Sample records for fluidic thrust vectoring

  1. Computational Study of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring using Separation Control in a Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2003-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two- dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D was used to guide the design and analyze over 60 configurations. Nozzle design variables included cavity convergence angle, cavity length, fluidic injection angle, upstream minimum height, aft deck angle, and aft deck shape. All simulations were computed with a static freestream Mach number of 0.05. a nozzle pressure ratio of 3.858, and a fluidic injection flow rate equal to 6 percent of the primary flow rate. Results indicate that the recessed cavity enhances the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring and allows for greater thrust-vector angles without compromising thrust efficiency.

  2. Fluidic Thrust Vectoring of an Axisymmetric Exhaust Nozzle at Static Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Giuliano, Victor J.

    1997-01-01

    A sub-scale experimental static investigation of an axisymmetric nozzle with fluidic injection for thrust vectoring was conducted at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. Fluidic injection was introduced through flush-mounted injection ports in the divergent section. Geometric variables included injection-port geometry and location. Test conditions included a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 10 and a range of injection total pressure ratio from no-flow to 1.5. The results indicate that fluidic injection in an axisymmetric nozzle operating at design conditions produced significant thrust-vector angles with less reduction in thrust efficiency than that of a fluidically-vectored rectangular jet. The axisymmetric geometry promoted a pressure relief mechanism around the injection slot, thereby reducing the strength of the oblique shock and the losses associated with it. Injection port geometry had minimal effect on thrust vectoring.

  3. Summary of Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Research Conducted at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    Interest in low-observable aircraft and in lowering an aircraft's exhaust system weight sparked decades of research for fixed geometry exhaust nozzles. The desire for such integrated exhaust nozzles was the catalyst for new fluidic control techniques; including throat area control, expansion control, and thrust-vector angle control. This paper summarizes a variety of fluidic thrust vectoring concepts that have been tested both experimentally and computationally at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concepts are divided into three categories according to the method used for fluidic thrust vectoring: the shock vector control method, the throat shifting method, and the counterflow method. This paper explains the thrust vectoring mechanism for each fluidic method, provides examples of configurations tested for each method, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each method.

  4. Computational Investigation of Fluidic Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.; Deere, Karen A.

    1999-01-01

    A computational study of fluidic counterflow thrust vectoring has been conducted. Two-dimensional numerical simulations were run using the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. For validation, computational results were compared to experimental data obtained at the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility. In general, computational results were in good agreement with experimental performance data, indicating that efficient thrust vectoring can be obtained with low secondary flow requirements (less than 1% of the primary flow). An examination of the computational flowfield has revealed new details about the generation of a countercurrent shear layer, its relation to secondary suction, and its role in thrust vectoring. In addition to providing new information about the physics of counterflow thrust vectoring, this work appears to be the first documented attempt to simulate the counterflow thrust vectoring problem using computational fluid dynamics.

  5. A Computational Study of a New Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational investigation of a two-dimensional nozzle was completed to assess the use of fluidic injection to manipulate flow separation and cause thrust vectoring of the primary jet thrust. The nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting method of fluidic thrust vectoring. Several design cycles with the structured-grid, computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D and with experiments in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility have been completed to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. This paper presents computational results on potential design improvements for best experimental configuration tested to date. Nozzle design variables included cavity divergence angle, cavity convergence angle and upstream throat height. Pulsed fluidic injection was also investigated for its ability to decrease mass flow requirements. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 2 to 7, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to 3 percent of the primary flow rate. Computational results indicate that increasing cavity divergence angle beyond 10 is detrimental to thrust vectoring efficiency, while increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 improves thrust vectoring efficiency at nozzle pressure ratios greater than 2, albeit at the expense of discharge coefficient. Pulsed injection was no more efficient than steady injection for the Dual Throat Nozzle concept.

  6. Computational Investigation of the Aerodynamic Effects on Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    A computational investigation of the aerodynamic effects on fluidic thrust vectoring has been conducted. Three-dimensional simulations of a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent (2DCD) nozzle with fluidic injection for pitch vector control were run with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Simulations were computed with static freestream conditions (M=0.05) and at Mach numbers from M=0.3 to 1.2, with scheduled nozzle pressure ratios (from 3.6 to 7.2) and secondary to primary total pressure ratios of p(sub t,s)/p(sub t,p)=0.6 and 1.0. Results indicate that the freestream flow decreases vectoring performance and thrust efficiency compared with static (wind-off) conditions. The aerodynamic penalty to thrust vector angle ranged from 1.5 degrees at a nozzle pressure ratio of 6 with M=0.9 freestream conditions to 2.9 degrees at a nozzle pressure ratio of 5.2 with M=0.7 freestream conditions, compared to the same nozzle pressure ratios with static freestream conditions. The aerodynamic penalty to thrust ratio decreased from 4 percent to 0.8 percent as nozzle pressure ratio increased from 3.6 to 7.2. As expected, the freestream flow had little influence on discharge coefficient.

  7. Design Enhancements of the Two-Dimensional, Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2006-01-01

    A Dual Throat Nozzle fluidic thrust vectoring technique that achieves higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without sacrificing thrust efficiency has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle concept was designed with the aid of the structured-grid, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluidic dynamics code PAB3D. This new concept combines the thrust efficiency of sonic-plane skewing with increased thrust-vectoring efficiencies obtained by maximizing pressure differentials in a separated cavity located downstream of the nozzle throat. By injecting secondary flow asymmetrically at the upstream minimum area, a new aerodynamic minimum area is formed downstream of the geometric minimum and the sonic line is skewed, thus vectoring the exhaust flow. The nozzle was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal nozzle performance characteristics were defined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10, with a range of secondary injection flow rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. Most of the data included in this paper shows the effect of secondary injection rate at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4. The effects of modifying cavity divergence angle, convergence angle and cavity shape on internal nozzle performance were investigated, as were effects of injection geometry, hole or slot. In agreement with computationally predicted data, experimental data verified that decreasing cavity divergence angle had a negative impact and increasing cavity convergence angle had a positive impact on thrust vector angle and thrust efficiency. A curved cavity apex provided improved thrust ratios at some injection rates. However, overall nozzle performance suffered with no secondary injection. Injection holes were more efficient than the injection slot over the range of injection rates, but the slot generated larger thrust vector angles for injection rates less than 4 percent of the primary flow rate.

  8. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  9. Static investigation of two fluidic thrust-vectoring concepts on a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    A static investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel of two thrust-vectoring concepts which utilize fluidic mechanisms for deflecting the jet of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. One concept involved using the Coanda effect to turn a sheet of injected secondary air along a curved sidewall flap and, through entrainment, draw the primary jet in the same direction to produce yaw thrust vectoring. The other concept involved deflecting the primary jet to produce pitch thrust vectoring by injecting secondary air through a transverse slot in the divergent flap, creating an oblique shock in the divergent channel. Utilizing the Coanda effect to produce yaw thrust vectoring was largely unsuccessful. Small vector angles were produced at low primary nozzle pressure ratios, probably because the momentum of the primary jet was low. Significant pitch thrust vector angles were produced by injecting secondary flow through a slot in the divergent flap. Thrust vector angle decreased with increasing nozzle pressure ratio but moderate levels were maintained at the highest nozzle pressure ratio tested. Thrust performance generally increased at low nozzle pressure ratios and decreased near the design pressure ratio with the addition of secondary flow.

  10. PAB3D Simulations of a Nozzle with Fluidic Injection for Yaw Thrust-Vector Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted on an exhaust nozzle with fluidic injection for yaw thrust-vector control. The nozzle concept was tested experimentally in the NASA Langley Jet Exit Test Facility (JETF) at nozzle pressure ratios up to 4 and secondary fluidic injection flow rates up to 15 percent of the primary flow rate. Although many injection-port geometries and two nozzle planforms (symmetric and asymmetric) were tested experimentally, this paper focuses on the computational results of the more successful asymmetric planform with a slot injection port. This nozzle concept was simulated with the Navier-Stokes flow solver, PAB3D, invoking the Shih, Zhu, and Lumley algebraic Reynolds stress turbulence model (ASM) at nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) of 2,3, and 4 with secondary to primary injection flow rates (w(sub s)/w(sub p)) of 0, 2, 7 and 10 percent.

  11. Experimental and Computational Investigation of Multiple Injection Ports in a Convergent-Divergent Nozzle for Fluidic Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waithe, Kenrick A.; Deere, Karen A.

    2003-01-01

    A computational and experimental study was conducted to investigate the effects of multiple injection ports in a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle, for fluidic thrust vectoring. The concept of multiple injection ports was conceived to enhance the thrust vectoring capability of a convergent-divergent nozzle over that of a single injection port without increasing the secondary mass flow rate requirements. The experimental study was conducted at static conditions in the Jet Exit Test Facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel Complex at NASA Langley Research Center. Internal nozzle performance was obtained at nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary nozzle pressure ratios up to 1 for five configurations. The computational study was conducted using the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D with two-equation turbulence closure and linear Reynolds stress modeling. Internal nozzle performance was predicted for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with a secondary nozzle pressure ratio of 0.7 for two configurations. Results from the experimental study indicate a benefit to multiple injection ports in a convergent-divergent nozzle. In general, increasing the number of injection ports from one to two increased the pitch thrust vectoring capability without any thrust performance penalties at nozzle pressure ratios less than 4 with high secondary pressure ratios. Results from the computational study are in excellent agreement with experimental results and validates PAB3D as a tool for predicting internal nozzle performance of a two dimensional, convergent-divergent nozzle with multiple injection ports.

  12. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry

  13. Experimental Study of a Nozzle Using Fluidic Counterflow for Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.

    1998-01-01

    A static experimental investigation of a counterflow thrust vectoring nozzle concept was performed. The study was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Jet Exit Test Facility. Internal performance characteristics were defined over a nozzle pressure ratio (jet total to ambient) range of 3.5 to 10.0. The effects of suction collar geometry and suction slot height on nozzle performance were examined. In the counterflow concept, thrust vectoring is achieved by applying a vacuum to a slot adjacent to a primary jet that is shrouded by a suction collar. Two flow phenomena work to vector the primary jet depending upon the test conditions and configuration. In one case, the vacuum source creates a secondary reverse flowing stream near the primary jet. The shear layers between the two counterflowing streams mix and entrain mass from the surrounding fluid. The presence of the collar inhibits mass entrainment and the flow near the collar accelerates, causing a drop in pressure on the collar. The second case works similarly except that the vacuum is not powerful enough to create a counterflowing stream and instead a coflowing stream is present. The primary jet is vectored if suction is applied asymmetrically on the top or bottom of the jet.

  14. Effects of Cavity on the Performance of Dual Throat Nozzle During the Thrust-Vectoring Starting Transient Process.

    PubMed

    Gu, Rui; Xu, Jinglei

    2014-01-01

    The dual throat nozzle (DTN) technique is capable to achieve higher thrust-vectoring efficiencies than other fluidic techniques, without compromising thrust efficiency significantly during vectoring operation. The excellent performance of the DTN is mainly due to the concaved cavity. In this paper, two DTNs of different scales have been investigated by unsteady numerical simulations to compare the parameter variations and study the effects of cavity during the vector starting process. The results remind us that during the vector starting process, dynamic loads may be generated, which is a potentially challenging problem for the aircraft trim and control.

  15. Thrust shock vector control of an axisymmetric conical supersonic nozzle via secondary transverse gas injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmijanovic, V.; Lago, V.; Sellam, M.; Chpoun, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transverse secondary gas injection into the supersonic flow of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle is investigated to describe the effects of the fluidic thrust vectoring within the framework of a small satellite launcher. Cold-flow dry-air experiments are performed in a supersonic wind tunnel using two identical supersonic conical nozzles with the different transverse injection port positions. The complex three-dimensional flow field generated by the supersonic cross-flows in these test nozzles was examined. Valuable experimental data were confronted and compared with the results obtained from the numerical simulations. Different nozzle models are numerically simulated under experimental conditions and then further investigated to determine which parameters significantly affect thrust vectoring. Effects which characterize the nozzle and thrust vectoring performances are established. The results indicate that with moderate secondary to primary mass flow rate ratios, ranging around 5 %, it is possible to achieve pertinent vector side forces. It is also revealed that injector positioning and geometry have a strong effect on the shock vector control system and nozzle performances.

  16. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  17. Thrust vectoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, H. J.; Schnelker, D.; Ward, J. W.; Dulgeroff, C.; Vahrenkamp, R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of thrust vectorable ion optical systems capable of controlling the thrust direction from both 5- and 30-cm diameter ion thrusters is described. Both systems are capable of greater than 10 deg thrust deflection in any azimuthal direction. The 5-cm system is electrostatic and hence has a short response time and minimal power consumption. It has recently been tested for more than 7500 hours on an operational thruster. The 30-cm system is mechanical, has a response time of the order of 1 min, and consumes less than 0.3% of the total system input power at full deflection angle.

  18. Internal performance characteristics of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1995-01-01

    A series of thrust-vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at the Langley research center. This study indicated that discontinuities in the performance occurred at low primary nozzle pressure ratios and that these discontinuities were mitigated by decreasing expansion area ratio. The addition of secondary flow increased the performance of the nozzles. The mid-to-high range of secondary flow provided the most overall improvements, and the greatest improvements were seen for the largest ejector area ratio. Thrust vectoring the ejector nozzles caused a reduction in performance and discharge coefficient. With or without secondary flow, the vectored ejector nozzles produced thrust vector angles that were equivalent to or greater than the geometric turning angle. With or without secondary flow, spacing ratio (ejector passage symmetry) had little effect on performance (gross thrust ratio), discharge coefficient, or thrust vector angle. For the unvectored ejectors, a small amount of secondary flow was sufficient to reduce the pressure levels on the shroud to provide cooling, but for the vectored ejector nozzles, a larger amount of secondary air was required to reduce the pressure levels to provide cooling.

  19. Fluidic Emergency Thruster for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honda, T. S.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and test evaluation of two prototype fluidic emergency thrusters (FET) for aircraft stabilization are discussed. The fluidic control units were designed to provide, between two diametrically opposed nozzles, a thrust differential proportional to an input voltage signal. The emergency roll control requirements of the X-14 VTOL research aircraft were defined as typical design goals. Two control units, one on each wing tip, are intended to provide a maximum thrust of 224 pounds per unit. The units are designed to operate with 2500 psig, 2000 F gas from a solid propellant gas generator. The emergency system including the gas generator was designed to add less than 11 pounds per wing tip. The operating time under emergency conditions was specified as five seconds. The fluidic emergency thruster is similar in concept to a JATO system but has the added feature of controllable thrust.

  20. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  1. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  2. The use of laterally vectored thrust to counter thrust asymmetry in a tactical jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A nonlinear, six degree-of-freedom flight simulator for a twin engine tactical jet was built on a hybrid computer to investigate lateral vectoring of the remaining thrust component for the case of a single engine failure at low dynamic pressures. Aircraft control was provided by an automatic controller rather than a pilot, and thrust vector control was provided by an open-loop controller that deflected a vane (located on the periphery of each exhaust jet and normally streamlined for noninterference with the flow). Lateral thrust vectoring decreased peak values of lateral control deflections, eliminated the requirement for steady-state lateral aerodynamic control deflections, and decreased the amount of altitude lost for a single engine failure.

  3. Fluidic Vectoring of a Planar Incompressible Jet Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Miguel Alfonso; Scelzo, Maria Teresa; Enache, Adriana; Buchlin, Jean-Marie

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents an experimental, a numerical and a theoretical analysis of the performances of a fluidic vectoring device for controlling the direction of a turbulent, bi-dimensional and low Mach number (incompressible) jet flow. The investigated design is the co-flow secondary injection with Coanda surface, which allows for vectoring angles up to 25° with no need of moving mechanical parts. A simple empirical model of the vectoring process is presented and validated via experimental and numerical data. The experiments consist of flow visualization and image processing for the automatic detection of the jet centerline; the numerical simulations are carried out solving the Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier- Stokes (URANS) closed with the k - ω SST turbulence model, using the PisoFoam solver from OpenFOAM. The experimental validation on three different geometrical configurations has shown that the model is capable of providing a fast and reliable evaluation of the device performance as a function of the operating conditions.

  4. Internal performance of two nozzles utilizing gimbal concepts for thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, Bobby L.; Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    The internal performance of an axisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle and a nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle, both of which utilized a gimbal type mechanism for thrust vectoring was evaluated in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The nonaxisymmetric nozzle used the gimbal concept for yaw thrust vectoring only; pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by simultaneous deflection of the upper and lower divergent flaps. The model geometric parameters investigated were pitch vector angle for the axisymmetric nozzle and pitch vector angle, yaw vector angle, nozzle throat aspect ratio, and nozzle expansion ratio for the nonaxisymmetric nozzle. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 12.0.

  5. Static performance investigation of a skewed-throat multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1994-01-01

    The static performance of a jet exhaust nozzle which achieves multiaxis thrust vectoring by physically skewing the geometric throat has been characterized in the static test facility of the 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle has an asymmetric internal geometry defined by four surfaces: a convergent-divergent upper surface with its ridge perpendicular to the nozzle centerline, a convergent-divergent lower surface with its ridge skewed relative to the nozzle centerline, an outwardly deflected sidewall, and a straight sidewall. The primary goal of the concept is to provide efficient yaw thrust vectoring by forcing the sonic plane (nozzle throat) to form at a yaw angle defined by the skewed ridge of the lower surface contour. A secondary goal is to provide multiaxis thrust vectoring by combining the skewed-throat yaw-vectoring concept with upper and lower pitch flap deflections. The geometric parameters varied in this investigation included lower surface ridge skew angle, nozzle expansion ratio (divergence angle), aspect ratio, pitch flap deflection angle, and sidewall deflection angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to a high of 11.5 for some configurations. The results of the investigation indicate that efficient, substantial multiaxis thrust vectoring was achieved by the skewed-throat nozzle concept. However, certain control surface deflections destabilized the internal flow field, which resulted in substantial shifts in the position and orientation of the sonic plane and had an adverse effect on thrust-vectoring and weight flow characteristics. By increasing the expansion ratio, the location of the sonic plane was stabilized. The asymmetric design resulted in interdependent pitch and yaw thrust vectoring as well as nonzero thrust-vector angles with undeflected control surfaces. By skewing the ridges of both the upper and lower surface contours, the interdependency between pitch and yaw thrust vectoring may be eliminated

  6. Thrust vector control of upper stage with a gimbaled thruster during orbit transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jia, Yinghong; Jin, Lei; Duan, Jiajia

    2016-10-01

    In launching Multi-Satellite with One-Vehicle, the main thruster provided by the upper stage is mounted on a two-axis gimbal. During orbit transfer, the thrust vector of this gimbaled thruster (GT) should theoretically pass through the mass center of the upper stage and align with the command direction to provide orbit transfer impetus. However, it is hard to be implemented from the viewpoint of the engineering mission. The deviations of the thrust vector from the command direction would result in large velocity errors. Moreover, the deviations of the thrust vector from the upper stage mass center would produce large disturbance torques. This paper discusses the thrust vector control (TVC) of the upper stage during its orbit transfer. Firstly, the accurate nonlinear coupled kinematic and dynamic equations of the upper stage body, the two-axis gimbal and the GT are derived by taking the upper stage as a multi-body system. Then, a thrust vector control system consisting of the special attitude control of the upper stage and the gimbal rotation of the gimbaled thruster is proposed. The special attitude control defined by the desired attitude that draws the thrust vector to align with the command direction when the gimbal control makes the thrust vector passes through the upper stage mass center. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified through numerical simulations.

  7. Performance characteristics of two multiaxis thrust-vectoring nozzles at Mach numbers up to 1.28

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Capone, Francis J.

    1993-01-01

    The thrust-vectoring axisymmetric (VA) nozzle and a spherical convergent flap (SCF) thrust-vectoring nozzle were tested along with a baseline nonvectoring axisymmetric (NVA) nozzle in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0 to 1.28 and nozzle pressure ratios from 1 to 8. Test parameters included geometric yaw vector angle and unvectored divergent flap length. No pitch vectoring was studied. Nozzle drag, thrust minus drag, yaw thrust vector angle, discharge coefficient, and static thrust performance were measured and analyzed, as well as external static pressure distributions. The NVA nozzle and the VA nozzle displayed higher static thrust performance than the SCF nozzle throughout the nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) range tested. The NVA nozzle had higher overall thrust minus drag than the other nozzles throughout the NPR and Mach number ranges tested. The SCF nozzle had the lowest jet-on nozzle drag of the three nozzles throughout the test conditions. The SCF nozzle provided yaw thrust angles that were equal to the geometric angle and constant with NPR. The VA nozzle achieved yaw thrust vector angles that were significantly higher than the geometric angle but not constant with NPR. Nozzle drag generally increased with increases in thrust vectoring for all the nozzles tested.

  8. Design of thrust vectoring exhaust nozzles for real-time applications using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasanth, Ravi K.; Markin, Robert E.; Whitaker, Kevin W.

    1991-01-01

    Thrust vectoring continues to be an important issue in military aircraft system designs. A recently developed concept of vectoring aircraft thrust makes use of flexible exhaust nozzles. Subtle modifications in the nozzle wall contours produce a non-uniform flow field containing a complex pattern of shock and expansion waves. The end result, due to the asymmetric velocity and pressure distributions, is vectored thrust. Specification of the nozzle contours required for a desired thrust vector angle (an inverse design problem) has been achieved with genetic algorithms. This approach is computationally intensive and prevents the nozzles from being designed in real-time, which is necessary for an operational aircraft system. An investigation was conducted into using genetic algorithms to train a neural network in an attempt to obtain, in real-time, two-dimensional nozzle contours. Results show that genetic algorithm trained neural networks provide a viable, real-time alternative for designing thrust vectoring nozzles contours. Thrust vector angles up to 20 deg were obtained within an average error of 0.0914 deg. The error surfaces encountered were highly degenerate and thus the robustness of genetic algorithms was well suited for minimizing global errors.

  9. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 Active Axisymmetric Thrust-vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  10. Selected Performance Measurements of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Sims, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Flight tests recently completed at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center evaluated performance of a hydromechanically vectored axisymmetric nozzle onboard the F-15 ACTIVE. A flight-test technique whereby strain gages installed onto engine mounts provided for the direct measurement of thrust and vector forces has proven to be extremely valuable. Flow turning and thrust efficiency, as well as nozzle static pressure distributions were measured and analyzed. This report presents results from testing at an altitude of 30,000 ft and a speed of Mach 0.9. Flow turning and thrust efficiency were found to be significantly different than predicted, and moreover, varied substantially with power setting and pitch vector angle. Results of an in-flight comparison of the direct thrust measurement technique and an engine simulation fell within the expected uncertainty bands. Overall nozzle performance at this flight condition demonstrated the F100-PW-229 thrust-vectoring nozzles to be highly capable and efficient.

  11. Attitude Control for an Aero-Vehicle Using Vector Thrusting and Variable Speed Control Moment Gyros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Lim, K. B.; Moerder, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    Stabilization of passively unstable thrust-levitated vehicles can require significant control inputs. Although thrust vectoring is a straightforward choice for realizing these inputs, this may lead to difficulties discussed in the paper. This paper examines supplementing thrust vectoring with Variable-Speed Control Moment Gyroscopes (VSCMGs). The paper describes how to allocate VSCMGs and the vectored thrust mechanism for attitude stabilization in frequency domain and also shows trade-off between vectored thrust and VSCMGs. Using an H2 control synthesis methodology in LMI optimization, a feedback control law is designed for a thrust-levitated research vehicle and is simulated with the full nonlinear model. It is demonstrated that VSCMGs can reduce the use of vectored thrust variation for stabilizing the hovering platform in the presence of strong wind gusts.

  12. Static investigation of two STOL nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, M. L.; Burley, J. R., II

    1986-01-01

    A static investigation of the internal performance of two short take-off and landing (STOL) nozzle concepts with pitch thrust-vectoring capability has been conducted. An axisymmetric nozzle concept and a nonaxisymmetric nozzle concept were tested at dry and afterburning power settings. The axisymmetric concept consisted of a circular approach duct with a convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by vectoring the approach duct without changing the nozzle geometry. The nonaxisymmetric concept consisted of a two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle. Pitch thrust vectoring was implemented by blocking the nozzle exit and deflecting a door in the lower nozzle flap. The test nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10.0, depending on model geometry. Results indicate that both pitch vectoring concepts produced resultant pitch vector angles which were nearly equal to the geometric pitch deflection angles. The axisymmetric nozzle concept had only small thrust losses at the largest pitch deflection angle of 70 deg., but the two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle concept had large performance losses at both of the two pitch deflection angles tested, 60 deg. and 70 deg.

  13. Static Investigation of a Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Nozzle With Variable Internal Contouring Ability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Mills, Charles T. L.; Mason, Mary L.

    1997-01-01

    The thrust efficiency and vectoring performance of a convergent-divergent nozzle were investigated at static conditions in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The diamond-shaped nozzle was capable of varying the internal contour of each quadrant individually by using cam mechanisms and retractable drawers to produce pitch and yaw thrust vectoring. Pitch thrust vectoring was achieved by either retracting the lower drawers to incline the throat or varying the internal flow-path contours to incline the throat. Yaw thrust vectoring was achieved by reducing flow area left of the nozzle centerline and increasing flow area right of the nozzle centerline; a skewed throat deflected the flow in the lateral direction.

  14. Thrust vector control using electric actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, Robert T.; Hall, David K.

    1995-01-01

    Presently, gimbaling of launch vehicle engines for thrust vector control is generally accomplished using a hydraulic system. In the case of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters and main engines, these systems are powered by hydrazine auxiliary power units. Use of electromechanical actuators would provide significant advantages in cost and maintenance. However, present energy source technologies such as batteries are heavy to the point of causing significant weight penalties. Utilizing capacitor technology developed by the Auburn University Space Power Institute in collaboration with the Auburn CCDS, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Auburn are developing EMA system components with emphasis on high discharge rate energy sources compatible with space shuttle type thrust vector control requirements. Testing has been done at MSFC as part of EMA system tests with loads up to 66000 newtons for pulse times of several seconds. Results show such an approach to be feasible providing a potential for reduced weight and operations costs for new launch vehicles.

  15. CFD evaluation of an advanced thrust vector control concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiarn, Weihnurng; Cavalleri, Robert

    1990-01-01

    A potential concept that can offer an alternate method for thrust vector control of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster is the use of a cylindrical probe that is inserted (on demand) through the wall of the rocket nozzle. This Probe Thrust Vector Control (PTVC) concept is an alternate to that of a gimbaled nozzle or a Liquid Injection Thrust Vector (LITVC) system. The viability of the PTVC concept can be assessed either experimentally and/or with the use of CFD. A purely experimental assessment can be time consuming and expensive, whereas a CFD assessment can be very time- and cost-effective. Two key requirements of the proposed concept are PTVC vectoring performance and the active cooling requirements for the probe to maintain its thermal and structural integrity. An active thermal cooling method is the injection of coolant around the pheriphery of the probe. How much coolant is required and how this coolant distributes itself in the flow field is of major concern. The objective of the work reported here is the use of CFD to answer these question and in the design of test hardware to substantiate the results of the CFD predictions.

  16. Thrust Vectoring on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H.; Pahle, Joseph W.

    1996-01-01

    Investigations into a multiaxis thrust-vectoring system have been conducted on an F-18 configuration. These investigations include ground-based scale-model tests, ground-based full-scale testing, and flight testing. This thrust-vectoring system has been tested on the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The system provides thrust vectoring in pitch and yaw axes. Ground-based subscale test data have been gathered as background to the flight phase of the program. Tests investigated aerodynamic interaction and vane control effectiveness. The ground-based full-scale data were gathered from static engine runs with image analysis to determine relative thrust-vectoring effectiveness. Flight tests have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. Parameter identification input techniques have been developed. Individual vanes were not directly controlled because of a mixer-predictor function built into the flight control laws. Combined effects of the vanes have been measured in flight and compared to combined effects of the vanes as predicted by the cold-jet test data. Very good agreement has been found in the linearized effectiveness derivatives.

  17. Design of an ion thruster movable grid thrust vectoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kural, Aleksander; Leveque, Nicolas; Welch, Chris; Wolanski, Piotr

    2004-08-01

    Several reasons justify the development of an ion propulsion system thrust vectoring system. Spacecraft launched to date have used ion thrusters mounted on gimbals to control the thrust vector within a range of about ±5°. Such devices have large mass and dimensions, hence the need exists for a more compact system, preferably mounted within the thruster itself. Since the 1970s several thrust vectoring systems have been developed, with the translatable accelerator grid electrode being considered the most promising. Laboratory models of this system have already been built and successfully tested, but there is still room for improvement in their mechanical design. This work aims to investigate possibilities of refining the design of such movable grid thrust vectoring systems. Two grid suspension designs and three types of actuators were evaluated. The actuators examined were a micro electromechanical system, a NanoMuscle shape memory alloy actuator and a piezoelectric driver. Criteria used for choosing the best system included mechanical simplicity (use of the fewest mechanical parts), accuracy, power consumption and behaviour in space conditions. Designs of systems using these actuators are proposed. In addition, a mission to Mercury using the system with piezoelectric drivers has been modelled and its performance presented.

  18. Two-Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle Thrust Vectoring Using Staggered Ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Carlos Fernando

    A novel mechanism for vectoring the thrust of a supersonic, air-breathing engine was analyzed numerically using ANSYS Fluent. The mechanism uses two asymmetrically staggered ramps; one placed at the throat, the other positioned at the exit lip of the nozzle. The nozzle was designed using published flow data, isentropic relationships, and piecewise quartic splines. The design was verified numerically and was in fair agreement with the analytical data. Using the steady-state pressure-based solver, along with the realizable kappa - epsilon turbulence model, a total of eighteen simulations were conducted: three ramp lengths at three angles, using two sets of inlet boundary conditions (non-afterburning and afterburning). The vectoring simulations showed that the afterburning flow yields a lower flow deflection distribution, shown by the calculated average deflection angle and area-weighted integrals of the distributions. The data implies that an aircraft can achieve an average thrust vectoring angle of approximately 30° in a given direction with the longest ramp length and largest ramp angle configuration. With increasing ramp angle, the static pressure across the nozzle inlet increased, causing concern for potential negative effects on the engine's turbine. The mechanism, for which a provisional patent application has been filed, will require further work to investigate the maximum possible thrust vectoring angle, including experiments.

  19. Separation control with fluidic oscillators in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, H.-J.; Woszidlo, R.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2017-08-01

    The present study assesses the applicability of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water. The first part of this work evaluates the properties of the fluidic oscillators including frequency, cavitation effects, and exerted thrust. Derived from the governing internal dynamics, the oscillation frequency is found to scale directly with the jet's exit velocity and the size of the fluidic oscillator independent of the working fluid. Frequency data from various experiments collapse onto a single curve. The occurrence of cavitation is examined by visual inspection and hydrophone measurements. The oscillation frequency is not affected by cavitation because it does not occur inside the oscillators. The spectral information obtained with the hydrophone provide a reliable indicator for the onset of cavitation at the exit. The performance of the fluidic oscillators for separation control on a bluff body does not seem to be affected by the presence of cavitation. The thrust exerted by an array of fluidic oscillators with water as the working fluid is measured to be even larger than theoretically estimated values. The second part of the presented work compares the performance of fluidic oscillators for separation control in water with previous results in air. The array of fluidic oscillators is installed into the rear end of a bluff body model. The drag improvements based on force balance measurements agree well with previous wind tunnel experiments on the same model. The flow field is examined by pressure measurements and with particle image velocimetry. Similar performance and flow field characteristics are observed in both water and air.

  20. Thrust Vector Control of an Overexpanded Supersonic Nozzle Using Pin Insertion and Rotating Airfoils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    12 THRUST VECTOR CONTROL OP AN OVEREXPANDED 3UPfRSONIC NOZZLE USING PIN INSERTION AND ROTATINO AIRFOILS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School...gather data that would aid in the evaluation of thrust vector control mechanisms for nozzle applications. I would like to thank my thesis advisor, Dr... Control Nozzle. MS Thesis . Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright- Patterson AFB OH, December 1988. 4. Herup, Eric J. Confined Jet Thrust Vector

  1. Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Modern Military Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-11

    Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Modern Military Aircraft Daniel Ikaza Industria de Turbo Propulsores S.A. (ITP) Parque Tecnol6gico, edificio 300 48170...programme has only been possible with the contribution of partners and organizations, namely: Spanish Ministries of Industry and Defence, with

  2. An Experimental/Modeling Study of Jet Attachment during Counterflow Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strykowski, Paul J.

    1997-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the applicability of vectoring rectangular jets using asymmetrically applied counterflow in the presence of a short collar. This novel concept has applications in the aerospace industry where counterflow can be used to vector the thrust of a jet's exhaust, shortening take-off and landing distances and enhancing in-flight maneuverability of the aircraft. Counterflow thrust vectoring, 'CFTV' is desirable due to its fast time response, low thrust loss, and absence of moving parts. However, implementation of a CFTV system is only possible if bistable jet attachment can be prevented. This can be achieved by properly designing the geometry of the collar. An analytical model is developed herein to predict the conditions under which a two-dimensional jet will attach to an offset curved wall. Results from this model are then compared with experiment; for various jet exit Mach numbers, collar offset distances, and radii of curvature. Their excellent correlation permits use of the model as a tool for designing a CFTV system.

  3. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  4. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  5. Simulation of Liquid Injection Thrust Vector Control for Mars Ascent Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudenkauf, Jared

    2017-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently in the initial design phase for a potential Mars Ascent Vehicle; which will be landed on Mars, stay on the surface for period of time, collect samples from the Mars 2020 rover, and then lift these samples into orbit around Mars. The engineers at JPL have down selected to a hybrid wax-based fuel rocket using a liquid oxidizer based on nitrogen tetroxide, or a Mixed Oxide of Nitrogen. To lower the gross lift-off mass of the vehicle the thrust vector control system will use liquid injection of the oxidizer to deflect the thrust of the main nozzle instead of using a gimbaled nozzle. The disadvantage of going with the liquid injection system is the low technology readiness level with a hybrid rocket. Presented in this paper is an effort to simulate the Mars Ascent Vehicle hybrid rocket nozzle and liquid injection thrust vector control system using the computational fluid dynamic flow solver Loci/Chem. This effort also includes determining the sensitivity of the thrust vector control system to a number of different design variables for the injection ports; including axial location, number of adjacent ports, injection angle, and distance between the ports.

  6. Static investigation of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, John G.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the NASA Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap rotation of thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and deflection of flat yaw flaps hinged at the end of the sidewalls for yaw thrust vectoring. The hinge location of the yaw flaps was varied at four positions from the nozzle exit plane to the throat plane. The yaw flaps were designed to contain the flow laterally independent of power setting. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the yaw flap deflected into the exhaust stream and the divergent flaps, the downstream corners of both upper and lower divergent flaps were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw flap deflection. The impact of varying the nozzle pitch vector angle, throat area, yaw flap hinge location, yaw flap length, and yaw flap deflection angle on nozzle internal performance characteristics, was studied. High-pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.0. Static results indicate that configurations with the yaw flap hinge located upstream of the exit plane provide relatively high levels of thrust vectoring efficiency without causing large losses in resultant thrust ratio. Therefore, these configurations represent a viable concept for providing simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring.

  7. Static internal performance of an axisymmetric nozzle with multiaxis thrust-vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, George T., Jr.; Capone, Francis J.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring axisymmetric nozzle. Thrust vectoring for this nozzle was achieved by deflection of only the divergent section of this nozzle. The effects of nozzle power setting and divergent flap length were studied at nozzle deflection angles of 0 to 30 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

  8. Investigation of advanced thrust vectoring exhaust systems for high speed propulsive lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchison, R. A.; Petit, J. E.; Capone, F. J.; Whittaker, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a wind tunnel investigation conducted at the NASA-Langley research center to determine thrust vectoring/induced lift characteristics of advanced exhaust nozzle concepts installed on a supersonic tactical airplane model. Specific test objectives include: (1) basic aerodynamics of a wing body configuration, (2) investigation of induced lift effects, (3) evaluation of static and forward speed performance, and (4) the effectiveness of a canard surface to trim thrust vectoring/induced lift forces and moments.

  9. Static Thrust and Vectoring Performance of a Spherical Convergent Flap Nozzle with a Nonrectangular Divergent Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1998-01-01

    The static internal performance of a multiaxis-thrust-vectoring, spherical convergent flap (SCF) nozzle with a non-rectangular divergent duct was obtained in the model preparation area of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Duct cross sections of hexagonal and bowtie shapes were tested. Additional geometric parameters included throat area (power setting), pitch flap deflection angle, and yaw gimbal angle. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2 to 12 for dry power configurations and from 2 to 6 for afterburning power configurations. Approximately a 1-percent loss in thrust efficiency from SCF nozzles with a rectangular divergent duct was incurred as a result of internal oblique shocks in the flow field. The internal oblique shocks were the result of cross flow generated by the vee-shaped geometric throat. The hexagonal and bowtie nozzles had mirror-imaged flow fields and therefore similar thrust performance. Thrust vectoring was not hampered by the three-dimensional internal geometry of the nozzles. Flow visualization indicates pitch thrust-vector angles larger than 10' may be achievable with minimal adverse effect on or a possible gain in resultant thrust efficiency as compared with the performance at a pitch thrust-vector angle of 10 deg.

  10. Parametric study of a simultaneous pitch/yaw thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schirmer, Alberto W.; Capone, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    In the course of the last eleven years, the concept of thrust vectoring has emerged as a promising method of enhancing aircraft control capabilities in post-stall flight incursions during combat. In order to study the application of simultaneous pitch and yaw vectoring to single expansion ramp nozzles, a static test was conducted in the NASA-Langley 16 foot transonic tunnel. This investigation was based on internal performance data provided by force, mass flow and internal pressure measurements at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8. The internal performance characteristics of the nozzle were studied for several combinations of six different parameters: yaw vectoring angle, pitch vectoring angle, upper ramp cutout, sidewall hinge location, hinge inclination angle and sidewall containment. Results indicated a 2-to- 3-percent decrease in resultant thrust ratio with vectoring in either pitch or yaw. Losses were mostly associated with the turning of supersonic flow. Resultant thrust ratios were also decreased by sideways expansion of the jet. The effects of cutback corners in the upper ramp and lower flap on performance were small. Maximum resultant yaw vector angles, about half of the flap angle, were achieved for the configuration with the most forward hinge location.

  11. Dryden/Edwards 1994 Thrust-Vectoring Aircraft Fleet - F-18 HARV, X-31, F-16 MATV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The three thrust-vectoring aircraft at Edwards, California, each capable of flying at extreme angles of attack, cruise over the California desert in formation during flight in March 1994. They are, from left, NASA's F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), flown by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center; the X-31, flown by the X-31 International Test Organization (ITO) at Dryden; and the Air Force F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) aircraft. All three aircraft were flown in different programs and were developed independently. The NASA F-18 HARV was a testbed to produce aerodynamic data at high angles of attack to validate computer codes and wind tunnel research. The X-31 was used to study thrust vectoring to enhance close-in air combat maneuvering, while the F-16 MATV was a demonstration of how thrust vectoring could be applied to operational aircraft.

  12. Static internal performance of single expansion-ramp nozzles with thrust vectoring and reversing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Berrier, B. L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of geometric design parameters on the internal performance of nonaxisymmetric single expansion-ramp nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to approximately 10. Forward-flight (cruise), vectored-thrust, and reversed-thrust nozzle operating modes were investigated.

  13. Optimal Pitch Thrust-Vector Angle and Benefits for all Flight Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Bolonkin, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center is exploring the optimum thrust-vector angle on aircraft. Simple aerodynamic performance models for various phases of aircraft flight are developed and optimization equations and algorithms are presented in this report. Results of optimal angles of thrust vectors and associated benefits for various flight regimes of aircraft (takeoff, climb, cruise, descent, final approach, and landing) are given. Results for a typical wide-body transport aircraft are also given. The benefits accruable for this class of aircraft are small, but the technique can be applied to other conventionally configured aircraft. The lower L/D aerodynamic characteristics of fighters generally would produce larger benefits than those produced for transport aircraft.

  14. Static internal performance including thrust vectoring and reversing of two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, R. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of geometric design parameters on two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles were investigated at nozzle pressure ratios up to 12 in the static test facility. Forward flight (dry and afterburning power settings), vectored-thrust (afterburning power setting), and reverse-thrust (dry power setting) nozzles were investigated. The nozzles had thrust vector angles from 0 deg to 20.26 deg, throat aspect ratios of 3.696 to 7.612, throat radii from sharp to 2.738 cm, expansion ratios from 1.089 to 1.797, and various sidewall lengths. The results indicate that unvectored two dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles have static internal performance comparable to axisymmetric nozzles with similar expansion ratios.

  15. Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

  16. Implicit time-marching solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzle flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imlay, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    An implicit finite volume method is investigated for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for flows within thrust reversing and thrust vectoring nozzles. Thrust reversing nozzles typically have sharp corners, and the rapid expansion and large turning angles near these corners are shown to cause unacceptable time step restrictions when conventional approximate factorization methods are used. In this investigation these limitations are overcome by using second-order upwind differencing and line Gauss-Siedel relaxation. This method is implemented with a zonal mesh so that flows through complex nozzle geometries may be efficiently calculated. Results are presented for five nozzle configurations including two with time varying geometries. Three cases are compared with available experimental data and the results are generally acceptable.

  17. Thrust vectoring of broad ion beams for spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C. R.; King, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    Thrust vectoring is shown to increase the attractiveness of ion thrusters for satellite control applications. Incorporating beam deflection into ion thrusters makes it possible to achieve attitude control without adding any thrusters. Two beam vectoring systems are described that can provide up to 10-deg beam deflection in any azimuth. Both systems have been subjected to extended life tests on a 5-cm thruster which resulted in projected life times of from 7500 to 20,000 hours.

  18. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  19. Fluidic emergency roll control system. [for emergency aircraft control following failure of primary roll control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haefner, K. B.; Honda, T. S.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic emergency roll control system for aircraft stabilization in the event of primary flight control failure was evaluated. The fluidic roll control units were designed to provide roll torque proportional to an electrical command as operated by two diametrically opposed thrust nozzles located in the wing tips. The control package consists of a solid propellant gas generator, two diametrically opposed vortex valve modulated thrust nozzles, and an electromagnetic torque motor. The procedures for the design, development, and performance testing of the system are described.

  20. Thrust Vector Control for Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ensworth, Clinton B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Future space missions may use Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) stages for human and cargo missions to Mars and other destinations. The vehicles are likely to require engine thrust vector control (TVC) to maintain desired flight trajectories. This paper explores requirements and concepts for TVC systems for representative NTR missions. Requirements for TVC systems were derived using 6 degree-of-freedom models of NTR vehicles. Various flight scenarios were evaluated to determine vehicle attitude control needs and to determine the applicability of TVC. Outputs from the models yielded key characteristics including engine gimbal angles, gimbal rates and gimbal actuator power. Additional factors such as engine thrust variability and engine thrust alignment errors were examined for impacts to gimbal requirements. Various technologies are surveyed for TVC systems for the NTR applications. A key factor in technology selection is the unique radiation environment present in NTR stages. Other considerations including mission duration and thermal environments influence the selection of optimal TVC technologies. Candidate technologies are compared to see which technologies, or combinations of technologies best fit the requirements for selected NTR missions. Representative TVC systems are proposed and key properties such as mass and power requirements are defined. The outputs from this effort can be used to refine NTR system sizing models, providing higher fidelity definition for TVC systems for future studies.

  1. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  2. Thrust and torque vector characteristics of axially-symmetric E-sail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassetto, Marco; Mengali, Giovanni; Quarta, Alessandro A.

    2018-05-01

    The Electric Solar Wind Sail is an innovative propulsion system concept that gains propulsive acceleration from the interaction with charged particles released by the Sun. The aim of this paper is to obtain analytical expressions for the thrust and torque vectors of a spinning sail of given shape. Under the only assumption that each tether belongs to a plane containing the spacecraft spin axis, a general analytical relation is found for the thrust and torque vectors as a function of the spacecraft attitude relative to an orbital reference frame. The results are then applied to the noteworthy situation of a Sun-facing sail, that is, when the spacecraft spin axis is aligned with the Sun-spacecraft line, which approximatively coincides with the solar wind direction. In that case, the paper discusses the equilibrium shape of the generic conducting tether as a function of the sail geometry and the spin rate, using both a numerical and an analytical (approximate) approach. As a result, the structural characteristics of the conducting tether are related to the spacecraft geometric parameters.

  3. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  4. Vista/F-16 Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) control law design and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwerneman, W. D.; Eller, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    For the Multi-Axis Thrust Vectoring (MATV) program, a new control law was developed using multi-axis thrust vectoring to augment the aircraft's aerodynamic control power to provide maneuverability above the normal F-16 angle of attack limit. The control law architecture was developed using Lockheed Fort Worth's offline and piloted simulation capabilities. The final flight control laws were used in flight test to demonstrate tactical benefits gained by using thrust vectoring in air-to-air combat. Differences between the simulator aerodynamics data base and the actual aircraft aerodynamics led to significantly different lateral-directional flying qualities during the flight test program than those identified during piloted simulation. A 'dial-a-gain' flight test control law update was performed in the middle of the flight test program. This approach allowed for inflight optimization of the aircraft's flying qualities. While this approach is not preferred over updating the simulator aerodynamic data base and then updating the control laws, the final selected gain set did provide adequate lateral-directional flying qualities over the MATV flight envelope. The resulting handling qualities and the departure resistance of the aircraft allowed the 422nd_squadron pilots to focus entirely on evaluating the aircraft's tactical utility.

  5. Test stand for precise measurement of impulse and thrust vector of small attitude control jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, J. R.; Chisel, D. M.

    1973-01-01

    A test stand which accurately measures the impulse bit and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters used in the attitude control system of space vehicles has been developed. It can be used to measure, in a vacuum or ambient environment, both impulse and thrust vector of reaction jet thrusters using hydrazine or inert gas propellants. The ballistic pendulum configuration was selected because of its accuracy, simplicity, and versatility. The pendulum is mounted on flexure pivots rotating about a vertical axis at the center of its mass. The test stand has the following measurement capabilities: impulse of 0.00004 to 4.4 N-sec (0.00001 to 1.0 lb-sec) with a pulse duration of 0.5 msec to 1 sec; static thrust of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) with a 5 percent resolution; and thrust angle alinement of 0.22 to 22 N (0.05 to 5 lb) thrusters with 0.01 deg accuracy.

  6. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    The advanced launch system (ALS), is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost-effective, highly reliable, and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. An electromechanical actuation (EMA) system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link power management and distribution (PMAD) technology and pulse population modulation (PPM) techniques to implement field-oriented vector control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a built-in test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance, and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA thrust vector control (TVC) system. The EMA system and work proposed for the future are discussed.

  7. Multiaxis Thrust-Vectoring Characteristics of a Model Representative of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle at Angles of Attack From 0 deg to 70 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Capone, Francis J.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the multiaxis thrust-vectoring characteristics of the F-18 High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). A wingtip supported, partially metric, 0.10-scale jet-effects model of an F-18 prototype aircraft was modified with hardware to simulate the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV. Testing was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 0.70, at angles of attack from O' to 70', and at nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 to approximately 5.0. Results indicate that the thrust-vectoring control system of the HARV can successfully generate multiaxis thrust-vectoring forces and moments. During vectoring, resultant thrust vector angles were always less than the corresponding geometric vane deflection angle and were accompanied by large thrust losses. Significant external flow effects that were dependent on Mach number and angle of attack were noted during vectoring operation. Comparisons of the aerodynamic and propulsive control capabilities of the HARV configuration indicate that substantial gains in controllability are provided by the multiaxis thrust-vectoring control system.

  8. Linear Test Bed. Volume 2: Test Bed No. 2. [linear aerospike test bed for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Test bed No. 2 consists of 10 combustors welded in banks of 5 to 2 symmetrical tubular nozzle assemblies, an upper stationary thrust frame, a lower thrust frame which can be hinged, a power package, a triaxial combustion wave ignition system, a pneumatic control system, pneumatically actuated propellant valves, a purge and drain system, and an electrical control system. The power package consists of the Mark 29-F fuel turbopump, the Mark 29-0 oxidizer turbopump, a gas generator assembly, and propellant ducting. The system, designated as a linear aerospike system, was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept and to explore technology related to thrust vector control, thrust vector optimization, improved sequencing and control, and advanced ignition systems. The propellants are liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen. The system was designed to operate at 1200-psia chamber pressure at an engine mixture ratio of 5.5. With 10 combustors, the sea level thrust is 95,000 pounds.

  9. Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at wind-off conditions in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the internal performance characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent nozzle with a thrust-vectoring capability up to 60 deg. Vectoring was accomplished by a downward rotation of a hinged upper convergent flap and a corresponding rotation of a center-pivoted lower convergent flap. The effects of geometric thrust-vector angle and upper-rotating-flap geometry on internal nozzle performance characteristics were investigated. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to approximately 5.0.

  10. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-01-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  11. Design and test of electromechanical actuators for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Weir, Rae Ann

    1993-05-01

    New control mechanisms technologies are currently being explored to provide alternatives to hydraulic thrust vector control (TVC) actuation systems. For many years engineers have been encouraging the investigation of electromechanical actuators (EMA) to take the place of hydraulics for spacecraft control/gimballing systems. The rationale is to deliver a lighter, cleaner, safer, more easily maintained, as well as energy efficient space vehicle. In light of this continued concern to improve the TVC system, the Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is involved in a program to develop electromechanical actuators for the purpose of testing and TVC system implementation. Through this effort, an electromechanical thrust vector control actuator has been designed and assembled. The design consists of the following major components: Two three-phase brushless dc motors, a two pass gear reduction system, and a roller screw, which converts rotational input into linear output. System control is provided by a solid-state electronic controller and power supply. A pair of resolvers and associated electronics deliver position feedback to the controller such that precise positioning is achieved. Testing and evaluation is currently in progress. Goals focus on performance comparisons between EMA's and similar hydraulic systems.

  12. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  13. Fold-and-thrust belt curvature in the Fars region, eastern Zagros, achieved by variable thrust slip vectors and fault block rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edey, Alex; Allen, Mark B.

    2017-04-01

    Many fold-and-thrust belts are curved in plan view, but the origins of this curvature are debated. Understanding which mechanism(s) is appropriate is important to constrain the behaviour of the lithosphere during compressional deformation. Here we analyse the active deformation of the Fars Arc region in the eastern part of the Zagros, Iran, including slip vectors of 92 earthquakes, published GPS and palaeomagnetism data, and the distributions of young and/or active folds. The fold-and-thrust belt in the Fars Arc shows pronounced curvature, convex southwards. Folds trends vary from NW-SE in the west to ENE-WSW in the east. The GPS-derived velocity field shows NNE to SSW convergence, towards the foreland on the Arabian Plate, without dispersion. Earthquake slip vectors are highly variable, spanning a range of azimuths from SW to SSE in an Arabian Plate reference frame. The full variation of azimuths occurs within small (10s of km) sub-regions, but this variation is superimposed on a radial pattern, whereby slip vectors tend to be parallel to the regional topographic gradient. Given the lack of variation in the GPS vectors, we conclude that the Fars Arc is not curved as a result of gravitational spreading over the adjacent foreland, but as a result of deformation being restricted at tectonic boundaries at the eastern and western margins of the Arc. Fault blocks and folds within the Fars Arc, each 20-40 km long, rotate about vertical axes to achieve the overall curvature, predominantly clockwise in the west and counter-clockwise in the east. Active folds of different orientations may intersect and produce dome-and-basin interference patterns, without the need for a series of separate deformation phases of different stress orientations. The Fars Arc clearly contrasts with the Himalayas, where both GPS and earthquake slip vectors display radial patterns towards the foreland, and gravitational spreading is a viable mechanism for producing fold-and-thrust belt curvature.

  14. Thrust vector control algorithm design for the Cassini spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enright, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary design of the thrust vector control algorithm for the interplanetary spacecraft, Cassini. Topics of discussion include flight software architecture, modeling of sensors, actuators, and vehicle dynamics, and controller design and analysis via classical methods. Special attention is paid to potential interactions with structural flexibilities and propellant dynamics. Controller performance is evaluated in a simulation environment built around a multi-body dynamics model, which contains nonlinear models of the relevant hardware and preliminary versions of supporting attitude determination and control functions.

  15. Comparison of straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles using a six component thrust stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Flake, Scott

    1991-01-01

    This project compared the forces and moments produced by straight and 15 degree vectored nozzles. Using the six component thrust stand in the engines laboratory at California Polytechnic State University, several trials were performed. This data was then reduced using first a computer program and then later an electronic spreadsheet. This reduced data was graphed and compared. As a result of these comparisons some unexpected forces were discovered. Several more tests were run including a zero thrust test and a statistical comparison were done to discover the source of these discrepancies. As a direct result several nozzle changes were made and significant revisions to the thrust stand are being made.

  16. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  17. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  18. Investigation of combustion control in a dump combustor using the feedback free fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Eric J.

    The feedback free fluidic oscillator uses the unsteady nature of two colliding jets to create a single oscillating outlet jet with a wide sweep angle. These devices have the potential to provide additional combustion control, boundary layer control, thrust vectoring, and industrial flow deflection. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, CFD, was used to analyze the jet oscillation frequency over a range of operating conditions and to determine the effect that geometric changes in the oscillator design have on the frequency. Results presented illustrate the changes in jet oscillation frequency with gas type, gas temperature, operating pressure, pressure ratio across the oscillator, aspect ratio of the oscillator, and the frequency trends with various changes to the oscillator geometry. A fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the dump plane using 15% of the oxidizer flow. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide at an O/F of 11.66. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics for studying a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared with equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 60% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. The results indicate open loop propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics, 3-D CFD, was conducted to determine the

  19. Preliminary design study of a lateral-directional control system using thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary design of a lateral-directional control system for a fighter airplane capable of controlled operation at extreme angles of attack is developed. The subject airplane is representative of a modern twin-engine high-performance jet fighter, is equipped with ailerons, rudder, and independent horizontal-tail surfaces. Idealized bidirectional thrust-vectoring engine nozzles are appended to the mathematic model of the airplane to provide additional control moments. Optimal schedules for lateral and directional pseudo control variables are calculated. Use of pseudo controls results in coordinated operation of the aerodynamic and thrust-vectoring controls with minimum coupling between the lateral and directional airplane dynamics. Linear quadratic regulator designs are used to specify a preliminary flight control system to improve the stability and response characteristics of the airplane. Simulated responses to step pilot control inputs are stable and well behaved. For lateral stick deflections, peak stability axis roll rates are between 1.25 and 1.60 rad/sec over an angle-of-attack range of 10 deg to 70 deg. For rudder pedal deflections, the roll rates accompanying the sideslip responses can be arrested by small lateral stick motions.

  20. Design Specification for a Thrust-Vectoring, Actuated-Nose-Strake Flight Control Law for the High-Alpha Research Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, Barton J.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Davidson, John B.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Messina, Michael D.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Ostroff, Aaron J.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Yeager, Jessie C.; hide

    1996-01-01

    Specifications for a flight control law are delineated in sufficient detail to support coding the control law in flight software. This control law was designed for implementation and flight test on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV), which is an F/A-18 aircraft modified to include an experimental multi-axis thrust-vectoring system and actuated nose strakes for enhanced rolling (ANSER). The control law, known as the HARV ANSER Control Law, was designed to utilize a blend of conventional aerodynamic control effectors, thrust vectoring, and actuated nose strakes to provide increased agility and good handling qualities throughout the HARV flight envelope, including angles of attack up to 70 degrees.

  1. Static internal performance of a single expansion ramp nozzle with multiaxis thrust vectoring capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Schirmer, Alberto W.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at static conditions in order to determine the internal performance characteristics of a multiaxis thrust vectoring single expansion ramp nozzle. Yaw vectoring was achieved by deflecting yaw flaps in the nozzle sidewall into the nozzle exhaust flow. In order to eliminate any physical interference between the variable angle yaw flap deflected into the exhaust flow and the nozzle upper ramp and lower flap which were deflected for pitch vectoring, the downstream corners of both the nozzle ramp and lower flap were cut off to allow for up to 30 deg of yaw vectoring. The effects of nozzle upper ramp and lower flap cutout, yaw flap hinge line location and hinge inclination angle, sidewall containment, geometric pitch vector angle, and geometric yaw vector angle were studied. This investigation was conducted in the static-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at nozzle pressure ratios up to 8.0.

  2. Novel, Post-Stall, Thrust-Vectored F-15 RPVs: Laboratory and Flight Tests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-24

    Flight Tests Program Manager : Douglas Bowers 1ST-Year Report Principal Investigator: Benjamin 6al-Or April 24, 1990 DTIC.LECTE AUG201990 i/ E...constructed. The geometry, dimensions and preliminary wind-tunnel test data for such a design are provided In Appendix A. If funded, such a 3rd...Preliminary Calibration Flight Test Data Obtained from the Onboard Computer ........ 33 Talless, PST-RaNPAS, Roll-Yaw-Pitch, Thrust-Vectored, PST F-15 (Cf. ADp

  3. Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

  4. Design and test of a high power electromechanical actuator for thrust vector control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, J. R.; Myers, W. N.

    1992-07-01

    NASA-Marshall is involved in the development of electromechanical actuators (EMA) for thrust-vector control (TVC) system testing and implementation in spacecraft control/gimballing systems, with a view to the replacement of hydraulic hardware. TVC system control is furnished by solid state controllers and power supplies; a pair of resolvers supply position feedback to the controller for precise positioning. Performance comparisons between EMA and hydraulic TVC systems are performed.

  5. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  6. Static thrust-vectoring performance of nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with post-exit yaw vanes. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Aug. 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Robert J.; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the 16-ft transonic tunnel to determine the performance and turning effectiveness of post-exit yaw vanes installed on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. One nozzle design that was previously tested was used as a baseline, simulating dry power and afterburning power nozzles at both 0 and 20 degree pitch vectoring conditions. Vanes were installed on these four nozzle configurations to study the effects of vane deflection angle, longitudinal and lateral location, size, and camber. All vanes were hinged at the nozzle sidewall exit, and in addition, some were also hinged at the vane quarter chord (double-hinged). The vane concepts tested generally produced yaw thrust vectoring angles much less than the geometric vane angles, for (up to 8 percent) resultant thrust losses. When the nozzles were pitch vectored, yawing effectiveness decreased as the vanes were moved downstream. Thrust penalties and yawing effectiveness both decreased rapidly as the vanes were moved outboard (laterally). Vane length and height changes increased yawing effectiveness and thrust ratio losses, while using vane camber, and double-hinged vanes increased resultant yaw angles by 50 to 100 percent.

  7. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.; Riccio, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results for the Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC) Actuator hardware are documented. The function of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuators (ATVC) is to gimbal the main engines to provide for attitude and flight path control during ascent. During first stage flight, the SRB nozzles provide nearly all the steering. After SRB separation, the Orbiter is steered by gimbaling of its main engines. There are six electrohydraulic servoactuators, one pitch and one yaw for each of the three main engines. Each servoactuator is composed of four electrohydraulic servovalve assemblies, one second stage power spool valve assembly, one primary piston assembly and a switching valve. Each level of hardware was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode. Critical failures resulting in loss of ATVC were mainly due to loss of hydraulic fluid, fluid contamination and mechanical failures.

  8. Manipulating fluids: Advances in micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyawahare, Saurabh

    This dissertation describes work in three inter-related areas---micro-fluidics, opto-fluidics and fluidic self-assembly. Micro-fluidics has gotten a boost in recent years with the development of multilayered elastomeric devices made of poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), allowing active elements like valves and pumps. However, while PDMS has many advantages, it is not resistant to organic solvents. New materials and/or new designs are needed for solvent resistance. I describe how novel fluorinated elastomers can replace PDMS when combined with the three dimensional (3-D) solid printing. I also show how another 3-D fabrication method, multilayer photo-lithography, allows for fabrication of devices integrating filters. In general, 3-D fabrications allow new kinds of micro-fluidic devices to be made that would be impossible to emulate with two dimensional chips. In opto-fluidics, I describe a number of experiments with quantum dots both inside and outside chips. Inside chips, I manipulate quantum dots using hydrodynamic focusing to pattern fine lines, like a barcode. Outside chips, I describe our attempts to create quantum dot composites with micro-spheres. I also show how evaporated gold films and chemical passivation can then be used to enhance the emission of quantum dots. Finally, within fluids, self assembly is an attractive way to manipulate materials, and I provide two examples: first, a DNA-based energy transfer molecule that relies on quantum mechanics and self-assembles inside fluids. This kind of molecular photonics mimics parts of the photosynthetic apparatus of plants and bacteria. The second example of self-assembly in fluids describes a new phenomena---the surface tension mediated self assembly of particles like quantum dots and micro-spheres into fine lines. This self assembly by capillary flows can be combined with photo-lithography, and is expected to find use in future nano- and micro-fabrication schemes. In conclusion, advances in fludics, integrating

  9. Measured pressure distributions inside nonaxisymmetric nozzles with partially deployed thrust reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert S.; Carson, George T., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at static conditions to measure the pressure distributions inside a nonaxisymmetric nozzle with simultaneous partial thrust reversing (50-percent deployment) and thrust vectoring of the primary (forward-thrust) nozzle flow. Geometric forward-thrust-vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. were tested. Test data were obtained at static conditions while nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 4.0. Results indicate that, unlike the 0 deg. vector angle nozzle, a complicated, asymmetric exhaust flow pattern exists in the primary-flow exhaust duct of the 15 deg. vectored nozzle.

  10. Effects of internal yaw-vectoring devices on the static performance of a pitch-vectoring nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the internal performance of a nonaxisymmetric convergent divergent nozzle designed to have simultaneous pitch and yaw thrust vectoring capability. This concept utilized divergent flap deflection for thrust vectoring in the pitch plane and flow-turning deflectors installed within the divergent flaps for yaw thrust vectoring. Modifications consisting of reducing the sidewall length and deflecting the sidewall outboard were investigated as means to increase yaw-vectoring performance. This investigation studied the effects of multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring on nozzle internal performance characteristics. All tests were conducted with no external flow, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to approximately 13.0. The results indicate that this nozzle concept can successfully generate multiaxis thrust vectoring. Deflection of the divergent flaps produced resultant pitch vector angles that, although dependent on nozzle pressure ratio, were nearly equal to the geometric pitch vector angle. Losses in resultant thrust due to pitch vectoring were small or negligible. The yaw deflectors produced resultant yaw vector angles up to 21 degrees that were controllable by varying yaw deflector rotation. However, yaw deflector rotation resulted in significant losses in thrust ratios and, in some cases, nozzle discharge coefficient. Either of the sidewall modifications generally reduced these losses and increased maximum resultant yaw vector angle. During multiaxis (simultaneous pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring, little or no cross coupling between the thrust vectoring processes was observed.

  11. Fluidic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  12. Static internal performance of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. Ann; Reubush, David E.

    1987-01-01

    A parametric investigation of the static internal performance of multifunction two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles has been made in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. All nozzles had a constant throat area and aspect ratio. The effects of upper and lower flap angles, divergent flap length, throat approach angle, sidewall containment, and throat geometry were determined. All nozzles were tested at a thrust vector angle that varied from 5.60 tp 23.00 deg. The nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10 for all configurations.

  13. The development of H-II rocket solid rocket booster thrust vector control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Fukushima, Yukio; Kazama, Hiroo; Asai, Tatsuro; Okaya, Shunichi; Watanabe, Yasushi; Muramatsu, Shoji

    The development of the thrust-vector-control (TVC) system for the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs) of the H-II rocket, which was started in 1984 and completed in 1989, is described. Special attention is given to the system's design, the trade-off studies, and the evaluation of the SRB-TVC system performance, as well as to problems that occurred in the course of the system's development and to the countermeasures that were taken. Schematic diagrams are presented for the H-II rocket, the SRB, and the SRB-TVC system configurations.

  14. Aircraft Engine Thrust Estimator Design Based on GSA-LSSVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Hanlin; Zhang, Tianhong

    2017-08-01

    In view of the necessity of highly precise and reliable thrust estimator to achieve direct thrust control of aircraft engine, based on support vector regression (SVR), as well as least square support vector machine (LSSVM) and a new optimization algorithm - gravitational search algorithm (GSA), by performing integrated modelling and parameter optimization, a GSA-LSSVM-based thrust estimator design solution is proposed. The results show that compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, GSA can find unknown optimization parameter better and enables the model developed with better prediction and generalization ability. The model can better predict aircraft engine thrust and thus fulfills the need of direct thrust control of aircraft engine.

  15. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  16. Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters.

    PubMed

    Nagao, N; Yokota, S; Komurasaki, K; Arakawa, Y

    2007-11-01

    A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors [axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts] of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%) in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of +/-2.3 degrees was measured with the error of +/-0.2 degrees under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.

  17. Pressure distribution on a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter in the transition-speed range. [wind tunnel tests to measure pressure distribution on body and wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.; Margason, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel with a vectored-thrust V/STOL fighter configuration to obtain detailed pressure measurements on the body and on the wing in the transition-speed range. The vectored-thrust jet exhaust induced a region of negative pressure coefficients on the lower surface of the wing and on the bottom of the fuselage. The location of the jet exhaust relative to the wing was a major factor in determining the extent of the region of negative pressure coefficients.

  18. Electromechanical actuation for thrust vector control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Mary Ellen

    1990-01-01

    At present, actuation systems for the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) for launch vehicles are hydraulic systems. The Advanced Launch System (ALS), a joint initiative between NASA and the Air Force, is a launch vehicle that is designed to be cost effective, highly reliable and operationally efficient with a goal of reducing the cost per pound to orbit. As part of this initiative, an electromechanical actuation system is being developed as an attractive alternative to the hydraulic systems used today. NASA-Lewis is developing and demonstrating an Induction Motor Controller Actuation System with a 40 hp peak rating. The controller will integrate 20 kHz resonant link Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) technology and Pulse Population Modulation (PPM) techniques to implement Field Oriented Vector Control (FOVC) of a new advanced induction motor. Through PPM, multiphase variable frequency, variable voltage waveforms can be synthesized from the 20 kHz source. FOVC shows that varying both the voltage and frequency and their ratio (V/F), permits independent control of both torque and speed while operating at maximum efficiency at any point on the torque-speed curve. The driver and the FOVC will be microprocessor controlled. For increased system reliability, a Built-in Test (BITE) capability will be included. This involves introducing testability into the design of a system such that testing is calibrated and exercised during the design, manufacturing, maintenance and prelaunch activities. An actuator will be integrated with the motor controller for performance testing of the EMA TVC system. The design and fabrication of the motor controller is being done by General Dynamics Space Systems Division. The University of Wisconsin-Madison will assist in the design of the advanced induction motor and in the implementation of the FOVC theory. A 75 hp electronically controlled dynamometer will be used to test the motor controller in all four quadrants of operation using flight type

  19. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-12-02

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy.

  20. A Novel Method for Vertical Acceleration Noise Suppression of a Thrust-Vectored VTOL UAV

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanyu; Wu, Linfeng; Li, Yingjie; Li, Chunwen; Li, Hangyu

    2016-01-01

    Acceleration is of great importance in motion control for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), especially during the takeoff and landing stages. However, the measured acceleration is inevitably polluted by severe noise. Therefore, a proper noise suppression procedure is required. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the noise in the measured vertical acceleration for a thrust-vectored tail-sitter vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) UAV. In the new procedure, a Kalman filter is first applied to estimate the UAV mass by using the information in the vertical thrust and measured acceleration. The UAV mass is then used to compute an estimate of UAV vertical acceleration. The estimated acceleration is finally fused with the measured acceleration to obtain the minimum variance estimate of vertical acceleration. By doing this, the new approach incorporates the thrust information into the acceleration estimate. The method is applied to the data measured in a VTOL UAV takeoff experiment. Two other denoising approaches developed by former researchers are also tested for comparison. The results demonstrate that the new method is able to suppress the acceleration noise substantially. It also maintains the real-time performance in the final estimated acceleration, which is not seen in the former denoising approaches. The acceleration treated with the new method can be readily used in the motion control applications for UAVs to achieve improved accuracy. PMID:27918422

  1. Development of a two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand for Hall thrusters

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Nagao, N.; Yokota, S.; Komurasaki, K.

    A two-dimensional dual pendulum thrust stand was developed to measure thrust vectors (axial and horizontal (transverse) direction thrusts) of a Hall thruster. A thruster with a steering mechanism is mounted on the inner pendulum, and thrust is measured from the displacement between inner and outer pendulums, by which a thermal drift effect is canceled out. Two crossover knife-edges support each pendulum arm: one is set on the other at a right angle. They enable the pendulums to swing in two directions. Thrust calibration using a pulley and weight system showed that the measurement errors were less than 0.25 mN (1.4%)more » in the main thrust direction and 0.09 mN (1.4%) in its transverse direction. The thrust angle of the thrust vector was measured with the stand using the thruster. Consequently, a vector deviation from the main thrust direction of {+-}2.3 deg. was measured with the error of {+-}0.2 deg. under the typical operating conditions for the thruster.« less

  2. Quantitative evaluation of a thrust vector controlled transport at the conceptual design phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricketts, Vincent Patrick

    The impetus to innovate, to push the bounds and break the molds of evolutionary design trends, often comes from competition but sometimes requires catalytic political legislature. For this research endeavor, the 'catalyzing legislation' comes in response to the rise in cost of fossil fuels and the request put forth by NASA on aircraft manufacturers to show reduced aircraft fuel consumption of +60% within 30 years. This necessitates that novel technologies be considered to achieve these values of improved performance. One such technology is thrust vector control (TVC). The beneficial characteristic of thrust vector control technology applied to the traditional tail-aft configuration (TAC) commercial transport is its ability to retain the operational advantage of this highly evolved aircraft type like cabin evacuation, ground operation, safety, and certification. This study explores if the TVC transport concept offers improved flight performance due to synergistically reducing the traditional empennage size, overall resulting in reduced weight and drag, and therefore reduced aircraft fuel consumption. In particular, this study explores if the TVC technology in combination with the reduced empennage methodology enables the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve while complying with current safety and certification regulation. This research utilizes the multi-disciplinary parametric sizing software, AVD Sizing, developed by the Aerospace Vehicle Design (AVD) Laboratory. The sizing software is responsible for visualizing the total system solution space via parametric trades and is capable of determining if the TVC technology can enable the TAC aircraft to synergistically evolve, showing marked improvements in performance and cost. This study indicates that the TVC plus reduced empennage methodology shows marked improvements in performance and cost.

  3. Design development of the Apollo command and service module thrust vector attitude control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Development of the Apollo thrust vector control digital autopilot (TVC DAP) was summarized. This is the control system that provided pitch and yaw attitude control during velocity change maneuvers using the main rocket engine on the Apollo service module. A list of ten primary functional requirements for this control system are presented, each being subordinate to a more general requirement appearing earlier on the list. Development process functions were then identified and the essential information flow paths were explored. This provided some visibility into the particular NASA/contractor interface, as well as relationships between the many individual activities.

  4. Fluidic-thermochromic display device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafstein, D.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1968-01-01

    Fluidic decoder and display device has low-power requirements for temperature control of thermochromic materials. An electro-to-fluid converter translates incoming electrical signals into pneumatics signal of sufficient power to operate the fluidic logic elements.

  5. Efficient Optimization of Low-Thrust Spacecraft Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Fink, Wolfgang; Russell, Ryan; Terrile, Richard; Petropoulos, Anastassios; vonAllmen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A paper describes a computationally efficient method of optimizing trajectories of spacecraft driven by propulsion systems that generate low thrusts and, hence, must be operated for long times. A common goal in trajectory-optimization problems is to find minimum-time, minimum-fuel, or Pareto-optimal trajectories (here, Pareto-optimality signifies that no other solutions are superior with respect to both flight time and fuel consumption). The present method utilizes genetic and simulated-annealing algorithms to search for globally Pareto-optimal solutions. These algorithms are implemented in parallel form to reduce computation time. These algorithms are coupled with either of two traditional trajectory- design approaches called "direct" and "indirect." In the direct approach, thrust control is discretized in either arc time or arc length, and the resulting discrete thrust vectors are optimized. The indirect approach involves the primer-vector theory (introduced in 1963), in which the thrust control problem is transformed into a co-state control problem and the initial values of the co-state vector are optimized. In application to two example orbit-transfer problems, this method was found to generate solutions comparable to those of other state-of-the-art trajectory-optimization methods while requiring much less computation time.

  6. Preliminary Investigation on Battery Sizing Investigation for Thrust Vector Control on Ares I and Ares V Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the merits of battery powered Electro Hydrostatic Actuation (EHA) for Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles is described. A top level trade study was conducted to ascertain the technical merits of lithium-ion (Li-ion) and thermal battery performance to determine the preferred choice of an energy storage system chemistry that provides high power discharge capability for a relatively short duration.

  7. Comparison of cumulative dissipated energy delivered by active-fluidic pressure control phacoemulsification system versus gravity-fluidics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garza-Leon, Manuel; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2017-08-22

    To compare the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), aspiration time and estimated aspiration fluid utilized during phacoemulsification cataract surgery using two phacoemulsification systems . A total of 164 consecutive eyes of 164 patients undergoing cataract surgery, 82 in the active-fluidics group and 82 in the gravity-fluidics group were enrolled in this study. Cataracts graded NII to NIII using LOCS II were included. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two platforms with a specific configuration: the active-fluidics Centurion ® phacoemulsification system or the gravity-fluidics Infiniti ® Vision System. CDE, aspiration time (AT) and the mean estimated aspiration fluid (EAF) were registered and compared. A mean age of 68.3 ± 9.8 years was found (range 57-92 years), and no significant difference was evident between both groups. A positive correlation between the CDE values obtained by both platforms was verified (r = 0.271, R 2  = 0.073, P = 0.013). Similarly, a significant correlation was evidenced for the EAF (r = 0.334, R 2  = 0.112, P = 0.046) and AT values (r = 0.156, R 2  = 0.024, P = 0.161). A statistically significantly lower CDE count, aspiration time and estimated fluid were obtained using the active-fluidics configuration when compared to the gravity-fluidics configuration by 19.29, 12.10 and 9.29%, respectively (P = 0.001, P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001). The active-fluidics Centurion ® phacoemulsification system achieved higher surgical efficiency than the gravity-fluidics Infiniti ® IP system for NII and NIII cataracts.

  8. Mission Capability Gains from Multi-Mode Propulsion Thrust Profile Variations for a Plane Change Maneuver

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-29

    propellant mass [kg] msc = mass of the spacecraft [kg] MMP = multi-mode propulsion   = position in the Geocentric Equatorial Reference...thrust burn time [s] Tsc = thrust of the spacecraft [N] = vector between current and final velocity vector   = velocity vector in the Geocentric ...Equatorial Reference Frame of spacecraft in intended orbit [km/s]   = velocity vector in the Geocentric Equatorial Reference Frame of spacecraft in

  9. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOEpatents

    Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM; Galambos, Paul C [Albuquerque, NM; Benavides, Gilbert L [Los Ranchos, NM; Hetherington, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-02-28

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  10. NASA contributions to fluidic systems: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weathers, T. M.

    1972-01-01

    A state-of-the art review of fluidic technology is presented. It is oriented towards systems applications rather than theory or design. It draws heavily upon work performed or sponsored by NASA in support of the space program and aeronautical research and development (R&D). Applications are emphasized in this survey because it is hoped that the examples described and the criteria presented for evaluating the suitability of fluidics to new applications will be of value to potential users of fluidic systems. This survey of the fluidics industry suggests some of the means whereby a company may use a fluidic system effectively either to manufacture a product or as part of the end product.

  11. Results of solar electric thrust vector control system design, development and tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts to develop and test a thrust vector control system TVCS for a solar-energy-powered ion engine array are described. The results of solar electric propulsion system technology (SEPST) III real-time tests of present versions of TVCS hardware in combination with computer-simulated attitude dynamics of a solar electric multi-mission spacecraft (SEMMS) Phase A-type spacecraft configuration are summarized. Work on an improved solar electric TVCS, based on the use of a state estimator, is described. SEPST III tests of TVCS hardware have generally proved successful and dynamic response of the system is close to predictions. It appears that, if TVCS electronic hardware can be effectively replaced by control computer software, a significant advantage in control capability and flexibility can be gained in future developmental testing, with practical implications for flight systems as well. Finally, it is concluded from computer simulations that TVCS stabilization using rate estimation promises a substantial performance improvement over the present design.

  12. Numerical analysis of a fluidic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoettges, Stefan; Schenkel, Torsten; Oertel, Herbert

    2010-11-01

    The technology of fluid logic or fluidic has its origins in 1959 when scientists were looking for alternatives to electronics to realize measuring or automatic control tasks. In recent years interest in fluidic components has been renewed. Possible applications of fluidic oscillators have been tested in flow control, to reduce or eliminate separation regions, to avoid resonance noise in the flow past cavities, to improve combustion processes or for efficient cooling of turbine blades or electronic components. The oscillatory motion of the jet is achieved only by suitable shaping of the nozzle geometry and fluid-dynamic interactions, hence no moving components or external sources of energy are necessary. Therefore fluidic oscillators can be used in extreme environmental conditions, such as high temperatures, aggressive media or within electromagnetic fields. In the present study the working principle of the fluidic oscillator has been identified using three-dimensional unsteady RANS simulations and stability analysis. The numerical models used have been validated successfully against experimental data. Furthermore the effects of changes in inlet velocity, geometry and working fluid on the oscillation frequency have been investigated. Based on the results a new dimensionless number has been derived in order to characterize the unsteady behavior of the fluidic oscillator.

  13. Fluidically Controlled Cargo Hook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    Final Breadboard Fluidic Circuit IT 6 External Cargo Handling System - Cü-Sk Type Aircraft 18 7 Back Pressure Switch Response Time - Switching...On 20 8 Back Pressure Switch Response Time - Switching Off 21 9 Hook Actuator - Pressure Rise Rate 22 10 Breadboard Fluidic System Component...LINE LENGTH* FT Figure 7« Back. Pressure Switch Response Time - Switching On. ! TABLE k. INTERFACE VALVE SIGNAL TIME

  14. Statistical error model for a solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bantell, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem statistical error model was developed as a tool for investigating the effects of thrust subsystem parameter uncertainties on navigation accuracy. The model is currently being used to evaluate the impact of electric engine parameter uncertainties on navigation system performance for a baseline mission to Encke's Comet in the 1980s. The data given represent the next generation in statistical error modeling for low-thrust applications. Principal improvements include the representation of thrust uncertainties and random process modeling in terms of random parametric variations in the thrust vector process for a multi-engine configuration.

  15. Formation and Control of Fluidic Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, Darren Roy (Inventor); Marquez-Sanchez, Manuel (Inventor); Cheng, Zhengdong (Inventor); Weitz, David A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    This invention generally relates to systems and methods for the formation and/or control of fluidic species, and articles produced by such systems and methods. In some cases, the invention involves unique fluid channels, systems, controls, and/or restrictions, and combinations thereof. In certain embodiments, the invention allows fluidic streams (which can be continuous or discontinuous, i.e., droplets) to be formed and/or combined, at a variety of scales, including microfluidic scales. In one set of embodiments, a fluidic stream may be produced from a channel, where a cross-sectional dimension of the fluidic stream is smaller than that of the channel, for example, through the use of structural elements, other fluids, and/or applied external fields, etc. In some cases, a Taylor cone may be produced. In another set of embodiments, a fluidic stream may be manipulated in some fashion, for example, to create tubes (which may be hollow or solid), droplets, nested tubes or droplets, arrays of tubes or droplets, meshes of tubes, etc. In some cases, droplets produced using certain embodiments of the invention may be charged or substantially charged, which may allow their further manipulation, for instance, using applied external fields. Non-limiting examples of such manipulations include producing charged droplets, coalescing droplets (especially at the microscale), synchronizing droplet formation, aligning molecules within the droplet, etc. In some cases, the droplets and/or the fluidic streams may include colloids, cells, therapeutic agents, and the like.

  16. Indexing film with a fluidic sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maciel, A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Fluidic sensor is used to measure passage of film without mechanical contact with counting device. Same sensor system may be used for different sizes of film. System has two fluidic sensors and operates on principle of electrically recording interruptions in air stream.

  17. Fluidic self-actuating control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Grantz, Alan L.

    1979-01-01

    A fluidic self-actuating control assembly for use in a reactor wherein no external control inputs are required to actuate (scram) the system. The assembly is constructed to scram upon sensing either a sudden depressurization of reactor inlet flow or a sudden increase in core neutron flux. A fluidic control system senses abnormal flow or neutron flux transients and actuates the system, whereupon assembly coolant flow reverses, forcing absorber balls into the reactor core region.

  18. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  19. Integration of fluidic jet actuators in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schueller, Martin; Lipowski, Mathias; Schirmer, Eckart; Walther, Marco; Otto, Thomas; Geßner, Thomas; Kroll, Lothar

    2015-04-01

    Fluidic Actuated Flow Control (FAFC) has been introduced as a technology that influences the boundary layer by actively blowing air through slots or holes in the aircraft skin or wind turbine rotor blade. Modern wing structures are or will be manufactured using composite materials. In these state of the art systems, AFC actuators are integrated in a hybrid approach. The new idea is to directly integrate the active fluidic elements (such as SJAs and PJAs) and their components in the structure of the airfoil. Consequently, the integration of such fluidic devices must fit the manufacturing process and the material properties of the composite structure. The challenge is to integrate temperature-sensitive active elements and to realize fluidic cavities at the same time. The transducer elements will be provided for the manufacturing steps using roll-to-roll processes. The fluidic parts of the actuators will be manufactured using the MuCell® process that provides on the one hand the defined reproduction of the fluidic structures and, on the other hand, a high light weight index. Based on the first design concept, a demonstrator was developed in order to proof the design approach. The output velocity on the exit was measured using a hot-wire anemometer.

  20. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation

    DOEpatents

    Benner, Henry W.; Dzenitis, John M.

    2016-06-21

    Provided herein are fluidics platforms and related methods for performing integrated sample collection and solid-phase extraction of a target component of the sample all in one tube. The fluidics platform comprises a pump, particles for solid-phase extraction and a particle-holding means. The method comprises contacting the sample with one or more reagents in a pump, coupling a particle-holding means to the pump and expelling the waste out of the pump while the particle-holding means retains the particles inside the pump. The fluidics platform and methods herein described allow solid-phase extraction without pipetting and centrifugation.

  1. Aeroacoustic Improvements to Fluidic Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Whitmire, Julia; Abeysinghe, Amal

    2006-01-01

    Fluidic chevrons use injected air near the trailing edge of a nozzle to emulate mixing and jet noise reduction characteristics of mechanical chevrons. While previous investigations of "first generation" fluidic chevron nozzles showed only marginal improvements in effective perceived noise levels when compared to nozzles without injection, significant improvements in noise reduction characteristics were achieved through redesigned "second generation" nozzles on a bypass ratio 5 model system. The second-generation core nozzles had improved injection passage contours, external nozzle contour lines, and nozzle trailing edges. The new fluidic chevrons resulted in reduced overall sound pressure levels over that of the baseline nozzle for all observation angles. Injection ports with steep injection angles produced lower overall sound pressure levels than those produced by shallow injection angles. The reductions in overall sound pressure levels were the result of noise reductions at low frequencies. In contrast to the first-generation nozzles, only marginal increases in high frequency noise over that of the baseline nozzle were observed for the second-generation nozzles. The effective perceived noise levels of the new fluidic chevrons are shown to approach those of the core mechanical chevrons.

  2. Impact of Fluidic Chevrons on Supersonic Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Norum, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The impact of fluidic chevrons on broadband shock noise and mixing noise for single stream and coannular jets was investigated. Air was injected into the core flow of a bypass ratio 5 nozzle system using a core fluidic chevron nozzle. For the single stream experiments, the fan stream was operated at the wind tunnel conditions and the core stream was operated at supersonic speeds. For the dual stream experiments, the fan stream was operated at supersonic speeds and the core stream was varied between subsonic and supersonic conditions. For the single stream jet at nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) below 2.0, increasing the injection pressure of the fluidic chevron increased high frequency noise at observation angles upstream of the nozzle exit and decreased mixing noise near the peak jet noise angle. When the NPR increased to a point where broadband shock noise dominated the acoustic spectra at upstream observation angles, the fluidic chevrons significantly decreased this noise. For dual stream jets, the fluidic chevrons reduced broadband shock noise levels when the fan NPR was below 2.3, but had little or no impact on shock noise with further increases in fan pressure. For all fan stream conditions investigated, the fluidic chevron became more effective at reducing mixing noise near the peak jet noise angle as the core pressure increased.

  3. Method for making electro-fluidic connections in microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Frye-Mason, Gregory C.; Martinez, David; Manginell, Ronald P.; Heller, Edwin J.; Chanchani, Rajen

    2004-08-10

    A method for forming electro-fluidic interconnections in microfluidic devices comprises forming an electrical connection between matching bond pads on a die containing an active electrical element and a microfluidic substrate and forming a fluidic seal ring that circumscribes the active electrical element and a fluidic feedthrough. Preferably, the electrical connection and the seal ring are formed in a single bonding step. The simple method is particularly useful for chemical microanalytical systems wherein a plurality of microanalytical components, such as a chemical preconcentrator, a gas chromatography column, and a surface acoustic wave detector, are fluidically interconnected on a hybrid microfluidic substrate having electrical connection to external support electronics.

  4. Computational Issues Associated with Temporally Deforming Geometries Such as Thrust Vectoring Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyalakuntla, Kishore; Soni, Bharat K.; Thornburg, Hugh J.; Yu, Robert

    1996-01-01

    During the past decade, computational simulation of fluid flow around complex configurations has progressed significantly and many notable successes have been reported, however, unsteady time-dependent solutions are not easily obtainable. The present effort involves unsteady time dependent simulation of temporally deforming geometries. Grid generation for a complex configuration can be a time consuming process and temporally varying geometries necessitate the regeneration of such grids for every time step. Traditional grid generation techniques have been tried and demonstrated to be inadequate to such simulations. Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) based techniques provide a compact and accurate representation of the geometry. This definition can be coupled with a distribution mesh for a user defined spacing. The present method greatly reduces cpu requirements for time dependent remeshing, facilitating the simulation of more complex unsteady problems. A thrust vectoring nozzle has been chosen to demonstrate the capability as it is of current interest in the aerospace industry for better maneuverability of fighter aircraft in close combat and in post stall regimes. This current effort is the first step towards multidisciplinary design optimization which involves coupling the aerodynamic heat transfer and structural analysis techniques. Applications include simulation of temporally deforming bodies and aeroelastic problems.

  5. Fluidic Oscillator Having Decoupled Frequency and Amplitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator having independent frequency and amplitude control includes a fluidic-oscillator main flow channel having a main flow inlet, a main flow outlet, and first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. A fluidic-oscillator controller has an inlet and outlet. A volume defined by the main flow channel is greater than the volume defined by the controller. A flow diverter coupled to the outlet of the controller defines a first fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the first control port and defines a second fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the second control port.

  6. Fluidic Oscillator Having Decoupled Frequency and Amplitude Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator having independent frequency and amplitude control includes a fluidic-oscillator main flow channel having a main flow inlet, a main flow outlet, and first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. A fluidic-oscillator controller has an inlet and outlet. A volume defined by the main flow channel is greater than the volume defined by the controller. A flow diverter coupled to the outlet of the controller defines a first fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the first control port and defines a second fluid flow path from the controller's outlet to the second control port.

  7. A characteristic analysis of the fluidic muscle cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Soo; Bae, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Sung-In

    2005-12-01

    The fluidic muscle cylinder consists of an air bellows tube, flanges and lock nuts. It's features are softness of material and motion, simplicity of structure, low production cost and high power efficiency. Recently, unlikely the pneumatic cylinder, the fluidic muscle cylinder without air leakage, stick slip, friction, and seal was developed as a new concept actuator. It has the characteristics such as light weight, low price, high response, durable design, long life, high power, high contraction, which is innovative product fulfilling RT(Robot Technology) which is one of the nation-leading next generation strategy technologies 6T as well as cleanness technology. The application fields of the fluidic muscle cylinder are so various like fatigue tester, brake, accelerator, high technology testing device such as driving simulator, precise position, velocity, intelligent servo actuator under special environment such as load controlling system, and intelligent robot. In this study, we carried out the finite element modeling and analysis about the main design variables such as contraction ration and force, diameter increment of fluidic muscle cylinder. On the basis of finite element analysis, the prototype of fluidic muscle cylinder was manufactured and tested. Finally, we compared the results between the test and the finite element analysis.

  8. FLUIDIC AC AMPLIFIERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Several fluidic tuned AC Amplifiers were designed and tested. Interstage tuning and feedback designs are considered. Good results were obtained...corresponding Q’s as high as 12. Element designs and test results of one, two, and three stage amplifiers are presented. AC Modulated Carrier Systems

  9. Engine inlet distortion in a 9.2 percent scaled vectored thrust STOVL model in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Flood, J. D.; Amuedo, K. C.; Strock, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft which can operate from remote locations, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, a cooperative program has been defined for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. This paper presents results showing the engine inlet distortions (both temperature and pressure) in a 9.2 percent scale Vectored Thrust STOVL model in ground effects. Results are shown for the forward nozzle splay angles of 0, -6, and 18 deg. The model support system had 4 deg of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The headwind (freestream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 kn.

  10. A static investigation of yaw vectoring concepts on two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berrier, B. L.; Mason, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The flow-turning capability and nozzle internal performance of yaw-vectoring nozzle geometries were tested in the NASA Langley 16-ft Transonic wind tunnel. The concept was investigated as a means of enhancing fighter jet performance. Five two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles were equipped for yaw-vectoring and examined. The configurations included a translating left sidewall, left and right sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle throat, left sidewall flaps or port located upstream of the nozzle throat, and a powered rudder. Trials were also run with 20 deg of pitch thrust vectoring added. The feasibility of providing yaw-thrust vectoring was demonstrated, with the largest yaw vector angles being obtained with sidewall flaps downstream of the nozzle primary throat. It was concluded that yaw vector designs that scoop or capture internal nozzle flow provide the largest yaw-vector capability, but decrease the thrust the most.

  11. Experimental and analytical investigation of a fluidic power generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Bernal, L.; Beauchamp, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical investigation was performed to understand the various fluid processes associated with the conversion of flow energy into electric power in a fluidic generator. Experiments were performed under flight-simulated laboratory conditions and results were compared with those obtained in the free-flight conditions. It is concluded that the mean mass flow critically controlled the output of the fluidic generator. Cross-correlation of the outputs of transducer data indicate the presence of a standing wave in the tube; the mechanism of oscillation is an acoustic resonance tube phenomenon. A linearized model was constructed coupling the flow behavior of the jet, the jet-layer, the tube, the cavity, and the holes of the fluidic generator. The analytical results also show that the mode of the fluidic power generator is an acoustical resonance phenomenon with the frequency of operation given by f approx = a/4L, where f is the frequency of jet swallowing, a is the average speed of sound in the tube, and L is the length of the tube. Analytical results further indicated that oscillations in the fluidic generator are always damped and consequently there is a forcing of the system in operation.

  12. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  13. Measurement of microchannel fluidic resistance with a standard voltage meter.

    PubMed

    Godwin, Leah A; Deal, Kennon S; Hoepfner, Lauren D; Jackson, Louis A; Easley, Christopher J

    2013-01-03

    A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (R(fluidic)) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (R(elec)) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to R(fluidic) using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine R(fluidic) to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ∼40 to 600kPa smm(-3)) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic R(fluidic) measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel R(elec) was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged

    ScienceCinema

    Friesen, Cody

    2018-02-14

    Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

  15. Design and test of the 172K fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of concepts for control of aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power is described. The design and wind tunnel tests of a full scale fluidic rudder for a Cessna 172K aircraft, intended for subsequent flight tests were documented. The 172K fluidic rudder was designed to provide a control force equivalent to 3.3 degrees of deflection of the conventional rudder. In spite of an extremely thin airfoil, cascaded fluidic amplifiers were built to fit, with the capacity for generating the required level of control force. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that the principles of lift control using ram air power are sound and reliable under all flight conditions. The tests also demonstrated that the performance of the 172K fluidic rudder is not acceptable for flight tests until the design of the scoop is modified to prevent interference with the lift control phenomenon.

  16. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Assessment of the ascent thrust vector control actuator subsystem FMEA/CIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) are presented. The IOA effort first completed an analysis of the Ascent Thrust Vector Control Actuator (ATVD) hardware, generating draft failure modes and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The IOA results were then compared to the NASA FMEA/CIL baseline with proposed Post 51-L updates included. A resolution of each discrepancy from the comparison is provided through additional analysis as required. This report documents the results of that comparison for the Orbiter ATVC hardware. The IOA product for the ATVC actuator analysis consisted of 25 failure mode worksheets that resulted in 16 potential critical items being identified. Comparison was made to the NASA baseline which consisted of 21 FMEAs and 13 CIL items. This comparison produced agreement on all CIL items. Based on the Pre 51-L baseline, all non-CIL FMEAs were also in agreement.

  17. Parallelism in integrated fluidic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousse, Luc J.; Kopf-Sill, Anne R.; Parce, J. W.

    1998-04-01

    Many research groups around the world are working on integrated microfluidics. The goal of these projects is to automate and integrate the handling of liquid samples and reagents for measurement and assay procedures in chemistry and biology. Ultimately, it is hoped that this will lead to a revolution in chemical and biological procedures similar to that caused in electronics by the invention of the integrated circuit. The optimal size scale of channels for liquid flow is determined by basic constraints to be somewhere between 10 and 100 micrometers . In larger channels, mixing by diffusion takes too long; in smaller channels, the number of molecules present is so low it makes detection difficult. At Caliper, we are making fluidic systems in glass chips with channels in this size range, based on electroosmotic flow, and fluorescence detection. One application of this technology is rapid assays for drug screening, such as enzyme assays and binding assays. A further challenge in this area is to perform multiple functions on a chip in parallel, without a large increase in the number of inputs and outputs. A first step in this direction is a fluidic serial-to-parallel converter. Fluidic circuits will be shown with the ability to distribute an incoming serial sample stream to multiple parallel channels.

  18. Experimental results for a two-dimensional supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Burstadt, Paul L.

    1984-01-01

    Nearly all supersonic V/STOL aircraft concepts are dependent on the thrust deflecting capability of a nozzle. In one unique concept, referred to as the reverse flow dual fan, not only is there a thrust deflecting nozzle for the fan and core engine exit flow, but because of the way the propulsion system operates during vertical takeoff and landing, the supersonic inlet is also used as a thrust deflecting nozzle. This paper presents results of an experimental study to evaluate the performance of a supersonic inlet used as a thrust deflecting nozzle for this reverse flow dual fan concept. Results are presented in terms of nozzle thrust coefficient and thrust vector angle for a number of inlet/nozzle configurations. Flow visualization and nozzle exit flow survey results are also shown.

  19. Solar electric propulsion thrust subsystem development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masek, T. D.

    1973-01-01

    The Solar Electric Propulsion System developed under this program was designed to demonstrate all the thrust subsystem functions needed on an unmanned planetary vehicle. The demonstration included operation of the basic elements, power matching input and output voltage regulation, three-axis thrust vector control, subsystem automatic control including failure detection and correction capability (using a PDP-11 computer), operation of critical elements in thermal-vacuum-, zero-gravity-type propellant storage, and data outputs from all subsystem elements. The subsystem elements, functions, unique features, and test setup are described. General features and capabilities of the test-support data system are also presented. The test program culminated in a 1500-h computer-controlled, system-functional demonstration. This included simultaneous operation of two thruster/power conditioner sets. The results of this testing phase satisfied all the program goals.

  20. Static performance of vectoring/reversing non-axisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willard, C. M.; Capone, F. J.; Konarski, M.; Stevens, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental program sponsored by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory is currently in progress to determine the internal and installed performance characteristics of five different thrust vectoring/reversing non-axisymmetric nozzle concepts for tactical fighter aircraft applications. Internal performance characteristics for the five non-axisymmetric nozzles and an advanced technology axisymmetric baseline nozzle were determined in static tests conducted in January 1977 at the NASA-Langley Research Center. The non-axisymmetric nozzle models were tested at thrust deflection angles of up to 30 degrees from horizontal at throat areas associated with both dry and afterburning power. In addition, dry power reverse thrust geometries were tested for three of the concepts. The best designs demonstrated internal performance levels essentially equivalent to the baseline axisymmetric nozzle at unvectored conditions. The best designs also gave minimum performance losses due to vectoring, and reverse thrust levels up to 50% of maximum dry power forward thrust. The installed performance characteristics will be established based on wind tunnel testing to be conducted at Arnold Engineering Development Center in the fall of 1977.

  1. The feasibility of a fluidic respiratory flow meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neradka, V. F.; Bray, H. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of adapting a fluidic airspeed sensor for use as a respiratory flowmeter. A Pulmonary Function Testing Flowmeter was developed which should prove useful for mass screening applications. The fluidic sensor threshold level was not reduced sufficiently to permit its adaptation to measuring the low respiratory flow rates encountered in many respiratory disorders.

  2. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  3. Solvent-free fluidic organic dye lasers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Mager, Loic; Cham, Tran Thi; Dorkenoo, Kokou D; Fort, Alain; Wu, Jeong Weon; Barsella, Alberto; Ribierre, Jean-Charles

    2013-05-06

    We report on the demonstration of liquid organic dye lasers based on 9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole (EHCz), so-called liquid carbazole, doped with green- and red-emitting laser dyes. Both waveguide and Fabry-Perot type microcavity fluidic organic dye lasers were prepared by capillary action under solvent-free conditions. Cascade Förster-type energy transfer processes from liquid carbazole to laser dyes were employed to achieve color-variable amplified spontaneous emission and lasing. Overall, this study provides the first step towards the development of solvent-free fluidic organic semiconducting lasers and demonstrates a new kind of optoelectronic applications for liquid organic semiconductors.

  4. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [El Cerrito, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yiying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  5. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2010-01-10

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  6. Propulsion Simulations with the Unstructured-Grid CFD Tool TetrUSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Pandya, Mohagna J.

    2002-01-01

    A computational investigation has been completed to assess the capability of the NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System (TetrUSS) for simulation of exhaust nozzle flows. Three configurations were chosen for this study: (1) a fluidic jet effects model, (2) an isolated nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle, and (3) a fluidic pitchthrust- vectoring nozzle. These configurations were chosen because existing data provided a means for measuring the ability of the TetrUSS flow solver USM3D for simulating complex nozzle flows. Fluidic jet effects model simulations were compared with structured-grid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) data at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.2 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 7.2. Simulations of an isolated nacelle with a supersonic cruise nozzle were compared with wind tunnel experimental data and structured-grid CFD data at Mach numbers of 0.9 and 1.2, with a nozzle pressure ratio of 5. Fluidic pitch-thrust-vectoring nozzle simulations were compared with static experimental data and structured-grid CFD data at static freestream conditions and nozzle pressure ratios from 3 to 10. A fluidic injection case was computed with the third configuration at a nozzle pressure ratio of 4.6 and a secondary pressure ratio of 0.7. Results indicate that USM3D with the S-A turbulence model provides accurate exhaust nozzle simulations at on-design conditions, but does not predict internal shock location at overexpanded conditions or pressure recovery along a boattail at transonic conditions.

  7. Preliminary Characterization of the Altair Lunar Lander Slosh Dynamics and Some Implications for the Thrust Vector Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Strahan, Alan; Tanimoto, Rebekah; Casillas, Arturo

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) system and preliminary modeling of propellant slosh, for the Altair Lunar Lander. Altair is a vehicle element of the NASA Constellation Program aimed at returning humans to the moon. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) is the measurement and control of spacecraft position, velocity, and attitude in support of mission objectives. One key GN&C function is the commanding of effectors that control attitude and impart delta V on the vehicle, utilizing both reaction control system (RCS) thrusters and throttling and TVC gimbaling of the vehicle main engine. Both the Altair descent and ascent modules carry fuel tanks. During thrusting maneuvers, the sloshing of liquid fuels in partially filled tanks can interact with the controlled system in such a way as to cause the overall system to be unstable. These fuel tanks must be properly placed, relative to the spacecraft's c.m., to avoid any unstable interactions. Following this will be a discussion of propellant slosh modeling work performed for the present vehicle configuration, including slosh frequency and participatory fluid mass predictions. Knowing the range of slosh mode frequencies over mission phases, the TVC bandwidth must be carefully selected so as not to excite the slosh modes at those frequencies. The likely need to increase the damping factor of slosh modes via baffles will also be discussed. To conclude, a discussion of operations procedures aimed at minimizing TVC-slosh interactions will be given.

  8. Low-Thrust Many-Revolution Trajectory Optimization via Differential Dynamic Programming and a Sundman Transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2017-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectories about planetary bodies characteristically span a high count of orbital revolutions. Directing the thrust vector over many revolutions presents a challenging optimization problem for any conventional strategy. This paper demonstrates the tractability of low-thrust trajectory optimization about planetary bodies by applying a Sundman transformation to change the independent variable of the spacecraft equations of motion to the eccentric anomaly and performing the optimization with differential dynamic programming. Fuel-optimal geocentric transfers are shown in excess of 1000 revolutions while subject to Earths J2 perturbation and lunar gravity.

  9. Fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W. Henry; Dzenitis, John M.; Bennet, William J.; Baker, Brian R.

    2014-08-19

    Herein provided are fluidics platform and method for sample preparation and analysis. The fluidics platform is capable of analyzing DNA from blood samples using amplification assays such as polymerase-chain-reaction assays and loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification assays. The fluidics platform can also be used for other types of assays and analyzes. In some embodiments, a sample in a sealed tube can be inserted directly. The following isolation, detection, and analyzes can be performed without a user's intervention. The disclosed platform may also comprises a sample preparation system with a magnetic actuator, a heater, and an air-drying mechanism, and fluid manipulation processes for extraction, washing, elution, assay assembly, assay detection, and cleaning after reactions and between samples.

  10. Application of fluidic lens technology to an adaptive holographic optical element see-through autophoropter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancy, Carl H.

    A device for performing an objective eye exam has been developed to automatically determine ophthalmic prescriptions. The closed loop fluidic auto-phoropter has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested for the automatic measurement and correction of a patient's prescriptions. The adaptive phoropter is designed through the combination of a spherical-powered fluidic lens and two cylindrical fluidic lenses that are orientated 45o relative to each other. In addition, the system incorporates Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing technology to identify the eye's wavefront error and corresponding prescription. Using the wavefront error information, the fluidic auto-phoropter nulls the eye's lower order wavefront error by applying the appropriate volumes to the fluidic lenses. The combination of the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor the fluidic auto-phoropter allows for the identification and control of spherical refractive error, as well as cylinder error and axis; thus, creating a truly automated refractometer and corrective system. The fluidic auto-phoropter is capable of correcting defocus error ranging from -20D to 20D and astigmatism from -10D to 10D. The transmissive see-through design allows for the observation of natural scenes through the system at varying object planes with no additional imaging optics in the patient's line of sight. In this research, two generations of the fluidic auto-phoropter are designed and tested; the first generation uses traditional glass optics for the measurement channel. The second generation of the fluidic auto-phoropter takes advantage of the progress in the development of holographic optical elements (HOEs) to replace all the traditional glass optics. The addition of the HOEs has enabled the development of a more compact, inexpensive and easily reproducible system without compromising its performance. Additionally, the fluidic lenses were tested during a National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) parabolic flight campaign, to

  11. Dynamics of fluidic devices with applications to rotor pitch links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Lloyd H., III

    Coupling a Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite (F2MC) to an air-pressurized fluid port produces a fundamentally new class of tunable vibration isolator. This fluidlastic device provides significant vibration reduction at an isolation frequency that can be tuned over a broad frequency range. The material properties and geometry of the F2MC element, as well as the port inertance, determine the isolation frequency. A unique feature of this device is that the port inertance depends on pressure so the isolation frequency can be adjusted by changing the air pressure. For constant port inertance, the isolation frequency is largely independent of the isolated mass so the device is robust to changes in load. A nonlinear model is developed to predict isolator length and port inertance. The model is linearized and the frequency response calculated. Experiments agree with theory, demonstrating a tunable isolation range from 9 Hz to 36 Hz and transmitted force reductions of up to 60 dB at the isolation frequency. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with coupled fluidic devices has the potential to reduce the aerodynamic blade loads transmitted through the pitch links to the swashplate. Analytical models of two fluidic devices coupled with three different fluidic circuits are derived. These passive fluidlastic systems are tuned, by varying the fluid inertances and capacitances of each fluidic circuit, to reduce the transmitted pitch-link loads. The different circuit designs result in transmitted pitch link loads reduction at up to three main rotor harmonics. The simulation results show loads reduction at the targeted out-of-phase and in-phase harmonics of up to 88% and 93%, respectively. Experimental validation of two of the fluidic circuits demonstrates loads reduction of up to 89% at the out-of-phase isolation frequencies and up to 81% at the in-phase isolation frequencies. Replacing rigid pitch links on rotorcraft with fluidic pitch links changes the blade torsional

  12. Distinguishing thrust sequences in gravity-driven fold and thrust belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Marco, S.

    2018-04-01

    Piggyback or foreland-propagating thrust sequences, where younger thrusts develop in the footwalls of existing thrusts, are generally assumed to be the typical order of thrust development in most orogenic settings. However, overstep or 'break-back' sequences, where later thrusts develop above and in the hangingwalls of earlier thrusts, may potentially form during cessation of movement in gravity-driven mass transport deposits (MTDs). In this study, we provide a detailed outcrop-based analysis of such an overstep thrust sequence developed in an MTD in the southern Dead Sea Basin. Evidence that may be used to discriminate overstep thrusting from piggyback thrust sequences within the gravity-driven fold and thrust belt includes upright folds and forethrusts that are cut by younger overlying thrusts. Backthrusts form ideal markers that are also clearly offset and cut by overlying younger forethrusts. Portions of the basal detachment to the thrust system are folded and locally imbricated in footwall synclines below forethrust ramps, and these geometries also support an overstep sequence. However, new 'short-cut' basal detachments develop below these synclines, indicating that movement continued on the basal detachment rather than it being abandoned as in classic overstep sequences. Further evidence for 'synchronous thrusting', where movement on more than one thrust occurs at the same time, is provided by displacement patterns on sequences of thrust ramp imbricates that systematically increases downslope towards the toe of the MTD. Older thrusts that initiate downslope in the broadly overstep sequence continue to move and therefore accrue greater displacements during synchronous thrusting. Our study provides a template to help distinguish different thrust sequences in both orogenic settings and gravity-driven surficial systems, with displacement patterns potentially being imaged in seismic sections across offshore MTDs.

  13. Tests of a D vented thrust deflecting nozzle behind a simulated turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    A D vented thrust deflecting nozzle applicable to subsonic V/STOL aircraft was tested behind a simulated turbofan engine in the verticle thrust stand. Nozzle thrust, fan operating characteristics, nozzle entrance conditions, and static pressures were measured. Nozzle performance was measured for variations in exit area and thrust deflection angle. Six core nozzle configurations, the effect of core exit axial location, mismatched core and fan stream nozzle pressure ratios, and yaw vane presence were evaluated. Core nozzle configuration affected performance at normal and engine out operating conditions. Highest vectored nozzle performance resulted for a given exit area when core and fan stream pressure were equal. Its is concluded that high nozzle performance can be maintained at both normal and engine out conditions through control of the nozzle entrance Mach number with a variable exit area.

  14. An inkjet-printed electrowetting valve for paper-fluidic sensors.

    PubMed

    Koo, Charmaine K W; He, Fei; Nugen, Sam R

    2013-09-07

    Paper-fluidic devices have become an emerging trend for micro total analysis systems (microTAS) in the bioengineering field due to their ability to maintain the rapid, sensitive and specific attributes of microfluidic devices. Subsequently, paper-fluidic devices are also more portable, have a lower production cost and are easier to use. However, one of the obstacles in developing paper fluidic devices is the limited ability to control the rate of fluid flow during an assay. In our project, we use electrowetting on dielectrics where a dielectric, which is normally hydrophobic, is polarized and becomes hydrophilic. We have fabricated paper-fluidic devices by inkjet printing and spraying conductive hydrophobic electrodes/valves in conjunction with conductive hydrophilic electrodes which are able to stop the fluid front of phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The hydrophobic valves were then actuated by an applied potential which altered the fluorinated monolayer on the electrode. As the applied potential between the electrodes was increased, the amount of time for the fluid front to pass the valve decreased because the monolayer was altered faster. However, we did not observe significant differences in time as we increased the distance between the electrodes. The valves were also incorporated in a lateral flow assay where the device was used to detect Saccharomyces cerevisiae rRNA sequences. With the ability to control the fluid flow in a paper-fluidic device, more complex and intricate assays can be developed, which not only can be applied in the biomedical, food and environmental fields, but also can be used in low resource settings for the detection of diseases.

  15. Astigmatism and defocus wavefront correction via Zernike modes produced with fluidic lenses

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Randall; Mathine, David L.; Schwiegerling, Jim; Peyman, Gholam; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2010-01-01

    Fluidic lenses have been developed for ophthalmic applications with continuously varying optical powers for second order Zernike modes. Continuously varying corrections for both myopic and hyperopic defocus have been demonstrated over a range of three diopters using a fluidic lens with a circular retaining aperture. Likewise, a six diopter range of astigmatism has been continuously corrected using fluidic lenses with rectangular apertures. Imaging results have been characterized using a model eye. PMID:19571912

  16. Static investigation of several yaw vectoring concepts on nonaxisymmetric nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, M. L.; Berrier, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    A test has been conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the flow-turning capability and the effects on nozzle internal performance of several yaw vectoring concepts. Nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles with throat areas simulating dry and afterburning power settings and single expansion ramp nozzles with a throat area simulating a dry power setting were modified for yaw thrust vectoring. Forward-thrust and pitch-vectored nozzle configurations were tested with each yaw vectoring concept. Four basic yaw vectoring concepts were investigated on the nonaxisymmetric convergent-divergent nozzles: (1) translating sidewall; (2) downstream (of throat) flaps; (3) upstream (of throat) port/flap; and (4) powered rudder. Selected combinations of the rudder with downstream flaps or upstream port/flap were also tested. A single yaw vectoring concept, post-exit flaps, was investigated on the single expansion ramp nozzles. All testing was conducted at static (no external flow) conditions and nozzle pressure ratios varied from 2.0 up to 10.0.

  17. Low-Thrust Many-Revolution Trajectory Optimization via Differential Dynamic Programming and a Sundman Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2018-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectories about planetary bodies characteristically span a high count of orbital revolutions. Directing the thrust vector over many revolutions presents a challenging optimization problem for any conventional strategy. This paper demonstrates the tractability of low-thrust trajectory optimization about planetary bodies by applying a Sundman transformation to change the independent variable of the spacecraft equations of motion to an orbit angle and performing the optimization with differential dynamic programming. Fuel-optimal geocentric transfers are computed with the transfer duration extended up to 2000 revolutions. The flexibility of the approach to higher fidelity dynamics is shown with Earth's J 2 perturbation and lunar gravity included for a 500 revolution transfer.

  18. Low-Thrust Many-Revolution Trajectory Optimization via Differential Dynamic Programming and a Sundman Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Jonathan D.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Englander, Jacob A.

    2018-06-01

    Low-thrust trajectories about planetary bodies characteristically span a high count of orbital revolutions. Directing the thrust vector over many revolutions presents a challenging optimization problem for any conventional strategy. This paper demonstrates the tractability of low-thrust trajectory optimization about planetary bodies by applying a Sundman transformation to change the independent variable of the spacecraft equations of motion to an orbit angle and performing the optimization with differential dynamic programming. Fuel-optimal geocentric transfers are computed with the transfer duration extended up to 2000 revolutions. The flexibility of the approach to higher fidelity dynamics is shown with Earth's J 2 perturbation and lunar gravity included for a 500 revolution transfer.

  19. Compressible flow in fluidic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graff, Emilio; Hirsch, Damian; Gharib, Mory

    2013-11-01

    We present qualitative observations on the internal flow characteristics of fluidic oscillator geometries commonly referred to as sweeping jets in active flow control applications. We also discuss the effect of the geometry on the output jet in conditions from startup to supersonic exit velocity. Supported by the Boeing Company.

  20. Polymer-Based Dense Fluidic Networks for High Throughput Screening with Ultrasensitive Fluorescence Detection

    PubMed Central

    Okagbare, Paul I.; Soper, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Microfluidics represents a viable platform for performing High Throughput Screening (HTS) due to its ability to automate fluid handling and generate fluidic networks with high number densities over small footprints appropriate for the simultaneous optical interrogation of many screening assays. While most HTS campaigns depend on fluorescence, readers typically use point detection and serially address the assay results significantly lowering throughput or detection sensitivity due to a low duty cycle. To address this challenge, we present here the fabrication of a high density microfluidic network packed into the imaging area of a large field-of-view (FoV) ultrasensitive fluorescence detection system. The fluidic channels were 1, 5 or 10 μm (width), 1 μm (depth) with a pitch of 1–10 μm and each fluidic processor was individually addressable. The fluidic chip was produced from a molding tool using hot embossing and thermal fusion bonding to enclose the fluidic channels. A 40X microscope objective (numerical aperture = 0.75) created a FoV of 200 μm, providing the ability to interrogate ~25 channels using the current fluidic configuration. An ultrasensitive fluorescence detection system with a large FoV was used to transduce fluorescence signals simultaneously from each fluidic processor onto the active area of an electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD). The utility of these multichannel networks for HTS was demonstrated by carrying out the high throughput monitoring of the activity of an enzyme, APE1, used as a model screening assay. PMID:20872611

  1. Thrust rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

  2. Water based fluidic radio frequency metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiaobing; Zhao, Shaolin; Hu, Mingjun; Xiao, Junfeng; Zhang, Naibo; Yang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials offer great flexibility for wave manipulation and enable exceptional functionality design, ranging from negative refraction, anomalous reflection, super-resolution imaging, transformation optics to cloaking, etc. However, demonstration of metamaterials with unprecedented functionalities is still challenging and costly due to the structural complexity or special material properties. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the versatile fluidic radio frequency metamaterials with negative refraction using a water-embedded and metal-coated 3D architecture. Effective medium analysis confirms that metallic frames create an evanescent environment while simultaneously water cylinders produce negative permeability under Mie resonance. The water-metal coupled 3D architectures and the accessory devices for measurement are fabricated by 3D printing with post electroless deposition. Our study also reveals the great potential of fluidic metamaterials and versatility of the 3D printing process in rapid prototyping of customized metamaterials.

  3. The Promise of Macromolecular Crystallization in Micro-fluidic Chips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Micro-fluidics, or lab on a chip technology, is proving to be a powerful, rapid, and efficient approach to a wide variety of bio-analytical and microscale bio-preparative needs. The low materials consumption, combined with the potential for packing a large number of experiments in a few cubic centimeters, makes it an attractive technique for both initial screening and subsequent optimization of macromolecular crystallization conditions. Screening operations, which require equilibrating macromolecule solution with a standard set of premixed solutions, are relatively straightforward and have been successfully demonstrated in a micro-fluidics platform. More complex optimization methods, where crystallization solutions are independently formulated from a range of stock solutions, are considerably more complex and have yet to be demonstrated. To be competitive with either approach, a micro-fluidics system must offer ease of operation, be able to maintain a sealed environment over several weeks to months, and give ready access for the observation of crystals as they are grown.

  4. Numerical Studies of a Fluidic Diverter for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis E.; Raghu, Surya

    2009-01-01

    The internal flow structure in a specific fluidic diverter is studied over a range from low subsonic to sonic inlet conditions by a time-dependent numerical analysis. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The velocity, temperature and pressure fields are calculated for subsonic conditions and the self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted. The results of our numerical studies have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements of oscillation frequencies. The acoustic speed in the gaseous medium is determined to be a key factor for up to sonic conditions in governing the mechanism of initiating the oscillations as well as determining its frequency. The feasibility of employing plasma actuation with a minimal perturbation level is demonstrated in steady-state calculations to also produce oscillation frequencies of our own choosing instead of being dependent on the fixed-geometry fluidic device.

  5. Refractive multiple optical tweezers for parallel biochemical analysis in micro-fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merenda, Fabrice; Rohner, Johann; Pascoal, Pedro; Fournier, Jean-Marc; Vogel, Horst; Salathé, René-Paul

    2007-02-01

    We present a multiple laser tweezers system based on refractive optics. The system produces an array of 100 optical traps thanks to a refractive microlens array, whose focal plane is imaged into the focal plane of a high-NA microscope objective. This refractive multi-tweezers system is combined to micro-fluidics, aiming at performing simultaneous biochemical reactions on ensembles of free floating objects. Micro-fluidics allows both transporting the particles to the trapping area, and conveying biochemical reagents to the trapped particles. Parallel trapping in micro-fluidics is achieved with polystyrene beads as well as with native vesicles produced from mammalian cells. The traps can hold objects against fluid flows exceeding 100 micrometers per second. Parallel fluorescence excitation and detection on the ensemble of trapped particles is also demonstrated. Additionally, the system is capable of selectively and individually releasing particles from the tweezers array using a complementary steerable laser beam. Strategies for high-yield particle capture and individual particle release in a micro-fluidic environment are discussed. A comparison with diffractive optical tweezers enhances the pros and cons of refractive systems.

  6. Multi-cellular 3D human primary liver cell culture elevates metabolic activity under fluidic flow.

    PubMed

    Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A; Applegate, Dawn R; Shuler, Michael L

    2015-05-21

    We have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop between reservoirs and the accompanying periodically changing fluidic flow (average flow rate of 650 μL min(-1), and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne cm(-2)). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures increase their metabolic activity in response to fluidic flow periodically changes direction. Since fluidic flow that changes direction periodically drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, our findings support the theory that the increase in hepatic metabolic activity associated with fluidic flow is either activated by mechanisms other than shear sensing (for example increased opportunities for gas and metabolite exchange), or that it follows a shear sensing mechanism that does not depend on the direction of shear. Our mode of device operation allows us to evaluate drugs under fluidic cell culture conditions and at low device manufacturing and operation

  7. Fluidic Sensor Temperature Indicating System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A fluidic sensor temperature indicating system designed by Honeywell Inc was tested on a T56 engine during dynamometer calibration. It was also...based on the sensor being mounted in a T56 engine showed a hot gas temperature drop from 1970F at the sensor entrance to 1760F in the sensor pulsation

  8. Coalescence of liquid droplets in micro fluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingming; Cubaud, Thomas; Ho, Chih-Ming; Chiou, Peiyu; Wu, Ming C.

    2003-11-01

    We study experimentally the initial dynamic process when two droplets (diameter range 100μm -1000μm) merge in micro fluidic device. It is known that passive mixing in micro fluidic device relies mostly on a time consuming process - diffusion. In digital fluidic platform,(S.K. Cho, H. Moon, and C.J. Kim, J. of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol 12, No 1, 70(2003).) we find that the surface-tension-driven flow at the initial stage of the merging can be used to enhance mixing. In our experiments, the droplets are manipulated by two different methods, and results are compared. In one method, the droplet is manipulated by pressure driven flow in micro channels, and in the other, the droplet is moved using an optical electro-wetting device. The droplet is seeded with 4 μm diameter latex particles for visualizing the mixing process. The outlines of the droplets as well as the flow patterns marked by the latex particles inside the droplets are recorded using a high speed imaging system. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation (CTS-0121340), Institute for CMISE (a NASA URETI), DARPA MPG program, and DARPA Optoelectronics Center Program (CHIPS).

  9. Investigation of Combustion Control in a Dump Combustor Using the Feedback Free Fluidic Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Eric J.; Casiano, Matthew J.; Anderson, William E.; Heister, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    A feedback free fluidic oscillator was designed and integrated into a single element rocket combustor with the goal of suppressing longitudinal combustion instabilities. The fluidic oscillator uses internal fluid dynamics to create an unsteady outlet jet at a specific frequency. An array of nine fluidic oscillators was tested to mimic modulated secondary oxidizer injection into the combustor dump plane. The combustor has a coaxial injector that uses gaseous methane and decomposed hydrogen peroxide with an overall O/F ratio of 11.7. A sonic choke plate on an actuator arm allows for continuous adjustment of the oxidizer post acoustics enabling the study of a variety of instability magnitudes. The fluidic oscillator unsteady outlet jet performance is compared against equivalent steady jet injection and a baseline design with no secondary oxidizer injection. At the most unstable operating conditions, the unsteady outlet jet saw a 67% reduction in the instability pressure oscillation magnitude when compared to the steady jet and baseline data. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics analysis of the combustor gives insight into the flow field interaction of the fluidic oscillators. The results indicate that open loop high frequency propellant modulation for combustion control can be achieved through fluidic devices that require no moving parts or electrical power to operate.

  10. STOL landing thrust: Reverser jet flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotansky, D. R.; Glaze, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis tools and modeling concepts for jet flow fields encountered upon use of thrust reversers for high performance military aircraft are described. A semi-empirical model of the reverser ground wall jet interaction with the uniform cross flow due to aircraft forward velocity is described. This ground interaction model is used to demonstrate exhaust gas ingestion conditions. The effects of control of exhaust jet vector angle, lateral splay, and moving versus fixed ground simulation are discussed. The Adler/Baron jet-in-cross flow model is used in conjunction with three dimensional panel methods to investigate the upper surface jet induced flow field.

  11. Fuel-optimal, low-thrust transfers between libration point orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Jeffrey R.

    Mission design requires the efficient management of spacecraft fuel to reduce mission cost, increase payload mass, and extend mission life. High efficiency, low-thrust propulsion devices potentially offer significant propellant reductions. Periodic orbits that exist in a multi-body regime and low-thrust transfers between these orbits can be applied in many potential mission scenarios, including scientific observation and communications missions as well as cargo transport. In light of the recent discovery of water ice in lunar craters, libration point orbits that support human missions within the Earth-Moon region are of particular interest. This investigation considers orbit transfer trajectories generated by a variable specific impulse, low-thrust engine with a primer-vector-based, fuel-optimizing transfer strategy. A multiple shooting procedure with analytical gradients yields rapid solutions and serves as the basis for an investigation into the trade space between flight time and consumption of fuel mass. Path and performance constraints can be included at node points along any thrust arc. Integration of invariant manifolds into the design strategy may also yield improved performance and greater fuel savings. The resultant transfers offer insight into the performance of the variable specific impulse engine and suggest novel implementations of conventional impulsive thrusters. Transfers incorporating invariant manifolds demonstrate the fuel savings and expand the mission design capabilities that are gained by exploiting system symmetry. A number of design applications are generated.

  12. Fluidic hydrogen detector production prototype development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roe, G. W.; Wright, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen gas sensor that can replace catalytic combustion sensors used to detect leaks in the liquid hydrogen transfer systems at Kennedy Space Center was developed. A fluidic sensor concept, based on the principle that the frequency of a fluidic oscillator is proportional to the square root of the molecular weight of its operating fluid, was utilized. To minimize sensitivity to pressure and temperature fluctuations, and to make the sensor specific for hydrogen, two oscillators are used. One oscillator operates on sample gas containing hydrogen, while the other operates on sample gas with the hydrogen converted to steam. The conversion is accomplished with a small catalytic converter. The frequency difference is taken, and the hydrogen concentration computed with a simple digital processing circuit. The output from the sensor is an analog signal proportional to hydrogen content. The sensor is shown to be accurate and insensitive to severe environmental disturbances. It is also specific for hydrogen, even with large helium concentrations in the sample gas.

  13. Fluidic Oscillator Array for Synchronized Oscillating Jet Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator array includes a plurality of fluidic-oscillator main flow channels. Each main flow channel has an inlet and an outlet. Each main flow channel has first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof, and has a first and a second feedback ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. The feedback ports are located downstream of the control ports with respect to a direction of a fluid flow through the main flow channel. The system also includes a first fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each first control port and each first feedback port, and a second fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each second control port and each second feedback port.

  14. Fluidic Oscillator Array for Synchronized Oscillating Jet Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koklu, Mehti (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A fluidic oscillator array includes a plurality of fluidic-oscillator main flow channels. Each main flow channel has an inlet and an outlet. Each main flow channel has first and second control ports disposed at opposing sides thereof, and has a first and a second feedback ports disposed at opposing sides thereof. The feedback ports are located downstream of the control ports with respect to a direction of a fluid flow through the main flow channel. The system also includes a first fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each first control port and each first feedback port, and a second fluid accumulator in fluid communication with each second control port and each second feedback port.

  15. Analysis of a Linear System for Variable-Thrust Control in the Terminal Phase of Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hord, Richard A.; Durling, Barbara J.

    1961-01-01

    A linear system for applying thrust to a ferry vehicle in the 3 terminal phase of rendezvous with a satellite is analyzed. This system requires that the ferry thrust vector per unit mass be variable and equal to a suitable linear combination of the measured position and velocity vectors of the ferry relative to the satellite. The variations of the ferry position, speed, acceleration, and mass ratio are examined for several combinations of the initial conditions and two basic control parameters analogous to the undamped natural frequency and the fraction of critical damping. Upon making a desirable selection of one control parameter and requiring minimum fuel expenditure for given terminal-phase initial conditions, a simplified analysis in one dimension practically fixes the choice of the remaining control parameter. The system can be implemented by an automatic controller or by a pilot.

  16. A fluidic diode, valves, and a sequential-loading circuit fabricated on layered paper.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Cogswell, Jeremy; Anagnostopoulos, Constantine; Faghri, Mohammad

    2012-08-21

    Current microfluidic paper-based devices lack crucial components for fluid manipulation. We created a fluidic diode fabricated entirely on a single layer of paper to control the wicking of fluids. The fluidic diode is a two-terminal component that promotes or stops wicking along a paper channel. We further constructed a trigger and a delay valve based on the fluidic diode. Furthermore, we demonstrated a high-level functional circuit, consisting of a diode and a delay valve, to manipulate two fluids in a sequential manner. Our study provides new, transformative tools to manipulate fluid in microfluidic paper-based devices.

  17. Manufacture of micro fluidic devices by laser welding using thermal transfer printing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, R.; Klein, K. F.; Tobisch, T.; Thoelken, D.; Belz, M.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-fluidic devices are widely used today in the areas of medical diagnostics and drug research, as well as for applications within the process, electronics and chemical industry. Microliters of fluids or single cell to cell interactions can be conveniently analyzed with such devices using fluorescence imaging, phase contrast microscopy or spectroscopic techniques. Typical micro-fluidic devices consist of a thermoplastic base component with chambers and channels covered by a hermetic fluid and gas tight sealed lid component. Both components are usually from the same or similar thermoplastic material. Different mechanical, adhesive or thermal joining processes can be used to assemble base component and lid. Today, laser beam welding shows the potential to become a novel manufacturing opportunity for midsize and large scale production of micro-fluidic devices resulting in excellent processing quality by localized heat input and low thermal stress to the device during processing. For laser welding, optical absorption of the resin and laser wavelength has to be matched for proper joining. This paper will focus on a new approach to prepare micro-fluidic channels in such devices using a thermal transfer printing process, where an optical absorbing layer absorbs the laser energy. Advantages of this process will be discussed in combination with laser welding of optical transparent micro-fluidic devices.

  18. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, David

    2016-01-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray’s law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray’s law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows. PMID:27493583

  19. Relationship between Biomechanical Characteristics of Spinal Manipulation and Neural Responses in an Animal Model: Effect of Linear Control of Thrust Displacement versus Force, Thrust Amplitude, Thrust Duration, and Thrust Rate

    PubMed Central

    Reed, William R.; Cao, Dong-Yuan; Long, Cynthia R.; Kawchuk, Gregory N.; Pickar, Joel G.

    2013-01-01

    High velocity low amplitude spinal manipulation (HVLA-SM) is used frequently to treat musculoskeletal complaints. Little is known about the intervention's biomechanical characteristics that determine its clinical benefit. Using an animal preparation, we determined how neural activity from lumbar muscle spindles during a lumbar HVLA-SM is affected by the type of thrust control and by the thrust's amplitude, duration, and rate. A mechanical device was used to apply a linear increase in thrust displacement or force and to control thrust duration. Under displacement control, neural responses during the HVLA-SM increased in a fashion graded with thrust amplitude. Under force control neural responses were similar regardless of the thrust amplitude. Decreasing thrust durations at all thrust amplitudes except the smallest thrust displacement had an overall significant effect on increasing muscle spindle activity during the HVLA-SMs. Under force control, spindle responses specifically and significantly increased between thrust durations of 75 and 150 ms suggesting the presence of a threshold value. Thrust velocities greater than 20–30 mm/s and thrust rates greater than 300 N/s tended to maximize the spindle responses. This study provides a basis for considering biomechanical characteristics of an HVLA-SM that should be measured and reported in clinical efficacy studies to help define effective clinical dosages. PMID:23401713

  20. Static internal performance evaluation of several thrust reversing concepts for 2D-CD nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, R. K.; Duss, D. J.; Leavitt, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent performance testing of the two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2D-CD) nozzle has established the concept as a viable alternative to the axisymmetric nozzle for advanced technology aircraft. This type of exhaust system also offers potential integration and performance advantages in the areas of thrust reversing and vectoring over axi-symmetric nozzles. These advantages include the practical integration of thrust reversers which operate not only to reduce landing roll but also operate in-flight for enhanced maneuvering and thrust spoiling. To date there is a very limited data base available from which criteria can be developed for the design and evaluation of this type of thrust reverser system. For this reason, a static scale model test was conducted in which five different thrust reverser designs were evaluated. Each of the five models had varying performance/integration requirements which dictated the five different designs. Some of the parameters investigated in this test included; variable angle external cascade vanes, fixed angle internal cascade vanes, variable position inner doors, external slider doors and internal slider valves. In addition, normal force and yawing moment generation was investigated using the thrust reverser system. Selected results from this test will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  1. Shaping low-thrust trajectories with thrust-handling feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Ehsan; Kolmanovsky, Ilya; Atkins, Ella

    2018-02-01

    Shape-based methods are becoming popular in low-thrust trajectory optimization due to their fast computation speeds. In existing shape-based methods constraints are treated at the acceleration level but not at the thrust level. These two constraint types are not equivalent since spacecraft mass decreases over time as fuel is expended. This paper develops a shape-based method based on a Fourier series approximation that is capable of representing trajectories defined in spherical coordinates and that enforces thrust constraints. An objective function can be incorporated to minimize overall mission cost, i.e., achieve minimum ΔV . A representative mission from Earth to Mars is studied. The proposed Fourier series technique is demonstrated capable of generating feasible and near-optimal trajectories. These attributes can facilitate future low-thrust mission designs where different trajectory alternatives must be rapidly constructed and evaluated.

  2. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics (Open Access, Publisher’s Version)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-30

    advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and...millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to pro- duce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D - printed fluidics with reaction vol

  3. Fluidic conduits for highly efficient purification of target species in EWOD-driven droplet microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Shah, Gaurav J; Kim, Chang-Jin Cj

    2009-08-21

    Due to the lack of continuous flows that would wash unwanted specifies and impurities off from a target location, droplet microfluidics commonly employs a long serial dilution process to purify target species. In this work, we achieve high-purity separation for the case of electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) based droplet microfluidics by introducing a "fluidic conduit" between a sample droplet and a buffer droplet. The long and slender fluidic path minimizes the diffusion and fluidic mixing between the two droplets (thus eliminating non-specific transport) but provides a conduit between them for actively transported particles (thus allowing the specific transport). The conduit is purely fluidic, stabilized chemically (e.g. using surfactants) and controlled by EWOD. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by eliminating approximately 97% non-magnetic beads in just one purification step, while maintaining high collection efficiency (>99%) of magnetic beads.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Fluidic Actuators for Flow Control Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasta, Veer N.; Koklu, Mehti; Wygnanski, Israel L.; Fares, Ehab

    2012-01-01

    Active flow control technology is finding increasing use in aerospace applications to control flow separation and improve aerodynamic performance. In this paper we examine the characteristics of a class of fluidic actuators that are being considered for active flow control applications for a variety of practical problems. Based on recent experimental work, such actuators have been found to be more efficient for controlling flow separation in terms of mass flow requirements compared to constant blowing and suction or even synthetic jet actuators. The fluidic actuators produce spanwise oscillating jets, and therefore are also known as sweeping jets. The frequency and spanwise sweeping extent depend on the geometric parameters and mass flow rate entering the actuators through the inlet section. The flow physics associated with these actuators is quite complex and not fully understood at this time. The unsteady flow generated by such actuators is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann based solver PowerFLOW R . Computed mean and standard deviation of velocity profiles generated by a family of fluidic actuators in quiescent air are compared with experimental data. Simulated results replicate the experimentally observed trends with parametric variation of geometry and inflow conditions.

  5. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  6. Freeform Fluidics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Love, Lonnie J; Richardson, Bradley S; Lind, Randall F

    This work explores the integration of miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing an approach to miniaturized fluidic actuation and control that enables high dexterity, low cost and a pathway towards energy efficiency. Previous work focused on mesoscale digital control valves (high pressure, low flow) and the integration of actuation and fluid passages directly with the structure. The primary application being fluid powered robotics. The fundamental challenge was part complexity. Additive manufacturing technologies (E-Beam, Laser and Ultrasonic deposition) enable freeform manufacturing using conventional metal alloys with excellent mechanical properties. The combination of thesemore » two technologies (miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing) can enable a paradigm shift in fluid power, increasing efficiency while simultaneously reducing weight, size, complexity and cost.« less

  7. Solenoid Driven Pressure Valve System: Toward Versatile Fluidic Control in Paper Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taehoon H; Hahn, Young Ki; Lee, Jungmin; van Noort, Danny; Kim, Minseok S

    2018-02-20

    As paper-based diagnostics has become predominantly driven by more advanced microfluidic technology, many of the research efforts are still focused on developing reliable and versatile fluidic control devices, apart from improving sensitivity and reproducibility. In this work, we introduce a novel and robust paper fluidic control system enabling versatile fluidic control. The system comprises a linear push-pull solenoid and an Arduino Uno microcontroller. The precisely controlled pressure exerted on the paper stops the flow. We first determined the stroke distance of the solenoid to obtain a constant pressure while examining the fluidic time delay as a function of the pressure. Results showed that strips of grade 1 chromatography paper had superior reproducibility in fluid transport. Next, we characterized the reproducibility of the fluidic velocity which depends on the type and grade of paper used. As such, we were able to control the flow velocity on the paper and also achieve a complete stop of flow with a pressure over 2.0 MPa. Notably, after the actuation of the pressure driven valve (PDV), the previously pressed area regained its original flow properties. This means that, even on a previously pressed area, multiple valve operations can be successfully conducted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an active and repetitive valve operation in paper microfluidics. As a proof of concept, we have chosen to perform a multistep detection system in the form of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with mouse IgG as the target analyte.

  8. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators Thrust-Measurement Methodology Incorporating New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a large diameter, grounded, metal sleeve.

  9. Minor New Source Review Permit Application: Fluidic, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal Minor New Source Review New Construction Application for proposed construction of new equipment at an existing source at Fluidic's facility located at 8425 N. 9th Street, Suite #4, Scottsdale, Arizona 48258.

  10. PPT Thrust Stand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    A torsional-type thrust stand has been designed and built to test Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (PPT's) in both single shot and repetitive operating modes. Using this stand, momentum per pulse was determined strictly as a function of thrust stand deflection, spring constant, and natural frequency. No empirical corrections were required. The accuracy of the method was verified using a swinging impact pendulum. Momentum transfer data between the thrust stand and the pendulum were consistent to within 1%. Following initial calibrations, the stand was used to test a Lincoln Experimental Satellite (LES-8/9) thruster. The LES-8/9 system had a mass of approximately 7.5 kg, with a nominal thrust to weight ratio of 1.3 x 10(exp -5). A total of 34 single shot thruster pulses were individually measured. The average impulse bit per pulse was 266 microN-s, which was slightly less than the value of 300 microN-s published in previous reports on this device. Repetitive pulse measurements were performed similar to ordinary steady-state thrust measurements. The thruster was operated for 30 minutes at a repetition rate of 132 pulses per minute and yielded an average thrust of 573 microN. Using average thrust, the average impulse bit per pulse was estimated to be 260 microN-s, which was in agreement with the single shot data. Zero drift during the repetitive pulse test was found to be approximately 1% of the measured thrust.

  11. High-Rate Assembly of Nanomaterials on Insulating Surfaces Using Electro-Fluidic Directed Assembly.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cihan; Sirman, Asli; Halder, Aditi; Busnaina, Ahmed

    2017-08-22

    Conductive or semiconducting nanomaterials-based applications such as electronics and sensors often require direct placement of such nanomaterials on insulating surfaces. Most fluidic-based directed assembly techniques on insulating surfaces utilize capillary force and evaporation but are diffusion limited and slow. Electrophoretic-based assembly, on the other hand, is fast but can only be utilized for assembly on a conductive surface. Here, we present a directed assembly technique that enables rapid assembly of nanomaterials on insulating surfaces. The approach leverages and combines fluidic and electrophoretic assembly by applying the electric field through an insulating surface via a conductive film underneath. The approach (called electro-fluidic) yields an assembly process that is 2 orders of magnitude faster compared to fluidic assembly. By understanding the forces on the assembly process, we have demonstrated the controlled assembly of various types of nanomaterials that are conducting, semiconducting, and insulating including nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes on insulating rigid and flexible substrates. The presented approach shows great promise for making practical devices in miniaturized sensors and flexible electronics.

  12. A study of variable thrust, variable specific impulse trajectories for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tadashi

    A study has been performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of variable thrust and variable Isp (specific impulse) trajectories for solar system exploration. There have been several numerical research efforts for variable thrust, variable Isp, power-limited trajectory optimization problems. All of these results conclude that variable thrust, variable Isp (variable specific impulse, or VSI) engines are superior to constant thrust, constant Isp (constant specific impulse; or CSI) engines. However, most of these research efforts assume a mission from Earth to Mars, and some of them further assume that these planets are circular and coplanar. Hence they still lack the generality. This research has been conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Is a VSI engine always better than a CSI engine or a high thrust engine for any mission to any planet with any time of flight considering lower propellant mass as the sole criterion? (2) If a planetary swing-by is used for a VSI trajectory, is the fuel savings of a VSI swing-by trajectory better than that of a CSI swing-by or high thrust swing-by trajectory? To support this research, an unique, new computer-based interplanetary trajectory calculation program has been created. This program utilizes a calculus of variations algorithm to perform overall optimization of thrust, Isp, and thrust vector direction along a trajectory that minimizes fuel consumption for interplanetary travel. It is assumed that the propulsion system is power-limited, and thus the compromise between thrust and Isp is a variable to be optimized along the flight path. This program is capable of optimizing not only variable thrust trajectories but also constant thrust trajectories in 3-D space using a planetary ephemeris database. It is also capable of conducting planetary swing-bys. Using this program, various Earth-originating trajectories have been investigated and the optimized results have been compared to traditional CSI and high

  13. Effect of varying internal geometry on the static performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Re, Richard J.; Mason, Mary L.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted to evaluate the effects of several geometric parameters on the internal performance of rectangular thrust-reverser ports for nonaxisymmetric nozzles. Internal geometry was varied with a test apparatus which simulated a forward-flight nozzle with a single, fully deployed reverser port. The test apparatus was designed to simulate thrust reversal (conceptually) either in the convergent section of the nozzle or in the constant-area duct just upstream of the nozzle. The main geometric parameters investigated were port angle, port corner radius, port location, and internal flow blocker angle. For all reverser port geometries, the port opening had an aspect ratio (throat width to throat height) of 6.1 and had a constant passage area from the geometric port throat to the exit. Reverser-port internal performance and thrust-vector angles computed from force-balance measurements are presented.

  14. Opto-mechano-fluidic viscometer

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Han, Kewen, E-mail: khan56@illinois.edu; Zhu, Kaiyuan; Bahl, Gaurav, E-mail: bahl@illinois.edu

    2014-07-07

    The recent development of opto-mechano-fluidic resonators has provided—by harnessing photon radiation pressure—a microfluidics platform for the optical sensing of fluid density and bulk modulus. Here, we show that fluid viscosity can also be determined through optomechanical measurement of the vibrational noise spectrum of the resonator mechanical modes. A linear relationship between the spectral linewidth and root-viscosity is predicted and experimentally verified in the low viscosity regime. Our result is a step towards multi-frequency measurement of viscoelasticity of arbitrary fluids, without sample contamination, using highly sensitive optomechanics techniques.

  15. Fluidic origami cellular structure -- combining the plant nastic movements with paper folding art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2015-04-01

    By combining the physical principles behind the nastic plant movements and the rich designs of paper folding art, we propose a new class of multi-functional adaptive structure called fluidic origami cellular structure. The basic elements of this structure are fluid filled origami "cells", made by connecting two compatible Miura-Ori stripes along their crease lines. These cells are assembled seamlessly into a three dimensional topology, and their internal fluid pressure or volume are strategically controlled just like in plants for nastic movements. Because of the unique geometry of the Miura-Ori, the relationships among origami folding, internal fluid properties, and the crease bending are intricate and highly nonlinear. Fluidic origami can exploit such relationships to provide multiple adaptive functions concurrently and effectively. For example, it can achieve actuation or morphing by actively changing the internal fluid volume, and stillness tuning by constraining the fluid volume. Fluidic origami can also be bistable because of the nonlinear correlation between folding and crease material bending, and such bistable character can be altered significantly by fluid pressurization. These functions are natural and essential companions with respect to each other, so that fluidic origami can holistically exhibit many attractive characteristics of plants and deliver rapid and efficient actuation/morphing while maintaining a high structural stillness. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and working principles of the fluidic origami, as well as to explore and demonstrate its performance potential.

  16. Microfluidic hubs, systems, and methods for interface fluidic modules

    DOEpatents

    Bartsch, Michael S; Claudnic, Mark R; Kim, Hanyoup; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; Van De Vreugde, James L

    2015-01-27

    Embodiments of microfluidic hubs and systems are described that may be used to connect fluidic modules. A space between surfaces may be set by fixtures described herein. In some examples a fixture may set substrate-to-substrate spacing based on a distance between registration surfaces on which the respective substrates rest. Fluidic interfaces are described, including examples where fluid conduits (e.g. capillaries) extend into the fixture to the space between surfaces. Droplets of fluid may be introduced to and/or removed from microfluidic hubs described herein, and fluid actuators may be used to move droplets within the space between surfaces. Continuous flow modules may be integrated with the hubs in some examples.

  17. Miniaturized unified imaging system using bio-inspired fluidic lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Frank S.; Cho, Sung Hwan; Qiao, Wen; Kim, Nam-Hyong; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2008-08-01

    Miniaturized imaging systems have become ubiquitous as they are found in an ever-increasing number of devices, such as cellular phones, personal digital assistants, and web cameras. Until now, the design and fabrication methodology of such systems have not been significantly different from conventional cameras. The only established method to achieve focusing is by varying the lens distance. On the other hand, the variable-shape crystalline lens found in animal eyes offers inspiration for a more natural way of achieving an optical system with high functionality. Learning from the working concepts of the optics in the animal kingdom, we developed bio-inspired fluidic lenses for a miniature universal imager with auto-focusing, macro, and super-macro capabilities. Because of the enormous dynamic range of fluidic lenses, the miniature camera can even function as a microscope. To compensate for the image quality difference between the central vision and peripheral vision and the shape difference between a solid-state image sensor and a curved retina, we adopted a hybrid design consisting of fluidic lenses for tunability and fixed lenses for aberration and color dispersion correction. A design of the world's smallest surgical camera with 3X optical zoom capabilities is also demonstrated using the approach of hybrid lenses.

  18. Nano-inspired smart interfaces: fluidic interactivity and its impact on heat transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Byoung In; Lee, Namkyu; Choi, Geehong; Gemming, Thomas; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2017-01-01

    Interface-inspired convection is a key heat transfer scheme for hot spot cooling and thermal energy transfer. An unavoidable trade-off of the convective heat transfer is pressure loss caused by fluidic resistance on an interface. To overcome this limitation, we uncover that nano-inspired interfaces can trigger a peculiar fluidic interactivity, which can pursue all the two sides of the coin: heat transfer and fluidic friction. We demonstrate the validity of a quasi-fin effect of Si-based nanostructures based on conductive capability of heat dissipation valid under the interactivity with fluidic viscous sublayer. The exclusive fluid-interface friction is achieved when the height of the nanostructures is much less than the thickness of the viscous sublayers in the turbulent regime. The strategic nanostructures show an enhancement of heat transfer coefficients in the wall jet region by more than 21% without any significant macroscale pressure loss under single-phase impinging jet. Nanostructures guaranteeing fluid access via an equivalent vacancy larger than the diffusive path length of viscid flow lead to local heat transfer enhancement of more than 13% at a stagnation point. Functional nanostructures will give shape to possible breakthroughs in heat transfer and its optimization can be pursued for engineered systems. PMID:28345613

  19. Fluidic origami with embedded pressure dependent multi-stability: a plant inspired innovation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the impulsive movements in plants, this research investigates the physics of a novel fluidic origami concept for its pressure-dependent multi-stability. In this innovation, fluid-filled tubular cells are synthesized by integrating different Miura-Ori sheets into a three-dimensional topological system, where the internal pressures are strategically controlled similar to the motor cells in plants. Fluidic origami incorporates two crucial physiological features observed in nature: one is distributed, pressurized cellular organization, and the other is embedded multi-stability. For a single fluidic origami cell, two stable folding configurations can coexist due to the nonlinear relationships among folding, crease material deformation and internal volume change. When multiple origami cells are integrated, additional multi-stability characteristics could occur via the interactions between pressurized cells. Changes in the fluid pressure can tailor the existence and shapes of these stable folding configurations. As a result, fluidic origami can switch between being mono-stable, bistable and multi-stable with pressure control, and provide a rapid ‘snap-through’ type of shape change based on the similar principles as in plants. The outcomes of this research could lead to the development of new adaptive materials or structures, and provide insights for future plant physiology studies at the cellular level. PMID:26400197

  20. Fluidic origami with embedded pressure dependent multi-stability: a plant inspired innovation.

    PubMed

    Li, Suyi; Wang, K W

    2015-10-06

    Inspired by the impulsive movements in plants, this research investigates the physics of a novel fluidic origami concept for its pressure-dependent multi-stability. In this innovation, fluid-filled tubular cells are synthesized by integrating different Miura-Ori sheets into a three-dimensional topological system, where the internal pressures are strategically controlled similar to the motor cells in plants. Fluidic origami incorporates two crucial physiological features observed in nature: one is distributed, pressurized cellular organization, and the other is embedded multi-stability. For a single fluidic origami cell, two stable folding configurations can coexist due to the nonlinear relationships among folding, crease material deformation and internal volume change. When multiple origami cells are integrated, additional multi-stability characteristics could occur via the interactions between pressurized cells. Changes in the fluid pressure can tailor the existence and shapes of these stable folding configurations. As a result, fluidic origami can switch between being mono-stable, bistable and multi-stable with pressure control, and provide a rapid 'snap-through' type of shape change based on the similar principles as in plants. The outcomes of this research could lead to the development of new adaptive materials or structures, and provide insights for future plant physiology studies at the cellular level. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Nano-inspired smart interfaces: fluidic interactivity and its impact on heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Byoung In; Lee, Namkyu; Choi, Geehong; Gemming, Thomas; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2017-03-01

    Interface-inspired convection is a key heat transfer scheme for hot spot cooling and thermal energy transfer. An unavoidable trade-off of the convective heat transfer is pressure loss caused by fluidic resistance on an interface. To overcome this limitation, we uncover that nano-inspired interfaces can trigger a peculiar fluidic interactivity, which can pursue all the two sides of the coin: heat transfer and fluidic friction. We demonstrate the validity of a quasi-fin effect of Si-based nanostructures based on conductive capability of heat dissipation valid under the interactivity with fluidic viscous sublayer. The exclusive fluid-interface friction is achieved when the height of the nanostructures is much less than the thickness of the viscous sublayers in the turbulent regime. The strategic nanostructures show an enhancement of heat transfer coefficients in the wall jet region by more than 21% without any significant macroscale pressure loss under single-phase impinging jet. Nanostructures guaranteeing fluid access via an equivalent vacancy larger than the diffusive path length of viscid flow lead to local heat transfer enhancement of more than 13% at a stagnation point. Functional nanostructures will give shape to possible breakthroughs in heat transfer and its optimization can be pursued for engineered systems.

  2. Customizable 3D Printed ‘Plug and Play’ Millifluidic Devices for Programmable Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Jaffery, Hussain; Doran, David; Hezwani, Mohammad; Robbins, Phillip J.; Yoshida, Mari; Cronin, Leroy

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is actively sought after in recent years as a promising novel technology to construct complex objects, which scope spans from nano- to over millimeter scale. Previously we utilized Fused deposition modeling (FDM)-based 3D printer to construct complex 3D chemical fluidic systems, and here we demonstrate the construction of 3D milli-fluidic structures for programmable liquid handling and control of biological samples. Basic fluidic operation devices, such as water-in-oil (W/O) droplet generators for producing compartmentalized mono-disperse droplets, sensor-integrated chamber for online monitoring of cellular growth, are presented. In addition, chemical surface treatment techniques are used to construct valve-based flow selector for liquid flow control and inter-connectable modular devices for networking fluidic parts. As such this work paves the way for complex operations, such as mixing, flow control, and monitoring of reaction / cell culture progress can be carried out by constructing both passive and active components in 3D printed structures, which designs can be shared online so that anyone with 3D printers can reproduce them by themselves. PMID:26558389

  3. Maintenance Free Fluidic Transfer and Mixing Devices for Highly Radioactive Applications - Design, Development, Deployment and Operational Experience

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Phillips, C.; Richardson, J. E.; Fallows, P.

    2006-07-01

    Power Fluidics is the generic name for a range of maintenance-free fluid transfer and mixing devices, capable of handling a wide range of highly radioactive fluids, jointly developed by British Nuclear Group, its US-based subsidiary BNG America, and AEA Technology. Power Fluidic devices include Reverse Flow Diverters (RFDs), Vacuum Operated Slug Lifts (VOSLs), and Air Lifts, all of which have an excellent proven record for pumping radioactive liquids and sludges. Variants of the RFD, termed Pulse Jet Mixers (PJMs) are used to agitate and mix tank contents, where maintenance-free equipment is desirable, and where a high degree of homogenization ismore » necessary. The equipment is designed around the common principle of using compressed air to provide the motive force to transfer liquids and sludges. These devices have no moving parts in contact with the radioactive medium and therefore require no maintenance in radioactive areas of processing plants. Once commissioned, Power Fluidic equipment has been demonstrated to operate for the life of the facility. Over 800 fluidic devices continue to operate safely and reliably in British Nuclear Group's nuclear facilities at the Sellafield site in the United Kingdom, and some of these have done so for almost 40 years. More than 400 devices are being supplied by AEA Technology and BNG America for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, USA. This paper discusses: - Principles of operation of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Selection criteria and design of fluidic pumps and mixers. - Operational experience of fluidic pumps and mixers in the United Kingdom. - Applications of fluidic pumps and mixers at the U.S. Department of Energy nuclear sites. (authors)« less

  4. F-15B ACTIVE - First supersonic yaw vectoring flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On Wednesday, April 24, 1996, the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft achieved its first supersonic yaw vectoring flight at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. ACTIVE is a joint NASA, U.S. Air Force, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and Pratt & Whitney (P&W) program. The team will assess performance and technology benefits during flight test operations. Current plans call for approximately 60 flights totaling 100 hours. 'Reaching this milestone is very rewarding. We hope to set some more records before we're through,' stated Roger W. Bursey, P&W's pitch-yaw balance beam nozzle (PYBBN) program manager. A pair of P&W PYBBNs vectored (horizontally side-to-side, pitch is up and down) the thrust for the MDA manufactured F-15 research aircraft. Power to reach supersonic speeds was provided by two high-performance F100-PW-229 engines that were modified with the multi-directional thrust vectoring nozzles. The new concept should lead to significant increases in performance of both civil and military aircraft flying at subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  5. Thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A gas lubricated thrust bearing is described which employs relatively rigid inwardly cantilevered spokes carrying a relatively resilient annular member or annulus. This annulus acts as a beam on which are mounted bearing pads. The resilience of the beam mount causes the pads to accept the load and, with proper design, responds to a rotating thrust-transmitting collar by creating a gas film between the pads and the thrust collar. The bearing may be arranged for load equalization thereby avoiding the necessity of gimbal mounts or the like for the bearing. It may also be arranged to respond to rotation in one or both directions.

  6. Characterizing Laminar Flame Interactions with Turbulent Fluidic Jets and Solid Obstacles for Turbulence Induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdts, Stephen; Chambers, Jessica; Ahmed, Kareem

    2016-11-01

    A detonation engine's fundamental design concept focuses on enhancing the Deflagration to Detonation Transition (DDT), the process through which subsonic flames accelerate to form a spontaneous detonation wave. Flame acceleration is driven by turbulent interactions that expand the reaction zone and induce mixing of products and reactants. Turbulence in a duct can be generated using solid obstructions, fluidic obstacles, duct angle changes, and wall skin friction. Solid obstacles have been previously explored and offer repeatable turbulence induction at the cost of pressure losses and additional system weight. Fluidic jet obstacles are a novel technique that provide advantages such as the ability to be throttled, allowing for active control of combustion modes. The scope of the present work is to expand the experimental database of varying parameters such as main flow and jet equivalence ratios, fluidic momentum ratios, and solid obstacle blockage ratios. Schlieren flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are employed to investigate turbulent flame dynamics throughout the interaction. Optimum conditions that lead to flame acceleration for both solid and fluidic obstacles will be determined. American Chemical Society.

  7. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  8. Asymmetric Thrust Reversers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor); Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An aircraft includes a propulsion supported within an aft portion of a fuselage A thrust reverser is mounted in the aft portion of the fuselage proximate the propulsion system for directing thrust in a direction to slow the aircraft. The thrust reverser includes an upper blocker door movable about a first pivot axis to a deployed position and a lower blocker door movable about a second pivot axis not parallel to the first pivot axis.

  9. MEMS fluidic actuator

    DOEpatents

    Kholwadwala, Deepesh K [Albuquerque, NM; Johnston, Gabriel A [Trophy Club, TX; Rohrer, Brandon R [Albuquerque, NM; Galambos, Paul C [Albuquerque, NM; Okandan, Murat [Albuquerque, NM

    2007-07-24

    The present invention comprises a novel, lightweight, massively parallel device comprising microelectromechanical (MEMS) fluidic actuators, to reconfigure the profile, of a surface. Each microfluidic actuator comprises an independent bladder that can act as both a sensor and an actuator. A MEMS sensor, and a MEMS valve within each microfluidic actuator, operate cooperatively to monitor the fluid within each bladder, and regulate the flow of the fluid entering and exiting each bladder. When adjacently spaced in a array, microfluidic actuators can create arbitrary surface profiles in response to a change in the operating environment of the surface. In an embodiment of the invention, the profile of an airfoil is controlled by independent extension and contraction of a plurality of actuators, that operate to displace a compliant cover.

  10. Nature-inspired polymer actuators for micro-fluidic mixing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Toonder, Jaap M. J.; Bos, Femke; de Goede, Judith; Anderson, Patrick

    2007-11-01

    One particular micro-fluidics manipulation mechanism ``designed'' by nature is that due to a covering of beating cilia over the external surface of micro-organisms (e.g. Paramecium). A cilium can be viewed as a small hair or flexible rod (in protozoa: typical length 10 microns and diameter 0.1 microns) which is attached to the surface. We have developed polymer micro-actuators, made with standard micro-technology processing, which respond to an applied electrical or magnetic field by changing their shape. The shape and size of the polymer actuators mimics that of cilia occurring in nature. Flow visualization experiments show that the cilia can generate substantial fluid velocities, in the order of 1 mm/s. In addition, using specially designed geometrical configurations of the cilia, very efficient mixing is obtained. Since the artificial cilia can be actively controlled using electrical signals, they have exciting applications in micro-fluidic devices.

  11. DNA Assembly in 3D Printed Fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, William G.; Nielsen, Alec A. K.; Keating, Steven J.; Levy, Taylor J.; Wang, Che-Wei; Rivera, Jaime J.; Mondragón-Palomino, Octavio; Carr, Peter A.; Voigt, Christopher A.; Oxman, Neri; Kong, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The process of connecting genetic parts—DNA assembly—is a foundational technology for synthetic biology. Microfluidics present an attractive solution for minimizing use of costly reagents, enabling multiplexed reactions, and automating protocols by integrating multiple protocol steps. However, microfluidics fabrication and operation can be expensive and requires expertise, limiting access to the technology. With advances in commodity digital fabrication tools, it is now possible to directly print fluidic devices and supporting hardware. 3D printed micro- and millifluidic devices are inexpensive, easy to make and quick to produce. We demonstrate Golden Gate DNA assembly in 3D-printed fluidics with reaction volumes as small as 490 nL, channel widths as fine as 220 microns, and per unit part costs ranging from $0.61 to $5.71. A 3D-printed syringe pump with an accompanying programmable software interface was designed and fabricated to operate the devices. Quick turnaround and inexpensive materials allowed for rapid exploration of device parameters, demonstrating a manufacturing paradigm for designing and fabricating hardware for synthetic biology. PMID:26716448

  12. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  13. A microNewton thrust stand for average thrust measurement of pulsed microthruster.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei-Jing; Hong, Yan-Ji; Chang, Hao

    2013-12-01

    A torsional thrust stand has been developed for the study of the average thrust for microNewton pulsed thrusters. The main body of the thrust stand mainly consists of a torsional balance, a pair of flexural pivots, a capacitive displacement sensor, a calibration assembly, and an eddy current damper. The behavior of the stand was thoroughly studied. The principle of thrust measurement was analyzed. The average thrust is determined as a function of the average equilibrium angle displacement of the balance and the spring stiffness. The thrust stand has a load capacity up to 10 kg, and it can theoretically measure the force up to 609.6 μN with a resolution of 24.4 nN. The static calibrations were performed based on the calibration assembly composed of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet. The calibration results demonstrated good repeatability (less than 0.68% FSO) and good linearity (less than 0.88% FSO). The assembly of the multiturn coil and the permanent magnet was also used as an exciter to simulate the microthruster to further research the performance of the thrust stand. Three sets of force pulses at 17, 33.5, and 55 Hz with the same amplitude and pulse width were tested. The repeatability error at each frequency was 7.04%, 1.78%, and 5.08%, respectively.

  14. Development Of Nanoenergetic Micro-fluidic Jet Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    resulting in a uniform solder coating on to the exposed solder pads. Following solder coating , the material chamber and fluid reservoir were brought...assembly, and packaging of first generation nanoenergetic fluidic jet generators. The generators consist of an energetic material chamber, elastic...thickness, energetic material composition, and energetic material mass using high-speed photography and compared with theoretical calculations

  15. Solving fuel-optimal low-thrust orbital transfers with bang-bang control using a novel continuation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhengfan; Gan, Qingbo; Yang, Xin; Gao, Yang

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a novel continuation technique to solve optimal bang-bang control for low-thrust orbital transfers considering the first-order necessary optimality conditions derived from Lawden's primer vector theory. Continuation on the thrust amplitude is mainly described in this paper. Firstly, a finite-thrust transfer with an ;On-Off-On; thrusting sequence is modeled using a two-impulse transfer as initial solution, and then the thrust amplitude is decreased gradually to find an optimal solution with minimum thrust. Secondly, the thrust amplitude is continued from its minimum value to positive infinity to find the optimal bang-bang control, and a thrust switching principle is employed to determine the control structure by monitoring the variation of the switching function. In the continuation process, a bifurcation of bang-bang control is revealed and the concept of critical thrust is proposed to illustrate this phenomenon. The same thrust switching principle is also applicable to the continuation on other parameters, such as transfer time, orbital phase angle, etc. By this continuation technique, fuel-optimal orbital transfers with variable mission parameters can be found via an automated algorithm, and there is no need to provide an initial guess for the costate variables. Moreover, continuation is implemented in the solution space of bang-bang control that is either optimal or non-optimal, which shows that a desired solution of bang-bang control is obtained via continuation on a single parameter starting from an existing solution of bang-bang control. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed continuation technique. Specifically, this continuation technique provides an approach to find multiple solutions satisfying the first-order necessary optimality conditions to the same orbital transfer problem, and a continuation strategy is presented as a preliminary approach for solving the bang-bang control of many

  16. Spacing of Imbricated Thrust Faults and the Strength of Thrust-Belts and Accretionary Wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Regensburger, P. V.; Moore, G. F.

    2017-12-01

    The pattern of imbricated thrust blocks is a prominent characteristic of the large-scale structure of thrust-belts and accretionary wedges around the world. Mechanical models of these systems have a rich history from laboratory analogs, and more recently from computational simulations, most of which, qualitatively reproduce the regular patterns of imbricated thrusts seen in nature. Despite the prevalence of these patterns in nature and in models, our knowledge of what controls the spacing of the thrusts remains immature at best. We tackle this problem using a finite difference, particle-in-cell method that simulates visco-elastic-plastic deformation with a Mohr-Coulomb brittle failure criterion. The model simulates a horizontal base that moves toward a rigid vertical backstop, carrying with it an overlying layer of crust. The crustal layer has a greater frictional strength than the base, is cohesive, and is initially uniform in thickness. As the layer contracts, a series of thrust blocks immerge sequentially and form a wedge having a mean taper consistent with that predicted by a noncohesive, critical Coulomb wedge. The widths of the thrust blocks (or spacing between adjacent thrusts) are greatest at the front of the wedge, tend to decrease with continued contraction, and then tend toward a pseudo-steady, minimum width. Numerous experiments show that the characteristic spacing of thrusts increases with the brittle strength of the wedge material (cohesion + friction) and decreases with increasing basal friction for low (<8°) taper angles. These relations are consistent with predictions of the elastic stresses forward of the frontal thrust and at what distance the differential stress exceeds the brittle threshold to form a new frontal thrust. Hence the characteristic spacing of the thrusts across the whole wedge is largely inherited at the very front of the wedge. Our aim is to develop scaling laws that will illuminate the basic physical processes controlling

  17. Thrusting maneuver control of a small spacecraft via only gimbaled-thruster scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabganian, Mansour; Kouhi, Hamed; Shahravi, Morteza; Fani Saberi, Farhad

    2018-05-01

    The thrust vector control (TVC) scheme is a powerful method in spacecraft attitude control. Since the control of a small spacecraft is being studied here, a solid rocket motor (SRM) should be used instead of a liquid propellant motor. Among the TVC methods, gimbaled-TVC as an efficient method is employed in this paper. The spacecraft structure is composed of a body and a gimbaled-SRM where common attitude control systems such as reaction control system (RCS) and spin-stabilization are not presented. A nonlinear two-body model is considered for the characterization of the gimbaled-thruster spacecraft where, the only control input is provided by a gimbal actuator. The attitude of the spacecraft is affected by a large exogenous disturbance torque which is generated by a thrust vector misalignment from the center of mass (C.M). A linear control law is designed to stabilize the spacecraft attitude while rejecting the mentioned disturbance torque. A semi-analytical formulation of the region of attraction (RoA) is developed to ensure the local stability and fast convergence of the nonlinear closed-loop system. Simulation results of the 3D maneuvers are included to show the applicability of this method for use in a small spacecraft.

  18. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  19. Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.

    1998-10-06

    A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.

  20. Vector thrust induced lift effects for several ejector exhaust locations on a V/STOL wind tunnel model at forward speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharon, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    The results and analysis of aerodynamic force data obtained from a small scale model of a V/STOL research vehicle in a low speed wind tunnel are presented. The analysis of the data includes the evaluation of aerodynamic-propulsive lift performance when operating twin ejector nozzles with thrust deflected. Three different types of thrust deflector systems were examined: 90 deg downward deflected nozzle, 90 deg slotted nozzle with boundary layer control, and an externally blown flap configuration. Several nozzle locations were tested, including over and underwing positions. The interference lift of the nacelle and model due to jet exhaust thrust is compared and results show that 90 deg turned nozzles located over the wing (near the trailing edge) produce the largest interference lift increment for an untrimmed aircraft, and that the slotted nozzle located under the wing near the trailing edge (in conjunction with a BLC flap) gives a comparable interference lift in the trimmed condition. The externally blown flap nozzle produced the least interference lift and significantly less total lift due to jet thrust effects.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Flow in Fluidic Valves in Rotating Detonation Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, Nandini

    Rotating detonation engines (RDE) have received considerable research attention in recent times for use in propulsion systems. The cycle frequency of operation of an RDE can be as high as 10,000 Hz. Conventional mechanical valves cannot operate at such high frequencies, leading to the need for propellant injectors or valves with no moving parts. A fluidic valve is such a valve and is the focus of this study. The valve consists of an orifice connected to a constant area plenum cavity which operates at constant pressure. The fluidic valve supplies propellants to the detonation tube through the orifice. Hydrogen - oxygen detonation is studied in a tube with fluidic valves. A detailed 19-step chemical reaction mechanism has been used to model detonation and the flow simulated in ANSYS Fluent. This research aims to determine the location of contact surface in the cavity and the time taken for the contact surface to leave the valve after a shock wave has passed through it. This will help us understand if the steady-state flow in the cavity is comprised of detonation products or fresh propellants.

  2. SU-8 microcantilever with an aperture, fluidic channel, and sensing mechanisms for biological and other applications.

    PubMed

    Gaitas, Angelo; Hower, Robert W

    2014-09-15

    We describe a method for fabricating an aperture on a fluidic cantilever device using SU-8 as a structural material. The device can ultimately be used for patch clamping, microinjections, fluidic delivery, fluidic deposition, and micromaterial removal. In the first generation of this device, the initial aperture diameter is 10 μ m and is fabricated on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer that is structurally used to define the aperture. The aperture can be reduced in size through mask design. This self-aligned process allows for patterning on the sharp tip projecting out of the fluidic plane on the cantilever and is batch fabricated, reducing the cost and time for manufacture. The initial mask, SOI device layer thickness, and the width of the base of the tip define the size of the aperture. The SU-8 micromachined cantilever includes an electrode and a force sensing mechanism. The cantilever can be easily integrated with an atomic force microscope or an optical microscope.

  3. Multi-Cellular 3D Human Primary Liver Cell Cultures Elevate Metabolic Activity Under Fluidic Flow

    PubMed Central

    Esch, Mandy B.; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Wang, Ying I.; Miller, Paula; Llamas-Vidales, Jose Ricardo; Naughton, Brian A.; Applegate, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting drug-induced liver injury with in vitro cell culture models more accurately would be of significant value to the pharmaceutical industry. To this end we have developed a low-cost liver cell culture device that creates fluidic flow over a 3D primary liver cell culture that consists of multiple liver cell types, including hepatocytes and non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate cells, and Kupffer cells). We tested the performance of the cell culture under fluidic flow for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. Hepatocytes also responded with induction of P450 (CYP1A1 and CYP3A4) enzyme activity when challenged with P450 inducers, although we did not find significant differences between static and fluidic cultures. Non-parenchymal cells were similarly responsive, producing interleukin 8 (IL-8) when challenged with 10 μM bacterial lipoprotein (LPS). To create the fluidic flow in an inexpensive manner, we used a rocking platform that tilts the cell culture devices at angles between ±12°, resulting in a periodically changing hydrostatic pressure drop and bidirectional fluid flow (average flow rate of 650 μL/min, and a maximum shear stress of 0.64 dyne/cm2). The increase in metabolic activity is consistent with the hypothesis that, similar to unidirectional fluidic flow, primary liver cell cultures derived from human tissues increase their metabolic activity in response to bidirectional fluidic flow. Since bidirectional flow drastically changes the behavior of other cells types that are shear sensitive, the finding that bidirectional flow increases the metabolic activity of primary liver cells also supports the theory that this increase in metabolic activity is likely caused by increased levels of gas and metabolite exchange or by the accumulation of soluble growth factors rather than by shear sensing. Our results indicate that device operation with bi-directional gravity-driven medium

  4. 3D printed fluidics with embedded analytic functionality for automated reaction optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Capel, Andrew J; Wright, Andrew; Harding, Matthew J; Weaver, George W; Li, Yuqi; Harris, Russell A; Edmondson, Steve; Goodridge, Ruth D

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing or ‘3D printing’ is being developed as a novel manufacturing process for the production of bespoke micro- and milliscale fluidic devices. When coupled with online monitoring and optimisation software, this offers an advanced, customised method for performing automated chemical synthesis. This paper reports the use of two additive manufacturing processes, stereolithography and selective laser melting, to create multifunctional fluidic devices with embedded reaction monitoring capability. The selectively laser melted parts are the first published examples of multifunctional 3D printed metal fluidic devices. These devices allow high temperature and pressure chemistry to be performed in solvent systems destructive to the majority of devices manufactured via stereolithography, polymer jetting and fused deposition modelling processes previously utilised for this application. These devices were integrated with commercially available flow chemistry, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis equipment, allowing automated online and inline optimisation of the reaction medium. This set-up allowed the optimisation of two reactions, a ketone functional group interconversion and a fused polycyclic heterocycle formation, via spectroscopic and chromatographic analysis. PMID:28228852

  5. Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

  6. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  7. Fluidic Energy Harvester Optimization in Grid Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesh-Yazdi, Amir; Elvin, Niell; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2017-11-01

    Even though it is omnipresent in nature, there has not been a great deal of research in the literature involving turbulence as an energy source for piezoelectric fluidic harvesters. In the present work, a grid-generated turbulence forcing function model which we derived previously is employed in the single degree-of-freedom electromechanical equations to find the power output and tip displacement of piezoelectric cantilever beams. Additionally, we utilize simplified, deterministic models of the turbulence forcing function to obtain closed-form expressions for the power output. These theoretical models are studied using experiments that involve separately placing a hot-wire anemometer probe and a short PVDF beam in flows where turbulence is generated by means of passive and semi-passive grids. From a parametric study on the deterministic models, we show that the white noise forcing function best mimics the experimental data. Furthermore, our parametric study of the response spectrum of a generic fluidic harvester in grid-generated turbulent flow shows that optimum power output is attained for beams placed closer to the grid with a low natural frequency and damping ratio and a large electromechanical coupling coefficient. NSF Grant No. CBET 1033117.

  8. Tailless Vectored Fighters Theory. Laboratory and Flight Tests, Including Vectorable Inlets/Nozzles and Tailless Flying Models vs. Pilot’s Tolerances Affecting Maximum Post-Stall Vectoring Agility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    nose bodyj Top view of velocity probe PropllerRotating shaft ’V Generator Aerodynamic shape like a small elevator RPV’s attitude Irrespctiveduring...28 Part It: Maximizing Thrust-Vectoring Control Power and Agility Metrics ............ 29 Laboratory & Flight...8217Ideal Standards’ - Ba- ror maximizing PST-TV-aglilty/rIlght-control power , iI - Extracting new TV-potentials to further reduce any righter’s optical

  9. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, Bernard P.; Becse, Imre

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices.

  10. Ion thrusting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An ion thrusting system is disclosed comprising an ionization membrane having at least one area through which a gas is passed, and which ionizes the gas molecules passing therethrough to form ions and electrons, and an accelerator element which accelerates the ions to form thrust. In some variations, a potential is applied to the ionization membrane may be reversed to thrust ions in an opposite direction. The ionization membrane may also include an opening with electrodes that are located closer than a mean free path of the gas being ionized. Methods of manufacture and use are also provided.

  11. Improved gas thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. J.; Etsion, I.

    1979-01-01

    Two variations of gas-lubricated thrust bearings extend substantially load-carrying range over existing gas bearings. Dual-Action Gas Thrust Bearing's load-carrying capacity is more than ninety percent greater than that of single-action bearing over range of compressibility numbers. Advantages of Cantilever-mounted Thrust Bearing are greater tolerance to dirt ingestion, good initial lift-off characteristics, and operational capability over wide temperature range.

  12. The Zagros hinterland fold-and-thrust belt in-sequence thrusting, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Ghanbarian, Mohammad Ali

    2014-05-01

    The collision of the Iranian microcontinent with the Afro-Arabian continent resulted in the deformation of the Zagros orogenic belt. The foreland of this belt in the Persian Gulf and Arabian platform has been investigated for its petroleum and gas resource potentials, but the Zagros hinterland is poorly investigated and our knowledge about its deformation is much less than other parts of this orogen. Therefore, this work presents a new geological map, stratigraphic column and two detailed geological cross sections. This study indicates the presence of a hinterland fold-and-thrust belt on northeastern side of the Zagros orogenic core that consists of in-sequence thrusting and basement involvement in this important part of the Zagros hinterland. The in-sequence thrusting resulted in first- and second-order duplex systems, Mode I fault-bend folding, fault-propagation folding and asymmetric detachment folding which indicate close relationships between folding and thrusting. Study of fault-bend folds shows that layer-parallel simple shear has the same role in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the study area (αe = 23.4 ± 9.1°). A major lateral ramp in the basement beneath the Talaee plain with about one kilometer of vertical offset formed parallel to the SW movement direction and perpendicular to the major folding and thrusting.

  13. Measuring axial pump thrust

    DOEpatents

    Suchoza, B.P.; Becse, I.

    1988-11-08

    An apparatus for measuring the hydraulic axial thrust of a pump under operation conditions is disclosed. The axial thrust is determined by forcing the rotating impeller off of an associated thrust bearing by use of an elongate rod extending coaxially with the pump shaft. The elongate rod contacts an impeller retainer bolt where a bearing is provided. Suitable measuring devices measure when the rod moves to force the impeller off of the associated thrust bearing and the axial force exerted on the rod at that time. The elongate rod is preferably provided in a housing with a heat dissipation mechanism whereby the hot fluid does not affect the measuring devices. 1 fig.

  14. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  15. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  16. Nature-inspired micro-fluidic manipulation using artificial cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Toonder, Jaap; de Goede, Judith; Khatavkar, Vinayak; Anderson, Patrick

    2006-11-01

    One particular micro-fluidics manipulation mechanism ``designed'' by nature is that due to a covering of beating cilia over the external surface of micro-organisms (e.g. Paramecium). A cilium can be viewed as a small hair or flexible rod (in protozoa: typical length 10 μm and diameter 0.1 μm) which is attached to the surface. We have developed polymer micro-actuators, made with standard micro-technology processing, which respond to an applied electrical or magnetic field by changing their shape. The shape and size of the polymer actuators mimics that of cilia occurring in nature. We have shown experimentally that, indeed, our artificial cilia can induce significant flow velocities of at least 75 μm/s in a fluid with a viscosity of 10 mPas. In this paper we will give an overview of our activities in developing the polymer actuators and the corresponding technology, show experimental and numerical fluid flow results, and finally assess the feasibility of applying this new and attractive micro-fluidic actuation method in functional biosensors.

  17. Limited variance control in statistical low thrust guidance analysis. [stochastic algorithm for SEP comet Encke flyby mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Difficulties arise in guiding a solar electric propulsion spacecraft due to nongravitational accelerations caused by random fluctuations in the magnitude and direction of the thrust vector. These difficulties may be handled by using a low thrust guidance law based on the linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem of stochastic control theory with a minimum terminal miss performance criterion. Explicit constraints are imposed on the variances of the control parameters, and an algorithm based on the Hilbert space extension of a parameter optimization method is presented for calculation of gains in the guidance law. The terminal navigation of a 1980 flyby mission to the comet Encke is used as an example.

  18. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James E.; Pancotti, Anthony; Haag, Thomas; King, Scott; Walker, Mitchell; Blakely, Joseph; Ziemer, John

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, direct measurement of thrust or impulse is one of the most critical elements of electric thruster characterization, and one of the most difficult measurements to make. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics has started an initiative to develop standards for many important measurement processes in electric propulsion, including thrust measurements. This paper summarizes recommended practices for the design, calibration, and operation of pendulum thrust stands, which are widely recognized as the best approach for measuring micro N- to mN-level thrust and micro Ns-level impulse bits. The fundamentals of pendulum thrust stand operation are reviewed, along with its implementation in hanging pendulum, inverted pendulum, and torsional balance configurations. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Sources of error are identified and methods for data processing and uncertainty analysis are discussed. This review is intended to be the first step toward a recommended practices document to help the community produce high quality thrust measurements.

  19. Low thrust vehicle concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low thrust chemical (hydrogen-oxygen) propulsion systems configured specifically for low acceleration orbit transfer of large space systems were defined. Results indicate that it is cost effective and least risk to combine the OTV and stowed spacecraft in a single 65 K Shuttle. The study shows that the engine for an optimized low thrust stage (1) does not require very low thrust; (2) 1-3 K thrust range appears optimum; (3) thrust transient is not a concern; (4) throttling probably not worthwhile; and (5) multiple thrusters complicate OTV/LSS design and aggravate LSS loads. Regarding the optimum vehicle for low acceleration missions, the single shuttle launch (LSS and expendable OTV) is most cost effective and least risky. Multiple shuttles increase diameter 20%. The space based radar structure short OTV (which maximizes space available for packaged LSS) favors use of torus tank. Propellant tank pressures/vapor residuals are little affected by engine thrust level or number of burns.

  20. Thrust modeling for hypersonic engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, D. W.; Mcclinton, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    Expressions for the thrust losses of a scramjet engine are developed in terms of irreversible entropy increases and the degree of incomplete combustion. A method is developed which allows the calculation of the lost vehicle thrust due to different loss mechanisms within a given flow-field. This analysis demonstrates clearly the trade-off between mixing enhancement and resultant increased flow losses in scramjet combustors. An engine effectiveness parameter is defined in terms of thrust loss. Exergy and the thrust-potential method are related and compared.

  1. Microgravity Boiling Enhancement Using Vibration-Based Fluidic Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Marc K.; Glezer, Ari; Heffington, Samuel N.

    2002-11-01

    Thermal management is an important subsystem in many devices and technologies used in a microgravity environment. The increased power requirements of new Space technologies and missions mean that the capacity and efficiency of thermal management systems must be improved. The current work addresses this need through the investigation and development of a direct liquid immersion heat transfer cell for microgravity applications. The device is based on boiling heat transfer enhanced by two fluidic technologies developed at Georgia Tech. The first of these fluidic technologies, called vibration-induced bubble ejection, is shown in Fig. 1. Here, an air bubble in water is held against a vibrating diaphragm by buoyancy. The vibrations at 440 Hz induce violent oscillations of the air/water interface that can result in small bubbles being ejected from the larger air bubble (Fig. 1a) and, simultaneously, the collapse of the air/water interface against the solid surface (Fig. 1b). Both effects would be useful during a heat transfer process. Bubble ejection would force vapor bubbles back into the cooler liquid so that they can condense. Interfacial collapse would tend to keep the hot surface wet thereby increasing liquid evaporation and heat transfer to the bulk liquid. Figure 2 shows the effect of vibrating the solid surface at 7.6 kHz. Here, small-scale capillary waves appear on the surface of the bubble near the attachment point on the solid surface (the grainy region). The vibration produces a net force on the bubble that pushes it away from the solid surface. As a result, the bubble detaches from the solid and is propelled into the bulk liquid. This force works against buoyancy and so it would be even more effective in a microgravity environment. The benefit of the force in a boiling process would be to push vapor bubbles off the solid surface, thus helping to keep the solid surface wet and increasing the heat transfer. The second fluidic technology to be employed in this

  2. Closed-Loop Simulation Study of the Ares I Upper Stage Thrust Vector Control Subsystem for Nominal and Failure Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Fulton, Chris; Connolly, Joe; Hunker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    As a replacement to the current Shuttle, the Ares I rocket and Orion crew module are currently under development by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This new launch vehicle is segmented into major elements, one of which is the Upper Stage (US). The US is further broken down into subsystems, one of which is the Thrust Vector Control (TVC) subsystem which gimbals the US rocket nozzle. Nominal and off-nominal simulations for the US TVC subsystem are needed in order to support the development of software used for control systems and diagnostics. In addition, a clear and complete understanding of the effect of off-nominal conditions on the vehicle flight dynamics is desired. To achieve these goals, a simulation of the US TVC subsystem combined with the Ares I vehicle as developed. This closed-loop dynamic model was created using Matlab s Simulink and a modified version of a vehicle simulation, MAVERIC, which is currently used in the Ares I project and was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). For this report, the effects on the flight trajectory of the Ares I vehicle are investigated after failures are injected into the US TVC subsystem. The comparisons of the off-nominal conditions observed in the US TVC subsystem with those of the Ares I vehicle flight dynamics are of particular interest.

  3. Characterization of printable cellular micro-fluidic channels for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2013-06-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to the fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded a relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function.

  4. Characterization of Printable Cellular Micro-fluidic Channels for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yahui; Yu, Yin; Chen, Howard; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T.

    2014-01-01

    Tissue engineering has been a promising field of research, offering hope of bridging the gap between organ shortage and transplantation needs. However, building three-dimensional (3D) vascularized organs remains the main technological barrier to be overcome. One of the major challenges is the inclusion of a vascular network to support cell viability in terms of nutrients and oxygen perfusion. This paper introduces a new approach to fabrication of vessel-like microfluidic channels that has the potential to be used in thick tissue or organ fabrication in the future. In this research, we investigate the manufacturability of printable micro-fluidic channels, where micro-fluidic channels support mechanical integrity as well as enable fluid transport in 3D. A pressure-assisted solid freeform fabrication platform is developed with a coaxial needle dispenser unit to print hollow hydrogel filaments. The dispensing rheology is studied, and effects of material properties on structural formation of hollow filaments are analyzed. Sample structures are printed through the developed computer-controlled system. In addition, cell viability and gene expression studies are presented in this paper. Cell viability shows that cartilage progenitor cells (CPCs) maintained their viability right after bioprinting and during prolonged in vitro culture. Real-time PCR analysis yielded relatively higher expression of cartilage-specific genes in alginate hollow filament encapsulating CPCs, compared with monolayer cultured CPCs, which revealed that printable semi-permeable micro-fluidic channels provided an ideal environment for cell growth and function. PMID:23458889

  5. Measurement of Microchannel Fluidic Resistance with a Standard Voltage Meter

    PubMed Central

    Godwin, Leah A.; Deal, Kennon S.; Hoepfner, Lauren D.; Jackson, Louis A.; Easley, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A simplified method for measuring the fluidic resistance (Rfluidic) of microfluidic channels is presented, in which the electrical resistance (Relec) of a channel filled with a conductivity standard solution can be measured and directly correlated to Rfluidic using a simple equation. Although a slight correction factor could be applied in this system to improve accuracy, results showed that a standard voltage meter could be used without calibration to determine Rfluidic to within 12% error. Results accurate to within 2% were obtained when a geometric correction factor was applied using these particular channels. When compared to standard flow rate measurements, such as meniscus tracking in outlet tubing, this approach provided a more straightforward alternative and resulted in lower measurement error. The method was validated using 9 different fluidic resistance values (from ~40 – 600 kPa s mm−3) and over 30 separately fabricated microfluidic devices. Furthermore, since the method is analogous to resistance measurements with a voltage meter in electrical circuits, dynamic Rfluidic measurements were possible in more complex microfluidic designs. Microchannel Relec was shown to dynamically mimic pressure waveforms applied to a membrane in a variable microfluidic resistor. The variable resistor was then used to dynamically control aqueous-in-oil droplet sizes and spacing, providing a unique and convenient control system for droplet-generating devices. This conductivity-based method for fluidic resistance measurement is thus a useful tool for static or real-time characterization of microfluidic systems. PMID:23245901

  6. Transient Characteristics of a Fluidic Device for Circulatory Jet Flow.

    PubMed

    Phan, Hoa Thanh; Dinh, Thien Xuan; Bui, Phong Nhu; Dau, Van Thanh

    2018-03-13

    In this paper, we report on the design, simulation, and experimental analysis of a miniaturized device that can generate multiple circulated jet flows. The device is actuated by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm. The flows in the device were studied using three-dimensional transient numerical simulation with the programmable open source OpenFOAM and was comparable to the experimental result. Each flow is verified by two hotwires mounted at two positions inside each consisting chamber. The experiment confirmed that the flow was successfully created, and it demonstrated good agreement with the simulation. In addition, a prospective application of the device as an angular rate sensor is also demonstrated. The device is robust, is minimal in size, and can contribute to the development of multi-axis fluidic inertial sensors, fluidic amplifiers, gas mixing, coupling, and analysis.

  7. Transient Characteristics of a Fluidic Device for Circulatory Jet Flow

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Hoa Thanh; Dinh, Thien Xuan; Bui, Phong Nhu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the design, simulation, and experimental analysis of a miniaturized device that can generate multiple circulated jet flows. The device is actuated by a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) diaphragm. The flows in the device were studied using three-dimensional transient numerical simulation with the programmable open source OpenFOAM and was comparable to the experimental result. Each flow is verified by two hotwires mounted at two positions inside each consisting chamber. The experiment confirmed that the flow was successfully created, and it demonstrated good agreement with the simulation. In addition, a prospective application of the device as an angular rate sensor is also demonstrated. The device is robust, is minimal in size, and can contribute to the development of multi-axis fluidic inertial sensors, fluidic amplifiers, gas mixing, coupling, and analysis. PMID:29534014

  8. Thrust distribution for attitude control in a variable thrust propulsion system with four ACS nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Yeerang; Lee, Wonsuk; Bang, Hyochoong; Lee, Hosung

    2017-04-01

    A thrust distribution approach is proposed in this paper for a variable thrust solid propulsion system with an attitude control system (ACS) that uses a reduced number of nozzles for a three-axis attitude maneuver. Although a conventional variable thrust solid propulsion system needs six ACS nozzles, this paper proposes a thrust system with four ACS nozzles to reduce the complexity and mass of the system. The performance of the new system was analyzed with numerical simulations, and the results show that the performance of the system with four ACS nozzles was similar to the original system while the mass of the whole system was simultaneously reduced. Moreover, a feasibility analysis was performed to determine whether a thrust system with three ACS nozzles is possible.

  9. Miniature FBG-based fluidic flowmeter to measure hot oil and water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengyong; Htein, Lin; Cheng, Lun-Kai; Martina, Quincy; Jansen, Rob; Tam, Hwa-Yaw

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present a miniature fluidic flowmeter based on a packaged FBG and laser-heated fibers. The flow rates of water and hydraulic oil were measured by utilizing the proposed flowmeter. The measured results exhibited good sensitivity of 0.339 nm/(m/s) for water and 0.578 nm/(m/s) for oil flow. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the fluidic flow sensor is depending on the heat capacity of the fluids, where the fluid with higher heat capacity has higher sensitivity and lower detection limit at the same measurement condition. The real-time flow rates measured by the proposed sensor and a commercial flowmeter installed in the test rig were also compared, demonstrating good agreement with correlation coefficient of 0.9974.

  10. Dielectric Elastomers for Fluidic and Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoul, David James

    Dielectric elastomers have demonstrated tremendous potential as high-strain electromechanical transducers for a myriad of novel applications across all engineering disciplines. Because their soft, viscoelastic mechanical properties are similar to those of living tissues, dielectric elastomers have garnered a strong foothold in a plethora of biomedical and biomimetic applications. Dielectric elastomers consist of a sheet of stretched rubber, or elastomer, coated on both sides with compliant electrode materials; application of a voltage generates an electrostatic pressure that deforms the elastomer. They can function as soft generators, sensors, or actuators, and this last function is the focus of this dissertation. Many design configurations are possible, such as stacks, minimum energy structures, interpenetrating polymer networks, shape memory dielectric elastomers, and others; dielectric elastomers are already being applied to many fields of biomedicine. The first part of the original research presented in this dissertation details a PDMS microfluidic system paired with a dielectric elastomer stack actuator of anisotropically prestrained VHB(TM) 4910 (3M(TM)) and single-walled carbon nanotubes. These electroactive microfluidic devices demonstrated active increases in microchannel width when 3 and 4 kV were applied. Fluorescence microscopy also indicated an accompanying increase in channel depth with actuation. The cross-sectional area strains at 3 and 4 kV were approximately 2.9% and 7.4%, respectively. The device was then interfaced with a syringe pump, and the pressure was measured upstream. Linear pressure-flow plots were developed, which showed decreasing fluidic resistance with actuation, from 0.192 psi/(microL/min) at 0 kV, to 0.160 and 0.157 psi/(microL/min) at 3 and 4 kV, respectively. This corresponds to an ~18% drop in fluidic resistance at 4 kV. Active de-clogging was tested in situ with the device by introducing ~50 microm diameter PDMS microbeads and

  11. Ultrasonically Activated Diffusion Bonding for Fluidic Control Assembly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    CONTROL ASSEMBLY SONOBOND CORPORATION SUBSIDIARY OF CHRISTIAN METALS CORPORATION WEST CHESTER, PENNSYLVANIA HOWARD A. SCHEETZ PAUL L. COPPA JANET...FLUIDIC CONTROL ASSEMBLY Howard A. Scheetz Paul L. Coppa Janet Devine Sonobond Corporation Subsidiary of Christiana Metals Corporation West... Paul L. Coppa Janet Devine fl. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBERS.) Contract No. DAAA21-76-C-0136 ». PERFORMING ORGANIZATION N AM t AND ADDRESS

  12. Pulsed Electric Propulsion Thrust Stand Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of the performance of any propulsion device requires the accurate measurement of thrust. While chemical rocket thrust is typically measured using a load cell, the low thrust levels associated with electric propulsion (EP) systems necessitate the use of much more sensitive measurement techniques. The design and development of electric propulsion thrust stands that employ a conventional hanging pendulum arm connected to a balance mechanism consisting of a secondary arm and variable linkage have been reported in recent publications by Polzin et al. These works focused on performing steady-state thrust measurements and employed a static analysis of the thrust stand response. In the present work, we present a calibration method and data that will permit pulsed thrust measurements using the Variable Amplitude Hanging Pendulum with Extended Range (VAHPER) thrust stand. Pulsed thrust measurements are challenging in general because the pulsed thrust (impulse bit) occurs over a short timescale (typically 1 micros to 1 millisecond) and cannot be resolved directly. Consequently, the imparted impulse bit must be inferred through observation of the change in thrust stand motion effected by the pulse. Pulsed thrust measurements have typically only consisted of single-shot operation. In the present work, we discuss repetition-rate pulsed thruster operation and describe a method to perform these measurements. The thrust stand response can be modeled as a spring-mass-damper system with a repetitive delta forcing function to represent the impulsive action of the thruster.

  13. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  14. Thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium: new insights from analogue modelling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Filipe; Duarte, Joao; Schellart, Wouter; Tomas, Ricardo; Grigorova, Vili; Terrinha, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    We present analogue modelling experimental results concerning thrust-wrench fault interference in a brittle medium, to try to evaluate the influence exerted by different prescribed interference angles in the formation of morpho-structural interference fault patterns. All the experiments were conceived to simulate simultaneous reactivation of confining strike-slip and thrust faults defining a (corner) zone of interference, contrasting with previously reported discrete (time and space) superposition of alternating thrust and strike-slip events. Different interference angles of 60°, 90° and 120° were experimentally investigated by comparing the specific structural configurations obtained in each case. Results show that a deltoid-shaped morpho-structural pattern is consistently formed in the fault interference (corner) zone, exhibiting a specific geometry that is fundamentally determined by the different prescribed fault interference angle. Such angle determines the orientation of the displacement vector shear component along the main frontal thrust direction, determining different fault confinement conditions in each case, and imposing a complying geometry and kinematics of the interference deltoid structure. Model comparison with natural examples worldwide shows good geometric and kinematic similarity, pointing to the existence of matching underlying dynamic process. Acknowledgments This work was sponsored by the Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia (FCT) through project MODELINK EXPL/GEO-GEO/0714/2013.

  15. Wind-tunnel investigation of the powered low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of the Vectored-Engine-Over (VEO) wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W.; Whitten, P. D.; Stumpfl, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation incorporating both static and wind-on testing was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to determine the effects of vectored thrust along with spanwise blowing on the low-speed aerodynamics of an advanced fighter configuration. Data were obtained over a large range of thrust coefficients corresponding to takeoff and landing thrust settings for many nozzle configurations. The complete set of static thrust data and the complete set of longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained in the investigation are presented. These data are intended for reference purposes and, therefore, are presented without analysis or comment. The analysis of the thrust-induced effects found in the investigation are not discussed.

  16. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  17. Approximate approach for optimization space flights with a low thrust on the basis of sufficient optimality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vadim V.

    2017-01-01

    Flight mechanics with a low-thrust is a new chapter of mechanics of space flight, considered plurality of all problems trajectory optimization and movement control laws and the design parameters of spacecraft. Thus tasks associated with taking into account the additional factors in mathematical models of the motion of spacecraft becomes increasingly important, as well as additional restrictions on the possibilities of the thrust vector control. The complication of the mathematical models of controlled motion leads to difficulties in solving optimization problems. Author proposed methods of finding approximate optimal control and evaluating their optimality based on analytical solutions. These methods are based on the principle of extending the class of admissible states and controls and sufficient conditions for the absolute minimum. Developed procedures of the estimation enabling to determine how close to the optimal founded solution, and indicate ways to improve them. Authors describes procedures of estimate for approximately optimal control laws for space flight mechanics problems, in particular for optimization flight low-thrust between the circular non-coplanar orbits, optimization the control angle and trajectory movement of the spacecraft during interorbital flights, optimization flights with low-thrust between arbitrary elliptical orbits Earth satellites.

  18. Optimal thrust level for orbit insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerf, Max

    2017-07-01

    The minimum-fuel orbital transfer is analyzed in the case of a launcher upper stage using a constantly thrusting engine. The thrust level is assumed to be constant and its value is optimized together with the thrust direction. A closed-loop solution for the thrust direction is derived from the extremal analysis for a planar orbital transfer. The optimal control problem reduces to two unknowns, namely the thrust level and the final time. Guessing and propagating the costates is no longer necessary and the optimal trajectory is easily found from a rough initialization. On the other hand the initial costates are assessed analytically from the initial conditions and they can be used as initial guess for transfers at different thrust levels. The method is exemplified on a launcher upper stage targeting a geostationary transfer orbit.

  19. Room temperature vortex fluidic synthesis of monodispersed amorphous proto-vaterite.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenhong; Chen, Xianjue; Zhu, Shenmin; Guo, Cuiping; Raston, Colin L

    2014-10-11

    Monodispersed particles of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) 90 to 200 nm in diameter are accessible at room temperature in ethylene glycol and water using a vortex fluidic device (VFD). The ACC material is stable for at least two weeks under ambient conditions.

  20. Model of a Soft Robotic Actuator with Embedded Fluidic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamus, Benny; Or, Yizhar; Gat, Amir

    2017-11-01

    Soft robotics is an emerging bio-inspired concept of actuation, with promising applications for robotic locomotion and manipulation. Focusing on actuation by pressurized embedded fluidic networks, we present analytic formulation and closed-form solutions of an elastic actuator with pressurized fluidic networks. In this work we account for the effects of solid inertia and elasticity, as well as fluid viscosity, which allows modelling the system's step-response and frequency response as well as suggesting mode elimination and isolation techniques. We also present and model the application of viscous-peeling as an actuation mechanism, simplifying the fabrication process by eliminating the need for internal cavities. The theoretical results describing the viscous-elastic-inertial dynamics of the actuator are illustrated by experiments. The approach presented in this work may pave the way for the design and implementation of soft robotic legged locomotion that exploits dynamic effects.

  1. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tse, C. J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles is described. A set of orbit elements, known as the equinoctial elements, are selected as the state variables. The uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time nominal trajectory is defined and the equation of motion and the measurement equation are linearized about this nominal trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback guidance law is derived to control the thrusting direction of the engine. Using this guidance law, the vehicle will fly in a trajectory neighboring the nominal trajectory. The extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. Finally a short mission using this system is simulated. The results indicate that this system is very efficient for short missions.

  2. Micro Machining of Injection Mold Inserts for Fluidic Channel of Polymeric Biochips

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Chul; Heo, Young-Moo; Yoon, Gil-Sang; Shin, Kwang-Ho; Chang, Sung-Ho; Kim, Gun-Hee; Cho, Myeong-Woo

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the polymeric micro-fluidic biochip, often called LOC (lab-on-a-chip), has been focused as a cheap, rapid and simplified method to replace the existing biochemical laboratory works. It becomes possible to form miniaturized lab functionalities on a chip with the development of MEMS technologies. The micro-fluidic chips contain many micro-channels for the flow of sample and reagents, mixing, and detection tasks. Typical substrate materials for the chip are glass and polymers. Typical techniques for microfluidic chip fabrication are utilizing various micro pattern forming methods, such as wet-etching, micro-contact printing, and hot-embossing, micro injection molding, LIGA, and micro powder blasting processes, etc. In this study, to establish the basis of the micro pattern fabrication and mass production of polymeric micro-fluidic chips using injection molding process, micro machining method was applied to form micro-channels on the LOC molds. In the research, a series of machining experiments using micro end-mills were performed to determine optimum machining conditions to improve surface roughness and shape accuracy of designed simplified micro-channels. Obtained conditions were used to machine required mold inserts for micro-channels using micro end-mills. Test injection processes using machined molds and COC polymer were performed, and then the results were investigated.

  3. Space Shuttle booster thrust imbalance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, W. R.; Blackwell, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the Shuttle SRM thrust imbalance during the steady-state and tailoff portions of the boost phase of flight are presented. Results from flights STS-1 through STS-13 are included. A statistical analysis of the observed thrust imbalance data is presented. A 3 sigma thrust imbalance history versus time was generated from the observed data and is compared to the vehicle design requirements. The effect on Shuttle thrust imbalance from the use of replacement SRM segments is predicted. Comparisons of observed thrust imbalances with respect to predicted imbalances are presented for the two space shuttle flights which used replacement aft segments (STS-9 and STS-13).

  4. Geometry of a large-scale low-angle mid-crustal thrust (Woodroffe Thrust, Central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, Sebastian; Mancktelow, Neil S.; Hawemann, Friedrich; Pennacchioni, Giorgio; Camacho, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Young orogens, such as the Alps, mainly expose the upper part of the continental crust and it is not possible to follow large-scale thrusts (e.g. the Glarus Thrust) to great depth in order to study their changing rheological behavior. This knowledge, however, is crucial for determining the overall kinematic and dynamic response during collision, as middle to lower crustal rocks represent the major part of the total crustal section. Information from deeper parts of the continental crust can only be obtained directly by investigating regions where these levels are now exhumed. The Musgrave Ranges in Central Australia is a very well exposed, semi-desert area, in which numerous large-scale shear zones developed during the Petermann Orogeny around 550 Ma. The most prominent structure is the ˜400 km long E-W trending Woodroffe Thrust, which placed ˜1.2 Ga granulites onto similarly-aged amphibolite and granulite facies gneisses along a generally south-dipping thrust plane with a top-to-north shear sense. Geothermobarometric calculations on the associated mylonites established that the structure developed under mid-crustal conditions (500-650°C, 0.8-1 GPa). Regional P/T variations in the direction of thrusting are small, but show trends consistent with the south-dipping orientation of the thrust plane, which predicts deeper levels and a higher metamorphic grade in the south than in the north. They imply a very low gradient of only around 3°C/km for a distance of some 30 km in the movement direction of the thrust. Combined with a geothermal gradient on the order of 20°C/km, calculated from four separate P/T estimates from the hanging wall and footwall, this regional gradient indicates that the Woodroffe Thrust was originally shallow-dipping at an average angle of only around 9°. This suggests that upper crustal brittle thrusts do not necessarily steepen into the middle to lower crust, but can define very shallow-dipping, large-scale planar features, with dimensions in

  5. Tests and analysis of a vented D thrust deflecting nozzle on a turbofan engine. [conducted at the outdoor aerodynamic research facility of the Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseberg, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives were to: obtain nozzle performance characteristics in and out of ground effects; demonstrate the compatibility of the nozzle with a turbofan engine; obtain pressure and temperature distributions on the surface of the D vented nozzle; and establish a correlation of the nozzle performance between small scale and large scale models. The test nozzle was a boilerplate model of the MCAIR D vented nozzle configured for operation with a General Electric YTF-34-F5 turbofan engine. The nozzle was configured to provide: a thrust vectoring range of 0 to 115 deg; a yaw vectoring range of 0 to 10 deg; variable nozzle area control; and variable spacing between the core exit and nozzle entrance station. Compatibility between the YTF-34-T5 turbofan engine and the D vented nozzle was demonstrated. Velocity coefficients of 0.96 and greater were obtained for 90 deg of thrust vectoring. The nozzle walls remained cool during all test conditions.

  6. Packaged integrated opto-fluidic solution for harmful fluid analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenet, T.; Bucci, D.; Geoffray, F.; Canto, F.; Couston, L.; Jardinier, E.; Broquin, J.-E.

    2016-02-01

    Advances in nuclear fuel reprocessing have led to a surging need for novel chemical analysis tools. In this paper, we present a packaged lab-on-chip approach with co-integration of optical and micro-fluidic functions on a glass substrate as a solution. A chip was built and packaged to obtain light/fluid interaction in order for the entire device to make spectral measurements using the photo spectroscopy absorption principle. The interaction between the analyte solution and light takes place at the boundary between a waveguide and a fluid micro-channel thanks to the evanescent part of the waveguide's guided mode that propagates into the fluid. The waveguide was obtained via ion exchange on a glass wafer. The input and the output of the waveguides were pigtailed with standard single mode optical fibers. The micro-scale fluid channel was elaborated with a lithography procedure and hydrofluoric acid wet etching resulting in a 150+/-8 μm deep channel. The channel was designed with fluidic accesses, in order for the chip to be compatible with commercial fluidic interfaces/chip mounts. This allows for analyte fluid in external capillaries to be pumped into the device through micro-pipes, hence resulting in a fully packaged chip. In order to produce this co-integrated structure, two substrates were bonded. A study of direct glass wafer-to-wafer molecular bonding was carried-out to improve detector sturdiness and durability and put forward a bonding protocol with a bonding surface energy of γ>2.0 J.m-2. Detector viability was shown by obtaining optical mode measurements and detecting traces of 1.2 M neodymium (Nd) solute in 12+/-1 μL of 0.01 M and pH 2 nitric acid (HNO3) solvent by obtaining an absorption peak specific to neodymium at 795 nm.

  7. Thrust Measurement of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators: New Anti-Thrust Hypothesis, Frequency Sweeps Methodology, Humidity and Enclosure Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss thrust measurements of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators devices used for aerodynamic active flow control. After a review of our experience with conventional thrust measurement and significant non-repeatability of the results, we devised a suspended actuator test setup, and now present a methodology of thrust measurements with decreased uncertainty. The methodology consists of frequency scans at constant voltages. The procedure consists of increasing the frequency in a step-wise fashion from several Hz to the maximum frequency of several kHz, followed by frequency decrease back down to the start frequency of several Hz. This sequence is performed first at the highest voltage of interest, then repeated at lower voltages. The data in the descending frequency direction is more consistent and selected for reporting. Sample results show strong dependence of thrust on humidity which also affects the consistency and fluctuations of the measurements. We also observed negative values of thrust, or "anti-thrust", at low frequencies between 4 Hz and up to 64 Hz. The anti-thrust is proportional to the mean-squared voltage and is frequency independent. Departures from the parabolic anti-thrust curve are correlated with appearance of visible plasma discharges. We propose the anti-thrust hypothesis. It states that the measured thrust is a sum of plasma thrust and anti-thrust, and assumes that the anti-thrust exists at all frequencies and voltages. The anti-thrust depends on actuator geometry and materials and on the test installation. It enables the separation of the plasma thrust from the measured total thrust. This approach enables more meaningful comparisons between actuators at different installations and laboratories. The dependence on test installation was validated by surrounding the actuator with a grounded large-diameter metal sleeve. Strong dependence on humidity is also shown; the thrust significantly increased with decreasing humidity, e

  8. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    1998-01-01

    A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator's ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA).

  9. Micro thrust and heat generator

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, E.J.

    1998-11-17

    A micro thrust and heat generator have a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachining techniques (LIGA). 30 figs.

  10. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  11. Low thrust optimal orbital transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1994-01-01

    For many optimal transfer problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs and thus will require more revolutions. In this research, we considered two approaches for solving this problem: a powered flight guidance algorithm previously developed for higher thrust transfers was modified and an 'averaging technique' was investigated.

  12. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul

    2013-07-21

    Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format.

  13. Dissolvable fluidic time delays for programming multi-step assays in instrument-free paper diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Barry; Liang, Tinny; Fu, Elain; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Kauffman, Peter; Yager, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Lateral flow tests (LFTs) are an ingenious format for rapid and easy-to-use diagnostics, but they are fundamentally limited to assay chemistries that can be reduced to a single chemical step. In contrast, most laboratory diagnostic assays rely on multiple timed steps carried out by a human or a machine. Here, we use dissolvable sugar applied to paper to create programmable flow delays and present a paper network topology that uses these time delays to program automated multi-step fluidic protocols. Solutions of sucrose at different concentrations (10-70% of saturation) were added to paper strips and dried to create fluidic time delays spanning minutes to nearly an hour. A simple folding card format employing sugar delays was shown to automate a four-step fluidic process initiated by a single user activation step (folding the card); this device was used to perform a signal-amplified sandwich immunoassay for a diagnostic biomarker for malaria. The cards are capable of automating multi-step assay protocols normally used in laboratories, but in a rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use format. PMID:23685876

  14. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  15. Thrust Steering of a Gridded Ion Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, P.

    2004-10-01

    In any spacecraft installation of an ion propulsion system it is likely that there will be a need to alter the position of the thrust vector with respect to the centre of the vehicle, in order to minimise attitude and orbital perturbations during operation. Of most importance is the need to correct for the movements of the centre of mass of the spacecraft during operation. These movements are caused by the consumption of propellant, by the deployment and rotation of solar arrays, and by the varying radiation flux from the sun. As an example of the seriousness of this problem, the consumption due to this cause for an Intelsat VII class satellite with a lifetime of 15 years would be 26kg for an excursion of the centre of mass of just 1cm. As a consequence, large gimbal systems (approximately 10kg) are employed. Whilst these devices can perform perfectly well, they do represent a considerable mass overhead, amplify launch vibrations to the thrusters, as well as occupying a large volume, and presenting large cost (0.8Meuro) and additional reliability concerns. Consequently a method for providing direct vectoring of the ion beam has been developed using the technique of relative grid translation.

  16. Propeller thrust analysis using Prandtl's lifting line theory, a comparison between the experimental thrust and the thrust predicted by Prandtl's lifting line theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesler, Steven R.

    The lifting line theory was first developed by Prandtl and was used primarily on analysis of airplane wings. Though the theory is about one hundred years old, it is still used in the initial calculations to find the lift of a wing. The question that guided this thesis was, "How close does Prandtl's lifting line theory predict the thrust of a propeller?" In order to answer this question, an experiment was designed that measured the thrust of a propeller for different speeds. The measured thrust was compared to what the theory predicted. In order to do this experiment and analysis, a propeller needed to be used. A walnut wood ultralight propeller was chosen that had a 1.30 meter (51 inches) length from tip to tip. In this thesis, Prandtl's lifting line theory was modified to account for the different incoming velocity depending on the radial position of the airfoil. A modified equation was used to reflect these differences. A working code was developed based on this modified equation. A testing rig was built that allowed the propeller to be rotated at high speeds while measuring the thrust. During testing, the rotational speed of the propeller ranged from 13-43 rotations per second. The thrust from the propeller was measured at different speeds and ranged from 16-33 Newton's. The test data were then compared to the theoretical results obtained from the lifting line code. A plot in Chapter 5 (the results section) shows the theoretical vs. actual thrust for different rotational speeds. The theory over predicted the actual thrust of the propeller. Depending on the rotational speed, the error was: at low speeds 36%, at low to moderate speeds 84%, and at high speeds the error increased to 195%. Different reasons for these errors are discussed.

  17. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  18. Numerical Studies of a Supersonic Fluidic Diverter Actuator for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.; Culley, Dennis e.; Raghu, Surya

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the internal flow structure and performance of a specific fluidic diverter actuator, previously studied by time-dependent numerical computations for subsonic flow, is extended to include operation with supersonic actuator exit velocities. The understanding will aid in the development of fluidic diverters with minimum pressure losses and advanced designs of flow control actuators. The self-induced oscillatory behavior of the flow is successfully predicted and the calculated oscillation frequencies with respect to flow rate have excellent agreement with our experimental measurements. The oscillation frequency increases with Mach number, but its dependence on flow rate changes from subsonic to transonic to supersonic regimes. The delay time for the initiation of oscillations depends on the flow rate and the acoustic speed in the gaseous medium for subsonic flow, but is unaffected by the flow rate for supersonic conditions

  19. Wind tunnel tests of the dynamic characteristics of the fluidic rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belsterling, C. A.

    1976-01-01

    The fourth phase is given of a continuing program to develop the means to stabilize and control aircraft without moving parts or a separate source of power. Previous phases have demonstrated the feasibility of (1) generating adequate control forces on a standard airfoil, (2) controlling those forces with a fluidic amplifier and (3) cascading non-vented fluidic amplifiers operating on ram air supply pressure. The foremost objectives of the fourth phase covered under Part I of this report were to demonstrate a complete force-control system in a wind tunnel environment and to measure its static and dynamic control characteristics. Secondary objectives, covered under Part II, were to evaluate alternate configurations for lift control. The results demonstrate an overall response time of 150 msec, confirming this technology as a viable means for implementing low-cost reliable flight control systems.

  20. Dynamics of gas-thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiffler, A. K.; Tapia, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Computer program calculates load coefficients, up to third harmonic, for hydrostatic gas thrust bearings. Program is useful in identification of industrial situations where gas-thrust bearings have potential applications.

  1. Geometry of a large-scale, low-angle, midcrustal thrust (Woodroffe Thrust, central Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wex, S.; Mancktelow, N. S.; Hawemann, F.; Camacho, A.; Pennacchioni, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Musgrave Block in central Australia exposes numerous large-scale mylonitic shear zones developed during the intracontinental Petermann Orogeny around 560-520 Ma. The most prominent structure is the crustal-scale, over 600 km long, E-W trending Woodroffe Thrust, which is broadly undulate but generally dips shallowly to moderately to the south and shows an approximately top-to-north sense of movement. The estimated metamorphic conditions of mylonitization indicate a regional variation from predominantly midcrustal (circa 520-620°C and 0.8-1.1 GPa) to lower crustal ( 650°C and 1.0-1.3 GPa) levels in the direction of thrusting, which is also reflected in the distribution of preserved deformation microstructures. This variation in metamorphic conditions is consistent with a south dipping thrust plane but is only small, implying that a ≥60 km long N-S segment of the Woodroffe Thrust was originally shallowly dipping at an average estimated angle of ≤6°. The reconstructed geometry suggests that basement-cored, thick-skinned, midcrustal thrusts can be very shallowly dipping on a scale of many tens of kilometers in the direction of movement. Such a geometry would require the rocks along the thrust to be weak, but field observations (e.g., large volumes of syntectonic pseudotachylyte) argue for a strong behavior, at least transiently. Localization on a low-angle, near-planar structure that crosscuts lithological layers requires a weak precursor, such as a seismic rupture in the middle to lower crust. If this was a single event, the intracontinental earthquake must have been large, with the rupture extending laterally over hundreds of kilometers.

  2. Evaluation and modeling of autonomous attitude thrust control for the Geostation Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forcey, W.; Minnie, C. R.; Defazio, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-8 experienced a series of orbital perturbations from autonomous attitude control thrusting before perigee raising maneuvers. These perturbations influenced differential correction orbital state solutions determined by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS). The maneuvers induced significant variations in the converged state vector for solutions using increasingly longer tracking data spans. These solutions were used for planning perigee maneuvers as well as initial estimates for orbit solutions used to evaluate the effectiveness of the perigee raising maneuvers. This paper discusses models for the incorporation of attitude thrust effects into the orbit determination process. Results from definitive attitude solutions are modeled as impulsive thrusts in orbit determination solutions created for GOES-8 mission support. Due to the attitude orientation of GOES-8, analysis results are presented that attempt to absorb the effects of attitude thrusting by including a solution for the coefficient of reflectivity, C(R). Models to represent the attitude maneuvers are tested against orbit determination solutions generated during real-time support of the GOES-8 mission. The modeling techniques discussed in this investigation offer benefits to the remaining missions in the GOES NEXT series. Similar missions with large autonomous attitude control thrusting, such as the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft and the INTELSAT series, may also benefit from these results.

  3. Low Thrust Orbital Maneuvers Using Ion Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Low-thrust maneuver options, such as electric propulsion, offer specific challenges within mission-level Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis (MS&A) tools. This project seeks to transition techniques for simulating low-thrust maneuvers from detailed engineering level simulations such as AGI's Satellite ToolKit (STK) Astrogator to mission level simulations such as the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS). Our project goals are as follows: A) Assess different low-thrust options to achieve various orbital changes; B) Compare such approaches to more conventional, high-thrust profiles; C) Compare computational cost and accuracy of various approaches to calculate and simulate low-thrust maneuvers; D) Recommend methods for implementing low-thrust maneuvers in high-level mission simulations; E) prototype recommended solutions.

  4. A possible explanation for foreland thrust propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panian, John; Pilant, Walter

    1990-06-01

    A common feature of thin-skinned fold and thrust belts is the sequential nature of foreland directed thrust systems. As a rule, younger thrusts develop in the footwalls of older thrusts, the whole sequence propagating towards the foreland in the transport direction. As each new younger thrust develops, the entire sequence is thickened; particularly in the frontal region. The compressive toe region can be likened to an advancing wave; as the mountainous thrust belt advanced the down-surface slope stresses drive thrusts ahead of it much like a surfboard rider. In an attempt to investigate the stresses in the frontal regions of thrustsheets, a numerical method has been devised from the algorithm given by McTigue and Mei [1981]. The algorithm yields a quickly computed approximate solution of the gravity- and tectonic-induced stresses of a two-dimensional homogeneous elastic half-space with an arbitrarily shaped free surface of small slope. A comparison of the numerical method with analytical examples shows excellent agreement. The numerical method was devised because it greatly facilitates the stress calculations and frees one from using the restrictive, simple topographic profiles necessary to obtain an analytical solution. The numerical version of the McTigue and Mei algorithm shows that there is a region of increased maximum resolved shear stress, τ, directly beneath the toe of the overthrust sheet. Utilizing the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, predicted fault lines are computed. It is shown that they flatten and become horizontal in some portions of this zone of increased τ. Thrust sheets are known to advance upon weak decollement zones. If there is a coincidence of increased τ, a weak rock layer, and a potential fault line parallel to this weak layer, we have in place all the elements necessary to initiate a new thrusting event. That is, this combination acts as a nucleating center to initiate a new thrusting event. Therefore, thrusts develop in sequence

  5. Transport Phenomena of Water in Molecular Fluidic Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Truong Quoc; Kim, BoHung

    2016-01-01

    In molecular-level fluidic transport, where the discrete characteristics of a molecular system are not negligible (in contrast to a continuum description), the response of the molecular water system might still be similar to the continuum description if the time and ensemble averages satisfy the ergodic hypothesis and the scale of the average is enough to recover the classical thermodynamic properties. However, even in such cases, the continuum description breaks down on the material interfaces. In short, molecular-level liquid flows exhibit substantially different physics from classical fluid transport theories because of (i) the interface/surface force field, (ii) thermal/velocity slip, (iii) the discreteness of fluid molecules at the interface and (iv) local viscosity. Therefore, in this study, we present the result of our investigations using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with continuum-based energy equations and check the validity and limitations of the continuum hypothesis. Our study shows that when the continuum description is subjected to the proper treatment of the interface effects via modified boundary conditions, the so-called continuum-based modified-analytical solutions, they can adequately predict nanoscale fluid transport phenomena. The findings in this work have broad effects in overcoming current limitations in modeling/predicting the fluid behaviors of molecular fluidic devices. PMID:27650138

  6. Variable recruitment fluidic artificial muscles: modeling and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Meller, Michael A.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-07-01

    We investigate taking advantage of the lightweight, compliant nature of fluidic artificial muscles to create variable recruitment actuators in the form of artificial muscle bundles. Several actuator elements at different diameter scales are packaged to act as a single actuator device. The actuator elements of the bundle can be connected to the fluidic control circuit so that different groups of actuator elements, much like individual muscle fibers, can be activated independently depending on the required force output and motion. This novel actuation concept allows us to save energy by effectively impedance matching the active size of the actuators on the fly based on the instantaneous required load. This design also allows a single bundled actuator to operate in substantially different force regimes, which could be valuable for robots that need to perform a wide variety of tasks and interact safely with humans. This paper proposes, models and analyzes the actuation efficiency of this actuator concept. The analysis shows that variable recruitment operation can create an actuator that reduces throttling valve losses to operate more efficiently over a broader range of its force-strain operating space. We also present preliminary results of the design, fabrication and experimental characterization of three such bioinspired variable recruitment actuator prototypes.

  7. Static Performance of Six Innovative Thrust Reverser Concepts for Subsonic Transport Applications: Summary of the NASA Langley Innovative Thrust Reverser Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley Configuration Aerodynamics Branch has conducted an experimental investigation to study the static performance of innovative thrust reverser concepts applicable to high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Testing was conducted on a conventional separate-flow exhaust system configuration, a conventional cascade thrust reverser configuration, and six innovative thrust reverser configurations. The innovative thrust reverser configurations consisted of a cascade thrust reverser with porous fan-duct blocker, a blockerless thrust reverser, two core-mounted target thrust reversers, a multi-door crocodile thrust reverser, and a wing-mounted thrust reverser. Each of the innovative thrust reverser concepts offer potential weight savings and/or design simplifications over a conventional cascade thrust reverser design. Testing was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0. All tests were conducted with no external flow and cold, high-pressure air was used to simulate core and fan exhaust flows. Results show that the innovative thrust reverser concepts achieved thrust reverser performance levels which, when taking into account the potential for system simplification and reduced weight, may make them competitive with, or potentially more cost effective than current state-of-the-art thrust reverser systems.

  8. High-power, null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kunning G; Walker, Mitchell L R

    2009-05-01

    This article presents the theory and operation of a null-type, inverted pendulum thrust stand. The thrust stand design supports thrusters having a total mass up to 250 kg and measures thrust over a range of 1 mN to 5 N. The design uses a conventional inverted pendulum to increase sensitivity, coupled with a null-type feature to eliminate thrust alignment error due to deflection of thrust. The thrust stand position serves as the input to the null-circuit feedback control system and the output is the current to an electromagnetic actuator. Mechanical oscillations are actively damped with an electromagnetic damper. A closed-loop inclination system levels the stand while an active cooling system minimizes thermal effects. The thrust stand incorporates an in situ calibration rig. The thrust of a 3.4 kW Hall thruster is measured for thrust levels up to 230 mN. The uncertainty of the thrust measurements in this experiment is +/-0.6%, determined by examination of the hysteresis, drift of the zero offset and calibration slope variation.

  9. Fluidics cube for biosensor miniaturization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, J. M.; Feldstein, M. J.; Leatzow, D. M.; Flack, L. K.; Golden, J. P.; Ligler, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    To create a small, portable, fully automated biosensor, a compact means of fluid handling is required. We designed, manufactured, and tested a "fluidics cube" for such a purpose. This cube, made of thermoplastic, contains reservoirs and channels for liquid samples and reagents and operates without the use of any internal valves or meters; it is a passive fluid circuit that relies on pressure relief vents to control fluid movement. We demonstrate the ability of pressure relief vents to control fluid movement and show how to simply manufacture or modify the cube. Combined with the planar array biosensor developed at the Naval Research Laboratory, it brings us one step closer to realizing our goal of a handheld biosensor capable of analyzing multiple samples for multiple analytes.

  10. Thrusting and back-thrusting as post-emplacement kinematics of the Almora klippe: Insights from Low-temperature thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, R. C.; Singh, Paramjeet; Lal, Nand

    2015-06-01

    Crystalline klippen over the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya, are the representative of southern portion of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) hanging wall. These were tectonically transported over the juxtaposed thrust sheets (Berinag, Tons and Ramgarh) of the LHS zone along the MCT. These klippen comprise of NW-SE trending synformal folded thrust sheet bounded by thrusts in the south and north. In the present study, the exhumation histories of two well-known klippen namely Almora and Baijnath, and the Ramgarh thrust sheet, in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions vis-a-vis Himalayan orogeny have been investigated using Apatite Fission Track (AFT) ages. Along a ~ 60 km long orogen perpendicular transect across the Almora klippe and the Ramgarh thrust sheet, 16 AFT cooling ages from the Almora klippe and 2 from the Ramgarh thrust sheet have been found to range from 3.7 ± 0.8 to 13.2 ± 2.7 Ma, and 6.3 ± 0.8 to 7.2 ± 1.0 Ma respectively. From LHS meta-sedimentary rocks only a single AFT age of 3.6 ± 0.8 Ma could be obtained. Three AFT ages from the Baijnath klippe range between 4.7 ± 0.5 and 6.6 ± 0.8 Ma. AFT ages and exhumation rates of different klippen show a dynamic coupling between tectonic and erosion processes in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya. However, the tectonic processes play a dominant role in controlling the exhumation. Thrusting and back thrusting within the Almora klippe and Ramgarh thrust sheet are the post-emplacement kinematics that controlled the exhumation of the Almora klippe. Combining these results with the already published AFT ages from the crystalline klippen and the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC), the kinematics of emplacement of the klippen over the LHS and exhumation pattern across the MCT in the Kumaon and Garhwal regions of NW-Himalaya have been investigated.

  11. Ultrafast synthesis of LTA nanozeolite using a two-phase segmented fluidic microreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianhai; Jiang, Hao; Xu, Jian; Hu, Jun; Liu, Honglai; Hu, Ying

    2013-08-01

    Fast synthesis of nanosized zeolite is desirable for many industrial applications. An ultrafast synthesis of LTA nanozeolite by the organic-additive-free method in a two-phase segmented fluidic microreactor has been realized. The results reveal that the obtained LTA nanozeolites through microreactor are much smaller and higher crystallinity than those under similar conditions through conventional macroscale batch reactor. By investing various test conditions, such as the crystallization temperature, the flow rate, the microchannel length, and the aging time of gel solution, this two-phase segmented fluidic microreactor system enables us to develop an ultrafast method for nanozeolite production. Particularly, when using a microreactor with the microchannel length of 20 m, it only takes 10 min for the crystallization and no aging process to successfully produce the crystalline LTA nanozeolites at 95 degrees C.

  12. Techniques utilized in the simulated altitude testing of a 2D-CD vectoring and reversing nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, H. Bruce; Bryant, Lively; Dicus, John H.; Moore, Allan S.; Burns, Maureen E.; Solomon, Robert F.; Sheer, Irving

    1988-01-01

    Simulated altitude testing of a two-dimensional, convergent-divergent, thrust vectoring and reversing exhaust nozzle was accomplished. An important objective of this test was to develop test hardware and techniques to properly operate a vectoring and reversing nozzle within the confines of an altitude test facility. This report presents detailed information on the major test support systems utilized, the operational performance of the systems and the problems encountered, and test equipment improvements recommended for future tests. The most challenging support systems included the multi-axis thrust measurement system, vectored and reverse exhaust gas collection systems, and infrared temperature measurement systems used to evaluate and monitor the nozzle. The feasibility of testing a vectoring and reversing nozzle of this type in an altitude chamber was successfully demonstrated. Supporting systems performed as required. During reverser operation, engine exhaust gases were successfully captured and turned downstream. However, a small amount of exhaust gas spilled out the collector ducts' inlet openings when the reverser was opened more than 60 percent. The spillage did not affect engine or nozzle performance. The three infrared systems which viewed the nozzle through the exhaust collection system worked remarkably well considering the harsh environment.

  13. Acoustic-assisted fluidic hourglasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimaraes, Tamara; Marin, Alvaro; Kaehler, Christian J.; Barnkob, Rune

    2017-11-01

    Microfluidic devices are prone to get clogged when suspensions are forced through narrow passages. Such clogging events occur when particles form arches that block the channel. In this work we study the clogging probabilities in a microfluidic hourglass when subject to ultrasound. We measure the clogging probabilities for certain ranges of sound amplitudes and particle-to-neck size ratios in which clogging events are more likely to occur. The ultrasound induces acoustic radiation forces on the suspended particles, leading to particle migration perpendicular to the channel flow direction. The transverse particle rearrangement can significantly reduce the clogging probability by decreasing the chances of arching in the narrowing of the passage. We show that by choosing proper sound actuation conditions, the method is reliable, non-intrusive, preventive, and allows to increase the life of fluidic devices (microfluidic or larger) with particles in a wide range of sizes.

  14. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  15. Thrust Breakdown Characteristics of Conventional Propellers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    extends beyond the trailing edge of the blade . These sheets violently collapse as the blade moves out of the wake deficit produced by the hull. This...thrust breakdown, vibration, noise , erosion and blade damage. Propellers operating with enough cavitation to cause thrust breakdown can experience...7 Figure 5. Sensitivity of thrust reduction to harmonic content in wake (Prop 5491) .................. 8 Figure 6. Comparison of

  16. A GENERIC PACKAGING TECHNIQUE USING FLUIDIC ISOLATION FOR LOW-DRIFT IMPLANTABLE PRESSURE SENSORS.

    PubMed

    Kim, A; Powell, C R; Ziaie, B

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports on a generic packaging method for reducing drift in implantable pressure sensors. The described technique uses fluidic isolation by encasing the pressure sensor in a liquid-filled medical-grade polyurethane balloon; thus, isolating it from surrounding aqueous environment that is the major source of baseline drift. In-vitro tests using commercial micromachined piezoresistive pressure sensors show an average baseline drift of 0.006 cmH 2 O/day (0.13 mmHg/month) for over 100 days of saline soak test, as compared to 0.101 cmH 2 O/day (2.23 mmHg/month) for a non-fluidic-isolated one soaked for 18 days. To our knowledge, this is the lowest reported drift for an implantable pressure sensor.

  17. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  18. Freeform Fluidics

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dehoff, Ryan R; Love, Lonnie J; Lind, Randall F

    This work explores the integration of miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing an approach to miniaturized fluidic actuation and control that enables high dexterity, low cost and a pathway towards energy efficiency. Previous work focused on mesoscale digital control valves (high pressure, low flow) and the integration of actuation and fluid passages directly with the structure, the primary application being fluid powered robotics. The fundamental challenge was part complexity. ORNL s new additive manufacturing technologies (e-beam, laser and ultrasonic deposition) enables freeform manufacturing using conventional metal alloys with excellent mechanical properties. Themore » combination of these two technologies, miniaturized fluid power and additive manufacturing, can enable a paradigm shift in fluid power, increasing efficiency while simultaneously reducing weight, size, complexity and cost. This paper focuses on the impact additive manufacturing can have on new forms of fluid power components and systems. We begin with a description of additive manufacturing processes, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each technology. Next we describe fundamental results of material characterization to understand the design and mechanical limits of parts made with the e-beam process. A novel design approach is introduced that enables integration of fluid powered actuation with mechanical structure. Finally, we describe a proof-of-principle demonstration: an anthropomorphic (human-like) hydraulically powered hand with integrated power supply and actuation.« less

  19. Numerical Simulation of a High-Lift Configuration with Embedded Fluidic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatsa, Veer N.; Casalino, Damiano; Lin, John C.; Appelbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations have been performed for a vertical tail configuration with deflected rudder. The suction surface of the main element of this configuration is embedded with an array of 32 fluidic actuators that produce oscillating sweeping jets. Such oscillating jets have been found to be very effective for flow control applications in the past. In the current paper, a high-fidelity computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code known as the PowerFLOW(Registered TradeMark) code is used to simulate the entire flow field associated with this configuration, including the flow inside the actuators. The computed results for the surface pressure and integrated forces compare favorably with measured data. In addition, numerical solutions predict the correct trends in forces with active flow control compared to the no control case. Effect of varying yaw and rudder deflection angles are also presented. In addition, computations have been performed at a higher Reynolds number to assess the performance of fluidic actuators at flight conditions.

  20. An Oxidase-Based Electrochemical Fluidic Sensor with High-Sensitivity and Low-Interference by On-Chip Oxygen Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Nitin; Park, Jongwon; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing a simple fluidic structure, we demonstrate the improved performance of oxidase-based enzymatic biosensors. Electrolysis of water is utilized to generate bubbles to manipulate the oxygen microenvironment close to the biosensor in a fluidic channel. For the proper enzyme reactions to occur, a simple mechanical procedure of manipulating bubbles was developed to maximize the oxygen level while minimizing the pH change after electrolysis. The sensors show improved sensitivities based on the oxygen dependency of enzyme reaction. In addition, this oxygen-rich operation minimizes the ratio of electrochemical interference signal by ascorbic acid during sensor operation (i.e., amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide). Although creatinine sensors have been used as the model system in this study, this method is applicable to many other biosensors that can use oxidase enzymes (e.g., glucose, alcohol, phenol, etc.) to implement a viable component for in-line fluidic sensor systems. PMID:23012527

  1. Optimal high- and low-thrust geocentric transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sackett, L. L.; Edelbaum, T. N.

    1974-01-01

    A computer code which rapidly calculates time optimal combined high- and low-thrust transfers between two geocentric orbits in the presence of a strong gravitational field has been developed as a mission analysis tool. The low-thrust portion of the transfer can be between any two arbitrary ellipses. There is an option for including the effect of two initial high-thrust impulses which would raise the spacecraft from a low, initially circular orbit to the initial orbit for the low-thrust portion of the transfer. In addition, the effect of a single final impulse after the low-thrust portion of the transfer may be included. The total Delta V for the initial two impulses must be specified as well as the Delta V for the final impulse. Either solar electric or nuclear electric propulsion can be assumed for the low-thrust phase of the transfer.

  2. Low-thrust trajectory optimization of asteroid sample return mission with multiple revolutions and moon gravity assists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gao; Jiang, FanHuag; Li, JunFeng

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth asteroids have gained a lot of interest and the development in low-thrust propulsion technology makes complex deep space exploration missions possible. A mission from low-Earth orbit using low-thrust electric propulsion system to rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid and bring sample back is investigated. By dividing the mission into five segments, the complex mission is solved separately. Then different methods are used to find optimal trajectories for every segment. Multiple revolutions around the Earth and multiple Moon gravity assists are used to decrease the fuel consumption to escape from the Earth. To avoid possible numerical difficulty of indirect methods, a direct method to parameterize the switching moment and direction of thrust vector is proposed. To maximize the mass of sample, optimal control theory and homotopic approach are applied to find the optimal trajectory. Direct methods of finding proper time to brake the spacecraft using Moon gravity assist are also proposed. Practical techniques including both direct and indirect methods are investigated to optimize trajectories for different segments and they can be easily extended to other missions and more precise dynamic model.

  3. Fluidic angular velocity sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A fluidic sensor providing a differential pressure signal proportional to the angular velocity of a rotary input is described. In one embodiment the sensor includes a fluid pump having an impeller coupled to a rotary input. A housing forming a constricting fluid flow chamber is connected to the fluid input of the pump. The housing is provided with a fluid flow restrictive input to the flow chamber and a port communicating with the interior of the flow chamber. The differential pressure signal measured across the flow restrictive input is relatively noise free and proportional to the square of the angular velocity of the impeller. In an alternative embodiment, the flow chamber has a generally cylindrical configuration and plates having flow restrictive apertures are disposed within the chamber downstream from the housing port. In this embodiment, the differential pressure signal is found to be approximately linear with the angular velocity of the impeller.

  4. Tubular copper thrust chamber design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, A. I.; Galler, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The use of copper tubular thrust chambers is particularly important in high performance expander cycle space engines. Tubular chambers have more surface area than flat wall chambers, and this extra surface area provides enhanced heat transfer for additional energy to power the cycle. This paper was divided into two sections: (1) a thermal analysis and sensitivity study; and (2) a preliminary design of a selected thrust chamber configuration. The thermal analysis consisted of a statistical optimization to determine the optimum tube geometry, tube booking, thrust chamber geometry, and cooling routing to achieve the maximum upper limit chamber pressure for a 25,000 pound thrust engine. The preliminary design effort produced a layout drawing of a tubular thrust chamber that is three inches shorter than the Advanced Expander Test Bed (AETB) milled channel chamber but is predicted to provide a five percent increase in heat transfer. Testing this chamber in the AETB would confirm the inherent advantages of tubular chamber construction and heat transfer.

  5. Alternative model of thrust-fault propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstadt, Gloria; de Paor, Declan G.

    1987-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the geometry of thrust faults is that initial failures occur on deeply buried planes of weak rock and that thrust faults propagate toward the surface along a staircase trajectory. We propose an alternative model that applies Gretener's beam-failure mechanism to a multilayered sequence. Invoking compatibility conditions, which demand that a thrust propagate both upsection and downsection, we suggest that ramps form first, at shallow levels, and are subsequently connected by flat faults. This hypothesis also explains the formation of many minor structures associated with thrusts, such as backthrusts, wedge structures, pop-ups, and duplexes, and provides a unified conceptual framework in which to evaluate field observations.

  6. Combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing is disclosed that allows for both radial and thrust axes control of an associated shaft. The combination radial and thrust magnetic bearing comprises a rotor and a stator. The rotor comprises a shaft, and first and second rotor pairs each having respective rotor elements. The stator comprises first and second stator elements and a magnet-sensor disk. In one embodiment, each stator element has a plurality of split-poles and a corresponding plurality of radial force coils and, in another embodiment, each stator element does not require thrust force coils, and radial force coils are replaced by double the plurality of coils serving as an outer member of each split-pole half.

  7. Fineblanking, Diffusion Bonding, and Testing of Fluidic Laminates.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    AD-AU69 347 TRITEC INC COLUMBIA ND F/$ 13/7 FINEBLANKING, DIFFUSION BONDING, AND TESTING OF FLUIDIC LAMINAT --ETCIU) JUL 80 L K PECAN OAAK21-79-C-0074...amplifier assembly. The effects of die roll and burrs can be minimized by secondary operations *such as abrasive machining , but this adds to the expense...clad material. Experience has shown that a clad thickness of 0.038 + 0.008 mm is required for the semi-solid diffusion bonding process. The composition

  8. Thrust Control Loop Design for Electric-Powered UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Heejae; Park, Sanghyuk

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes a process of designing a thrust control loop for an electric-powered fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with a propeller and a motor. In particular, the modeling method of the thrust system for thrust control is described in detail and the propeller thrust and torque force are modeled using blade element theory. A relation between current and torque of the motor is obtained using an experimental setup. Another relation between current, voltage and angular velocity is also obtained. The electric motor and the propeller dynamics are combined to model the thrust dynamics. The associated trim and linearization equations are derived. Then, the thrust dynamics are coupled with the flight dynamics to allow a proper design for the thrust loop in the flight control. The proposed method is validated by an application to a testbed UAV through simulations and flight test.

  9. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 2: Baseline thrust system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30- cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high-power missions (60 to 100 kW) such as a Halley's comet rendezvous. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed, and the feasibility of satisfying extended performance requirements was verified. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. The baseline thrust system design features modular construction, conventional power processing, and a concentractor solar array concept and is designed to interface with the space shuttle.

  10. Small-scale test program to develop a more efficient swivel nozzle thrust deflector for V/STOL lift/cruise engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The installed performance degradation of a swivel nozzle thrust deflector system obtained during increased vectoring angles of a large-scale test program was investigated and improved. Small-scale models were used to generate performance data for analyzing selected swivel nozzle configurations. A single-swivel nozzle design model with five different nozzle configurations and a twin-swivel nozzle design model, scaled to 0.15 size of the large-scale test hardware, were statically tested at low exhaust pressure ratios of 1.4, 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1 and vectored at four nozzle positions from 0 deg cruise through 90 deg vertical used for the VTOL mode.

  11. Target thrust measurement for applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Yang, W.; Tang, H.; Li, Z.; Kitaeva, A.; Chen, Z.; Cao, J.; Herdrich, G.; Zhang, K.

    2018-07-01

    In this paper, we present a flat target thrust stand which is designed to measure the thrust of a steady-state applied-field magnetoplasmadynamic thruster (AF-MPDT). In our experiments we varied target-thruster distances and target size to analyze their influence on the target thrust measurement results. The obtained thrust-distance curves increase to local maximum and then decreases with the increasing distance, which means that the plume of the AF-MPDT can still accelerate outside the thruster exit. The peak positions are related to the target sizes: larger targets can make the peak positions further from the thruster and decrease the measurement errors. To further improve the reliability of measurement results, a thermal equilibrium assumption combined with Knudsen’s cosine law is adapted to analyze the error caused by the back stream of plume particles. Under the assumption, the error caused by particle backflow is no more than 3.6% and the largest difference between the measured thrust and the theoretical thrust is 14%. Moreover, it was verified that target thrust measurement can disturb the working of the AF-MPD thruster, and the influence on the thrust measurement result is no more than 1% in our experiment.

  12. Pulsed Ejector Thrust Amplification Tested and Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jack

    2004-01-01

    There is currently much interest in pulsed detonation engines for aeronautical propulsion. This, in turn, has sparked renewed interest in pulsed ejectors to increase the thrust of such engines, since previous, though limited, research had indicated that pulsed ejectors could double the thrust in a short device. An experiment has been run at the NASA Glenn Research Center, using a shrouded Hartmann-Sprenger tube as a source of pulsed flow, to measure the thrust augmentation of a statistically designed set of ejectors. A Hartmann- Sprenger tube directs the flow from a supersonic nozzle (Mach 2 in the present experiment) into a closed tube. Under appropriate conditions, an oscillation is set up in which the jet flow alternately fills the tube and then spills around flow emerging from the tube. The tube length determines the frequency of oscillation. By shrouding the tube, the flow was directed out of the shroud as an axial stream. The set of ejectors comprised three different ejector lengths, three ejector diameters, and three nose radii. The thrust of the jet alone, and then of the jet plus ejector, was measured using a thrust plate. The arrangement is shown in this photograph. Thrust augmentation is defined as the thrust of the jet with an ejector divided by the thrust of the jet alone. The experiments exhibited an optimum ejector diameter and length for maximizing the thrust augmentation, but little dependence on nose radius. Different frequencies were produced by changing the length of the Hartmann-Sprenger tube, and the experiment was run at a total of four frequencies. Additional measurements showed that the major feature of the pulsed jet was a starting vortex ring. The size of the vortex ring depended on the frequency, as did the optimum ejector diameter.

  13. Kinematics and strain distribution of a thrust-related fold system in the Lewis thrust plate, northwestern Montana (U.S.A.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, An; Oertel, Gerhard

    1993-06-01

    In order to understand interactions between motion along thrusts and the associated style of deformation and strain distribution in their hangingwalls, geologic mapping and strain measurements were conducted in an excellently exposed thrust-related fold system in the Lewis thrust plate, northwestern Montana. This system consists of: (1) an E-directed basal thrust (the Gunsight thrust) that has a flat-ramp geometry and a slip of about 3.6 km; (2) an E-verging asymmetric anticline with its nearly vertical forelimb truncated by the basal thrust from below; (3) a 4-km wide fold belt, the frontal fold complex, that lies directly in front of the E-verging anticline; (4) a W-directed bedding-parallel fault (the Mount Thompson fault) that bounds the top of the frontal fold belt and separates it from the undeformed to broadly folded strata above; and (5) regionally developed, W-dipping spaced cleavage. Although the overall geometry of the thrust-related fold system differs from any previously documented fault-related folds, the E-verging anticline itself resembles geometrically a Rich-type fault-bend fold. The observed initial cut-off and fold interlimb angles of this anticline, however, cannot be explained by cross-section balancing models for the development of either a fault-bend fold or a fault propagation fold. Possible origins for the E-verging anticline include (1) the fold initiated as an open fault-bend fold and tightened only later during its emplacement along the basal thrust and (2) the fold started as either a fault-bend or a fault-propagation fold, but simultaneous or subsequent volume change incompatible with any balanced cross-section models altered its shape. Strain in the thrust-related fold system was determined by the preferred orientation of mica and chlorite grains. The direction and magnitude of the post-compaction strain varies from place to place. Strains in the foreclimb of the hangingwall anticline imply bedding-parallel thinning at some

  14. Limited fluid in carbonate-shale hosted thrust faults of the Rocky Mountain Fold-and-Thrust Belt (Sun River Canyon, Montana)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBrien, V. J.; Kirschner, D. L.

    2001-12-01

    It is widely accepted that fluids play a fundamental role in the movement of thrust faults in foreland fold-and-thrust belts. We have begun a combined structure-geochemistry study of faults in the Rocky Mountain fold-and-thrust belt in order to provide more insight into the occurrence and role(s) of fluid in the deformation of thrust faults. We focus on faults exposed in the Sun River Canyon of Montana, an area that contains some of the best exposures of the Rocky Mountain fold-and-thrust belt in the U.S. Samples were collected from two well exposed thrusts in the Canyon -- the Diversion and French thrusts. Both faults have thrust Mississippian dolostones over Cretaceous shales. Displacement exceeds several kilometers. Numerous small-displacement, subsidiary faults characterize the deformation in the hanging wall carbonates. The footwall shales accommodated more penetrative deformation, resulting in well developed foliation and small-scale folds. Stable isotope data have been obtained from host rock samples and veins from these faults. The data delimit an arcuate trend in oxygen-carbon isotope space. Approximately 50 host rock carbonate samples from the hanging walls have carbon and oxygen isotope values ranging from +3 to 0 and 28 to 19 per mil, respectively. There is no apparent correlation between isotopic values and distance from thrust fault at either locality. Fifteen samples of fibrous slickensides on small-displacement faults in the hanging walls have similar carbon and lower oxygen isotope values (down to 16 per mil). And 15 veins that either post-date thrusting or are of indeterminate origin have carbon and oxygen isotope values down to -3 and12 per mil, respectively. The isotopic data collected during the initial stages of this project are similar to some results obtained several hundred kilometers north in the Front Ranges of the Canadian Rockies (Kirschner and Kennedy, JGR 2000) and in carbonate fold-thrust belts of the Swiss Helvetic Alps and Italian

  15. Modeling and testing of a knitted-sleeve fluidic artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Erick J.; Meller, Michael A.; Chipka, Jordan B.; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2016-11-01

    The knitted-sleeve fluidic muscle is similar in design to a traditional McKibben muscle, with a separate bladder and sleeve. However, in place of a braided sleeve, it uses a tubular-knit sleeve made from a thin strand of flexible but inextensible yarn. When the bladder is pressurized, the sleeve expands by letting the loops of fiber slide past each other, changing the dimensions of the rectangular cells in the stitch pattern. Ideally, the internal volume of the sleeve would reach a maximum when its length has contracted by 2/3 from its maximum length, and although this is not reachable in practice, preliminary tests show that free contraction greater than 50% is achievable. The motion relies on using a fiber with a low coefficient of friction in order to reduce hysteresis to an acceptable level. In addition to increased stroke length, potential advantages of this technique include slower force drop-off during the stroke, more useable energy in certain applications, and greater similarity to the force-length relationship of skeletal muscle. Its main limitation is its potentially greater effect from friction compared to other fluidic muscle designs.

  16. Medium-frequency impulsive-thrust-activated liquid hydrogen reorientation with Geyser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.

    1992-01-01

    Efficient technique are studied for accomplishing propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage through impulsive thrust. A comparison between the use of constant-thrust and impulsive-thrust accelerations for the activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive thrust is superior to constant thrust for liquid reorientation in a reduced-gravity environment. This study shows that when impulsive thrust with 0.1-1.0-, and 10-Hz frequencies for liquid-fill levels in the range between 30-80 percent is considered, the selection of 1.0-Hz-frequency impulsive thrust over the other frequency ranges of impulsive thrust is the optimum. Characteristics of the slosh waves excited during the course of 1.0-Hz-frequency impulsive-thrust liquid reorientation were also analyzed.

  17. Internal Fluid Dynamics and Frequency Scaling of Sweeping Jet Fluidic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hee; Salazar, Erik; Mittal, Rajat

    2017-11-01

    Sweeping jet fluidic oscillators (SJFOs) are devices that produce a spatially oscillating jet solely based on intrinsic flow instability mechanisms without any moving parts. Recently, SJFOs have emerged as effective actuators for flow control, but the internal fluid dynamics of the device that drives the oscillatory flow mechanism is not yet fully understood. In the current study, the internal fluid dynamics of the fluidic oscillator with feedback channels has been investigated by employing incompressible flow simulations. The study is focused on the oscillation mechanisms and scaling laws that underpin the jet oscillation. Based on the simulation results, simple phenomenological models that connect the jet deflection to the feedback flow are developed. Several geometric modifications are considered in order to explore the characteristic length scales and phase relationships associated with the jet oscillation and to assess the proposed phenomenological model. A scaling law for the jet oscillation frequency is proposed based on the detailed analysis. This research is supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0289 monitored by Dr. Douglas Smith.

  18. Initiation of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotare, Tatsuya; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-08-01

    To reveal in detail the process of initiation of a thrust fault, we conducted analog experiments with dry quartz sand using a high-resolution digital image correlation technique to identify minor shear-strain patterns for every 27 μm of shortening (with an absolute displacement accuracy of 0.5 μm). The experimental results identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the initiation of a thrust in cross-section view. The observations suggest that the process is closely linked to the activity of an adjacent existing thrust, and can be divided into three stages. Stage 1 is characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will subsequently be generated. The area that will eventually be the hanging wall starts to uplift before the fault forms. The shear strain along the existing thrust decreases linearly during this stage. Stage 2 is defined by the generation of the new thrust and active displacements along it, identified by the shear strain along the thrust. The location of the new thrust may be constrained by its back-thrust, generally produced at the foot of the surface slope. The activity of the existing thrust falls to zero once the new thrust is generated, although these two events are not synchronous. Stage 3 of the thrust is characterized by a constant displacement that corresponds to the shortening applied to the model. Similar minor shear bands have been reported in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan. By comparing several transects across this subduction margin, we can classify the lateral variations in the structural geometry into the same stages of deformation identified in our experiments. Our findings may also be applied to the evaluation of fracture distributions in thrust belts during unconventional hydrocarbon exploration and production.

  19. The recent development and applications of fluidic channels by 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-10-18

    The technology of "Lab-on-a-Chip" allows the synthesis and analysis of chemicals and biological substance within a portable or handheld device. The 3D printed structures enable precise control of various geometries. The combination of these two technologies in recent years makes a significant progress. The current approaches of 3D printing, such as stereolithography, polyjet, and fused deposition modeling, are introduced. Their manufacture specifications, such as surface roughness, resolution, replication fidelity, cost, and fabrication time, are compared with each other. Finally, novel application of 3D printed channel in biology are reviewed, including pathogenic bacteria detection using magnetic nanoparticle clusters in a helical microchannel, cell stimulation by 3D chemical gradients, perfused functional vascular channels, 3D tissue construct, organ-on-a-chip, and miniaturized fluidic "reactionware" devices for chemical syntheses. Overall, the 3D printed fluidic chip is becoming a powerful tool in the both medical and chemical industries.

  20. Modes of thrust generation in flying animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Song, Jialei; Tobalske, Bret; Luo Team; Tobalske Team

    2016-11-01

    For flying animals in forward flight, thrust is usually much smaller as compared with weight support and has not been given the same amount of attention. Several modes of thrust generation are discussed in this presentation. For insects performing slow flight that is characterized by low advance ratios (i.e., the ratio between flight speed and wing speed), thrust is usually generated by a "backward flick" mode, in which the wings moves upward and backward at a faster speed than the flight speed. Paddling mode is another mode used by some insects like fruit flies who row their wings backward during upstroke like paddles (Ristroph et al., PRL, 2011). Birds wings have high advance ratios and produce thrust during downstroke by directing aerodynamic lift forward. At intermediate advance ratios around one (e.g., hummingbirds and bats), the animal wings generate thrust during both downstroke and upstroke, and thrust generation during upstroke may come at cost of negative weight support. These conclusions are supported by previous experiment studies of insects, birds, and bats, as well as our recent computational modeling of hummingbirds. Supported by the NSF.

  1. Low-thrust chemical orbit transfer propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for large structures in high orbit is reported in terms of the many mission opportunities which require such structures. Mission and transportation options for large structures are presented, and it is shown that low-thrust propulsion is an enabling requirement for some missions and greatly enhancing to many others. Electric and low-thrust chemical propulsion are compared, and the need for an requirements of low-thrust chemical propulsion are discussed in terms of the interactions that are perceived to exist between the propulsion system and the large structure.

  2. Protein Folding Using a Vortex Fluidic Device.

    PubMed

    Britton, Joshua; Smith, Joshua N; Raston, Colin L; Weiss, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    Essentially all biochemistry and most molecular biology experiments require recombinant proteins. However, large, hydrophobic proteins typically aggregate into insoluble and misfolded species, and are directed into inclusion bodies. Current techniques to fold proteins recovered from inclusion bodies rely on denaturation followed by dialysis or rapid dilution. Such approaches can be time consuming, wasteful, and inefficient. Here, we describe rapid protein folding using a vortex fluidic device (VFD). This process uses mechanical energy introduced into thin films to rapidly and efficiently fold proteins. With the VFD in continuous flow mode, large volumes of protein solution can be processed per day with 100-fold reductions in both folding times and buffer volumes.

  3. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots

    PubMed Central

    Marchese, Andrew D.; Katzschmann, Robert K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes. PMID:27625913

  4. A Recipe for Soft Fluidic Elastomer Robots.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Andrew D; Katzschmann, Robert K; Rus, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    This work provides approaches to designing and fabricating soft fluidic elastomer robots. That is, three viable actuator morphologies composed entirely from soft silicone rubber are explored, and these morphologies are differentiated by their internal channel structure, namely, ribbed, cylindrical, and pleated. Additionally, three distinct casting-based fabrication processes are explored: lamination-based casting, retractable-pin-based casting, and lost-wax-based casting. Furthermore, two ways of fabricating a multiple DOF robot are explored: casting the complete robot as a whole and casting single degree of freedom (DOF) segments with subsequent concatenation. We experimentally validate each soft actuator morphology and fabrication process by creating multiple physical soft robot prototypes.

  5. Thrust control system design of ducted rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Juntao; Li, Bin; Bao, Wen; Niu, Wenyu; Yu, Daren

    2011-07-01

    The investigation of the thrust control system is aroused by the need for propulsion system of ducted rockets. Firstly the dynamic mathematical models of gas flow regulating system, pneumatic servo system and ducted rocket engine were established and analyzed. Then, to conquer the discussed problems of thrust control, the idea of information fusion was proposed to construct a new feedback variable. With this fused feedback variable, the thrust control system was designed. According to the simulation results, the introduction of the new fused feedback variable is valid in eliminating the contradiction between rapid response and stability for the thrust control system of ducted rockets.

  6. The thrust belt in Southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward T.; Lopez, David A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading edge of the Cordilleran fold and thrust in southwest Montana appears to be a continuation of the edge of the Wyoming thrust belt, projected northward beneath the Snake River Plain. Trces of the thrust faults that form the leading edge of the thrust belts are mostly concealed, but stratigraphic and structural evidence suggests that the belt enters Montana near the middle of the Centennial Mountains, continues west along the Red Rock River valley, and swings north into the Highland Mountains near Butte. The thrust belt in southwest Montana and east-central Idaho includes at least two major plates -- the Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates -- each of which contains a distinctive sequence of rocks, different in facies and structural style from those of the cratonic region east of the thrust belt. The thrust plates are characterized by persuasive, open to tight and locally overturned folds, and imbricate thrust faults, structural styles unusual in Phanerozoic cratonic rocks. The basal decollement zones of the plates are composed of intensely sheared, crushed, brecciated, and mylonitized rocks, the decollement at the base of the Medicine Lodge plate is as much as 300 meters thick. The Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates are fringed on the east by a 10- to 50-kilometer-wide zone of tightly folded rocks cut by imbricate thrust fauls, a zone that forms the eastern margin of the thrust belt in southwest Montana. The frontal fold and thrust zone includes rocks that are similar to those of the craton, even though they differ in details of thickness, composition, or stratigraphic sequence. The zone is interpreted to be one of terminal folding and thrusting in cratonic rocks overridden by the major thrust plates from farther west. The cratonic rocks were drape-folded over rising basement blocks that formed a foreland bulge in front of the thrust belt. The basement blocks are bounded by steep faults of Proterozoic ancestry, which also moved as tear

  7. Magnet pole shape design for reduction of thrust ripple of slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous motor with arc-shaped magnets considering end-effect based on analytical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Kyung-Hun; Park, Hyung-Il; Kim, Kwan-Ho; Jang, Seok-Myeong; Choi, Jang-Young

    2017-05-01

    The shape of the magnet is essential to the performance of a slotless permanent magnet linear synchronous machine (PMLSM) because it is directly related to desirable machine performance. This paper presents a reduction in the thrust ripple of a PMLSM through the use of arc-shaped magnets based on electromagnetic field theory. The magnetic field solutions were obtained by considering end effect using a magnetic vector potential and two-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system. The analytical solution of each subdomain (PM, air-gap, coil, and end region) is derived, and the field solution is obtained by applying the boundary and interface conditions between the subdomains. In particular, an analytical method was derived for the instantaneous thrust and thrust ripple reduction of a PMLSM with arc-shaped magnets. In order to demonstrate the validity of the analytical results, the back electromotive force results of a finite element analysis and experiment on the manufactured prototype model were compared. The optimal point for thrust ripple minimization is suggested.

  8. Powered Descent Guidance with General Thrust-Pointing Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John M., III; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) algorithm and software for generating Mars pinpoint or precision landing guidance profiles has been enhanced to incorporate thrust-pointing constraints. Pointing constraints would typically be needed for onboard sensor and navigation systems that have specific field-of-view requirements to generate valid ground proximity and terrain-relative state measurements. The original PDG algorithm was designed to enforce both control and state constraints, including maximum and minimum thrust bounds, avoidance of the ground or descent within a glide slope cone, and maximum speed limits. The thrust-bound and thrust-pointing constraints within PDG are non-convex, which in general requires nonlinear optimization methods to generate solutions. The short duration of Mars powered descent requires guaranteed PDG convergence to a solution within a finite time; however, nonlinear optimization methods have no guarantees of convergence to the global optimal or convergence within finite computation time. A lossless convexification developed for the original PDG algorithm relaxed the non-convex thrust bound constraints. This relaxation was theoretically proven to provide valid and optimal solutions for the original, non-convex problem within a convex framework. As with the thrust bound constraint, a relaxation of the thrust-pointing constraint also provides a lossless convexification that ensures the enhanced relaxed PDG algorithm remains convex and retains validity for the original nonconvex problem. The enhanced PDG algorithm provides guidance profiles for pinpoint and precision landing that minimize fuel usage, minimize landing error to the target, and ensure satisfaction of all position and control constraints, including thrust bounds and now thrust-pointing constraints.

  9. Noise reduction in supersonic jets by nozzle fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2013-08-01

    Professor Philip Doak spent a very productive time as a consultant to the Lockheed-Georgia Company in the early 1970s. The focus of the overall research project was the prediction and reduction of noise from supersonic jets. Now, 40 years on, the present paper describes an innovative methodology and device for the reduction of supersonic jet noise. The goal is the development of a practical active noise reduction technique for low bypass ratio turbofan engines. This method introduces fluidic inserts installed in the divergent wall of a CD nozzle to replace hard-wall corrugation seals, which have been demonstrated to be effective by Seiner (2005) [1]. By altering the configuration and operating conditions of the fluidic inserts, active noise reduction for both mixing and shock noise has been obtained. Substantial noise reductions have been achieved for mixing noise in the maximum noise emission direction and in the forward arc for broadband shock-associated noise. To achieve these reductions (on the order of greater than 4 and 2 dB for the two main components respectively), practically achievable levels of injection mass flow rates have been used. The total injected mass flow rates are less than 4% of the core mass flow rate and the effective operating injection pressure ratio has been maintained at or below the same level as the nozzle pressure ratio of the core flow.

  10. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  11. In-water gas combustion for thrust production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teslenko, V. S.; Drozhzhin, A. P.; Medvedev, R. N.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental study for hydrodynamic processes occurring during combustion of a stoichiometric mixture propane-oxygen in combustion chambers with different configurations and submerged into water. The pulses of force acting upon a thrust wall were measured for different geometries: cylindrical, conic, hemispherical, including the case of gas combustion near a flat thrust wall. After a single charge of stoichiometric mixture propane-oxygen is burnt near the thrust wall, the process of cyclic generation of force pulses develops. The first pulse is generated due to pressure growth during gas combustion, and the following pulses are the result of hydrodynamic pulsations of the gaseous cavity. Experiments demonstrated that efficient generation of thrust occurs if all bubble pulsations are used during combustion of a single gas combustion. In the series of experiments, the specific impulse on the thrust wall was in the range 104-105 s (105-106 m/s) with account for positive and negative components of impulse.

  12. Tests on Thrust Augmenters for Jet Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, Eastman N; Shoemaker, James M

    1932-01-01

    This series of tests was undertaken to determine how much the reaction thrust of a jet could be increased by the use of thrust augmenters and thus to give some indication as to the feasibility of jet propulsion for airplanes. The tests were made during the first part of 1927 at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. A compressed air jet was used in connection with a series of annular guides surrounding the jet to act as thrust augmenters. The results show that, although it is possible to increase the thrust of a jet, the increase is not large enough to affect greatly the status of the problem of the application of jet propulsion to airplanes.

  13. THRUST BEARING

    DOEpatents

    Heller, P.R.

    1958-09-16

    A thrust bearing suitable for use with a rotor or blower that is to rotate about a vertical axis is descrihed. A centrifagal jack is provided so thnt the device may opernte on one hearing at starting and lower speeds, and transfer the load to another bearing at higher speeds. A low viscosity fluid is used to lubricate the higher speed operation bearing, in connection with broad hearing -surfaces, the ability to withstand great loads, and a relatively high friction loss, as contraated to the lower speed operatio;n bearing which will withstand only light thrust loads but is sufficiently frictionfree to avoid bearing seizure during slow speed or startup operation. An axially aligned shaft pin provides the bearing surface for low rotational speeds, but at higher speed, weights operating against spring tension withdraw nthe shaft pin into the bearing proper and the rotor shaft comes in contact with the large bearing surfaces.

  14. Origin of the Uinta recess, Sevier fold thrust belt, Utah: influence of basin architecture on fold thrust belt geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Timothy; Marshak, Stephen

    1999-11-01

    Structural trends in the Sevier fold-thrust belt define a pronounced concave-to-the-foreland map-view curve, the Uinta recess, in north-central Utah. This recess separates two convex-to-the-foreland curves, the Provo salient on the south and the Wyoming salient on the north. The two limbs of the recess comprise transverse zones (fault zones at a high-angle to the regional trend of the orogen) that border the flanks of the east-west-trending Uinta/Cottonwood arch. Our structural analysis indicates that the transverse zones formed during the Sevier orogeny, and that they differ markedly from each other in structural style. The Charleston transverse zone (CTZ), on the south side of the arch, initiated as a complex sinistral strike-slip fault system that defines the abrupt northern boundary of the Provo salient. The Mount Raymond transverse zone (MRTZ), on the north side of the arch, represents the region in which the southeast-verging southern limb of the gently curving Wyoming salient was tilted northwards during the Laramide phase of uplift of the Uinta/Cottonwood arch. In effect, the MRTZ represents an oblique cross section through a thrust belt. The contrasting architecture of these transverse zones demonstrates how pre-deformation basin geometry influences the geometry of a fold-thrust belt. Analysis of isopach maps indicates that, at the time the Sevier fold-thrust belt formed, the area just north of the present site of the Uinta/Cottonwood arch was a basement high, with a gently dipping north flank, and a steeply dipping south flank. Thus, predeformational sediment thickened abruptly to the south of the high and thickened gradually to the north of the high. As illustrated by sandbox models, the distance that a fold-thrust belt propagates into the foreland depends on the thickness of the sedimentary layer being deformed, so the shape of the salient mimics the longitudinal cross-sectional shape of the sedimentary basin. Where basins taper gradually along strike

  15. Earthquakes, gravity, and the origin of the Bali Basin: An example of a Nascent Continental Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Robert; Nabelek, John

    1987-01-01

    We infer from the bathymetry and gravity field and from the source mechanisms and depths of the eight largest earthquakes in the Bali region that the Bali Basin is a downwarp in the crust of the Sunda Shelf produced and maintained by thrusting along the Flores back arc thrust zone. Earthquake source mechanisms and focal depths are inferred from the inversion of long-period P and SH waves for all events and short-period P waves for two of the events. Centroidal depths that give the best fit to the seismograms range from 10 to 18 km, but uncertainties in depth allow a range from 7 to 24 km. The P wave nodal planes that dip south at 13° to 35° (±7°) strike roughly parallel to the volcanic arc and are consistent with thrusting of crust of the Bali Basin beneath it. The positions of the earthquakes with respect to crustal features inferred from seismic and gravity data suggest that the earthquakes occur in the basement along the western end of the Flores thrust zone. The slip direction for the back arc thrust zone inferred from the orientation of the earthquake slip vectors indicates that the thrusting in the Bali Basin is probably part of the overall plate convergence, as it roughly coincides with the convergence direction between the Sunda arc and the Indian Ocean plate. Summation of seismic moments of earthquakes between 1960 and 1985 suggests a minimum rate of convergence across the thrust zone of 4 ± 2 mm/a. The presence of back arc thrusting suggests that some coupling between the Indian Ocean plate and the Sunda arc occurs but mechanisms such as continental collision or a shallow subduction of the Indian Ocean plate probably can be ruled out. The present tectonic setting and structure of the Bali Basin is comparable to the early forelands of the Andes or western North America in that a fold-and-thrust belt is forming on the continental side of an arc-trench system at which oceanic lithosphere is being subducted. The Bali Basin is flanked by the Tertiary Java

  16. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) acoustic and aerodynamic tests on a scale model over-the-wing thrust reverser and forward thrust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic test program was conducted on a 1/6.25 scale model of the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) forward thrust over-the-wing (OTW) nozzle and OTW thrust reverser. In reverse thrust, the effect of reverser geometry was studied by parametric variations in blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. Forward thrust nozzle tests determined the jet noise levels of the cruise and takeoff nozzles, the effect of opening side doors to achieve takeoff thrust, and scrubbing noise of the cruise and takeoff jet on a simulated wing surface. Velocity profiles are presented for both forward and reverse thrust nozzles. An estimate of the reverse thrust was made utilizing the measured centerline turning angle.

  17. On the calculation of low-thrust fail-safe trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A guidance algorithm is developed for a low-thrust spacecraft such that target intercept is possible in spite of premature thrust termination along the trajectory. Such a trajectory is called a 'fail-safe' trajectory and the spacecraft thrust is utilized to minimize the relative target-spacecraft approach speed. The fail-safe guidance algorithm is solved using the concept of a critical thrust plane and a non-critical thrust direction. Several examples of fail-safe guidance are presented for a solar-electric propulsion flyby mission to the comet Encke.

  18. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the...

  19. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the...

  20. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the...

  1. Impact of Fluidic Chevrons on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Kinzie, Kevin W.; Whitmire, Julia; Abeysinghe, Amal

    2005-01-01

    The impact of alternating fluidic core chevrons on the production of jet noise is investigated. Core nozzles for a representative 1/9th scale, bypass ratio 5 model system were manufactured with slots cut near the trailing edges to allow for air injection into the core and fan streams. The injectors followed an alternating pattern around the nozzle perimeter so that the injection alternated between injection into the core stream and injection into the fan stream. For the takeoff condition and a forward flight Mach number of 0.10, the overall sound pressure levels at the peak jet noise angle decrease with increasing injection pressure. Sound pressure levels increase for observation angles less than 110o at higher injection pressures due to increases in high frequency noise. Greater increases in high frequency noise are observed when the number of injectors increases from 8 to 12. When the forward flight Mach number is increased to 0.28, jet noise reduction (relative to the baseline) is observed at aft angles for increasing injection pressure while significant increases in jet noise are observed at forward observation angles due to substantial acoustic radiation at high frequencies. A comparison between inflow and alternating injectors shows that, for equal mass injection rates, the inflow nozzle produces greater low frequency noise reduction (relative to the baseline) than the alternating injectors at 90o and aft observation angles and a forward flight Mach number of 0.28. Preliminary computational fluid dynamic simulations indicate that the spatial decay rate of the hot potential core flow is less for the inflow nozzle than for the alternating nozzles which indicates that gentle mixing may be preferred over sever mixing when fluidic chevrons are used for jet noise reduction.

  2. Hybrid macro-micro fluidics system for a chip-based biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamanaha, C. R.; Whitman, L. J.; Colton, R. J.

    2002-03-01

    We describe the engineering of a hybrid fluidics platform for a chip-based biosensor system that combines high-performance microfluidics components with powerful, yet compact, millimeter-scale pump and valve actuators. The microfluidics system includes channels, valveless diffuser-based pumps, and pinch-valves that are cast into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane and packaged along with the sensor chip into a palm-sized plastic cartridge. The microfluidics are driven by pump and valve actuators contained in an external unit (with a volume ~30 cm3) that interfaces kinematically with the PDMS microelements on the cartridge. The pump actuator is a simple-lever, flexure-hinge displacement amplifier that increases the motion of a piezoelectric stack. The valve actuators are an array of cantilevers operated by shape memory alloy wires. All components can be fabricated without the need for complex lithography or micromachining, and can be used with fluids containing micron-sized particulates. Prototypes have been modeled and tested to ensure the delivery of microliter volumes of fluid and the even dispersion of reagents over the chip sensing elements. With this hybrid approach to the fluidics system, the biochemical assay benefits from the many advantages of microfluidics yet we avoid the complexity and unknown reliability of immature microactuator technologies.

  3. Evaluation of various thrust calculation techniques on an F404 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    In support of performance testing of the X-29A aircraft at the NASA-Ames, various thrust calculation techniques were developed and evaluated for use on the F404-GE-400 engine. The engine was thrust calibrated at NASA-Lewis. Results from these tests were used to correct the manufacturer's in-flight thrust program to more accurately calculate thrust for the specific test engine. Data from these tests were also used to develop an independent, simplified thrust calculation technique for real-time thrust calculation. Comparisons were also made to thrust values predicted by the engine specification model. Results indicate uninstalled gross thrust accuracies on the order of 1 to 4 percent for the various in-flight thrust methods. The various thrust calculations are described and their usage, uncertainty, and measured accuracies are explained. In addition, the advantages of a real-time thrust algorithm for flight test use and the importance of an accurate thrust calculation to the aircraft performance analysis are described. Finally, actual data obtained from flight test are presented.

  4. A 10 nN resolution thrust-stand for micro-propulsion devices

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Courtney, Daniel G.; Shea, Herbert, E-mail: herbert.shea@epfl.ch

    We report on the development of a nano-Newton thrust-stand that can measure up to 100 μN thrust from different types of microthrusters with 10 nN resolution. The compact thrust-stand measures the impingement force of the particles emitted from a microthruster onto a suspended plate of size 45 mm × 45 mm and with a natural frequency over 50 Hz. Using a homodyne (lock-in) readout provides strong immunity to facility vibrations, which historically has been a major challenge for nano-Newton thrust-stands. A cold-gas thruster generating up to 50 μN thrust in air was first used to validate the thrust-stand. Better thanmore » 10 nN resolution and a minimum detectable thrust of 10 nN were achieved. Thrust from a miniature electrospray propulsion system generating up to 3 μN of thrust was measured with our thrust-stand in vacuum, and the thrust was compared with that computed from beam diagnostics, obtaining agreement within 50 nN to 150 nN. The 10 nN resolution obtained from this thrust-stand matches that from state-of-the-art nano-Newton thrust-stands, which measure thrust directly from the thruster by mounting it on a moving arm (but whose natural frequency is well below 1 Hz). The thrust-stand is the first of its kind to demonstrate less than 3 μN resolution by measuring the impingement force, making it capable of measuring thrust from different types of microthrusters, with the potential of easy upscaling for thrust measurement at much higher levels, simply by replacing the force sensor with other force sensors.« less

  5. A 10 nN resolution thrust-stand for micro-propulsion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Courtney, Daniel G.; Shea, Herbert

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development of a nano-Newton thrust-stand that can measure up to 100 μN thrust from different types of microthrusters with 10 nN resolution. The compact thrust-stand measures the impingement force of the particles emitted from a microthruster onto a suspended plate of size 45 mm × 45 mm and with a natural frequency over 50 Hz. Using a homodyne (lock-in) readout provides strong immunity to facility vibrations, which historically has been a major challenge for nano-Newton thrust-stands. A cold-gas thruster generating up to 50 μN thrust in air was first used to validate the thrust-stand. Better than 10 nN resolution and a minimum detectable thrust of 10 nN were achieved. Thrust from a miniature electrospray propulsion system generating up to 3 μN of thrust was measured with our thrust-stand in vacuum, and the thrust was compared with that computed from beam diagnostics, obtaining agreement within 50 nN to 150 nN. The 10 nN resolution obtained from this thrust-stand matches that from state-of-the-art nano-Newton thrust-stands, which measure thrust directly from the thruster by mounting it on a moving arm (but whose natural frequency is well below 1 Hz). The thrust-stand is the first of its kind to demonstrate less than 3 μN resolution by measuring the impingement force, making it capable of measuring thrust from different types of microthrusters, with the potential of easy upscaling for thrust measurement at much higher levels, simply by replacing the force sensor with other force sensors.

  6. Thrust and Propulsive Efficiency from an Instructive Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    In a typical engineering or physics curriculum, the momentum equation is used for the determination of jet engine thrust. Even a simple thrust analysis requires a heavy emphasis on mathematics that can cause students and engineers to lose a physical perspective on thrust. This article provides for this physical understanding using only static…

  7. Tubular astigmatism-tunable fluidic lens.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Daniel; Zappe, Hans

    2016-06-15

    We demonstrate a new means to fabricate three-dimensional liquid lenses which may be tuned in focal length and astigmatism. Using actuation by electrowetting-on-dielectrics, astigmatism in arbitrary directions may be tuned independently, with almost no cross talk between orthogonal orientations. The lens is based on electrodes structured on planar polyimide foils and subsequently rolled, enabling high-resolution patterning of complex electrodes along the azimuthal and radial directions of the lens. Based on a design established through fluidic and optical simulations, the astigmatism tuning is experimentally verified by a change of the corresponding Zernike coefficients measured using a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. It was seen that the back focal length can be tuned by 5 mm and 0° and 45° astigmatism by 3 μm through application of voltages in the range of 50  Vrms. It was observed that the cross talk with other aberrations is very low, suggesting a novel means for astigmatism control in imaging systems.

  8. Extended performance solar electric propulsion thrust system study. Volume 3: Tradeoff studies of alternate thrust system configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, E. I.

    1977-01-01

    Several thrust system design concepts were evaluated and compared using the specifications of the most advanced 30 cm engineering model thruster as the technology base. Emphasis was placed on relatively high power missions. The extensions in thruster performance required for the Halley's comet mission were defined and alternative thrust system concepts were designed in sufficient detail for comparing mass, efficiency, reliability, structure, and thermal characteristics. Confirmation testing and analysis of thruster and power-processing components were performed. A baseline design was selected from the alternatives considered, and the design analysis and documentation were refined. A program development plan was formulated that outlines the work structure considered necessary for developing, qualifying, and fabricating the flight hardware for the baseline thrust system within the time frame of a project to rendezvous with Halley's comet. An assessment was made of the costs and risks associated with a baseline thrust system as provided to the mission project under this plan. Critical procurements and interfaces were identified and defined.

  9. Initial Flight Test Evaluation of the F-15 ACTIVE Axisymmetric Vectoring Nozzle Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Hathaway, Ross; Ferguson, Michael D.

    1998-01-01

    A full envelope database of a thrust-vectoring axisymmetric nozzle performance for the Pratt & Whitney Pitch/Yaw Balance Beam Nozzle (P/YBBN) is being developed using the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) aircraft. At this time, flight research has been completed for steady-state pitch vector angles up to 20' at an altitude of 30,000 ft from low power settings to maximum afterburner power. The nozzle performance database includes vector forces, internal nozzle pressures, and temperatures all of which can be used for regression analysis modeling. The database was used to substantiate a set of nozzle performance data from wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamic analyses. Findings from initial flight research at Mach 0.9 and 1.2 are presented in this paper. The results show that vector efficiency is strongly influenced by power setting. A significant discrepancy in nozzle performance has been discovered between predicted and measured results during vectoring.

  10. Investigation of Thrust Augmentation of a 1600-pound Thrust Centrifugal-flow-type Turbojet Engine by Injection of Refrigerants at Compressor Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William L.; Dowman, Harry W.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine effectiveness of refrigerants in increasing thrust of turbojet engines. Mixtures of water an alcohol were injected for a range of total flows up to 2.2 lb/sec. Kerosene was injected into inlets covering a range of injected flows up to approximately 30% of normal engine fuel flow. Injection of 2.0 lb/sec of water alone produced an increase in thrust of 35.8% of rate engine conditions and kerosene produced a negligible increase in thrust. Carbon dioxide increased thrust 23.5 percent.

  11. Initiation process of a thrust fault revealed by analog experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Dotare, Tatsuya; Adam, Juergen; Hori, Takane; Sakaguchi, Hide

    2016-04-01

    We conducted 2D (cross-sectional) analog experiments with dry sand using a high resolution digital image correlation (DIC) technique to reveal initiation process of a thrust fault in detail, and identified a number of "weak shear bands" and minor uplift prior to the thrust initiation. The observations suggest that the process can be divided into three stages. Stage 1: characterized by a series of abrupt and short-lived weak shear bands at the location where the thrust will be generated later. Before initiation of the fault, the area to be the hanging wall starts to uplift. Stage 2: defined by the generation of the new thrust and its active displacement. The location of the new thrust seems to be constrained by its associated back-thrust, produced at the foot of the surface slope (by the previous thrust). The activity of the previous thrust turns to zero once the new thrust is generated, but the timing of these two events is not the same. Stage 3: characterized by a constant displacement along the (new) thrust. Similar minor shear bands can be seen in the toe area of the Nankai accretionary prism, SW Japan and we can correlate the along-strike variations in seismic profiles to the model results that show the characteristic features in each thrust development stage.

  12. Improving acoustic streaming effects in fluidic systems by matching SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane layers.

    PubMed

    Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects on propulsion-induced aerodynamic forces of vectoring a partial-span rectangular jet at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 1.20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the induced lift characteristics of a vectored thrust concept in which a rectangular jet exhaust nozzle was located in the fuselage at the wing trailing edge. The effects of nozzle deflection angles of 0 deg to 45 deg were studied at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.2, at angles of attack up to 14 deg, and with thrust coefficients up to 0.35. Separate force balances were used to determine total aerodynamic and thrust forces as well as thrust forces which allowed a direct measurement of jet turning angle at forward speeds. Wing pressure loading and flow characteristics using oil flow techniques were also studied.

  14. Nanonewton thrust measurement of photon pressure propulsion using semiconductor laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwami, K.; Akazawa, Taku; Ohtsuka, Tomohiro; Nishida, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the thrust produced by photon pressure emitted from a 100 W class continuous-wave semiconductor laser, a torsion-balance precise thrust stand is designed and tested. Photon emission propulsion using semiconductor light sources attract interests as a possible candidate for deep-space propellant-less propulsion and attitude control system. However, the thrust produced by photon emission as large as several ten nanonewtons requires precise thrust stand. A resonant method is adopted to enhance the sensitivity of the biflier torsional-spring thrust stand. The torsional spring constant and the resonant of the stand is 1.245 × 10-3 Nm/rad and 0.118 Hz, respectively. The experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical estimation. The thrust efficiency for photon propulsion was also defined. A maximum thrust of 499 nN was produced by the laser with 208 W input power (75 W of optical output) corresponding to a thrust efficiency of 36.7%. The minimum detectable thrust of the stand was estimated to be 2.62 nN under oscillation at a frequency close to resonance.

  15. Multiphysics Nuclear Thermal Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this effort is t o develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for hypothetical thrust chamber design and analysis. The current task scope is to perform multidimensional, multiphysics analysis of thrust performance and heat transfer analysis for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine including thrust chamber and nozzle. The multiphysics aspects of the model include: real fluid dynamics, chemical reactivity, turbulent flow, and conjugate heat transfer. The model will be designed to identify thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments in all flow paths and materials. This model would then be used to perform non- nuclear reproduction of the flow element failures demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA testing, investigate performance of specific configurations and assess potential issues and enhancements. A two-pronged approach will be employed in this effort: a detailed analysis of a multi-channel, flow-element, and global modeling of the entire thrust chamber assembly with a porosity modeling technique. It is expected that the detailed analysis of a single flow element would provide detailed fluid, thermal, and hydrogen environments for stress analysis, while the global thrust chamber assembly analysis would promote understanding of the effects of hydrogen dissociation and heat transfer on thrust performance. These modeling activities will be validated as much as possible by testing performed by other related efforts.

  16. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  17. Thrust Direction Optimization: Satisfying Dawn's Attitude Agility Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The science objective of NASA's Dawn Discovery mission is to explore the two largest members of the main asteroid belt, the giant asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres. Dawn successfully completed its orbital mission at Vesta. The Dawn spacecraft has complex, difficult to quantify, and in some cases severe limitations on its attitude agility. The low-thrust transfers between science orbits at Vesta required very complex time varying thrust directions due to the strong and complex gravity and various science objectives. Traditional thrust design objectives (like minimum (Delta)V or minimum transfer time) often result in thrust direction time evolutions that can not be accommodated with the attitude control system available on Dawn. This paper presents several new optimal control objectives, collectively called thrust direction optimization that were developed and necessary to successfully navigate Dawn through all orbital transfers at Vesta.

  18. OPTRAN- OPTIMAL LOW THRUST ORBIT TRANSFERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breakwell, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    OPTRAN is a collection of programs that solve the problem of optimal low thrust orbit transfers between non-coplanar circular orbits for spacecraft with chemical propulsion systems. The programs are set up to find Hohmann-type solutions, with burns near the perigee and apogee of the transfer orbit. They will solve both fairly long burn-arc transfers and "divided-burn" transfers. Program modeling includes a spherical earth gravity model and propulsion system models for either constant thrust or constant acceleration. The solutions obtained are optimal with respect to fuel use: i.e., final mass of the spacecraft is maximized with respect to the controls. The controls are the direction of thrust and the thrust on/off times. Two basic types of programs are provided in OPTRAN. The first type is for "exact solution" which results in complete, exact tkme-histories. The exact spacecraft position, velocity, and optimal thrust direction are given throughout the maneuver, as are the optimal thrust switch points, the transfer time, and the fuel costs. Exact solution programs are provided in two versions for non-coplanar transfers and in a fast version for coplanar transfers. The second basic type is for "approximate solutions" which results in approximate information on the transfer time and fuel costs. The approximate solution is used to estimate initial conditions for the exact solution. It can be used in divided-burn transfers to find the best number of burns with respect to time. The approximate solution is useful by itself in relatively efficient, short burn-arc transfers. These programs are written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and have been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer with the largest program having a central memory requirement of approximately 54K of 8 bit bytes. The OPTRAN program were developed in 1983.

  19. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

  20. Impact of fluidic agitation on human pluripotent stem cells in stirred suspension culture.

    PubMed

    Nampe, Daniel; Joshi, Ronak; Keller, Kevin; Zur Nieden, Nicole I; Tsutsui, Hideaki

    2017-09-01

    The success of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) as a source of future cell therapies hinges, in part, on the availability of a robust and scalable culture system that can readily produce a clinically relevant number of cells and their derivatives. Stirred suspension culture has been identified as one such promising platform due to its ease of use, scalability, and widespread use in the pharmaceutical industry (e.g., CHO cell-based production of therapeutic proteins) among others. However, culture of undifferentiated hPSCs in stirred suspension is a relatively new development within the past several years, and little is known beyond empirically optimized culture parameters. In particular, detailed characterizations of different agitation rates and their influence on the propagation of hPSCs are often not reported in the literature. In the current study, we systematically investigated various agitation rates to characterize their impact on cell yield, viability, and the maintenance of pluripotency. Additionally, we closely examined the distribution of cell aggregates and how the observed culture outcomes are attributed to their size distribution. Overall, our results showed that moderate agitation maximized the propagation of hPSCs to approximately 38-fold over 7 days by keeping the cell aggregates below the critical size, beyond which the cells are impacted by the diffusion limit, while limiting cell death caused by excessive fluidic forces. Furthermore, we observed that fluidic agitation could regulate not only cell aggregation, but also expression of some key signaling proteins in hPSCs. This indicates a new possibility to guide stem cell fate determination by fluidic agitation in stirred suspension cultures. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2109-2120. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Thrust Direction Optimization: Satisfying Dawn's Attitude Agility Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiffen, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    The science objective of NASA's Dawn Discovery mission is to explore the giant asteroid Vesta and the dwarf planet Ceres, the two largest members of the main asteroid belt. Dawn successfully completed its orbital mission at Vesta. The Dawn spacecraft has complex, difficult to quantify, and in some cases severe limitations on its attitude agility. The low-thrust transfers between science orbits at Vesta required very complex time varying thrust directions due to the strong and complex gravity and various science objectives. Traditional low-thrust design objectives (like minimum change in velocity or minimum transfer time) often result in thrust direction time evolutions that cannot be accommodated with the attitude control system available on Dawn. This paper presents several new optimal control objectives, collectively called thrust direction optimization that were developed and turned out to be essential to the successful navigation of Dawn at Vesta.

  2. Solar electric propulsion. [low thrust trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The major components of a solar electric propulsion system are discussed and some problems in low thrust mission analysis are detailed. Emphasis is placed on the development of a nominal low thrust trajectory and guidance and navigation aspects.

  3. Supersonic wings with significant leading-edge thrust at cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.; Mack, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental/theoretical correlations are presented which show that significant levels of leading-edge thrust are possible at supersonic speeds for certain planforms having the geometry to support the theoretical thrust-distribution potential. The new analytical process employed provides not only the level of leading-edge thrust attainable but also the spanwise distribution of both it and that component of full theoretical thrust which acts as vortex lift. Significantly improved aerodynamic performance in the moderate supersonic speed regime is indicated.

  4. Improved Propulsion Modeling for Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knittel, Jeremy M.; Englander, Jacob A.; Ozimek, Martin T.; Atchison, Justin A.; Gould, Julian J.

    2017-01-01

    Low-thrust trajectory design is tightly coupled with spacecraft systems design. In particular, the propulsion and power characteristics of a low-thrust spacecraft are major drivers in the design of the optimal trajectory. Accurate modeling of the power and propulsion behavior is essential for meaningful low-thrust trajectory optimization. In this work, we discuss new techniques to improve the accuracy of propulsion modeling in low-thrust trajectory optimization while maintaining the smooth derivatives that are necessary for a gradient-based optimizer. The resulting model is significantly more realistic than the industry standard and performs well inside an optimizer. A variety of deep-space trajectory examples are presented.

  5. Explicit Low-Thrust Guidance for Reference Orbit Targeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Udwadia, Firdaus E.

    2013-01-01

    The problem of a low-thrust spacecraft controlled to a reference orbit is addressed in this paper. A simple and explicit low-thrust guidance scheme with constrained thrust magnitude is developed by combining the fundamental equations of motion for constrained systems from analytical dynamics with a Lyapunov-based method. Examples are given for a spacecraft controlled to a reference trajectory in the circular restricted three body problem.

  6. A High-Voltage SOI CMOS Exciter Chip for a Programmable Fluidic Processor System.

    PubMed

    Current, K W; Yuk, K; McConaghy, C; Gascoyne, P R C; Schwartz, J A; Vykoukal, J V; Andrews, C

    2007-06-01

    A high-voltage (HV) integrated circuit has been demonstrated to transport fluidic droplet samples on programmable paths across the array of driving electrodes on its hydrophobically coated surface. This exciter chip is the engine for dielectrophoresis (DEP)-based micro-fluidic lab-on-a-chip systems, creating field excitations that inject and move fluidic droplets onto and about the manipulation surface. The architecture of this chip is expandable to arrays of N X N identical HV electrode driver circuits and electrodes. The exciter chip is programmable in several senses. The routes of multiple droplets may be set arbitrarily within the bounds of the electrode array. The electrode excitation waveform voltage amplitude, phase, and frequency may be adjusted based on the system configuration and the signal required to manipulate a particular fluid droplet composition. The voltage amplitude of the electrode excitation waveform can be set from the minimum logic level up to the maximum limit of the breakdown voltage of the fabrication technology. The frequency of the electrode excitation waveform can also be set independently of its voltage, up to a maximum depending upon the type of droplets that must be driven. The exciter chip can be coated and its oxide surface used as the droplet manipulation surface or it can be used with a top-mounted, enclosed fluidic chamber consisting of a variety of materials. The HV capability of the exciter chip allows the generated DEP forces to penetrate into the enclosed chamber region and an adjustable voltage amplitude can accommodate a variety of chamber floor thicknesses. This demonstration exciter chip has a 32 x 32 array of nominally 100 V electrode drivers that are individually programmable at each time point in the procedure to either of two phases: 0deg and 180deg with respect to the reference clock. For this demonstration chip, while operating the electrodes with a 100-V peak-to-peak periodic waveform, the maximum HV electrode

  7. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  8. Recommended Practices in Thrust Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Turin.5,38 This stand consists of two BeCu plates which hang from flexible BeCu mounts on a rigid block of Zerodur c, a material with a very low coe...2013 Figure 4. Example of a state-of-the-art hanging pendulum thrust stand. 38 Two spherical mirrors mounted on the plates form an optical cavity for...the Zerodur frame. Temperature control and careful choice of materials were used to minimize and correct for thermal drift. 2. Thrust Stand Performance

  9. A Fluidic Voice Communication System and Data Link.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    AD-AO4 OfA NAVAL POSTGAATAE SCHOOL HOuTEfuY CA F/S mTa A FLUIDIC VOICE CGUUNI[CATION SYSTI AND DATA LINK.UI NM O T N P.SEuCKI UNCLASSCO M I’I mlii...1119 Q8 ""󈧚ii1 13"L. 11H 1IlIIo MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS 196 A NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California...Postgraduate School Ma 4Y Mechanical Engineering Department Is NuM41611off 4 iuCwTOlftG A49MCV mauIS 4ADOCSSS(to Uffint Imo Ctemiltsd 0111 cc IS. 59CUIRITY

  10. Hydrodynamic aspects of thrust generation in gymnotiform swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirgaonkar, Anup A.; Curet, Oscar M.; Patankar, Neelesh A.; Maciver, Malcolm A.

    2008-11-01

    The primary propulsor in gymnotiform swimmers is a fin running along most of the ventral midline of the fish. The fish propagates traveling waves along this ribbon fin to generate thrust. This unique mode of thrust generation gives these weakly electric fish great maneuverability cluttered spaces. To understand the mechanical basis of gymnotiform propulsion, we investigated the hydrodynamics of a model ribbon-fin of an adult black ghost knifefish using high-resolution numerical experiments. We found that the principal mechanism of thrust generation is a central jet imparting momentum to the fluid with associated vortex rings near the free edge of the fin. The high-fidelity simulations also reveal secondary vortex rings potentially useful in rapid sideways maneuvers. We obtained the scaling of thrust with respect to the traveling wave kinematic parameters. Using a fin-plate model for a fish, we also discuss improvements to Lighthill's inviscid theory for gymnotiform and balistiform modes in terms of thrust magnitude, viscous drag on the body, and momentum enhancement.

  11. Simple control laws for low-thrust orbit transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petropoulos, Anastassios E.

    2003-01-01

    Two methods are presented by which to determine both a thrust direction and when to apply thrust to effect specified changes in any of the orbit elements except for true anomaly, which is assumed free. The central body is assumed to be a point mass, and the initial and final orbits are assumed closed. Thrust, when on, is of a constant value, and specific impulse is constant. The thrust profiles derived from the two methods are not propellant-optimal, but are based firstly on the optimal thrust directions and location on the osculating orbit for changing each of the orbit elements and secondly on the desired changes in the orbit elements. Two examples of transfers are presented, one in semimajor axis and inclination, and one in semimajor axis and eccentricity. The latter compares favourably with a propellant-optimized transfer between the same orbits. The control laws have few input parameters, but can still capture the complexity of a wide variety of orbit transfers.

  12. Thrust bolting: roof bolt support apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tadolini, Stephen C.; Dolinar, Dennis R.

    1992-01-01

    A method of installing a tensioned roof bolt in a borehole of a rock formation without the aid of a mechanical anchoring device or threaded tensioning threads by applying thrust to the bolt (19) as the bonding material (7') is curing to compress the strata (3) surrounding the borehole (1), and then relieving the thrust when the bonding material (7') has cured.

  13. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  14. Trajectory optimization of spacecraft high-thrust orbit transfer using a modified evolutionary algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi, Abolfazl

    2016-10-01

    This article introduces a new method to optimize finite-burn orbital manoeuvres based on a modified evolutionary algorithm. Optimization is carried out based on conversion of the orbital manoeuvre into a parameter optimization problem by assigning inverse tangential functions to the changes in direction angles of the thrust vector. The problem is analysed using boundary delimitation in a common optimization algorithm. A method is introduced to achieve acceptable values for optimization variables using nonlinear simulation, which results in an enlarged convergence domain. The presented algorithm benefits from high optimality and fast convergence time. A numerical example of a three-dimensional optimal orbital transfer is presented and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is shown.

  15. A guidance and navigation system for continuous low-thrust vehicles. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack-Chingtse, C.

    1973-01-01

    A midcourse guidance and navigation system for continuous low thrust vehicles was developed. The equinoctial elements are the state variables. Uncertainties are modelled statistically by random vector and stochastic processes. The motion of the vehicle and the measurements are described by nonlinear stochastic differential and difference equations respectively. A minimum time trajectory is defined; equations of motion and measurements are linearized about this trajectory. An exponential cost criterion is constructed and a linear feedback quidance law is derived. An extended Kalman filter is used for state estimation. A short mission using this system is simulated. It is indicated that this system is efficient for short missions, but longer missions require accurate trajectory and ground based measurements.

  16. A lifting surface theory for thrust augmenting ejectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevilaqua, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    The circulation theory of airfoil lift has been applied to calculate the performance of thrust augmenting ejectors. The ejector shroud is considered to be 'flying' in the secondary velocity field induced by the entrainment of the primary jet, so that the augmenting thrust is viewed as analogous to the lift on an airfoil. Vortex lattice methods are utilized to compute the thrust augmentation from the force on the flaps. The augmentation is shown to be a function of the length and shape of the flaps, as well as their position and orientation. Predictions of this new theory are compared with the results of classical methods of calculating the augmentation by integration of the stream thrust.

  17. Design and Analysis of an Electromagnetic Thrust Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, Bibhuti; Rao, Dantam K.

    1996-01-01

    A double-acting electromagnetic thrust bearing is normally used to counter the axial loads in many rotating machines that employ magnetic bearings. It essentially consists of an actuator and drive electronics. Existing thrust bearing design programs are based on several assumptions. These assumptions, however, are often violated in practice. For example, no distinction is made between maximum external loads and maximum bearing forces, which are assumed to be identical. Furthermore, it is assumed that the maximum flux density in the air gap occurs at the nominal gap position of the thrust runner. The purpose of this paper is to present a clear theoretical basis for the design of the electromagnetic thrust bearing which obviates such assumptions.

  18. Coseismic fault-related fold model, growth structure, and the historic multisegment blind thrust earthquake on the basement-involved Yoro thrust, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Mueller, Karl; Sato, Hiroshi; Togo, Masami

    2007-03-01

    We use high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, boring transects, and mapping of fold scarps that deform late Quaternary and Holocene sediments to define the kinematic evolution, subsurface geometry, coseismic behavior, and fault slip rates for an active, basement-involved blind thrust system in central Japan. Coseismic fold scarps on the Yoro basement-involved fold are defined by narrow fold limbs and angular hinges on seismic profiles, suggesting that at least 3.9 km of fault slip is consumed by wedge thrust folding in the upper 10 km of the crust. The close coincidence and kinematic link between folded horizons and the underlying thrust geometry indicate that the Yoro basement-involved fold has accommodated slip at an average rate of 3.2 ± 0.1 mm/yr on a shallowly west dipping thrust fault since early Pleistocene time. Past large-magnitude earthquakes, including an historic M˜7.7 event in A.D. 1586 that occurred on the Yoro blind thrust, are shown to have produced discrete folding by curved hinge kink band migration above the eastward propagating tip of the wedge thrust. Coseismic fold scarps formed during the A.D. 1586 earthquake can be traced along the en echelon active folds that extend for at least 60 km, in spite of different styles of folding along the apparently hard-linked Nobi-Ise blind thrust system. We thus emphasize the importance of this multisegment earthquake rupture across these structures and the potential risk for similar future events in en echelon active fold and thrust belts.

  19. Initial Thrust Measurements of Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Natalie R. S.; Scogin, Tyler; Liu, Thomas M.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dankanich, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Electronegative ion thrusters are a variation of traditional gridded ion thruster technology differentiated by the production and acceleration of both positive and negative ions. Benefits of electronegative ion thrusters include the elimination of lifetime-limiting cathodes from the thruster architecture and the ability to generate appreciable thrust from both charge species. While much progress has been made in the development of electronegative ion thruster technology, direct thrust measurements are required to unambiguously demonstrate the efficacy of the concept and support continued development. In the present work, direct thrust measurements of the thrust produced by the MINT (Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster) are performed using an inverted-pendulum thrust stand in the High-Power Electric Propulsion Laboratory's Vacuum Test Facility-1 at the Georgia Institute of Technology with operating pressures ranging from 4.8 x 10(exp -5) and 5.7 x 10(exp -5) torr. Thrust is recorded while operating with a propellant volumetric mixture ratio of 5:1 argon to nitrogen with total volumetric flow rates of 6, 12, and 24 sccm (0.17, 0.34, and 0.68 mg/s). Plasma is generated using a helical antenna at 13.56 MHz and radio frequency (RF) power levels of 150 and 350 W. The acceleration grid assembly is operated using both sinusoidal and square waveform biases of +/-350 V at frequencies of 4, 10, 25, 125, and 225 kHz. Thrust is recorded for two separate thruster configurations: with and without the magnetic filter. No thrust is discernable during thruster operation without the magnetic filter for any volumetric flow rate, RF forward Power level, or acceleration grid biasing scheme. For the full thruster configuration, with the magnetic filter installed, a brief burst of thrust of approximately 3.75 mN +/- 3 mN of error is observed at the start of grid operation for a volumetric flow rate of 24 sccm at 350 W RF power using a sinusoidal waveform grid bias at 125 kHz and +/- 350 V

  20. Low thrust propulsion literature survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Darrel

    1989-01-01

    A literature search was performed to investigate the area of low thrust propulsion. In an effort to evaluate this technology, a number of articles, obtained through the use of the NASA-RECON database, were collected and categorized. The study indicates that although much was done, particularly in the 1960's and 1970's, more can be done in the area of practical navigation and guidance. It is suggested that the older studies be reinvestigated to see what potential there exists for future low thrust applications.

  1. Using U-Th-Pb petrochronology to determine rates of ductile thrusting: Time windows into the Main Central Thrust, Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Catherine M.; Parrish, Randall R.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Argles, Tom W.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative constraints on the rates of tectonic processes underpin our understanding of the mechanisms that form mountains. In the Sikkim Himalaya, late structural doming has revealed time-transgressive evidence of metamorphism and thrusting that permit calculation of the minimum rate of movement on a major ductile fault zone, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), by a novel methodology. U-Th-Pb monazite ages, compositions, and metamorphic pressure-temperature determinations from rocks directly beneath the MCT reveal that samples from 50 km along the transport direction of the thrust experienced similar prograde, peak, and retrograde metamorphic conditions at different times. In the southern, frontal edge of the thrust zone, the rocks were buried to conditions of 550°C and 0.8 GPa between 21 and 18 Ma along the prograde path. Peak metamorphic conditions of 650°C and 0.8-1.0 GPa were subsequently reached as this footwall material was underplated to the hanging wall at 17-14 Ma. This same process occurred at analogous metamorphic conditions between 18-16 Ma and 14.5-13 Ma in the midsection of the thrust zone and between 13 Ma and 12 Ma in the northern, rear edge of the thrust zone. Northward younging muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages are consistently 4 Ma younger than the youngest monazite ages for equivalent samples. By combining the geochronological data with the >50 km minimum distance separating samples along the transport axis, a minimum average thrusting rate of 10 ± 3 mm yr-1 can be calculated. This provides a minimum constraint on the amount of Miocene India-Asia convergence that was accommodated along the MCT.

  2. Rocket thrust chamber thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Subscale rocket thrust chamber tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of thin yttria stabilized zirconium oxide coatings applied to the thrust chamber hot-gas side wall. The fabrication consisted of arc plasma spraying the ceramic coating and bond coat onto a mandrell and then electrodepositing the copper thrust chamber wall around the coating. Chambers were fabricated with coatings .008, and .005 and .003 inches thick. The chambers were thermally cycled at a chamber pressure of 600 psia using oxygen-hydrogen as propellants and liquid hydrogen as the coolant. The thicker coatings tended to delaminate, early in the cyclic testing, down to a uniform sublayer which remained well adhered during the remaining cycles. Two chambers with .003 inch coatings were subjected to 1500 thermal cycles with no coating loss in the throat region, which represents a tenfold increase in life over identical chambers having no coatings. An analysis is presented which shows that the heat lost to the coolant due to the coating, in a rocket thrust chamber design having a coating only in the throat region, can be recovered by adding only one inch to the combustion chamber length.

  3. Thrust Measurements of an Underexpanded Orifice in the Transitional Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketsdever, Andrew D.

    2003-05-01

    The popularity of micropropulsion system development has led to renewed interest in the determination of propulsive properties of orifice flows since micronozzle expansions may suffer high viscous losses at low pressure operation. The mass flow and relative thrust for an under expanded orifice is measured as a function of orifice stagnation pressure from 0.1 to 3.5 Torr. Nitrogen, argon, and helium propellant gases are passed through a 1.0 mm diameter orifice with a wall thickness of 0.015 mm . Near-free molecule, transitional and continuum flow regimes are studied. The relative thrust is determined by a novel thrust stand designed primarily for low operating pressure, micropropulsion systems. It is shown that the thrust indications obtained from the stand are a function of the facility background pressure, and corrections are made to determine the indicated thrust for a zero background pressure with nitrogen as propellant. Highly repeatable (within 1 %) indicated thrust measurements are obtained in the thrust range from 5 to 500 μN.

  4. Design and test of a magnetic thrust bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Mikula, A.; Banerjee, B.; Lewis, D. W.; Imlach, J.

    1993-01-01

    A magnetic thrust bearing can be employed to take thrust loads in rotating machinery. The design and construction of a prototype magnetic thrust bearing for a high load per weight application is described. The theory for the bearing is developed. Fixtures were designed and the bearing was tested for load capacity using a universal testing machine. Various shims were employed to have known gap thicknesses. A comparison of the theory and measured results is presented.

  5. Mass transport enhancement in redox flow batteries with corrugated fluidic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisboa, Kleber Marques; Marschewski, Julian; Ebejer, Neil; Ruch, Patrick; Cotta, Renato Machado; Michel, Bruno; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2017-08-01

    We propose a facile, novel concept of mass transfer enhancement in flow batteries based on electrolyte guidance in rationally designed corrugated channel systems. The proposed fluidic networks employ periodic throttling of the flow to optimally deflect the electrolytes into the porous electrode, targeting enhancement of the electrolyte-electrode interaction. Theoretical analysis is conducted with channels in the form of trapezoidal waves, confirming and detailing the mass transport enhancement mechanism. In dilute concentration experiments with an alkaline quinone redox chemistry, a scaling of the limiting current with Re0.74 is identified, which compares favourably against the Re0.33 scaling typical of diffusion-limited laminar processes. Experimental IR-corrected polarization curves are presented for high concentration conditions, and a significant performance improvement is observed with the narrowing of the nozzles. The adverse effects of periodic throttling on the pumping power are compared with the benefits in terms of power density, and an improvement of up to 102% in net power density is obtained in comparison with the flow-by case employing straight parallel channels. The proposed novel concept of corrugated fluidic networks comes with facile fabrication and contributes to the improvement of the transport characteristics and overall performance of redox flow battery systems.

  6. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of potential reusable thrust chamber concepts is studied. Propellant condidates were examined and analytically combined with potential cooling schemes. A data base of engine data which would assist in a configuration selection was produced. The data base verification was performed by the demonstration of a thrust chamber of a selected coolant scheme design. A full scale insulated columbium thrust chamber was used for propellant coolant configurations. Combustion stability of the injectors and a reduced size thrust chamber were experimentally verified as proof of concept demonstrations of the design and study results.

  7. Large-area fluidic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes through dip-coating and directional evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Pilnam; Kang, Tae June

    2017-12-01

    We present a simple and scalable fluidic-assembly approach, in which bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selectively aligned and deposited by directionally controlled dip-coating and solvent evaporation processes. The patterned surface with alternating regions of hydrophobic polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) (height 100 nm) strips and hydrophilic SiO2 substrate was withdrawn vertically at a constant speed ( 3 mm/min) from a solution bath containing SWCNTs ( 0.1 mg/ml), allowing for directional evaporation and subsequent selective deposition of nanotube bundles along the edges of horizontally aligned PDMS strips. In addition, the fluidic assembly was applied to fabricate a field effect transistor (FET) with highly oriented SWCNTs, which demonstrate significantly higher current density as well as high turn-off ratio (T/O ratio 100) as compared to that with randomly distributed carbon nanotube bundles (T/O ratio <10).

  8. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  9. Stress triggering in thrust and subduction earthquakes and stress interaction between the southern San Andreas and nearby thrust and strike-slip faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lin, J.; Stein, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    We argue that key features of thrust earthquake triggering, inhibition, and clustering can be explained by Coulomb stress changes, which we illustrate by a suite of representative models and by detailed examples. Whereas slip on surface-cutting thrust faults drops the stress in most of the adjacent crust, slip on blind thrust faults increases the stress on some nearby zones, particularly above the source fault. Blind thrusts can thus trigger slip on secondary faults at shallow depth and typically produce broadly distributed aftershocks. Short thrust ruptures are particularly efficient at triggering earthquakes of similar size on adjacent thrust faults. We calculate that during a progressive thrust sequence in central California the 1983 Mw = 6.7 Coalinga earthquake brought the subsequent 1983 Mw = 6.0 Nunez and 1985 Mw = 6.0 Kettleman Hills ruptures 10 bars and 1 bar closer to Coulomb failure. The idealized stress change calculations also reconcile the distribution of seismicity accompanying large subduction events, in agreement with findings of prior investigations. Subduction zone ruptures are calculated to promote normal faulting events in the outer rise and to promote thrust-faulting events on the periphery of the seismic rupture and its downdip extension. These features are evident in aftershocks of the 1957 Mw = 9.1 Aleutian and other large subduction earthquakes. We further examine stress changes on the rupture surface imparted by the 1960 Mw = 9.5 and 1995 Mw = 8.1 Chile earthquakes, for which detailed slip models are available. Calculated Coulomb stress increases of 2-20 bars correspond closely to sites of aftershocks and postseismic slip, whereas aftershocks are absent where the stress drops by more than 10 bars. We also argue that slip on major strike-slip systems modulates the stress acting on nearby thrust and strike-slip faults. We calculate that the 1857 Mw = 7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas fault and subsequent interseismic slip brought

  10. Stochasticity, succession, and environmental perturbations in a fluidic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Xue, Kai; Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Stahl, David A; Hazen, Terry C; Tiedje, James M; Arkin, Adam P

    2014-03-04

    Unraveling the drivers of community structure and succession in response to environmental change is a central goal in ecology. Although the mechanisms shaping community structure have been intensively examined, those controlling ecological succession remain elusive. To understand the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in mediating microbial community succession, a unique framework composed of four different cases was developed for fluidic and nonfluidic ecosystems. The framework was then tested for one fluidic ecosystem: a groundwater system perturbed by adding emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) for uranium immobilization. Our results revealed that groundwater microbial community diverged substantially away from the initial community after EVO amendment and eventually converged to a new community state, which was closely clustered with its initial state. However, their composition and structure were significantly different from each other. Null model analysis indicated that both deterministic and stochastic processes played important roles in controlling the assembly and succession of the groundwater microbial community, but their relative importance was time dependent. Additionally, consistent with the proposed conceptual framework but contradictory to conventional wisdom, the community succession responding to EVO amendment was primarily controlled by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. During the middle phase of the succession, the roles of stochastic processes in controlling community composition increased substantially, ranging from 81.3% to 92.0%. Finally, there are limited successional studies available to support different cases in the conceptual framework, but further well-replicated explicit time-series experiments are needed to understand the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in controlling community succession.

  11. Stochasticity, succession, and environmental perturbations in a fluidic ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jizhong; Deng, Ye; Zhang, Ping; Xue, Kai; Liang, Yuting; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Wu, Liyou; Stahl, David A.; Hazen, Terry C.; Tiedje, James M.; Arkin, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Unraveling the drivers of community structure and succession in response to environmental change is a central goal in ecology. Although the mechanisms shaping community structure have been intensively examined, those controlling ecological succession remain elusive. To understand the relative importance of stochastic and deterministic processes in mediating microbial community succession, a unique framework composed of four different cases was developed for fluidic and nonfluidic ecosystems. The framework was then tested for one fluidic ecosystem: a groundwater system perturbed by adding emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) for uranium immobilization. Our results revealed that groundwater microbial community diverged substantially away from the initial community after EVO amendment and eventually converged to a new community state, which was closely clustered with its initial state. However, their composition and structure were significantly different from each other. Null model analysis indicated that both deterministic and stochastic processes played important roles in controlling the assembly and succession of the groundwater microbial community, but their relative importance was time dependent. Additionally, consistent with the proposed conceptual framework but contradictory to conventional wisdom, the community succession responding to EVO amendment was primarily controlled by stochastic rather than deterministic processes. During the middle phase of the succession, the roles of stochastic processes in controlling community composition increased substantially, ranging from 81.3% to 92.0%. Finally, there are limited successional studies available to support different cases in the conceptual framework, but further well-replicated explicit time-series experiments are needed to understand the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes in controlling community succession. PMID:24550501

  12. Fluidic oscillator-mediated microbubble generation to provide cost effective mass transfer and mixing efficiency to the wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Fahad; Medley, Gareth J D; Bandulasena, Hemaka; Zimmerman, William B J

    2015-02-01

    Aeration is one of the most energy intensive processes in the waste water treatment plants and any improvement in it is likely to enhance the overall efficiency of the overall process. In the current study, a fluidic oscillator has been used to produce microbubbles in the order of 100 μm in diameter by oscillating the inlet gas stream to a pair of membrane diffusers. Volumetric mass transfer coefficient was measured for steady state flow and oscillatory flow in the range of 40-100l/min. The highest improvement of 55% was observed at the flow rates of 60, 90 and 100l/min respectively. Standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were also calculated. Both standard oxygen transfer rate and efficiency were found to be considerably higher under oscillatory air flow conditions compared to steady state airflow. The bubble size distributions and bubble densities were measured using an acoustic bubble spectrometer and confirmed production of monodisperse bubbles with approximately 100 μm diameters with fluidic oscillation. The higher number density of microbubbles under oscillatory flow indicated the effect of the fluidic oscillation in microbubble production. Visual observations and dissolved oxygen measurements suggested that the bubble cloud generated by the fluidic oscillator was sufficient enough to provide good mixing and to maintain uniform aerobic conditions. Overall, improved mass transfer coefficients, mixing efficiency and energy efficiency of the novel microbubble generation method could offer significant savings to the water treatment plants as well as reduction in the carbon footprint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fluidic patch antenna based on liquid metal alloy/single-wall carbon-nanotubes operating at the S-band frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aïssa, B.; Nedil, M.; Habib, M. A.; Haddad, E.; Jamroz, W.; Therriault, D.; Coulibaly, Y.; Rosei, F.

    2013-08-01

    This letter describes the fabrication and characterization of a fluidic patch antenna operating at the S-band frequency (4 GHz). The antenna prototype is composed of a nanocomposite material made by a liquid metal alloy (eutectic gallium indium) blended with single-wall carbon-nanotube (SWNTs). The nanocomposite is then enclosed in a polymeric substrate by employing the UV-assisted direct-writing technology. The fluidic antennas specimens feature excellent performances, in perfect agreement with simulations, showing an increase in the electrical conductivity and reflection coefficient with respect to the SWNTs concentration. The effect of the SWNTs on the long-term stability of antenna's mechanical properties is also demonstrated.

  14. Was Himalayan normal faulting triggered by initiation of the Ramgarh-Munsiari Thrust?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Delores M.; Pearson, Ofori N.

    2013-01-01

    The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust is a major orogen-scale fault that extends for more than 1,500 km along strike in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The fault can be traced along the Himalayan arc from Himachal Pradesh, India, in the west to eastern Bhutan. The fault is located within the Lesser Himalayan tectonostratigraphic zone, and it translated Paleoproterozoic Lesser Himalayan rocks more than 100 km toward the foreland. The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust is always located in the proximal footwall of the Main Central thrust. Northern exposures (toward the hinterland) of the thrust sheet occur in the footwall of the Main Central thrust at the base of the high Himalaya, and southern exposures (toward the foreland) occur between the Main Boundary thrust and Greater Himalayan klippen. Although the metamorphic grade of rocks within the Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust sheet is not significantly different from that of Greater Himalayan rock in the hanging wall of the overlying Main Central thrust sheet, the tectonostratigraphic origin of the two different thrust sheets is markedly different. The Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust became active in early Miocene time and acted as the roof thrust for a duplex system within Lesser Himalayan rocks. The process of slip transfer from the Main Central thrust to the Ramgarh–Munsiari thrust in early Miocene time and subsequent development of the Lesser Himalayan duplex may have played a role in triggering normal faulting along the South Tibetan Detachment system.

  15. Ultrathin Fluidic Laminates for Large‐Area Façade Integration and Smart Windows

    PubMed Central

    Heiz, Benjamin P. V.; Pan, Zhiwen; Lautenschläger, Gerhard; Sirtl, Christin; Kraus, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Buildings represent more than 40% of Europe's energy demands and about one third of its CO2 emissions. Energy efficient buildings and, in particular, building skins have therefore been among the key priorities of international research agendas. Here, glass–glass fluidic devices are presented for large‐area integration with adaptive façades and smart windows. These devices enable harnessing and dedicated control of various liquids for added functionality in the building envelope. Combining a microstructured glass pane, a thin cover sheet with tailored mechanical performance, and a liquid for heat storage and transport, a flat‐panel laminate is generated with thickness adapted to a single glass sheet in conventional windows. Such multimaterial devices can be integrated with state‐of‐the‐art window glazings or façades to harvest and distribute thermal as well as solar energy by wrapping buildings into a fluidic layer. High visual transparency is achieved through adjusting the optical properties of the employed liquid. Also secondary functionality, such as chromatic windows, polychromatism, or adaptive energy uptake can be generated on part of the liquid. PMID:28331790

  16. Ultrathin Fluidic Laminates for Large-Area Façade Integration and Smart Windows.

    PubMed

    Heiz, Benjamin P V; Pan, Zhiwen; Lautenschläger, Gerhard; Sirtl, Christin; Kraus, Matthias; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2017-03-01

    Buildings represent more than 40% of Europe's energy demands and about one third of its CO 2 emissions. Energy efficient buildings and, in particular, building skins have therefore been among the key priorities of international research agendas. Here, glass-glass fluidic devices are presented for large-area integration with adaptive façades and smart windows. These devices enable harnessing and dedicated control of various liquids for added functionality in the building envelope. Combining a microstructured glass pane, a thin cover sheet with tailored mechanical performance, and a liquid for heat storage and transport, a flat-panel laminate is generated with thickness adapted to a single glass sheet in conventional windows. Such multimaterial devices can be integrated with state-of-the-art window glazings or façades to harvest and distribute thermal as well as solar energy by wrapping buildings into a fluidic layer. High visual transparency is achieved through adjusting the optical properties of the employed liquid. Also secondary functionality, such as chromatic windows, polychromatism, or adaptive energy uptake can be generated on part of the liquid.

  17. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of... range of operation; (d) Upon a failure or malfunction of augmentor combustion, not cause the engine to...

  18. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of... range of operation; (d) Upon a failure or malfunction of augmentor combustion, not cause the engine to...

  19. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of... range of operation; (d) Upon a failure or malfunction of augmentor combustion, not cause the engine to...

  20. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of... range of operation; (d) Upon a failure or malfunction of augmentor combustion, not cause the engine to...

  1. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff of... range of operation; (d) Upon a failure or malfunction of augmentor combustion, not cause the engine to...

  2. Fluidic Manufacture of Star-Shaped Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Alessandro; Lay, Luigi; Psaro, Rinaldo; Polito, Laura; Evangelisti, Claudio

    2017-07-21

    Star-shaped gold nanoparticles (StarAuNPs) are extremely attractive nanomaterials, characterized by localized surface plasmon resonance which could be potentially employed in a large number of applications. However, the lack of a reliable and reproducible synthetic protocols for the production of StarAuNPs is the major limitation to their spreading. For the first time, here we present a robust protocol to manufacture reproducible StarAuNPs by exploiting a fluidic approach. Star-shaped AuNPs have been synthesized by means of a seed-less protocol, employing ascorbic acid as reducing agent at room temperature. Moreover, the versatility of the bench-top microfluidic protocol has been exploited to afford hydrophilic, hydrophobic and solid-supported engineered StarAuNPs, by avoiding intermediate NP purifications. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. New leak assembly based on fluidic nanochannels

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhu, Aiqing; Zhao, Yongheng; Wang, Xudi, E-mail: wxudi@hfut.edu.cn

    2016-09-15

    Fluidic nanochannels with a characteristic dimension of ∼280 nm were fabricated and designed as a leak assembly, where the nanochannels were formed on silicon wafers and enclosed with Pyrex{sup ®} glass. The geometric dimensions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and the gas flow conductance of He and other heavy gases (N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and Ar) was measured, and its uncertainty estimated, by the difference method. The results indicated that the measured flow conductance values were 45% less than the calculated flow conductance values. For helium, molecular flow was shown to occur at pressures ranging from vacuum to atmospheric pressure.more » As a consequence of the well-defined geometry, the prediction of flow conductance could be achieved for various gas species.« less

  4. Polyphase thrust tectonic in the Barberton greenstone belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, I. A.

    1986-01-01

    In the circa 3.5 by-old Barberton greenstone belt, the supracrustal rocks form a thick and strongly deformed thrust complex. Structural studies in the southern part of the belt have shown that 2 separate phases of over-thrusting (D sub 1 and D sub 2) successively dismembered the original stratigraphy. Thrust nappes were subsequently refolded during later deformations (D sub 3 and D sub 4). This report deals with the second thrusting event which, in the study region appears to be dominant, and (unlike the earlier thrusting), affects the entire supracrustal pile. The supracrustal rocks form a predominantly NE/SW oriented, SE dipping tectonic fan (the D sub 2 fan) in which tectonic slices of ophiolitic-like rocks are interleaved with younger sedimentary sequences of the Diepgezet and malalotcha groups. Structural and sedimentological data indicate that the D sub 2 tectonic fan was formed during a prolonged, multi-stage regional horizontal shortening event during which several types of internal deformation mechanisms were successively and/or simultaneously active. Movement appears to have been predominantly to the NW and to the N. During D sub 2, periods of quiescence and sedimentation followed periods of thrust propagation. Although the exact kinematics which led to the formation of this fan is not yet known, paleoenvironmental interpretations together with structural data suggest that D sub 2 was probably related to (an) Archean collision(s).

  5. Characterization of Space Shuttle Reusable Rocket Motor Static Test Stand Thrust Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Mart L.; Gruet, Laurent; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) are static tested at two ATK Thiokol Propulsion facilities in Utah, T-24 and T-97. The newer T-97 static test facility was recently upgraded to allow thrust measurement capability. All previous static test motor thrust measurements have been taken at T-24; data from these tests were used to characterize thrust parameters and requirement limits for flight motors. Validation of the new T-97 thrust measurement system is required prior to use for official RSRM performance assessments. Since thrust cannot be measured on RSRM flight motors, flight motor measured chamber pressure and a nominal thrust-to-pressure relationship (based on static test motor thrust and pressure measurements) are used to reconstruct flight motor performance. Historical static test and flight motor performance data are used in conjunction with production subscale test data to predict RSRM performance. The predicted motor performance is provided to support Space Shuttle trajectory and system loads analyses. Therefore, an accurate nominal thrust-to-pressure (F/P) relationship is critical for accurate RSRM flight motor performance and Space Shuttle analyses. Flight Support Motors (FSM) 7, 8, and 9 provided thrust data for the validation of the T-97 thrust measurement system. The T-97 thrust data were analyzed and compared to thrust previously measured at T-24 to verify measured thrust data and identify any test-stand bias. The T-97 FIP data were consistent and within the T-24 static test statistical family expectation. The FSMs 7-9 thrust data met all NASA contract requirements, and the test stand is now verified for future thrust measurements.

  6. Dynamic rupture modeling of thrust faults with parallel surface traces.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peshette, P.; Lozos, J.; Yule, D.

    2017-12-01

    Fold and thrust belts (such as those found in the Himalaya or California Transverse Ranges) consist of many neighboring thrust faults in a variety of geometries. Active thrusts within these belts individually contribute to regional seismic hazard, but further investigation is needed regarding the possibility of multi-fault rupture in a single event. Past analyses of historic thrust surface traces suggest that rupture within a single event can jump up to 12 km. There is also observational precedent for long distance triggering between subparallel thrusts (e.g. the 1997 Harnai, Pakistan events, separated by 50 km). However, previous modeling studies find a maximum jumping rupture distance between thrust faults of merely 200 m. Here, we present a new dynamic rupture modeling parameter study that attempts to reconcile these differences and determine which geometrical and stress conditions promote jumping rupture. We use a community verified 3D finite element method to model rupture on pairs of thrust faults with parallel surface traces. We vary stress drop and fault strength to determine which conditions produce jumping rupture at different dip angles and different separations between surface traces. This parameter study may help to understand the likelihood of jumping rupture in real-world thrust systems, and may thereby improve earthquake hazard assessment.

  7. Fuel-optimal low-thrust formation reconfiguration via Radau pseudospectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates fuel-optimal low-thrust formation reconfiguration near circular orbit. Based on the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations, first-order necessary optimality conditions are derived from the Pontryagin's maximum principle. The fuel-optimal impulsive solution is utilized to divide the low-thrust trajectory into thrust and coast arcs. By introducing the switching times as optimization variables, the fuel-optimal low-thrust formation reconfiguration is posed as a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) via direct transcription using multiple-phase Radau pseudospectral method (RPM), which is then solved by a sparse nonlinear optimization software SNOPT. To facilitate optimality verification and, if necessary, further refinement of the optimized solution of the NLP, formulas for mass costate estimation and initial costates scaling are presented. Numerical examples are given to show the application of the proposed optimization method. To fix the problem, generic fuel-optimal low-thrust formation reconfiguration can be simplified as reconfiguration without any initial and terminal coast arcs, whose optimal solutions can be efficiently obtained from the multiple-phase RPM at the cost of a slight fuel increment. Finally, influence of the specific impulse and maximum thrust magnitude on the fuel-optimal low-thrust formation reconfiguration is analyzed. Numerical results shown the links and differences between the fuel-optimal impulsive and low-thrust solutions.

  8. Thrust Stand Characterization of the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diamant, Kevin D.; Pollard, James E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Patterson, Michael J.; Soulas, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Direct thrust measurements have been made on the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion engine using a standard pendulum style thrust stand constructed specifically for this application. Values have been obtained for the full 40-level throttle table, as well as for a few off-nominal operating conditions. Measurements differ from the nominal NASA throttle table 10 (TT10) values by 3.1 percent at most, while at 30 throttle levels (TLs) the difference is less than 2.0 percent. When measurements are compared to TT10 values that have been corrected using ion beam current density and charge state data obtained at The Aerospace Corporation, they differ by 1.2 percent at most, and by 1.0 percent or less at 37 TLs. Thrust correction factors calculated from direct thrust measurements and from The Aerospace Corporation s plume data agree to within measurement error for all but one TL. Thrust due to cold flow and "discharge only" operation has been measured, and analytical expressions are presented which accurately predict thrust based on thermal thrust generation mechanisms.

  9. Episodic Growth of Fold-Thrust Belts: Insights from Finite Element Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Peel, F.; Sanderson, D. J.; McNeill, L. C.

    2016-12-01

    The sequential development of an imbricate thrust system was investigated using a set of 2D FEM models. This study provides new insights on how the style and location of thrust activity changes through cycles of thrust accretion by making refined measurements of the thrust system parameters through time and tracking these parameters through each cycle. In addition to conventional wedge parameters (i.e. surface slope, wedge width and height), the overall taper angle is used to determine how the critical taper angle is reached; a particular focus is on the region of outboard minor horizontal displacement provides insights into the forward propagation of material within, and in front of, the thrust wedge; tracking the position of the failure front (where the frontal thrust roots into the basal detachment) reveals the sequence and advancement of the imbricate thrusts. The model results show that a thrust system is generally composed of three deformation components: thrust wedge, pre-wedge and wedge front. A thrust belt involves growth that repeats episodically and cyclically. When a wedge reaches critical taper ( 10°), thrust movement within the wedge slows while the taper angle and wedge width gradually increase. In contrast, the displacement front (tracked here by the location of 0 m displacement) rapidly propagates forward along whilst the wedge height is fast growing. During this period, the wedge experiences a significant shortening after a new thrust initiates at the failure front, leading to an obvious decrease in wedge width. As soon as the critical taper is achieved, wedge interior (tracked here by the location of 50 m displacement) accelerates forward reducing the taper angle below critical. This is accompanied by a sudden increase in wedge width, slow advancement of displacement front, and slow uplift of the fold-thrust belt. The rapid movements within and in front of the wedge occur alternately. The model results also show that there is clear, although

  10. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.; Jones, J. E.; Cox, M. D.

    2004-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting thrusters with total mass of up to 125 kg and 1 mN to 1 N thrust levels has been developed and tested. The mechanical design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that transforms horizontal motion into amplified vertical motion, with accommodation for variable displacement sensitivity. Unlike conventional hanging pendulum thrust stands, the deflection is independent of the length of the pendulum arm, and no reference structure is required at the end of the pendulum. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer. Mechanical oscillations are attenuated using a passive, eddy current damper. An on-board microprocessor-based level control system, which includes a two axis accelerometer and two linear-displacement stepper motors, continuously maintains the level of the balance mechanism - counteracting mechanical %era drift during thruster testing. A thermal control system, which includes heat exchange panels, thermocouples, and a programmable recirculating water chiller, continuously adjusts to varying thermal loads to maintain the balance mechanism temperature, to counteract thermal drifts. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady state calibration both prior to and during thruster testing. Thrust measurements were carried out on a well-characterized 1 kW Hall thruster; the thrust stand was shown to produce repeatable results consistent with previously published performance data.

  11. The fluid property dependency on micro-fluidic characteristics in the deposition process for microfabrication.

    PubMed

    Chau, S W; Hsu, K L; Chen, S C; Liou, T M; Shih, K C

    2004-07-30

    The droplet impingement into a cavity at micrometer-scale is one of important fluidic issues for microfabrications, e.g. the inkjet deposition process in the PLED display manufacturing. The related micro-fluidic behaviors in the deposition process should be carefully treated to ensure the desired quality of microfabrication. The droplets generally dispensing from an inkjet head, which contains an array of nozzles, have a volume in several picoliters, while each nozzle responds very quickly and jets the droplets into cavities on substrates with micrometer size. The nature of droplet impingement depends on the fluid properties, the initial state of droplet, the impact parameters and the surface characteristics. The commonly chosen non-dimensional numbers to describe this process are the Weber number, the Reynolds number, the Ohnesorge number, and the Bond number. This paper discusses the influences of fluid properties of a Newtonian fluid, such as surface tension and fluid viscosity, on micro-fluidic characteristics for a certain jetting speed in the deposition process via a numerical approach, which indicates the impingement process consists of four different phases. In the first phase, the droplet stretching outwards rapidly, where inertia force is dominated. In the second phase, the recoiling of droplet is observed, where surface tension becomes the most important force. In the third phase, the gravitational force pulls the droplet surface towards cavity walls. The fourth phase begins when the droplet surface touches cavity walls and ends when the droplet obtains a stable shape. If the fluid viscosity is relatively small, the droplet surface touches cavity walls in the second phase. A stable fluid layer would not form if the viscosity is relatively small.

  12. Navigation and Guidance for Low-Thrust Trajectories, LOTNAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, J. L.; Bello, M.; Rodriguez-Canabal, J.

    A number of interplanetary low-thrust missions have already been flown by many space agencies. Examples of already flown missions based on the use of electric propulsion are Deep Space 1, Hayabusa and SMART-1. Many others are already in the assessment phase or in the development phase itself. In such perspective, it is required by the space agencies the procurement and utilisation of assessment tools for fast prototyping in the areas of mission design and navigation. The Low-Thrust Interplanetary Navigation Tool, which is the subject of this paper, allows the mission analyst performing such type of quick assessment studies for the early phases in the development of low-thrust missions. A number of test cases on low-thrust missions are also presented along with the utilities composing the LOTNAV tool.

  13. A simplified gross thrust computing technique for an afterburning turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, M. J.; Kurtenbach, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust computing technique extended to the F100-PW-100 afterburning turbofan engine is described. The technique uses measured total and static pressures in the engine tailpipe and ambient static pressure to compute gross thrust. Empirically evaluated calibration factors account for three-dimensional effects, the effects of friction and mass transfer, and the effects of simplifying assumptions for solving the equations. Instrumentation requirements and the sensitivity of computed thrust to transducer errors are presented. NASA altitude facility tests on F100 engines (computed thrust versus measured thrust) are presented, and calibration factors obtained on one engine are shown to be applicable to the second engine by comparing the computed gross thrust. It is concluded that this thrust method is potentially suitable for flight test application and engine maintenance on production engines with a minimum amount of instrumentation.

  14. Dynamic Imbalance Would Counter Offcenter Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccanna, Jason

    1994-01-01

    Dynamic imbalance generated by offcenter thrust on rotating body eliminated by shifting some of mass of body to generate opposing dynamic imbalance. Technique proposed originally for spacecraft including massive crew module connected via long, lightweight intermediate structure to massive engine module, such that artificial gravitation in crew module generated by rotating spacecraft around axis parallel to thrust generated by engine. Also applicable to dynamic balancing of rotating terrestrial equipment to which offcenter forces applied.

  15. GSFC Technology Thrusts and Partnership Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Moigne, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology thrusts and the opportunities to partner in developing software in support of the technological advances at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). There are thrusts in development of end-to-end software systems for mission data systems in areas of flight software, ground data systems, flight dynamic systems and science data systems. The required technical expertise is reviewed, and the supported missions are shown for the various areas given.

  16. The Quaternary thrust system of the northern Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bemis, Sean P.; Carver, Gary A.; Koehler, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    The framework of Quaternary faults in Alaska remains poorly constrained. Recent studies in the Alaska Range north of the Denali fault add significantly to the recognition of Quaternary deformation in this active orogen. Faults and folds active during the Quaternary occur over a length of ∼500 km along the northern flank of the Alaska Range, extending from Mount McKinley (Denali) eastward to the Tok River valley. These faults exist as a continuous system of active structures, but we divide the system into four regions based on east-west changes in structural style. At the western end, the Kantishna Hills have only two known faults but the highest rate of shallow crustal seismicity. The western northern foothills fold-thrust belt consists of a 50-km-wide zone of subparallel thrust and reverse faults. This broad zone of deformation narrows to the east in a transition zone where the range-bounding fault of the western northern foothills fold-thrust belt terminates and displacement occurs on thrust and/or reverse faults closer to the Denali fault. The eastern northern foothills fold-thrust belt is characterized by ∼40-km-long thrust fault segments separated across left-steps by NNE-trending left-lateral faults. Altogether, these faults accommodate much of the topographic growth of the northern flank of the Alaska Range.Recognition of this thrust fault system represents a significant concern in addition to the Denali fault for infrastructure adjacent to and transecting the Alaska Range. Although additional work is required to characterize these faults sufficiently for seismic hazard analysis, the regional extent and structural character should require the consideration of the northern Alaska Range thrust system in regional tectonic models.

  17. Thrust Measurement of Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.

    2013-11-01

    DBD plasma actuators generate a wall-jet that can be used for active flow control. We used an analytical balance to measure the thrust generated by the actuator, it is a common metric of its performance without external flow. We found that the measured force is afflicted by several problems; it drifts in time, not always repeatable, is unstable, and depends on the manner the voltage is applied. We report results of investigations of these issues. Tests were conducted on an actuator constructed of 1/4 inch thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) dielectric with 100 mm long offset electrodes, with applied voltages up to 48 kV p-p and frequencies from 32 Hz to 2.5 kHz, and pure Sine and Trapezoidal waveforms. The relative humidity was in the range of 51-55%, corresponding to moisture range of 10,500 to13,000 ppm mass. Force readings were up to 500 mg, (approximately 50 mN/m). We found that the measured force is the net of the positive thrust generated by the wall-jet and an ``anti-thrust'' acting in the opposite direction. We propose a correction procedure that yields the plasma-generated thrust. The correction is based on voltage-dependent anti-thrust measured in the low frequency range of 20-40 Hz. We found that adjacent objects in a test setup affect the measured thrust, and verified it by comparing experiments with and without a metal enclosure, grounded and ungrounded. Uncorrected thrust varied by up to approximately +/-100%, and the corrected thrust variations were up to approximately 30%. Supported by NASA's FAP/Aerospace Sciences Project.

  18. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.934 Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet the...

  19. Combined high and low-thrust geostationary orbit insertion with radiation constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Malcolm; Owens, Steven Robert

    2018-01-01

    The sequential use of an electric propulsion system is considered in combination with a high-thrust propulsion system for application to the propellant-optimal Geostationary Orbit insertion problem, whilst considering both temporal and radiation flux constraints. Such usage is found to offer a combined propellant mass saving when compared with an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. This propellant mass saving is seen to increase as the allowable transfer duration is increased, and as the thrust from the low-thrust system is increased, assuming constant specific impulse. It was found that the required plane change maneuver is most propellant-efficiently performed by the high-thrust system. The propellant optimal trajectory incurs a significantly increased electron flux when compared to an equivalent high-thrust only transfer. However, the electron flux can be reduced to a similar order of magnitude by increasing the high-thrust propellant consumption, whilst still delivering an improved mass fraction.

  20. Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

  1. Multiphysics Thrust Chamber Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics formulation. A two-pronged approach is employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of heat transfer on thrust performance. Preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  2. Direct thrust measurement of a permanent magnet helicon double layer thruster

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Takahashi, K.; Lafleur, T.; Charles, C.

    2011-04-04

    Direct thrust measurements of a permanent magnet helicon double layer thruster have been made using a pendulum thrust balance and a high sensitivity laser displacement sensor. At the low pressures used (0.08 Pa) an ion beam is detected downstream of the thruster exit, and a maximum thrust force of about 3 mN is measured for argon with an rf input power of about 700 W. The measured thrust is proportional to the upstream plasma density and is in good agreement with the theoretical thrust based on the maximum upstream electron pressure.

  3. A simple method for the evaluation of microfluidic architecture using flow quantitation via a multiplexed fluidic resistance measurement.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Daniel C; Melnikoff, Brett A; Marchiarullo, Daniel J; Cash, Devin R; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2010-08-07

    Quality control of microdevices adds significant costs, in time and money, to any fabrication process. A simple, rapid quantitative method for the post-fabrication characterization of microchannel architecture using the measurement of flow with volumes relevant to microfluidics is presented. By measuring the mass of a dye solution passed through the device, it circumvents traditional gravimetric and interface-tracking methods that suffer from variable evaporation rates and the increased error associated with smaller volumes. The multiplexed fluidic resistance (MFR) measurement method measures flow via stable visible-wavelength dyes, a standard spectrophotometer and common laboratory glassware. Individual dyes are used as molecular markers of flow for individual channels, and in channel architectures where multiple channels terminate at a common reservoir, spectral deconvolution reveals the individual flow contributions. On-chip, this method was found to maintain accurate flow measurement at lower flow rates than the gravimetric approach. Multiple dyes are shown to allow for independent measurement of multiple flows on the same device simultaneously. We demonstrate that this technique is applicable for measuring the fluidic resistance, which is dependent on channel dimensions, in four fluidically connected channels simultaneously, ultimately determining that one chip was partially collapsed and, therefore, unusable for its intended purpose. This method is thus shown to be widely useful in troubleshooting microfluidic flow characteristics.

  4. Measurement of Impulsive Thrust from a Closed Radio Frequency Cavity in Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Lawrence, James; Vera, Jerry; Sylvester, Andre; Brady, David; Bailey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A vacuum test campaign evaluating the impulsive thrust performance of a tapered RF test article excited in the TM212 mode at 1,937 megahertz (MHz) has been completed. The test campaign consisted of a forward thrust phase and reverse thrust phase at less than 8 x 10(exp -6) Torr vacuum with power scans at 40 watts, 60 watts, and 80 watts. The test campaign included a null thrust test effort to identify any mundane sources of impulsive thrust, however none were identified. Thrust data from forward, reverse, and null suggests that the system is consistently performing with a thrust to power ratio of 1.2 +/- 0.1 mN/kW.

  5. Thrust Measurements for a Pulse Detonation Engine Driven Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pak, Sibtosh; Shehadeh, R.; Saretto, S. R.; Lee, S.-Y.

    2005-01-01

    Results of an experimental effort on pulse detonation driven ejectors aimed at probing different aspects of PDE ejector processes, are presented and discussed. The PDE was operated using ethylene as the fuel and an equimolar oxygen/nitrogen mixture as the oxidizer at an equivalence ratio of one. The thrust measurements for the PDE alone are in excellent agreement with experimental and modeling results reported in the literature and serve as a Baseline for the ejector studies. These thrust measurements were then used as a basis for quantifying thrust augmentation for various PDE/ejector setups using constant diameter ejector tubes and various detonation tube/ejector tube overlap distances. The results show that for the geometries studied here, a maximum thrust augmentation of 24% is achieved. The thrust augmentation results are complemented by shadowgraph imaging of the flowfield in the ejector tube inlet area and high frequency pressure transducer measurements along the length of the ejector tube.

  6. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s) when...

  7. 14 CFR 25.904 - Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automatic takeoff thrust control system... Automatic takeoff thrust control system (ATTCS). Each applicant seeking approval for installation of an engine power control system that automatically resets the power or thrust on the operating engine(s) when...

  8. Supersonic wings with significant leading-edge thrust at cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Carlson, H. W.; Mack, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental/theoretical correlations are presented which show that significant levels of leading edge thrust are possible at supersonic speeds for certain planforms which match the theoretical thrust distribution potential with the supporting airfoil geometry. The analytical process employed spanwise distribution of both it and/or that component of full theoretical thrust which acts as vortex lift. Significantly improved aerodynamic performance in the moderate supersonic speed regime is indicated.

  9. Thrust modulation methods for a subsonic V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.

    1981-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted to assess four methods for attaining thrust modulation for V/STOL aircraft. The four methods were: (1) fan speed change, (2) fan nozzle exit area change, (3) variable pitch rotor (VPR) fan, and (4) variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV). The interrelationships between inlet and thrust modulation system were also investigated using a double slotted inlet and thick lip inlet. Results can be summarized as: (1) the VPR and VIGV systems were the most promising, (2) changes in blade angle to obtain changes in fan thrust have significant implications for the inlet, and (3) both systems attained required level of thrust with acceptable levels of fan blade stress.

  10. Rapid prototype fabrication processes for high-performance thrust cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, K.; Chwiedor, T.; Diab, J.; Williams, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Thrust Cell Technologies Program (Air Force Phillips Laboratory Contract No. F04611-92-C-0050) is currently being performed by Rocketdyne to demonstrate advanced materials and fabrication technologies which can be utilized to produce low-cost, high-performance thrust cells for launch and space transportation rocket engines. Under Phase 2 of the Thrust Cell Technologies Program (TCTP), rapid prototyping and investment casting techniques are being employed to fabricate a 12,000-lbf thrust class combustion chamber for delivery and hot-fire testing at Phillips Lab. The integrated process of investment casting directly from rapid prototype patterns dramatically reduces design-to-delivery cycle time, and greatly enhances design flexibility over conventionally processed cast or machined parts.

  11. Experimental microbubble generation by sudden pressure drop and fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco Gutierrez, Fernando; Figueroa Espinoza, Bernardo; Aguilar Corona, Alicia; Vargas Correa, Jesus; Solorio Diaz, Gildardo

    2014-11-01

    Mass and heat transfer, as well as chemical species in bubbly flow are of importance in environmental and industrial applications. Microbubbles are well suited to these applications due to the large interface contact area and residence time. The objective of this investigation is to build devices to produce microbubbles using two methods: pressure differences and fluidics. Some characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of both methods are briefly discussed, as well as the characterization of the bubbly suspensions in terms of parameters such as the pressure jump and bubble equivalent diameter distribution. The authors acknowledge the support of Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.

  12. Internal performance characteristics of vectored axisymmetric ejector nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, Milton

    1993-01-01

    A series of vectoring axisymmetric ejector nozzles were designed and experimentally tested for internal performance and pumping characteristics at NASA-Langley Research Center. These ejector nozzles used convergent-divergent nozzles as the primary nozzles. The model geometric variables investigated were primary nozzle throat area, primary nozzle expansion ratio, effective ejector expansion ratio (ratio of shroud exit area to primary nozzle throat area), ratio of minimum ejector area to primary nozzle throat area, ratio of ejector upper slot height to lower slot height (measured on the vertical centerline), and thrust vector angle. The primary nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 to 10.0 depending upon primary nozzle throat area. The corrected ejector-to-primary nozzle weight-flow ratio was varied from 0 (no secondary flow) to approximately 0.21 (21 percent of primary weight-flow rate) depending on ejector nozzle configuration. In addition to the internal performance and pumping characteristics, static pressures were obtained on the shroud walls.

  13. Calibration for Thrust and Airflow Measurements in the CE-22 Advanced Nozzle Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Roger A.; Wolter, John D.

    2010-01-01

    CE-22 facility procedures and measurements for thrust and airflow calibration obtained with choked-flow ASME nozzles are presented. Six calibration nozzles are used at an inlet total pressure from 20 to 48 psia. Throat areas are from 9.9986 to 39.986 sq. in.. Throat Reynolds number varies from 1.8 to 7.9 million. Nozzle gross thrust coefficient (CFG) uncertainty is 0.25 to 0.75 percent, with smaller uncertainly generally for larger nozzles and higher inlet total pressure. Nozzle discharge coefficient (CDN) uncertainty is 0.15 percent or less for all the data. ASME nozzle calibrations need to be done before and after research model testing to achieve these uncertainties. In addition, facility capability in terms of nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and nozzle airflow are determined. Nozzle pressure ratio of 50 or more is obtainable at 40 psia for throat areas between 20 and 30 sq. in.. Also presented are results for two of the ASME nozzles vectored at 10deg, a dead-weight check of the vertical (perpendicular to the jet axis) force measurement, a calibration of load cell forces for the effects of facility tank deflection with tank pressure, and the calibration of the metric-break labyrinth seal.

  14. Autonomous Soft Robotic Fish Capable of Escape Maneuvers Using Fluidic Elastomer Actuators.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Andrew D; Onal, Cagdas D; Rus, Daniela

    2014-03-01

    In this work we describe an autonomous soft-bodied robot that is both self-contained and capable of rapid, continuum-body motion. We detail the design, modeling, fabrication, and control of the soft fish, focusing on enabling the robot to perform rapid escape responses. The robot employs a compliant body with embedded actuators emulating the slender anatomical form of a fish. In addition, the robot has a novel fluidic actuation system that drives body motion and has all the subsystems of a traditional robot onboard: power, actuation, processing, and control. At the core of the fish's soft body is an array of fluidic elastomer actuators. We design the fish to emulate escape responses in addition to forward swimming because such maneuvers require rapid body accelerations and continuum-body motion. These maneuvers showcase the performance capabilities of this self-contained robot. The kinematics and controllability of the robot during simulated escape response maneuvers are analyzed and compared with studies on biological fish. We show that during escape responses, the soft-bodied robot has similar input-output relationships to those observed in biological fish. The major implication of this work is that we show soft robots can be both self-contained and capable of rapid body motion.

  15. Combining Relevance Vector Machines and exponential regression for bearing residual life estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Maio, Francesco; Tsui, Kwok Leung; Zio, Enrico

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a new procedure for estimating the bearing Residual Useful Life (RUL) by combining data-driven and model-based techniques. Respectively, we resort to (i) Relevance Vector Machines (RVMs) for selecting a low number of significant basis functions, called Relevant Vectors (RVs), and (ii) exponential regression to compute and continuously update residual life estimations. The combination of these techniques is developed with reference to partially degraded thrust ball bearings and tested on real world vibration-based degradation data. On the case study considered, the proposed procedure outperforms other model-based methods, with the added value of an adequate representation of the uncertainty associated to the estimates of the quantification of the credibility of the results by the Prognostic Horizon (PH) metric.

  16. Recent advances in low-thrust propulsion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA low-thrust propulsion technology program is aimed at providing high performance options to a broad class of near-term and future missions. Major emphases of the program are on storable and hydrogen/oxygen low-thrust chemical, low-power (auxiliary) electrothermal, and high-power electric propulsion. This paper represents the major accomplishments of the program and discusses their impact.

  17. Tertiary structural evolution of the Gangdese thrust system southeastern Tibet

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yin, An; Harrison, M.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1994-09-10

    Structural and thermochronological investigations of southern Tibet (Xizang) suggest that intracontinental thrusting has been the dominant cause for formation of thickened crust in the southernmost Tibetan plateau since late Oligocene. Two thrust systems are documented in this study: the north dipping Gangdese system (GTS) and the younger south dipping Renbu-Zedong system (RZT). West of Lhasa, the Gangdese thrust juxtaposes the Late Cretaceous forearc basin deposits of the Lhasa Block (the Xigaze Group) over the Tethyan sedimentary rocks of the Indian plate, whereas east of Lhasa, the fault juxtaposes the Late Cretaceous-Eocene, Andean-type arc (the Gangdese batholith) over Tethyan sedimentary rocks.more » Near Zedong, 150 km southeast of Lhasa, the Gangdese thrust is marked by a >200-m-thick mylonitic shear zone that consists of deformed granite and metasedimentary rocks. A major south dipping backthrust in the hanging wall of the Gangdese thrust puts the Xigaze Group over Tertiary conglomerates and the Gangdese plutonics north of Xigaze and west of Lhasa. A lower age bound for the Gangdese thrust of 18.3{+-}0.5 Ma is given by crosscutting relationships. The timing of slip on the Gangdese thrust is estimate to be 27-23 Ma from {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermochronology, and a displacement of at least 46{+-}9 km is indicated near Zedong. The age of the Gangdese thrust (GT) is consistent with an upper age limit of {approximately}24 Ma for the initiation of movement on the Main Central thrust. In places, the younger Renbu-Zedong fault is thrust over the trace of the GT, obscuring its exposure. The RZT appears to have been active at circa 18 Ma but had ceased movement by 8{+-}1 Ma. The suture between India and Asia has been complexely modified by development of the GTS, RZT, and, locally, strike-slip and normal fault systems. 64 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  18. Heat pipe technology for advanced rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.

    1971-01-01

    The application of heat pipe technology to the design of rocket engine thrust chambers is discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) evaporator wick development, (2) specific heat pipe designs and test results, (3) injector design, fabrication, and cold flow testing, and (4) preliminary thrust chamber design.

  19. Structural evidence for northeastward movement on the Chocolate Mountains Thrust, southeasternmost California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, J.T.; Haxel, G.B.; Tosdal, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Late Cretaceous Chocolate Mountains Thrust of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona places a block of Proterozoic and Mesozoic continental crust over the late Mesozoic continental margin oceanic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Orocopia Schist. The Chocolate Mountains Thrust is interpreted as a thrust (burial, subduction) fault rather than a low-angle normal fault. An important parameter required to understand the tectonic significance of the Chocolate Mountains and related thrusts is their sense of movement. The only sense of movement consistent with collective asymmetry of the thrust zone folds is top to the northeast. Asymmetric microstructures studied at several localities also indicate top to the northeast movement. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the original sense of thrusting, prior to Neogene vertical axis tectonic rotation related to the San Andreas fault system, was northward. Movement of the upper plate of the chocolate Mountains thrust evidently was continentward. Continentward thrusting suggests a tectonic scenario in which an insular or peninsular microcontinental fragment collided with mainland southern California. -from Authors

  20. The Fluidic Metaphor: A View into the Nature and Future of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    United States Marine Corps School of Advanced Warfighting Marine Corps University 2076 South Street Marine Corps Combat Command Development ...internal environment.14 It is this definition and concept of war that serves as the basis for development of the fluidic metaphor. Side 1 Side 2 D I M...some technological or doctrinal development has given one side a distinct if not decisive advantage in the next war. The advantage afforded by an RMA

  1. The Development of NASA's Low Thrust Trajectory Tool Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Jon; Artis, Gwen; Kos, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Highly efficient electric propulsion systems can enable interesting classes of missions; unfortunately, they provide only a limited amount of thrust. Low-thrust (LT) trajectories are much more difficult to design than impulsive-type (chemical propulsion) trajectories. Previous low-thrust (LT) trajectory optimization software was often difficult to use, often had difficulties converging, and was somewhat limited in the types of missions it could support. A new state-of-the-art suite (toolbox) of low-thrust (LT) tools along with improved algorithms and methods was developed by NASA's MSFC, JPL, JSC, and GRC to address the needs of our customers to help foster technology development in the areas of advanced LT propulsion systems, and to facilitate generation of similar results by different analysts.

  2. Thrust Stand for Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Stanojev, Boris J.; Dehoyos, Amado; Spaun, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    An electric propulsion thrust stand capable of supporting testing of thrusters having a total mass of up to 125 kg and producing thrust levels between 100 microN to 1 N has been developed and tested. The design features a conventional hanging pendulum arm attached to a balance mechanism that converts horizontal deflections produced by the operating thruster into amplified vertical motion of a secondary arm. The level of amplification is changed through adjustment of the location of one of the pivot points linking the system. Response of the system depends on the relative magnitudes of the restoring moments applied by the displaced thruster mass and the twisting torsional pivots connecting the members of the balance mechanism. Displacement is measured using a non-contact, optical linear gap displacement transducer and balance oscillatory motion is attenuated using a passive, eddy-current damper. The thrust stand employs an automated leveling and thermal control system. Pools of liquid gallium are used to deliver power to the thruster without using solid wire connections, which can exert undesirable time-varying forces on the balance. These systems serve to eliminate sources of zero-drift that can occur as the stand thermally or mechanically shifts during the course of an experiment. An in-situ calibration rig allows for steady-state calibration before, during and after thruster operation. Thrust measurements were carried out on a cylindrical Hall thruster that produces mN-level thrust. The measurements were very repeatable, producing results that compare favorably with previously published performance data, but with considerably smaller uncertainty.

  3. Analyzing structural variations along strike in a deep-water thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totake, Yukitsugu; Butler, Robert W. H.; Bond, Clare E.; Aziz, Aznan

    2018-03-01

    We characterize a deep-water fold-thrust arrays imaged by a high-resolution 3D seismic dataset in the offshore NW Borneo, Malaysia, to understand the kinematics behind spatial arrangement of structural variations throughout the fold-thrust system. The seismic volume used covers two sub-parallel fold trains associated with a series of fore-thrusts and back-thrusts. We measured fault heave, shortening value, fold geometries (forelimb dip, interlimb angle and crest depth) along strike in individual fold trains. Heave plot on strike projection allows to identify individual thrust segments showing semi-elliptical to triangular to bimodal patterns, and linkages of these segments. The linkage sites are marked by local minima in cumulative heave. These local heave minima are compensated by additional structures, such as small imbricate thrusts and tight folds indicated by large forelimb dip and small interlimb angle. Complementary profiles of the shortening amount for the two fold trains result in smoother gradient of total shortening across the structures. We interpret this reflects kinematic interaction between two fold-thrust trains. This type of along-strike variation analysis provides comprehensive understanding of a fold-thrust system and may provide an interpretative strategy for inferring the presence of complex multiple faults in less well-imaged parts of seismic volumes.

  4. Episodic growth of fold-thrust belts: Insights from Finite Element Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaodong; Peel, Frank J.; Sanderson, David J.; McNeill, Lisa C.

    2017-09-01

    The sequential development of a fold-thrust belt was investigated using 2D Finite Element Modelling (FEM). The new model results show that a thrust system is typically composed of three distinct regions: the thrust wedge, pre-wedge, and undeformed region. The thrust wedge involves growth that repeats episodically and cyclically. A cycle of wedge building starts as frontal accretion occurs, which is accompanied by a rapid increase in wedge width reducing the taper angle below critical. In response to this, the wedge interior (tracked here by the 50 m displacement position) rapidly propagates forwards into a region of incipient folding. The taper angle progressively increases until it obtains a constant apparent critical value (∼10°). During this period, the wedge experiences significant shortening after a new thrust initiates at the failure front, leading to a decrease in wedge width. Successive widening of the wedge and subsequent shortening and thrusting maintain a reasonably constant taper angle. The fold-thrust belt evolves cyclically, through a combination of rapid advancement of the wedge and subsequent gradual, slow wedge growth. The new model results also highlights that there is clear, although minor, deformation (0-10 m horizontal displacement) in front of the thrust wedge.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold. The first was to expand the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. The second objective was to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and for predicting the thrust augmentation levels that may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (i.e., it has no mean velocity component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the two main measurements techniques employed. These are thrust and digital particle imaging velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called formation time serves as a useful dimensionless parameter by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

  6. Development of a Transient Thrust Stand with Sub-Millisecond Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spells, Corbin Fraser

    The transient thrust stand has been developed to offer 0.1 ms time resolved thrust measurements for the characterization of mono-propellant thrusters for spacecraft applications. Results demonstrated that the system was capable of obtaining dynamic thrust profiles within 5 % and 0.1 ms. Measuring and improving the thrust performance of mono-propellant thrusters will require 1 ms time resolved forces to observe shot-to-shot variations, oscillations, and minimum impulse bits. To date, no thrust stand is capable of measuring up to 22 N forces with a time response of up to 10 kHz. Calibration forces up to 22 N with a frequency response greater than 0.1 ms were obtained using voice coil actuators. Steady state and low frequency measurements were obtained using displacement and velocity sensors and were combined with high frequency vibration modes measured using several accelerometers along the thrust stand arm. The system uses a predictor-based subspace algorithm to obtain a high order state space model of the thrust stand capable of defining the high frequency vibration modes. The high frequency vibration modes are necessary to provide the time response of 0.1 ms. Thruster forces are estimated using an augmented Kalman filter to combine sensor traces from four accelerometers, a velocity sensor, and displacement transducer. Combining low frequency displacement data with high frequency acceleration measurements provides accurate force data across a broad time domain. The transient thrust stand uses a torsional pendulum configuration to minimize influence from external vibration and achieve high force resolution independent of thruster weight.

  7. Scale independence of décollement thrusting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, John H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Hatcher, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Orogen-scale décollements (detachment surfaces) are an enduring subject of investigation by geoscientists. Uncertainties remain as to how crustal convergence processes maintain the stresses necessary for development of low-angle fault surfaces above which huge slabs of rock are transported horizontally for tens to hundreds of kilometers. Seismic reflection profiles from the southern Appalachian crystalline core and several foreland fold-and-thrust belts provide useful comparisons with high-resolution shallow-penetration seismic reflection profiles acquired over the frontal zone of the Michigan lobe of the Wisconsinan ice sheet northwest of Chicago, Illinois. These profiles provide images of subhorizontal and overlapping dipping reflections that reveal a ramp-and-flat thrust system developed in poorly consolidated glacial till. The system is rooted in a master décollement at the top of bedrock. These 2–3 km long images contain analogs of images observed in seismic reflection profiles from orogenic belts, except that the scale of observation in the profiles in glacial materials is two orders of magnitude less. Whereas the décollement beneath the ice lobe thrust belt lies ∼70 m below thrusted anticlines having wavelengths of tens of meters driven by an advancing ice sheet, seismic images from overthrust terranes are related to lithospheric convergence that produces décollements traceable for thousands of kilometers at depths ranging from a few to over 10 km. Dual vergence or reversals in vergence (retrocharriage) that developed over abrupt changes in depth to the décollement can be observed at all scales. The strikingly similar images, despite the contrast in scale and driving mechanism, suggest a scale- and driving mechanism–independent behavior for décollement thrust systems. All these systems initially had the mechanical properties needed to produce very similar geometries with a compressional driving mechanism directed subparallel to Earth's surface

  8. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  9. Some effects of cyclic induced deformation in rocket thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, N. P.; Quentmeyer, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A test program to investigate the deformation process observed in the hot gas wall of rocket thrust chambers was conducted using three different liner materials. Five thrust chambers were cycled to failure using hydrogen and oxygen as propellants at a chamber pressure of 4.14 MN/m square (600 psia). The deformation was observed nondestructively at midlife points and destructively after failure occurred. The cyclic life results are presented with an accompanying discussion about the types of failure encountered. Data indicating the deformation of the thrust chamber liner as cycles are accumulated are presented for each of the test thrust chambers.

  10. Environmental Thrust Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This handbook was prepared as a tool to assist U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) employees coordinate their resources and efforts to help people improve their environment. Twenty-two projects are outlined as potential environmental thrusts at the community level. It is the role of USDA employees to encourage and assist, in every way possible,…

  11. Application of Chaboche Model in Rocket Thrust Chamber Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asraff, Ahmedul Kabir; Suresh Babu, Sheela; Babu, Aneena; Eapen, Reeba

    2017-06-01

    Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines are commonly used in space technology. Thrust chamber is one of the most important subsystems of a rocket engine. The thrust chamber generates propulsive thrust force for flight of the rocket by ejection of combustion products at supersonic speeds. Often double walled construction is employed for these chambers. The thrust chamber investigated here has its hot inner wall fabricated out of a high thermal conductive material like copper alloy and outer wall made of stainless steel. Inner wall is subjected to high thermal and pressure loads during operation of engine due to which it will be in the plastic regime. Main reasons for the failure of such chambers are fatigue in the plastic range (called as low cycle fatigue since the number of cycles to failure will be low in plastic range), creep and thermal ratcheting. Elasto plastic material models are required to simulate the above effects through a cyclic stress analysis. This paper gives the details of cyclic stress analysis carried out for the thrust chamber using different plasticity model combinations available in ANSYS (Version 15) FE code. The best model among the above is applied in the cyclic stress analysis of two dimensional (plane strain and axisymmetric) and three dimensional finite element models of thrust chamber. Cyclic life of the chamber is calculated from stress-strain graph obtained from above analyses.

  12. Duplex thrusting in the South Dabashan arcuate belt, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wangpeng; Liu, Shaofeng; Wang, Yi; Qian, Tao; Gao, Tangjun

    2017-10-01

    Due to later tectonic superpositioning and reworking, the South Dabashan arcuate belt extending NW to SE has experienced several episodes of deformation. The earlier deformational style and formation mechanism of this belt remain controversial. Seismic interpretations and fieldwork show that the curved orogen can be divided into three sub-belts perpendicular to the strike of the orogen, the imbricate thrust fault belt, the detachment fold belt and the frontal belt from NE to SW. The imbricate thrust fault belt is characterized by a series of SW-directed thrust faults and nappes. Two regional detachment layers at different depths have been recognized in the detachment fold and frontal belts, and these detachment layers divide the sub-belts into three structural layers: the lower, middle, and upper structural layers. The middle structural layer is characterized by a passive roof duplex structure, which is composed of a roof thrust at the top of the Sinian units, a floor thrust in the upper Lower Triassic units, and horses in between. Apatite fission track dating results and regional structural analyses indicate that the imbricate thrust fault belt may have formed during the latest Early Cretaceous to earliest Paleogene and that the detachment fold belt may have formed during the latest Late Cretaceous to earliest Neogene. Our findings provide important reference values for researching intra-continental orogenic and deformation mechanisms in foreland fold-thrust belts.

  13. Thrust imbalance of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, W. A., Jr.; Sforzini, R. H.; Shackelford, B. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Monte Carlo statistical analysis of thrust imbalance is applied to both the Titan IIIC and the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors (SRMs) firing in parallel, and results are compared with those obtained from the Space Shuttle program. The test results are examined in three phases: (1) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the four developmental motors (DMs 1 through 4); (2) pairs of SRMs selected from static tests of the three quality assurance motors (QMs 1 through 3); (3) SRMs on the first flight test vehicle (STS-1A and STS-1B). The simplified internal ballistic model utilized for computing thrust from head-end pressure measurements on flight tests is shown to agree closely with measured thrust data. Inaccuracies in thrust imbalance evaluation are explained by possible flight test instrumentation errors.

  14. Non-Contact Thrust Stand Calibration Method for Repetitively-Pulsed Electric Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Andrea R.; Toftul, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2011-01-01

    A thrust stand calibration technique for use in testing repetitively-pulsed electric thrusters for in-space propulsion has been developed and tested using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand. In the implementation of this technique, current pulses are applied to a solenoidal coil to produce a pulsed magnetic field that acts against the magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet mounted to the thrust stand pendulum arm. The force on the magnet is applied in this non-contact manner, with the entire pulsed force transferred to the pendulum arm through a piezoelectric force transducer to provide a time-accurate force measurement. Modeling of the pendulum arm dynamics reveals that after an initial transient in thrust stand motion the quasisteady average deflection of the thrust stand arm away from the unforced or zero position can be related to the average applied force through a simple linear Hooke s law relationship. Modeling demonstrates that this technique is universally applicable except when the pulsing period is increased to the point where it approaches the period of natural thrust stand motion. Calibration data were obtained using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand previously used for steady-state thrust measurements. Data were obtained for varying impulse bit at constant pulse frequency and for varying pulse frequency. The two data sets exhibit excellent quantitative agreement with each other as the constant relating average deflection and average thrust match within the errors on the linear regression curve fit of the data. Quantitatively, the error on the calibration coefficient is roughly 1% of the coefficient value.

  15. Quantifying the high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulative thrust: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Downie, Aron S; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Bull, Peter W

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review studies that quantify the high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) spinal thrust, to qualitatively compare the apparatus used and the force-time profiles generated, and to critically appraise studies involving the quantification of thrust as an augmented feedback tool in psychomotor learning. A search of the literature was conducted to identify the sources that reported quantification of the HVLA spinal thrust. MEDLINE-OVID (1966-present), MANTIS-OVID (1950-present), and CINAHL-EBSCO host (1981-present) were searched. Eligibility criteria included that thrust subjects were human, animal, or manikin and that the thrust type was a hand-delivered HVLA spinal thrust. Data recorded were single force, force-time, or displacement-time histories. Publications were in English language and after 1980. The relatively small number of studies, combined with the diversity of method and data interpretation, did not enable meta-analysis. Twenty-seven studies met eligibility criteria: 17 studies measured thrust as a primary outcome (13 human, 2 cadaver, and 2 porcine). Ten studies demonstrated changes in psychomotor learning related to quantified thrust data on human, manikin, or other device. Quantifiable parameters of the HVLA spinal thrust exist and have been described. There remain a number of variables in recording that prevent a standardized kinematic description of HVLA spinal manipulative therapy. Despite differences in data between studies, a relationship between preload, peak force, and thrust duration was evident. Psychomotor learning outcomes were enhanced by the application of thrust data as an augmented feedback tool. Copyright © 2010 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Why do airlines want and use thrust reversers? A compilation of airline industry responses to a survey regarding the use of thrust reversers on commercial transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1995-01-01

    Although thrust reversers are used for only a fraction of the airplane operating time, their impact on nacelle design, weight, airplane cruise performance, and overall airplane operating and maintenance expenses is significant. Why then do the airlines want and use thrust reversers? In an effort to understand the airlines need for thrust reversers, a survey of the airline industry was made to determine why and under what situations thrust reversers are currently used or thought to be needed. The survey was intended to help establish the cost/benefits trades for the use of thrust reversers and airline opinion regarding alternative deceleration devices. A compilation and summary of the responses given to the survey questionnaire is presented.

  17. A Determinate Model of Thrust-Augmenting Ejectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitley, N.; Krothapalli, A.; van Dommelen, L.

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the compressible flow through a constant-area jet-engine ejector in which a primary jet mixes with ambient fluid from a uniform free stream is pursued. The problem is reduced to a determinate mathematical one by prescribing the ratios of stagnation properties between the primary and secondary flows. For some selections of properties and parameters more than one solution is possible and the meaning of these solutions is discussed by means of asymptotic expansions. Our results further show that while under stationary conditions the thrust-augmentation ratio assumes a value of 2 in the large area-ratio limit, for a free-stream Mach number greater than 0.6 very little thrust augmentation is left. Due to the assumptions made, the analysis provides idealized values for the thrust-augmentation ratio and the mass flux entrainment factor.

  18. The challenges of numerically simulating analogue brittle thrust wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiter, Susanne; Ellis, Susan

    2017-04-01

    Fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges form when sedimentary and crustal rocks are compressed into thrusts and folds in the foreland of an orogen or at a subduction trench. For over a century, analogue models have been used to investigate the deformation characteristics of such brittle wedges. These models predict wedge shapes that agree with analytical critical taper theory and internal deformation structures that well resemble natural observations. In a series of comparison experiments for thrust wedges, called the GeoMod2004 (1,2) and GeoMod2008 (3,4) experiments, it was shown that different numerical solution methods successfully reproduce sandbox thrust wedges. However, the GeoMod2008 benchmark also pointed to the difficulties of representing frictional boundary conditions and sharp velocity discontinuities with continuum numerical methods, in addition to the well-known challenges of numerical plasticity. Here we show how details in the numerical implementation of boundary conditions can substantially impact numerical wedge deformation. We consider experiment 1 of the GeoMod2008 brittle thrust wedge benchmarks. This experiment examines a triangular thrust wedge in the stable field of critical taper theory that should remain stable, that is, without internal deformation, when sliding over a basal frictional surface. The thrust wedge is translated by lateral displacement of a rigid mobile wall. The corner between the mobile wall and the subsurface is a velocity discontinuity. Using our finite-element code SULEC, we show how different approaches to implementing boundary friction (boundary layer or contact elements) and the velocity discontinuity (various smoothing schemes) can cause the wedge to indeed translate in a stable manner or to undergo internal deformation (which is a fail). We recommend that numerical studies of sandbox setups not only report the details of their implementation of boundary conditions, but also document the modelling attempts that

  19. Thrust Generation with Low-Power Continuous-Wave Laser and Aluminum Foil Interaction

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Horisawa, Hideyuki; Sumida, Sota; Funaki, Ikkoh

    2010-05-06

    The micro-newton thrust generation was observed through low-power continuous-wave laser and aluminum foil interaction without any remarkable ablation of the target surface. To evaluate the thrust characteristics, a torsion-balance thrust stand capable for the measurement of the thrust level down to micro-Newton ranges was developed. In the case of an aluminum foil target with 12.5 micrometer thickness, the maximum thrust level was 15 micro-newtons when the laser power was 20 W, or about 0.75 N/MW. It was also found that the laser intensity, or laser power per unit area, irradiated on the target was significantly important on the control ofmore » the thrust even under the low-intensity level.« less

  20. Early history and reactivation of the rand thrust, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, Clay E.; Jacobson, Carl E.

    The Rand thrust of the Rand Mountains in the northwestern Mojave Desert separates an upper plate of quartz monzonite and quartzofeldspathic to amphibolitic gneiss from a lower plate of metagraywacke and mafic schist (Rand Schist). The Rand thrust is considered part of the regionally extensive Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust system, which is commonly believed to represent a Late Cretaceous subduction zone. The initial direction of dip and sense of movement along the Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust are controversial. Microfabrics of mylonites and quartzites from the Rand Mountains were analyzed in an attempt to determine transport direction for this region, but the results are ambiguous. In addition, the southwestern portion of the Rand thrust was found to have been reactivated as a low-angle normal fault after subduction. Reactivation might have occurred shortly after subduction, in which case it could account for the preservation of high-pressure mineral assemblages in the Rand Schist, or it could be related to mid-Tertiary extension in the western United States. In either event, the reactivation might be responsible for the complicated nature of the microfabrics. The Rand Schist exhibits an inverted metamorphic zonation. Isograds in the schist are not significantly truncated by the reactivated segment of the Rand thrust. This indicates that other segments of the Vincent/Chocolate Mountain thrust should be re-evaluated for the possibility of late movement, even if they show an apparently undisturbed inverted metamorphic zonation.

  1. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  2. Anomalous Thrust Production from an RF Test Device Measured on a Low-Thrust Torsion Pendulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, David A.; White, Harold G.; March, Paul; Lawrence, James T.; Davies, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the test campaigns designed to investigate and demonstrate viability of using classical magnetoplasmadynamics to obtain a propulsive momentum transfer via the quantum vacuum virtual plasma. This paper will not address the physics of the quantum vacuum plasma thruster (QVPT), but instead will describe the recent test campaign. In addition, it contains a brief description of the supporting radio frequency (RF) field analysis, lessons learned, and potential applications of the technology to space exploration missions. During the first (Cannae) portion of the campaign, approximately 40 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 935 megahertz and 28 watts. During the subsequent (tapered cavity) portion of the campaign, approximately 91 micronewtons of thrust were observed in an RF resonant cavity test article excited at approximately 1933 megahertz and 17 watts. Testing was performed on a low-thrust torsion pendulum that is capable of detecting force at a single-digit micronewton level. Test campaign results indicate that the RF resonant cavity thruster design, which is unique as an electric propulsion device, is producing a force that is not attributable to any classical electromagnetic phenomenon and therefore is potentially demonstrating an interaction with the quantum vacuum virtual plasma.

  3. The 30-centimeter ion thrust subsystem design manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The principal characteristics of the 30-centimeter ion propulsion thrust subsystem technology that was developed to satisfy the propulsion needs of future planetary and early orbital missions are described. Functional requirements and descriptions, interface and performance requirements, and physical characteristics of the hardware are described at the thrust subsystem, BIMOD engine system, and component level.

  4. Methodology for designing and manufacturing complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators: prosthetic hand case study.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Bean, E; Das, R; McDaid, A

    2016-10-31

    We present a novel methodology for the design and manufacture of complex biologically inspired soft robotic fluidic actuators. The methodology is applied to the design and manufacture of a prosthetic for the hand. Real human hands are scanned to produce a 3D model of a finger, and pneumatic networks are implemented within it to produce a biomimetic bending motion. The finger is then partitioned into material sections, and a genetic algorithm based optimization, using finite element analysis, is employed to discover the optimal material for each section. This is based on two biomimetic performance criteria. Two sets of optimizations using two material sets are performed. Promising optimized material arrangements are fabricated using two techniques to validate the optimization routine, and the fabricated and simulated results are compared. We find that the optimization is successful in producing biomimetic soft robotic fingers and that fabrication of the fingers is possible. Limitations and paths for development are discussed. This methodology can be applied for other fluidic soft robotic devices.

  5. The paradox of vertical σ2 in foreland fold and thrust belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Occurrence of aesthetically appealing thrust systems and associated large scale anticlines, in both active and fossil foreland fold and thrust belts, is commonly interpreted as an evidence for Andersonian compressional framework. Indeed, these structures would testify for a roughly vertical σ3. Such a correlation between thrusts occurrence and stress field orientation, however, frequently fails to explain denser observations at a smaller scale. The syn-orogenic deformation meso-structures hosted in exposed km-scale thrust-related folds, in fact, frequently and paradoxically witness for a syn-thrusting strike-slip stress configuration, with a near-vertical σ2 and a sub-horizontal σ3. This apparent widespread inconsistency between syn-orogenic meso-structures and stress field orientation is here named "the σ2 paradox". A possible explanation for such a paradox is provided by inherited extensional deformation structures commonly developed prior to thrusting, in the flexural foreland basins located ahead of fold and thrust belts. Thrust nucleation and propagation is facilitated and driven by the positive inversion of the extensional inheritances, and their subsequent linkage. This process eventually leads to the development of large reverse fault zones and can occur both in compressive and strike-slip stress configurations.

  6. Dual-action gas thrust bearing for improving load capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etsion, I.

    1976-01-01

    The principle of utilizing hydrodynamic effects in diverging films to improve the load carrying capacity in gas thrust bearings is discussed. A new concept of a dual action bearing based on that principle is described and analyzed. The potential of the new bearing is demonstrated both analytically for an infinitely long slider and by numerical solution for a flat sector shaped thrust bearing. It is shown that the dual action bearing can extend substantially the range of load carrying capacity in gas lubricated thrust bearings and can improve their efficiency.

  7. Electromagnetic calibration system for sub-micronewton torsional thrust stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, J. K.; Koay, S. C.; Cheah, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    It is critical for a micropropulsion system to be evaluated. Thrust stands are widely recognised as the instrument to complete such tasks. This paper presents the development of an alternative electromagnetic calibration technique for thrust stands. Utilising the commercially made voice coils and permanent magnets, the proposed system is able to generate repeatable and also consistent steady-state calibration forces at over four orders of magnitude (30 - 23000 μN). The system is then used to calibrate a custom-designed torsional thrust stand, where its inherent ability in ease of setup is well demonstrated.

  8. Experimental Determination of Exhaust Gas Thrust, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, Benjamin; Voss, Fred

    1940-01-01

    This investigation presents the results of tests made on a radial engine to determine the thrust that can be obtained from the exhaust gas when discharged from separate stacks and when discharged from the collector ring with various discharge nozzles. The engine was provided with a propeller to absorb the power and was mounted on a test stand equipped with scales for measuring the thrust and engine torque. The results indicate that at full open throttle at sea level, for the engine tested, a gain in thrust horsepower of 18 percent using separate stacks, and 9.5 percent using a collector ring and discharge nozzle, can be expected at an air speed of 550 miles per hour.

  9. Evaluation of an Outer Loop Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Turbofan Engine Thrust Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.

  10. Structural evidence for northeastward movement on the Chocolate Mountains thrust, southeasternmost Calfornia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dillon, J.T.; Haxel, G.B.; Tosdal, R.M.

    1990-11-10

    The Late Cretaceous Chocolate Mountains thrust of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona places a block of Proterozoic and Mesozoic continental crust over the late Mesozoic continental margin oceanic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the regionally distinctive Orocopia Schist. The Chocolate Mountains thrust is interpreted as a thrust (burial, subduction) fault rather than a low-angle normal (exhumation, unroofing, uplift) fault. The Chocolate Mountains thrust zone contains sparse to locally abundant mesoscopic asymmetric folds. Fabric relations indicate that these folds are an integral part of and coeval with the thrust zone. On a lower hemisphere equal-area plot representing the orientation and sensemore » of asymmetry of 80 thrust zone folds from 36 localities, spread over an area 60 by 10 km, Z folds plot northwest of and S folds plot southeast of a northeast-southwest striking vertical plane of overall monoclinic symmetry. The only sense of movement consistent with the collective asymmetry of the thrust zone folds is top to the northeast. Paleomagnetic data suggest that the original sense of thrusting, prior to Neogene vertical axis tectonic rotation related to the San Andreas fault system, was northward. The essential point is that movement of the upper plate of the Chocolate Mountains thrust evidently was continentward. Continentward thrusting suggests a tectonic scenario in which an insular or peninsular microcontinental fragment collided with mainland southern California. Alternative tectonic models involving subduction of the Orocopia Schist eastward beneath continental southern California circumvent the suture problem but are presently not supported by any direct structural evidence.« less

  11. A new method for optimization of low-thrust gravity-assist sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, V.

    2017-09-01

    Recently missions like Hayabusa and Dawn have shown the relevance and benefits of low-thrust spacecraft concerning the exploration of our solar system. In general, the efficiency of low-thrust propulsion is one means of improving mission payload mass. At the same time, gravity-assist maneuvers can serve as mission enablers, as they have the capability to provide "free energy." A combination of both, gravity-assist and low-thrust propulsion, has the potential to generally improve mission performance, i.e. planning and optimization of gravity-assist sequences for low-thrust missions is a desirable asset. Currently no established methods exist to include the gravity-assist partners as optimization variable for low-thrust missions. The present paper explains how gravity-assists are planned and optimized, including the gravity-assist partners, for high-thrust missions and discusses the possibility to transfer the established method, based on the Tisserand Criterion, to low-thrust missions. It is shown how the Tisserand Criterion needs to be adapted using a correction term for the low-thrust situation. It is explained why this necessary correction term excludes an a priori evaluation of sequences and therefore their planning and an alternate approach is proposed. Preliminary results of this method, by application of a Differential Evolution optimization algorithm, are presented and discussed, showing that the method is valid but can be improved. Two constraints on the search space are briefly presented for that aim.

  12. Non-contact thrust stand calibration method for repetitively pulsed electric thrusters.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andrea R; Toftul, Alexandra; Polzin, Kurt A; Pearson, J Boise

    2012-02-01

    A thrust stand calibration technique for use in testing repetitively pulsed electric thrusters for in-space propulsion has been developed and tested using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand. In the implementation of this technique, current pulses are applied to a solenoid to produce a pulsed magnetic field that acts against a permanent magnet mounted to the thrust stand pendulum arm. The force on the magnet is applied in this non-contact manner, with the entire pulsed force transferred to the pendulum arm through a piezoelectric force transducer to provide a time-accurate force measurement. Modeling of the pendulum arm dynamics reveals that after an initial transient in thrust stand motion the quasi-steady average deflection of the thrust stand arm away from the unforced or "zero" position can be related to the average applied force through a simple linear Hooke's law relationship. Modeling demonstrates that this technique is universally applicable except when the pulsing period is increased to the point where it approaches the period of natural thrust stand motion. Calibration data were obtained using a modified hanging pendulum thrust stand previously used for steady-state thrust measurements. Data were obtained for varying impulse bit at constant pulse frequency and for varying pulse frequency. The two data sets exhibit excellent quantitative agreement with each other. The overall error on the linear regression fit used to determine the calibration coefficient was roughly 1%.

  13. Thrust stand evaluation of engine performance improvement algorithms in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation is underway to determine the benefits of a new propulsion system optimization algorithm in an F-15 airplane. The performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of an F100 derivative turbofan engine for several modes of operation. The PSC algorithm uses an onboard software engine model that calculates thrust, stall margin, and other unmeasured variables for use in the optimization. As part of the PSC test program, the F-15 aircraft was operated on a horizontal thrust stand. Thrust was measured with highly accurate load cells. The measured thrust was compared to onboard model estimates and to results from posttest performance programs. Thrust changes using the various PSC modes were recorded. Those results were compared to benefits using the less complex highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) algorithm. The PSC maximum thrust mode increased intermediate power thrust by 10 percent. The PSC engine model did very well at estimating measured thrust and closely followed the transients during optimization. Quantitative results from the evaluation of the algorithms and performance calculation models are included with emphasis on measured thrust results. The report presents a description of the PSC system and a discussion of factors affecting the accuracy of the thrust stand load measurements.

  14. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  15. Low-thrust Isp sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of the cooling requirements and attainable specific impulse performance of engines in the 445 to 4448N thrust class utilizing LOX/RP-1, LOX/Hydrogen and LOX/Methane propellants is presented. The unique design requirements for the regenerative cooling of low-thrust engines operating at high pressures (up to 6894 kPa) were explored analytically by comparing single cooling with the fuel and the oxidizer, and dual cooling with both the fuel and the oxidizer. The effects of coolant channel geometry, chamber length, and contraction ratio on the ability to provide proper cooling were evaluated, as was the resulting specific impulse. The results show that larger contraction ratios and smaller channels are highly desirable for certain propellant combinations.

  16. Optimal Trajectories For Orbital Transfers Using Low And Medium Thrust Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, Shannon S.

    1992-01-01

    For many problems it is reasonable to expect that the minimum time solution is also the minimum fuel solution. However, if one allows the propulsion system to be turned off and back on, it is clear that these two solutions may differ. In general, high thrust transfers resemble the well-known impulsive transfers where the burn arcs are of very short duration. The low and medium thrust transfers differ in that their thrust acceleration levels yield longer burn arcs which will require more revolutions, thus making the low thrust transfer computational intensive. Here, we consider optimal low and medium thrust orbital transfers.

  17. Experimental thrust performance of a high-area-ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, Albert J.; Kacynski, Kenneth J.; Smith, Tamara A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

  18. Experimental thrust performance of a high area-ratio rocket nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavli, A. J.; Kacynski, K. J.; Smith, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the thrust performance attainable from high-area-ratio rocket nozzles. A modified Rao-contoured nozzle with an expansion area of 1030 was test fired with hydrogen-oxygen propellants at altitude conditions. The nozzle was also tested as a truncated nozzle, at an expansion area ratio of 428. Thrust coefficient and thrust coefficient efficiency values are presented for each configuration at various propellant mixture ratios (oxygen/fuel). Several procedural techniques were developed permitting improved measurement of nozzle performance. The more significant of these were correcting the thrust for the aneroid effects, determining the effective chamber pressure, and referencing differential pressure transducers to a vacuum reference tank.

  19. Sub-micro-Newton resolution thrust balance.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, G

    2015-10-01

    Herein is described a sensitive vacuum balance for measuring the thrust produced by small (∼0.5 kg) thrusters typically employed in microsat station-keeping. The balance is based on a torsion design but incorporates jewel-pivot bearings instead of the more typical torsion spring bearings. Novel tilt control allows maintenance of true verticality of the bearing axis even while under vacuum. The low moment of inertia design allows it to measure small thrusts from high-voltage devices without direct wire conductor connections. Calibration by several means is described including use of a previously calibrated dielectric barrier discharge thruster.

  20. Development of a Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, Charles M.; Merkowitz, Stephen M.

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built to measure the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (muN) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 muN with a resolution of 0.1 muN. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 muN/dHz in the measurement bandwidth 10(exp -4) to 1 Hz. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from l0( -4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 muN/dHz sensitivity, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 muN with better than 0.1 muN resolution, and dynamic thruster response from to 10 Hz. The LTS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  1. Full Flight Envelope Direct Thrust Measurement on a Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Direct thrust measurement using strain gages offers advantages over analytically-based thrust calculation methods. For flight test applications, the direct measurement method typically uses a simpler sensor arrangement and minimal data processing compared to analytical techniques, which normally require costly engine modeling and multisensor arrangements throughout the engine. Conversely, direct thrust measurement has historically produced less than desirable accuracy because of difficulty in mounting and calibrating the strain gages and the inability to account for secondary forces that influence the thrust reading at the engine mounts. Consequently, the strain-gage technique has normally been used for simple engine arrangements and primarily in the subsonic speed range. This paper presents the results of a strain gage-based direct thrust-measurement technique developed by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and successfully applied to the full flight envelope of an F-15 aircraft powered by two F100-PW-229 turbofan engines. Measurements have been obtained at quasi-steady-state operating conditions at maximum non-augmented and maximum augmented power throughout the altitude range of the vehicle and to a maximum speed of Mach 2.0 and are compared against results from two analytically-based thrust calculation methods. The strain-gage installation and calibration processes are also described.

  2. Development of A Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, C. M.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built and tested that is capable of measuring the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (micro-Newton) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 micro-Newton with a resolution of 0.1 micro-Newton. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 pN/4Hz in a 10 Hz bandwidth. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from 10(exp-4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 micro-Newton with better than 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, and dynamic thruster response from 10(exp -4) to 10 Hz. The ITS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  3. Pulsed thrust measurements using electromagnetic calibration techniques

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tang Haibin; Shi Chenbo; Zhang Xin'ai

    2011-03-15

    A thrust stand for accurately measuring impulse bits, which ranged from 10-1000 {mu}N s using a noncontact electromagnetic calibration technique is described. In particular, a permanent magnet structure was designed to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a multiturn coil was made to produce a calibration force less than 10 mN. The electromagnetic calibration force for pulsed thrust measurements was linear to the coil current and changed less than 2.5% when the distance between the coil and magnet changed 6 mm. A pulsed plasma thruster was first tested on the thrust stand, and afterward five single impulse bits were measuredmore » to give a 310 {mu}N s average impulse bit. Uncertainty of the measured impulse bit was analyzed to evaluate the quality of the measurement and was found to be 10 {mu}N s with 95% credibility.« less

  4. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivotsmore » with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.« less

  5. Multi-Axis Thrust Measurements of the EO-1 Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, Lynn A.; Haag, Thomas W.

    1999-01-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters are low thrust propulsive devices which have a high specific impulse at low power. A pulsed plasma thruster is currently scheduled to fly as an experiment on NASA's Earth Observing-1 satellite mission. The pulsed plasma thruster will be used to replace one of the reaction wheels. As part of the qualification testing of the thruster it is necessary to determine the nominal thrust as a function of charge energy. These data will be used to determine control algorithms. Testing was first completed on a breadboard pulsed plasma thruster to determine nominal or primary axis thrust and associated propellant mass consumption as a function of energy and then later to determine if any significant off-axis thrust component existed. On conclusion that there was a significant off-axis thrust component with the bread-board in the direction of the anode electrode, the test matrix was expanded on the flight hardware to include thrust measurements along all three orthogonal axes. Similar off-axis components were found with the flight unit.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Thrust Augmentation Using a Speaker-Driven Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wernet, Mark P.; John, Wentworth T.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described in which a simple speaker-driven jet was used as a pulsed thrust source (driver) for an ejector configuration. The objectives of the investigation were twofold: first, to add to the experimental body of evidence showing that an unsteady thrust source, combined with a properly sized ejector generally yields higher thrust augmentation values than a similarly sized, steady driver of equivalent thrust. Second, to identify characteristics of the unsteady driver that may be useful for sizing ejectors, and predicting what thrust augmentation values may be achieved. The speaker-driven jet provided a convenient source for the investigation because it is entirely unsteady (having no mean component) and because relevant parameters such as frequency, time-averaged thrust, and diameter are easily variable. The experimental setup will be described, as will the various measurements made. These include both thrust and Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry of the driver. It will be shown that thrust augmentation values as high as 1.8 were obtained, that the diameter of the best ejector scaled with the dimensions of the emitted vortex, and that the so-called Formation Number serves as a useful dimensionless number by which to characterize the jet and predict performance.

  7. Investigation of Asymmetric Thrust Detection with Demonstration in a Real-Time Simulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate three asymmetric thrust detection approaches to aid in the reduction of asymmetric thrust-induced aviation accidents. This paper presents the results from that effort and their evaluation in simulation studies, including those from a real-time flight simulation testbed. Asymmetric thrust is recognized as a contributing factor in several Propulsion System Malfunction plus Inappropriate Crew Response (PSM+ICR) aviation accidents. As an improvement over the state-of-the-art, providing annunciation of asymmetric thrust to alert the crew may hold safety benefits. For this, the reliable detection and confirmation of asymmetric thrust conditions is required. For this work, three asymmetric thrust detection methods are presented along with their results obtained through simulation studies. Representative asymmetric thrust conditions are modeled in simulation based on failure scenarios similar to those reported in aviation incident and accident descriptions. These simulated asymmetric thrust scenarios, combined with actual aircraft operational flight data, are then used to conduct a sensitivity study regarding the detection capabilities of the three methods. Additional evaluation results are presented based on pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flight simulation testbed. Data obtained from this flight simulation facility are used to further evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of the asymmetric thrust detection approaches. Generally, the asymmetric thrust conditions are correctly detected and confirmed.

  8. Investigation of Asymmetric Thrust Detection with Demonstration in a Real-Time Simulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicatelli, Amy K.; Rinehart, Aidan W.; Sowers, T. Shane; Simon, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate three asymmetric thrust detection approaches to aid in the reduction of asymmetric thrust-induced aviation accidents. This paper presents the results from that effort and their evaluation in simulation studies, including those from a real-time flight simulation testbed. Asymmetric thrust is recognized as a contributing factor in several Propulsion System Malfunction plus Inappropriate Crew Response (PSM+ICR) aviation accidents. As an improvement over the state-of-the-art, providing annunciation of asymmetric thrust to alert the crew may hold safety benefits. For this, the reliable detection and confirmation of asymmetric thrust conditions is required. For this work, three asymmetric thrust detection methods are presented along with their results obtained through simulation studies. Representative asymmetric thrust conditions are modeled in simulation based on failure scenarios similar to those reported in aviation incident and accident descriptions. These simulated asymmetric thrust scenarios, combined with actual aircraft operational flight data, are then used to conduct a sensitivity study regarding the detection capabilities of the three methods. Additional evaluation results are presented based on pilot-in-the-loop simulation studies conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) flight simulation testbed. Data obtained from this flight simulation facility are used to further evaluate the effectiveness and accuracy of the asymmetric thrust detection approaches. Generally, the asymmetric thrust conditions are correctly detected and confirmed.

  9. Global Optimization of Low-Thrust Interplanetary Trajectories Subject to Operational Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob Aldo; Vavrina, Matthew; Hinckley, David

    2016-01-01

    Low-thrust electric propulsion provides many advantages for mission to difficult targets-Comets and asteroids-Mercury-Outer planets (with sufficient power supply)Low-thrust electric propulsion is characterized by high power requirements but also very high specific impulse (Isp), leading to very good mass fractions. Low-thrust trajectory design is a very different process from chemical trajectory.

  10. Alongstrike geometry variations of the Carpathian thrust front east of Tarnów (SE Poland) as intersection phenomenon related to thrust-floor palaeotopography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gluszynski, Andrzej; Aleksandrowski, Pawel

    2017-04-01

    Structural geometry of the Miocene (Badenian-Sarmatian) Carpathian orogenic front between Tarnów and Pilzno was investigated, using borehole and 2D and 3D seismic data. In line with some earlier studies by other authors, but in much more comprehensive way, our study reveals details of the alongstrike changing structural geometry of the Carpathian orogenic front and offers a model of its tectonic evolution. At places the frontal thrust of the Carpathians is blind and accompanied by well developed wedge tectonics phenomena. Elsewhere it is emergent at the surface and shows an apparently simple structure. The base of the fold-thrust zone rests on a substratum with highly variable palaeotopography, which includes a major palaeovalley incised in the Mesozoic basement to a depth exceeding 1 km. The palaeovalley floor was covered with salt-bearing evaporites at the time when the thrusting took place. The wedge tectonics phenomena include backthrusts and a prominent crocodile structure. The tectonic wedge is formed by stacked thrust-slices of the Cretaceous-to-Oligocene flysch of the Skole nappe. This wedge has forced a basal Miocene evaporitic layer (including salt) to split into two horizons (1) the lower one, which acted as a tectonic lubricant along the floor thrust of the forward-moving flysch wedge, and (2) the upper one, along which the Miocene sediments of the Carpathian foredeep were underthrusted by the flysch wedge. This resulting crocodile structure has the flysch wedge in its core, a passive roof of Miocene sediments at the top and tilted Miocene strata at its front, defining a frontal homocline. A minor triangle zone, cored with deformed evaporites, has formed due to backthrust branching at the rear of the frontal monocline. At other places, the Carpathian flysch and its basal thrust, emerge at the surface. The flysch must have once also formed a wedge there, but was mostly removed by erosion following its elevation above the present-day topographic surface

  11. Multi-step optimization strategy for fuel-optimal orbital transfer of low-thrust spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasotto, M.; Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.

    2016-03-01

    An effective method for the design of fuel-optimal transfers in two- and three-body dynamics is presented. The optimal control problem is formulated using calculus of variation and primer vector theory. This leads to a multi-point boundary value problem (MPBVP), characterized by complex inner constraints and a discontinuous thrust profile. The first issue is addressed by embedding the MPBVP in a parametric optimization problem, thus allowing a simplification of the set of transversality constraints. The second problem is solved by representing the discontinuous control function by a smooth function depending on a continuation parameter. The resulting trajectory optimization method can deal with different intermediate conditions, and no a priori knowledge of the control structure is required. Test cases in both the two- and three-body dynamics show the capability of the method in solving complex trajectory design problems.

  12. Development Status of High-Thrust Density Electrostatic Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Haag, Thomas W.; Foster, John E.; Young, Jason A.; Crofton, Mark W.

    2017-01-01

    Ion thruster technology offers the highest performance and efficiency of any mature electric propulsion thruster. It has by far the highest demonstrated total impulse of any technology option, demonstrated at input power levels appropriate for primary propulsion. It has also been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments, with excellent ground/in-space correlation of both its performance and life. Based on these attributes there is compelling reasoning to continue the development of this technology: it is a leading candidate for high power applications; and it provides risk reduction for as-yet unproven alternatives. As such it is important that the operational limitations of ion thruster technology be critically examined and in particular for its application to primary propulsion its capabilities relative to thrust the density and thrust-to-power ratio be understood. This publication briefly addresses some of the considerations relative to achieving high thrust density and maximizing thrust-to-power ratio with ion thruster technology, and discusses the status of development work in this area being executed under a collaborative effort among NASA Glenn Research Center, the Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  13. Initial Thrust Measurements of Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schloeder, Natalie R.; Scogin, Tyler; Liu, Thomas M.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Dankanich, John W.; Aanesland, Ane

    2015-01-01

    Electronegative ion thrusters are a variation of tradition gridded ion thruster technology differentiated by the production and acceleration of both positive and negative ions. Benefits of electronegative ion thrusters include the elimination of lifetime-limiting cathodes from the thruster architecture and the ability to generate appreciable thrust from both charge species. Following the continued development of electronegative ion thruster technology as exhibited by the PEGASES (Plasma Propulsion with Electronegative GASES) thruster, direct thrust measurements are required to push interest in electronegative ion thruster technology forward. For this work, direct thrust measurements of the MINT (Marshall's Ion-ioN Thruster) will be taken on a hanging pendulum thrust stand for propellant mixtures of Sulfur Hexafluoride and Argon at volumetric flow rates of 5-25 sccm at radio frequency power levels of 100-600 watts at a radio frequency of 13.56 MHz. Acceleration grid operation is operated using a square waveform bias of +/-300 volts at a frequency of 25 kHz.

  14. Development of sputtered techniques for thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullaly, J. R.; Hecht, R. J.; Schmid, T. E.; Torrey, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques and materials were developed and evaluated for the fabrication and coating of advanced, long life, regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. Materials were analyzed as fillers for sputter application of OFHC copper as a closeout layer to channeled inner structures; of the materials evaluated, aluminum was found to provide the highest bond strength and to be the most desirable for chamber fabrication. The structures and properties were investigated of thick sputtered OFHC copper, 0.15 Zr-Cu, Al2O3,-Cu, and SiC-Cu. Layered structures of OFHC copper and 0.15 Zr-Cu were investigated as means of improving chamber inner wall fatigue life. The evaluation of sputtered Ti-5Al-2.5Sn, NASA IIb-11, aluminum and Al2O3-Al alloys as high strength chamber outer jackets was performed. Techniques for refurbishing degraded thrust chambers with OFHC copper and coating thrust chambers with protective ZrO2 and graded ZrO2-copper thermal barrier coatings were developed.

  15. Status of Low Thrust Work at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    High performance low thrust (solar electric, nuclear electric, variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) propulsion offers a significant benefit to NASA missions beyond low Earth orbit. As NASA (e.g., Prometheus Project) endeavors to develop these propulsion systems and associated power supplies, it becomes necessary to develop a refined trajectory design capability that will allow engineers to develop future robotic and human mission designs that take advantage of this new technology. This ongoing work addresses development of a trajectory design and optimization tool for assessing low thrust (and other types) trajectories. This work targets to advance the state of the art, enable future NASA missions, enable science drivers, and enhance education. This presentation provides a summary of the low thrust-related JSC activities under the ISP program and specifically, provides a look at a new release of a multi-gravity, multispacecraft trajectory optimization tool (Copernicus) along with analysis performed using this tool over the past year.

  16. Thrust reverser analysis for implementation in the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT)

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2007-06-01

    This letter report presents an updated implementation for thrust reversers in AEDT. Currently, thrust reverser is applied to all STANDARD approach profiles in the Integrated Noise Mode (lNM) as 60% of the max rated thrust for jets and 40% for props o...

  17. Experimental design studies and flow visualization of proportional laminar-flow fluidic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hellbaum, R. F.; Mcdermon, J. N.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of certain parameter variations on the performance characteristics of laminar, proportional, jet-deflection fluidic amplifiers were studied. The matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high pressure gain was included, but dynamic effects were not. The parameter variations considered were aspect ratio, setback, control length, splitter distance, receiver-duct width, width of center-vent duct, and bias pressure. Usable pressure gains of 19 per stage were achieved, and 5 amplifier stages were integrated to yield an overall pressure gain of 2,000,000.

  18. Performance of Simple Gas Foil Thrust Bearings in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Foil bearings are self-acting hydrodynamics devices used to support high speed rotating machinery. The advantages that they offer to process fluid lubricated machines include: high rotational speed capability, no auxiliary lubrication system, non-contacting high speed operation, and improved damping as compared to rigid hydrodynamic bearings. NASA has had a sporadic research program in this technology for almost 6 decades. Advances in the technology and understanding of foil journal bearings have enabled several new commercial products in recent years. These products include oil-free turbochargers for both heavy trucks and automobiles, high speed electric motors, microturbines for distributed power generation, and turbojet engines. However, the foil thrust bearing has not received a complimentary level of research and therefore has become the weak link of oil-free turbomachinery. In an effort to both provide machine designers with basic performance parameters and to elucidate the underlying physics of foil thrust bearings, NASA Glenn Research Center has completed an effort to experimentally measure the performance of simple gas foil thrust bearing in air. The database includes simple bump foil supported thrust bearings with full geometry and manufacturing techniques available to the user. Test conditions consist of air at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 500 C and rotational speeds to 55,000 rpm. A complete set of axial load, frictional torque, and rotational speed is presented for two different compliant sub-structures and inter-pad gaps. Data obtained from commercially available foil thrust bearings both with and without active cooling is presented for comparison. A significant observation made possible by this data set is the speed-load capacity characteristic of foil thrust bearings. Whereas for the foil journal bearing the load capacity increases linearly with rotational speed, the foil thrust bearing operates in the hydrodynamic high speed limit. In

  19. SEP thrust subsystem performance sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.; Sauer, C. G., Jr.; Kerrisk, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    This is a two-part report on solar electric propulsion (SEP) performance sensitivity analysis. The first part describes the preliminary analysis of the SEP thrust system performance for an Encke rendezvous mission. A detailed description of thrust subsystem hardware tolerances on mission performance is included together with nominal spacecraft parameters based on these tolerances. The second part describes the method of analysis and graphical techniques used in generating the data for Part 1. Included is a description of both the trajectory program used and the additional software developed for this analysis. Part 2 also includes a comprehensive description of the use of the graphical techniques employed in this performance analysis.

  20. Structural analysis using thrust-fault hanging-wall sequence diagrams: Ogden duplex, Wasatch Range, Utah

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schirmer, T.W.

    1988-05-01

    Detailed mapping and cross-section traverses provide the control for structural analysis and geometric modeling of the Ogden duplex, a complex thrust system exposed in the Wasatch Mountains, east of Ogden, Utah. The structures consist of east-dipping folded thrust faults, basement-cored horses, lateral ramps and folds, and tear faults. The sequence of thrusting determined by means of lateral overlap of horses, thrust-splay relationships, and a top-to-bottom piggyback development is Willard thrust, Ogden thrust, Weber thrust, and Taylor thrust. Major decollement zones occur in the Cambrian shales and limestones. The Tintic Quartzite is the marker for determining gross geometries of horses. Thismore » exposed duplex serves as a good model to illustrate the method of constructing a hanging-wall sequence diagram - a series of longitudinal cross sections that move forward in time and space, and show how a thrust system formed as it moved updip over various footwall ramps. A hanging wall sequence diagram also shows the complex lateral variations in a thrust system and helps to locate lateral ramps, lateral folds, tear faults, and other features not shown on dip-oriented cross sections. 8 figures.« less