin, Patrice; Habib, Gilbert; Juliard, Jean-Michel; Leys, Didier; Lièvre, Michel; Lusson, Jean-René; Marcon, François; Michel, Patrick; Moulin, Thierry; Mounier-Vehier, François; Pierard, Luc; Piot, Christophe; Rey, Christian; Rodier, Gilles; Roudaut, Raymond; Schleich, Jean-Marc; Teiger, Emmanuel; Turc, Guillaume; Vuillier, Fabrice; Weimar, Christian; Woimant, France; Chatellier, Gilles
Currently available data do not provide definitive evidence on the comparative benefits of closure of patent foramen ovale, oral anticoagulants and antiplatelet therapy in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke To assess whether transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure plus antiplatelet therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy alone and whether oral anticoagulant therapy is superior to antiplatelet therapy, for secondary stroke prevention in patients aged 16 to 60 years with a large patent foramen ovale or a patent foramen ovale associated with an atrial septal aneurysm, and an otherwise unexplained ischaemic stroke or retinal ischaemia. Six hundred and sixty-four patients were included in the study. CLOSE is an academic-driven, multicentre, randomized, open-label, three-group, superiority trial with blinded adjudication of outcome events. The trial has been registered with Clinical Trials Register (Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00562289). Patient recruitment started in December 2007. Patient follow-up will continue until December 2016. Expected mean follow-up = 5.6 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke. Safety outcomes include fatal, life-threatening or major procedure- or device-related complications and fatal, life-threatening or major haemorrhagic complications. CLOSE is the first specifically designed trial to assess the superiority of patent foramen ovale closure over antiplatelet therapy alone and the superiority of oral anticoagulants over antiplatelet therapy to prevent stroke recurrence in patients with patent foramen ovale-associated cryptogenic stroke. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.
A randomised controlled trial of fluid restriction compared to oesophageal Doppler-guided goal-directed fluid therapy in elective major colorectal surgery within an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program.
Phan, T D; D'Souza, B; Rattray, M J; Johnston, M J; Cowie, B S
There is continued controversy regarding the benefits of goal-directed fluid therapy, with earlier studies showing marked improvement in morbidity and length-of-stay that have not been replicated more recently. The aim of this study was to compare patient outcomes in elective colorectal surgery patients having goal-directed versus restrictive fluid therapy. Inclusion criteria included suitability for an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery care pathway and patients with an American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score of 1 to 3. Patients were intraoperatively randomised to either restrictive or Doppler-guided goal-directed fluid therapy. The primary outcome was length-of-stay; secondary outcomes included complication rate, change in haemodynamic variables and fluid volumes. Compared to restrictive therapy, goal-directed therapy resulted in a greater volume of intraoperative fluid, 2115 (interquartile range 1350 to 2560) ml versus 1500 (1200 to 2000) ml, P=0.008, and was associated with an increase in Doppler-derived stroke volume index from beginning to end of surgery, 43.7 (16.3) to 54.2 (21.1) ml/m(2), P <0.001, in the latter group. Length-of-stay was similar, 6.5 (5 to 9) versus 6 (4 to 9) days, P=0.421. The number of patients with any complication (minor or major) was similar; 0% (30) versus 52% (26), P=0.42, or major complications, 1 (2%) versus 4 (8%), P=0.36, respectively. The increased perioperative fluid volumes and increased stroke volumes at the end of surgery in patients receiving goal-directed therapy did not translate to a significant difference in length-of-stay and we did not observe a difference in the number of patients experiencing minor or major complications.
Peschke, D; Schnitzer, S; Kuhlmey, A; Schenk, L
This study examines the relationship between adherence to clinical guidelines and survival time in the first year after stroke. The sample comprises all clients of the Deutsche BKK, a large German health insurance company, who received acute inpatient care for stroke in 2007, who survived the hospital stay by at least 14 days, and who had motor deficits at the end of their acute treatment (n=1 791). 3 types of treatment that differ in the degree of adherence to clinical guidelines are identified ("Frühreha-Plus">"Standard-Plus">"Nur Akut"). There is a positive relationship between adherence to clinical guidelines and survival time, even when relevant covariates are controlled. The hazard-ratios are 0.49 for "Frühreha-Plus" and 0.65 for "Standard-Plus" compared to "Nur Akut". Healthcare processes should be organized on the basis of cross-sector collaboration and in line with the recommendations of the guidelines. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Gusev, E I; Stonik, V A; Martynov, M Iu; Guseva, M R; Shchukin, I A; Diuĭzen, I V; Koplik, E V; Mishchenko, N P; Agafonova, I G; Kolesnikova, T I; Fedoreev, S A
The changes developing in the perifocal area of hematoma and perspectives of antioxidant and chelate therapy were studied on the model of experimental hemorrhagic stroke and in clinical conditions. Microcirculatory, ischemic and inflammation disturbances with a certain time sequence were found in the perifocal areas. These changes, along with hypostasis and oxidative stress, form the pathobiochemical cascade of changes in hemorrhagic stroke and are potential therapeutic targets. Administering of an antioxidant and chelate drug histochrome reduces the intensity of changes in the perifocal area in the experimental conditions. In clinical conditions, it accelerates the dynamics of brain and meningeal symptoms regression and improves the blood rheological properties.
Tsoupikova, Daria; Stoykov, Nikolay; Vick, Randy; Li, Yu; Kamper, Derek; Listenberger, Molly
A novel artistic virtual reality (VR) environment was developed and tested for use as a rehabilitation protocol for post-stroke hand rehabilitation therapy. The system was developed by an interdisciplinary team of engineers, art therapists, occupational therapists, and VR artists to improve patients' motivation and engagement. Specific exercises were developed to explicitly promote the practice of therapeutic tasks requiring hand and arm coordination for upper extremity rehabilitation. Here we describe system design, development, and user testing for efficiency, subject's satisfaction and clinical feasibility. We report results of the completed qualitative, pre-clinical pilot study of the system effectiveness for therapy. Fourteen stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis participated in a single training session within the environment to gauge user response to the protocol through a custom survey. Results indicate that users found the system comfortable, enjoyable, tiring; instructions clear, and reported a high level of satisfaction with the VR environment and rehabilitation task variety and difficulty. Most patients reported very positive impressions of the VR environment and rated it highly, appreciating its engagement and motivation. We are currently conducting a longitudinal intervention study over 6 weeks in stroke survivors with chronic hemiparesis. Initial results following use of the system on the first subjects demonstrate that the system is operational and can facilitate therapy for post stroke patients with upper extremity impairment.
Harmsen, Wouter J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; Selles, Ruud W; Hurkmans, Henri L P; Ribbers, Gerard M
Mirror therapy is a priming technique to improve motor function of the affected arm after stroke. To investigate whether a mirror therapy-based action observation (AO) protocol contributes to motor learning of the affected arm after stroke. A total of 37 participants in the chronic stage after stroke were randomly allocated to the AO or control observation (CO) group. Participants were instructed to perform an upper-arm reaching task as fast and as fluently as possible. All participants trained the upper-arm reaching task with their affected arm alternated with either AO or CO. Participants in the AO group observed mirrored video tapes of reaching movements performed by their unaffected arm, whereas participants in the CO group observed static photographs of landscapes. The experimental condition effect was investigated by evaluating the primary outcome measure: movement time (in seconds) of the reaching movement, measured by accelerometry. Movement time decreased significantly in both groups: 18.3% in the AO and 9.1% in the CO group. Decrease in movement time was significantly more in the AO compared with the CO group (mean difference = 0.14 s; 95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.26; P = .026). The present study showed that a mirror therapy-based AO protocol contributes to motor learning after stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pimentel-Coelho, Pedro Moreno; Barbosa da Fonseca, Lea Mirian; de Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez; Mendez-Otero, Rosalia
Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide. Approximately 16 million first-ever strokes occur each year, leading to nearly 6 million deaths. Nevertheless, currently, very few therapeutic options are available. Cell therapies have been applied successfully in different hematological diseases, and are currently being investigated for treating ischemic heart disease, with promising results. Recent preclinical studies have indicated that cell therapies may provide structural and functional benefits after stroke. However, the effects of these treatments are not yet fully understood and are the subject of continuing investigation. Meanwhile, different clinical trials for stroke, the majority of them small, nonrandomized, and uncontrolled, have been reported, and their results indicate that cell therapy seems safe and feasible in these conditions. In the last 2 years, the number of published and registered trials has dramatically increased. Here, we review the main findings available in the field, with emphasis on the clinical results. Moreover, we address some of the questions that have been raised to date, to improve future studies. PMID:23509917
Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Lin, Keh-Chung; Horng, Yi-Shiung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Wu, Tai-Chieh; Ku, Fang-Ling
Robot-assisted therapy (RT) and constraint-induced therapy (CIT) both show great promise to improve stroke rehabilitation outcomes. Although the respective treatment efficacy of RT and CIT has been validated, the additive effects of RT combined with CIT remain unknown. This study investigated the treatment effects of RT in sequential combination with a distributed form of CIT (RT + dCIT) compared with RT and conventional rehabilitation (CR). Forty-eight patients with stroke were enrolled and randomized to receive one of the three interventions for 4 weeks. Primary outcomes assessed the changes of motor impairment and motor function on the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Secondary outcomes, including the Motor Activity Log (MAL) and accelerometers, examined functional performance during daily activities. The three treatment groups improved significantly on most primary and secondary outcomes over time. The combined RT + dCIT group exhibited significantly greater improvement on the FMA and functional ability subscale of the WMFT than the RT and CR groups. The improvements on the MAL and accelerometers were not significantly different among the three groups. RT in sequential combination with CIT led to additive effects on participants' motor ability and functional ability to perform motor tasks after stroke, which support that combined therapy can be an effective means to intensify outcomes. Further research investigating the potential long-term effects of combination therapy, especially on real-life performance, would be valuable.
Recent case-control and cohort studies have indicated that the transdermal administration of postmenopausal estrogen therapy is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications, specifically stroke and venous thrombosis. These studies have prompted the clinical promotion of transdermal treatment as 'safer'. There are reasons, however, to be cautious regarding postmenopausal transdermal hormone therapy, especially in regard to stroke. Previous reports linking postmenopausal estrogen therapy and the risk of stroke have not yielded consistent results, finding it difficult to adjust for all confounding factors, including compliance with treatment. Age of the population studies may be a critical issue. Notably, the risk of stroke with oral estrogen was not increased in the Women's Health Initiative when women with prior cardiovascular disease or those older than 60 years were excluded. There does appear to be a dose-response relationship with stroke, similar to that observed with estrogen-progestin contraceptives, and this may be a problem when studying standard doses of transdermal treatment, in that many women receiving transdermal estrogen display lower estrogen blood levels when compared with oral treatment. Clinicians should administer low doses of estrogen to women with risk factors for stroke, and the transdermal route of administration is indicated for women at high risk for venous thrombosis and for older postmenopausal women, especially for women with stroke risk factors. In a recent study, Renoux and colleagues from McGill University in Montreal performed a nested case-control study deriving the data from a cohort of women in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Current use of oral and transdermal hormone therapy, based on recorded prescriptions, was compared to no use in 15 710 cases and 59 958 controls. The adjusted rate ratio (RR) for stroke for current use of transdermal estrogens, with or without a progestin, was not
Hajar Puji Sejati, Rr; Muhimmah, Izzati; Mahtarami, Affan
Stroke patients who experience a decrease in muscle strength need to do exercises so that they can increase their muscle strength. In order to enable the patient does exercise independently the multimedia-based stroke therapy model is needed. These exercises can be done independently, with supervision of the family member at home. So, we develop prototype of the multimedia-based therapy for the family member so that they can assist patients performing exercises without attending therapy session in hospital. This model was built according to the advices from physiotherapist and a medical rehabilitation doctor. This model has been evaluated through focused group discussion by physiotherapists. And they gave positive responses to this proposed model.
Gutiérrez-Fernández, María; Fuentes, Blanca; Rodríguez-Frutos, Berta; Ramos-Cejudo, Jaime; Vallejo-Cremades, María Teresa; Díez-Tejedor, Exuperio
Brain repair involves a compendium of natural mechanisms that are activated following stroke. From a therapeutic viewpoint, reparative therapies that encourage cerebral plasticity are needed. In the last years, it has been demonstrated that modulatory treatments for brain repair such as trophic factor- and stem cell-based therapies can promote neurogenesis, gliogenesis, oligodendrogenesis, synaptogenesis and angiogenesis, all of which having a beneficial impact on infarct volume, cell death and, finally, and most importantly, on the functional recovery. However, even when promising results have been obtained in a wide range of experimental animal models and conditions these preliminary results have not yet demonstrated their clinical efficacy. Here, we focus on brain repair modulatory treatments for ischaemic stroke, that use trophic factors, drugs with trophic effects and stem cell therapy. Important and still unanswered questions for translational research ranging from experimental animal models to recent and ongoing clinical trials are reviewed here. PMID:22452968
Balasubramaian, Adithya; Mitchell, Peter; Dowling, Richard
Intravenous thrombolysis is an effective treatment for acute ischaemic stroke. However, vascular recanalization rates remain poor especially in the setting of large artery occlusion. On the other hand, endovascular intra-arterial therapy addresses this issue with superior recanalization rates compared with intravenous thrombolysis. Although previous randomized controlled studies of intra-arterial therapy failed to demonstrate superiority, the failings may be attributed to a combination of inferior intra-arterial devices and suboptimal selection criteria. The recent results of several randomized controlled trials have demonstrated significantly improved outcomes, underpinning the advantage of newer intra-arterial devices and superior recanalization rates, leading to renewed interest in establishing intra-arterial therapy as the gold standard for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this review is to outline the history and development of different intra-arterial devices and future directions in research. PMID:26060800
Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N
Neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin has been used for the prophylaxis of clinical pneumonia development in the early stage of acute stroke in a group of 140 patients with heavy clinical course of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). All patients in the test and control groups received the basal anti-AIS therapy and antibacterial drugs (IV-generation cephalosporins) in case of pneumonia development. The efficacy of cerebrolysin administration was evaluated both on the clinical scale (NIH-NINDS, CPIS, SIRS immonograms) and using laboratory indices. It is established that the proposed neuroimmunocorrection therapy with cerebrolysin decreases the frequency of the clinical pneumonia development. A relationship between the pneumonia onset rate and the focus localization in limbico-diencephalic part of the brain is established. The use of cerebrolysin decreases lethality, normalizes the impaired immunity indices, accelerates the restoration of violated neural functions, suppresses pneumonia development, restores the level of albumin, and normalizes the laboratory indices of inflammatory syndrome.
Lindvall, Mialinn Arvidsson; Anderzén Carlsson, Agneta; Forsberg, Anette
After a stroke many patients have muscle weakness, spasticity and compromised sensation leading to decreased postural stability. Basic Body Awareness Therapy includes slow movements that challenge postural control. The aim was to describe experiences of 8 weeks of Basic Body Awareness Therapy from the perspective of both patients with stroke and physiotherapists. This study had a qualitative design. Twenty-one patients and four physiotherapists were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using manifest and latent content analysis. One overall theme emerged "Simple yet challenging" which was based on six categories: "Facing one's limitations", "Individualized movements", "A feeling of harmony", "Improved balance", "Integrated knowledge" and "Frustration and doubt". The patients described improvement in balance and stability, as well as increased wellbeing. The patients and physiotherapists related that Basic Body Awareness Therapy challenges balance but also provides an opportunity to reflect on the body. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Raglio, Alfredo; Zaliani, Alberto; Baiardi, Paola; Bossi, Daniela; Sguazzin, Cinzia; Capodaglio, Edda; Imbriani, Chiara; Gontero, Giulia; Imbriani, Marcello
Guidelines in stroke rehabilitation recommend the use of a multidisciplinary approach. Different approaches and techniques with music are used in the stroke rehabilitation to improve motor and cognitive functions but also psychological outcomes. In this randomized controlled pilot trial, relational active music therapy approaches were tested in the post-acute phase of disease. Thirty-eight hospitalized patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were recruited and allocated in two groups. The experimental group underwent the standard of care (physiotherapy and occupational therapy daily sessions) and relational active music therapy treatments. The control group underwent the standard of care only. Motor functions and psychological aspects were assessed before and after treatments. Music therapy process was also evaluated using a specific rating scale. All groups showed a positive trend in quality of life, functional and disability levels, and gross mobility. The experimental group showed a decrease of anxiety and, in particular, of depression (p = 0.016). In addition, the strength of non-dominant hand (grip) significantly increased in the experimental group (p = 0.041). Music therapy assessment showed a significant improvement over time of non-verbal and sonorous-music relationships. Future studies, including a greater number of patients and follow-up evaluations, are needed to confirm promising results of this study.
Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Dong Kyu
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects' static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects' gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients.
Lee, Ho Jeong; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Dong Kyu
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of action observation training and mirror therapy to improve on balance and gait function of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups: The action observation training with activity group practiced additional action observation training with activity for three 30-minute session for six weeks (n=12). The mirror therapy with activity group practiced additional mirror therapy with activity for three 30-minute sessions for six weeks (n=11). The only action observation training group practiced additional action observation training for three 30-minute sessions for weeks (n=12). All groups received conventional therapy for five 60-minute sessions over a six-week period. [Results] There were significant improvements in balance and gait function. The action observation training with activity group significantly improved subjects’ static balance. The action observation training with activity group and the mirror therapy with activity group significantly improved subjects’ gait ability. [Conclusion] The activation of mirror neurons combined with a conventional stroke physiotherapy program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and motor functioning in stroke patients. PMID:28356646
Kaneko, Yuji; Cortes, Lourdes; Sanberg, Cyndy; Acosta, Sandra; Bickford, Paula C.; Borlongan, Cesar V.
Stroke remains the number one cause of disability in the adult population. Despite scientific progress in our understanding of stroke pathology, only one treatment (tissue plasminogen activator or tPA) is able to afford benefits but to less than 3% of ischemic stroke patients. The development of experimental dietary supplement therapeutics designed to stimulate endogenous mechanisms that confer neuroprotection is likely to open new avenues for exploring stroke therapies. The present review article evaluates the recent literature supporting the benefits of dietary supplementation for the therapy of ischemic stroke. This article focuses on discussing the medical benefits of NT-020 as an adjunct agent for stroke therapy. Based on our preliminary data, a pre-stroke treatment with dietary supplementation promotes neuroprotection by decreasing inflammation and enhancing neurogenesis. However, we recognize that a pre-stroke treatment holds weak clinical relevance. Thus, the main goal of this article is to provide information about recent data that support the assumption of natural compounds as neuroprotective and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of a dietary supplement called NT-020 as in a stroke model. We focus on a systematic assessment of practical treatment parameters so that NT-020 and other dietary supplementations can be developed as an adjunct agent for the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. We offer rationale for determining the optimal dosage, therapeutic window, and mechanism of action of NT-020 as a dietary supplement to produce neuroprotection when administered immediately after stroke onset. We highlight our long-standing principle in championing both translational and basic science approaches in an effort to fully reveal the therapeutic potential of NT-020 as dietary supplementation in the treatment of stroke. We envision dietary supplementation as an adjunct therapy for stroke at acute, subacute, and even chronic periods. PMID:22837703
Marik, P; Bellomo, R
Aggressive fluid resuscitation to achieve a central venous pressure (CVP) greater than 8 mm Hg has been promoted as the standard of care, in the management of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. However recent clinical trials have demonstrated that this approach does not improve the outcome of patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Pathophysiologically, sepsis is characterized by vasoplegia with loss of arterial tone, venodilation with sequestration of blood in the unstressed blood compartment and changes in ventricular function with reduced compliance and reduced preload responsiveness. These data suggest that sepsis is primarily not a volume-depleted state and recent evidence demonstrates that most septic patients are poorly responsive to fluids. Furthermore, almost all of the administered fluid is sequestered in the tissues, resulting in severe oedema in vital organs and, thereby, increasing the risk of organ dysfunction. These data suggest that a physiologic, haemodynamically guided conservative approach to fluid therapy in patients with sepsis would be prudent and would likely reduce the morbidity and improve the outcome of this disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Renton, Tian; Tibbles, Alana; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane
Neurofeedback therapy (NFT) has been used within a number of populations however it has not been applied or thoroughly examined as a form of cognitive rehabilitation within a stroke population. Objectives for this systematic review included: i) identifying how NFT is utilized to treat cognitive deficits following stroke, ii) examining the strength and quality of evidence to support the use of NFT as a form of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) and iii) providing recommendations for future investigations. Searches were conducted using OVID (Medline, Health Star, Embase + Embase Classic) and PubMed databases. Additional searches were completed using the Cochrane Reviews library database, Google Scholar, the University of Toronto online library catalogue, ClinicalTrials.gov website and select journals. Searches were completed Feb/March 2015 and updated in June/July/Aug 2015. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they: i) were specific to a stroke population, ii) delivered CRT via a NFT protocol, iii) included participants who were affected by a cognitive deficit(s) following stroke (i.e. memory loss, loss of executive function, speech impairment etc.). NFT protocols were highly specific and varied within each study. The majority of studies identified improvements in participant cognitive deficits following the initiation of therapy. Reviewers assessed study quality using the Downs and Black Checklist for Measuring Study Quality tool; limited study quality and strength of evidence restricted generalizability of conclusions regarding the use of this therapy to the greater stroke population. Progression in this field requires further inquiry to strengthen methodology quality and study design. Future investigations should aim to standardize NFT protocols in an effort to understand the dose-response relationship between NFT and improvements in functional outcome. Future investigations should also place a large
Salhab, Ghadir; Sarraj, Ahmad Rifaii; Saleh, Soha
This study investigates the effect of combining both mirror therapy with Electrical Stimulation (ES) on improvement of the function of lower extremity compared to conventional therapy. 18 stroke survivors (sub acute stage) were recruited, 9 of them were randomly assigned to receive conventional treatment and another 9 started the mirror therapy combined with ES treatment. Duration of each session in both interventions was 50 minutes, done 4 times per week over two weeks. After 2 weeks, subjects took one week rest before switching they type of treatment; those started with conventional therapy continued with mirror therapy combined with ES, and vice versa. The duration of this phase was 2 weeks with same schedule as the 1st one. Ankle dorsi-flexion range of motion, lower extremity sensory-motor function, and walking duration were measured at baseline, after 1st 2 weeks, and immediately after the last two weeks, and 4 weeks after end of training (retention test). Repeated Measures ANCOVA was done to compare outcome measures scores in both groups and between all testing days, and paired T-test was used measure the difference between groups. Significant increase in all outcome measures was found after the (MT+ES) training, which is higher than conventional therapy training (p<;0.0001). In conclusion, the results suggest that combination of mirror therapy and ES is more effective than conventional therapy in improving lower limb motor function after stroke.
Renner, Caroline Ie; Outermans, Jacqueline; Ludwig, Ricarda; Brendel, Christiane; Kwakkel, Gert; Hummelsheim, Horst
To compare the efficacy of intensive daily applied progressive group therapy task training with equally dosed individual progressive task training on self-reported mobility for patients with moderate to severe stroke during inpatient rehabilitation. Randomized controlled clinical trial. In-patient rehabilitation center. A total of 73 subacute patients with stroke who were not able to walk without physical assistance at randomisation. Patients were allocated to group therapy task training (GT) or individual task training (IT). Both interventions were intended to improve walking competency and comprised 30 sessions of 90 minutes over six weeks. Primary outcome was the mobility domain of the Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-3.0). Secondary outcomes were the other domains of SIS-3.0, standing balance, gait speed, walking distance, stair climbing, fatigue, anxiety and depression. No adverse events were reported in either arm of the trial. There were no significant differences between groups for the SIS mobility domain at the end of the intervention (Z= -0.26, P = 0.79). No significant differences between groups were found in gait speed improvements (GT:0.38 ±0.23; IT:0.26±0.35), any other gait related parameters, or in non-physical outcomes such as depression and fatigue. Inpatient group therapy task training for patients with moderate to severe stroke is safe and equally effective as a dose-matched individual task training therapy. Group therapy task training may be delivered as an alternative to individual therapy or as valuable adjunct to increase time spent in gait-related activities. © The Author(s) 2015.
Foley, Norine; McClure, J Andrew; Meyer, Matthew; Salter, Katherine; Bureau, Yves; Teasell, Robert
Canada's Best Practice Recommendations for Stroke Care state that a minimum of one hour per day of each of the relevant core therapies be provided to patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. We examined whether this standard was met on a single, specialized stroke rehabilitation unit and if amount of therapy was an independent contributor to functional improvement. One-hundred and twenty-three, consecutive patients admitted to a 30-bed stroke rehabilitation program over a 6-month period with the confirmed diagnosis of stroke, were included. Workload measurement data were used to estimate the amount of therapy that patients received from core therapists during their inpatient stay. A multivariable model to predict Functional Independence Measure (FIM) gains achieved was also developed using variables that were significantly correlated with functional gain on univariate analysis. On average, patients received 37 min of active therapy from both physiotherapists (PT) and occupational therapists (OT) and 13 min from speech-language pathologists per day. Admission FIM, length of stay, total OT and PT therapy time (hrs) were significantly correlated with FIM gain. In the final model, which explained 35% of the variance, admission FIM score and total amount of occupational therapy (OT) emerged as significant predictors of FIM gain. Patients admitted to a specialized rehabilitation unit received an average of 37 min a day engaged in therapeutic activities with both occupational and physical therapists. Although this value did not reach the standard of one hour, total amount of OT time contributed significantly to gains in FIM points during hospital stay.
Björkbom, Emil; Hämmäinen, Pekka; Schramko, Alexey
Approximately 10 to 25 lung transplant procedures are performed annually in Finland, and 1-year survival has been 95% over the last 10 years. Our aim was to find associations between perioperative fluid replacement therapies and postoperative patient outcomes, with special emphasis on the use of colloids and blood products. We retrospectively evaluated data from 100 patients who underwent lung transplant with cardiopulmonary bypass support in Finland from 2007 to 2013. Outcomes of interest were length of intensive care unit and hospital stays, time in ventilator, use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation postoperatively, postoperative renal replacement therapy, postoperative graft failure, and 1-year mortality. Of 100 patients, 12 were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation preoperatively. The 1-year mortality was 5/100 (5%), and the 3-year mortality was 7/100 (7%). Intraoperative fluid balance was positive (4762 a 3018 mL) but fell significantly postoperatively (below +1000 mL on postoperative day 1). During postoperative days 2 to 7, net fluid balance continued decreasing and stayed negative. Intraoperative use of hydroxyethyl starch and fresh frozen plasma were significantly higher in patients who died during follow-up versus those who survived (P < .05). Intraoperative use of fresh frozen plasma, but not red blood cells or platelets, correlated with graft failure (P = .012). Postoperative use of colloids or blood products did not correlate with mortality or graft failure. Patients who were on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation preoperatively stayed longer on ventilators and had longer intensive care unit and hospital stays (P < .001). Eight patients needed postoperative renal replacement therapy. Intraoperative use of fresh frozen plasma and hydroxyethyl starch is associated with increased mortality and graft failure. Postoperative use of colloids and red blood cells did not correlate with patient outcome. Use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
Papaleo, E; Zollo, L; Garcia-Aracil, N; Badesa, F J; Morales, R; Mazzoleni, S; Sterzi, S; Guglielmelli, E
The paper proposes a novel method for an accurate and unobtrusive reconstruction of the upper-limb kinematics of stroke patients during robot-aided rehabilitation tasks with end-effector machines. The method is based on a robust analytic procedure for inverse kinematics that simply uses, in addition to hand pose data provided by the robot, upper arm acceleration measurements for computing a constraint on elbow position; it is exploited for task space augmentation. The proposed method can enable in-depth comprehension of planning strategy of stroke patients in the joint space and, consequently, allow developing therapies tailored for their residual motor capabilities. The experimental validation has a twofold purpose: (1) a comparative analysis with an optoelectronic motion capturing system is used to assess the method capability to reconstruct joint motion; (2) the application of the method to healthy and stroke subjects during circle-drawing tasks with InMotion2 robot is used to evaluate its efficacy in discriminating stroke from healthy behavior. The experimental results have shown that arm angles are reconstructed with a RMSE of 8.3 × 10(-3) rad. Moreover, the comparison between healthy and stroke subjects has revealed different features in the joint space in terms of mean values and standard deviations, which also allow assessing inter- and intra-subject variability. The findings of this study contribute to the investigation of motor performance in the joint space and Cartesian space of stroke patients undergoing robot-aided therapy, thus allowing: (1) evaluating the outcomes of the therapeutic approach, (2) re-planning the robotic treatment based on patient needs, and (3) understanding pathology-related motor strategies.
Mueller, Sabine; Sear, Katherine; Hills, Nancy K; Chettout, Nassim; Afghani, Shervin; Gastelum, Erica; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Fullerton, Heather J
Purpose Radiation therapy increases stroke risk in pediatric cancer patients, but risk of stroke recurrence in this population remains unknown. In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed rates and predictors of first and recurrent stroke in patients treated with cranial irradiation (CRT) and/or cervical irradiation ≤ 18 years of age. Methods We performed chart abstraction (n=383) and phone interviews (n=104) to measure first and recurrent stroke in 383 patients who received CRT and/or cervical radiation at a single institution between1980–2009. Stroke was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms consistent with stroke. Incidence of first-stroke was number of first-strokes per person-years of observation after radiation. We used survival analysis techniques to determine cumulative incidence of first and recurrent stroke. Results Among 325 subjects with sufficient follow-up data, we identified 19 first-strokes (13 ischemic, 4 hemorrhagic, 2 unknown sub-type) occurring at a median age of 24 years (Interquartile range (IQR) 17–33 years) in patients treated with CRT. Imaging was reviewed when available (n=13) and the stroke was confirmed in 12. Overall rate of first-stroke was 625 (95% CI 378–977) per 100,000 person-years. The cumulative incidence of first stroke was 2% (95% CI 0.01–5.3%) at 5 years and 4% (95% C.I. 2.0–8.4%) at 10 years post irradiation. With each 100cGy increase in the radiation dose, the stroke hazard increased by 5% (Hazard ratio = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01–1.09; p=0.02). We identified 6 recurrent strokes; 5 had available imaging that confirmed the stroke. Median time to recurrence was 15 months (IQR 6 months–3.2 years) after first-stroke. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 38% (95% CI 17–69%) at 5 years and 59% (95% CI 27–92%) at 10 years post first-stroke. Conclusion CRT puts childhood cancer survivors at high risk of both first and recurrent stroke. Stroke prevention strategies for these survivors are needed. PMID
Adams, Robert J; Cox, Margueritte; Ozark, Shelly D; Kanter, Julie; Schulte, Phillip J; Xian, Ying; Fonarow, Gregg C; Smith, Eric E; Schwamm, Lee H
The recommended treatment for ischemic stroke is tPA (tissue-type plasminogen activator). Although sickle cell disease (SCD) represents no known contraindication to tPA, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health recommended acute exchange transfusion for stroke in SCD, not tPA. Data on safety and outcomes of tPA in patients are needed to guide tPA use in SCD. We matched patients from the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association Get With The Guidelines-Stroke registry with SCD to patients without SCD and compared usage, complications, and discharge outcomes after tPA. Multivariable logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to assess outcomes. From 2 016 652 stroke patients admitted to Get With The Guidelines-Stroke sites in the United States, 832 SCD and 3328 non-SCD controls with no differences in admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or blood pressure were identified. Neither the fraction receiving thrombolytic therapy (8.2% for SCD versus 9.4% non-SCD) nor symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (4.9% of SCD versus 3.2% non-SCD; P=0.4502) was different. There was no difference in a prespecified set of outcome measures for those with SCD compared with controls. Coexistent SCD had no significant impact on the safety or outcome of thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Although the sample size is relatively small, these data suggest that adults with SCD and acute ischemic stroke should be treated with thrombolysis, if they otherwise qualify. Addition studies, however, should track the intracranial hemorrhage rate and provide information on other SCD-related care such as transfusion. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Based on the analysis of heritable autoregulatory functions and adaptive developments which occur long course of in response to inner and outer environment, FCMCK therapy was first designed to mobilize the autoregulatory system and resist the stress of acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke. In this paper, 44 cases of acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke were treated with FCMCK therapy, with another 44 cases treated with mannitol as control. The result showed that the mortality rate of the treated group was 4.5% (2/44), significantly lower than that of the control (47.7%, 21/44, P less than 0.01). FCMCK therapy in acute hemorrhagic cerebral stroke has the following advantages: 1) effectiveness in maintenance of adequate blood pressure; 2) effectiveness in reduction of cardiac arrhythmias and other complications; 3) i.v. drip of Ca and repeated use of digitalis shows atoxic effect; and 4) respiratory failure improves without stopping i.v. drip of Mg. The mechanism of FCMCK therapy is briefly discussed by the authors.
Sucar, L; Luis, Roger; Leder, Ron; Hernandez, Jorge; Sanchez, Israel
Stroke is the main cause of motor and cognitive disabilities requiring therapy in the world. Therefor it is important to develop rehabilitation technology that allows individuals who had suffered a stroke to practice intensive movement training without the expense of an always-present therapist. We have developed a low-cost vision-based system that allows stroke survivors to practice arm movement exercises at home or at the clinic, with periodic interactions with a therapist. The system integrates a virtual environment for facilitating repetitive movement training, with computer vision algorithms that track the hand of a patient, using an inexpensive camera and a personal computer. This system, called Gesture Therapy, includes a gripper with a pressure sensor to include hand and finger rehabilitation; and it tracks the head of the patient to detect and avoid trunk compensation. It has been evaluated in a controlled clinical trial at the National Institute for Neurology and Neurosurgery in Mexico City, comparing it with conventional occupational therapy. In this paper we describe the latest version of the Gesture Therapy System and summarize the results of the clinical trail.
Liu, Xinfeng; Ye, Ruidong; Yan, Tao; Yu, Shan Ping; Wei, Ling; Xu, Gelin; Fan, Xinying; Jiang, Yongjun; Stetler, R. Anne; Liu, George; Chen, Jieli
Cell therapy is emerging as a viable therapy to restore neurological function after stroke. Many types of stem/progenitor cells from different sources have been explored for their feasibility and efficacy for the treatment of stroke. Transplanted cells not only have the potential to replace the lost circuitry, but also produce growth and trophic factors, or stimulate the release of such factors from host brain cells, thereby enhancing endogenous brain repair processes. Although stem/progenitor cells have shown a promising role in ischemic stroke in experimental studies as well as initial clinical pilot studies, cellular therapy is still at an early stage in humans. Many critical issues need to be addressed including the therapeutic time window, cell type selection, delivery route, and in vivo monitoring of their migration pattern. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive synopsis of preclinical evidence and clinical experience of various donor cell types, their restorative mechanisms, delivery routes, imaging strategies, future prospects and challenges for translating cell therapies as a neurorestorative regimen in clinical applications. PMID:24333397
Ren, Zhen; Wu, Qing-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Liu, Wei-Ai; Li, Xiang-Rong; Lin, Xu-Ming
To compare the difference in the efficacy on post-stroke constipation between acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fe-organ and Shengxue Tongbian Capsules. Seventy-five patients of post-stroke constipation were randomized into an acupuncture group (39 cases) and a Chinese medicine group (36 cases). The unit mode comprehensive therapy of stroke was adopted as basic treatment in the two groups. In the acupuncture group, acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fu-organ was added at Tianshu (ST 25), Zhigou (TE 6), Qihai (CV 6) and Zusanli (ST 36), once every day. In the Chinese medicine group, Shengrue Tongbian Capsules were supplemented for oral administration, once every day, 10 g each time. The clinical symptom score of constipation was observed before treatment, after 1 and 2 weeks treatment in the two groups, respectively. The efficacy in 1 week and 2 weeks of treatment and the adverse reaction were observed. In 1 and 2 weeks of treatment, the clinical symptom score of constipation was reduced significantly as compared with that before treatment in the two groups (all P < 0.05). The improvements in the acupuncture group were significant than those in the Chinese medicine group in 2 weeks of treatment (8.03 +/- 2.38 vs 9.20 +/- 2.45, P < 0.05). Concerning to the occurrence of adverse reaction, there was 1 case of local bruises in needling local site in the acupuncture group; and there were 1 case of abdominal pain, 3 cases of diarrhea and 2 cases of nausea and vomiting in the Chinese medicine group. Both the acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fu-organ and Shengxue Tongbian Capsules achieve the significant efficacy on post-stroke constipation. The efficacy of the acupuncture therapy of regulating qi circulation of fe-organ is better and the adverse reaction is less after long-term persistent treatment.
Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.
Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl–Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970
Clua-Espuny, Jose Luis; Ripolles-Vicente, Rosa; Lopez-Pablo, Carlos; Panisello-Tafalla, Anna; Lucas-Noll, Jorgina; Calduch-Noll, Cristina; González-Henares, M Antonia; Queralt-Tomas, M Lluisa
To seek if there is gender survival difference among patients treated with thrombolytic therapy. Cohort study. Community based register. 91 subjects with an episode of stroke collected since April 2006 up to September 2013 and treated with thrombolytic therapy. Monitoring of vital status. We collected baseline characteristics in Framingham, Regicor, CHA2DS2-VASc, Essen, NIHSS, Barthel scales and outcomes according to gender; person-time incidence rate; survival analysis by Kaplan-Meier's curves, bivariate analysis between survivors and deaths, and Cox multivariate. 91 patients with middle age 68.02±11.9 years. The men have higher cardiovascular basal risk. The average time of follow-up was 2.95±2.33 years. Incidence rate ratio (IR) shown higher risk in men than in women IR=3.2 (CI 95% 1.2-8.0). The dead cases were older (P=.032); with higher cardiovascular basal risk (P=.040) and more risk of stroke recurrence (P=<.001), with cardiovascular pathology before the stroke (P=.005); more stroke severity (P=.002); and a major fall in the score Barthel one year after the episode (P=.016). The percentage of deaths is significantly higher when the patient is referred by complications to other centres (P=.006) in relation to those referred to home, but just the gender (HR: 1,12; IC 95%: 1,05-1,20) and secondary cardiovascular prevention (HR: 0,13; IC 95%: 0,06-0,28) were associated with higher risk of mortality. After stroke episode treated with thrombolytic therapy, men have 12% higher risk of dying than women and don't be treated with secondary cardiovascular prevention rise 7.7 times the mortality risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Boltze, Johannes; Arnold, Antje; Walczak, Piotr; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Cui, Lili; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph
Cell therapies are increasingly recognized as a promising option to augment the limited therapeutic arsenal available to fight ischemic stroke. During the last two decades, cumulating preclinical evidence has indicated a substantial efficacy for most cell treatment paradigms and first clinical trials are currently underway to assess safety and feasibility in patients. However, the strong and still unmet demand for novel stroke treatment options and exciting findings reported from experimental studies may have drawn our attention away from potential side effects related to cell therapies and the ways by which they are commonly applied. This review summarizes common and less frequent adverse events that have been discovered in preclinical and clinical investigations assessing cell therapies for stroke. Such adverse events range from immunological and neoplastic complications over seizures to cell clotting and cell-induced embolism. It also describes potential complications of clinically applicable administration procedures, detrimental interactions between therapeutic cells, and the pathophysiological environment that they are placed into, as well as problems related to cell manufacturing. Virtually each therapeutic intervention comes at a certain risk for complications. Side effects do therefore not generally compromise the value of cell treatments for stroke, but underestimating such complications might severely limit therapeutic safety and efficacy of cell treatment protocols currently under development. On the other hand, a better understanding will provide opportunities to further improve existing therapeutic strategies and might help to define those circumstances, under which an optimal effect can be realized. Hence, the review eventually discusses strategies and recommendations allowing us to prevent or at least balance potential complications in order to ensure the maximum therapeutic benefit at minimum risk for stroke patients. PMID:26257702
Park, Man-Seok; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Kang-Ho; Kang, Seung-Ho; Kim, B. Chae; Lee, Seung-Han; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Myeong-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Sung; Lee, Eun-Bin; Cho, Ki-Hyun
Background The “drip and ship” approach can facilitate an early initiation of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at community hospitals. New endovascular treatment modalities, such as stent retrieval, have further improved the rate of safe and successful recanalization. We assessed the clinical outcomes of on-demand endovascular therapy in patients with AIS who were transported to a comprehensive stroke center under the “drip and ship” paradigm. Methods This retrospective study evaluated prospectively registered patients with acute large vessel occlusions in the anterior circulation who underwent endovascular recanalization after IVT at our regional comprehensive stroke center between January 2011 and April 2014. Clinical outcomes and neuroradiological findings were compared between patients who received IVT at the center (direct visit, DV) and at a community hospital (drip and ship, DS). Results Baseline characteristics such as age, initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, and risk factors for stroke were similar, and most patients underwent endovascular therapy with a Solitaire stent (81.9% vs. 89.3% for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.55). The average initial NIHSS score was 12.15±4.1 (12.06 vs. 12.39 for DV and DS, respectively, P = 0.719). The proportions of long-term favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 90 days) and successful recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Ischemia score ≥2b) were not significantly different (P = 0.828 and 0.158, respectively). The mortality rates and occurrences of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage were not significantly different (P = 0.999 and 0.267, respectively). Conclusions The “drip and ship” approach with subsequent endovascular therapy is a feasible treatment concept for patients with acute large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation that could help improve clinical outcomes in patients with AIS. PMID:26938774
Zhai, Yun-kai; Zhu, Wei-jun; Hou, Hong-li; Sun, Dong-xu; Zhao, Jie
The aim of this study was to assess the benefits of telemedicine in the delivery of thrombolytic therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke. We performed a meta-analysis using combinations of the following terms: telestroke, telemedicine, tissue plasminogen activator/t-PA, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary outcome was favorable outcome based on the modified Rankin score. Secondary outcomes were incidence of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and overall mortality. We found no significant difference in favorable outcome between the telemedicine and control groups, and no significant difference was found between these groups in the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage or overall mortality. Patients with acute ischemic stroke who were treated with intravenous thrombolysis had similar outcomes regardless of whether telemedicine was used or they were treated in-person at a medical facility. Telemedicine can be used to support hospitals with limited experience in administering thrombolytic therapy for stroke. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Warnakulasuriya, Samantha R; Davies, Simon J; Wilson, R Jonathan T; Yates, David R A
This study aims to investigate if there is equivalence in volumes of fluid administered when intravenous fluid therapy is guided by Pleth Variability Index (PVI) compared to the established technology of esophageal Doppler in low-risk patients undergoing major colorectal surgery. Randomized controlled trial. Operating room. Forty low-risk patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Patients were monitored by esophageal Doppler and PVI probes and were randomized to have fluid therapy directed by using one of these technologies, with 250 mL boluses of colloid to maintain a maximal stroke volume, or a PVI of less than 14%. Absolute volumes of fluid volumes given intraoperatively were measured as were 24 hours fluid volumes. Perioperative measurements of lactate and base excess were recorded as were postoperative complications. There was no significant difference between PVI and esophageal Doppler groups in mean total fluid administered (1286 vs 1520 mL, P=.300) or mean intraoperative fluid balance (+839 v+1145 mL, P=.150). PVI offers an entirely non-invasive alternative for goal-directed fluid therapy in this group of patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Aurelie; Detilleux, Johann; Flecknell, Paul; Sandersen, Charlotte
Numerous studies using rats in stroke models have failed to translate into successful clinical trials in humans. The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) has produced guidelines on the rodent stroke model for preclinical trials in order to promote the successful translation of animal to human studies. These guidelines also underline the importance of anaesthetic and monitoring techniques. The aim of this literature review is to document whether anaesthesia protocols (i.e., choice of agents, mode of ventilation, physiological support and monitoring) have been amended since the publication of the STAIR guidelines in 2009. A number of articles describing the use of a stroke model in adult rats from the years 2005 and 2015 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and analysed for the following parameters: country where the study was performed, strain of rats used, technique of stroke induction, anaesthetic agent for induction and maintenance, mode of intubation and ventilation, monitoring techniques, control of body temperature, vascular accesses, and administration of intravenous fluids and analgesics. For each parameter (stroke, induction, maintenance, monitoring), exact chi-square tests were used to determine whether or not proportions were significantly different across year and p values were corrected for multiple comparisons. An exact p-test was used for each parameter to compare the frequency distribution of each value followed by a Bonferroni test. The level of significant set at < 0.05. Results show that there were very few differences in the anaesthetic and monitoring techniques used between 2005 and 2015. In 2015, significantly more studies were performed in China and significantly fewer studies used isoflurane and nitrous oxide. The most striking finding is that the vast majority of all the studies from both 2005 and 2015 did not report the use of ventilation; measurement of blood gases, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration, or blood
Thomas, Aurelie; Detilleux, Johann; Flecknell, Paul
Numerous studies using rats in stroke models have failed to translate into successful clinical trials in humans. The Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) has produced guidelines on the rodent stroke model for preclinical trials in order to promote the successful translation of animal to human studies. These guidelines also underline the importance of anaesthetic and monitoring techniques. The aim of this literature review is to document whether anaesthesia protocols (i.e., choice of agents, mode of ventilation, physiological support and monitoring) have been amended since the publication of the STAIR guidelines in 2009. A number of articles describing the use of a stroke model in adult rats from the years 2005 and 2015 were randomly selected from the PubMed database and analysed for the following parameters: country where the study was performed, strain of rats used, technique of stroke induction, anaesthetic agent for induction and maintenance, mode of intubation and ventilation, monitoring techniques, control of body temperature, vascular accesses, and administration of intravenous fluids and analgesics. For each parameter (stroke, induction, maintenance, monitoring), exact chi-square tests were used to determine whether or not proportions were significantly different across year and p values were corrected for multiple comparisons. An exact p-test was used for each parameter to compare the frequency distribution of each value followed by a Bonferroni test. The level of significant set at < 0.05. Results show that there were very few differences in the anaesthetic and monitoring techniques used between 2005 and 2015. In 2015, significantly more studies were performed in China and significantly fewer studies used isoflurane and nitrous oxide. The most striking finding is that the vast majority of all the studies from both 2005 and 2015 did not report the use of ventilation; measurement of blood gases, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration, or blood
Geraldo, Ana Filipa; Berner, Lise-Prune; Haesebaert, Julie; Chabrol, Aurélie; Cho, Tae-Hee; Derex, Laurent; Hermier, Marc; Louis-Tisserand, Guy; Chamard, Leila; Klaerke Mikkelsen, Irene; Ribe, Lars; Østergaard, Leif; Hjort, Niels; Pedraza, Salvador; Thomalla, Götz; Baron, Jean-Claude; Nighoghossian, Norbert; Berthèzene, Yves
Our aim was to explore whether the mismatch in lesion visibility between b1000 and b0 images is an alternative to mismatch between diffusion-weighted imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging as a surrogate marker of stroke age. We analyzed patients from the European multicenter I-KNOW database. Independent readers assessed the visibility of ischemic lesions of the anterior circulation on b0 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging images. The signal-intensity ratio for b0 and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging images was also measured from the segmented stroke lesion volume on b1000 images. This study included 112 patients (68 men; mean age, 67.4 years) with stroke onset within (n=85) or longer than (n=27) 4.5 hours. b1000-b0 mismatch identified patients within 4.5 hours of stroke onset with moderate sensitivity (72.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 63.5-82.4) and specificity (70.4%; 95% CI, 53.2-87.6), high positive predictive value (88.6%; 95% CI, 81.1-96.0), and low negative predictive value (45.2%; 95% CI, 30.2-60.3). Global comparison of b1000-b0 mismatch with diffusion-weighted imaging-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging mismatch (considered the imaging gold standard) indicated high sensitivity (85.9%; 95% CI, 78.2-93.6), specificity (91.2%; 95% CI, 76.3-98.1), and positive predictive value (96.7%; 95% CI, 88.0-99.1) and moderate negative predictive value (73.8%; 95% CI, 60.5-87.1) of this new approach. b0 signal-intensity ratio (r=0.251; 95% CI, 0.069-0.417; P=0.008) was significantly although weakly correlated with delay between stroke onset and magnetic resonance imaging. b1000-b0 mismatch may identify patients with ischemic stroke of the within 4.5 hours of onset with high positive predictive value, perhaps constituting an alternative imaging tissue clock. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Ramanathan, Ramnath Santosh; Sreedher, Gayathri; Malhotra, Konark; Guduru, Zain; Agarwal, Deeksha; Flaherty, Mary; Leichliter, Timothy; Rana, Sandeep
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves. PMID:27570398
Ramanathan, Ramnath Santosh; Sreedher, Gayathri; Malhotra, Konark; Guduru, Zain; Agarwal, Deeksha; Flaherty, Mary; Leichliter, Timothy; Rana, Sandeep
Stroke-like migraine attacks after radiation therapy (SMART) syndrome is a rare delayed complication of cerebral radiation therapy. A 53-year-old female initially presented with headache, confusion and left homonymous hemianopia. Her medical history was notable for cerebellar hemangioblastoma, which was treated with radiation in 1987. Her initial brain MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) revealed cortical enhancement in the right temporo-parieto-occipital region. She improved spontaneously in 2 weeks and follow-up scan at 4 weeks revealed no residual enhancement or encephalomalacia. She presented 6 weeks later with aphasia. Her MRI brain revealed similar contrast-enhancing cortical lesion but on the left side. Repeat CSF studies was again negative other than elevated protein. She was treated conservatively and recovered completely within a week. Before diagnosing SMART syndrome, it is important to rule out tumor recurrence, encephalitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) and stroke. Typically the condition is self-limiting, and gradually resolves.
Ji, Sang-Goo; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Kim, Myoung-Kwon; Lee, Chang-Ryeol
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to examine whether mirror therapy in conjunction with FES in stroke patients can improve gait ability. [Subjects] This study was conducted with 30 subjects who were diagnosed with hemiparesis due to stroke. [Methods] Experimental group I contained 10 subjects who received mirror therapy in conjunction with functional electrical stimulation, experimental group II contained 10 subjects who received mirror therapy, and the control group contained 10 subjects who received a sham therapy. A gait analysis was performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system, which was a real-time tracking device that delivers data in an infrared mode via reflective markers using six cameras. [Results] The results showed a significant difference in gait velocity between groups after the experiment, and post hoc analysis revealed significant differences between experimental group I and the control group and between experimental group II and the control group, respectively. There were also significant differences in step length and stride length between the groups after the experiment, and post hoc analysis revealed significant differences between experimental group I and control group. [Conclusion] The present study showed that mirror therapy in conjunction with FES is more effective for improving gait ability than mirror therapy alone.
Background This study compared reported staffing levels for stroke care within UK in-patient stroke units to stroke strategy staffing guidelines published by the UK Department of Health and the Royal College of Physicians. The purpose was to explore the extent to which stroke teams are meeting recommended staffing levels. Method The data analyzed in this report consisted of the detailed therapist staffing levels reported in the demographic section of our national survey to determine upper limb treatment in stroke units (the ATRAS survey). A contact list of stroke practitioners was therefore compiled primarily in collaboration with the 28 National Stroke Improvement Networks. Geographic representation of the network areas was obtained by applying the straight-forward systematic sampling method and the Nth name selection technique to each Network list. In total 192 surveys were emailed to stroke care providers around England. This included multiple contacts within stroke teams (e.g. a stroke consultant and a stroke co-coordinator) to increase awareness of the survey. Results A total of 53 surveys were returned from stroke teams and represented 20 of the 28 network areas providing 71% national coverage. To compare reported staffing levels to suggested DoH guidelines, analysis was conducted on 19 of the 37 inpatient hospital care units that had no missing data for staff numbers, unit bed numbers, number of stroke patients treated per annum, average unit length-of-stay, and average unit occupancy rates. Only 42% of units analyzed reached the DoH guideline for physiotherapy and fewer than 16% of the units reached the guideline for speech & language therapy. By contrast, 84% of units surveyed reached the staffing guideline for occupational therapy. However, a post-hoc analysis highlights this as an irregularity in the DoH guidelines, revealing that all therapies are challenged to provide the recommended therapy time. Conclusions Most in-patient stroke units are operating
Takabayashi, Nobuyoshi; Murata, Kyoko; Tanaka, Shiro; Kawakami, Koji
Low-dose aspirin (ASA) is effective for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke but can increase the risks of hemorrhagic stroke, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and dyspepsia. Prophylactic administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduces the risks of these digestive symptoms. We investigated the cost effectiveness of adding a PPI to ASA therapy for ischemic stroke patients in Japan. A Markov state-transition model was developed to compare the cost effectiveness of ASA monotherapy with ASA plus PPI co-therapy in patients with histories of upper gastrointestinal ulcers and ischemic stroke. The model takes into account ASA adherence rate and adverse effects due to ASA, including hemorrhagic stroke and UGIB. The analysis was performed from the perspective of healthcare payers in 2013. In the base case, total life-years by PPI co-therapy and monotherapy were 16.005 and 15.932, respectively. The difference in duration of no therapy (no ASA or PPI) between the therapies was 558.5 days, which would prevent 30.3 recurrences of ischemic stroke per 1000 person-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of PPI co-therapy relative to monotherapy was ¥1,191,665 (US$11,458) per life-year gained. In a one-way sensitivity analysis, PPI co-therapy was consistently cost effective at a willingness to pay of ¥5,000,000 (US$48,077) per life-year gained. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability that PPI co-therapy was cost effective was 89.74% at the willingness to pay. Co-therapy with ASA plus PPI appears to be cost-effective compared with ASA monotherapy. The addition of PPI also appeared to prolong the duration of ASA therapy, thereby reducing the risk of ischemic stroke.
Pacemaker lead malpositioning may lead to severe clinical adverse events. Rarely, cases of inadvertent placement of a lead into the left ventricle are reported in the literature. We herein report a case of pacemaker lead malpositioning into the left ventricle via a persistent foramen ovale in a male caucasian patient. After this procedural adverse event, the patient suffered from two ischemic strokes despite antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy. PMID:24650169
Chmielewski, Henryk; Kaczorowska, Beata; Przybyła, Monika; Baj, Zbigniew
Introduction Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been reported to increase platelet activation. Reducing the level of LDL-C with statins induces important pleiotropic effects such as platelet inhibition. This association between platelet activity and statin therapy may be clinically important in reducing the risk of ischemic stroke. We investigated the effect of simvastatin therapy on platelet activation markers (platelet CD62P, sP-selectin, and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs)) in hyperlipidemic patients after ischemic stroke. Material and methods The study group consisted of 21 hyperlipidemic patients after ischemic stroke confirmed by CT, and 20 healthy subjects served as controls. We assessed the CD62P expression on resting and thrombin-activated blood platelets. CD62P and PDMPs were analyzed by the use of monoclonal antibodies anti-CD61 and anti-CD62 on a flow cytometer. The level of sP-selectin in serum was measured by the ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. All markers were re-analyzed after 6 months of treatment with simvastatin (20 mg/day). Results Hyperlipidemic patients presented a significantly higher percentage of CD62+ platelets and higher reactivity to thrombin compared to control subjects. After simvastatin therapy hyperlipidemic patients showed a reduction of the percentage of resting CD62P(+) platelets (p = 0.005) and a reduction of expression and percentage of CD62P(+) platelets after activation by thrombin (median p < 0.05; percentage: p = 0.001). A decrease of sP-selectin levels (p = 0.001) and percentage of PDMPs (p < 0.05) in this group was also observed. Conclusions HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor therapy in stroke patients with hyperlipidemia may be useful not only due to the lipid-lowering effect but also because of a significant role in reduction of platelet activation and reactivity. PMID:25861297
Albers, Gregory W; Clark, Wayne M; Madden, Kenneth P; Hamilton, Scott A
Only a single study has demonstrated beneficial effects of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in stroke patients. We evaluated the clinical outcomes of the 61 patients enrolled in the Alteplase Thrombolysis for Acute Noninterventional Therapy in Ischemic Stroke (ATLANTIS) study who were randomized to receive intravenous tPA or placebo within 3 hours of symptom onset. Despite a significant increase in the rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, tPA-treated patients were more likely to have a very favorable outcome (score of < or = 1) on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale at 90 days (P=0.01). These data support current recommendations to administer intravenous tPA to eligible ischemic stroke patients who can be treated within 3 hours of symptom onset.
Radajewska, Alina; Opara, Józef A; Kucio, Cezary; Błaszczyszyn, Monika; Mehlich, Krzysztof; Szczygiel, Jarosław
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mirror therapy on arm and hand function in subacute stroke in patients. The study included 60 hemiparetic right-handed patients after ischemic stroke 8-10 weeks after onset. They underwent stationary comprehensive rehabilitation in the rehabilitation centre. They were divided into two randomly assigned groups: mirror (n=30) and control (n=30). For both groups, two subgroups were created: one that included patients with right arm paresis (n=15) and the other that included patients with left arm paresis (n=15). The mirror group received an additional intervention: training with a mirror for 5 days/week, 2 sessions/day, for 21 days. Each single session lasted for 15 min. The control group (n=30) underwent a conventional rehabilitation program without mirror therapy. To evaluate self-care in performing activities of daily living, the Functional Index 'Repty' was used. To evaluate hand and arm function, the Frenchay Arm Test and the Motor Status Score were used. Measurements were performed twice: before and after 21 days of applied rehabilitation. No significant improvement in hand and arm function in both subgroups in Frenchay Arm Test and Motor Status Score scales was observed. However, there was a significant improvement in self-care of activities of daily living in the right arm paresis subgroup in the mirror group measured using the Functional Index 'Repty'. Mirror therapy improves self-care of activities of daily living for patients with right arm paresis after stroke.
Rajkumar, Christopher A; Floyd, Christopher N; Ferro, Albert
Antiplatelet therapy reduces the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Platelet-mediated thrombosis contributes variably to the major subtypes of stroke as defined by the TOAST criteria: large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolic (CE) and small vessel occlusion (SVO). The effect of antiplatelet therapy on the incidence of each subtype is unknown and is the subject of this meta-analysis. Electronic databases were searched for articles comparing the effect of antiplatelet therapy on the incidence of stroke according to aetiological subtype. Studies containing subjects prescribed anticoagulant therapy or solely investigating subjects with atrial fibrillation were excluded. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed effects model. Nine studies were included (n = 5739). In patients who had an ischaemic stroke, pre-event antiplatelet therapy was associated with significantly decreased incidence of LAA (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.99; P = 0.026), increased incidence of CE (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08, 1.41; P = 0.002) and no effect on SVO (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88, 1.11; P = 0.806). Concordant non-significant trends were observed in primary prevention populations (n = 751): LAA (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.57, 1.15; P = 0.240), CE (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.89, 1.87; P = 0.179) and SVO (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73, 1.36; P = 0.970). Subgroup analysis of aspirin monotherapy (n = 3786) demonstrated a significant reduction in LAA (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76, 1.00; P = 0.046), but non-significant effects on the incidence of CE (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.99, 1.39; P = 0.068) and SVO (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.91, 1.20; P = 0.570). Probability of publication bias was low (P > 0.05). Antiplatelet therapy preferentially reduces the incidence of LAA stroke compared with CE and SVO subtypes. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.
Rajkumar, Christopher A; Floyd, Christopher N; Ferro, Albert
Aims Antiplatelet therapy reduces the incidence of ischaemic stroke. Platelet-mediated thrombosis contributes variably to the major subtypes of stroke as defined by the TOAST criteria: large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), cardioembolic (CE) and small vessel occlusion (SVO). The effect of antiplatelet therapy on the incidence of each subtype is unknown and is the subject of this meta-analysis. Methods Electronic databases were searched for articles comparing the effect of antiplatelet therapy on the incidence of stroke according to aetiological subtype. Studies containing subjects prescribed anticoagulant therapy or solely investigating subjects with atrial fibrillation were excluded. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed effects model. Results Nine studies were included (n = 5739). In patients who had an ischaemic stroke, pre-event antiplatelet therapy was associated with significantly decreased incidence of LAA (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79, 0.99; P = 0.026), increased incidence of CE (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08, 1.41; P = 0.002) and no effect on SVO (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.88, 1.11; P = 0.806). Concordant non-significant trends were observed in primary prevention populations (n = 751): LAA (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.57, 1.15; P = 0.240), CE (OR 1.29, 95% CI 0.89, 1.87; P = 0.179) and SVO (OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73, 1.36; P = 0.970). Subgroup analysis of aspirin monotherapy (n = 3786) demonstrated a significant reduction in LAA (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76, 1.00; P = 0.046), but non-significant effects on the incidence of CE (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.99, 1.39; P = 0.068) and SVO (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.91, 1.20; P = 0.570). Probability of publication bias was low (P > 0.05). Conclusions Antiplatelet therapy preferentially reduces the incidence of LAA stroke compared with CE and SVO subtypes. PMID:25784356
Ma, Feifei; Rodriguez, Susana; Buxo, Xavi; Morancho, Anna; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Carrera, Ana; Bustamante, Alejandro; Giralt, Dolors; Montaner, Joan; Martinez, Carmen; Bori, Immaculada; Rosell, Anna
To study plasma levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) as potential markers of recovery during intensive rehabilitation therapy (IRT) after stroke. Prospective and descriptive 3-month follow-up study. Rehabilitation unit and research center. Patients with first-ever ischemic stroke (n=15) enrolled to IRT (≥3h/d and 5d/wk) and healthy volunteers (n=15) (N=30). Not applicable. The primary outcome was to measure plasma MMP3, MMP12, and MMP13 levels and evaluate potential associations with motor/functional scales using a battery of tests (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, modified Rankin scale, Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Functional Ambulation Categories, Medical Research Council scale, Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory, and the 10-m walk test) before IRT and at 1- and 3-month follow-ups. The secondary outcome was to evaluate the use of these MMPs as biomarkers as predictors of patient's outcome. MMP levels remained stable during the study period and were similar to those in the healthy volunteer group. However, baseline MMP12 and MMP13 levels were strongly associated with stroke severity and were found to be elevated in those patients with the poorest outcomes. Interestingly, plasma MMP3 was independent of baseline stroke characteristics but was found to be increased in patients with better motor/functional recovery and in patients with larger improvements during rehabilitation. MMPs might act as biologic markers of recovery during rehabilitation therapy related to their roles in both injury and tissue remodeling. Future confirmatory investigations in multicenter studies are warranted by our data. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The first clinical trials of cell therapy in stroke were first published in the 2000s and consisted of neural stems cells transplanted via the intracerebral pathway. Since mesenchymal stem cells showed similar capacities to differentiate into neural cells and allowed autologous cell transplantation, they were then preferentially studied, including diabetes and hypertension. More recently, bone marrow derived mononuclear cells were successfully transplanted in stroke with no need of culture processing, and simple collection by density gradient centrifugation rendering them immediately ready for use. They improve post-stroke neurological deficit in rodents and clinical trials have shown the feasibility of intra-arterial or intravenous administration. The underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. We investigated the therapeutic potential of peripheral blood derived mononuclear cells (PB-MNC) harvested from diabetic patients and stimulated by ephrin-B2 (PB-MNC+). We showed that intravenously injected PB-MNC+ after cerebral ischemia reduced infarct volume at day 3, increased cell proliferation in the peri-infarct area and the subventricular zone, decreased microglial cell density, and upregulated TGF-β expression. At D14, microvessel density was increased and functional recovery enhanced, whereas plasma levels of BDNF were increased in treated mice. Ephrin-B2 induced phenotype switching of PB-MNC by upregulating genes controlling cell proliferation, inflammation and angiogenesis, as confirmed by adhesion and Matrigel assays. PB-MNC+ transplantation in stroke is a promising approach and should be investigated for the development of rapid, non-invasive bedside cell therapy strategies in stroke.(Presented at the 1944th Meeting, July 19, 2017).
Quinn, Timothy D; Brovman, Ethan Y; Urman, Richard D
Fluid therapy in the perioperative period varies greatly between anesthesia providers and may have a negative impact on surgical outcomes. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 705 elective colorectal cases consisting of colectomies, ileocolic resections, and low anterior resections at an academic institution from January 1, 2010 to May 29, 2015, collected by our electronic medical record before implementation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(®)) pathways. The mean for total crystalloid administration was 2578 mL with a standard deviation (SD) that was approximately 50% of the mean value. A combination of both normal saline and lactated Ringer's solution was used in almost all cases without a clear rationale for fluid choice. Fluid administered to patients was disproportional to measured intraoperative fluid losses (estimated blood loss and urine output) by a factor of 10. The average rate of fluid given was 1050 mL/h with an SD of nearly the same amount (951 mL). There was a variability of over 67% in total crystalloid administered based on both ideal body weight and total body weight. We found that a wide variability in the amount and type of fluid therapy administered existed at our institution before implementation of a colorectal ERAS pathway or routine use of goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT). ERAS pathways with GDFT protocols could lead to more rational and consistent fluid therapy leading to improved outcomes.
Kongkasuwan, Ratcharin; Voraakhom, Kotchakorn; Pisolayabutra, Prim; Maneechai, Pichai; Boonin, Jiraporn; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai
To examine the efficacy of creative art therapy plus conventional physical therapy, compared with physical therapy only, in increasing cognitive ability, physical functions, psychological status and quality of life of stroke patients. Randomized controlled trial with blinded assessor. An in-patient setting PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients aged ⩾50 years who could communicate verbally. All participants received conventional physical therapy five days per week. An intervention group received additional creative art therapy, twice a week for four weeks, in a rehabilitation ward. Cognitive function, anxiety and depression, physical performance and quality of life were measured with the Abbreviated Mental Test, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the modified Barthel Index scale and the pictorial Thai Quality of Life questionnaire, respectively. Mean differences for the intervention group were significantly greater than the control group for depression (-4.5, 95% CI -6.5, -2.5, p< 0.001), physical functions (1.2, 95% CI 0.1, 2.3, p= 0.043) and quality of life (8.9, 95% CI 3.8, 13.8, p< 0.001).Compared with baseline measures, both groups experienced improved cognition, physical functions and quality of life and reduced anxiety and depression. Eighty-five percent of patients were satisfied with the creative art therapy and most reported improved concentration (68.5%), emotion (79.6%), self-confidence (72.2%) and motivation (74.1%). Creative art therapy combined with conventional physical therapy can significantly decrease depression, improve physical functions and increase quality of life compared with physical therapy alone. © The Author(s) 2015.
Zhao, J; Yu, Y H
Fluid therapy is an important part of perioperative period, also one of the most controversial issues. Having reviewed the relevant research in recent years as well as the large-scale meta-analysis, the perioperative goal-directed fluid therapy has been discussed from the aspects of evaluating indicators, new methods and latest progress, and the impact on the prognosis. It manifests that the development of goal-directed fluid therapy makes a better prognosis than traditional fluid therapy, therefore it has also became an important perioperative treatment strategy.
Kagawa, Shinji; Koyama, Tetsuo; Hosomi, Masashi; Takebayashi, Takashi; Hanada, Keisuke; Hashimoto, Fumiaki; Domen, Kazuhisa
We sought to examine the effects of constraint-induced movement therapy on spasticity in patients with hemiparesis after stroke in 10 patients with chronic hemiparesis in their upper extremities. Patients underwent a modified version of constraint-induced movement therapy (5 hours daily for 10 weekdays over 2 consecutive weeks). Motor function was assessed by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, and the Motor Activity Log. Spasticity was assessed by the modified Ashworth scale and electromyography (F frequency, mean F/M ratio). These assessments were obtained immediately before and after the 2-week intervention. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed on these data (P < .05). Constraint-induced movement therapy significantly improved hand and arm function as indicated by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Wolf Motor Function Test, and the Motor Activity Log scores. Constraint-induced movement therapy also reduced spasticity as assessed by the modified Ashworth scale, F frequency, and mean F/M ratio. Comparable to motor function, constraint-induced movement therapy effectively reduces spasticity as confirmed by electromyography. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gurbuz, Nigar; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Ayaş, Sehri; Cosar, Sacide Nur Saracgil
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy combined with a conventional rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. The patients were randomly assigned to a mirror (n=16) or conventional group (n=15). The patients in both groups underwent conventional therapy for 4 weeks (60–120 minutes/day, 5 days/week). The mirror group received mirror therapy, consisting of periodic flexion and extension movements of the wrist and fingers on the non-paralyzed side. The patients in the conventional group performed the same exercises against the non-reflecting face of the mirror. The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment by a blinded assessor using the Brunnstrom stage, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) upper extremity score, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care score. [Results] There was an improvement in Brunnstrom stage and the FIM self-care score in both groups, but the post-treatment FMA score was significantly higher in the mirror therapy group than in the conventional treatment group. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy in addition to a conventional rehabilitation program was found to provide additional benefit in motor recovery of the upper extremity in stroke patients. PMID:27799679
Gurbuz, Nigar; Afsar, Sevgi Ikbali; Ayaş, Sehri; Cosar, Sacide Nur Saracgil
[Purpose] This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mirror therapy combined with a conventional rehabilitation program on upper extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-one hemiplegic patients were included. The patients were randomly assigned to a mirror (n=16) or conventional group (n=15). The patients in both groups underwent conventional therapy for 4 weeks (60-120 minutes/day, 5 days/week). The mirror group received mirror therapy, consisting of periodic flexion and extension movements of the wrist and fingers on the non-paralyzed side. The patients in the conventional group performed the same exercises against the non-reflecting face of the mirror. The patients were evaluated at the beginning and end of the treatment by a blinded assessor using the Brunnstrom stage, Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) upper extremity score, and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) self-care score. [Results] There was an improvement in Brunnstrom stage and the FIM self-care score in both groups, but the post-treatment FMA score was significantly higher in the mirror therapy group than in the conventional treatment group. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy in addition to a conventional rehabilitation program was found to provide additional benefit in motor recovery of the upper extremity in stroke patients.
Koppi, S; Barolin, G S
Treating ischemic stroke we could compare a (control-)group of 318 patients under up to date hemodilution therapy to a group of 100 patients receiving exactly the same treating scheme but including an add-on administering of Cerebrolysin. It proved a statistically validated better outcome within the Cerebrolysin add-on treated group evaluated by the Barolin-Neuro-Rehabilitation Scale. 1) More effect on social and occupational parameters than on motor functions, but also including some of those. 2) Cerebrolysin accelerates recovery and therewith offers better starting points for rehabilitation. As stroke is one of the main social-medical neuro-rehabilitation and gerontological problems of our days these results should be recognized in a general therapeutical use.
Mowla, Ashkan; Singh, Karanbir; Mehla, Sandhya; Ahmed, Mohammad K; Shirani, Peyman; Kamal, Haris; Krishna, Chandan; Sawyer, Robert N; Ching, Marilou; Siddiqui, Adnan H; Levy, Elad I; Snyder, Kenneth V; Crumlish, Annemarie; Hopkins, L N
Intracranial aneurysms are currently considered as contraindication for intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke, very likely due to a possible increase in the risk of bleeding from aneurysm rupture; however, there is limited data available on whether intravenous thrombolysis is safe for acute ischemic stroke patients with pre-existing intracranial aneurysms. To find out the safety of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke patients who harbor unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and cerebrovascular images of all the patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center from the beginning of 2006 till the end of April 2014. Those with unruptured intracranial aneurysm present on cerebrovascular images prior to acute reperfusion therapy were identified. Post-thrombolysis brain imaging was reviewed to evaluate for any intraparenchymal or subarachnoid hemorrhage related or unrelated to the aneurysm. A total of 637 patients received intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in our center during an 8·3-year period. Thirty-three (5·2%) were found to have at least one intracranial aneurysms. Twenty-three (70%) of those received only intravenous thrombolysis, and 10 patients received combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis. The size of the largest aneurysm was 10 mm in maximum diameter (range: 2-10 mm). The mean size of aneurysms was 4·8 mm. No symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred among the 23 patients receiving only intravenous thrombolysis. Out of those who received a combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis, one developed symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in the location of acute infarct, distant to the aneurysm location. Our findings suggest that neither intravenous thrombolysis nor combination of intravenous and intra-arterial thrombolysis increases the risk of aneurysmal hemorrhage in acute ischemic stroke
Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Ball, Angel; Grether, Sandra; Al-Fwaress, Firas; Griffith, Nathan M; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Newmeyer, Amy; Reichhardt, Robert
Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) offers potential benefits to individuals with history of aphasia-producing ischemic stroke. The goals of this pilot study were to implement the original German CIAT protocol, refine the treatment program, and confirm its efficacy in patients with chronic aphasia. We translated and modified the original CIAT protocol to include a hierarchy of individual skill levels for semantic, syntactic, and phonological language production, while constraining non-use behaviors. Three male participants with moderate to severe post-stroke aphasia received CIAT 3-4 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Pre and post-testing included formal language evaluation, linguistic analysis of story retell, and mini-Communication Activity Log (mini-CAL). Substantial improvements in comprehension and verbal skills were noted in 2 patients with an increase in the total number of words (31% and 95%) and in number of utterances for story-retell task (57% and 75%). All participants demonstrated an improvement on at least one linguistic measure. No subjective improvements on mini-CAL were noted by any of the participants. Given that the duration of treatment was only 1 week, these linguistic improvements in post stroke aphasia participants were remarkable. The results indicate that the CIAT protocol used in this study may be a useful tool in language restoration after stroke. These initial findings should be confirmed in a larger, randomized study.
Ball, Angel L.; Grether, Sandra; Al-fwaress, Firas; Griffith, Nathan M.; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Newmeyer, Amy; Reichhardt, Robert
Background Constraint-induced aphasia therapy (CIAT) offers potential benefits to individuals with history of aphasia-producing ischemic stroke. The goals of this pilot study were to implement the original German CIAT protocol, refine the treatment program, and confirm its efficacy in patients with chronic aphasia. Material/Methods We translated and modified the original CIAT protocol to include a hierarchy of individual skill levels for semantic, syntactic, and phonological language production, while constraining non-use behaviors. Three male participants with moderate to severe post-stroke aphasia received CIAT 3-4 hours/day for 5 consecutive days. Pre and post-testing included formal language evaluation, linguistic analysis of story retell, and mini-Communication Activity Log (mini-CAL). Results Substantial improvements in comprehension and verbal skills were noted in 2 patients with an increase in the total number of words (31% and 95%) and in number of utterances for story-retell task (57% and 75%). All participants demonstrated an improvement on at least one linguistic measure. No subjective improvements on mini-CAL were noted by any of the participants. Conclusions Given that the duration of treatment was only 1 week, these linguistic improvements in post stroke aphasia participants were remarkable. The results indicate that the CIAT protocol used in this study may be a useful tool in language restoration after stroke. These initial findings should be confirmed in a larger, randomized study. PMID:18443547
Leon, Beatriz; Basteris, Angelo; Infarinato, Francesco; Sale, Patrizio; Nijenhuis, Sharon; Prange, Gerdienke; Amirabdollahian, Farshid
Stroke survivors often suffer impairments on their wrist and hand. Robot-mediated rehabilitation techniques have been proposed as a way to enhance conventional therapy, based on intensive repeated movements. Amongst the set of activities of daily living, grasping is one of the most recurrent. Our aim is to incorporate the detection of grasps in the machine-mediated rehabilitation framework so that they can be incorporated into interactive therapeutic games. In this study, we developed and tested a method based on support vector machines for recognizing various grasp postures wearing a passive exoskeleton for hand and wrist rehabilitation after stroke. The experiment was conducted with ten healthy subjects and eight stroke patients performing the grasping gestures. The method was tested in terms of accuracy and robustness with respect to intersubjects' variability and differences between different grasps. Our results show reliable recognition while also indicating that the recognition accuracy can be used to assess the patients' ability to consistently repeat the gestures. Additionally, a grasp quality measure was proposed to measure the capabilities of the stroke patients to perform grasp postures in a similar way than healthy people. These two measures can be potentially used as complementary measures to other upper limb motion tests.
Beinotti, Fernanda; Christofoletti, Gustavo; Correia, Nilzete; Borges, Guilherme
Persons with stroke commonly have serious sequelae requiring long-term medical treatment. They often experience distress, and thus improving quality of life (QOL) has been considered a therapeutic objective in addition to prolonging the patient's life. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of horseback riding therapy (HBRT) on the QOL of individuals with hemiparesis after stroke. In this single-blind, randomized, controlled trial, 24 poststroke patients were assigned to the experimental (n = 12) and control (n = 12) groups. The control group participated in a conventional physiotherapy program, whereas the experimental group participated in physiotherapy plus HBRT sessions for 16 weeks. The patients were evaluated by means of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form health survey (SF-36). Data analysis was applied through the use of descriptive and inferential statistics, with a 5% level of significance. Significant improvement was observed in the total score of the SF-36 in the experimental group when compared with the control group. The combination of conventional physiotherapy and HBRT was associated with improvements in functional capacity (P = .02), physical aspects (P = .001), and mental health (P = .04) of the stroke patients. Supplementation of conventional physiotherapy with HBRT, applied in different contexts, may yield positive QOL outcomes for people with stroke. We recommend that further studies be carried out to clarify the benefits of HBRT applied singly.
Sale, Patrizio; Nijenhuis, Sharon; Prange, Gerdienke; Amirabdollahian, Farshid
Stroke survivors often suffer impairments on their wrist and hand. Robot-mediated rehabilitation techniques have been proposed as a way to enhance conventional therapy, based on intensive repeated movements. Amongst the set of activities of daily living, grasping is one of the most recurrent. Our aim is to incorporate the detection of grasps in the machine-mediated rehabilitation framework so that they can be incorporated into interactive therapeutic games. In this study, we developed and tested a method based on support vector machines for recognizing various grasp postures wearing a passive exoskeleton for hand and wrist rehabilitation after stroke. The experiment was conducted with ten healthy subjects and eight stroke patients performing the grasping gestures. The method was tested in terms of accuracy and robustness with respect to intersubjects' variability and differences between different grasps. Our results show reliable recognition while also indicating that the recognition accuracy can be used to assess the patients' ability to consistently repeat the gestures. Additionally, a grasp quality measure was proposed to measure the capabilities of the stroke patients to perform grasp postures in a similar way than healthy people. These two measures can be potentially used as complementary measures to other upper limb motion tests. PMID:25258709
Qin, Xianhui; Li, Jianping; Spence, J David; Zhang, Yan; Li, Youbao; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan; Sun, Ningling; Chen, Fang; Guo, Jingxuan; Yin, Delu; Sun, Liming; Tang, Genfu; He, Mingli; Fu, Jia; Cai, Yefeng; Shi, Xiuli; Ye, Ping; Chen, Hong; Zhao, Shuiping; Chen, Mao; Gao, Chuanyu; Kong, Xiangqing; Hou, Fan Fan; Huang, Yining; Huo, Yong
We sought to determine whether folic acid supplementation can independently reduce the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol levels in a subanalysis using data from the CSPPT (China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial), a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. A total of 20 702 hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of an enalapril 10-mg and a folic acid 0.8-mg tablet or an enalapril 10-mg tablet alone. The primary outcome was first stroke. The median treatment duration was 4.5 years. For participants not receiving folic acid treatment (enalapril-only group), high total cholesterol (≥200 mg/dL) was an independent predictor of first stroke when compared with low total cholesterol (<200 mg/dL; 4.0% versus 2.6%; hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-1.97; P=0.001). Folic acid supplementation significantly reduced the risk of first stroke among participants with high total cholesterol (4.0% in the enalapril-only group versus 2.7% in the enalapril-folic acid group; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.56-0.84; P<0.001; number needed to treat, 78; 95% confidence interval, 52-158), independent of baseline folate levels and other important covariates. By contrast, among participants with low total cholesterol, the risk of stroke was 2.6% in the enalapril-only group versus 2.5% in the enalapril-folic acid group (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.30; P=0.982). The effect was greater among participants with elevated total cholesterol (P for interaction=0.024). Elevated total cholesterol levels may modify the benefits of folic acid therapy on first stroke. Folic acid supplementation reduced the risk of first stroke associated with elevated total cholesterol by 31% among hypertensive adults without a history of major cardiovascular diseases. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. © 2016
Saposnik, Gustavo; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K; Tu, Jack V; Mamdani, Muhammad; Austin, Peter; Johnston, S Claiborne
Tools to predict the clinical response after intravenous thrombolytic therapy (tPA) are scarce. The iScore is an existing validated tool to estimate outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the iScore to predict clinical response and risk of hemorrhagic transformation after tPA. We applied the iScore (www.sorcan.ca/iscore) to patients presenting with an acute ischemic stroke at 11 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2009 identified from the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network. A cohort of patients with stroke treated at 154 centers in Ontario was used for external validation. We compared outcomes between patients receiving and not receiving tPA after adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics using propensity-score matching. Patients were stratified into 3 a priori defined groups according to stroke severity using the iScore. Among 12 686 patients with an acute ischemic stroke, 1696 (13.4%) received intravenous thrombolysis. Higher iScores were associated with poor outcomes in both the tPA and non-tPA groups (P<0.001). Among those at low and medium risk based on their iScores, tPA use was associated with a benefit in the primary outcome (relative risk, 0.74 for those with low-risk iScores; 95% CI, 0.67-0.84; relative risk, 0.88 for those with medium risk iScores; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between matched patients receiving and not receiving tPA in the highest iScore group (relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94-1.01). Similar results were observed for disability at discharge and length of stay. The incident risk of neurological deterioration and hemorrhagic transformation (any or symptomatic) with tPA increased with the iScore risk. Results were similar in the validation cohort for risk of poor outcome with tPA by iScore level. The iScore may be used to predict clinical response and risk of hemorrhagic complications after tPA for an acute
Dorstyn, D; Roberts, R; Kneebone, I; Kennedy, P; Lieu, C
Evidence suggests that the incorporation of leisure activities in adult stroke rehabilitation can contribute to improved physical, cognitive, and psychological outcomes. However, differences in study design and treatment delivery may affect these findings. Furthermore, the magnitude of therapeutic change associated with leisure therapy is unclear, with few quantitative reviews available. To synthesize and evaluate the empirical evidence examining leisure therapy in stroke rehabilitation. Eight independent studies (N = 615 participants) were identified from a comprehensive database search. Study quality was evaluated using the Oxford Levels of Evidence. Pre- and posttreatment data for participants who received leisure therapy, in comparison with peers who received standard care or no treatment, were evaluated by calculating Cohen's d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals. No studies met the criteria for the highest level of methodological rigor, although all used randomization procedures. Leisure therapy contributed to significant short-term improvements in psychological outcomes, namely quality of life and mood (d range, 2.10 to 0.54), in addition to leisure-specific outcomes, including increased participation in and satisfaction with leisure activities (d range, 0.81 to 1.23). Longer term effects of treatment could not be determined, with one study providing data and reporting nonsignificant effects (d range, -0.07 to 0.17). There is some evidence that leisure therapy offers an opportunity to enhance short-term treatment gains in community-based stroke rehabilitation. Further controlled research is needed to establish its longer term effects and assist the development of evidence-based guidelines for this treatment.
Kumar, A; Prasad, M; Jali, V P; Pandit, A K; Misra, S; Kumar, P; Chakravarty, K; Kathuria, P; Gulati, A
Bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) therapy has emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of stroke. We performed a systematic review of published studies using BM-MNC therapy in patients with ischaemic stroke (IS). Literature was searched using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Trip Database, Cochrane library and clinicaltrial.gov to identify studies on BM-MNC therapy in IS till June, 2016. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. STATA version 13 was used for carrying out meta-analysis. We included non-randomized open-label, single-arm and non-randomized comparative studies or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) if BM-MNCs were used to treat patients with IS in any phase after the index stroke. One randomized trial, two non-randomized comparative trials and four single-arm open-label trials (total seven studies) involving 227 subjects (137 patients and 90 controls) were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled proportion for favourable clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2) in six studies involving 122 subjects was 29% (95% CI 0.16-0.43) who were exposed to BM-MNCs and pooled proportion for favourable clinical outcome of 69 subjects (taken from two trials) who did not receive BM-MNCs was 20% (95% CI 0.12-0.32). The pooled difference in the safety outcomes was not significant between both the groups. Our systematic review suggests that BM-MNC therapy is safe up to 1 year post-intervention and is feasible; however, its efficacy in the case of IS patients is debatable. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are required to provide more information on the efficacy of BM-MNC transplantation in patients with IS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Todo, Kenichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kono, Tomoyuki; Hoshi, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Kohara, Nobuo
Outcomes after successful endovascular therapy in acute ischemic stroke are associated with onset-to-reperfusion time (ORT) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. In intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, the NIHSS-time score, calculated by multiplying onset-to-treatment time with the NIHSS score, has been shown to predict clinical outcomes. In this study, we assessed whether a similar combination of the ORT and the NIHSS score can be applied to predict the outcomes after endovascular therapy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 128 consecutive ischemic stroke patients with successful reperfusion after endovascular therapy. We analyzed the association of the ORT, the NIHSS score, and the NIHSS-time score with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at 3 months). Good outcome rates for patients with NIHSS-time scores of 84.7 or lower, scores higher than 84.7 up to 127.5 or lower, and scores higher than 127.5 were 72.1%, 44.2%, and 14.3%, respectively (P < .01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the NIHSS-time score was an independent predictor of good outcomes (odds ratio, .372; 95% confidence interval, .175-.789) after adjusting for age, sex, internal carotid artery occlusion, plasma glucose level, ORT, and NIHSS score. The NIHSS-time score can predict good clinical outcomes after endovascular treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Hong; Guo, Hai; Ye, Jian-rong; Chen, Lin
To develop and evaluate an individualized fluid therapy in the elderly patients with coronary heart disease undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. In this prospective study, 60 coronary heart disease patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery were included in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from March 2009 to March 2012. Patients were randomized into the intervention group and the control group with 30 patients in each group. Individualized fluid therapy was used during surgery and postoperative period in the ICU, which was determined based on target controlled fluid therapy according to cardiac index, stroke volume, and stroke volume variation. Traditional fluid therapy was used in the control group in the intraoperative and postoperative period. The two groups were compared in terms of postoperative hemodynamic parameters, total fluid volume, incidence of adverse cardiac events, and recovery of bowel function. Compared with the control group, mean arterial pressure was significantly increased at the commencement of the surgery. The cardiac index was significantly elevated during surgery and at the end of the surgery. Stroke volume was significantly increased after induction of anesthesia, during the surgery, and at the early stay of ICU period(all P<0.05). Serum lactic acid in the intervention group was significantly lower at the end of surgery and during ICU stay than that in the control group (all P<0.05). During surgery and 24-hour stay in ICU, the total fluid volume, crystal usage, and urine were significantly less, while colloidal fluid use was significantly more in the intervention group as compared to the control group(all P<0.05). The perioperative adverse cardiac event rate was 36.7%(11/30) in the intervention group, lower than 56.7%(17/30) in the control group, but the difference was no statistically significance(P>0.05). In the intervention group, defecation time, time to first flatus, resumption of liquid intake, length of
In, Taesung; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho
Background Virtual reality reflection therapy (VRRT) is a technically enhanced version of the mirror therapy concept. The aim of this study was to investigate whether VRRT could improve the postural balance and gait ability of patients with chronic stroke. Material/Methods Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated into the VRRT group (n=13) and the control group (n=12). The participants in both groups performed a conventional rehabilitation program for 30 minutes. The VRRT group also performed a VRRT program for 30 minutes, five times a week for 4 weeks. The control group performed conventional rehabilitation program and a placebo VRRT program. Outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Functional Reaching Test (FRT), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (for dynamic balance ability), postural sway (for static balance ability), and 10 meter walking velocity (10 mWV) for gait ability. Results There were statistically significant improvements in the VRRT group compared with the control group for BBS, FRT, TUG, postural sway (mediolateral sway distance with eyes open and eyes closed, anteroposterior and total sway distance with eyes open but not with eyes closed), and 10 mWV (p<0.05). Conclusions Applying VRRT (even as a home treatment) along with a conventional rehabilitation program for patients with chronic stroke might be even more beneficial than conventional rehabilitation program alone in improving affected lower limb function. Future studies should investigate the effectiveness of VRRT with optimal patient selection, and duration and intensity of training. PMID:27791207
Hakkennes, Sharon; Keating, Jennifer L
This systematic review investigated the effects on function, quality of life, health care costs, and patient/carer satisfaction of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) for upper limb hemiparesis following stroke. A comprehensive search of the complete holdings of MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PEDro and OTseeker to March 2005 was conducted. Fourteen eligible randomised controlled trials were identified and relevant data extracted by two independent reviewers. Effect sizes were calculated and results were pooled where possible. Method quality of the trials, assessed using the PEDro scale, had a mean score of five (range three to seven). Thirteen trials compared CIMT to an alternative treatment and/or a control group. One trial compared two CIMT protocols. Acute, subacute, and chronic conditions were studied. Effect sizes could be estimated for nine trials. Results were significant and in favour of CIMT in eight of these for at least one measure of upper limb function. The pooled standardised mean difference could be calculated for five outcome measures producing moderate to large effect sizes, only one of which attained statistical significance. Results indicate that CIMT may improve upper limb function following stroke for some patients when compared to alternative or no treatment. Rigorous evaluation of constraint-induced movement therapy using well-designed and adequately powered trials is required to evaluate the efficacy of different protocols on different stroke populations and to assess impact on quality of life, cost and patient/carer satisfaction.
In, Taesung; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho
BACKGROUND Virtual reality reflection therapy (VRRT) is a technically enhanced version of the mirror therapy concept. The aim of this study was to investigate whether VRRT could improve the postural balance and gait ability of patients with chronic stroke. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly allocated into the VRRT group (n=13) and the control group (n=12). The participants in both groups performed a conventional rehabilitation program for 30 minutes. The VRRT group also performed a VRRT program for 30 minutes, five times a week for 4 weeks. The control group performed conventional rehabilitation program and a placebo VRRT program. Outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Functional Reaching Test (FRT), and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (for dynamic balance ability), postural sway (for static balance ability), and 10 meter walking velocity (10 mWV) for gait ability. RESULTS There were statistically significant improvements in the VRRT group compared with the control group for BBS, FRT, TUG, postural sway (mediolateral sway distance with eyes open and eyes closed, anteroposterior and total sway distance with eyes open but not with eyes closed), and 10 mWV (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Applying VRRT (even as a home treatment) along with a conventional rehabilitation program for patients with chronic stroke might be even more beneficial than conventional rehabilitation program alone in improving affected lower limb function. Future studies should investigate the effectiveness of VRRT with optimal patient selection, and duration and intensity of training.
Shin, Yoon-Kyum; Cho, Sung-Rae
Erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) are known to have neuroprotective actions. Based on previous reports showing the synergistic effects of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy in experimental models, we investigated the safety of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy in patients with chronic stroke. In a pilot study, 3 patients were treated with EPO and G-CSF for 5 consecutive days, with follow-up on day 30. In an exploratory double-blind study, 6 patients were allocated to treatment with either EPO+G-CSF or placebo. Treatment was applied once a day for 5 days per month over 3 months. Participants were followed up for 6 months. To substantiate safety, vital signs, adverse events, and hematological values were measured on days 0, 5, and 30 in each cycle and on day 180. Functional outcomes were determined on day 0 and 180. In the laboratory measurements, EPO+G-CSF combination therapy significantly elevated erythropoietin, CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells, white blood cells, and neutrophils on day 5 of each cycle. There were no observations of serious adverse events. In the functional outcomes, the grip power of the dominant hand was increased in the EPO+G-CSF treatment group. In conclusion, this exploratory study suggests a novel strategy of EPO+G-CSF combination therapy for stroke patients. PMID:27043535
Wilson, Tony W; Fleischer, Anne; Archer, Darlene; Hayasaka, Satoru; Sawaki, Lumy
A goal of stroke rehabilitation is to harness the capacity of the brain to reorganize following neurological damage and enable restoration of function. To understand how neural oscillatory motor responses change following a therapeutic intervention and to illuminate whether these neurophysiological alterations correlate with improvements on behavioral measurements. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to evaluate plasticity in motor networks following 2 weeks of intensive task-oriented therapy, which was paired with sham or peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS). Patients completed unilateral finger tapping before and 3 weeks after therapy as whole-head MEG data were acquired. MEG data were imaged using beamforming, and the resulting event-related synchronizations and desynchronizations (ERSs/ERDs) were subjected to region-of-interest (ROI) analyses. For each ROI, the authors compared the baseline and postintervention MEG response amplitude, volume, and peak location for premovement β ERD, movement-onset γ ERS, and postmovement β ERS. Following therapy, all patients showed reduced postmovement β ERS response amplitudes in bilateral precentral gyri and reduced γ ERS amplitudes in the precentral gyrus of the affected hemisphere. This latter response also distinguished treatment groups, as the posttherapy γ reduction was greater in patients who received PNS. Finally, both β and γ response amplitudes were significantly correlated with improvement on several behavioral indices of motor function. These case-series data indicate that oscillatory MEG responses may be useful in gauging plasticity in motor cortices following therapy in stroke patients.
Cai, Jing; Fu, Jingjing; Yan, Shenqiang; Hu, Haitao; Lin, Chen
Abstract It remains unclear whether preexisting cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) increase the risks of worse functional outcome after thrombolytic therapy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the risk of unfavorable outcome in patients with acute ischemic stroke and CMBs. We searched EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science for relevant studies assessing functional outcome in the patients with CMBs following thrombolytic therapy. Fixed-effects and random-effects models were performed. Five eligible studies including 1974 patients were pooled in meta-analysis. The prevalence of CMBs was 24.3%. The pooled analysis demonstrates odds ratio for preexisting CMBs and the achievement of favorable outcome to be 0.69 (95% CI 0.56–0.86; P = 0.001) with no evidence of statistical heterogeneity (I2 = 46.7%, P = 0.112). Our meta-analysis of available published data demonstrates an increased risk of worse functional outcome after thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke in patients with pre-existing CMBs. Future studies are needed to determine whether the risk outweigh the expected benefit of reperfusion therapies. PMID:26717385
Almhdawi, Khader A; Mathiowetz, Virgil G; White, Matthew; delMas, Robert C
There is a need for more effective rehabilitation methods for individuals post-stroke. Occupational Therapy Task-Oriented (TO) approach has not been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate functional and impairment efficacies of TO approach on the more-affected Upper Extremity (UE) of persons post-stroke. A randomized single-blinded cross-over trial recruited 20 participants post-stroke (mean chronicity = 62 months) who demonstrated at least 10° active more-affected shoulder flexion and abduction and elbow flexion-extension. Participants were randomized into immediate (n = 10) and delayed intervention (n = 10) groups. Immediate group had 6 weeks of 3 hr/week TO intervention followed by 6 weeks of no-intervention control. Delayed intervention group underwent the reversed order. Functional measures included Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), Motor Activity Log (MAL), and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Impairment measures included UE Active Range of Motion (AROM) and handheld dynamometry strength. Measurements were obtained at baseline, cross over, and end of the study. TO intervention showed statistically higher functional change scores. COPM performance and satisfaction scores were 2.83 and 3.46 units greater respectively (p < .001), MAL amount of use and quality of use scores were 1.1 and 0.87 units greater, respectively (p < .001), WMFT time was 8.35 seconds faster (p = .009). TO impairment outcomes were not significantly larger than control ones. TO approach appears to be an effective UE post-stroke rehabilitation approach inducing clinically meaningful functional improvements. More studies are needed with larger samples and specific stroke chronicity and severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Jha, Ruchira; Battey, Thomas W K; Pham, Ly; Lorenzano, Svetlana; Furie, Karen L; Sheth, Kevin N; Kimberly, W Taylor
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is elevated in patients with acute stroke who later develop hemorrhagic transformation (HT). It is controversial whether early fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity on brain MRI predicts hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We assessed whether FLAIR hyperintensity was associated with MMP-9 and HT. We analyzed a prospectively collected cohort of acute stroke subjects with acute brain MRI images and MMP-9 values within the first 12 hours after stroke onset. FLAIR hyperintensity was measured using a signal intensity ratio between the stroke lesion and corresponding normal contralateral hemisphere. MMP-9 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships between FLAIR ratio (FR), MMP-9, and HT were evaluated. A total of 180 subjects were available for analysis. Patients were imaged with brain MRI at 5.6±4.3 hours from last seen well time. MMP-9 blood samples were drawn within 7.7±4.0 hours from last seen well time. The time to MRI (r=0.17, P=0.027) and MMP-9 level (r=0.29, P<0.001) were each associated with FR. The association between MMP-9 and FR remained significant after multivariable adjustment (P<0.001). FR was also associated with HT and symptomatic hemorrhage (P=0.012). FR correlates with both MMP-9 level and risk of hemorrhage. FLAIR changes in the acute phase of stroke may predict hemorrhagic transformation, possibly as a reflection of altered blood-brain barrier integrity.
Renú, Arturo; Laredo, Carlos; Lopez-Rueda, Antonio; Llull, Laura; Tudela, Raúl; San-Roman, Luis; Urra, Xabier; Blasco, Jordi; Macho, Juan; Oleaga, Laura; Chamorro, Angel; Amaro, Sergio
Less than half of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy obtain permanent clinical benefits. Consequently, there is an urgent need to identify mechanisms implicated in the limited efficacy of early reperfusion. We evaluated the predictors and prognostic significance of vessel wall permeability impairment and its association with blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) disruption after acute stroke treated with thrombectomy. A prospective cohort of acute stroke patients treated with stent retrievers was analyzed. Vessel wall permeability impairment was identified as gadolinium vessel wall enhancement (GVE) in a 24- to 48-hour follow-up contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, and severe BCSFB disruption was defined as subarachnoid hemorrhage or gadolinium sulcal enhancement (present across >10 slices). Infarct volume was evaluated in follow-up magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale at day 90. A total of 60 patients (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, 18) were analyzed, of whom 28 (47%) received intravenous alteplase before mechanical thrombectomy. Overall, 34 (57%) patients had GVE and 27 (45%) had severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was significantly associated with alteplase use before thrombectomy and with more stent retriever passes, along with the presence of severe BCSFB disruption. GVE was associated with poor clinical outcome, and both GVE and severe BCSFB disruption were associated with increased final infarct volume. These findings may support the clinical relevance of direct vessel damage and BCSFB disruption after acute stroke and reinforce the need for further improvements in reperfusion strategies. Further validation in larger cohorts of patients is warranted. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Mikami, Katsunaka; Jorge, Ricardo E; Moser, David J; Arndt, Stephan; Jang, Mijin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Fonzetti, Pasquale; Hegel, Mark T; Robinson, Robert G
This study examined the efficacy of antidepressant treatment for preventing the onset of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) among patients with recent stroke. Of 799 patients assessed, 176 were randomized, and 149 patients without evidence of GAD at the initial visit were included in this double-blind treatment with escitalopram (N=47) or placebo (N=49) or non-blinded problem-solving therapy (PST; 12 total sessions; N=53). Participants given placebo over 12 months were 4.95 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given escitalopram and 4.00 times more likely to develop GAD than patients given PST. Although these results should be considered preliminary, the authors found that both escitalopram and PST were effective in preventing new onset of post-stroke GAD.
Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation.
Yeldan, Ipek; Huseyınsınoglu, Burcu Ersoz; Akıncı, Buket; Tarakcı, Ela; Baybas, Sevim; Ozdıncler, Arzu Razak
[Purpose] The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a very early mirror therapy program on functional improvement of the upper extremity in acute stroke patients. [Subjects] Eight stroke patients who were treated in an acute neurology unit were included in the study. [Methods] The patients were assigned alternatively to either the mirror therapy group receiving mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment or the neurodevelopmental treatment only group. The primary outcome measures were the upper extremity motor subscale of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motricity Index upper extremity score, and the Stroke Upper Limb Capacity Scale. Somatosensory assessment with the Ayres Southern California Sensory Integration Test, and the Barthel Index were used as secondary outcome measures. [Results] No statistically significant improvements were found for any measures in either group after the treatment. In terms of minimally clinically important differences, there were improvements in Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Barthel Index in both mirror therapy and neurodevelopmental treatment groups. [Conclusion] The results of this pilot study revealed that very early mirror therapy has no additional effect on functional improvement of upper extremity function in acute stroke patients. Multicenter trials are needed to determine the results of early application of mirror therapy in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:26696729
Van Vugt, Floris T.; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart
Background: Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. Aim: The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Method: Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Conclusions: Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation. PMID
Hao, Zilong; Yang, Chunsong; Liu, Ming; Wu, Bo
Abstract Renal dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity in acute ischemic stroke patients requiring thrombolytic therapy. However, the effect of renal dysfunction on the clinical outcome of this population remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke patients with renal dysfunction using a meta-analysis. We systematically searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies that evaluated the relationship between renal dysfunction and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≥2), mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and any ICH were analyzed. Fourteen studies were included (N = 53,553 patients). The mean age ranged from 66 to 75 years. The proportion of male participants was 49% to 74%. The proportion of renal dysfunction varied from 21.9% to 83% according to different definitions. Based on 9 studies with a total of 7796 patients, the meta-analysis did not identify a significant difference in the odds of poor outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.16; I2 = 44.5) between patients with renal dysfunction and those without renal dysfunction. Patients with renal dysfunction were more likely to die after intravenous thrombolysis (OR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.05–1.21; I2 = 70.3). No association was observed between symptomatic ICH (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94–1.10; I2 = 0) and any ICH (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.96–1.18; I2 = 25.8). Renal dysfunction does not increase the risk of poor outcome and ICH after stroke thrombolysis. Renal dysfunction should not be a contraindication for administration of intravenous thrombolysis to eligible patients. PMID:25526464
Karakulova, Yu V; Selyanina, N V; Zhelnin, A V; Filimonova, T A; Tsepilov, S V
The aim of the research was to study the effect of the inclusion in the scheme cytoflavin patient care during the recovery period of ischemic stroke in the neuropsychological changes in the status and content of neurotrophins in serum. For this purpose we surveyed 52 patients who underwent a first ischemic stroke (29 women and 23 men) aged 52-74 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups: primary (25 patients) received in addition to basic therapy cytoflavin: intravenously at 20 ml per 400 ml of 5% glucose solution, 1 time a day for 10 days, then into 2 tablets 2 times a day for half an hour before food for a month, and the comparison group (27 patients) who received standard treatment. The control group consisted of 12 healthy people. In addition to standard clinical and laboratory tests were carried out a comprehensive neuropsychological study and evaluation of the data on the scale NIHSS, Bartell, Beck, Spielberger-Hanin, test «frontal dysfunction of the battery» and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Furthermore, determination carried neurotrophic factors: nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor brain (BDNF). The study was conducted in the dynamics: before treatment and 2 months after treatment. Patients in the recovery period of the first ischemic stroke revealed moderate manifestations of neuropsychological disorders status and reduction of neurotrophic factors. Inclusion in cytoflavin scheme increased the efficiency of the treatment, which was manifested in a more pronounced when compared with the results of basic therapy, positive dynamics of neurological symptoms and improved cognitive function, accompanied by an increase in BDNF levels. The data on the efficacy and safety allow us to recommend its inclusion in the scheme of treatment of patients in the recovery period after the first carotid ischemic stroke.
Llull, Laura; Laredo, Carlos; Renú, Arturo; Pérez, Belén; Vila, Elisabet; Obach, Víctor; Urra, Xabier; Planas, Anna; Amaro, Sergio; Chamorro, Ángel
It is unknown whether women and men with acute ischemic stroke respond similar to an antioxidant regimen administered in combination with thrombolysis. Here, we investigated the independent effect of sex on the response to uric acid (UA) therapy in patients with acute stroke treated with alteplase. In the Efficacy Study of Combined Treatment With Uric Acid and rtPA in Acute Ischemic Stroke (URICO-ICTUS) trial, 206 women and 205 men were randomized to UA 1000 mg or placebo. In this reanalysis of the trial, the primary outcome was the rate of excellent outcome at 90 days (modified Rankin Scale, 0-1, or 2, if premorbid score of 2) in women and men using regression models adjusted for confounders associated with sex. The interaction of UA levels by treatment on infarct growth was assessed in selected patients. Excellent outcome occurred in 47 of 111 (42%) women treated with UA, and 28 of 95 (29%) treated with placebo, and in 36 of 100 (36%) men treated with UA and 38 of 105 (34%) treated with placebo. Treatment and sex interacted significantly with excellent outcome (P=0.045). Thus, UA therapy doubled the effect of placebo to attain an excellent outcome in women (odd ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.088 [1.050-4.150]; P=0.036), but not in men (odd ratio [95% confidence interval], 0.999 [0.516-1.934]; P=0.997). The interactions between treatment and serum UA levels (P<0.001) or allantoin/UA ratio (P<0.001) on infarct growth were significant only in women. In women with acute ischemic stroke treated with alteplase, the administration of UA reduced infarct growth in selected patients and was better than placebo to reach excellent outcome. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00860366. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Kunz, Wolfgang G; Hunink, M G Myriam; Sommer, Wieland H; Beyer, Sebastian E; Meinel, Felix G; Dorn, Franziska; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M
Endovascular therapy in addition to standard care (EVT+SC) has been demonstrated to be more effective than SC in acute ischemic large vessel occlusion stroke. Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of EVT+SC depending on patients' initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, time from symptom onset, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and occlusion location. A decision model based on Markov simulations estimated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with both strategies applied in a US setting. Model input parameters were obtained from the literature, including recently pooled outcome data of 5 randomized controlled trials (ESCAPE [Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke], EXTEND-IA [Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial], MR CLEAN [Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands], REVASCAT [Randomized Trial of Revascularization With Solitaire FR Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Stroke Due to Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusion Presenting Within 8 Hours of Symptom Onset], and SWIFT PRIME [Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment]). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate uncertainty of the model results. Net monetary benefits, incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were derived from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The willingness-to-pay was set to $50 000/QALY. Overall, EVT+SC was cost-effective compared with SC (incremental cost: $4938, incremental effectiveness: 1.59 QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: $3110/QALY) in 100% of simulations. In all patient subgroups, EVT+SC led to gained QALYs (range: 0.47-2.12), and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were considered cost
Wagner, Todd H; Lo, Albert C; Peduzzi, Peter; Bravata, Dawn M; Huang, Grant D; Krebs, Hermano I; Ringer, Robert J; Federman, Daniel G; Richards, Lorie G; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Wittenberg, George F; Volpe, Bruce T; Bever, Christopher T; Duncan, Pamela W; Siroka, Andrew; Guarino, Peter D
Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation robotics have been developed to aid in recovery after a stroke. This study determined the additional cost of robot-assisted therapy and tested its cost-effectiveness. We estimated the intervention costs and tracked participants' healthcare costs. We collected quality of life using the Stroke Impact Scale and the Health Utilities Index. We analyzed the cost data at 36 weeks postrandomization using multivariate regression models controlling for site, presence of a prior stroke, and Veterans Affairs costs in the year before randomization. A total of 127 participants were randomized to usual care plus robot therapy (n=49), usual care plus intensive comparison therapy (n=50), or usual care alone (n=28). The average cost of delivering robot therapy and intensive comparison therapy was $5152 and $7382, respectively (P<0.001), and both were significantly more expensive than usual care alone (no additional intervention costs). At 36 weeks postrandomization, the total costs were comparable for the 3 groups ($17 831 for robot therapy, $19 746 for intensive comparison therapy, and $19 098 for usual care). Changes in quality of life were modest and not statistically different. The added cost of delivering robot or intensive comparison therapy was recuperated by lower healthcare use costs compared with those in the usual care group. However, uncertainty remains about the cost-effectiveness of robotic-assisted rehabilitation compared with traditional rehabilitation. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00372411.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This instructor's lesson plan guide on shock and fluid therapy is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (paramedics). Six units of study are presented: (1) body fluids, electrolytes and their effect on the body, and the general principles of fluid and acid base balances; (2) characteristics of…
Mazzaferro, Elisa; Powell, Lisa L
Fluid therapy is essential in the treatment of emergent veterinary patients. Many different types of intravenous fluids are available, including crystalloids, artificial colloids, and natural colloids. The type, dose, and administration rate can determine the outcome in a critically ill patient. This article discusses the various types of fluids and their indication for use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Legg, Lynn A; Lewis, Sharon R; Schofield-Robinson, Oliver J; Drummond, Avril; Langhorne, Peter
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. Activities of daily living (ADL) are daily home-based activities that people carry out to maintain health and well-being. ADLs include the ability to: eat and drink unassisted, move, go to the toilet, carry out personal hygiene tasks, dress unassisted, and groom. Stroke causes impairment-related functional limitations that may result in difficulties participating in ADLs independent of supervision, direction, or physical assistance.For adults with stroke, the goal of occupational therapy is to improve their ability to carry out activities of daily living. Strategies used by occupational therapists include assessment, treatment, adaptive techniques, assistive technology, and environmental adaptations. This is an update of the Cochrane review first published in 2006. To assess the effects of occupational therapy interventions on the functional ability of adults with stroke in the domain of activities of daily living, compared with no intervention or standard care/practice. For this update, we searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 30 January 2017), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (The Cochrane Library, January 2017), MEDLINE (1946 to 5 January 2017), Embase (1974 to 5 January 2017), CINAHL (1937 to January 2017), PsycINFO (1806 to 2 November 2016), AMED (1985 to 1 November 2016), and Web of Science (1900 to 6 January 2017). We also searched grey literature and clinical trials registers. We identified randomised controlled trials of an occupational therapy intervention (compared with no intervention or standard care/practice) where people with stroke practiced activities of daily living, or where performance in activities of daily living was the focus of the occupational therapy intervention. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data for prespecified outcomes. The primary outcomes were the proportion of
Duff, Margaret; Chen, Yinpeng; Cheng, Long; Liu, Sheng-Min; Blake, Paul; Wolf, Steven L; Rikakis, Thanassis
Adaptive mixed reality rehabilitation (AMRR) is a novel integration of motion capture technology and high-level media computing that provides precise kinematic measurements and engaging multimodal feedback for self-assessment during a therapeutic task. We describe the first proof-of-concept study to compare outcomes of AMRR and traditional upper-extremity physical therapy. Two groups of participants with chronic stroke received either a month of AMRR therapy (n = 11) or matched dosing of traditional repetitive task therapy (n = 10). Participants were right handed, between 35 and 85 years old, and could independently reach to and at least partially grasp an object in front of them. Upper-extremity clinical scale scores and kinematic performances were measured before and after treatment. Both groups showed increased function after therapy, demonstrated by statistically significant improvements in Wolf Motor Function Test and upper-extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) scores, with the traditional therapy group improving significantly more on the FMA. However, only participants who received AMRR therapy showed a consistent improvement in kinematic measurements, both for the trained task of reaching to grasp a cone and the untrained task of reaching to push a lighted button. AMRR may be useful in improving both functionality and the kinematics of reaching. Further study is needed to determine if AMRR therapy induces long-term changes in movement quality that foster better functional recovery.
Su, Qingjie; Li, Chaoyun; Long, Faqing; Chen, Bin; Wan, Zhongqin; Wu, Yingman; Dai, Mingming; Wang, Desheng; Zhang, Yuhui; Wang, Bufei
Survivors of ischemic stroke are still at a significant risk for recurrence. Antiplatelet agents are the treatment of first choice for long-term secondary prevention of vascular events. This study aims to assess a health promotion program on medication adherence to antiplatelet therapy among ischemic stroke patients in Hainan province, China. In five hospitals from the intervention group, four highly experienced physicians trained 62 neurologists, who in turn trained 613 stroke patients to improve their awareness and adherence to antiplatelet therapy. Physicians and patients of the control group received usual stroke management programs. After one-year follow-up, the proportion of patients who took the antiplatelet therapy increased significantly in the intervention group, reaching 73.2%, with a pre-post difference between two arms of 22.9% ( P < 0.01). There was also a significant net increase in the proportion of patients with awareness of antiplatelet therapy (24.4%, P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis illustrated health promotion program, higher education, annual household income, insurance, and medical status affected antiplatelet drug use in stroke patients. In conclusion, the health promotion program, based on a train-the-trainer approach, showed positive eﬀects on awareness of and adherence to antiplatelet therapy, which has the potential to be scaled up to other resource-limited areas.
Sanchez, R; Reinkensmeyer, D; Shah, P; Liu, J; Rao, S; Smith, R; Cramer, S; Rahman, T; Bobrow, J
The goal of this project is to develop a means for individuals with stroke to practice arm movement therapy at home with remote monitoring. We previously developed a Web-based system for repetitive movement training (Java Therapy). This paper describes a new input device for the system that measures and assists in naturalistic arm movement, as well as software enhancements. The new input device is an instrumented, adult-sized version of Wilmington robotic exoskeleton (WREX), which is a five degrees-of-freedom orthosis that counterbalances the weight of the arm using elastic bands. To test the ability of the new device (Training-WREX or "T-WREX") to measure and assist in functional arm movements, we measured five chronic stroke subjects' movement ability while wearing the orthosis without gravity balance compared to wearing the orthosis with gravity balance. T-WREX's gravity balance function improved a clinical measure of arm movement (Fugl-Meyer Score), range of motion of reaching movements, and accuracy of drawing movements. Coupled with an enhanced version of Java Therapy, T-WREX will thus provide a means to assist functional arm movement training at home, either over the Web in real-time, or stand-alone with periodic communication with a remote site.
Ploughman, Michelle; Corbett, Dale
To determine the efficacy, safety, and compliance with forced-use therapy (FUT) applied without additional "shaping" therapy during the rehabilitation phase of stroke. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Tertiary mixed rehabilitation center. Consecutive sample of 30 inpatients or outpatients with first stroke showing minimal movement of the arm and hand. Subjects who scored below 26 on the Mini-Mental State Examination were excluded. Seven subjects either did not provide consent or withdrew from the study. The remaining subjects were randomized into the control group (n=13) and the FUT group (n=10). FUT involved wearing a thick constraint mitten on the sound arm for as many as 6 hours a day. The Chedoke McMaster Impairment Inventory for arm, hand, postural control, and shoulder pain; Action Research Arm Test; grip strength; and FIM instrument. FUT subjects experienced 20% more recovery of the arm than did control subjects and more recovery of postural control (P=.04). Men benefited most from the program, and there was a tendency for FUT subjects to have more shoulder pain. Compliance was related to cognitive status. FUT, without shaping therapy, appears to augment arm recovery, but a larger sample is required to confirm these findings. The FUT mitten was safe and well tolerated; however, more research is needed to determine the relation between FUT and hemiplegic shoulder pain.
Sandercock, P A; van den Belt, A G; Lindley, R I; Slattery, J
A formal statistical overview of all truly randomised trials was undertaken to determine whether antithrombotic therapy is effective and safe in the early treatment of patients with acute stroke. There were 15 completed randomised controlled trials of the value of early antithrombotic treatment in patients with acute stroke. The regimes tested in acute presumed or confirmed ischaemic stroke were: heparin, 10 trials with 1047 patients: oral anticoagulants, one trial with 51 patients: antiplatelet therapy, three trials with 103 patients. Heparin was tested in one trial with 46 patients with acute haemorrhagic stroke. Outcome measures were deep venous thrombosis (confirmed by I125 scanning or venography), pulmonary embolism, death from all causes, haemorrhagic transformation of cerebral infarction, level of disability in survivors. In patients with acute ischaemic stroke, allocation to heparin was associated with a highly significant 81% (SD 8, 2p < 0.00001) reduction in deep venous thrombosis detected by I125 fibrinogen scanning or venogram. Only three trials systematically identified pulmonary emboli, which occurred in 6/106 (5.7%) allocated control vs 3/132 (2.3%) allocated heparin, a non-significant 58% reduction (SD 45.7, 2p > 0.1). There were relatively few deaths in the trials in patients with presumed ischaemic stroke: 94/485 (19.4%) among patients allocated to the control group vs 79/497 (15.9%) among patients who were allocated heparin. The observed 18% (SD 16) reduction in the odds of death was not statistically significant. The least biased estimated of the effect of treatment on haemorrhagic transformation of the cerebral infarct (HTI) comes from trials where all patients were scanned at the end of treatment, irrespective of clinical deterioration; using this analysis, haemorrhagic transformation occurred in 7/102 (6.9%) control vs 8/106 (7.5%) treated, a non-significant 12% increase (SD 56, 2p > 0.1). These data cannot exclude the possibility that
Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Nichols, Diane; Holley, Rahsaan J; Lum, Peter S
Individuals with chronic stroke often have long-lasting upper extremity impairments that impede function during activities of daily living. Rehabilitation robotics have shown promise in improving arm function, but current systems do not allow realistic training of activities of daily living. We have incorporated the ARMin III and HandSOME device into a novel robotic therapy modality that provides functional training of reach and grasp tasks. To compare the effects of equal doses of robotic and conventional therapy in individuals with chronic stroke. Subjects were randomized to 12 hours of robotic or conventional therapy and then crossed over to the other therapy type after a 1-month washout period. Twelve moderate to severely impaired individuals with chronic stroke were enrolled, and 10 completed the study. Across the 3-month study period, subjects showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer (P = .013) and Box and Blocks tests (P = .028). The robotic intervention produced significantly greater improvements in the Action Research Arm Test than conventional therapy (P = .033). Gains in the Box and Blocks test from conventional therapy were larger than from robotic therapy in subjects who received conventional therapy after robotic therapy (P = .044). Data suggest that robotic therapy can elicit improvements in arm function that are distinct from conventional therapy and supplements conventional methods to improve outcomes. Results from this pilot study should be confirmed in a larger study.
Broeg-Morvay, Anne; Mordasini, Pasquale; Slezak, Agnieszka; Liesirova, Kai; Meisterernst, Julia; Schroth, Gerhard; Arnold, Marcel; Jung, Simon; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs
Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) after bridging thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is a devastating complication. We aimed to assess whether the additional administration of aspirin during endovascular intervention increases bleeding rates. We retrospectively compared bleeding complications and outcome in stroke patients who received bridging thrombolysis with (tPA+ASA) and without (tPA-ASA) aspirin during endovascular intervention between November 2008 and March 2014. Furthermore, we analyzed bleeding complications and outcome in antiplatelet naïve patients with those with prior or acute antiplatelet therapy. Baseline characteristics, previous medication, and dosage of rtPA did not differ between 50 tPA+ASA (39 aspirin naïve, 11 preloaded) and 181 tPA-ASA patients (p>0.05). tPA+ASA patients had more often internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion (p<0.001), large artery disease (p<0.001) and received more often acute stenting of the ICA (p<0.001). 10/180 (5.6%) tPA-ASA patients and 3/49 (6.1%) tPA+ASA patients suffered a sICH (p = 1.0). Rates of asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, systemic bleeding complications and outcome did not differ between both groups (p>0.1). There were no differences in bleeding complications and mortality among 112 bridging patients with antiplatelet therapy (62 preloaded, 39 acute administration, 11 both) and 117 antiplatelet naïve patients. In a logistic regression analysis, aspirin administration during endovascular procedure was not a predictor of sICH. Antiplatelet therapy before or during bridging thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke did not increase the risk of bleeding complications and had no impact on outcome. This finding has to be confirmed in larger studies.
Mordasini, Pasquale; Slezak, Agnieszka; Liesirova, Kai; Meisterernst, Julia; Schroth, Gerhard; Arnold, Marcel; Jung, Simon; Mattle, Heinrich P.; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs
Background Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) after bridging thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is a devastating complication. We aimed to assess whether the additional administration of aspirin during endovascular intervention increases bleeding rates. Methods We retrospectively compared bleeding complications and outcome in stroke patients who received bridging thrombolysis with (tPA+ASA) and without (tPA-ASA) aspirin during endovascular intervention between November 2008 and March 2014. Furthermore, we analyzed bleeding complications and outcome in antiplatelet naïve patients with those with prior or acute antiplatelet therapy. Results Baseline characteristics, previous medication, and dosage of rtPA did not differ between 50 tPA+ASA (39 aspirin naïve, 11 preloaded) and 181 tPA-ASA patients (p>0.05). tPA+ASA patients had more often internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion (p<0.001), large artery disease (p<0.001) and received more often acute stenting of the ICA (p<0.001). 10/180 (5.6%) tPA-ASA patients and 3/49 (6.1%) tPA+ASA patients suffered a sICH (p = 1.0). Rates of asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, systemic bleeding complications and outcome did not differ between both groups (p>0.1). There were no differences in bleeding complications and mortality among 112 bridging patients with antiplatelet therapy (62 preloaded, 39 acute administration, 11 both) and 117 antiplatelet naïve patients. In a logistic regression analysis, aspirin administration during endovascular procedure was not a predictor of sICH. Conclusion Antiplatelet therapy before or during bridging thrombolysis in patients with acute ischemic stroke did not increase the risk of bleeding complications and had no impact on outcome. This finding has to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:28095449
Rand, Debbie; Givon, Noa; Weingarden, Harold; Nota, Ayala; Zeilig, Gabi
Video games have become popular in stroke rehabilitation; however, the nature of this intervention is not fully understood. To compare the number of (a) purposeful and nonpurposeful repetitions of the weaker upper extremity (UE) and (b) movement accelerations as assessed by accelerometer activity counts of the weaker and stronger UEs of individuals with chronic stroke while playing video games or participating in traditional therapy. Twenty-nine individuals (mean age 59 years, 1-7 years poststroke) took part in a group intervention of video -games (n = 15) or traditional therapy (n = 14) as part of a randomized controlled trial. During 1-2 sessions, participants were video-taped while wearing wrist accelerometers. Assessors counted the number of repetitions and classified movements as purposeful or nonpurposeful using videotapes. The weaker UE motor impairments were correlated to movement accelerations, to determine if participants were using their potential during the sessions. Participants in the video game group performed a median of 271 purposeful movements and 37 970 activity counts compared to 48 purposeful movements and 14,872 activity counts in the traditional group (z = -3.0, P = .001 and z = -1.9, P = .05, respectively). Participants in the traditional group performed a median of 26 nonpurposeful (exercises) compared with 0 in the video game group (z = -4.2, P = .000). Strong significant correlations were found between the motor ability of the weak UE to repetitions of participants in both groups (r = .86, P < .01). Participants with higher motor ability performed more repetitions. Video games elicited more UE purposeful repetitions and higher acceleration of movement compared with traditional therapy in individuals with chronic stroke. © The Author(s) 2014.
Limnell, Niko; Schramko, Alexey A
Fluid therapy is required to maintain perfusion to donor organs. Recent reviews on the choices of fluids have emphasized the safety of using crystalloids, as opposed to fluid therapy with colloids, which has been reported to be either unequivocally or potentially harmful in a number of studies on various patient populations. We aimed to analyze whether the type of fluid administered to donors is connected with kidney transplant outcomes. A total of 100 consecutive brain-dead multiorgan donors and their respective 181 kidney recipients were studied retrospectively. Data concerning donor fluid therapy, the characteristics of the donors and the recipients, and outcomes after kidney transplant were extracted from organ retrieval and patient records. Cases with early graft function were compared with cases with delayed graft function. Donors had received both crystalloids and colloids in most cases (84%). Fluid therapy with crystalloids alone was more common among the 40 recipients with delayed (30%) than in the 103 recipients with early graft function (11%) (P = .005). Donor age, time on renal replacement therapy before transplant, and donor fluid therapy with crystalloids alone were independent risk factors for delayed graft function in multivariate analysis. Our results suggest that donor fluid therapy including colloids could be beneficial instead of harmful compared with treatment with crystalloids alone. This finding needs to be evaluated in prospective studies.
Morone, Giovanni; Tramontano, Marco; Iosa, Marco; Shofany, Jacob; Iemma, Antonella; Musicco, Massimo; Paolucci, Stefano; Caltagirone, Carlo
The video game-based therapy emerged as a potential valid tool in improving balance in several neurological conditions with controversial results, whereas little information is available regarding the use of this therapy in subacute stroke patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of balance training using video game-based intervention on functional balance and disability in individuals with hemiparesis due to stroke in subacute phase. Fifty adult stroke patients participated to the study: 25 subjects were randomly assigned to balance training with Wii Fit, and the other 25 subjects were assigned to usual balance therapy. Both groups were also treated with conventional physical therapy (40 min 2 times/day). The main outcome was functional balance (Berg Balance Scale-BBS), and secondary outcomes were disability (Barthel Index-BI), walking ability (Functional Ambulation Category), and walking speed (10-meters walking test). Wii Fit training was more effective than usual balance therapy in improving balance (BBS: 53 versus 48, P = 0.004) and independency in activity of daily living (BI: 98 versus 93, P = 0.021). A balance training performed with a Wii Fit as an add on to the conventional therapy was found to be more effective than conventional therapy alone in improving balance and reducing disability in patients with subacute stroke.
Wallace, Eric L; Smyth, Susan S
Cardiac complications following stroke or acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) are common; however, many of these complications are asymptomatic and do not cause adverse cardiac effects. Symptomatic events (such as acute myocardial infarction after CVA) rarely occur and are often the result of an underlying cardiac embolic source, such as a left ventricular thrombus. We report a case of spontaneous coronary thrombosis following thrombolytic therapy for acute CVA, and discuss the implication that an underlying systemic pro-thrombotic state may predispose individuals to thrombosis in disparate vascular beds.
Beridze, M; Shakarishvili, R
Study purposed to establish the correlation between proinflammatory cytokines' initial CSF levels and neurological outcome on 7th day of acute ischemic stroke. 58 patients with acute ischemic stroke have been investigated. Neurological impairment assessed in 48 hours and on 7th day of stroke applying the international scales NIHSS and GCS. Patients divided into two groups: with severe stroke (GCS>9, NIHSS>15) and stroke with moderate severity (GCS=14,15; NIHSS=10-15). On 7th day increase of NIHSS score and decrease of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as deterioration and decrease of NIHSS score and increase of GCS score at least 1 point was considered as amelioration. CSF levels of proinflamatory cytokines determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control consisted with 15 patients, which were taken CSF in relation with vertebral discopathies. Means calculated by t-paired test. Pearson correlation and multivariate logistic regression were used. In 48 hours of stroke onset the CSF levels of interleukine-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were elevated compared to control. Statistical differences were not found between groups regarding the initial CSF levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha (p<0,5), while the significant statistical differences were found in regard with IL-6 CSF levels (p<0,05) between groups and against control. Significant positive correlation was found between initial CSF IL-6 levels and ischemic lesion size and neurological outcome at 1 week as well (r=+0,48 p<0,05 and r=+0,54 p<0,01 respectively). Thus, the IL-6 CSF levels in acute stage of ischemic stroke might be considered as the relatively stable prognostic indicator of clinical course of the disease.
John, Seby; Burgess, Richard; Cheng-Ching, Esteban; Wisco, Dolora; Taqui, Ather; Bain, Mark; Toth, Gabor; Uchino, Ken; Hui, Ferdinand; Hussain, Muhammad Shazam
A patient was taken for emergent intra-arterial stroke therapy for an acute left middle cerebral artery stroke syndrome, with CT angiography showing a left internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. Through a 6 F Neuron MAX sheath, a 5 Max ACE Penumbra aspiration catheter was advanced to the thrombus and direct suction was performed through the ACE catheter and Neuron MAX sheath. Upon pull back, the thrombus became wedged in the Neuron MAX sheath and despite several attempts to aspirate the thrombus, no clot could be obtained. The Neuron MAX sheath was withdrawn to the left common carotid artery, and gently advanced to the origin of the external carotid artery (ECA). A glide wire was advanced and the thrombus dislodged into the ECA. Another pass with the 5 Max ACE was used to remove a remaining thrombus in the left ICA terminus, resulting in Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) 3 flow. With improved devices for embolectomy, large and rigid emboli that exceed the inner diameter of large guide sheaths and balloon guide catheters can become lodged, and cannot be withdrawn through a catheter. While uncommon, strategies to overcome this are important to keep in mind during acute stroke intervention. PMID:24395869
Menon, Bijoy K; Campbell, Bruce C V; Levi, Christopher; Goyal, Mayank
Ischemic stroke is caused by a thrombus that blocks an intracranial artery. Brain tissue beyond the blocked artery survives for a variable period of time because of blood and nutrients received through tiny vessels called collaterals. Imaging the brain and the vasculature that supplies it is therefore a vital first step in treating patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this review, we focus on current evidence for imaging selection of patients for endovascular therapy in the context of the recently positive clinical trials, such as Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing Computed Tomography to Recanalization Times (ESCAPE), Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment (SWIFT PRIME), and Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial (EXTEND-IA). We discuss evidence for and use of the various imaging paradigms available. We discuss how to set up quick and efficient imaging protocols for patient selection and address common concerns about the use of imaging, including time spent, contrast, radiation, and other advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we briefly comment on how imaging can integrate itself within various health systems of care in the future, thereby potentially improving patient outcomes further. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Piovesan, D; Casadio, M; Mussa-Ivaldi, F A; Morasso, P G
Impaired arm movements in stroke appear as a set of stereotypical kinematic patterns, characterized by abnormal joint coupling, which have a direct consequence on arm mechanics and can be quantified by the net arm stiffness at the hand. The current available measures of arm stiffness during functional tasks have limited clinical use, since they require several repetitions of the same test movement in many directions. Such procedure is difficult to obtain in stroke survivors who have lower fatigue threshold and increased variability compared to unimpaired individuals. The present study proposes a novel, fast quantitative measure of arm stiffness during movements by means of a Time-Frequency technique and the use of a reassigned spectrogram, applied on a trial-by-trial basis with a single perturbation. We tested the technique feasibility during robot mediated therapy, where a robot helped stroke survivors to regain arm mobility by providing assistive forces during a hitting task to 13 targets covering the entire reachable workspace. The endpoint stiffness of the paretic arm was estimated at the end of each hitting movements by suddenly switching of the assistive forces and observing the ensuing recoil movements. In addition, we considered how assistive forces influence stiffness. This method will provide therapists with improved tools to target the treatment to the individual's specific impairment and to verify the effects of the proposed exercises. © 2011 IEEE
Ripollés, P; Rojo, N; Grau-Sánchez, J; Amengual, J L; Càmara, E; Marco-Pallarés, J; Juncadella, M; Vaquero, L; Rubio, F; Duarte, E; Garrido, C; Altenmüller, E; Münte, T F; Rodríguez-Fornells, A
Novel rehabilitation interventions have improved motor recovery by induction of neural plasticity in individuals with stroke. Of these, Music-supported therapy (MST) is based on music training designed to restore motor deficits. Music training requires multimodal processing, involving the integration and co-operation of visual, motor, auditory, affective and cognitive systems. The main objective of this study was to assess, in a group of 20 individuals suffering from chronic stroke, the motor, cognitive, emotional and neuroplastic effects of MST. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we observed a clear restitution of both activity and connectivity among auditory-motor regions of the affected hemisphere. Importantly, no differences were observed in this functional network in a healthy control group, ruling out possible confounds such as repeated imaging testing. Moreover, this increase in activity and connectivity between auditory and motor regions was accompanied by a functional improvement of the paretic hand. The present results confirm MST as a viable intervention to improve motor function in chronic stroke individuals.
Arya, Kamal Narayan; Pandian, Shanta; Kumar, Dharmendra
To examine the effect of Mirror therapy (MT) on dexterity, coordination, and muscle strength of the less-affected upper limb in stroke. Pre-test post-test, single group, experimental design. Rehabilitation institute. Post-stroke hemiparetic chronic subjects (N = 21). Forty sessions of MT using various tasks in addition to the conventional rehabilitation. Tasks such as lifting a glass, ball-squeezing, and picking-up objects were performed by the less-affected side in front of the mirror-box creating an illusion for the affected side. Minnesota Manual Dexterity Test (MMDT), Purdue Peg Board Test (PPBT), and Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) were used to measure the deficits of the less-affected side. Post-intervention, the less-affected side of the participants exhibited significant improvement on MMDT (p < 0.001), PPBT (p < 0.001), and MMT (shoulder flexors, wrist extensors and deviators, and finger flexors-extensors; p = 0.005-0.046). In post-stroke hemiparesis, MT also led to the improvement in dexterity, coordination, and strength of the less-affected side. In addition to the affected side, the technique may augment the subtle motor deficits of the less-affected side. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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