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Sample records for fluorescencia por energia

  1. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  2. Energia Renovable para Centros de Salud Rurales (Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, T.; Olson, K.

    1999-07-28

    Esta es la primera de una serie de guias de aplicaciones que el Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL esta comisionando para acoplar sistemas comerciales renovables con aplicaciones rurales, incluyendo agua, escuelas rurales y micro empresas. La guia esta complementada por las actividades de desarrollo del Programa de Energia de Villas de NREL, proyectos pilotos internacionales y programas de visitas profesionales.

  3. 77 FR 74472 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Energia Renovable S.C., LLC AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... Renovable) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant... application from Energia Renovable for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico...

  4. Russian RSC Energia employees inspect DM in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia prepare to conduct final inspections of the Russian-built Docking Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  5. Russian RSC Energia employees attach trunnions to DM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia attach trunnions to the Russian-built docking module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC so that it can be mounted in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  6. Russian RSC Energia employees inspect DM in SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Employees of the Russian aerospace company RSC Energia prepare to conduct final inspections of the Russian-built Docking Module in the Space Station Processing Facility at KSC. The module will fly as a primary payload on the second Space Shuttle/Mir space station docking mission, STS-74, which is now scheduled for liftoff in the fall of 1995. During the mission, the module will first be attached with the orbiter's robot arm to the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) in the payload bay of the orbiter Atlantis and then be docked with the Mir. When Atlantis undocks from the Mir, it will leave the new docking module permanently attached to the space station for use during future Shuttle Mir docking missions. The new module will simplify future Shuttle linkups with Mir by improving orbiter clearances when it serves as a bridge between the two space vehicles.

  7. 77 FR 23476 - Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC's application for market-based...

  8. A estabilidade dos PAHS em função da energia da radiação interestelar nas faixas UV e raios-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinotti, R.; Costa, R. K.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Lago, A.; Souza, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    A nebulosa CRL 618, uma proto-nebulosa planetária cuja nuvem molecular espessa envolve uma estrela B0, contém uma grande quantidade de C2H2 e CH4. Estas moléculas são consideradas os tijolos da criação de grandes moléculas carbonadas como os Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos (PAHs). Esta nebulosa, por estar exposta a intensos campos de UV e Raios-X, é uma região de fotodissociação molecular que propicia a formação de novas moléculas, confirmada pela presença de C4H2 e C6H6 (Benzeno), que é a unidade básica dos PAHs. Atribui-se a esta família de moléculas orgânicas duas propriedades fundamentais, a resistência para sobreviver ao campo de radiação UV interestelar e a geração das bandas de emissão não identificadas (UIR) observadas no infravermelho. No entanto, alguns autores questionam a resistência dos PAHs ao campo de radiação UV interestelar. Empregando a técnica de Espectrometria de Massas por Tempo de Vôo, no modo de coincidência fotoelétron-fotoíon, estudamos a ionização e fragmentação das seguintes moléculas: Benzeno, Benzeno deuterado, Naftaleno, Antraceno e Fenantreno. Utilizamos uma fonte de Hélio monocromática em 21,21 eV (584,5 Å) e a radiação Síncroton do Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncroton (LNLS) em diferentes energias nas proximidades da borda do C 1s ( 290 eV). Comprovamos a estabilidade dos PAHs sob ação de UV (21,21 eV), onde eles apresentam um baixo nível de fotodissociação, produzindo fragmentos ionizados com rendimento total na ordem de 5 por cento em relação ao íon molecular pai. Entretanto, em altas energias, na faixa de Raios-X, a quebra destas moléculas torna-se mais intensa, com a produção de muitos fragmentos. Como uma das rotas de fragmentação do Naftaleno é [(C10H8) = > (C6H6+) + (C4H2) + (e-)], e como temos as evidências observacionais da existência do C4H2 e C6H6 na nebulosa CRL 618, sugerimos que este ambiente também possui o Naftaleno.

  9. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  10. Petropower energia project under way in Chile promises refiner better economics at lower cost

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Construction of the Republic of Chile`s first public/private industrial partnership project is well under way. Ground was broken for the $232-million Petropower Energia Limitada project early this year, shortly after the final contract between the parties - Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc. (FWPS); Petrox S.A. Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional del Petroleo (ENAP) - was signed. The Petropower project, located adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000-b/d refinery in Talcahuano, represents the first project ever to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. Petropower is 85% owned by FWPS, 7.5% by ENAP, the Chilean national oil company and parent of Petrox S.A. When completed in mid-1998, the Petropower project will enable Petrox to refine heavier crudes and enhance the refinery`s flexibility and economics. The project will consist of a delayed coking facility (a 12,000-b/d delayed coking unit and a 7,000-b/d hydrotreating plant) and a 67-MW (59 MW net) cogeneration plant. The coke produced will fuel a Foster Wheeler proprietary-design circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boiler which will generate all the high-pressure steam and electric power needs of the Petrox refinery. This unit will be the first circulating fluidized-bed boiler to be built in Latin America. The cogeneration facility, using limestone as a reagent and equipped with a baghouse, will control SO{sub x} emissions from combustion of the green coke fuel and easily meet all Chilean environmental standards. Moreover, by constructing the cogeneration facility, Petrox will not have to proceed with capital improvements to existing facilities to ensure a reliable source of steam and electricity, resulting in substantial savings for Petrox. The cogeneration plant provides a permanent {open_quotes}disposal{close_quotes} for all coke produced by the delayed coker, thereby solving any future problems of unwanted or excess coke.

  11. La energia geotermica en la actualidad: Geothermal Today (Spanish version - 2003)

    SciTech Connect

    2003-09-01

    Por encargo del Secretario Abraham, la Oficina de Eficiencia Energética y Energía Renovable suministra el liderazgo a nivel nacional para impulsar las tecnologías de eficiencia energética y energía renovables, para saltar por encima de las limitaciones del status quo, y para alcanzar beneficios ambientales notables. El Programa de Tecnologías Geotérmicas, parte crítica de nuestro esfuerzo conjunto, está avanzando a grandes zancadas para aumentar la viabilidad y el despliegue de electricidad ...

  12. La teoria economica y el enfoque Box-Jenkins en la modelizacion de la demanda de productos energeticos: el fuel-oil y la energia electrica en Espana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Pardo, Maria Jimena

    Esta tesis trata de integrar la teoria economica el enfoque box-jenkins del analisis de series temporales y un conjunto de datos de la economia espanola en un intento de elaborar modelos empiricos de demanda de productos energeticos con especial atencion a la deteccion y medicion de los efectos precio. Se analizan para ello las demandas de tres productos: la energia electrica el fuel - oil utilizado en las centrales termicas para la generacion de electricidad y el fuel - oil no termico. El periodo muestral es el comprendido entre enero de 1970 y diciembre de 1977.

  13. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  14. Evolution of NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductases (POR) in Apiales - POR 1 is missing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Trine Bundgaard; Hansen, Niels Bjørn; Laursen, Tomas; Weitzel, Corinna; Simonsen, Henrik Toft

    2016-05-01

    The NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the obligate electron donor to eukaryotic microsomal cytochromes P450 enzymes. The number of PORs within plant species is limited to one to four isoforms, with the most common being two PORs per plant. These enzymes provide electrons to a huge number of different cytochromes P450s (from 50 to several hundred within one plant). Within the eudicotyledons, PORs can be divided into two major clades, POR 1 and POR 2. Based on our own sequencing analysis and publicly available data, we have identified 45 PORs from the angiosperm order Apiales. These were subjected to a phylogenetic analysis along with 237 other publicly available (NCBI and oneKP) POR sequences found within the clade Asterids. Here, we show that the order Apiales only harbor members of the POR 2 clade, which are further divided into two distinct subclades. This is in contrast to most other eudicotyledon orders that have both POR 1 and POR 2. This suggests that through gene duplications and one gene deletion, Apiales only contain members of the POR 2 clade. Three POR 2 isoforms from Thapsia garganica L., Apiaceae, were all full-length in an Illumina root transcriptome dataset (available from the SRA at NCBI). All three genes were shown to be functional upon reconstitution into nanodiscs, confirming that none of the isoforms are pseudogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  16. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Walter L.; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ~40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ~60%, is found on ~28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (~8% of Asians and ~13% of Caucasians) at −152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ~30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically-relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. PMID:21070833

  17. Consequences of POR mutations and polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Miller, Walter L; Agrawal, Vishal; Sandee, Duanpen; Tee, Meng Kian; Huang, Ningwu; Choi, Ji Ha; Morrissey, Kari; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2011-04-10

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transports electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 enzymes, including steroidogenic P450c17, P450c21 and P450aro. Severe POR mutations A287P (in Europeans) and R457H (in Japanese) cause the Antley-Bixler skeletal malformation syndrome (ABS) plus impaired steroidogenesis (causing genital anomalies), but the basis of ABS is unclear. We have characterized the activities of ∼40 POR variants, showing that assays based on P450c17 activities, but not cytochrome c assays, correlate with the clinical phenotype. The human POR gene is highly polymorphic: the A503V sequence variant, which decreases P450c17 activities to ∼60%, is found on ∼28% of human alleles. A promoter polymorphism (∼8% of Asians and ∼13% of Caucasians) at -152 reduces transcriptional activity by half. Screening of 35 POR variants showed that most mutants lacking activity with P450c17 or cytochrome c also lacked activity to support CYP1A2 and CYP2C19 metabolism of EOMCC (a fluorogenic non-drug substrate), although there were some remarkable differences: Q153R causes ABS and has ∼30% of wild-type activity with P450c17 but had 144% of WT activity with CYP1A2 and 284% with CYP2C19. The effects of POR variants on CYP3A4, which metabolizes nearly 50% of clinically used drugs, was examined with multiple, clinically relevant drug substrates, showing that A287P and R457H dramatically reduce drug metabolism, and that A503V variably impairs drug metabolism. The degree of activity can vary with the drug substrate assayed, as the drugs can influence the conformation of the P450. POR is probably an important contributor to genetic variation in both steroidogenesis and drug metabolism. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  19. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  20. Hydrogen-atom transfer in reactions of organic radicals with [Co(II)(por)]* (por = porphyrinato) and in subsequent addition of [Co(H)(por)] to olefins.

    PubMed

    de Bruin, Bas; Dzik, Wojciech I; Li, Shan; Wayland, Bradford B

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms for hydrogen-atom transfer from the cyanoisopropyl radical (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) (yielding [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))(CN); por = porphyrinato) and the insertion of vinyl acetate (CH(2)=CHOAc) into the Co-H bond of [Co(H)(por)] (giving [Co(III){CH(OAc)CH(3)}(por)]) were investigated by DFT calculations. The results are compared with experimental data. These reactions are relevant to catalytic chain transfer (CCT) in radical polymerization of olefins mediated by [Co(II)(por)](*), the formation and homolysis of organo-cobalt complexes that mediate living radical polymerization of vinyl acetate, and cobalt-mediated hydrogenation of olefins. Hydrogen transfer from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) proceeds via a single transition state that has structural features resembling the products [Co(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. The separated radicals approach to form a close-contact radical pair and then pass through the transition state for hydrogen-atom transfer to form [Co(III)(H)(por)] and CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN. This process provides a very low overall barrier for the hydrogen-atom transfer reaction (DeltaG(double dagger) = +3.8 kcal mol(-1)). The reverse reaction corresponding to the addition of [Co(H)(por)] to CH(2)=C(CH(3))CN has a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +8.9 kcal mol(-1)) as well. Insertion of vinyl acetate into the Co-H bond of [Co(III)(H)(por)] also proceeds over a low barrier (DeltaG(double dagger) = +11.4 kcal mol(-1)) hydrogen-transfer step from [Co(III)(H)(por)] to a carbon atom of the alkene to produce a close-contact radical pair. Dissociation of the radical pair, reorientation, and radical-radical coupling to form an organo-cobalt complex are the culminating steps in the net insertion of an olefin into the Co-H bond. The computed energies obtained for the hydrogen-atom transfer reactions from (*)C(CH(3))(2)CN to [Co(II)(por)](*) and from [Co(H)(por)] to olefins, as well as the organo-cobalt bond homolysis

  1. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Maxence S; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS.

  2. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  3. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  4. Identification of Porphyromonas gingivalis proteins secreted by the Por secretion system.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Narita, Yuka; Shoji, Mikio; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2013-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis possesses a number of potential virulence factors for periodontopathogenicity. In particular, cysteine proteinases named gingipains are of interest given their abilities to degrade host proteins and process other virulence factors such as fimbriae. Gingipains are translocated on the cell surface or into the extracellular milieu by the Por secretion system (PorSS), which consists of a number of membrane or periplasmic proteins including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorO, PorP, PorQ, PorT, PorU, PorV (PG27, LptO), PorW and Sov. To identify proteins other than gingipains secreted by the PorSS, we compared the proteomes of P. gingivalis strains kgp rgpA rgpB (PorSS-proficient strain) and kgp rgpA rgpB porK (PorSS-deficient strain) using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide-mass fingerprinting. Sixteen spots representing 10 different proteins were present in the particle-free culture supernatant of the PorSS-proficient strain but were absent or faint in that of the PorSS-deficient strain. These identified proteins possessed the C-terminal domains (CTDs), which had been suggested to form the CTD protein family. These results indicate that the PorSS is used for secretion of a number of proteins other than gingipains and that the CTDs of the proteins are associated with the PorSS-dependent secretion. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 'Carbene radicals' in Co(II)(por)-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation.

    PubMed

    Dzik, Wojciech I; Xu, Xue; Zhang, X Peter; Reek, Joost N H; de Bruin, Bas

    2010-08-11

    The mechanism of cobalt(II)-porphyrin-mediated cyclopropanation of olefins with diazoesters was studied. The first step--reaction of cobalt(II)-porphyrin with ethyl diazoacetate (EDA)--was examined using EPR and ESI-MS techniques. EDA reacts with cobalt(II)-porphyrin to form a 1:1 Co(por)(CHCOOEt) adduct that exists as two isomers: the 'bridging carbene' C' in which the 'carbene' is bound to the metal and the pyrrolic nitrogen of the porphyrin that has a d(7) configuration on the metal, and the 'terminal carbene' C in which the 'carbene' behaves as a redox noninnocent ligand having a d(6) cobalt center and the unpaired electron residing on the 'carbene' carbon atom. The subsequent reactivities of the thus formed 'cobalt carbene radical' with propene, styrene, and methyl acrylate were studied using DFT calculations. The calculations suggest that the formation of the carbene is the rate-limiting step for the unfunctionalized Co(II)(por) and that the cyclopropane ring formation proceeds via a stepwise radical process: Radical addition of the 'carbene radical' C to the C=C double bonds of the olefins results in formation of the gamma-alkyl radical intermediates D. Species D then easily collapse in almost barrierless ring-closure reactions (TS3) to form the cyclopropanes. This radical mechanism readily explains the high activity of Co(II)(por) species in the cyclopropanation of electron-deficient olefins such as methyl acrylate.

  6. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Troy N; Mason, Mary E; Lima, Daniel F; Armstrong, Gregory A

    2010-03-01

    In angiosperms the strictly light-dependent reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide is catalyzed by NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening. In contrast, PORB and PORC are not only expressed during seedling development but also throughout the later life of the plant, during which they are responsible for bulk chlorophyll synthesis. The Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 mutant displays a severe xantha (highly chlorophyll-deficient) phenotype characterized by smaller prolamellar bodies in etioplasts and decreased thylakoid stacking in chloroplasts. Here we have demonstrated the ability of an ectopic PORA overexpression construct to restore prolamellar body formation in the porB-1 porC-1 double mutant background. In response to illumination, light-dependent chlorophyll production, thylakoid stacking and photomorphogenesis are also restored in PORA-overexpressing porB-1 porC-1 seedlings and adult plants. An Arabidopsis porB-1 porC-1 double mutant can therefore be functionally rescued by the addition of ectopically expressed PORA, which suffices in the absence of either PORB or PORC to direct bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal plant development.

  7. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  8. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  9. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  10. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    This document describes Acceptance Testing performed on Portable Exhauster POR-007/Skid E. It includes measurements of bearing vibration levels, pressure decay testing, programmable logic controller interlocks, high vacuum, flow and pressure control functional testing. The purpose of Acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-0490, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  11. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  12. Suppression of cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) expression in hepatoma cells replicates the hepatic lipidosis observed in hepatic POR-null mice.

    PubMed

    Porter, Todd D; Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I; Zou, Ling

    2011-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis.

  13. Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) Expression in Hepatoma Cells Replicates the Hepatic Lipidosis Observed in Hepatic POR-Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Subhashis; Stolarczyk, Elzbieta I.; Zou, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is a microsomal electron transport protein essential to cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and sterol and bile acid synthesis. The conditional deletion of hepatic POR gene expression in mice results in a marked decrease in plasma cholesterol levels counterbalanced by the accumulation of triglycerides in lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To evaluate the role of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis in this hepatic lipidosis, as well as the possible role of lipid transport from peripheral tissues, we developed a stable, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated cell culture model for the suppression of POR. POR mRNA and protein expression were decreased by greater than 50% in McArdle-RH7777 rat hepatoma cells 10 days after transfection with a POR-siRNA expression plasmid, and POR expression was nearly completely extinguished by day 20. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed a marked accumulation of lipid droplets in cells by day 15, accompanied by a nearly 2-fold increase in cellular triglyceride content, replicating the lipidosis seen in hepatic POR-null mouse liver. In contrast, suppression of CYP51A1 (lanosterol demethylase) did not result in lipid accumulation, indicating that loss of cholesterol synthesis is not the basis for this lipidosis. Indeed, addition of cholesterol to the medium appeared to augment the lipidosis in POR-suppressed cells, whereas removal of lipids from the medium reversed the lipidosis. Oxysterols did not accumulate in POR-suppressed cells, discounting a role for liver X receptor in stimulating triglyceride synthesis, but addition of chenodeoxycholate significantly repressed lipid accumulation, suggesting that the absence of bile acids and loss of farnesoid X receptor stimulation lead to excessive triglyceride synthesis. PMID:21368239

  14. Acceptance test report for portable exhauster POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-07-24

    Portable Exhauster POR-008 was procured via HNF-0490, Specification for a Portable Exhausted System for Waste Tank Ventilation. Prior to taking ownership, acceptance testing was performed at the vendors. However at the conclusion of testing a number of issues remained that required resolution before the exhausters could be used by Project W-320. The purpose of acceptance testing documented by this report was to demonstrate compliance of the exhausters with the performance criteria established within HNF-O49O, Rev. 1 following a repair and upgrade effort at Hanford. In addition, data obtained during this testing is required for the resolution of outstanding Non-conformance Reports (NCR), and finally, to demonstrate the functionality of the associated software for the pressure control and high vacuum exhauster operating modes provided for by W-320. Additional testing not required by the ATP was also performed to assist in the disposition and close out of receiving inspection report and for application design information (system curve). Results of this testing are also captured within this document.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis of Antley-Bixler Syndrome and POR Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Oldani, Elena; Garel, Catherine; Bucourt, Martine; Carbillon, Lionel

    2015-12-16

    Prenatal diagnosis of severe bone diseases is challenging and requires complete and precise analysis of fetal anomalies to guide genetic investigation and parental counselling. We report a rare case of Antley-Bixler syndrome prenatally diagnosed at 26 weeks' gestation by ultrasound and computed tomography in a 28-year-old woman with a history of early termination of pregnancy for "malposition of the inferior limbs". The prenatal ultrasound scan showed severe femoral bowing and frontal bossing. Taking into account the high probability of a recurrent severe skeletal disorder, a computed tomography (CT) scan was proposed. CT findings revealed bilateral femora deformation, craniosynostosis, severe midface hypoplasia, and radiohumeral synostosis. These anomalies strongly suggested Antley-Bixler syndrome. Sequencing of the POR gene in the fetus and the parents revealed compound heterozygous mutations in exon 9 and intron 7, both inherited from each parent, and this finding allowed genetic counseling. The first step in the proper prenatal diagnosis of fetal bone disorders is the precise analysis of ultrasonographic images. However, when a severe fetal inherited disorder is strongly suspected in late mid-trimester, CT may be discussed and usefully contribute to diagnosis and prognosis assessment.

  16. [Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Han

    2011-07-01

    To construct a fused expression vector of the outer membrane protein gene PorB of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, express the fusion protein in the prokaryotic system, and obtain a gene recombination protein, for the purpose of preparing the ground for further research on the pathopoiesis and immune protective response of PorB. A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequence of the PorB gene, and the PorB gene was amplified by PCR from the genome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae 29403 and cloned into the prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-1 to generate pGEX-4T-PorB recombinants. The recombinant plasmid pGEX4T-PorB was transferred into competent cells E. coli BL21. After confirmed by restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR and DNA sequencing analysis, the recombinant protein was induced to express by isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG), and examined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Restriction endonuclease digestion, PCR amplification and DNA sequencing analysis showed that the PorB gene of 1 047 bp was amplified from Neisseria gonorrhoeae DNA, and the recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and highly expressed in E. coli. The prokaryotic expression vector of pGEX-4T-PorB was successfully constructed and efficiently expressed in the prokaryotic system, which has provided a basis for further study on the biological activity of the PorB protein, as well as animal immune experiment and detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and its application as a mucosal immune vaccine.

  17. P450 (Cytochrome) Oxidoreductase Gene (POR) Common Variant (POR*28) Significantly Alters CYP2C9 Activity in Swedish, But Not in Korean Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Fazleen H M; Aklillu, Eleni

    2015-12-01

    CYP2C9 enzyme contributes to the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals and xenobiotics and yet displays large person-to-person and interethnic variation. Understanding the mechanisms of CYP2C9 variation is thus of immense importance for personalized medicine and rational therapeutics. A genetic variant of P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (POR), a CYP450 redox partner, is reported to influence CYP2C9 metabolic activity in vitro. We investigated the impact of a common variant, POR*28, on CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. 148 healthy Swedish and 146 healthy Korean volunteers were genotyped for known CYP2C9 defective variant alleles (CYP2C9*2, *3). The CYP2C9 phenotype was determined using a single oral dose of 50 mg losartan. Excluding oral contraceptive (OC) users and carriers of 2C9*2 and *3 alleles, 117 Korean and 65 Swedish were genotyped for POR*5, *13 and *28 using Taqman assays. The urinary losartan to its metabolite E-3174 metabolic ratio (MR) was used as an index of CYP2C9 metabolic activity. The allele frequency of the POR*28 variant allele in Swedes and Koreans was 29% and 44%, respectively. POR*5 and *13 were absent in both study populations. Considering the CYP2C9*1/*1 genotypes only, the CYP2C9 metabolic activity was 1.40-fold higher in carriers of POR*28 allele than non-carriers among Swedes (p = 0.02). By contrast, no influence of the POR*28 on CYP2C9 activity was found in Koreans (p = 0.68). The multivariate analysis showed that ethnicity, POR genotype, and smoking were strong predictors of CYP2C9 MR (p < 0.05). This is the first report to implicate the importance of POR*28 genetic variation for CYP2C9 metabolic activity in humans. These findings contribute to current efforts for global personalized medicine and using medicines by taking into account pharmacogenetic and phenotypic variations.

  18. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  19. Impact of POR*28 on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine A in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Hesselink, Dennis A; Bouamar, Rachida; Budde, Klemens; de Fijter, Johannes W; De Meyer, Martine; Mourad, Michel; Kuypers, Dirk R J; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2014-02-01

    The P450 oxidoreductase (POR)*28 variant allele has been associated with altered cytochrome P450 3A enzyme activities. Both CYP3A5 and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of calcineurin inhibitors and recent data show that POR*28 may explain part of the variability observed in tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the POR*28 allele on Tac and cyclosporine A (CsA) immunosuppressive therapies. Kidney transplant recipients receiving either Tac (n = 184) or CsA (n = 174), participating in a prospective multicenter trial, were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22, and CYP3A5*3. CYP3A5 expressers that were carriers of at least 1 POR*28 allele had a 16.9% decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations when compared CYP3A5 expressers that carried the POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.03), indicating an increased CYP3A5 activity for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5, nonexpressers carrying 2 POR*28 alleles, a 24.1% (confidence interval95% = -39.4% to -4.9%; P = 0.02) decrease in dose-adjusted predose concentrations was observed for Tac, suggesting higher CYP3A4 activity. For CsA, POR*28/*28 patients not expressing CYP3A5 and not carrying the CYP3A4*22 decrease-of-function allele showed 15% lower CsA dose-adjusted predose concentrations (P = 0.01), indicating also increased CYP3A4 activity. In both cohorts (ie, Tac and CsA), the POR*28 allele was neither associated with the incidence of delayed graft function nor with biopsy-proven acute rejection. These results were further confirmed in 2 independent cohorts. Our results show that the POR*28 allele is associated with increased in vivo CYP3A5 activity for Tac in CYP3A5 expressers, whereas POR*28 homozygosity was associated with a significant higher CYP3A4 activity in CYP3A5 nonexpressers for both Tac and CsA.

  20. Successful Mnemonics for "por"/"para" and Affirmative Commands with Pronouns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Two mnemonic devices, "4A Rule" and "PERFECT," are described to simplify the learning of two grammar points: the placement of object pronouns with respect to commands and the distinction between "por" and "para." (five references) (LB)

  1. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  2. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  3. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  4. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  5. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  6. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  7. Impact of POR*28 on the clinical pharmacokinetics of CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin.

    PubMed

    Elens, Laure; Nieuweboer, Annemieke J M; Clarke, Stephen J; Charles, Kellie A; de Graan, Anne-Joy M; Haufroid, Vincent; van Gelder, Teun; Mathijssen, Ron H J; van Schaik, Ron H N

    2013-03-01

    P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is essential for cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity in humans. The POR*28 allele (A503V) has been shown to impact on in-vitro CYP-mediated metabolism, including CYP3A isoenzymes. The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo impact of the POR*28 allele on the pharmacokinetics of the classic CYP3A phenotyping probes midazolam and erythromycin. Whereas midazolam is metabolized by both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5, erythromycin is exclusively oxidized by CYP3A4. To assess CYP3A activity, 108 cancer patients received midazolam and 45 others underwent the erythromycin breath test. Patients were genotyped for POR*28, CYP3A4*22 and CYP3A5*3. In patients expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 carriers showed 45% lower midazolam metabolic ratios compared with POR*1/*1 patients (P<0.001). This is in line with a lower CYP3A5 activity toward midazolam for POR*28 carriers. In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, POR*28 had no influence on midazolam pharmacokinetics. For erythromycin, POR*28 carriership did not influence its metabolism. Our data show that the POR*28 allele is associated with a lower in vivo CYP3A5 activity, but has no effects on CYP3A4-mediated erythromycin and midazolam metabolism.

  8. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  9. Ahorre Energia: Consejos sobre el ahorro de dinero y energia en el hogar (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Learn how to save money with Energy Saver: Tips on Saving Money & Energy at Home, from the U.S. Department of Energy. The Energy Saver guide will help you reduce your monthly energy costs and live more efficiently. This guide takes you through the systems and appliances that consume the most energy in your home, and provides solutions to cut costs for you while saving the environment. The Energy Saver guide also includes transportation tips to help you save money at the pump.

  10. Energia geotermica at the present time: Geothermal Today (Spanish version); La energia geotermica en la actualidad

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    This outreach publication highlights federal program milestones and accomplishments of the DOE Geothermal Technologies Program for 2003. This is a special 8-page Spanish supplement for the audience at the Geothermal Resources Council/Geothermal Energy Association Annual Meeting and Industry Exhibit, Morelia, Mexico.

  11. Hexacoordinate oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH3)(O2) react with NO to form only the nitrato analogs Fe(Por)(NH3)(η1-ONO2), even at ~100 K.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Ford, Peter C

    2010-12-07

    The oxy-globin models Fe(Por)(NH(3))(O(2)), prepared by sequential reactions of O(2) ((18)O(2)) and NH(3) with thin porous layers of Fe(II)(Por), react with NO ((15)NO) at 80-100 K to form only the low-spin nitrato complexes Fe(Por)(NH(3))(η(1)-ONO(2)), thus implying that peroxynitrite intermediates, if formed, must undergo very facile isomerization to the nitrato analog.

  12. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  13. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant.

  14. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  15. An Analysis of Interlanguage Development Over Time: Part 1, "por" and "para".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guntermann, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The first part of a larger planned investigation, this study examines the use of "por" and "para" by nine Peace Corps volunteers in oral interviews at the end of training and roughly one year later, to trace their acquisition over time, in two learning contexts. (24 references) (LB)

  16. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  17. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  18. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-004 skid B

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-05-06

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-004 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  19. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-06-27

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-005 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  20. Delayed diagnosis of disorder of sex development (DSD) due to P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Koika, Vasiliki; Armeni, Anastasia K; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2016-04-01

    A 36-year old man, operated on for cryptorchidism at the age of 8 years, was referred to the Outpatient Clinic of Reproductive Endocrinology for investigation of infertility. Clinical examination revealed ambiguous genitalia: penis 4-5 cm, testicular volume 2-3 ml, hypospadias, hypertrophic foreskin and scrotum bifida. Mild hypertension was confirmed. No skeletal malformations were detected. Hormonal and electrolytic determinations as well as semen analysis were conducted. PCR of the coding regions of 17-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase (P450c17) and of P450 oxidoreductase (POR) genes was also performed. Normal levels of electrolytes, low levels of androgens, high levels of gonadotropins and 17-hydroxyprogesterone as well as azoospermia were detected. Karyotype was shown to be 46,XY. Both hCG and ACTH stimulation significantly increased 17-hydroxyprogesterone with no increase in androgens. The diagnosis was congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined P450c17 and P450c21 deficiency due to mutations in the POR gene. Sequencing of the POR gene revealed: one deletion in exon 12 (Del 1696_1698delGTC >del531Valine) and one missense mutation in exon 7 (A259G) as well as two polymorphisms: rs1057868 (C/T A503V) and rs1057870 (G/A S572S) in exons 12 and 13, respectively. No nucleotide changes were detected in the 8 exons of P450c17. Molecular findings were consistent with the diagnosis of P450 oxidoreductase deficiency. Despite this severe deficiency, skeletal malformations simulating Antley-Bixler syndrome, which usually characterize the most severe forms, were not confirmed. This discrepancy could be attributed to the differential impact of a POR variant on each one of the P450 enzymes.

  1. ATP for the portable 500 CFM exhauster POR-006 skid D

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, C.M.

    1997-07-29

    This Acceptance Test Plan is for a 500 CFM Portable Exhauster POR-006 to be used for saltwell pumping. The Portable Exhauster System will be utilized to eliminate potential flammable gases that may exist within the dome space of the tank. This Acceptance Plan will test and verify that the exhauster meets the specified design criteria, safety requirements, operations requirements, and will provide a record of the functional test results.

  2. A Lack of Significant Effect of POR*28 Allelic Variant on Tacrolimus Exposure in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Jannot, Anne-Sophie; Vuillemin, Xavier; Etienne, Isabelle; Buchler, Mathias; Hurault de Ligny, Bruno; Choukroun, Gabriel; Colosio, Charlotte; Thierry, Antoine; Vigneau, Cécile; Moulin, Bruno; Rerolle, Jean-Philippe; Heng, Anne-Elizabeth; Subra, Jean-Francois; Legendre, Christophe; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie Anne; Thervet, Eric; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    POR*28 is a recently newly described allelic variant of the cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), which might be associated with an increased metabolic activity of P450 cytochromes (CYP) 3A5 and 3A4. Consequently, carriers of at least 1 allele of this polymorphism could require increased calcineurin inhibitors doses to reach the target residual concentrations (C0). The objective of this study was to test whether the allelic variant of POR, which is associated with an increased metabolic activity of CYP3A, impacts tacrolimus (Tac) pharmacokinetics. We tested this hypothesis in a population of 229 kidney transplant recipients (KTR) from a large, multicenter, prospective and randomized study. We have analyzed the association between POR*28 genotype and the proportion of individuals reaching the target Tac residual concentration (Tac C0) 10 days after transplantation. We have also measured the association between POR*28 and the Tac C0, and adjusted Tac C0 (Tac C0/Tac dose) over time using generalized mixed linear models. Ten days after transplantation, there was no difference of frequencies of KTR within the target range of Tac C0 (C0 10-15 ng/mL) according to the POR*28 genotype (P = 0.8). The mean Tac C0 at day 10 in the POR*1/*1 group was 15.3 ± 9.7 ng/mL compared with 15.7 ± 7.8 ng/mL in the POR*1/*28 group and 14.2 ± 6.8 ng/mL, in the POR*28/*28 group, P = 0.8. The adjusted Tac C0 was not associated with POR*28 genotype over time (random effects model, P = 0.9). When restricted to KTR expressing CYP3A5, POR*28 genotype did not impact the proportion of individuals within the Tac C0 target range neither the adjusted Tac C0 (random effects model, P = 0.1). POR*28 does not significantly influence Tac pharmacokinetic parameters in a large cohort of KTR. This study does not confirm recent findings indicating that POR*28 carriers require more Tac to reach target C0.

  3. P450 oxidoreductase *28 (POR*28) and tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gijsen, Violette M G J; van Schaik, Ron H N; Soldin, Offie P; Soldin, Steven J; Nulman, Irena; Koren, Gideon; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2014-04-01

    Both age and CYP3A5 genotype are important determinants of tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. In a recent study in adults, POR*28 was associated with increased dosing requirements early after transplant of CYP3A5-expressing kidney transplant recipients. The authors aimed to evaluate the additional contribution of POR*28 to early tacrolimus disposition in pediatric kidney transplant recipients. Retrospective data of 43 pediatric kidney transplant recipients up to 14 days posttransplant were evaluated on tacrolimus dose and tacrolimus predose blood concentrations. Recipient POR*28 and CYP3A5 genotype were determined. CYP3A5 expressers carrying at least 1 POR*28 allele had on average 18.3% lower tacrolimus predose concentrations and 20.2% lower concentration/dose ratios compared with CYP3A5 expressers with POR*1/*1 genotype (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). In CYP3A5 nonexpressers, tacrolimus disposition did not significantly differ between POR genotypes. In this small cohort of pediatric kidney transplant recipients, POR*28 genotype seems to explain part of the variability found in tacrolimus disposition, in addition to age and CYP3A5 genotype. This finding should be validated in a larger population, and it would be worthwhile to evaluate the clinical impact of this genotype.

  4. Two NADPH: Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase (POR) Isoforms Play Distinct Roles in Environmental Adaptation in Rice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Choon-Tak; Kim, Suk-Hwan; Song, Giha; Kim, Dami; Paek, Nam-Chon

    2017-12-01

    NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes the photoreduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, which is ultimately converted to chlorophyll in developing leaves. Rice has two POR isoforms, OsPORA and OsPORB. OsPORA is expressed in the dark during early leaf development; OsPORB is expressed throughout leaf development regardless of light conditions. The faded green leaf (fgl) is a loss-of-function osporB mutant that displays necrotic lesions and variegation in the leaves due to destabilized grana thylakoids, and has increased numbers of plastoglobules in the chloroplasts. To investigate whether the function of OsPORA can complement that of OsPORB, we constitutively overexpressed OsPORA in fgl mutant. In the 35S:OsPORA/fgl (termed OPAO) transgenic plants, the necrotic lesions of the mutant disappeared and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and proteins, as well as plastid structure, were recovered in developing leaves under natural long days in the paddy field and under short days in an artificially controlled growth room. Under constant light conditions, however, total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels in the developing leaves of OPAO plants were lower than those of wild type. Moreover, the OPAO plants exhibited mild defects in mature leaves beginning at the early reproductive stage in the paddy field. The physiological function of OsPORB in response to constant light or during reproductive growth cannot be completely replaced by constitutive activity of OsPORA, although the biochemical functions of OsPORA and OsPORB are redundant. Therefore, we suggest that the two OsPORs have differentiated over the course of evolution, playing distinct roles in the adaptation of rice to the environment.

  5. Genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes of por, encoding cytochrome p450 oxidoreductase, in a Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshiro; Yamamoto, Noboru; Katori, Noriko; Maekawa, Keiko; Fukushima-Uesaka, Hiromi; Sugimoto, Daisuke; Kurose, Kouichi; Sai, Kimie; Kaniwa, Nahoko; Sawada, Jun-Ichi; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ohe, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Saijo, Nagahiro; Okuda, Haruhiro; Tamura, Tomohide

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from NADPH to all microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and is necessary for microsomal CYP activities. In this study, to find genetic variations and to elucidate the haplotype structures of POR, we comprehensively screened the genetic variations in the 5'-flanking region, all the exons and their flanking introns of POR for 235 Japanese subjects. Seventy-five genetic variations including 26 novel ones were found: 7 were in the 5'-flanking region, 2 in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR, non-coding exon 1), 16 in the coding exons (10 nonsynonymous and 6 synonymous), 45 in the introns, 4 in the 3'-UTR and 1 in the 3'-flanking region. Of these, 4 novel nonsynonymous variations, 86C>T (T29M), 1648C>T (R550W), 1708C>T (R570C) and 1975G>A (A659T), were detected with allele frequencies of 0.002. We also detected known nonsynonymous SNPs 683C>T (P228L), 1237G>A (G413S), 1453G>A (A485T), 1508C>T (A503V), 1510G>A (G504R) and 1738G>C (E580Q) with frequencies of 0.002, 0.009, 0.002, 0.434, 0.002 and 0.002, respectively. Based on the linkage disequilibrium (LD) profiles, the analyzed region could be divided into two LD blocks. For Blocks 1 and 2, 14 and 46 haplotypes were inferred, respectively, and 2 and 6 common haplotypes found in more than 0.03 frequencies accounted for more than 81% of the inferred haplotypes. This study provides fundamental and useful information for the pharmacogenetic studies of drugs metabolized by CYPs in the Japanese population.

  6. Zinc finger nuclease knock-out of NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) in human tumor cell lines demonstrates that hypoxia-activated prodrugs differ in POR dependence.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B; Smaill, Jeff B; Patterson, Adam V; Guise, Christopher P; Wilson, William R

    2013-12-27

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development.

  7. Zinc Finger Nuclease Knock-out of NADPH:Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) in Human Tumor Cell Lines Demonstrates That Hypoxia-activated Prodrugs Differ in POR Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jiechuang; Gu, Yongchuan; Pruijn, Frederik B.; Smaill, Jeff B.; Patterson, Adam V.; Guise, Christopher P.; Wilson, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia, a ubiquitous feature of tumors, can be exploited by hypoxia-activated prodrugs (HAP) that are substrates for one-electron reduction in the absence of oxygen. NADPH:cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is considered one of the major enzymes responsible, based on studies using purified enzyme or forced overexpression in cell lines. To examine the role of POR in HAP activation at endogenous levels of expression, POR knock-outs were generated in HCT116 and SiHa cells by targeted mutation of exon 8 using zinc finger nucleases. Absolute quantitation by proteotypic peptide mass spectrometry of DNA sequence-confirmed multiallelic mutants demonstrated expression of proteins with residual one-electron reductase activity in some clones and identified two (Hko2 from HCT116 and S2ko1 from SiHa) that were functionally null by multiple criteria. Sensitivities of the clones to 11 HAP (six nitroaromatics, three benzotriazine N-oxides, and two quinones) were compared with wild-type and POR-overexpressing cells. All except the quinones were potentiated by POR overexpression. Knocking out POR had a marked effect on antiproliferative activity of the 5-nitroquinoline SN24349 in both genetic backgrounds after anoxic exposure but little or no effect on activity of most other HAP, including the clinical stage 2-nitroimidazole mustard TH-302, dinitrobenzamide mustard PR-104A, and benzotriazine N-oxide SN30000. Clonogenic cell killing and reductive metabolism of PR-104A and SN30000 under anoxia also showed little change in the POR knock-outs. Thus, although POR expression is a potential biomarker of sensitivity to some HAP, identification of other one-electron reductases responsible for HAP activation is needed for their rational clinical development. PMID:24196959

  8. Comparison of Serologic and Genetic porB-Based Typing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Consequences for Future Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Unemo, Magnus; Olcén, Per; Albert, Jan; Fredlund, Hans

    2003-01-01

    Due to temporal changes in the epidemiology of gonorrhea, a precise characterization of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is essential. In the present study genetic heterogeneity in the porB genes of N. gonorrhoeae was examined, and serovar determination was compared to porB gene sequencing. Among 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, phylogenetic analysis of the entire porB alleles (924 to 993 bp) identified 87 unique sequences. By analyzing only the four to six most heterogeneous porB gene regions (174 to 363 bp), 86 out of these 87 genetic variants were identified. Consequently, analysis of shorter highly variable regions of the porB gene generates high-level discriminatory ability as well as fast, objective, reproducible, and portable data for epidemiological characterization of N. gonorrhoeae. Regarding putative antigenic epitopes of PorB for Genetic Systems monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), some of the previous findings were confirmed, but new findings were also observed. For several of the MAbs, however, the precise amino acid residues of PorB critical for single-MAb reactivity were difficult to identify. In addition, repeated serovar determination of 108 N. gonorrhoeae isolates revealed discrepancies for 34 isolates, mostly due to nonreproducible reactivity with single MAbs. Thus, the prospects of a genetic typing system with congruent translation of the serovar determination seem to be limited. In conclusion, analysis of short highly variable regions of the porB gene could form the basis for a fast molecular epidemiological tool for the examination of emergence and transmission of N. gonorrhoeae strains within the community. PMID:12958238

  9. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  10. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  11. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  12. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  13. Effects of heme precursors on CYP1A2 and POR expression in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huiyuan; Ma, Jun; Liu, Nian; Wang, Shoulin

    2010-05-01

    CYP1A2 and NADPH-CYP450 oxidoreductase (POR) were expressed in the baculovirus/Spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of heme precursors on the expression of CYP1A2 and POR. The heme precursors [δ-Aminolaevulinic Acid (5-ALA), Fe(3+) and hemin] were introduced into the system to evaluate their effects on the expression of CYP1A2, POR and their co-expression. All the proteins were identified using immunoblotting, CO-difference spectroscopy, or cytochrome c assay. In the present study, functional CYP1A2 and POR were successfully expressed in the baculovirus/sf9 system, and both of them showed high activities. Co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) significantly improved expression of CYP1A2 by about 50% compared with the addition of 5-ALA, Fe(3+) or hemin alone. Either co-addition of 5-ALA and Fe(3+) or addition of 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone improved the POR expression level 2 fold and its activity 7-10 fold compared with control (no addition). However, unlike CYP1A2, there was no difference between the co-addition and addition of these heme precursors alone. Different ratios of BvCYP1A2 to BvPOR also affected the co-expression of CYP1A2 and POR, with a 3:1 ratio of BvCYP1A2 / BvPOR significantly increasing their co-expression. Surprisingly, the addition of 0.1 mM 5-ALA or Fe(3+) alone, but not their co-addition, could significantly improve the CYP1A2 and POR co-expression (P < 0.05). 5-ALA and Fe(3+) increased the expression of CYP1A2 and POR in a baculovirus/sf9 system, but the pattern of their expression was different between their expression alone and co-expression.

  14. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  15. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  16. Interaction of nitrogen bases with iron-porphyrin nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Gulyan, Gurgen M; Ford, Peter C

    2007-08-20

    The reactions of the nitrogen Lewis bases (B) 1-methylimidazole (1-MeIm), pyridine (Py), and NH3 as gases with sublimed layers containing the 5-coordinate nitrito iron(III)-porphyrinato complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1) are described (Por = meso-tetraphenyl-porphyrinato or meso-tetra-p-tolyl-porphyrinato dianions). In situ FTIR and optical spectra are used to characterize the formation of the 6-coordinate nitro complexes formed by the reaction of 1 with B = 1-MeIm, Py, or NH3. These represent the first examples of 6-coordinate amino-nitro complexes with sterically unprotected iron-porphyrins. The interaction of ammonia with Fe(Por)(ONO) at 140 K initially led to the nitrito species Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-ONO), and this species isomerized to the nitro complexes Fe(Por)(NH3)(eta1-NO2) upon warming to 180 K. When the latter were warmed to room temperature under intense pumping, the initial nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) were restored. Assignments of vibrational frequencies for the coordinated nitro group in 6-coordinate iron-porphyrin complexes are given and confirmed using 15N-labeled nitrogen dioxide to identify characteristic infrared bands. For M(Por)(B)(NO2) complexes (M = Fe or Co), an inverse correlation between the net charge transfer from the axial ligand B to the nitro group and the value of Deltanu = nua(NO2) - nus(NO2) is proposed. These observations are discussed in the context of growing interest in potential physiological roles of nitrite ion reactions with ferro- and ferri-heme proteins.

  17. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  18. Fabrication of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers for gas microsensors and nanosensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V. Korusenko, P. M.; Nesov, S. N.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Roslikov, V. E.; Kurdyukova, E. A.; Sten'kin, Yu. A.; Shelyagin, R. V.; Knyazev, E. V.; Kan, V. E.; Ponomareva, I. V.

    2011-05-15

    Two-phase nanocomposite layers based on porous silicon and nonstoichiometric tin oxide were fabricated by various methods. The structure, as well as elemental and phase composition, of the obtained nanocomposites were studied using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results obtained confirm the formation of nanocomposite layers with a thickness as large as 2 {mu}m thick and SnO{sub x} stoichiometry coefficients x = 1.0-2.0. Significant tin diffusion into the porous silicon matrix with D{sub eff} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} was observed upon annealing at 770 K. Test sensor structures based on por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers grown by magnetron deposition showed fairly high stability of properties and sensitivity to NO{sub 2}.

  19. Impact of PPARA and POR polymorphisms on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and new-onset diabetes in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kurzawski, Mateusz; Malinowski, Damian; Dziewanowski, Krzysztof; Droździk, Marek

    2014-08-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify genetic markers of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity within genes encoding for regulatory elements. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of polymorphism of PPARA and POR genes on tacrolimus (TAC) dose-adjusted trough concentration and risk of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT). A total of 241 White kidney transplant patients were genotyped for three functional single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs1057868 (*28) in POR, rs4253728:G>A, and rs4823613:A>G in PPARA. No significant genotype-dependent differences in TAC dose-adjusted trough concentration were observed for either POR or PPARA variants. No significant differences in the incidence of NODAT were observed between patients stratified by PPARA and POR genotypes. The frequency of NODAT among PPARA rs4253728 AA homozygotes (42%) was higher compared with heterozygotes (22%) and GG homozygotes (19%), but the difference was not significant. Testing TAC-medicated renal transplant recipients for POR and PPARA variants seems to have limited clinical application.

  20. POR*28 SNP is associated with lipid response to atorvastatin in children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Drogari, Euridiki; Ragia, Georgia; Mollaki, Vasiliki; Elens, Laure; Van Schaik, Ron H N; Manolopoulos, Vangelis G

    2014-12-01

    In children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) pharmacotherapy with statins is the cornerstone in the current regimen to reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc) and premature coronary heart disease risk. There is, however, a great interindividual variation in response to therapy, partially attributed to genetic factors. The polymorphic enzyme POR transfers electrons from NADPH to CYP450 enzymes including CYP3A, which metabolize atorvastatin. POR*28 polymorphism is associated with increased CYP3A enzyme activity. We analyzed the association of POR*28 allele with response to atorvastatin. One hundred and five FH children and adolescents treated with atorvastatin at doses 10-40 mg were included in the study. Total cholesterol (TChol) and LDLc were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. POR*28 allele was analyzed with TaqMan assay. CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G genotypes were also determined with TaqMan or PCR-RFLP methods. POR*28 carriers had significantly lower percent mean reduction of TChol (33.1% in *1/*1, 29.8% in *1/*28 and 25.9% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.045) and of LDLc (43.9% in *1/*1, 40.9% in *1/*28 and 30.8% in *28/*28 individuals, p = 0.013). In multivariable linear regression adjusted for confounding factors, POR*28 genotypes, additionally to baseline cholesterol level, accounted for an estimated 8.3% and 7.3% of overall variability in % TChol and LDLc reduction (β: 4.05; 95% CI: 1.73-6.37; p = 0.001 and β: 5.08; 95% CI: 1.62-8.54; p = 0.004, respectively). CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3 and SLCO1B1 521T>C and 388A>G polymorphisms were not associated with lipid reductions and did not modify the effect of POR*28 on atorvastatin response. In children with FH, carriage of POR*28 allele is associated with reduced effect of atorvastatin on TChol and LDLc and therefore identifies FH children that may require higher atorvastatin doses to achieve full therapeutic benefits. Additional studies in

  1. Interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and lipid lowering response with atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kan-kan; Zhang, Li-rong

    2015-09-01

    The polymorphic enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A enzyme s, which metabolize atorvastatin. This suggests that variations in the CYP3A5 and POR genes may influence the response to statins. We aimed to investigate the association and interactions between CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms and the lipid-lowering effects of atorvastatin in a Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and by PCR with direct sequencing analysis for 179 hyperlipidaemic patients treated with atorvastatin 20 mg once daily for 4 weeks. Serum levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined before and after treatment. For the 179 patients (including 100 males), the variant allele frequencies of CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 were 73.75 and 41.62 %, respectively. Among all patients, no significant association was found between CYP3A5*3 polymorphisms and TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C levels before and after treatment with 20 mg of atorvastatin daily for 4 weeks. Homozygotes for the POR*28 T allele showed a significantly lower mean concentration of LDL-C than homozygotes for the POR*28 C allele (POR*28 TT vs POR*28 CC: 2.46 ± 0.37 vs 2.69 ± 0.49 mmol/L, P = 0.019) after treatment with atorvastatin 20 mg daily for 4 weeks. After adjustment for age, sex and body mass index, CYP3A5 non-expressors who were POR*28 wild-type homozygotes showed significantly higher mean TC and LDL-C levels than those who were POR*28 variant homozygotes, both at baseline (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 7.30 ± 0.73 vs 6.94 ± 0.36 mmol/L, P = 0.026; LDL-C: 3.88 ± 0.70 vs 3.47 ± 0.46 mmol/L, P = 0.009) and after atorvastatin treatment (*3/CC vs *3/TT; TC: 6.03 ± 0.64 vs 5.69 ± 0.34 mmol/L, P = 0

  2. [Control of Aedes aegypti breeding sites with the program Recicla por tu bienestar in Merida, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Barrera-Pérez, Mario A; Pavía-Ruz, Norma; Mendoza-Mezquita, Jorge Eduardo; Torres-Arcila, Nerio; Hernández-Hernández, Ramón; Castro-Gamboa, Francisco; Geded-Moreno, Eduardo; Cohuo-Rodríguez, Azael; Medina-Barreiro, Anuar; Koyoc-Cardeña, Edgar; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Kroeger, Axel; Vázquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To determine the importance of Ae. aegypti breeding-sites in Merida;to evaluate the impact of Recicla por tu bienestar (RxB, a recycling program) on the reduction of breeding sites and the perception of participants. The relative importance for pupae production of the different types of breeding-sites was determined. Pre-and post-RxB entomological surveys were performed in participant neighborhoods to evaluate the impact on total containers and positive breeding-sites. A survey on the perception of participating people about dengue prevention and control and RxB was applied. Buckets/pots and "small diverse items" were the most important breeding-sites. RxB had a significant impact in the reduction of total containers (IRR = 0.74), positive containers (IRR = 0.33) and the risk of a house being positive for Ae. aegypti (OR = 0.41). All the interviewed participants referred RxB as needed and most consider it useful. RxB should be considered as a good practice for the dengue vector control.

  3. Seguridad del paciente en Radioterapia Intraoperatoria: Impacto de los elementos controlados por el Radiofisico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjuelo, Juan Lopez

    Introduccion: En la administracion de la radioterapia intervienen profesionales y equipos de tratamiento, por lo que existe el riesgo de error y se precisa que dicho equipamiento funcione conforme a lo esperado. A los radiofisicos les corresponde participar en las actividades de garantia o aseguramiento de la calidad, incluyendo el control de calidad de los equipos, y en la evaluacion de los riesgos asociados. La radioterapia intraoperatoria (RIO) es una tecnica radioterapica de intensificacion de dosis, altamente selectiva, dirigida a volumenes anatomicos restringidos durante el tratamiento quirurgico oncologico, basada en la administracion de una dosis absorbida alta por medio de un haz de electrones tras el examen visual directo del lecho tumoral. Como incorporar los ultimos avances en el refuerzo de la seguridad en radioterapia es una tarea ambiciosa y compleja, resulta mas concreta y de inmediata aplicacion su introduccion en la RIO. El objetivo es analizar los elementos que reducen los riesgos y aumentan la seguridad en la RIO y su dosimetria, y valorar la funcion del radiofisico en esta labor. Material y metodos: Se emplearon el planificador Radiance de GMV y el acelerador lineal de los tratamientos de RIO Elekta Precise, controlado con el verificador diario de haces Daily QA Check 1090 y medido con las camaras de ionizacion PPC 40, FC65-G y FC65-P de PTW-Freiburg, a su vez verificadas con fuentes radiactivas adecuadas de estroncio-90 modelos CDP y CDC de IBA Dosimetry. Se realizo un analisis de modos de fallo y efectos (failure mode and effect analysis, FMEA) con el fin de identificar los elementos que forman la RIO y aplicar las herramientas necesarias para la minimizacion de los riesgos y la mejora de la seguridad en la tecnica. Se estudiaron las verificaciones diarias de dicho acelerador Precise con el control estadistico de procesos (statistical process control, SPC) y se simularon intervenciones para devolverlo al estado llamado en control. El SPC

  4. Mujeres felices por ser saludables: a breast cancer risk reduction program for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2003-05-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality among Latino women. Several behavioral factors such as early detection and dietary practices could help decrease morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this population. Unfortunately, there are few data regarding the efficacy of health-related interventions for young Latino women. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables is a randomized intervention project designed to assess breast cancer risk reduction behavior among Latino women ages 20-40 years. The primary objectives of the project were to determine whether an 8-month integrated dietary/breast health intervention could lead to a greater reduction in dietary fat, increase in dietary fiber, increase in the frequency and proficiency of breast self examination (BSE), and reduction in anxiety related to BSE compared to controls. Herein we describe the overall design of the project and present baseline characteristics of the 256 randomized women. Our results suggest that the average daily intake of dietary fat (percentage of total energy) was slightly below 30% (percentage of total energy) among the women randomized. While over half of these women reported that they practice BSE, and few reported anxiety related to BSE, less than 27% of women were proficient in the recommended BSE technique. There are few data on the dietary and breast health behaviors of young low-acculturated Latino women. This study documents the feasibility of recruiting, randomizing, and obtaining both baseline dietary and breast health data on this unique and underserved population.

  5. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  6. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  7. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  8. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57–0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer. PMID:26123203

  9. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  10. Functional POR A503V is associated with the risk of bladder cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Ma, Gaoxiang; Li, Shushu; Wang, Meilin; Liu, Nian; Ma, Lan; Zhang, Zhan; Chu, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2015-06-30

    Human cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) plays important roles in the metabolism of exogenous carcinogens and endogenous sterol hormones. However, few studies have explored the association between POR variants and the risk of bladder cancer. In this study, we first sequenced all 16 POR exons among 50 randomly selected controls, and found three variants, rs1135612, rs1057868 (A503V) and rs2228104, which were then assessed the relation to risk of bladder cancer in a case-control study of 1,050 bladder cancer cases and 1,404 cancer-free controls in a Chinese population. People with A503V TT genotype have a decreased risk of bladder cancer in a recessive model (TT vs. CC/CT, OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93), which was more pronounced among elderly male, non-smoking, subjects. Especially, A503V TT genotype showed a protective effect in the invasive tumor stage. Functional analysis revealed that A503V activity decreased in cytochrome c reduction (50.5 units/mg vs. 135.4 units/mg), mitomycin C clearance (38.3% vs. 96.8%), and mitomycin C-induced colony formation (78.0 vs 34.3 colonies per dish). The results suggested that POR A503V might decrease the risk of bladder cancer by reducing its metabolic activity, and should be a potential biomarker for predicting the susceptibility to human bladder cancer.

  11. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  12. Rescue of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (Por) mouse mutants reveals functions in vasculogenesis, brain and limb patterning linked to retinoic acid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Ribes, Vanessa; Otto, Diana M E; Dickmann, Leslie; Schmidt, Katy; Schuhbaur, Brigitte; Henderson, Colin; Blomhoff, Rune; Wolf, C Roland; Tickle, Cheryll; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) acts as an electron donor for all cytochrome P450 enzymes. Knockout mouse Por(-/-) mutants, which are early embryonic (E9.5) lethal, have been found to have overall elevated retinoic acid (RA) levels, leading to the idea that POR early developmental function is mainly linked to the activity of the CYP26 RA-metabolizing enzymes (Otto et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23, 6103-6116). By crossing Por mutants with a RA-reporter lacZ transgene, we show that Por(-/-) embryos exhibit both elevated and ectopic RA signaling activity e.g. in cephalic and caudal tissues. Two strategies were used to functionally demonstrate that decreasing retinoid levels can reverse Por(-/-) phenotypic defects, (i) by culturing Por(-/-) embryos in defined serum-free medium, and (ii) by generating compound mutants defective in RA synthesis due to haploinsufficiency of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Raldh2) gene. Both approaches clearly improved the Por(-/-) early phenotype, the latter allowing mutants to be recovered up until E13.5. Abnormal brain patterning, with posteriorization of hindbrain cell fates and defective mid- and forebrain development and vascular defects were rescued in E9.5 Por(-/-) embryos. E13.5 Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) embryos exhibited abdominal/caudal and limb defects that strikingly phenocopy those of Cyp26a1(-/-) and Cyp26b1(-/-) mutants, respectively. Por(-/-); Raldh2(+/-) limb buds were truncated and proximalized and the anterior-posterior patterning system was not established. Thus, POR function is indispensable for the proper regulation of RA levels and tissue distribution not only during early embryonic development but also in later morphogenesis and molecular patterning of the brain, abdominal/caudal region and limbs.

  13. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  14. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  15. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  16. Thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin island (Republic of Tuva, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, Daria; Motenko, Rimma; Buldovich, Sergey; Koshurnikov, Andrey; Prosuncov, Kirill

    2010-05-01

    We investigated current permafrost state, thermal properties and phase composition of water for frozen rocks of Por-Bajin Island (Tere-Hol Lake, south-east part of Tuva republic, Russia). Rocks of the island are represented by dispersing grounds in permafrost state. The architectural monument Por-Bajin fortress (the middle of the VIII century) located at the island can be destructed due to thawing of frozen rocks resulted by water level rising in the surrounding Por-Bajin lake. Seasonally thawed layer on the island varies from 1.1 to 1.8 meters based on drilling observations from 13 drill holes the. Measured in the field the thermal conductivity indicates the low values in seasonally thawed layer (from 0.14 to 0.19 Wm-1K-1). Twenty most typical for the studied area frozen handsamples were collected from several holes in the depth interval from 1.5 to 10.15 meters. The humidity of sampled specimens varies from 13 to 270 percents and density varies from 1.21 to 2.17 g/cm3. Investigations of grain-size composition, thermal properties and liquid phase composition were undertaken using laboratory methods. The grain-size composition of Por-Bajin grounds varies from clays to gritstones and gravelites with clay-silt matrix. Phase composition of water in the frozen grounds was studied by contact and cryoscopic methods. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter). Based on obtained data computer model allowed to forecast the evolution of permafrost at the island and predict the destiny of Por-Bajin monument. This work was supported by grant from President of the Russian Federation NSh - 4078.2008.5

  17. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  18. The effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua workers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Hua-Wei; Liu, I-Jung; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, Lian-Yu

    2014-07-01

    Aromatherapy is widely used around the world for stress relief. Whether exposure to essential oil increases the risk of cardiovascular events is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of essential oil on heart rate and blood pressure among solus por aqua (spa) workers. We recruited 100 healthy workers from various spa centres in Taipei, Taiwan. Between July and August of 2010, three repeated measurements - resting heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) - were taken of each spa worker in our study room. Participants were exposed to essential oil vapour generated from an ultrasonic atomizer in the study room for two consecutive hours. The total volatile organic compound (VOC) level in the study room was measured during the study period. We used a linear mixed-effect model to determine the association between the total VOC level and the participants' HR, SBP, and DBP. For the times from 15 to 60 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC level was significantly associated with reduced 15-min mean BP and HR. After exposure for more than 1 hour, from 75 to 120 min after start of exposure, we found that the VOC levels were associated with increased 15-min mean BP and HR. Exposure to essential oil for 1 hour was found to be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by decreases in the HR and BP. Prolonged exposure for longer than 1 hour to essential oils may be harmful to cardiovascular health among spa workers. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012.

  19. Energia di un sisma e oscillazioni di un pendolo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigismondi, Costantino; Petracca, Francesco Luigi

    2016-11-01

    The energy released from an earthquake is related to the amplitude of the oscillations of the ground at a given distance from the epicenter. The measurements of chandelier's oscillations in Rome, for the L'Aquila 2009 and Amatrice and Norcia 2016 quakes, are used to obtain their magnitudes.

  20. Apoyando La Energia Sostenible Para Todos (Spanish Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-06-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial and UN-Energy, helps governments design and adopt policies and programs that support the deployment of transformational low-carbon technologies. The Solutions Center serves as a first-stop clearinghouse of clean energy policy reports, data, and tools and provides expert assistance and peer-to-peer learning forums. This factsheet highlights key Solutions Center offerings, including 'ask an expert' assistance on clean energy policy matters, training and peer learning, and technical resources for policy makers worldwide.

  1. Servicos Do Centro De Solucoes De Energia Limpa (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-06-01

    This is the Portuguese translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Solutions Center helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  2. The Sangre Por Salud Biobank: Facilitating Genetic Research in an Underrepresented Latino Community.

    PubMed

    Shaibi, Gabriel; Singh, Davinder; De Filippis, Eleanna; Hernandez, Valentina; Rosenfeld, Bill; Otu, Essen; Montes de Oca, Gregorio; Levey, Sharon; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Sharp, Richard; Olson, Janet; Cerhan, James; Thibodeau, Stephen; Winkler, Erin; Mandarino, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    The Sangre Por Salud (Blood for Health; SPS) Biobank was created for the purpose of expanding precision medicine research to include underrepresented Latino patients. It is the result of a unique collaboration between Mayo Clinic and Mountain Park Health Center, a federally qualified community health center in Phoenix, Arizona. This report describes the rationale, development, implementation, and characteristics of the SPS Biobank. Latino adults (ages 18-85 years) who were active patients within Mountain Park Health Center's internal medicine practice in Phoenix, Ariz., and had no history of diabetes were eligible. Participants provided a personal and family history of chronic disease, completed a sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral questionnaire, underwent a comprehensive cardiometabolic risk assessment (anthropometrics, blood pressure and labs), and provided blood samples for banking. Laboratory results of cardiometabolic testing were returned to the participants and their providers through the electronic health record. During the first 2 years of recruitment into the SPS Biobank, 2,335 patients were approached and 1,432 (61.3%) consented to participate; 1,354 (94.5%) ultimately completed all requisite questionnaires and medical evaluations. The cohort is primarily Spanish-speaking (72.9%), female (73.3%), with a mean age of 41.3 ± 12.5 years. Most participants were born outside of the US (77.9%) and do not have health insurance (77.5%). The prevalence of overweight (35.5%) and obesity (45.0%) was high, as was previously unidentified prediabetes (55.9%), type 2 diabetes (7.4%), prehypertension (46.8%), and hypertension (16.2%). The majority of participants rated their health as good to excellent (72.1%) and, as a whole, described their overall quality of life as high (7.9/10). Collaborative efforts such as the SPS Biobank are critical for ensuring that underrepresented minority populations are included in precision medicine initiatives and biomedical

  3. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  4. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  6. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  7. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  8. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  9. Polymorphisms of POR, SULT2A1 and HSD11B1 in children with premature adrenarche.

    PubMed

    Utriainen, Pauliina; Laakso, Saila; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Voutilainen, Raimo

    2012-09-01

    Premature adrenarche (PA) refers to an earlier than normal increase in adrenocortical androgen production. The pathogenesis of PA remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that common polymorphisms at P450 oxidoreductase (POR), steroid sulfotransferase (SULT2A1), or 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1) genes could contribute to the polygenic pathogenesis of PA. We performed a case-control study on the polymorphisms rs1057868 at POR, rs182420 at SULT2A1, and rs12086634 at HSD11B1. The study cohort comprised 73 prepubertal children with PA (defined by clinical signs) and 97 age- and gender-matched healthy controls from a Finnish Caucasian population. Genotype distributions and clinical and metabolic phenotypes were determined. The genotype distributions of the polymorphisms were similar between the study groups. No variant was associated with alterations in serum adrenal steroid concentrations. The minor C variant at SULT2A1 was associated with higher serum sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (T/T, n=64 vs T/C&C/C, n=33; mean 94 vs 116 nmol/L; P=.001) and a trend for lower dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate/dehydroepiandrosterone ratios in the controls (P=.06), and with higher plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the PA subjects (T/T, n=42 vs T/C&C/C, n=31; 4.0 vs 4.6 mmol/L; P<.001). The minor G variant at HSD11B1 was associated with lower plasma triglyceride concentration in the controls (T/T, n=65 vs T/G&G/G, n=32; 0.61 vs 0.49 mmol/L; P=.013). Common polymorphisms at POR, SULT2A1 or HSD11B1 were not associated with PA in a Finnish Caucasian population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-yan; Liu, Xiao-man; Huang, Hong-bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-xi; Li, Jia-li

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Methods: A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Results: Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. Conclusion: The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868–rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868–rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese

  11. The POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype is associated with high tacrolimus concentrations in early post-renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Chen, Rong-Xin; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xue-Ding; Fu, Qian; Chen, Ling-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Man; Huang, Hong-Bing; Huang, Min; Wang, Chang-Xi; Li, Jia-Li

    2016-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is the only flavoprotein that donates electrons to all microsomal P450 enzymes (CYP), and several POR SNPs have been shown to be important contributors to altered CYP activity or CYP-mediated drug metabolism. In this study we examined the association between 6 POR SNPs and tacrolimus concentrations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 154 renal transplant recipients were enrolled. Genotyping of CYP3A5*3 and 6 POR SNPs was performed. All patients received a triple immunosuppressive regimen comprising tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations were obtained on d 7 (C0D7/D) after transplantation when steady-state concentration of tacrolimus was achieved (dosage had been unchanged for more than 3 d). Tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype carriers was 1.62- and 2.72-fold higher than those in CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype non-carriers and CYP3A5*1 carriers (220.17±48.09 vs 135.69±6.86 and 80.84±5.27 ng/mL/mg/kg, respectively, P<0.0001). Of CYP3A5*3/*3/ POR rs1057868-rs2868177GC-GT diplotype carriers, 85.71% exceeded the upper limit of the target range (8 ng/mL), which was also significantly higher compared with the latter two groups (14.29% and 0.00%, respectively, P<0.0001). The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype explained 31.7% and 5.7%, respectively, of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D, whereas the POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype could explain 10.9% of the inter-individual variability of tacrolimus C0D7/D in CYP3A5 non-expressers. The CYP3A5*3 and POR rs1057868-rs2868177 GC-GT diplotype accounted for the inter-individual variation of tacrolimus C0D7/D. Genotyping of POR rs1057868-rs2868177 diplotypes would help to differentiate initial tacrolimus dose requirements and to achieve early target C0 ranges in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  12. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial.

  13. Monitoring Shifts in the Conformation Equilibrium of the Membrane Protein Cytochrome P450 Reductase (POR) in Nanodiscs*

    PubMed Central

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm2 patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction. PMID:22891242

  14. Monitoring shifts in the conformation equilibrium of the membrane protein cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) in nanodiscs.

    PubMed

    Wadsäter, Maria; Laursen, Tomas; Singha, Aparajita; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Stamou, Dimitrios; Barker, Robert; Mortensen, Kell; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Cárdenas, Marité

    2012-10-05

    Nanodiscs are self-assembled ∼50-nm(2) patches of lipid bilayers stabilized by amphipathic belt proteins. We demonstrate that a well ordered dense film of nanodiscs serves for non-destructive, label-free studies of isolated membrane proteins in a native like environment using neutron reflectometry (NR). This method exceeds studies of membrane proteins in vesicle or supported lipid bilayer because membrane proteins can be selectively adsorbed with controlled orientation. As a proof of concept, the mechanism of action of the membrane-anchored cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) is studied here. This enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the transfer of electrons from NADPH to cytochrome P450s and thus is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of numerous primary and secondary metabolites in plants. Neutron reflectometry shows a coexistence of two different POR conformations, a compact and an extended form with a thickness of 44 and 79 Å, respectively. Upon complete reduction by NADPH, the conformational equilibrium shifts toward the compact form protecting the reduced FMN cofactor from engaging in unspecific electron transfer reaction.

  15. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  16. Influence of various polymorphic variants of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) on drug metabolic activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan; Pan, Li Qiang; Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ~70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication.

  17. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  18. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  19. The genetic polymorphisms of POR*28 and CYP3A5*3 significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jing; Liu, Shuai-Bing; Xue, Ling; Ding, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Hua; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-09-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the influence of the polymorphism of cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) as well as other relevant genes (CYP3A4, CYP3A5, ABCB1) on individual variability of tacrolimus pharmacokinetics and perform population pharmacokinetic analysis of tacrolimus in Chinese renal transplant recipients. Tacrolimus trough whole blood concentrations and clinical details were retrospectively collected from 83 renal recipients. CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, and ABCB1 C3435T were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 were genotyped by sequencing method. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM program. The significant influences of CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and POR*28 polymorphisms on tacrolimus dose-adjusted trough concentrations (C0/D) were observed in 83 renal recipients. Subgroup analysis showed that POR*28 polymorphisms significantly decreased tacrolimus C0/D by 1.50 - 1.84-fold (p < 0.05) in patients who were CYP3A5 expressers (CYP3A5*1 carriers, n = 46), while similar results could not be obtained from CYP3A5 non-expressers (CYP3A5*3/*3 carriers, n = 37). Additionally, population pharmacokinetic analysis identified that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was the only covariant for the apparent clearance of tacrolimus (CL/F). The study demonstrated that the POR*28 C>T mutation could decrease the C0/D of tacrolimus in renal recipients who were CYP3A5 expressers. The population pharmacokinetic model showed that the combined genotype of CYP3A5-POR was associated with the CL/F of tacrolimus which might provide references for personalized use of tacrolimus in clinic.

  20. Reactions of nitrogen oxides with the five-coordinate Fe(III)(porphyrin) nitrito intermediate Fe(Por)(ONO) in sublimed solids.

    PubMed

    Kurtikyan, Tigran S; Hovhannisyan, Astghik A; Hakobyan, Manya E; Patterson, James C; Iretskii, Alexei; Ford, Peter C

    2007-03-28

    Detailed experimental studies are described for reactions of several nitrogen oxides with iron porphyrin models for heme/NxOy systems. It is shown by FTIR and optical spectroscopy and by isotope labeling experiments that reaction of small increments of NO2 with sublimed thin layers of the iron(II) complex Fe(Por) (Por = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinato dianion, TPP, or meso-tetra-p-tolylporphyrinato dianion, TTP) leads to formation of the 5-coordinate nitrito complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) (1), which are fairly stable but very slowly decompose under vacuum giving mostly the corresponding nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(NO). Further reaction of 1 with new NO2 increments leads to formation of the nitrato complex Fe(Por)(eta2-O2NO) (2). The interaction of NO with 1 at low temperature involves ligand addition to give the nitrito-nitrosyl complexes Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO)(NO) (3); however, these isomerize to the nitro-nitrosyl analogs Fe(Por)(eta1-NO2)(NO) (4) upon warming. Experiments with labeled nitrogen oxides argue for an intramolecular isomerization ("flipping") mechanism rather than one involving dissociation and rebinding of NO2. The Fe(III) centers in the 6-coordinate species 3 and 4 are low spin in contrast to 1, which appears to be high-spin, although DFT computations of the porphinato models Fe(P)(nitrite) suggest that the doublet nitro species and the quartet and sextet nitrito complexes are all relatively close in energy. The nitro-nitrosyl complex 4 is stable under an NO atmosphere but decomposes under intense pumping to give a mixture of the ferrous nitrosyl complex Fe(Por)(NO) and the ferric nitrito complex Fe(Por)(eta1-ONO) indicating the competitive dissociation of NO and NO2. Hence, loss of NO from 4 is accompanied with nitro --> nitrito isomerization consistent with 1 being the more stable of the 5-coordinate NO2 complexes of iron porphyrins.

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  2. Most but not all laboratories can detect the recently emerged Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA mutants - results from the QCMD 2013 N. gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme.

    PubMed

    Luijt, D; Di Lorenzo, C; van Loon, A M; Unemo, M

    2014-02-27

    We describe the results of the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics 2013 Neisseria gonorrhoeae external quality assessment programme that included an N. gonorrhoeae strain harbouring an N. meningitidis porA gene which causes false-negative results in molecular diagnostic assays targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Enhanced awareness of the international transmission of such gonococcal strains is needed to avoid false-negative results in both in-house and commercial molecular diagnostic assays used in laboratories worldwide, but particularly in Europe.

  3. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  4. [Treatment of interdigital foot Erythrasma with ozonated olive oil].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Hobak, Lourdes; Moreno-Coutiño, Gabriela; Arenas-Guzmán, Roberto; Gorzelewski, Alicia; Fernández-Martínez, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: el eritrasma es causado por Corinebacterium minutissimum que produce una porfirina que con la luz de Wood emite una fluorescencia rojo coral es la infección bacteriana más frecuente en los pies. El aceite de oliva ozononificado disminuye el citoplasma y daña las proteínas y los lípidos bacterianos. El tratamiento es mediante eritromicina oral y no hay consenso respecto a la terapia tópica de elección. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia terapéutica del aceite de oliva ozonificado en el eritrasma en una prueba piloto. Métodos: estudio clínico experimental, abierto, observacional, descriptivo y longitudinal, llevado a cabo en la sección de Micología del Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”. Se incluyeron 10 pacientes con eritrasma interdigital de pies, a quines se les administró aceite de oliva ozonificado cada 12 horas por 10 días. Resultados: en todos los pacientes hubo desaparición de la fluorescencia rojo coral, eritema, fisuras, prurito y maceración; en dos de ellos persistió la descamación. Se obtuvo una cura clínica en el 100 % de los pacientes, respuesta similar a la eritromicina oral. Conclusiones: el aceite de oliva ozonificado es una buena opción terapéutica tópica para el eritrasma interdigital, que permite evitar la prescripción de medicamentos por vía oral. Se requieren estudios más extensos.

  5. Palivizumab outcomes registry data from Spain: Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study Group.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Estrany, Xavier

    2003-02-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory illness in children <2 years of age. Severe RSV infection requiring hospitalization is linked to gestational age, chronic cardiopulmonary conditions and immunosuppression. The Infección Respiratoria Infantil por Virus Respiratorio Sincitial (IRIS) Study group in Spain conducted two pivotal epidemiologic studies establishing that serious RSV illness among premature infants was responsible for high rehospitalization rates (approximately 13%). RSV lower respiratory tract illness also correlated with prolonged hospital stay and more intensive care unit admissions. In Europe recent availability of palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody to RSV, is a major therapeutic advancement directed against prevention of lower respiratory tract infection secondary to this viral pathogen. To ensure proper and optimal usage of palivizumab, the IRIS group, in conjunction with the Spanish Neonatology Group, developed prophylaxis guidelines for neonates. Palivizumab prophylaxis is strongly recommended in premature infants < or =28 weeks gestation or those affected with chronic lung disease. Additionally, palivizumab is recommended for infants with a gestational age of 29 to 32 weeks, without evidence of chronic lung disease and who are <6 months old at the onset of the RSV season. It was thought that slightly older premature infants (33 to 35 weeks gestational age) should be assessed on an individual basis to determine whether prophylaxis is warranted. The IRIS Study Group is currently determining the effectiveness of these recommendations by measuring the incidence of RSV-related hospital admissions in infants born at < or =32 weeks gestational age who are receiving palivizumab prophylaxis.

  6. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  7. Avidity maturation following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Emma; Borrow, Ray; Goldblatt, David; Balmer, Paul; Dawson, Maureen; Andrews, Nick; Miller, Elizabeth; Cartwright, Keith

    2002-06-07

    To date, there are no data assessing the utility of avidity indices as a surrogate marker for the induction of immunological memory following meningococcal serogroup B outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccination. We studied infants who had been immunized with three doses of a recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine at ages 2-4 months, together with a fourth dose at age 12-18 months. A control group had received a single dose of the same vaccine at age 12-18 months. As previously reported, serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titres increased after each of the first three doses, with a significant increase observed from 6 months post third dose to 1 month post fourth dose. The geometric mean avidity indices (GMAI), against strain H44/76 OMVs, increased from 1 month post first dose to 1 month post third dose. Significant increases in GMAI were observed at 6 months post third dose and again following the fourth dose. At 32-42 months of age, though the SBA titres had returned to post first dose levels, the GMAI remained elevated. No increase in avidity was observed in the control group. Antibody avidity indices are useful laboratory markers for the priming of immunological memory following vaccination with meningococcal serogroup B OMV vaccines.

  8. Spectroscopic and kinetic characterization of the light-dependent enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) using monovinyl and divinyl substrates.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Derren J; Kruk, Jerzy; Hunter, C Neil

    2006-02-15

    The enzyme POR [Pchlide (protochlorophyllide) oxidoreductase] catalyses the reduction of Pchlide to chlorophyllide, which is a key step in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. This light-dependent reaction has previously been studied in great detail but recent reports suggest that a mixture of MV (monovinyl) and DV (divinyl) Pchlides may have influenced some of these properties of the reaction. Low-temperature absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy have revealed several spectral differences between MV and DV Pchlides, which were purified from a Rhodobacter capsulatus strain that was shown to contain a mixture of the two pigments. A thorough steady-state kinetic characterization using both Pchlide forms demonstrates that neither pigment appears to affect the kinetic properties of the enzyme. The reaction has also been monitored following illumination at low temperatures and was shown to consist of an initial photochemical step followed by four 'dark' steps for both pigments. However, minor differences were observed in the spectral properties of some of the intermediates, although the temperature dependency of each step was nearly identical for the two pigments. This work provides the first detailed kinetic and spectroscopic study of this unique enzyme using biologically important MV and DV substrate analogues. It also has significant implications for the DV reductase enzyme, which is responsible for converting DV pigments into their MV counterparts, and its position in the sequence of reactions that comprise the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway.

  9. Examination of P-OR bridging bond orders in phosphate monoesters using (18)O isotope shifts in 31P NMR.

    PubMed

    Sorensen-Stowell, Kerensa; Hengge, Alvan C

    2005-06-10

    Evidence indicates that phosphate monoesters undergo hydrolysis by a loose transition state with extensive bond fission to the leaving group. It has been proposed that part of the high dependence of the rate on the leaving group pKa (betalg = -1.23) arises from weaker ester bonds in the reactants as the pKa of the leaving group decreases, on the basis of X-ray structures and calculations. In contrast, IR and Raman studies suggest that the leaving group has little effect on the length of the P-OR bridging bond in solution. To gather additional data on this issue, we have used (18)O isotopic shifts in 31P NMR to monitor the bond order of P-O bonds in a range of phosphate esters with different leaving groups. Using this technique, we have been able to evaluate whether significant changes are observed in the P-O bond orders for the bridging and nonbridging positions of methyl, ethyl, phenethyl, propargyl, phenyl, and p-nitrophenyl phosphate using [(16)O(18)O] labeled species in deuterium oxide. The results indicate that the bridging and nonbridging bond orders to phosphorus in phosphate monoesters are not significantly altered by differences in the pKa of the leaving group or by the counterion of the phosphate ester dianion.

  10. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  11. Interaction between variants in the CYP2C9 and POR genes and the risk of sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycaemia: A GoDARTS Study.

    PubMed

    Dujic, Tanja; Zhou, Kaixin; Donnelly, Louise A; Leese, Graham; Palmer, Colin N A; Pearson, Ewan R

    2017-06-28

    Data on the association of CYP2C9 genetic polymorphisms with sulfonylurea (SU)-induced hypoglycaemia (SH) are inconsistent. Recent studies showed that variants in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene could affect CYP2C9 activity. In this study, we explored the effects of POR*28 and combined CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 genotypes on SH and the efficacy of SU treatment in type 2 diabetes. A total of 1770 patients were included in the analysis of SU efficacy, assessed as the combined outcome of the HbA1c reduction and the prescribed SU daily dose. Sixty-nine patients with severe SH were compared with 311 control patients. The number of CYP2C9 deficient alleles was associated with nearly three-fold higher odds of hypoglycaemia (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.30-6.09; P = .009) and better response to SU treatment (β, -0.218; SE, 0.074; P = .003) only in patients carrying the POR*1/*1 genotype. Our results indicate that interaction between CYP2C9 and POR genes may be an important determinant of efficacy and severe adverse effects of SU treatment. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Adult Student Retention and Achievement with Language-Based Modular Materials. POR FIN: Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexar County School Board, San Antonio, TX.

    The goal of the POR FIN research design was to develop a language-based curriculum emphasizing the audiolingual approach and integrating academic and social-functioning subject matter. The modular curriculum is designed so that each lesson is independent and complete in itself, and provides a high degree of motivation, retention, and achievement…

  13. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  14. Recombinant PorA, the major outer membrane protein of Campylobacter jejuni, provides heterologous protection in an adult mouse intestinal colonization model.

    PubMed

    Islam, Anjum; Raghupathy, Raj; Albert, M John

    2010-11-01

    Immunity against Campylobacter jejuni, a major food-borne pathogen causing diarrhea, is largely serotype specific. The major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. jejuni, PorA, is a common antigen with the potential to provide broad protection. Adult BALB/c mice were orally immunized with a recombinant glutathione S-transferase (GST) fused to PorA prepared from Campylobacter jejuni C31 (O:6,7) (GST-PorA) combined with a modified heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli as an adjuvant and later orally challenged with C31 strain or three heterologous strains: 48 (O:19), 75 (O:3), and 111 (O:1,44). Protection from colonization with the challenge organism was studied by fecal screening daily for 9 days. Serum and intestinal lavage fluid antibodies against the vaccine and Sarkosyl-purified MOMP from C31 were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The vaccine produced robust antibody responses against both antigens in serum and secretion. Since strain C31 was a poor colonizer, homologous protection could not be studied. The protective efficacies of heterologous strains were 43% (for strain 48, P < 0.001), 29% (for strain 75, P < 0.005), and 42% (for strain 111, P < 0.001) for the 9-day period compared to control mice given phosphate-buffered saline. Thus, PorA provided appreciable protection against colonization with heterologous serotypes.

  15. Cell Growth Defect Factor1/CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 Plays a Role in Stabilization of Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase in Nicotiana benthamiana and Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Yong; Lee, Ho-Seok; Song, Ji-Young; Jung, Young Jun; Reinbothe, Steffen; Park, Youn-Il; Lee, Sang Yeol; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Angiosperms require light for chlorophyll biosynthesis because one reaction in the pathway, the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide, is catalyzed by the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). Here, we report that Cell growth defect factor1 (Cdf1), renamed here as CHAPERONE-LIKE PROTEIN OF POR1 (CPP1), an essential protein for chloroplast development, plays a role in the regulation of POR stability and function. Cdf1/CPP1 contains a J-like domain and three transmembrane domains, is localized in the thylakoid and envelope membranes, and interacts with POR isoforms in chloroplasts. CPP1 can stabilize POR proteins with its holdase chaperone activity. CPP1 deficiency results in diminished POR protein accumulation and defective chlorophyll synthesis, leading to photobleaching and growth inhibition of plants under light conditions. CPP1 depletion also causes reduced POR accumulation in etioplasts of dark-grown plants and as a result impairs the formation of prolamellar bodies, which subsequently affects chloroplast biogenesis upon illumination. Furthermore, in cyanobacteria, the CPP1 homolog critically regulates POR accumulation and chlorophyll synthesis under high-light conditions, in which the dark-operative Pchlide oxidoreductase is repressed by its oxygen sensitivity. These findings and the ubiquitous presence of CPP1 in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms suggest the conserved nature of CPP1 function in the regulation of POR. PMID:24151298

  16. The influence of CYP3A, PPARA, and POR genetic variants on the pharmacokinetics of tacrolimus and cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lunde, Ingrid; Bremer, Sara; Midtvedt, Karsten; Mohebi, Beata; Dahl, Miriam; Bergan, Stein; Åsberg, Anders; Christensen, Hege

    2014-06-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) and cyclosporine (CsA) are mainly metabolized by CYP3A4 and CYP3A5. Several studies have demonstrated an association between the CYP3A5 genotype and Tac dose requirements. Recently, CYP3A4, PPARA, and POR gene variants have been shown to influence CYP3A metabolism. The present study investigated potential associations between CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*22, PPARA c.209- 1003G>A and c.208+3819A>G, and POR*28 alleles and dose-adjusted concentrations (C/D) of Tac and CsA in 177 renal transplant patients early post-transplant. All patients (n=177) were genotyped for CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, PPARA c.209-1003G>A, and PPARA c.208+3819A>G using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and melting curve analysis with allelespecific hybridization probes or PCR restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) methods. Drug concentrations and administered doses were retrospectively collected from patient charts at Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Norway. One steady-state concentration was collected for each patient. We confirmed a significant impact of the CYP3A5*3 allele on Tac exposure. Patients with POR*28 and PPARA variant alleles demonstrated 15 % lower (P=0.04) and 19 % higher (P=0.01) Tac C0/D respectively. CsA C2/D was 53 % higher among CYP3A4*22 carriers (P=0.03). The results support the use of pre-transplant CYP3A5 genotyping to improve initial dosing of Tac, and suggest that Tac dosing may be further individualized by additional POR and PPARA genotyping. Furthermore, initial CsA dosing may be improved by pre-transplant CYP3A4*22 determination.

  17. Compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in POR gene: Antley-bixler syndrome phenotype in three sibling fetuses.

    PubMed

    Tzetis, Maria; Konstantinidou, Anastasia; Sofocleous, Christalena; Kosma, Konstantina; Mitrakos, Anastasios; Tzannatos, Christina; Kitsiou-Tzeli, Sofia

    2016-07-01

    Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) is an exceptionally rare craniosynostosis syndrome that can be accompanied by disordered steroidogenesis, and is mainly caused by mutations in the POR gene, inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Here we report the prenatal and postmortem findings of three sibling fetuses with ABS as a result of compound heterozygosity of a paternal submicroscopic deletion and a maternal missense mutation in the POR gene. Prenatal ultrasound and postmortem examination were performed in three sibling fetuses with termination of pregnancy at 22, 23, and 17 weeks of gestation, respectively. Molecular analysis of fetus 2 and 3 included (a) bidirectional sequencing of exon 8 of the POR gene after amplification of the specific locus by polymerase chain reaction, to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and (b) high resolution comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) positive single nucleotide polymorphism array CGH (aCGH) analysis to detect copy number variants (CNVs), copy neutral areas of loss of heterozygosity and uniparental disomy. The diagnosis of ABS was suggested by the postmortem examination findings. The combination of the POR gene molecular analysis and aCGH revealed a compound heterozygous genotype of a maternal SNV (p.A287P) and a paternal CNV (NC_000007.13:g.(?_75608488)_(75615534_?)del). To the best of our knowledge, these sibling fetuses add to the few reported cases of ABS, caused by a combination of a SNV and a CNV in the POR gene. The detailed description of the pathologic and radiographic findings of second trimester fetuses affected with ABS adds novel knowledge concerning the early ABS phenotype, in lack of previous relevant reports. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:536-541, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  19. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2004-10-01

    Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.

  20. Study of the interaction mechanisms between absorbed NO{sub 2} and por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers

    SciTech Connect

    Bolotov, V. V.; Kan, V. E. Makushenko, R. K.; Biryukov, M. Yu.; Ivlev, K. E.; Roslikov, V. E.

    2013-10-15

    The interaction mechanisms between NO{sub 2} molecules and the surface of por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposites obtained by magnetron deposition and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance methods. The observed increase in the free carrier concentration in the por-Si/SnO{sub x} nanocomposite layers is explained by a change in the charge state of P{sub b} centers due to the formation of neutral 'surface defect-adsorbed NO{sub 2} molecule' complexes with free carrier generation in the crystallite bulk. In the nanocomposite layers grown by the CVD method, the increase in the free hole concentration during NO{sub 2} adsorption is much less pronounced in comparison with the composite grown by magnetron deposition, which is caused by the competing interaction channel of NO{sub 2} molecules with electrically neutral P{sub b} centers.

  1. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  2. IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K

    2001-08-14

    The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.

  3. Corynebacterium jeikeium jk0268 Constitutes for the 40 Amino Acid Long PorACj, Which Forms a Homooligomeric and Anion-Selective Cell Wall Channel

    PubMed Central

    Norouzy, Amir; Schulz, Robert; Nau, Werner M.; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Tauch, Andreas; Benz, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium jeikeium, a resident of human skin, is often associated with multidrug resistant nosocomial infections in immunodepressed patients. C. jeikeium K411 belongs to mycolic acid-containing actinomycetes, the mycolata and contains a channel-forming protein as judged from reconstitution experiments with artificial lipid bilayer experiments. The channel-forming protein was present in detergent treated cell walls and in extracts of whole cells using organic solvents. A gene coding for a 40 amino acid long polypeptide possibly responsible for the pore-forming activity was identified in the known genome of C. jeikeium by its similar chromosomal localization to known porH and porA genes of other Corynebacterium strains. The gene jk0268 was expressed in a porin deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strain. For purification temporarily histidine-tailed or with a GST-tag at the N-terminus, the homogeneous protein caused channel-forming activity with an average conductance of 1.25 nS in 1M KCl identical to the channels formed by the detergent extracts. Zero-current membrane potential measurements of the voltage dependent channel implied selectivity for anions. This preference is according to single-channel analysis caused by some excess of cationic charges located in the channel lumen formed by oligomeric alpha-helical wheels. The channel has a suggested diameter of 1.4 nm as judged from the permeability of different sized hydrated anions using the Renkin correction factor. Surprisingly, the genome of C. jeikeium contained only one gene coding for a cell wall channel of the PorA/PorH type found in other Corynebacterium species. The possible evolutionary relationship between the heterooligomeric channels formed by certain Corynebacterium strains and the homooligomeric pore of C. jeikeium is discussed. PMID:24116064

  4. Resolución de observables sensibles a la composición de masa de rayos cósmicos a partir de mediciones realizadas con telescopios de fluorescencia atmosférica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josebachuili, M.; Melo, D.; Etchegoyen, A.; Ferrero, A.; Krieger, A.; Ravignani, D.; Sánchez, F.; Sidelnik, I.; Tapia Casanova, A.; Wundheiler, B.

    The fluorescence detection technique allows a direct measurement of the atmospheric longitudinal profile produced by cosmic rays with energies greater than 1016.5 eV. This calorimetric technique provides the cosmic ray energy, without resorting to simulations, and atmospheric depth where the shower develops the maximum number of particles, an observable sensitive to the chemical composition of the primary particle. Recent studies suggest that other observables sensitive to the type of primary particle can be drawn from simulated air showers. The resolution of the fluorescence telescopes can modify these observables. This effect is studied in detail to determine their ability to separate between primary proton and iron using simulations of the fluorescence telescopes of the Pierre Auger Observatory at energies of 10^(18.5) eV and 10^(19.2) eV. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  5. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  6. [Optimization of tri-expression of human CYP3A4 with POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells].

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhangming; Liu, Wenhui; Xu, Yingchun; Chen, Shuqing

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions of tri-expression of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 in Sf 9 cells. The Sf 9 cells expressing CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 were cultured in shaker flasks. The optimized conditions, including the temperature and rotation speed, the culture volume, the amount of surfactant and the culture time were studied. The expressed products in microsomes were used to metabolize the testosterone and their metabolic activity was determined. When the temperature and rotation speed of the shaker were 27 degree and 90 r/min, the cell density and culture volume were 5X105 cells/ml and 80-120 ml per 250 ml shaker flasks, respectively. When Pluronic F-68 was 0.1% and the culture time was 72 h, the condition was most suitable for culture of Sf 9 cells and expression of targeted proteins. When the ratio of the volume of three added viruses was 1:1:1, the expression condition was optimal, under which the Km, Vmax, and CLint for testosterone metabolism were 119.6 μmol/L,0.52 μmol/(min*g protein) and 4.34 ml/(min*g protein), respectively. The conditions of tri-expressing of CYP3A4, POR and cyt b5 have been optimized in the study and the product CYP3A4 is obtained with higher metabolic activity.

  7. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  8. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  9. CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 genetic variants influence the required dose of tacrolimus in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Lesche, Dorothea; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Setoud, Raschid; Oberhänsli, Markus; Carrel, Thierry; Fiedler, Georg M; Largiadèr, Carlo R; Mohacsi, Paul; Sistonen, Johanna

    2014-12-01

    After heart transplantation (HTx), the interindividual pharmacokinetic variability of immunosuppressive drugs represents a major therapeutic challenge due to the narrow therapeutic window between over-immunosuppression causing toxicity and under-immunosuppression leading to graft rejection. Although genetic polymorphisms have been shown to influence pharmacokinetics of immunosuppressants, data in the context of HTx are scarce. We thus assessed the role of genetic variation in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, POR, NR1I2, and ABCB1 acting jointly in immunosuppressive drug pathways in tacrolimus (TAC) and ciclosporin (CSA) dose requirement in HTx recipients. Associations between 7 functional genetic variants and blood dose-adjusted trough (C0) concentrations of TAC and CSA at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after HTx were evaluated in cohorts of 52 and 45 patients, respectively. Compared with CYP3A5 nonexpressors (*3/*3 genotype), CYP3A5 expressors (*1/*3 or *1/*1 genotype) required around 2.2- to 2.6-fold higher daily TAC doses to reach the targeted C0 concentration at all studied time points (P ≤ 0.003). Additionally, the POR*28 variant carriers showed higher dose-adjusted TAC-C0 concentrations at all time points resulting in significant differences at 3 (P = 0.025) and 6 months (P = 0.047) after HTx. No significant associations were observed between the genetic variants and the CSA dose requirement. The CYP3A5*3 variant has a major influence on the required TAC dose in HTx recipients, whereas the POR*28 may additionally contribute to the observed variability. These results support the importance of genetic markers in TAC dose optimization after HTx.

  10. Spatial and stimulus-type tuning in the LEC, MEC, POR, PrC, CA1, and CA3 during spontaneous item recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Beer, Zachery; Chwiesko, Caroline; Kitsukawa, Takashi; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2013-12-01

    According to the "two streams" hypothesis, the lateral entorhinal (LEC) and the perirhinal (PrC) cortices process information related to items (a "what" stream), the postrhinal (POR) and the medial entorhinal cortices (MEC) process spatial information (a "where" stream), and both types of information are integrated in the hippocampus (HIP). However, within the framework of memory function, only the HIP is reliably shown to preferentially process spatial information, and the PrC items' features. In contrast, the role of the LEC and MEC in memory is virtually unexplored, and conflicting results emerge for the POR. Moreover, the specific contribution of the hippocampal subfields CA1 and CA3 to spatial and non-spatial memory is not thoroughly understood. To investigate which of these areas is specifically tuned to spatial demands or stimulus identity (odor or object), we assessed the pattern of activation of these areas during recognition memory by detecting the immediate-early gene Arc, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation. We report that all MTL areas were recruited during the spatial and the non-spatial tasks. However, the LEC, MEC, POR, and CA1 were activated to a comparable level in spatial and non-spatial tasks, while the PrC was tuned to stimulus-type, not spatial demands, and CA3 to spatial demands but not stimulus-type. Results are discussed within the frame of a recent model suggesting that the MTL could be segregated in terms of memory processes, such as recollection and familiarity, rather than information content. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency caused by R457H mutation in POR gene in Chinese: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Wang, Xiaoli

    2017-03-14

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a rare disease exhibiting a variety of clinical manifestations. It can be difficult to differentiate with other diseases such as 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS). Nearly 100 cases of PORD have been reported worldwide. However, the genetic characters and clinical management are still unclear, especially in China. In this study, we report a 27-year-old female Chinese patient who first presented with amenorrhea and recurrence of large ovary cyst. She was misdiagnosed with PCOS and non-classical 21-OHD due to ovary cysts and elevated 17-hydroxy-progesterone. The patient's complaining of a mild difficulty of bending the metacarpophalangeal joints reminded us to consider PORD, which usually presents with skeletal deformities and sexual dysfunction. The diagnosis of PORD was confirmed by genetic analyses, which showed the patient harboring a homozygous missense mutation in the POR gene (R457H) and her parents carrying the heterozygous mutation. The patient was treated with low-dose corticosteroids and estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy, and her ovarian cyst gradually reduced with regular menstruation in the follow-up. Moreover, the clinical and genetic characteristics of 104 previously reported PORD cases were also summarized and analyzed. PORD is a very rare disease which can be easily misdiagnosed in mild cases. Clinicians should keep in mind of this disease in patients with sexual dysfunction, especially combined with special skeletal deformities. Our data could provide a consciously understanding of this disease for clinic practicers. Low-dose corticosteroids combined with estrogen/progesterone sequential therapy will be effective in PORD patients with recurrence of large ovary cyst. The fact that the reported PORD patients in China carrying an identical variant R457H in POR gene also give us a viewpoint that R457H mutation in POR gene maybe

  12. Preclinical safety and immunogenicity evaluation of a nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Kaaijk, Patricia; van Straaten, Ineke; van de Waterbeemd, Bas; Boot, Elmieke P J; Levels, Lonneke M A R; van Dijken, Harry H; van den Dobbelsteen, Germie P J M

    2013-02-04

    An improved nonavalent PorA native outer membrane vesicle vaccine was developed with intrinsic adjuvating activity due to presence of less-toxic (lpxL1) LPS. In the present study, the safety and immunogenicity of this next-generation NonaMen vaccine were evaluated following repeated vaccination in rabbits and mice. A repeated-dose toxicology study was performed in rabbits. Immunogenicity of next-generation NonaMen was evaluated by determining the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers against meningococcal serogroup B strains containing several PorA subtypes. Release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), by the human monocytic cell line (MM6) was measured to estimate pyrogenic activity. No toxicologically relevant findings were noted in vaccinated rabbits receiving plain next-generation NonaMen. In agreement, next-generation NonaMen induced reduced amounts of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, released by human monocyte cell line. In both rabbits and mice, next-generation NonaMen induced high SBA titers against all tested MenB strains regardless of whether or not aluminium phosphate adjuvant is used. The data suggest that next-generation NonaMen is a safe vaccine with the potential to develop a broadly protective immune response and encourage the start of the first clinical studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  14. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  15. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  16. Effect of CYP3A4*22, POR*28, and PPARA rs4253728 on sirolimus in vitro metabolism and trough concentrations in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Kamar, Nassim; Coste, Sandra; Rostaing, Lionel; Marquet, Pierre; Picard, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified new candidate polymorphisms in the genes related to CYP3A activity or calcineurin inhibitor dose requirements in kidney transplant recipients. These genes and polymorphisms are CYP3A4 (cytochrome P450, family 3, subfamily A, polypeptide 4) (rs35599367-C>T; *22); POR [P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase] (rs1057868-C>T; *28); and PPARA (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha) (rs4253728-G>A). We investigated the impact of these polymorphisms on sirolimus (SRL) in vitro hepatic metabolism, SRL trough concentrations (C0), and SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients. The clinical study included 113 stable kidney transplant patients switched from a calcineurin inhibitor to SRL (SRL C0 measured at 1, 3, and 6 months thereafter). We investigated SRL metabolism in vitro using human liver microsomes derived from individual donors (n = 31). Microsomes and patients were genotyped by use of Taqman® allelic discrimination assays. The effects of polymorphisms and covariates were studied using multilinear regression imbedded in linear mixed-effect models or logistic regressions. In vitro, the CYP3A4*22 allele resulted in approximately 20% lower metabolic rates of SRL (P = 0.0411). No significant association was found between CYP3A4, CYP3A5, or PPARA genotypes and SRL dose, C0, or C0/dose in kidney transplant patients. POR*28 was associated with a minor but significant decrease in SRL log-transformed C0 [CT/TT vs CC, β = -0.15 (0.05); P = 0.0197] but this did not have any impact on the dose administered, which limited the relevance of the finding. After adjustment for nongenetic covariates and correction for false discovery finding, none of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms tested showed significant association with SRL adverse events. These recently described polymorphisms do not seem to substantially influence the pharmacokinetics of SRL or the occurrence of SRL adverse events in kidney transplant recipients.

  17. Variation in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) A503V and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3 E158K is associated with minor alterations in nicotine metabolism, but does not alter cigarette consumption.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Meghan J; Zhu, Andy Z X; Sanderson Cox, Lisa; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-03-01

    The rates of nicotine metabolism differ widely, even after controlling for genetic variation in the major nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, CYP2A6. Genetic variants in an additional nicotine-metabolizing enzyme, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO)-3, and an obligate microsomal CYP-supportive enzyme, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), were investigated. We examined the impact of FMO3 E158K and POR A503V before and after stratifying by CYP2A6 metabolism group. In 130 nonsmokers of African descent who received 4 mg oral nicotine, FMO3 158K trended toward slower nicotine metabolism in reduced CYP2A6 metabolizers (P=0.07) only, whereas POR 503V was associated with faster CYP2A6 activity (nicotine metabolite ratio) in normal (P=0.03), but not reduced, CYP2A6 metabolizers. Neither FMO3 158K nor POR 503V significantly altered the nicotine metabolic ratio (N=659), cigarette consumption (N=667), or urine total nicotine equivalents (N=418) in smokers of African descent. Thus, FMO3 E158K and POR A503V are minor sources of nicotine metabolism variation, insufficient to appreciably alter smoking.

  18. Analisis de las distribuciones espectrales de energia de nucleos pre-estelares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldano, H. P.; Gómez, M. N.

    In this contribution we present the Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) modeling of 4 massive stellar objects; in their initial evolutionary stages; obtained from the 1.2 mm catalogue of Beltran_2006 Beltran_2006. The Herschel images at 70 - 500 m; combined with those obtained by WISE; allow us to build the SEDs. We use the code of Whitney_2003a Whitney_2003a to model them. For the youngest objects; instead; we apply a simple modified black body model. We estimate the envelope circumstellar parameters which characterize these massive stars and identify the evolutionary stage of each object according to the sequence proposed by Chambers_2009 Chambers_2009. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  19. Servicios del Centro de Soluciones Para la Energia Limpia (Spanish Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a Spanish translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  20. Servicios del Centro de Soluciones Para la Energia Limpia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-05-01

    This is the Spanish translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center Services fact sheet. The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  1. Renewable Energy for Rural Health Clinics (Energia Removable para Centros de Salud Rurales)

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, A. C.; Olson, K.

    1998-09-01

    This guide provides a broad understanding of the technical, social, and organizational aspects of health clinic electrification, especially through the use of renewable energy sources. It is intended to be used primarily by decision makers within governments or private agencies to accurately assess their health clinic's needs, select appropriate and cost-effective technologies to meet those needs, and to put into place effective infrastructure to install and maintain the hardware. This is the first in a series of rural applications guidebooks that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Village Power Program is commissioning to couple commercial renewable systems with rural applications. The guidebooks are complemented by NREL's Village Power Program's development activities, international pilot projects, and visiting professionals program. For more information on the NREL Village Power Program, visit the Renewables for Sustainable Village Power web site at http://www.rsvp.nrel .gov/rsvp/.

  2. Turbine generator evaluation for the Eesti-Energia Estonia and Baltic power plants. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report evaluates the feasibility of 200 MW turbines and generators modernization in two Estonian power plants in order to improve performance and/or availability. This is Volume 1 and it includes the following: (1) scope; (2) evaluation approach; (3) summary of major recommendations; (4) performance tests descriptions; (5) current technology -- component description; (6) recommended studies; (7) recommendations; (8) district heating; (9) description of turbine K-200-130; (10) turbine evaluation results; (11) generator; (12) estimation of modernization costs.

  3. Effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1 C3435T on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yan, Liang; Cao, Hui-Min; Wei, Lu-Man; Yang, Wei-Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Jun; Zhang, Li-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker that is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, significant individual variances in the disposition of nifedipine have been reported, and genetic factors are considered to play an important role. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, ABCB1-C3435T, and POR*28 genetic polymorphisms on nifedipine pharmacokinetics in healthy Chinese volunteers. 45 healthy Chinese volunteers enrolled in this study received a single oral dose of 90 mg nifedipine after providing written informed consent. Volunteers were genotyped for CYP3A4*1G, CYP3A5*3, POR*28, and ABCB1-C3435T. The blood concentrations of nifedipine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. There were significant differences of AUC00-∞ and AUC0-48h in the different CYP3A5*3 genotype groups (p = 0.043 and p = 0.048, respectively). The CYP3A5*3 GG group and POR*28 CT/TT group were found to have lower AUC00-∞ and Cmax compared with the POR*28 CC group (p = 0.046 and p = 0.002, respectively). In addition, the POR*28 CT/TT group was found to have longer t1/2 but lower Cmax than the CYP3A4*1G GG group (p = 0.032 and p = 0.002, respectively) as well as the CYP3A4*1G GG and the CYP3A5*3 GG group (p = 0.038 and p = 0.036, respectively) compared with the POR*28 CC group. No significant associations were found between CYP3A4*1G/ABCB1-C3435T polymorphism and pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Both CYP3A5*3 and POR*28 polymorphisms are found to be associated with the difference in disposition of nifedipine; POR*28 is considered to have an impact on CYP3A4 activity.

  4. Unique combined penA/mtrR/porB mutations and NG-MAST strain types associated with ceftriaxone and cefixime MIC increases in a 'susceptible' Neisseria gonorrhoeae population.

    PubMed

    Thakur, S D; Starnino, S; Horsman, G B; Levett, P N; Dillon, J R

    2014-06-01

    To determine which mutations in penA, mtrR and porB are implicated in increasing minimum MICs of ceftriaxone and cefixime in a susceptible gonococcal population and to ascertain associations with gonococcal strain types (STs). One hundred and forty-six Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates formed two extended-spectrum cephalosporin susceptibility groups: group 1 isolates with cefixime and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.0005-0.016 mg/L; and group 2 isolates with cefixime MICs of 0.03-0.125 mg/L (n = 24) and ceftriaxone MICs of 0.03-0.06 mg/L (n = 23). Mutation patterns in penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2; penA), multiple transfer resistance repressor (MtrR; mtrR) and porin B (PorB; porB) were ascertained by DNA sequence and bioinformatic analysis. STs were determined using N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST). Most isolates carried PBP2 mutation pattern IX (D345a, F504L, A510V, A516G and P551L; 50/146, 34.2%), a G45D substitution in MtrR (37.7%) and a wild-type (WT) sequence for PorB (43.2%). Group 2 gonococcal isolates were significantly associated with: penA pattern IX; dual mutations in the promoter (A-) and DNA dimerization domain (H105Y) of MtrR; and G120K;A121D substitutions in PorB. There were 50 combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation patterns, with corresponding patterns I/WT/WT and IX/G45D/G120K;A121D predominating. Gonococci susceptible to ceftriaxone and cefixime were significantly associated with NG-MAST ST 25 (33/36; 92%) and the combined penA/mtrR/porB mutation pattern I/WT/WT. No combined mutation pattern or specific ST was associated with elevated ceftriaxone MICs. NG-MAST ST 3654 was significantly associated with the pattern IX/G45D/G120K;A121D and cefixime group 2 isolates. Specific single or combined mutation patterns in penA, mtrR and porB and specific STs were associated with differences in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and cefixime. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  5. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  6. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  7. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  8. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  9. Population pharmacokinetic approach to evaluate the effect of CYP2D6, CYP3A, ABCB1, POR and NR1I2 genotypes on donepezil clearance.

    PubMed

    Noetzli, Muriel; Guidi, Monia; Ebbing, Karsten; Eyer, Stephan; Wilhelm, Laurence; Michon, Agnès; Thomazic, Valérie; Stancu, Ioana; Alnawaqil, Abdel-Messieh; Bula, Christophe; Zumbach, Serge; Gaillard, Michel; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; von Gunten, Armin; Csajka, Chantal; Eap, Chin B

    2014-07-01

    A large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations has been reported in patients treated with donepezil, the most frequently prescribed antidementia drug. We aimed to evaluate clinical and genetic factors influencing donepezil disposition in a patient population recruited from a naturalistic setting. A population pharmacokinetic study was performed including data from 129 older patients treated with donepezil. The patients were genotyped for common polymorphisms in the metabolic enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A, in the electron transferring protein POR and the nuclear factor NR1I2 involved in CYP activity and expression, and in the drug transporter ABCB1. The average donepezil clearance was 7.3 l h(-1) with a 30% interindividual variability. Gender markedly influenced donepezil clearance (P < 0.01). Functional alleles of CYP2D6 were identified as unique significant genetic covariate for donepezil clearance (P < 0.01), with poor metabolizers and ultrarapid metabolizers demonstrating, respectively, a 32% slower and a 67% faster donepezil elimination compared with extensive metabolizers. The pharmacokinetic parameters of donepezil were well described by the developed population model. Functional alleles of CYP2D6 significantly contributed to the variability in donepezil disposition in the patient population and should be further investigated in the context of individual dose optimization to improve clinical outcome and tolerability of the treatment. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  10. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  11. Phenotypic and Genotypic Analyses of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Isolates That Express Frequently Recovered PorB PIA Variable Region Types Suggest that Certain P1a Porin Sequences Confer a Selective Advantage for Urogenital Tract Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Lotisha E.; Bash, Margaret C.; Keys, Christine; Warner, Douglas M.; Ram, Sanjay; Shafer, William M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Typing of the porB variable region (VR) is an epidemiological tool that classifies gonococcal strains based on sequence differences in regions of the porB gene that encode surface-exposed loops. The frequent isolation of certain porB VR types suggests that some porin sequences confer a selective advantage during infection and/or transmission. Alternatively, certain porin types may be markers of strains that are successful due to factors unrelated to porin. In support of the first hypothesis, here we show urogenital tract isolates representing the most common PIA VR types identified in an urban clinic in Baltimore, MD, over a 10-year period belonged to several different clonal types, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Serum resistance, which was confirmed by factor H and C4b-binding protein binding studies, was more often associated with gonococcal the most common VR types. In contrast, three porin-independent phenotypes, namely, lactoferrin utilization, β-lactamase production, and multiple transferable resistance (Mtr), were segregated with the PFGE cluster and not with the VR type. Data combined with another PIA strain collection showed a strong correlation between serum resistance and the most common VR types. A comparison of VR typing hybridization patterns and nucleotide sequences of 12 porB1a genes suggests that certain porin loop 1, 3, 6, and/or 7 sequences may play a role in the serum resistance phenotype. We conclude that some PorB PIA sequences confer a survival or transmission advantage in the urogenital tract, perhaps via increased resistance to complement-mediated killing. The capacity of some porin types to evade a porin-specific adaptive immune response must also be considered. PMID:18541655

  12. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  13. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  14. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  15. Impact of the CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR genetic polymorphisms on tacrolimus metabolism in Chinese renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuan-Jiang; Li, Liang; Lin, Li; Jiang, Hai-Xia; Zhong, Ze-Yan; Li, Wei-Mo; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Zheng, Ping; Tan, Xu-Hui; Zhou, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Tacrolimus is a widely used immunosuppressive drug for preventing the rejection of solid organ transplants. The efficacy of tacrolimus shows considerable variability, which might be related to genetic variation among recipients. We conducted a retrospective study of 240 Chinese renal transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus as immunosuppressive drug. The retrospective data of all patients were collected for 40 days after transplantation. Seventeen SNPs of CYP3A5, CYP3A4, COMT, IL-10 and POR were identified by the SNaPshot assay. Tacrolimus blood concentrations were obtained on days 1-3, days 6-8 and days 12-14 after transplantation, as well as during the period of the predefined therapeutic concentration range. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to examine the effect of genetic variation on the tacrolimus concentration/dose ratio (C 0/D) at different time points. Chi-square test was used to compare the proportions of patients who achieved the target C 0 range in the different genotypic groups at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 after transplantation. After correction for multiple testing, there was a significant association of C 0/D with CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C at different time points after transplantation. The proportion of patients in the IL-10 rs1800871-TT group who achieved the target C 0 range was greater (p = 0.004) compared to the IL-10 rs1800871-CT and IL-10 rs1800871-CC groups at week 3 after transplantation. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4 *1G, CYP3A4 rs4646437 T>C and IL-10 rs1800871 C>T might be potential polymorphisms affecting the interindividual variability in tacrolimus metabolism among Chinese renal transplant recipients.

  16. Legal Knowledge as a Tool for Social Change: La Mesa por la Vida y la Salud de las Mujeres as an Expert on Colombian Abortion Law.

    PubMed

    González Vélez, Ana Cristina; Jaramillo, Isabel Cristina

    2017-06-01

    In May 2006, Colombia's Constitutional Court liberalized abortion, introducing three circumstances under which the procedure would not be considered a crime: (1) rape or incest; (2) a risk to the woman's health or life; and (3) fetal malformations incompatible with life. Immediately following the court's ruling, known as Sentence C-355, members of La Mesa por la Vida y Salud de las Mujeres (hereinafter La Mesa) began to mobilize to ensure the decision's implementation, bearing in mind the limited impact that the legal framework endorsed by the court has had in other countries in the region. We argue that La Mesa's strategy is an innovative one in the field of legal mobilization insofar as it presumes that law can be shaped not just by public officials and universities but also by social actors engaged in the creation and diffusion of legal knowledge. In this regard, La Mesa has become a legal expert on abortion by accumulating knowledge about the multiple legal rules affecting the practice of abortion and about the situations in which these rules are to be applied. In addition, by becoming a legal expert, La Mesa has been able to persuade health providers that they will not risk criminal prosecution or being fired if they perform abortions. We call this effect of legal mobilization a "pedagogical effect" insofar as it involves the production of expertise and appropriation of knowledge by health professionals. We conclude by discussing La Mesa's choice to become a legal expert on abortion as opposed to recruiting academics to do this work or encouraging women to produce and disseminate this knowledge.

  17. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  18. The P450 oxidoreductase (POR) rs2868177 and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6*6 polymorphisms contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Chen; Liu, Fang-Qun; Yang, Li; Cheng, Lin; Dai, Hai-Ying; Tao, Ran; Cao, Shi-Peng; Wang, Di; Tang, Jie

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene were correlated with interindividual variations in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 activity. Thirty-six healthy volunteers who tested CYP2B6 and POR polymorphisms were enrolled in the study. CYP2B6 activity was measured by bupropion hydroxylation with LC/MS/MS. The ratio of hydroxybupropion versus bupropion (AUC_hyd/AUC_bup) in terms of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was used to represent the CYP2B6 activity. The volunteers carrying CYP2B6*1/*1 showed a significantly higher mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than those CYP2B6*1/*6 and CYP2B6*6/*6 variants (15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 9.25 ± 1.92, P = 0.008 and 15.66 ± 1.65 vs. 8.21 ± 1.74, P = 0.006, respectively). POR rs2868177 (6593 A > G) AA homozygotes showed a significantly lower mean AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup than that of POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes or GG homozygotes (8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 12.15 ± 2.97, P = 0.005 and 8.13 ± 1.37 vs. 17.59 ± 3.25, P = 0.001, respectively). Moreover, POR rs2868177 AG heterozygotes and GG homozygotes showed a significantly increased mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup than AA homozygotes in the CYP2B6*1/*1 and CYP2B6*6 carriers (16.40 ± 2.01 vs. 12.40 ± 1.45, P = 0.006 and 10.65 ± 1.47 vs. 6.54 ± 1.25, P = 0.004, respectively). Meanwhile, a strong correlation between the genetic variations (POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6) and AUC_hyd/ AUC_bup was found (P = 0.009 and P = 0.001, respectively). There was no significant difference in the mean AUC_hyd/AUC_bup among different POR *28 genotypes (P > 0.05). POR rs2868177 and CYP2B6*6 variants contribute to the interindividual variability in human CYP2B6 activity, which may affect the disposition and interaction of other CYP2B6 substrate drugs.

  19. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  20. Combined effects of CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 single nucleotide polymorphisms on early concentration-controlled tacrolimus exposure in de-novo renal recipients.

    PubMed

    Kuypers, Dirk R J; de Loor, Henriette; Naesens, Maarten; Coopmans, Tamara; de Jonge, Hylke

    2014-12-01

    In a cohort of 298 de-novo renal recipients treated with a standard tacrolimus loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg, the combined effects of the CYP3A5*1, POR*28, and CYP3A4*22 genotypes on early tacrolimus exposure (C0), dose requirements, and achievement of the therapeutic target, C0, were examined. The incidence of clinical events (e.g. acute rejection, diabetes mellitus) was compared between genotypes. Fast metabolizers (CYP3A5*1/POR*28T carriers) had two-fold to three-fold higher tacrolimus dose requirements compared with slow metabolizers (CYP3A5*3/*3/CYP3A4*22 carriers) and needed significantly more time to achieve the target tacrolimus C0 of a minimum 10 ng/ml (3.3±1.7 vs. 1.34±0.75 days; P<0.0001). No differences in acute rejection incidence and time to first rejection were observed. Slow metabolizers more frequently had tacrolimus C0 above the target range early after transplantation (70 vs. 13% on day 3); however, this did not translate into a higher incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus or graft dysfunction. Multivariate analyses identified the CYP3A5*1/POR*28/CYP3A4*22 genotype combination as the single strongest determinant of tacrolimus dose requirements throughout the first year, explaining between 24-40% of its variability, whereas recipient age, hematocrit, and delayed graft function were additional nongenetic determinants of tacrolimus dose. Combining the CYP3A5*1, POR*28 and CYP3A4*22 genotypes allows partial differentiation of early tacrolimus dose requirements and the time to reach therapeutic target concentrations after transplantation, but without obvious clinical implications. Larger prospective studies need to address the clinical relevance of early combined genotype-based tacrolimus dosing in de-novo renal recipients.

  1. Characterisation by multilocus sequence and porA and flaA typing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from samples of dog faeces collected in one city in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Mohan, V; Stevenson, M A; Marshall, J C; French, N P

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni in dog faecal material collected from dog walkways in the city of Palmerston North, New Zealand, and to characterise the C. jejuni isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and porA and flaA antigen gene typing. A total of 355 fresh samples of dogs faeces were collected from bins provided for the disposal of dog faeces in 10 walkways in Palmerston North, New Zealand, between August 2008-July 2009. Presumptive Campylobacter colonies, cultured on modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plates, were screened for genus Campylobacter and C. jejuni by PCR. The C. jejuni isolates were subsequently characterised by MLST and porA and flaA typing, and C. jejuni sequence types (ST) were assigned. Of the 355 samples collected, 72 (20 (95% CI=16-25)%) were positive for Campylobacter spp. and 22 (6 (95% CI=4-9)%) were positive for C. jejuni. Of the 22 C. jejuni isolates, 19 were fully typed by MLST. Ten isolates were assigned to the clonal complex ST-45 and three to ST-52. The allelic combinations of ST-45/flaA 21/porA 44 (n=3), ST-45/flaA 22/porA 53 (n=3) and ST-52/ flaA 57/porA 905 (n=3) were most frequent. The successful isolation of C. jejuni from canine faecal samples collected from faecal bins provides evidence that Campylobacter spp. may survive outside the host for at least several hours despite requiring fastidious growth conditions in culture. The results show that dogs carry C. jejuni genotypes (ST-45, ST-50, ST-52 and ST-696) that have been reported in human clinical cases. Although these results do not provide any evidence either for the direction of infection or for dogs being a potential risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, dog owners are advised to practice good hygiene with respect to their pets to reduce potential exposure to infection.

  2. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  3. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  4. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  5. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  6. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  7. 77 FR 49789 - Record of Decision for Issuing a Presidential Permit to Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... supply system under normal and contingency conditions, and any other factors that DOE considers relevant... soils have a high potential to corrode steel, but potential impacts of corrosion on operation of the... factors that DOE may consider relevant to the public interest. DOE has determined that the...

  8. Estudio de generacion de energia con celdas de combustible con membrana poly diallydimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC) como polimero de intercambio protonico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino Galeano, Miguel Angel

    Fuel cells were built with poly diallydimethylammonium chloride or PDADMAC (by its initials in English) as proton exchange membrane and were compared with earlier studies of fuel cells constructed by other methods and / or materials. Also copper, aluminum and nickel were used as electrodes in the electrode membrane ensamble in search of the best performance operational cell. The results of the current were used to justify the use of PDADMAC membranes in 40% volume-volume ratio in different combinations of metals Cu-Al, Ni-Al as electrodes. For the study of conduction performance of membrane electrode ensambles (MEA), copper and aluminum were as cathode and anode for their active behavior as functional electrodes in the experimental cell, walling individually membrane types PDADMAC, PDADMAC + Buffer, PDADMAC + deionized water and PDADMAC + tap water.

  9. (seminario usos de la energia solar en la vivienda) solar energy applications for dwellings. Seminar 17-19 nov 80

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Contents include: National Ecoplan; National Urban Development Plan; The National Housing Program and the Use of Solar Systems and not Conventional Energies in Human Settlements; National Infrastructure for the Development of Solar Energy; Plans to Incorporate Solar Energy Systems into Mexican Communities; General Panorama of Solar Energy Projects Being Carried out in Mexico; and Recent Demonstration Projects in Mexico.

  10. Evaluating Por Nuestra Salud: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brenda; Gonzales, Gustavo; Kernan, William

    2016-01-01

    This feasibility study evaluated the impact of a culturally consistent diabetes educational program, led by a Latino pastor, on Latino community diabetes knowledge levels. Latino adults were recruited from two churches serving Latino populations, one identified as intervention, the other as nonintervention. Both churches received the American Diabetes Association's booklets on diabetes education, "Four Steps to Control Your Diabetes for Life." The intervention group also received weekly reviews of the booklet's information from the church pastor, who was educated about diabetes by a Latino family nurse practitioner. Pre- and postintervention levels of diabetes knowledge were measured using the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire. Mean changes in the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ-24) survey from pretest to posttest indicated a significant increase in knowledge in both groups. Only the grades for the participants from the pastor-led group, however, moved from failure in knowledge to high levels of passing. One hundred percent of intervention group participants reported having read the literature. This pilot study supports the feasibility of a local Latino pastor, as a culturally consistent diabetes educator, to increase Latino parishioner's knowledge of diabetes. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  11. On sopro do magnetar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. P.; Horvath, J. E.

    2003-08-01

    Magnetares sao estrelas de nêutrons com campos magnéticos acima do limiar quântico de 4,4´1013 G. Por causa desse intenso campo magnético, que exige período de rotação inicial da ordem de 1 ms, o torque eletromagnético é capaz de injetar 2´1052 erg, em menos de um dia, no Remanescente de Supernova (RSN) formado por ocasião da formação do magnetar. A energia injetada acelera a expansão do RSN, de modo que estimativas de idade do RSN feitas sem considerar a injeção de energia superestimarão a idade verdadeira. Além do cenário usual de formação de magnetares em colapsos gravitacionais de estrelas massivas, estudamos a possibilidade de formação dos mesmos através do Colapso Induzido por Acresção em anãs brancas. Estudamos, através de simulação numérica unidimensional, com diversas massas ejetadas e diversas densidades de meio interestelar local, as associações propostas entre candidatos a magnetar e RSNs, incluindo a injeção de energia. Concluímos que aproximadamente metade delas podem ser verdadeiras, e determinamos a faixa de velocidades e idades possíveis de cada associação. As incertezas observacionais a respeito do tamanho e densidade do meio interestelar local limitam a acurácia da análise.

  12. Final Environmental Assessment, Outgrant for Construction and Operation of a Solar Photovoltaic System in Area I, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    metro de d•sltlbuoloo de energfa. El sistema perm itirla a los 1Q a 15 megavallos de conionte alltma de enefgla renovables I Ia base aer&a de NeUls...oparacl6ra de un sistema solar fotovojtaico compuesto por paneles solares y una nueva linea de metro de dstrib,UCi6n de energia . El sistema P.Srtnitirfa a...los tO a 15 megavatios de eonieflte alterna de energfa renovables a Ia base aerea de Nel!js. La locallzaci6n propuesta para el sistema fotovoltaico

  13. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  14. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, sequence type (ST), and genomic presence of IS1301 in group B meningococcal ST269 clonal complex isolates from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray

    2009-11-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster.

  15. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, Sequence Type (ST), and Genomic Presence of IS1301 in Group B Meningococcal ST269 Clonal Complex Isolates from England and Wales▿

    PubMed Central

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J.; Kaczmarski, Edward B.; Guiver, Malcolm; Kugelberg, Elisabeth; Vallely, Pamela J.; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Tang, Christoph M.; Borrow, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Highly effective glycoconjugate vaccines exist against four of the five major pathogenic groups of meningococci: A, C, W-135, and Y. An equivalent vaccine against group B meningococci (menB) has remained elusive due to the poorly immunogenic capsular polysaccharide. A promising alternative, the investigational recombinant menB (rMenB)- outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine, contains fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), NadA, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for 90% of meningococcal disease in England and Wales, where the multilocus sequence type (ST) 269 (ST269) clonal complex (cc269) has recently expanded to account for a third of menB cases. To assess the potential cc269 coverage of the rMenB-OMV vaccine, English and Welsh cc269 isolates from the past decade were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, and NadA. All of the isolates harbored fHbp and nhba alleles, while 98% of the cc269 isolates were devoid of nadA. Subvariant profiling of fHbp, nhba, and porA against STs revealed the presence of two broadly distinct and well-defined clusters of isolates, centered around ST269 and ST275, respectively. An additional molecular marker, insertion sequence IS1301, was found to be present in 100% and <2% of isolates of the respective clusters. On the basis of the genetic data, the potential rMenB-OMV coverage of cc269 in England and Wales is high (up to 100%) within both clusters. Expression studies and serum bactericidal antibody assays will serve to enhance predictions of coverage and will augment ongoing studies regarding the significance of IS1301 within the ST269 cluster. PMID:19759227

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  17. Unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of Rhodnius prolixus nitrophorin 2: identification of the [FeIV=O Por•]+ and [FeIV=O Por](Tyr38•) intermediates and their role(s) in substrate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Berry, Robert E; Yang, Fei; Zhang, Hongjun; Walker, F Ann; Ivancich, Anabella

    2010-10-19

    We have identified a novel enzymatic reaction for nitrophorin 2 (NP2), a heme protein previously characterized as a nitric oxide carrier in the saliva of the Rhodnius prolixus insect. NP2 exhibited levels of peroxidase activity comparable to those of the bifunctional peroxidases (KatGs), despite their heme pocket structural differences (heme ruffling, Tyr38 and Tyr85 in hydrogen bonding interactions with the propionates in NP2). The intermediates of the peroxidase-like reaction of NP2 were identified by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and electronic absorption spectroscopies. The EPR spectrum consistent with an [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was detected at pH <7. At pH ≥ 7, the change from a strong to a weak antiferromagnetic coupling interaction for the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species was accompanied by the subsequent formation of an [Fe(IV)=O Por](Tyr•) intermediate. Tyr38 was shown to be the unique naturally occurring radical site in NP2. The Y38F mutant stabilized the radical on the tyrosine in hydrogen-bonding interaction with the other heme propionate (Tyr85). Kinetic studies using stopped-flow electronic absorption spectrophotometry revealed that the [Fe(IV)=O Por•]+ species reacts with histamine and norepinephrine in a peroxidase-like manner. Our findings demonstrate that NP2 has pH-dependent dual function: at the acidic pH of the insect saliva the protein behaves as a NO carrier, and, if exposed to the higher pH of the tissues and capillaries of the host, NP2 is able to bind histamine or it can efficiently inactivate norepinephrine through a peroxidase-like reaction, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Accordingly, the unprecedented peroxidase-like activity of NP2 is concluded to be a key biological function.

  18. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  19. Characterization of fHbp, nhba (gna2132), nadA, porA, and sequence type in group B meningococcal case isolates collected in England and Wales during January 2008 and potential coverage of an investigational group B meningococcal vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lucidarme, Jay; Comanducci, Maurizio; Findlow, Jamie; Gray, Stephen J; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Guiver, Malcolm; Vallely, Pamela J; Oster, Philipp; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Bambini, Stefania; Muzzi, Alessandro; Borrow, Ray

    2010-06-01

    Invasive disease caused by meningococcal capsular groups A, C, W-135, and Y is now preventable by means of glycoconjugate vaccines that target their respective polysaccharide capsules. The capsule of group B meningococci (MenB) is poorly immunogenic and may induce autoimmunity. Vaccines based on the major immunodominant surface porin, PorA, are effective against clonal epidemics but, thus far, have a limited scope of coverage against the wider MenB population at large. In an alternative approach, the first-generation, investigational, recombinant MenB (rMenB) plus outer membrane vesicle (OMV) (rMenB-OMV) vaccine contains a number of relatively conserved surface proteins, fHBP, NHBA (previously GNA2132), and NadA, alongside PorA P1.4-containing OMVs from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccine. MenB currently accounts for approximately 90% of cases of meningococcal disease in England and Wales. To assess potential rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage of pathogenic MenB isolates within this region, all English and Welsh MenB case isolates from January 2008 (n = 87) were genetically characterized with respect to fHBP, NHBA, NadA, and PorA. Alleles for fHbp, nhba, and porA were identified in all of the isolates, of which 22% were also found to harbor nadA alleles. On the basis of genotypic data and predicted immunological cross-reactivity, the potential level of rMenB-OMV vaccine coverage in England and Wales ranges from 66% to 100%.

  20. Dietary potential renal Acid load in venezuelan children.

    PubMed

    López-Sayers, Mayerling; Bernal, Jennifer; López, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    Objetivo: Determinar y analizar la carga acida potencial renal de la dieta (Potential Renal Acid Load PRAL) y el patron de alimentacion de ninos entre 1 a 6 anos aparentemente sanos. Métodos: Se seleccionaron segun conveniencia a padres de 52 ninos asistentes a una consulta de ninos sanos. La calidad de la dieta y el patron de alimentacion se evaluo mediante un recordatorio de 24 horas y un cuestionario de frecuencia de alimentos. Se calculo la ingesta de macronutrientes y grupos de alimentos, como carnes, lacteos, frutas y verduras. La ingesta de nutrientes se comparo con las recomendaciones de energia y nutrientes. El PRAL se determino segun el metodo de Remer y Manz, para determinar la carga acida de la dieta. Se aplico estadistica descriptiva y correlaciones entre el PRAL, nutrientes y grupos de alimentos. Resultados: La ingesta de proteinas, de leche y de carnes fue elevada, mientras que la ingesta de rutas y hortalizas fue baja. El PRAL fue positivo en 92% de los ninos, se asocio con mayor ingesta de energia, proteinas, grasas, carne y lacteos. La ingesta de proteinas fue > 2,5 g/kg/ dia en 46,2% de los ninos. Los grupos de alimentos con mayor desequilibrio debido a exceso fueron la carne y los productos lacteos, mientras que por deficit fue el grupo de frutas y hortalizas. Conclusión: La dieta se caracteriza por una elevada carga de acido o PRAL, lo que aumenta el riesgo de acidosis sistemica y sus consecuencias metabolicas.

  1. An economic prefeasibility study of geothermal energy development at Platanares, Honduras. Estudio economico de prefactibilidad del desarrollo de energia geotermica en Platanares, Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Trocki, L.K.

    1989-09-01

    The expected economic benefits from development of a geothermal power plant at Platanares in the Department of Copan, Honduras are evaluated in this report. The economic benefits of geothermal plants ranging in size from a 10-MW plant in the shallow reservoir to a 20-, 30-, 55-, or 110-MW plant in the assumed deeper reservoir were measured by computing optimal expansion plans for each size of geothermal plant. Savings are computed as the difference in present value cost between a plan that contains no geothermal plant and one that does. Present value savings in millions of 1987 dollars range from $25 million for the 10-MW plant to $110 million for the 110-MW plant -- savings of 6% to 25% over the time period 1988 through 2008. 8 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Space transportation propulsion USSR launcher technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Space transportation propulsion U.S.S.R. launcher technology is discussed. The following subject areas are covered: Energia background (launch vehicle summary, Soviet launcher family) and Energia propulsion characteristics (booster propulsion, core propulsion, and growth capability).

  3. 77 FR 51991 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... following electric corporate filings: Docket Numbers: EC12-135-000. Applicants: Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC. Description: Section 203 Application of Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC. Filed Date: 8/20/12...

  4. 76 FR 30934 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ...: Montgomery L'Energia Power Partners LP, Tanner Street Generation, LLC. Description: Joint Application for Authorization Under Section203 of the FPA of Montgomery L'Energia Power Partners LP, et. al. Filed Date: 05/23...

  5. Neutrino-driven wakefield plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, L. A.; Serbeto, A.

    2003-08-01

    Processos envolvendo neutrinos são importantes em uma grande variedade de fenômenos astrofísicos, como as explosões de supernovas. Estes objetos, assim como os pulsares e as galáxias starburst, têm sido propostos como aceleradores cósmicos de partículas de altas energias. Neste trabalho, um modelo clássico de fluidos é utilizado para estudar a interação não-linear entre um feixe de neutrinos e um plasma não-colisional relativístico de pósitrons e elétrons na presença de um campo magnético. Durante a interação, uma onda híbrida superior de grande amplitude é excitada. Para parâmetros típicos de supernovas, verificamos que partículas carregadas "capturadas" por essa onda podem ser aceleradas a altas energias. Este resultado pode ser importante no estudo de mecanismos aceleradores de partículas em ambientes astrofísicos.

  6. Discriminação de núcleos primários no Observatório Auger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiba, A. K. O.; Medina Tanco, G. A.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2003-08-01

    A identidade das partículas, com energias E > 10EeV, que geram chuveiros atmosféricos extensivos (CAE) na atmosfera terrestre é um incógnita. Existem diferenças sutis, mas apreciáveis entre chuveiros gerados por fótons e por núcleos, como temos demonstrado em trabalho recente. Porém entre os núcleos, as diferenças são tão sutis, que a baixa estatística e incertezas experimentais têm limitado fortemente sua diferenciação até o presente. Tal discriminação precede qualquer aplicação astrofísica mas sofisticada de raios cósmicos de ultra-alta energia. Apresentamos aqui os resultados do desenvolvimento de novos métodos de diagnóstico para a análise de CAEs com aplicação específica ao Experimento Pierre Auger. Redes neurais, combinadas com simulações numéricas detalhadas de CAEs e dos dois tipos diferentes de detectores (Cherenkov em água e de fluorescência atmosférica) presentes no experimento são empregados na análise. Mostraremos a capacidade dos métodos de diagnóstico desenvolvidos, para a discriminação de diversas distribuições hipotéticas de massa-anergia.

  7. Multi-National Cooperation in Space Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    8 Figure 3 Sea Launch System (From: Energia ) .................................................................9 Figure 4 Primary...some lessons may still be drawn. Sea Launch is a joint effort between Boeing (U.S.), RSC Energia (Russia), SDO Yuzhnoye/PO Yuzhmash (Ukraine...operations, and home port management. RSC Energia provides the Block DM upper stage, launch vehicle integration, ground systems and launch operations. SDO

  8. [ANTIOXIDANT DYSFUNCTIONALITY OF HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL) IN DECOMPENSATED DIABETIC PATIENTS].

    PubMed

    Awad, Fernanda; Contreras-Duarte, Susana; Molina, Patricia; Quiñones, Verónica; Serrano, Valentina; Abbott, Eduardo; Maiz, Alberto; Busso, Dolores; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Introducción: las lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL) tienen un importante efecto protector cardiovascular mediado por su función durante el transporte reverso del colesterol, así como por otras actividades, incluyendo una significativa acción antiinflamatoria y antioxidante. La funcionalidad antiinflamatoria y antioxidante de las HDL está alterada en los pacientes diabéticos crónicos estables, aunque no existe mayor información en caso de una crisis hiperglicémica. Objetivo: determinar si durante un estado de descompensación diabética aguda las partículas de HDL exhiben un deterioro de su función antioxidante y si esta logra recuperarse una vez resuelto el cuadro agudo. Métodos: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL se midió mediante un ensayo de fluorescencia in vitro en muestras plasmáticas de pacientes diabéticos con descompensación aguda obtenidas tanto al ingreso, alcanzada la resolución intrahospitalaria del evento agudo, así como en un control ambulatorio post-hospitalización. Como comparación, se analizaron partículas de HDL de algunos sujetos sanos como condición control. Resultados: la actividad antioxidante de las HDL en pacientes con descompensación diabética aguda fue significativamente menor a la observada en el grupo control sano, y esta se fue recuperando progresivamente hasta normalizarse en el momento del control ambulatorio. La crisis hiperglicémica también demostró una baja actividad plasmática de la enzima antioxidante paraoxonasa- 1, la cual aumentó significativamente en el control ambulatorio. Conclusión: las partículas de HDL presentes en pacientes con una descompensación diabética aguda presentan una reducción significativa y reversible de su capacidad antioxidante, probablemente como consecuencia de una alteración en la actividad de la paraoxonasa-1.

  9. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  10. On the Use of "Por" Plus Agent with "Se" Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mello, George

    1978-01-01

    Two explanations for the role of "se" in such constructions as "Se construyen casas" are given by grammarians; one states that it is a passive interpretation ("Houses are built"), the other advocates an impersonal interpretation ("One builds houses"). Different views are presented and analyzed. (Author/NCR)

  11. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  12. POR FIN (Program Organizing Related Family Instruction in the Neighborhood).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    A project was undertaken in San Antonio, Texas, to develop a recruitment approach which would be more effective than the traditional mass media approach in recruiting hard-core undereducated individuals into adult education classes. An experiment was designed to test a recruiting method which would employ a personal, face-to-face interview…

  13. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  14. [The right to avoid pregnancy] [POR, ENG translation included].

    PubMed

    1981-01-21

    Signs are finally appearing in Brazil that despite the government's hesitations and the hostility of the Catholic Church the decade of the 1980s shall bring effective changes intended to restrain population growth. Now, 4 years after its inclusion in the social program of the Geisel administration in 1977, family planning will become a reality. It is certainly about time, for at the present rate of growth the Brazilian population increases by about 6 persons per minute--about 3 million a year. At this pace, only a large scale State intervention that provides the population with information, assistance and free access to contraception may decisively reverse the trend. Figueiredo's government has decided that family planning should be introduced slowly, gradually and subtly, thus avoiding specific programs and publicity campaigns through the mass communication vehicles. In an effort to get around sharper criticism from the Church and the opposition, the government intends to mobilize catholic laypersons, priests, and nuns and, if possible, bishops in a national attempt to disseminate information on natural methods of birth control. As a 1st step, the Ministry of Health will widely distribute information on human reproduction and fecundity along with explanations of artificial contraceptive methods. Subject to the couple's decision and under medical indications, the free supply of contraceptive means to low income families shall be ensured by the government. The government will also allow sterilization. Despite its cautious approach, in actuality the government's program will in many places and circumstances be a massive inducement to contraceptive use.

  15. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  16. Manual for ERLE (Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment). Instructions and information for institutions of higher learning concerning used energy-related laboratory equipment grants; Manual para ERLE [Equipo de Laboratorio Relacionado con la Energia]. Instrucciones e informacion para instituciones de educacion superior sobre subvenciones de equipo de laboratorio usado relacionado con la energia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  17. Conceptos Basicos Sobre el Propano

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-01

    El propano provee energia a mas de 143.000 vehiculos en los Estados Unidos y 23 millones en todo el mundo. Flotas de todos los Estados Unidos han implementado con exito el uso de vehiculos que funcionan con gas propano, y en la actualidad varios funcionan gracias a este gas, incluyendo autobuses escolares, lanzaderas y autobuses publicos, asi como tambien furgonetas, taxis, vehiculos utilizados por las fuerzas del orden, barredoras de calles y camiones para uso profesional. El propano tambien se utiliza con frecuencia en aplicaciones fuera de la carretera, tales como montacargas, podadoras y equipos de uso profesional y otros equipos agricolas. Las ventajas del propano incluyen la disponibilidad interna, su rendimiento y el hecho de que genera menos emisiones de gases contaminantes que otras alternativas energeticas.

  18. A phase 1 study of a meningococcal native outer membrane vesicle vaccine made from a group B strain with deleted lpxL1 and synX, over-expressed factor H binding protein, two PorAs and stabilized OpcA expression.

    PubMed

    Keiser, P B; Biggs-Cicatelli, S; Moran, E E; Schmiel, D H; Pinto, V B; Burden, R E; Miller, L B; Moon, J E; Bowden, R A; Cummings, J F; Zollinger, W D

    2011-02-04

    This phase I clinical trial assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a native outer membrane vesicle (NOMV) vaccine prepared from an lpxL1(-) synX(-) mutant of strain 8570(B:4:P1.19,15:L8-5) of Neisseria meningitidis. Additional mutations enhance the expression of factor H binding protein variant 1 (fHbp v.1), stabilize expression of OpcA and introduce a second PorA (P1.22,14). Thirty-six volunteers were assigned to one of four dose groups (10, 25, 50 and 75 mcg, based on protein content) to receive three intramuscular injections at six week intervals with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Specific local and systemic adverse events were solicited by diary and at visits on days 2, 7, and 14 after each vaccination. Blood chemistries, complete blood count, and coagulation studies were measured on each vaccination day and again 2 and 14 days later. Blood for ELISA and serum bactericidal assays was drawn two and six weeks after each vaccination. The proportion of volunteers who developed a fourfold or greater increase in bactericidal activity to the wild type parent of the vaccine strain at two weeks after the third dose was 27 out of 34 (0.79, 95% C.I. 0.65-0.93). Against four other group B strains the response rate ranged from 41% to 82% indicating a good cross reactive antibody response. Depletion assays show contributions to bactericidal activity from antibodies to lipooligosaccharide (LOS), fHbp v.1 and OpcA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  20. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  1. Nonlinear Propagation of Mag Waves Through the Transition Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Steinolfson, R. S.; Mahajan, S.; Tajima, T.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Una onda de gravitaci5n magneto acustica (GMA), se inicia en el regimen de alta beta cerca de la basa de fot5sfera solar y es segui- da, usando simulaciones numericas, mientras viaja radialmente a traves de la cromosfera, la regi5n de transici6n y dentro de la corona. Se ha' seleccionado parametros iniciales de manera que la beta resulte menor que uno cerca de la parte alta de la regi6n de transici6n. Nuestro interes maximo se concentra en la cantidad y forma del flujo de energia que puede ser llevada por la onda hasta la corona dados una atm6sfera inicial y amplitud de onda especificas. Segun los estudios a la fecha, el flujo de energ1a termico domina, aumentando linealmente con la ampli tud deonda y resulta de aproximadamente i05 ergs/cm2-s en una amplitud de 0.5. El flujo de energia cinetica siempre permanece despreciable, mientras que el flujo de energia magnetica depende de la orientaci5n inicial del campo. Un modo GMA rapido y casi paralelo, el cual es esen- cialmente un modo MHD en la corona se convierte a un modo rapido modificado y a uno lento, cuando la beta atmosferica disminuye a uno. ABSTRACT: A magneto-acoustic-gravity (MAG) wave is initiated in the high-beta regime near the base of the solar photosphere and followed, using numerical siriiulations, as it travels radially through the chromosphere, the transition region, and into the corona. Initial parameters are selected such that beta becomes less than one near the top of the transition region. Our primary interest is in the amount and form of energy flux that can be carried by the wave train into the corona for a specified initial atmosphere and wave amplitude. For the studies conducted to date, the thermal energy flux dominates, it about linearly with wave amplitude and becomes approximately 10 ergs/cm2-s at an amplitude of 0.5. The kinetic energy flux always remains negligible, while the magnetic energy flux depends on the inLtial field orientation. A nearly parallel fast MAG mode, which

  2. Excitação e fotoabsorção de moléculas interestelares no ultra violeta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, A. M. F.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Souza, G. B.; Turci, C. C.

    2003-08-01

    O estudo dos processos de excitação, fotoabsorção e ionização molecular nas nuvens interestelar, permite a análise dos processos químicos, como a formação e destruição de moléculas, até mesmo daquelas que dão origem à vida. Acredita-se que as moléculas como CS2, NH3, CO2 e N2O estão presentes nas nuvens onde são formadas as estrelas e seus sistemas planetários. Estas moléculas são congeladas na superfície de objetos densos, como aqueles encontrados na Nuvem de Oort do nosso Sistema Solar. Quando esses objetos (cometas) desprendem-se dessa região, aproximam-se do Sol, sofrem a interação da radição Ultra Violeta (UV), passam à fase gasosa e são bombardeados por íons e elétrons presentes nos ventos solares. Obtivemos os espectros de fotoabsorção do CS2, NH3 e N2O na faixa do UV, convertendo espectros de Perda de Energia de Elétrons, medidos no menor ângulo de espalhamento e na energia de impacto de 1000 eV. Destes espectros determinamos os valores de força de oscilador (f) e de seção de choque absolutas na faixa de 500 a 2000 Å. Para tal, estudamos e comparamos dois diferentes métodos de conversão. Neste trabalho também geramos muitos dados moleculares como, valores absolutos de seção de choque elástica em função do ângulo de espalhamento e a distribuição de força do oscilador generalizada (df/dE) em função da energia de excitação para diversos ângulos de espalhamento. Comparando nossos espectros de fotoabsorção com o espectro da atmosfera de Júpiter, obtido pelo Telescópio Espacial Hubble, logo após o impacto do cometa Shoemaker-Levy 9, confirmamos a presença do CS2 e da amônia.

  3. Propriedades de estruturas temporais rápidas submilimétricas durante uma grande explosão solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raulin, J.-P.; Kaufmann, P.; Gimenez de Castro, C. G.; Pacini, A. A.; Makhmutov, V.; Levato, H.; Rovira, M.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos novas propriedades de variações rápidas da emissão submilimétrica durante uma das maiores explosões solares do ciclo solar 23. Os dados analisados neste estudo foram obtidos com o Telescópio Solar Submilimétrico (SST), que observa o Sol em 212 GHz e 405 GHz, e comparados com emissões em Raios-X duros e Raios-gama (fótons de energia > 10 MeV), que foram obtidas pelo experimento GRS do Yohkoh. Aplicamos diferentes metodologias para detectar e caracterizar, ao longo do evento, os pulsos submilimétricos (duração de 50-300 ms) detectados acima de uma componente mais lenta (alguns minutos). Os resultados mostram que durante a fase impulsiva, num instante próximo ao tempo do máximo do evento, houve um aumento da ocorrência de maiores e de mais rápidas estruturas temporais. Também identificamos uma boa correlação com as emissões em raios-X e raios-gama (até a faixa de energia 10-100 MeV), indicando que os pulsos rápidos submilimétricos refletiram injeções primárias de energia durante o evento.O espectro do fluxo desses pulsos é crescente com a freqüência entre 212 and 405 GHz, na maioria dos casos, ao contrário do observado para a componente gradual. As posições calculadas para as estruturas rápidas são discretas, compactas e localizadas em toda a área da região ativa, o que é previsto nos modelos de explosões solares decorrentes de instabilidades múltiplas em diferentes pequenas regiões. Por outro lado, a posição calculada para a componente lenta é estável durante a fase impulsiva. Assim, a comparação entre as características do espectro de fluxo e da localização da emissão, para os pulsos rápidos e para a componente gradual, sugere que as respectivas emissões são de natureza diferente.

  4. Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, (9th), Held at St. Petersburg, Russia, on 27-29 May 2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Rocket and Space Corporation Energia , 4a, Lenina St.. 141070. Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia Phone 7095 5138242; Fax: 7095 5138620; e-mail: post2@rsce.ru...satellite that is being designed at RSC Energia to be used as a space component of INFA INFA effectiveness analysis has been completed. 1. INFA...being designed in RSC Energia as a radio broadcast and communications satellite, and which can be used as a space component of INFA. Fig.7 shows

  5. Soviet Space Program Handbook.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    in advance and some events were even broadcast live. Immediately following the first success- ful launch of their new Energia space launch vehicle in...early 1988. Just as a handbook written a couple of years ago would need updating with Mir, Energia , and the SL-16, this handbook will one day need up...1986. Johnson, Nicholas L. The Soviet Year in Space 1983. Colorado Springs, CO: Teledyne Brown Engineering, 1984. Lawton, A. " Energia - Soviet Super

  6. A mineral reconnaissance sampling manual for Costa Rica: Central American energy and resoure project. Manual para muestreo en el reconocimiento mineral de Costa Rica: Proyecto Centroamericano de energia y recursos naturales

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, S.

    1987-06-01

    This manual describes field procedures for the collection of stream-sediment and rock samples as part of the Mineral Resource Assessment of Costa Rica. It provides guidelines to be followed by personnel collecting, treating, or otherwise handling samples taken as part of this program. The objectives of the manual are to ensure that all samples are collected uniformly and consistent techniques are employed throughout the program. If this is done, the data from this study can be used to identify areas with potential for mineralization. This manual can also be used as a guideline for future geochemical sampling programs in Costa Rica.

  7. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 1. Executive summary, RL-17 test report, and gas conversion proposals. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the first of three volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Executive Summary; (2) Hydrogen Damage Assessment; (3) RL-17 Gas Conversion Proposal; (4) RL-10 and RL-11 Gas Conversion Proposals.

  8. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 2. Unit RL-10 boiler condition assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the second of three volumes and it includes the following section: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Boiler.

  9. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  10. Verification and validation interim report for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This Verification and Validation (V/V) interim report summarizes to date the results of the V/V tasks performed in each of the following life cycle phases: concept, requirements, design, implementation, test, installation and checkout, and operation and maintenance. At the end of the installation and checkout phase, the V/V final report will be issued. This interim report contains or references the following for each phase: Description of V/V tasks performed; Summary of task results; Summary of anomalies and resolution; Assessment of system quality; Recommendations.

  11. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  12. 77 FR 23474 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ....m. ET 5/1/12. Docket Numbers: ER12-1470-000. Applicants: Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC. Description: Energia Sierra Juarez U.S. LLC FERC Electric Tariff No.1 MBR Tariff to be effective 4/10/2012...

  13. [Metabolic myopathies].

    PubMed

    Papazian, Óscar; Rivas-Chacón, Rafael

    2013-09-06

    Objetivo. Revisar las miopatias metabolicas manifestadas solamente por crisis de mialgias, calambres y rigidez musculares con dificultad para contraer los musculos afectados y el examen neurologico normal entre las crisis en niños y adolescentes. Desarrollo. Estas miopatias metabolicas se deben a deficits enzimaticos heredados en forma autosomica recesiva del metabolismo de los carbohidratos y lipidos. El resultado final es una reduccion del trifosfato de adenosina principalmente a traves de la fosforilacion oxidativa mitocondrial con disminucion de la energia disponible para la contraccion muscular. Las secundarias a trastornos del metabolismo de los carbohidratos se producen por ejercicios de alta intensidad y breves (< 10 min) y las secundarias a trastornos de los lipidos, por ejercicios de baja intensidad y prolongados (> 10 min). Los deficits enzimaticos en el primer grupo son de miofosforilasa (glucogenosis V), fosfofructocinasa muscular (glucogenosis VII), fosfoglicerato mutasa 1 (glucogenosis X) y beta enolasa (glucogenosis XIII), y en el segundo, de carnitina palmitol transferasa tipo II y de acil-CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena muy larga. Conclusiones. Las caracteristicas diferenciales de los pacientes en cada grupo y dentro de cada grupo permitiran el diagnostico clinico presuntivo inicial en la mayoria y solicitar solamente los examenes necesarios para corroborar el diagnostico. El tratamiento de las crisis consiste en hidratacion, glucosa y alcalinizacion de la orina. Las medidas preventivas son evitar el tipo de ejercicio que induce las crisis y el ayuno. No existe cura o tratamiento especifico. El pronostico es bueno con la excepcion de casos raros de insuficiencia renal aguda debido a la elevacion sanguinea de la mioglobina producto de una rabdomiolisis grave.

  14. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  15. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  16. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  17. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  18. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  19. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  20. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  1. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  2. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  3. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  4. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  5. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  6. Policy options for responding to the growing challenge from obesity (PorGrow) in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Ciok, J; Dolna, A; Oltarzewski, M

    2007-05-01

    To explore the perspectives of stakeholders towards a range of policy options to respond to obesity in Poland, a multi-criteria mapping method was used. During structured interviews, stakeholders were invited to appraise policy options by reference to criteria of their own choosing. They also provided relative weightings to their criteria, generating overall rankings of the policy options in relation to each other. Efficacy, feasibility and societal benefits were the groups of criteria deemed most important. There was most consensus in favour of options related to health education, particularly in schools, compared with options that aimed at modifying the environment to prevent obesity, i.e. options around physical activity, modifying the supply and demand for food products, and information-related options. There was little support for technological solutions or institutional reforms. There was broad consensus that to reverse the rising trend in the incidence of obesity, it will be necessary to implement a portfolio of measures, but options related to behaviour change through education are most highly regarded. It will also be necessary to invest in improved surveillance and monitoring of Polish dietary practices, levels of physical activity and obesity in terms of data on height, weight and body mass indexes.

  7. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  8. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  9. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  10. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  11. Mexico Visto Por Sus Ninos (Mexico as Seen by Her Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Today's Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    "Mexico as Seen by Her Children," a book authored by Mexican children, and the educational project built around it is an example of bicultural cooperation between the Mexican and United States governments. (CJ)

  12. "Por Los Ojos De Madres": Latina Mothers' Understandings of College Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Laura Jean; Martinez, Melissa Ann; Sáenz, Victor B.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, data from six focus groups with 30 Latina mothers in South Texas were analyzed utilizing a "funds of knowledge" approach to uncover their understandings of college readiness and their role in ensuring their children are college ready. Findings indicate that Latina mothers perceived college readiness in a holistic fashion,…

  13. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  14. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  15. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  16. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  17. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  18. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  19. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  20. Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea (Malpighiaceae) em ovinos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Niedenzuella stannea a sodium monofluoroacetate-containing plant cause of sudden death in cattle in southern Mato Grosso State. This study describes the toxicity and clinical and pathological findings of experimental poisoning by N. stannea in sheep. Fruits, mature leaves and young leaves of the pla...

  1. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  2. Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Johanna Claire; de Hernandez, Brisa Urquieta; Williams, Lacey; Smith, Heather A; Sorensen, Janni; Furuseth, Owen J; Dulin, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the social determinants underlying health disparities benefits from a mixed-methods, participatory research approach. Photovoice was used in a research project seeking to identify and validate existing data and models used to address socio-spatial determinants of health in at-risk neighborhoods. High-risk neighborhoods were identified using geospatial models of pre-identified social determinants of health. Students living within these neighborhoods were trained in Photovoice, and asked to take pictures of elements that influence their neighborhood's health and to create narratives explaining the photographs. Students took 300 photographs showing elements that they perceived affected community health. Negative factors included poor pedestrian access, inadequate property maintenance, pollution, and evidence of gangs, criminal activity, and vagrancy. Positive features included public service infrastructure and outdoor recreation. Photovoice data confirmed and contextualized the geospatial models while building community awareness and capacity. Photovoice can be a useful research tool for building community capacity and validating quantitative data describing social determinants of health.

  3. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  4. Mortalidade em florestas de Pinus palustris causada por tempestade de raios

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Jorge Paladino Corrêa de Lima; Jose Américo de Mello Filho

    2002-01-01

    The importance of lightning as an ignition source for the fire driven Pinus palustris ecosystem is widely recognized. Lightning also impacts this system on a smaller scale by causing individual tree mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the level of mortality due to lightning activity at the Department of Energy's Savannah...

  5. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  6. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  7. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  8. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  9. Fontes binárias supermoles de raios X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, A. M.; Janot Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Estuda-se as características físicas das fontes supermoles (de raios X (SSS), utilizando dados ópticos e em altas energias, no âmbito de um trabalho de IC. Trata-se de binárias que apresentam espectro X muito mole, baixas temperaturas e altas luminosidades bolométricas. Esse sistemas são compostos por uma anã branca realizando fusão em sua superfície, a partir de matéria perdida pela estrela companheira. Os resíduos de fusão se acumulam na superfície da anã branca, e essa pode ultrapassar o limite de Chadrasekhar, produzir um colapso gravitacional, sendo esse um dos cenários propostos para as explosões de SN Ia. Apresentamos nesta comunicação o estado da arte das características físicas das fontes SSS, situando-as no âmbito das VCs. Procuramos também situar esses objetos em relação às variáveis galácticas V Sge, na medida em que os dois grupos apresentam certas caracerísticas bastante semelhantes.A metodologia adotada é aquela pedagógico-cognitiva clássica de um trabalho de IC na área de ciências exatas.

  10. Um satélite brasileiro para observação do diâmetro solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emilio, M.; Leister, N. V.; Benevides Soares, P.; Teixeira, R.; Kuhn, J.

    2003-08-01

    Propomos uma missão espacial para medir a forma e o diâmetro solar com o objetivo de ajudar a determinar o potencial gravitacional do Sol e a sua rotação com precisão, testar modelos teóricos de variação de energia e pela primeira vez medir os modos g de oscilação. As observações serão obtidas através do instrumento denominado APT (Astrometric and Photometric Telescope) descrito por Kuhn(1983). A sensibilidade do instrumento é de 0,2 mas em 27 dias para as observações do diâmetro solar feitas a cada minuto. Esta é uma missão de três anos de duração e pode complementar as medidas que serão feitas pelo satélite PICARD (a ser lançado em 2007). Outros parâmetros físicos podem ser obtidos com as mesmas imagens o que certamente interessará à comunidade de física solar. Um primeiro contato foi realizado com a agência espacial brasileira que pretende lançar um satélite científico a cada dois anos.

  11. Former Soviet Republic Capabilities in Space and Science

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    MIR space station and improving the developed Proton, Zenith, Energia booster and Buran shuttle systems. They mentioned with pride that the Russian...business in a few months. NPO Energia was interesting in that it is a massive bureau with about 30,000 people, which has controlled about two-thirds of...three or four people working. Overall, Energia didn’t seem to be able to describe itself as a business or indicate what it wanted from the U.S., other

  12. Radiative Augmented Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    PbLFICE SY 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION M.L. ENERGIA , Inc. AFOSR/NA 6r. ADDRESS (City. State. anW ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City State, and ZIPCode...27 -00 N ’fPECTED 0 6I FOREWORD This is the Final Report on research on Radiative Augmented Combustion conducted at M. L. ENERGIA , Inc. It was a...the first two annual reports prior to this one. The entire research program was performed at ENERGIA , Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, with Dr. Moshe Lavid

  13. Radiative Augmented Combustion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    86-0085 In 00I to RADIATIVE AUGMENTED COMBUSTION MOSHE LAVID M.L. ENERGIA , INC. P.O. BOX 1468 1 PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY 08542 AUGUST 1985 *.. plo...Combustion conducted at M.L. ENERGIA . It is funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract No. F49620-83-C-0133, with Dr. J.M...reported. It covers the second year of the contract, from July 15, 1984 through July 14, 1985. The work was performed at ENERGIA , Princeton, New Jersey

  14. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  15. [Association between food behavior and hypercholesterolemia-LDL in university students].

    PubMed

    Salazar Ruiz, Erika Nohemi; Márquez Sandoval, Yolanda Fabiola; Vizmanos Lamotte, Bárbara; Altamirano Martínez, Martha Betzaida; Salgado Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Salgado Goytia, Lorenzo; Muñoz Valle, José Francisco; Parra Rojas, Isela

    2015-06-01

    Introducción: la hipercolesterolemia-LDL (H-LDL) se asocia a mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular. La asociacion entre H-LDL y alimentacion se ha centrado en aspectos nutrimentales. El estudio de la asociacion entre el comportamiento alimentario (CA) y la H-LDL en estudiantes universitarios podria brindar elementos de correccion y/o prevencion nutricional en esta poblacion. Objetivo: evaluar la asociacion entre CA e H-LDL en estudiantes universitarios. Métodos: estudio transversal realizado en una muestra de 167 estudiantes de la Universidad Autonoma de Guerrero, Mexico. Se midio el colesterol-LDL serico, considerandose hipercolesterolemia una concentracion ≥100 mg/dL. El CA se evaluo mediante un cuestionario previamente validado. La asociacion entre CA e H-LDL se determino con una regresion logistica bivariada, ajustando por sexo, edad, nivel socioeconomico, tabaquismo, ingesta de energia, actividad fisica, presencia o no de obesidad y antecedentes familiares. Resultados: consumir el almuerzo (colacion matutina) se asocio con un 63% de menos riesgo de H-LDL (OR 0,37; 95% IC 0,15, 0,90). Ingerir alimentos fuera de casa una o dos veces a la semana, se asocio con cuatro veces mas riesgo de H-LDL (R 5,14; 95% IC 1,12, 23,62). Los sujetos que referian consumir alimentos en exceso (1 o 2, y 3 o mas veces/semana) tuvieron mayor riesgo de H-LDL (OR 3,26; 95% IC 1,10, 9,64 y OR 10,52; 95% IC 2,66, 41,60, respectivamente). Conclusiones: algunos CA habituales de los estudiantes universitarios de Guerrero implican mayor riesgo de H-LDL. Por ello, promover acciones correctivas y/o preventivas centradas en estos CA podria mejorar la salud de esta poblacion.

  16. PFI-ZEKE (Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy) para el estudio de iones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaño, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Basterretxea, A. Longarte. F.; Sánchez Rayo, M. N.; Martínez, R.

    Entre las áreas hacia donde ha evolucionado la Química en los últimos años están los estudios de sistemas con especies reactivas de alta energía y los dominados por fuerzas intermoleculares débiles, con energías de unas pocas kcal/mol. En efecto, el estudio de las propiedades de los iones, comenzando por su relación con la molécula neutra de la que procede, la energía de ionización, los estados vibracionales y rotacionales, energías de enlace de Van der Waals entre el ión y una amplia variedad de otras moléculas, sus confórmeros o isómeros y sus reacciones o semi-reacciones químicas están en la raíz de la necesidad de la espectroscopía conocida como PFI-ZEKE, Pulsed Field Ionization-Zero Electron Kinetic Energy. Entre las aplicaciones que requieren estos conocimientos se encuentran la generación de plasmas para la fabricación de semiconductores, memorias magnéticas, etc, así como los sistemas astrofísicos, la ionosfera terrestre, etc. La espectroscopía ZEKE es una evolución de las de fluorescencia inducida por láser, LIF, ionización multifotónica acrecentada por resonancia, REMPI, con uno y dos colores y acoplada a un sistema de tiempo de vuelo, REMPI-TOF-MS, y las espectroscopías de doble resonancia IR-UV y UV-UV. Sus espectros y la ayuda de cálculos ab inicio permite determinar las energías de enlace de complejos de van der Waals en estados fundamental y excitados, identificar confórmeros e isómeros, obtener energías de ionización experimentales aproximadas (100 cm-1) y otras variables de interés. Al igual que con LIF, REMPI y dobles resonancias, es posible utilizar muestras gaseosas, pero los espectros están muy saturados de bandas y su interpretación es difícil o imposible. Se evitan estas dificultades estudiando las moléculas o complejos en expansiones supersónicas, donde la T de los grados de libertad solo alcanzan unos pocos K. Para realizar experimentos de ZEKE hay que utilizar una propiedad recientemente

  17. 78 FR 67138 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Solar 1, LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 2, LLC, Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC, Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC, Fowler Ridge II Wind Farm LLC, Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC, Mesquite Power, LLC, Mesquite Solar...

  18. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  19. Estudo de soluções locais e cosmológicas em teorias do tipo tensor-escalar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva E Costa, S.

    2003-08-01

    Teorias do tipo tensor-escalar são a mais simples extensão possí vel da Relatividade Geral. Nessas teorias, cujo modelo padrão é a teoria de Brans-Dicke, a curvatura do espaço-tempo, descrita por componentes tensoriais, aparece acoplada a um campo escalar que, de certo modo, representa uma variação na constante de acoplamento da gravitação. Tais teorias apresentam soluções locais e cosmológicas que, em determinados limites, recaem nas apresentadas pela Relatividade Geral, mas que em outros limites trazem novidades, tais como conseqüências observacionais da evolução de flutuações primordiais distintas daquelas previstas pela Relatividade Geral (ver, por ex., Nagata et al., PRD 66, p. 103510 (2002)). Graças a esta possibilidade de trazer à luz novidades em relação à gravitação, teorias do tipo tensor-escalar podem ser vistas como um interessante campo alternativo de pesquisas para soluções dos problemas de massa faltante (ou escura) e/ou energia escura. Seguindo tal linha, este trabalho, ainda em sua fase inicial, apresenta soluções gerais de teorias do tipo tensor-escalar para diversas situações, verificando-se em que consiste a divergência dessas soluções dos casos tradicionais possí veis na Relatividade Geral. Como exemplos das soluções aqui apresentadas pode-se destacar uma expressão geral para diferentes soluções cosmológicas englobando diferentes tipos de matéria (representados por diferentes equações de estado), e a expressão para uma solução local representando um buraco negro com rotação, similar à solução de Kerr da Relatividade Geral. Por fim, é importante ressaltar que, embora aqui apresentem-se poucos resultados novos, na literatura sobre o assunto a maior parte das soluções apresentadas limita-se a uns poucos casos especí ficos, tal como soluções cosmológicas apenas com curvatura nula, e que mesmo as soluções disponí veis são, em geral, pouco divulgadas e, portanto, pouco conhecidas, e

  20. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by State, Place, and Contractor, FY84, Part 4, (Allenville, Missouri-Wyoming, Pennsylvania).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    CLOSED CIRCUIT TV CORP 26 26INGERSOLL-RAND COMPANY INC 67 67INSTITUTE FOR ADVANCED STUDY 75 75 INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MCHS 28 28M L ENERGIA INC 30...I 28 PRINCETON E 0 & 0 PARC 28 IBM CORP 25 25 M L ENERGIA INC 107 107 SAN LUIS CAMERA 41 41...SANDERS ASSOCIATES INC 848 848 SATELLITE SERVICES INC 237 237 SCHICKEL H GEN CONTR INC 132 132 SHERLOT HOME RENOVATION CORP 317 317 TRACY TROMBLEY CONT

  1. Existing Resources, Standards, and Procedures for Precise Monitoring and Analysis of Structural Deformations. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    commonplace, particularly in the monitoring of dams and hydro-electric power generating stations. Italy’s ENEL (Ente Nazionale per 1’ Energia Elettrica...State Commissions to enforce supervision and monitoring of dams by the new owners. Currently, dams owned by state organizations such as Agua y Energia ...Large Dams, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil May. Millmore, J.P. and J.A. Charles (1988). "A -survey of UK embankment dams." Proceedings of Reservoir Renovation 88

  2. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-04

    to increase the use of the new powerful launcher, " Energia ". He said Soviet launchers, predecessors to " Energia ", were available for service, but... renovated in 1971 and resumed activities with a capacity of 15,000 barrels a day. "Once the Iraqi-imposed war was launched, the flow of crude oil...manufacturing. He said that the refinery was once renovated in 1980, following the disruption of crude oil from the Naft Shahr region. He further

  3. Defense Energy Support Center Fact Book FY 2007

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-21

    3 M 21 years Fort Monmouth, NJ Lighting Upgrade, HVAC Renovation , UESC Implementation, GHP, Cogeneration System Site Preparation/Feasibility Ameresco...behalf of Navy Installations in the Sicily, Sardinia and Campania regions of Italy . Awards were made to two companies, ENEL Energia and Energia y...funded $333 million for SRM projects to maintain and renovate military Services owned fuels facilities worldwide . This amount was nearly double the

  4. Europe and Asia in Space, 1993-1994.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    For Privatization", Aviation Week and Space Technology, 27 June 1994, pp. 22-23. 96. "RKK Energia Issues Stock Due to Privatization Order", Space News...multi-year renovation project was undertaken in Kourou to support not only the forthcoming Ariane 5 but also the con- tinuing Ariane 4 missions. By...via the newly formed Lockheed- Khrunichev- Energia joint venture. By the end of 1994 no commercial Proton launches had been undertaken, and the first

  5. Experimentation Using the Mir Station as a Space Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Institute for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia V. Teslenko and N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow...N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia J. A. Drakes/ D. G. Swann, and W. K. McGregor* Sverdrup Technology, Inc...and plume computations. Excitation of the plume gas molecular electronic states by solar radiation, geo- corona Lyman-alpha, and electronic impact

  6. Guidance for DoD Utilization of Host Nation Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-28

    data)  The Honduran electric company,  Empresa  Nacional de Energia Electrica (ENEE) generates power and  operates the national transmission and...CDF  Cumulative Distribution Function  DoD  Department of Defense  ENEE  Empresa  Nacional de Energia Electrica  EUPW  Escalating Uniform Present Worth

  7. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  8. Tdp studies and tests for C. A. Energia Electrica de Venezuela (enelven) at planta ramon laguna, units RL-17 and RL-10. Volume 3. Unit RL-10 turbine generator condition assessment report and units RL-10 and RL-11 boiler feed pump conditon assessment report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-28

    The study, conducted by Babcock and Wilcox, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development agency on behalf of Enelven. In order to maximize generated power output and minimize operating costs at Planta Ramon Laguna, tests were done to evaluate the condition of equipment at the plant. In order to identify any damage and determine the operating output of each unit, assessments were done of the furnaces, boilers, generators and boiler feed pumps being used in the plant. The report presents the results of these tests. This is the last of three volumes and it is divided into the following sections: (1) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 Turbine-Generator; (2) Condition Assessment of Unit RL-10 and RL-11 Boiler Feed Pumps.

  9. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  10. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  11. Tendencia de los egresos hospitalarios por enfermedades infecciosas intestinales en niños en Argentina, 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Degiuseppe, Juan I

    2017-08-01

    Acute diarrhea is one of the most serious public health problems in developing countries because it is generally associated with unfavorable living conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze trends in hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in children under age 5 recorded in official public hospitals from Argentina in the 2005-2013 period. This was an ecological, time-series study based on data provided by the Health Statistics and Information Department, at a national and regional level. Specific hospital discharge rates were estimated, and seasonal behavior and trends were analyzed in relation to this event. In Argentina, 2 521 729 patients under age 5 were discharged in this period; of these, 9.0% were diagnosed with intestinal infectious disease. Children under age 1 accounted for a third of hospitalizations; two annual peaks (summer and winter) were observed in the seasonality analysis. Overall, a downward trend was observed, with a mild increase in the 2007-2009 period. Rates were up to 3 or 4 times higher in Northwest and Northeast Argentina than in the Pampa region. Hospital discharges for intestinal infectious disease in the public subsector account for approximately 10% of all discharges of children under age 5. This event shows a seasonal pattern, with a slightly downward trend over the past years in spite of its heterogeneous distribution across the different Argentine regions.

  12. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  13. Haciendo que los colegios se hagan responsables por el logro (Holding Schools Accountable for Achievement). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    This digest in Spanish describes the key features of current accountability systems and explores their implications for administrators. It discusses various aspects of accountability systems, such as rigorous content standards and the alignment of professional development with standards and test results, and how these elements work together to…

  14. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  15. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  16. Disponibilidade de nutrientes na fitomassa produzida por cultivares de milho (Zea mays L.) de diferentes niveis tecnologicos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Macronutrient uptake, accumulation, and exportation can be affected by corn genetic selection. The objectives of this study were to quantify macronutrient extraction and to evaluate C/P and C/N ratio. The experiment was established at Rolândia County, Paraná State. Ten corn varieties divided into pa...

  17. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  18. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  19. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  20. [Gastos hospitalarios por neumonía neumocóccica invasora en adultos en un hospital general en Chile].

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Álvaro; Lagos, Isabel; Fica, Alberto

    2016-08-01

    Pneumococcal infections are important for their morbidity and economic burden, but there is no economical data from adults patients in Chile. Estimate direct medical costs of bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia among adult patients hospitalized in a general hospital and to evaluate the sensitivity of ICD 10 discharge codes to capture infections from this pathogen. Analysis of hospital charges by components in a group of patients admitted for bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia, correction of values by inflation and conversion from CLP to US$. Data were collected from 59 patients admitted during 2005-2010, mean age 71.9 years. Average hospital charges for those managed in general wards reached 2,756 US$, 8,978 US$ for those managed in critical care units (CCU) and 6,025 for the whole group. Charges were higher in CCU (p < 0.001), and patients managed in these units generated 78.3% of the whole cost (n = 31; 52.5% from total). The median cost in general wards was 1,558 US$, and 3,993 in CCU. Main components were bed occupancy (37.8% of charges), and medications (27.4%). There were no differences associated to age, comorbidities, severity scores or mortality. No single ICD discharge code involved a S. pneumoniae bacteremic case (0% sensitivity) and only 2 cases were coded as pneumococcal pneumonia (3.4%). Mean hospital charges (~6,000 US dollars) or median values (~2,400 US dollars) were high, underlying the economic impact of this condition. Costs were higher among patients managed in CCU. Recognition of bacteremic pneumococcal infections by ICD 10 discharge codes has a very low sensitivity.

  1. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  2. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  3. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  4. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  5. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  6. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  7. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  8. Studio delle popolazioni di blazar ad alte energie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparrini, D.; Giommi, P.

    2008-10-01

    Utilizzando la grande quantita' di dati sui blazar disponibile ad oggi, e' possibile costruire una distribuzione spettrale di energia (SED) media per ciascuna classe di oggetti. Basandosi su un modello SSC, e' inoltre possibile stimare il comportamento di questi oggetti nella banda di energia dei raggi gamma partendo dalle informazioni ottenute da osservazioni in altre bande di energia quali il radio e l'X. Utilizzando le simulazioni sara` possibile prevedere un eventuale cambio di popolazione dominante ad alte energie(oltre 1GeV) rispetto a quanto avviene in banda radio dove domina la popolazione dei FSRQ rispetto ai BL Lac e cercare un'eventuale conferma dagli esperimenti AGILE e GLAST.

  9. Evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteado, P.; Lazzaro, D.; Roig, F.; Duffard, R.; Kodama, T.

    2003-08-01

    Asteróides reacumulados (rubble-piles) são corpos formados por um conjunto de fragmentos agregados primariamente pela sua gravidade. A importância do estudo de corpos reacumulados para a compreensão da evolução do Cinturão de Asteróides tem sido bastante evidenciada, não apenas pela constatação de que estes devem corresponder a uma grande parcela da população de asteróides, mas também por recentes estudos da estrutura e evolução colisional deste tipo de asteróide. A evolução rotacional de corpos reacumulados e a formação de famílias têm sido estudadas pelo nosso grupo, com base no modelo de elipsóides interagentes. Este modelo foi desenvolvido recentemente pelo grupo, e baseia-se na integração numérica das equações de movimento para translação e rotação de corpos formados por um conjunto de elipsóides que interagem entre si pela sua gravidade, força de contato e dissipação de energia por atrito. Considerar a rotação de cada fragmento é a principal diferenciação do nosso modelo em relação aos que têm sido desenvolvidos recentemente. Apresentamos aqui os resultados obtidos para a evolução da rotação de populações de corpos reacumulados. Estes foram submetidos a séries de colisões com projéteis de altas velocidades (5Km/s, típicas do Cinturão atual), distribuídos em uma lei de potências de tamanhos. Estes resultados são comparados com os de Harris (1979), um dos poucos trabalhos analíticos existentes para evolução rotacional de asteróides. O principal resultado obtido por Harris foi a distribuição final de velocidades de rotação como uma lei de potências para corpos pequenos, passando de forma bem definida para rotação constante para os grandes. Nas nossas simulações observamos que as distribuições de velocidades de rotação resultantes tendem a leis de potência, com a inclinação evoluindo no decorrer de colisões subsequentes.

  10. Spain-Chile and Spain-Ecuador cooperation in the field of research nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Avendano, G.; Rodriguez, M.L.; Manas, L.; Masalleras, E.; Montes, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Spanish Board of Nuclear Energy (JEN) has been cooperating for the last several years with the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (Chilean Commission of Nuclear Energy (CCHEN)), on the one hand, and with the Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica (Ecuadorian Commission of Atomic Energy (CEEA)), on the other. The result of this cooperation has been the implementation of projects in both countries to create research centers around a nuclear reactor as the main working tool: the Lo Aguirre reactor in Chile and the Ruminahui reactor in Ecuador.

  11. Atmospheric Effects of Chemical Rocket Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    Tsyklon Baikonur 14.0 Cosmos Baikonur 10.0 Proton Baikonur 11 .0 Molniya Baikonur 9.0 50 Zenit Baikonur 2.0 * 0 4Vostok Baikonur 1.0 Energia 1 0 * 4...Total) 45,515 H2 (Total) 23,376 H20 (Tota. 202,854 N2 (Total) 112,740 HCI (Total) 119.984 OH (Total) 286 H (Total) 286 A12 03 286,100 Energia CO 1,242,940...Earth’s surface, through roughness and solar heating, and (2) the large-scale structure of the troposphere; e.g., inversions. Typically the boundary

  12. Abstracts: 1984 AFOSR/ONR Contractors Meeting on Airbreathing Combustion Research Held on June 20-21, 1984, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-21

    H.L. Beach, NASA Langle Research Center Topic: IGNITION/COMBUSTION ENHANCEMENT 10:30 - 11:00 M. Lavid. ML Energia , Inc. 11:00 - 11:30 W. Braun and...F49620-83-C-0133) Principal Investigator: Moshe Lavid ML ENERGIA , Inc. P.O. Box 1468 Princeton, NJ 08542 SUMMARY/OVERVIEW: The radiative concept to...an indine resonance lamp and a solar -blind PhotomultiPlier. 2 nder- the%,& Cir esm.tanr&e the temPerAtre mod1Jlation CArn he r.qlrujated rom a

  13. Brazil’s Technology Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Livre ” (Rio de Janeiro: 2003). <http://www.finep.gov.br//fundos_setoriais/ct_info/resultados/resultado_chamada_publicaMCT_Finep_ct_info_01_ 2003.pdf...Minas e Energia , “Biodiesel: The New Fuel from Brazil” (Brasília: n.d.). <http://www.biodiesel.gov.br/docs/cartilha_ingles.pdf> (accessed on October 5...Tecnologia, “ Energia e Recursos Minerais: Introdução” (Brasília: 2006). <http://www.mct.gov.br/index.php/content/view/5066.html> (accessed on October

  14. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  15. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  16. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  17. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  18. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  19. Escucheme Por Favor/Please Listen to Me: An Analysis of the Perceptions of Latino Students and Teachers in a High School Multilingual Teacher Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Peter Vincent

    2010-01-01

    This case study used photo elicitation interviewing (PEI) to analyze perceptions of Latino students and their teachers in a multilanguage high school academy. It examined student involvement in school, dropout rate, and pursuit of a college education. Ten academy teachers and 10 Latino senior students were interviewed. Observations obtained…

  20. Calentamiento de arcos coronales en una región activa por reconfiguración topológica del campo magnético.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Fuentes, M.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Schmieder, B.; Fletcher, L.; Mason, H.

    We study the active region (AR) 8048 observed on June 1997 in several wavelenghts. The combined observations obtained using CDS (SOHO) and SXT (Yohkoh) show the heating of the coronal magnetic loops at different atmospheric altitudes. Extrapolating the magnetic field in the corona from longitudinal magnetograms from MDI (SOHO), we determine the location of Bald Patches in the surroundings of the leading spot. This magnetic feature, the emergence of parasitic magnetic polarities and the observed photospheric motions provide the conditions to explain the observed heating.

  1. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  2. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  3. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  4. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  5. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  6. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  7. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  8. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  9. Vientos impulsados por radiación en supergigantes B en rotación: análisis de los regímenes de soluciones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venero, R. O. J.; Curé, M.; Cidale, L.

    2016-08-01

    The theory of radiation driven winds for rotating early-type stars gives three classes of hydrodynamic solutions. These are: the classical m-CAK solution or fast solution, the solution for fast rotators, and the solution for special ionization conditions along the wind structure. In this work we study the domains of every kind of solution in the and parameter space, where is the equatorial rotation speed in terms of the critical rotation velocity, and is the radiation force parameter that determines the ionization structure of the wind. This analysis is performed for different values of effective temperature corresponding to the spectral subtypes among B supergiants. We propose that the winds of B-type supergiants could change between the different velocity regimes, if small variations in the plasma ionization conditions take place. These variations could happen between two consecutive evolutionary stages of B supergiants or, in a short term, explaining the variability observed in the spectra of these stars.

  10. Effect of por-SiC buffer layer on the parameters of thin Er2O3 layers on silicon carbide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacherikov, Yu Yu; Konakova, R. V.; Okhrimenko, O. B.; Berezovska, N. I.; Kapitanchuk, L. M.; Svetlichnyi, A. M.; Svetlichnaya, L. A.

    2015-04-01

    Using optical absorption and Auger spectrometry techniques, we studied the effect of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the properties of erbium oxide films deposited onto a porous silicon carbide buffer layer formed on 4H-SiC substrates. An analysis of atomic composition of the films under investigation as a function of RTA duration was performed. It is shown that phase composition of erbium oxide films on silicon carbide substrates with a porous SiC layer can be changed by varying RTA duration.

  11. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  12. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  13. "Que Luchen por sus Intereses" (To Fight for Your Interests): Unearthing Critical Counter-Narratives of Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roxas, Kevin; Gabriel, Maria L.

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on findings from a year-long research project conducted during the 2012-2013 school year in a PK-12 school district, located in the Mountain West region of the United States, utilizing the Photovoice method. The findings in the project point to the important critical counter-narratives Spanish-speaking immigrant parents…

  14. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  15. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  16. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  17. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  18. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-03

    signed an oil shale exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale...democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the democracy sector, U.S. assistance

  19. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-08

    an oil shale exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale...of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the democracy

  20. CoCom and the Future of Conventional Arms Exports in the Former Communist Bloc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    structure and background of each of these firms. The first example is the Godollo Machine Factory which was primarily involved in repair and renovation of...regularizedŚ Such an attitude is noteworthy because the potential for growth in the space industry is so great. Not only does Russia produce the " Energia

  1. Aerospace Plane Technology: Research and Development Efforts in Japan and Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-01

    However, only with the develop- Aerospace Planes ment of better test facility instruments and more trained personnel, together with the renovation and...necessary. Such a rocket booster (the H-IID) would be one of the largest launchers in the world after the Soviet Energia booster and U.S. Titan IV launch

  2. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    exploration agreement with the Jordanian government. Estonia’s Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. See, “Amman Unlocks...Jordan focus on a variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public

  3. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coastal Engineering Research Board (43rd) Held at Vicksburg, Mississippi on 22-24 May 1985.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    extensive renovation , as shown in Fig- ure 3. Total rehabilitation usually costs one-tenth to one-fourth as much as replacement with a new structure. 29...presented by Dr. Manuel da Silva, Ministerior Da Industria E Energia , Portugal. Dr. da Silva discussed the Sines breakwater failures of 1978 and 1979

  4. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-27

    Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. In 2012, the Canadian company, Global Oil Shale Holdings (GOSH...variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the

  5. The Research Laboratory of Electronics Progress Report Number 133, January 1-December 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-31

    form of a working Beam Epitaxy (MOMBE) of research facility in 1990. The substantial labora- ZnSe tory renovation was completed in February; the CBE...colleagues at Bernstein Waves in Toroidal Plasmas." Pro- the Italian laboratories of E.N.E.A. ( Energia ceedings of the International Sherwood Theory

  6. Pulsed Power Bibliography. Volume 2. Annotated Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    ENEAG? POEV SOJECES with varatle resonant frequencies is transprred to a load renovator .5 Cir.d, D.J. Fricksn. W.B. Gaps a-n CM. PowLer who the... energiaed transformer h.h frequency response in conparison to conventional from a do source end contain ontrolled suitches. Advantages of pulse

  7. Industrial Development of Siberia and the Soviet Far East.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    21 (This argument is perhaps unintentionally fed by the central leadership’s emphasis on investing in renovation and technical reequipment of...Malov, "Po programme ’ energia ’," Pravda, May 12, 1982, p. 2. " M. Matafonov, "Open up Siberia’s Treasure Houses," Sotsialisticheskaia industriia

  8. Parameters, Journal of the US Army War College, Volume 14, Number 4, Winter 1984.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Pa.: US Army War College, Strategic Studies In- 31. A Energia Nuclear no Brasil (Rio de Janeiro: stitute, 1979), p. 17. Biblioteca do Exercito Editors...security factors exist. These would be Monetary Fund officials. "Balance of Payments," in Annual US-Mexican relationships, moral renovation , demographic

  9. JPRS Report. Science & Technology: China.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-16

    development capacity of enterprises. They are playing a major role in leading S&T toward a new system and in renovation . 2. Management of S&T Research...HE WULI [PHYSICA ENERGIAE FORTIS ET PHYSICA NUCLEARIS] in Chinese Vol 12 No 3, May 88 pp 365-371 ™YSICA [Article by the Electron LINAC Department

  10. Jordan: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-02

    Estonia’s Enefit Eesti Energia AS also has signed agreements on oil shale projects. In 2012, the Canadian company, Global Oil Shale Holdings (GOSH...variety of sectors including democracy assistance, water preservation, and education (particularly building and renovating public schools). In the

  11. Private vs. Public Investment in the Mexican Utility Company: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieck-Assad, Flory Anette

    2016-01-01

    How should the strategies and regulations of the Mexican laws be designed in order to trigger a country to go from a non-sustainable energy economy towards a sustainable energy economy? This paper proposes a classroom debate of the reformed Law of Public Electricity Service in Mexico (LSPEE, 1992: Ley del Servicio Publico de Energia Electrica),…

  12. Liquid Nitrogen Dewar Loading at KSC for STS-71 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen dewar loading at Kennedy Space Center for STS-71 flight with Stan Koszelak (right), University of California at Riverside, adn Tamara Chinareva (left), Russian Spacecraft Coporation-Energia. The picture shows Koszelak removing the insert from the transportation dewar.

  13. Expedition 13 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-03-26

    Nikolai Zelenschikov, Deputy General Designer, RSA- Energia, listens to the Expedition 13 crew members talk about their final check of the Soyuz spacecraft at building 254 of the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, Sunday, March 26, 2006. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Advanced Fuels and Combustion Processes for Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    production from biomass steam reforming – Conduct a feasibility analysis of the proposed integrated process Energia Technologies - D. Nguyen & K. Parimi...strength foam material development by Ultramet – Combustion experiments performed U. Of Alabama – End-user input provided by Solar Turbines Major

  15. Stratospheric Ozone Reactive Chemicals Generated by Space Launches Worldwide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-11-01

    I ODCs). Their carbon - chlorine bond is severed in the stratosphere by solar photolysis or reaction. Once the carbon-chlorine bond is broken, the...include the Russian Proton and Energia , and the Chinese Long March series. Roughly half (seven per year) of the Ariane 4 launches use two solid strap-ons

  16. A Spanish ''Power Tower'' solar system: Project CESA-1

    SciTech Connect

    Torralbo, A.M.; Gonzalvez, M.; Lacal, J.A.; Roses, C.O.; Sanchez, F.

    1984-02-01

    Like many other countries and organizations, Spain has been developing a program to investigate the economic viability of new sources of energy. Among these, it should be pointed out, is included the large solar power systems. Within this investigation program, ''Centro de Estudios de la Energia'', an organization dependent on ''Ministerio de Industria y Energia'', is carrying out the CESA-1 Project, which consists of design, construction, start-up, and operation of a 1.2-MW Pilot Solar Power Plant. If the current technical uncertainties are removed and the power tower concept demonstrates its economical viability, Spain will be one of the most appropriate countries in the world for a full-scale implementation of this technology. For this reason, the ''Ministerio de Industria y Energia'' reached the conclusion in mid-1977 that it would be of interest to explore this technology using the domestic industrial potential. The project was approved by the Council of Ministers in June 1977 and the project begun in early 1978. The management of the Project is the direct responsibility of ''El Centro de Estudios de la Energia'' and was helped by the engineering firms Initec and Sener to attain the adequate organization to carry out the project.

  17. Assessment of the Technology and Practice for Determining Casing Degradation during Offshore Drilling Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    industries. Transport of hydrocarbons Castagnet. A.COG. InStituto de Energia Atomica. Sao Paulo (Brazil). Divisao de ApI icacao de Radioisotopos na...DETECTOR*; MEETING PAPER; OPERATING CONDITION; PIPELINE*; PRESSURE: SAFETY EQUIPMENT; SOLAR ENERGY: THERMAL INSULATION: TUBE; VALVE Leaks In gas grids

  18. 78 FR 2389 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...-002. Applicants: Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 2, LLC, Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC, Mesquite Power, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, San Diego Gas & Electric Company, ] Sempra Generation.... Region of Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, et. al. Filed Date: 12/31/12. Accession Number:...

  19. Worldwide Report, Nuclear Development and Proliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    an intensive re- liance on nuclear energy, making use of its rich uranium re- serves, since other alternative sources, such as solar energy, wind...MEET OBJECTIVES Buenos Aires ENERGIA NUCLEAR in Spanish No 14 1983 pp 47-49 [Excerpts] Fuel Elements Enterprise The manufacturing technology

  20. New pipeline policy

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefgen, J.R. Jr.; Colucci, D.M.

    1996-04-01

    This article outlines regulations addressing the sale, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas in Mexico. The regulations were issued in November 1995 by the Comision Reguladora de Energia. The major policy decisions of the regulations are summarized. The current role of Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), the state owned oil and gas entity, which formerly monopolized the Mexican industry, is discussed.

  1. 77 FR 48135 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Mountain Solar 2, LLC, Energia Sierra Juarez U.S., LLC, Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC, Fowler Ridge II Wind.../20/12. Docket Numbers: ER11-3589-002. Applicants: Long Island Solar Farm, LLC. Description: Notification of non-material change in status of Long Island Solar Farm, LLC. Filed Date: 7/30/12. Accession...

  2. Liquid Nitrogen Dewar Loading at KSC for STS-71 Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen dewar loading at Kennedy Space Center for STS-71 flight with Stan Koszelak (right), University of California at Riverside, adn Tamara Chinareva (left), Russian Spacecraft Coporation-Energia. The picture shows Koszelak removing the insert from the transportation dewar.

  3. Microgravity

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-01-01

    Liquid nitrogen dewar loading at Kennedy Space Center for STS-71 flight with Stan Koszelak (right), University of California at Riverside, adn Tamara Chinareva (left), Russian Spacecraft Coporation-Energia. The picture shows Koszelak removing the insert from the transportation dewar.

  4. A Comparison of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Options for the 1990’s .

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    This thesis compares attributes of the heavy lift launch vehicle options that are available for the United States to use in support of the Space ... Exploration Initiative. The systems compared are the Advanced Launch System, Shuttle-C, Saturn V/F-1 and Energia. The F-1 development history is presented

  5. Determinação de regiões de órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, C. F.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2003-08-01

    Neste Trabalho estamos investigando regiões do sistema Terra-Lua que contêm órbitas diretas estáveis ao redor da Lua visando a utilização destas órbitas em futuras missões de veículos espaciais como alternativas de trajetórias com baixo custo de manutenção. Adotando-se o problema restrito de três corpos, Terra-Lua-partícula, a localização e a extensão destas regiões de estabilidade foram investigadas numericamente considerando como estável toda órbita que permanece ao redor a Lua por, no mínimo, 1000 dias com energia de dois corpos da partícula em relação à Lua negativa. A estabilidade de tais regiões está associada a duas famílias de órbitas periódicas simples H1 e H2 e a órbitas quase-periódicas associadas a elas. Uma vez identificadas as regiões de estabilidade passamos a analisá-las introduzindo, paulatinamente, outras interações relevantes ao sistema como as perturbações do Sol (via problema restrito de quatro corpos), das marés, da pressão de radiação e do achatamento terrestre. Os resultados encontrados até o momento mostram que a perturbação do Sol é a única que reduz significativamente o tamanho das regiões de estabilidade. Também estamos investigando o comportamento de tais regiões quando características intrínsecas do sistema como as excentricidades das órbitas da Terra e da Lua e a inclinação da órbita Lua são consideradas. Com este estudo estamos reunindo informações que nos permitirão compreender a evolução das regiões de estabilidade no sistema Terra-Lua, bem como estabelecer parâmetros adequados para a utilização das trajetórias estáveis em futuras missões espaciais. Agradecimentos: Este projeto conta com o apoio do CNPq, da Capes e da Fapesp.

  6. Kinetic Alfven Waves and the Depletion of the Thermal Population in Extragalactic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafelice, L. C.; Opher, R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Chorros Extragalacticos (CE) y Fuentes Radio Extendidas (FRE) son locales de ricos y complejos procesos de plasma magnetizado. Recien tes observaciones indican que esas fuentes son estructuradas en filamen tos. Nos concentramos aqui en el analisis de dos problemas: 1) el prob[e ma de injecci6n,queespropuesto porlas teorias de aceleraci6n de p ? las en plasmas de CE e FRE, que necesitan partfculas que ya tengan ener gfas moderadamente relativisticas para que los procesos de Fermi sean efectivos; y 2) la reciente evidencia observacional de la ausencia de partfculas termicas en CE. El presente modelo pone en evidencia que ambos problemas estan 1ntimamente relacionados uno con el otro. Jafelice y Opher (1987a) (Astrophys. Space Sci. 137, 303) muestram que es espera da una abundante generaci6n de olas Alf cineticas (OAC) en CE y FRE. En el presente trabajo estudiamos Ia cadena de procesos: a) OAC aceleran electrons termicos al largo del campo magnetico de fondo producien- do electrones supratermicos fugitivos; b) que generan olas Langmuir; y c) las cuales por su vez aceleran una fraccion de los electrones fugi- tivos hasta energias moderadamente relativfsticas. Mostramos que supo - niendo que no haya otra fuente de poblaci6n termica a no ser la , la secuencia de procesos arriba puede encargarse delconsumo de los elec- trones termicos en una escala de tiempo %< que el tiempo de vida de la fuente. ABSTRACT: Extragalactic Jets (EJ) and Extended Radio Sources (ERS) are sites of rich and complex magnetized plasma processes.Recent observa - tions indicate that these sources are filamentary structured. We concentrate here on the analysis of two problems:i) the injection problem, faced by theories of particle acceleration in EJ and ERS plasmas, which need particles with already moderately relativistic energies for the Fer mi processes `to be effective; and 2) the recent observational evidence of the abscence of thermal particles within EJ. The present model makes

  7. Espectroscopia infravermelha de núcleos ativos de galáxias: resultados adicionais

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Ardila, A.; Viegas, S.; Pastoria, M. G.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentamos resultados parciais de um levantamento espectroscópico na região do infravermelho próximo (NIR) realizado em 30 núcleos ativos de galáxias (AGN), incluindo vários objetos selecionados do catálogo PG com z de até 0.55. O objetivo é estudar a natureza do contínuo observado e as condições físicas do gas emissor. Todas as fontes de tipo 1 apresentam uma mudança na inclinação do contínuo na região de 1.2mm, associada ao término da contribuição do contínuo emitido pelo AGN e ao início da contribuição do contínuo emitido pela poeira quente atribuída ao tórus que rodeia a fonte central. O índice espectral associado à segunda contribuição varia apreciavelmente de objeto para objeto. Este resultado é comparado com distribuições espectrais de energia preditas por modelos de toroides para testar a validez do modelo unificado. A partir das linhas de FeII observado nos espectros deriva-se, pela primeira vez nessa região espectral, um template empírico de FeII para estudar a intensidade e a origem dessa emissão. A intensidade do FeII é estudada em conjunto com aquela da região visível e comparada às predições de modelos teóricos que incluem fluorescência de Lya, excitação colisional e auto-fluorescência como mecanismos dominantes de exitação. Encontra-se que os dois primeiros processos dominam na formação do espectro de FeII observado. Indicadores de avermelhamento, entre eles Brg/Pab, Pab/Pag, Pab/Pad e [FeII] 1.257/1.644 mm são utilizados para mapear a distribuição de poeira nas regiões emissoras de linhas. Encontra-se valores de extinção Av~3 associados ao último indicador e valores significativamente menores (Av~1.5) para os restantes, o que sugere que o [FeII] se forma em uma região separada da maior parte do gás emissor de linhas estreitas.

  8. Observações espectroscópicas da candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Martins, S.; Pereira, C. B.

    2003-08-01

    Nesse trabalho apresentamos a análise fotosférica da estrela candidata a pós-AGB IRAS 19386+0155. Com os dados obtidos no espectrógrafo FEROS foram determinados os parâmetros atmosféricos e abundâncias fotosféricas utilizando o código MOOG. A análise do espectro mostrou que IRAS 19386+0155 possui os seguintes parâmetros atmosféricos : Teff = 6800K, log g = 1.4, [M/H] = -1.5 e Vt = 8.4 km/s. O padrão de abundância obtido para os elementos mais leves (Carbono, Nitrogênio e Oxigênio) e elementos a (Magnésio, Silício e Cálcio) foi inferior ao solar (log C = 7.74, log N = 7.28, Log O = 8.43, log Mg = 7.14, log Si = 7.54 e log Ca = 5.91). Uma inspeção visual do espectro ISO deste objeto revela a presença de poeira fria na forma de silicatos cristalinos. Embora as bandas mais marcantes de silicatos amorfos (em 10 mm e 18mm) não sejam observadas, a emissão em 21 mm, presente em algumas pós-AGBs também não está presente. O espectro ISO parece revelar um meio rico em oxigênio, mas a forma da distribuição de energia no infravermelho não obedece ao padrão apresentado por outras pós-AGBs. Nossos resultados nos levam a sugerir que IRAS 19386+0155 talvez faça parte de um sistema binário, uma vez que outras pós-AGBs que são membros de sistemas binários apresentam padrão de abundância semelhante.

  9. Changing dietary habits among Akwen Xerente.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Tatiana Evangelista da Silva; Silva, Reijane Pinheiro da; Nascimento, Maira Messias do

    2016-06-01

    The research aimed to identify the current feed of Xerente people in Indian villages Porteira and Funil in the city of Tocantinia / TO. It was used a qualitative ethnographic approach. Conducted from September 2013 to August 2014. The data were presented in a diary, through participant observation of food practices with the guidance of a script. A process of dietary change that permeates the culture of this people is taking place. Factors such as the deficit in the planting gardens, the recent arrival of energy, and therefore the technology has allowed access to processed foods. But some families still maintain the farming of cassava, yam, and beans. The main animals that are hunted in the village are peccary, deer and armadillo. It was possible to point which foods are inserted in the Xerente feed and factors related to this situation. A pesquisa objetivou identificar a alimentação atual do povo Xerente, nas aldeias indígenas Porteira e Funil, no município de Tocantínia / TO. Utilizou-se uma abordagem etnográfica qualitativa. Realizada entre setembro de 2013 a agosto de 2014. Os dados foram descritos através de um diário de campo, por meio da observação das práticas alimentares com a orientação de um roteiro. Está ocorrendo um processo de mudança alimentar na cultura deste povo. Fatores como o déficit no plantio das roças, a chegada da energia, e consequentemente a tecnologia, permitiu o acesso a alimentos industrializados. Mas algumas famílias ainda mantem o cultivo de mandioca, inhame, feijão andu. Os principais animais que são caçados na aldeia são caititu, veado e tatu. Foi possível encontrar a presença de alimentos industrializados inseridos na alimentação do Xerente e isso tem provocado alterações nos hábitos desse povo.

  10. Novas determinações dos parâmetros atmosféricos das estrelas anãs brancas DA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannini, O.; Costa, A. F. M.; Kepler, S. O.

    2003-08-01

    Nós temos selecionado uma amostra de estrelas anãs brancas DA (atmosfera de hidrogênio) a partir dos índices de Strömgren cujos valores estão próximos a região de instabilidade das estrelas anãs brancas DA variáveis, as chamadas estrelas DAV ou ZZ Ceti. O objetivo é determinar os parâmetros fundamentais (temperatura efetiva, Teff, aceleração da gravidade, log g, e massa) destas estrelas para verificar quais os parâmetros estelares estão envolvidos com o mecanismo de pulsação das estrelas DAV. Nós obtemos, até agora, mais de 120 espectros óticos de estrelas DA. Entre as estrelas selecionadas há 20 estrelas variáveis (DAV). Assim, podemos verificar se existem ou não estrelas não variáveis dentro da faixa de instabilidade das estrelas ZZ Ceti. Neste trabalho nós apresentamos a determinação dos parâmetros atmosféricos (temperatura efetiva, Teff, e aceleração da gravidade, log g) das estrelas anãs brancas DA usando os novos modelos de atmosfera ML2/a = 0.6. Estes modelos têm sido utilizados recentemente por fornecerem uma excelente consistência interna na determinação das temperaturas nas regiões do ultra-violeta e ótico. Os parâmetros atmosféricos são determinados espectroscopicamente através da comparação do fluxo de energia das linhas de Balmer (Hb à H9) entre os espectros observados e sintéticos (gerados pelos modelos de atmosfera). As temperaturas obtidas com os novos modelos são, em geral, menores (~ 1000 K menos) que as temperaturas determinadas anteriormente, com modelos ML1. Os valores de log g não mudaram significativamente (menos de 10%). A faixa de instabilidade das DAVs está entre 11000 e 13000 K, consistente com dados de outros autores.

  11. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  12. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  13. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  14. US/Russian Joint Film Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, Richard

    1996-01-01

    A joint U.S./Russian film test was conducted during MIR Mission 18 to evaluate the effects of radiation on photographic film during long-duration space flights. Two duplicate sets of film were flown on this MIR mission: one set was processed and evaluated by the NASA/JSC Photographic Laboratory, and the other by the RKK Energia's Photographic Laboratory in Moscow. This preliminary report includes only the results of the JSC evaluation (excluding the SN-10 film which was not available for evaluation at the time this report was written). The final report will include an evaluation by JSC of the SN-10 film and an evaluation of the test data by the RKK Energia. ISC's evaluation of the test data showed the positive film flown was damaged very little when exposed to approximately 8 rads of radiation. Two of the three negative films were significantly damaged and the third film was damaged only moderately.

  15. Crew Interviews: Treschev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sergei Treschev is a Cosmonaut of the Rocket Space Corporation Energia, (RSC), from Volynsky District, Lipetsk Region (Russia). He graduated from Moscow Energy Institute. After years of intense training with RSC Energia, he was selected as International Space Station (ISS) Increment 5 flight engineer. The Expedition-Five crew (two Russian cosmonauts and one American astronaut) will stay on the station for approximately 5 months. The Multipurpose Logistics Module, or MPLM, will carry experiment racks and three stowage and resupply racks to the station. The mission will also install a component of the Canadian Arm called the Mobile Base System (MBS) to the Mobile Transporter (MT) installed during STS-110. This completes the Canadian Mobile Servicing System, or MSS. The mechanical arm will now have the capability to "inchworm" from the U.S. Lab fixture to the MSS and travel along the Truss to work sites.

  16. A New Method for Global Optimization Based on Stochastic Differential Equations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    energia potenziale in- tramolecolare mediante un nuovo metodo di minimizzazione globale (Search for minimum-intramolecular-potential pat- terns by means of...Optimizacion Global de Funciones, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de M~xico, Instituto de Investigaciones en Matematicas Aplicadas y en Sistemas, Report...con la sigla SPS (Suigar-Phosphate-Sugar). Per questo frammento Matsuoka, Tosi e Clementi calcoldrono, con un metodo quantomeccanico ab-ini tio(.4.i

  17. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR) Volume 2. Navy Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards, 1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    COMPUTER ANALYSES WILL BE UTILIZED IN MODELING STEADY STATE TURBINE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS, DYNAMIC BALANCE /STABILITY, DAMPING, BEARING PRELOAD... ENERGIA INC PC’ BOX 1468 PRINCETON, NJ 08542 CONTRACT NUMBER: DR MOSHE LAVID TITLE: RADIATIVE IGNITION AND COMBUSTION ENHANCEMENT FOR NAVY PROPULSION...TYPES AGAINST MULTIPLE TARGET TYPES IN A NON-HOMOGENEOUS ENVIRONMENT. DATA BASE DEFINITION INCLUDES USE OF EXISTING, USER DEFINED AND PROGRAM GENE

  18. Japan Report No. 173.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-10

    would escalate into a world war and that military balance in the Pacific and Southeast Asia is now the big issue. Needless to say, this is based on...from the balance of seats in the Diet alone. Looking at today’s LDP Nakasone cabinet, the conservative mainstream or the con- stitutional...IN NATION DISCUSSED Rome NOTIZIARIO DELL’ENEA in English Feb 83 Supplement ENERGIA NUCLEARE pp 48-54 [Article by Takashi Mukaibo, Acting Chairman

  19. ENERGY AND SCIENCE: Five-Year Bibliography 1990-1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    reviews the U.S. government’s efforts to support Venezuela’s energy sector. Sector de Energia en Venezuela: La Prodnccion Petrolera y las Condiciones... renovate existing laboratories or build new ones is often minimal. Four of the eight agencies recently started up task forces to reexamine their research...laboratory repairs. Moreover, funding to renovate existing laboratories or build new ones is often minimal. Four of the eight agencies recently started up

  20. In Touch With Industry: ICAF Industry Studies, 1997

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    nation’s largest manufacturing sector and its second largest economic activity (CERF, 1993). In 1994, new construction and renovation made up 13 percent...primarily engaged in the construction and renovation of residential, farm, industrial, commercial, and other buildings. Heavy construction...with Russia’s RSC Energia , Ukraine’s NPO Yuzhnoye, and Norway’s Kvaerner. Sea Launch will use Ukraine’s Zenit rocket to launch payloads weighing up

  1. China Report, Science and Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-29

    remote sensing technologies have been used in territorial renovation , urban planning, railway track selection, catastrophic weather monitoring...GAONENG WULI YU HE WULI [PHYSICA ENERGIAE FORTIS ET PHYSICA NUCLEARIS] in Chinese Vol 10, No 4, Jul 86 pp 385-392 [Article by Wang Taijie [3769 3141 2638...systems, which the state has made part of the plan and for which special funds are disbursed. Second is new construction, renovation and expansion

  2. Translations on People’s Republic of China, No. 467.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-15

    his trade with us. 52 The newly established export plants are also instrumental in renovating old plants and in raising our level of production...import new technology and equipment from abroad to renovate the old plants through using subsidy grants, PRC foreign exchange reserves and loans...China. The results in physics are published in Chinese (with English summary) in the periodicals in Acta Physica Sinica and Physica Energiae Fortis

  3. Alphabetic List of All DoD Prime Contractors (No Dollars), FY83.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    RENOVATIONS COMMUNICATIONS APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COMPANIA TELEFONICA NACIONAL DE ES COMMERCIAL RENOVATIONS OF VA INC COMMUNICATIONS CORP OF AMERICA...CONSTRUCTION CO INC M F P ENTERPRISES INC M L ENERGIA INC M B R ASSOCIATES INC M F SERVICES INC M M L COMPUTERS INC M B T B ARCHITECTS & ENGINEERS INC M F...PIZZAGALLI CONSTRUCTION CO INC PINSON A-SOCIATES INC PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE INC PIZZOLI SPA PINTURAS ABREGO S A PIPELINE UTILITY CONSTRUCTION CO PLACE

  4. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-15

    an old, abandoned industrial complex that had belonged to AEG was renovated . By 30 November 1983, the first 14 novice entrepreneurs had moved in, with...be anticipated this year due to modernization and renovation programs in the public sector. The cost of various rehabilitation programs should...by the just published INFORMACAO ENERGIA bulletin of the Energy Directorate General. The production of electricity increased 17.8 percent from 1982

  5. Concerning Variations of the Discharge Mechanism in Gasses under High Pressure,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-22

    loskeuj.ejinAj.tI: VecisS -Energia" 1940. 141 84jiige, X.: Durchschilagoettwitee, von SP, bet Gleleh*,Wechael- viol ) Sto~sPannun’t-Iheanspcuchuing. E’TZ-A ff (1065... CIA /GCR/ADD/SD 2 AFIT/LDE I CCN 1 NIA/PHS 1 MIIS 2 LLNL/Ccxle L-389 1 NASANST-44 1 NSA/121 3/TDL 2 FTP-ID (RS) T-1848-82

  6. Combat Aircraft Noise held in Bonn, Germany on 23-25 October 1991 (Le Bruit Genere par les Avions de Combat)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    States Director del departamento de Motopropulsion y Energia Mr David J. Way INTA Superintendent Turbomachnery Crta. ce Torrejon a Ajalvir. Krn. 4 ...Aircraft Noise - The Operator’s Perspective 3 by R. Bogg Human Noise Exposure Criteria for Combat Aircraft Training Areas 4 by R.A. Lee. C.S. Harams and...of the various noise components. 4 ) Prospects for the reduction of overall noise levels by treatment of the engine based sources critically depend on

  7. Environmental restoration and waste management: An introduction. Student edition; Restauracion ambiental y administracion de residuos nucleares: Introduccion; Edicion estudiantil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    For more than 40 years, the United States has produced nuclear weapons. These production activities generated both radioactive and hazardous waste and often contaminated the environment. For many years, the public was unaware of the problem and unable to do anything about it. All of this has changed. In response to recent public outcry, the former Secretary of Energy, Retired Admiral James D. Watkins, established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The creation of EM was the first step toward correcting contamination problems from the past 40 years In this booklet, we at DOE, through the efforts of the students at Oak Hills High School of Cincinnati, Ohio, will introduce you to EM and encourage your involvement in this major program within the Department of Energy. [Espanol] Durante mas de 40 anos, los Estados Unidos fabricaron armamentos nucleares. Esta produccion genero residuos radiactivos y peligrosos y, en muchos casos, contaminaron el medio ambiente. Durante mucho tiempo, el publico norteamericano no tenia conocimiento de este problema y no pudo hacer nada para solucionarlo. Todo esto ha cambiado. Respondiendo a crecientes protestas publicas, el ex Secretario de Energia Almirante James D. Watkins, establecio en noviembre de 1989 la Subsecretaria de Administracion Ambiental. La creacion de esta Subsecretaria fue el primer paso que dio el Departamento de Energia para corregir los problemas de contaminacion ambiental de los ultimos 40 anos. En esta publicacion, los que trabajamos en el Departamento de Energia con la ayuda de los estudiantes de la Escuela Secundaria de Oak Hills, Cincinnati, Ohio, te introduciermos a la administracion ambiental y alentamos tu participacion en este programa de fundamental importancia en el Departamento de Energia.

  8. Expedition 19 Docks to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-27

    Managers from NASA, Roscosmos, RSC-Energia, TsNIIMash and other related agencies answer reporters questions during a Soyuz post-docking press conference at the Russian mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Saturday March 28, 2009. The Soyuz TMA-14 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt and Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. Expedition 19 Docks to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-27

    Vitaly Lopota, President, General Designer, RSC-Energia, answers reporters questions during a Soyuz post-docking press conference at the Russian mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Saturday March 28, 2009. The Soyuz TMA-14 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt and Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Expedition 19 Docks to ISS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-27

    Managers from NASA, Roscosmos, RSC-Energia and other related agencies answer reporters questions during a Soyuz post-docking press conference at the Russian mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia on Saturday March 28, 2009. The Soyuz TMA-14 docked to the International Space Station carrying Expedition 19 Commander Gennady I. Padalka, Flight Engineer Michael R. Barratt and Spaceflight Participant Charles Simonyi. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. Expedition 38 State Commission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    President of RSC Energia, Designer General V.A. Lopota, talks during the State Commission meeting to approve the Soyuz rocket launch of Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA for a six month mission aboard the International Space Station, Wednesday, Nov. 6, 2013 at the Cosmonaut Hotel in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Treatment of Spent Argentine Ion Exchange Resin Using Vitrification - Results of FY01 Testing at the Savannah River Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C.L.

    2002-08-14

    Under the Science and Technology Implementing Arrangement for Cooperation on Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management (JCCRM), the Department of Energy (DOE) is helping to transfer waste treatment technology to international atomic energy commissions. In 1996, as part of the JCCRM, DOE established a collaborative research agreement with Argentina's Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA). A primary mission of the CNEA is to direct waste management activities for Argentina's nuclear industry.

  13. Swept Line Electron Beam Annealing of Ion Implanted Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    a pre- liminary study using silicon solar cells. This work was undertaken in cooperation with Dr. J. Eguren of the Instituto De Energia Solar , Madrid...device fabrication has been attempted. To date, resistors, capacitors, diodes, bipolar transistors, MOSFEs, and solar cells have been fabricated with...34 " 48 *Si Solar Cells Ruby PL P+ Ion-Implanted 49 Ruby PL Pulsed Diffused 50 :C

  14. Beam Line and Associated Work: Operational Phase 1985-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-26

    ENEA FEL experiment. F. Cicci, E. Fiorentino. A. Ranieri, E. Sabie. Centro Ricerche Energia Frascati (Italy?. ....................... 169 582.25...C) knife-edge pinhole bracket (cf. Fig. 14); (D) beam stop; (E) calorimeter with an attached Si solar cell detector; (F) paddle with tilted platforms...used for T real-time signal pickup behind the slit was a standard Si solar cell, epoxied to the calorimeter case (detail . in Fig. 5). The experimental

  15. U.S. Access to Space Launch Vehicle Choices for 1990-2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    own study of future space goals included a range of options such as increased study of the Earth, unmanned explorr-.oi. of the Solar System, and human...and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.ř This could result in the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base, expeditions to...6, -8, -11, and -14 derived from ballistic missile systems and the SI,12, -13, and -16. The SL-X.17 booster, ’ Energia ," is still undergoing flight

  16. Alternatives for Future U.S. Space-Launch Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    directive issued on January 14, 2004—called the new Vision for Space Exploration (VSE)—set out goals for future exploration of the solar system using...of the solar system using manned spacecraft. Among those goals was a proposal to return humans to the moon no later than 2020. The ultimate goal...U.S. launch capacity exclude the Sea Launch system operated by Boeing in partnership with RSC- Energia (based in Moscow), Kvaerner ASA (based in Oslo

  17. European Scientific Notes. Volume 38, Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    R.L. Carovillano 218 The Seventh European Regional Astronomy meeting dealt with almost every area of astronomy; coverage included solar ...in the 25- to found in areas as diverse as electro- 35-m range at the Comitato Nazionale optics and pharmacology. Energia Nucleare laboratory in...physics research has led to knowledge gained in one area (or param- many discoveries in the solar system and eter domain) to another area that lacks to

  18. A Representative Survey of U.S. Space Systems and Methods for Estimating Their Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    66 7. Orbiting Geophysical Observatory ................................................ 69 3 8. Orbiting Solar O...However, it failed to lift off after four attempts made between 1969 and 1972. The Soviet Union’s largest launch vehicle to date, the Energia , made its... Solar array system, held Dec 71 MSFC accepted the flight MDA Sep 72 ATM delivered, OWS arrived by barge to KSC May 73 Skylab OWS launched Skylab 2

  19. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Portugal, A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Aguas Livres ) that brought water to Lisbon. Jodo encouraged the development of decorative arts such as furniture design, clock- making, and tapestry...Energy. 0 sector empresarial do es- tado na indulstria e energia : Andlise e propostas de atuWdo. Lisbon: 1984. __ ._ Presid~ncia do Conselho. IV Piano de...xxv; reversed, 98 appointments by, 188, 190-91, 266, Aqueduct of Free Waters, 39 268, 269; committees of, 189; constit- Aqueduto das Aguas Livres . Se

  1. Mir 1 cooperative solar array photovoltaic panel production

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the production and on-schedule delivery to Russia of 80-watt solar array panels by Lockheed Missiles and Space Co., Inc. Ninety flight-ready panels were delivered to RSC-Energia in Kaliningrad near Moscow in November and December 1994. After assembly by the Russians they are scheduled to be delivered in October 1995 by the US Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-74) to the Russian Mir 1 module of International Space Station Alpha.

  2. KSC-99pp0342

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-03-25

    Two Shuttle crews take part in familiarization activities at Astrotech in Titusville, Fla. From left are STS-101 Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams and Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency; STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan; STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu (leaning over); a technician with RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia; Manfred Nordhoff, with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace; STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry; and another technician with RSC Energia. They are looking at components of the Russian cargo crane, Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace of Bremen and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999

  3. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Two Shuttle crews take part in familiarization activities at Astrotech in Titusville, Fla. From left are STS-101 Mission Specialist Jeffrey N. Williams and Yuri Ivanovich Malenchenko, with the Russian Space Agency; STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan; STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu (leaning over); a technician with RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia; Manfred Nordhoff, with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace; STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry; and another technician with RSC Energia. They are looking at components of the Russian cargo crane, Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace of Bremen and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  4. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  5. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  6. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  7. Correlación entre síntomas gastrointestinales funcionales y la histopatología de la mucosa gástrica, incluyendo la infección por Helicobacter pylori, en Lima, Perú.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Katharine; Shopinski, Samuel; Wilkinson, Ariana; Meza, Claudia; Cok, Jaime; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Valdivieso, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationship between functional gastrointestinal disorders and histopathology characteristics, including H. pylori infection, of gastric mucosa, at Cayetano Heredia National Hospital, Lima-Peru, in 2013. 112 patients were interviewed prospectively between June and July 2013 in the gastroenterology service. Dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, and postprandial distress syndrome were characterized using the Rome III Survey. Pathology results were determined by gastric biopsies obtained by endoscopy. Of the patients interviewed, biopsy results were obtained for 101. 22.8% had atrophy, 24.8% had intestinal metaplasia, 57.4% presented with H pylori. Using chi-square analysis, no statistically significant relationship could be identified between clinical presentation and biopsy results.

  8. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  9. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  10. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  11. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  12. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  13. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  14. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  15. [Criterios utilizados por médicos de atención primaria para el diagnóstico y derivación al reumatólogo del paciente con artritis reumatoide].

    PubMed

    Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Mondragón-Flores, Victor; de la Rosa, César Horcasitas

    2006-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), an important cause of disability, affects 1% of the population. Early diagnosis and referral to a rheumatologist are positive prognostic factor but diagnosis in many cases is in the hands of primary care physicians (PCP). To determine the criteria used by PCP for diagnosis of RA and referral of these patients to a rheumatologist; to evaluate how many cases can be classified as RA according to the ACR. Retrospective study of 530 patients referred by PCP and seen as outpatients at a rheumatology clinic in 2002. Patients with referral diagnosis of RA were identified and symptoms, signs, functional capacity and ACR criteria for RA were evaluated by 2 rheumatologists. 302 patients had a referral diagnosis of RA, 33 male (10.9%) and 269 female (89.1%), median age 50.5 years, with a median time since diagnosis of 45.2 months. 57.9% had FC stage II. 100% of cases had "generalized" joint pain, 67.5% arthritis of 3 or more joints and 51.7% arthritis of hand joints. Arthritis was symmetrical in 58.9% and 77.2% of the patients had morning stiffness (> 30 min). 49.7% of the cases had positive rheumatoid factor, 19.2% had a negative RF and 31.1% had none reported. In 2% ESR was measured. X-ray erosions were reported in 6.6% of cases. When using the ACR criteria, 17.8% of patients had 1, 28.7% had 2 and 53.5% had 3 or more criteria. In only 59 cases (20%) did the rheumatologist agree with the referral diagnosis of RA. 80% of PCP referrals of RA to the rheumatologist were another disease. A poor clinical evaluation and little support from laboratory and x-rays was noticed. The delay in diagnosis and referral was 3 years, worsening prognosis. A vigorous effort in educating PCP is needed to achieve early diagnosis and referral of RA cases. Copyright © 2006 Elsevier España S.L. Barcelona. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  17. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  18. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance (Cómo animar a los estudiantes para que mejoren su desempeño en comprensión oral por sí mismos)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández-Ocampo, Sonia Patricia; Vargas, Sonia Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve…

  19. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  20. Test of partners in flight effective detection distance for Cerulean Warbler / Evaluación de distancia efectiva de detección para la Reinita Cerúlea (Dendroica cerulea) seleccionada por Compañeros En Vuelo

    Treesearch

    Paul Hamel; Melinda J. Welton; Carl G. Smith; Robert R. Ford

    2008-01-01

    Estimation of population sizes of North American avian species has been attempted in the North American Landbird Conservation Plan. Such estimated numbers have considerable conservation value as starting points to estimate extinction probability, as was done for Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) during the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service evaluation of the petition to...

  1. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  2. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  3. Experimental poisoning by Niedenzuella stannea in cattle and corresponding detection of monofluoroacetate (Intoxicação experimental por Niedenzuella stannea em bovinos e correspondente detecção de monofluoroacetato)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In Brazil monofluoroacetate containing plants are represented by 11 species that belong to three principle genera: Palicourea (Rubiaceae), Amorimia (Malpighiaceae), and Tanaecium (Bignoniaceae). These plants can cause acute cardiac failure often referred to as sudden death syndrome. The objective of...

  4. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  5. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  6. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  7. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  8. The comparison of algorithms for key points extraction in simplification of hybrid digital terrain models. (Polish Title: Porównanie algorytmów ekstrakcji punktów istotnych w upraszczaniu numerycznych modeli terenu o strukturze hybrydowej)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.

    2014-12-01

    The presented research concerns methods related to reduction of elevation data contained in digital terrain model (DTM) from airborne laser scanning (ALS) in hydraulic modelling. The reduction is necessary in the preparation of large datasets of geospatial data describing terrain re lief. Its course should not be associated with regular data filtering, which o ften occurs in practice. Such a method leads to a number of important forms important for hydraulic modeling being missed. One of the proposed solutions for the reduction of elevation data contained in DTM is to change the regular grid into the hybrid structure with regularly distributed points and irregularly located critical points. The purpose of this paper is to compare algorithms for extracting these key points from DTM. They are used in hybrid mod el generation as a part of elevation data reduction process that retains DTM accuracy and reduces the size of output files. In experiments, the following algorithms were tested: Topographic Position Index (TPI), Very Important Points (VIP) and Z - tolerance. Their effectiveness in reduction (maintaining the accuracy and reducing datasets) was evaluated in respect to input DTM from ALS. The best results were obtained for the Z - tolerance algorithm, but they do not diminish the capabilities of the other two algorithms: VIP and TPI which can generalize DTM quite well. The results confirm the possibility of obtaining a high degree of reduction reaching only a few percent of the input data with a relatively low decrease of vertical DTM accuracy to a few centimetres.

  9. Daños por depredación y tamano de concha del caracol diádromo Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) en el Río Mameyes, Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Juan Felipe Blanco-Libreros; Andrea. Arroyave-Rincón

    2009-01-01

    Predator damage and shell size on the diadromous snail Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico. We compared predators’ damage with shell size in live individuals and empty shells (n=5066) of the snail Neritina virginea in the Mameyes River (Puerto Rico, Greater Antilles). According to the literature and direct observations, damages...

  10. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  11. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  12. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  13. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  14. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  15. Estudo em microondas do aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em explosões solares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosal, A. C.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação rápida e intensa do brilho que ocorre nas chamadas regiões ativas da atmosfera, constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética. Os modelos de explosões solares atuais, discutidos na literatura, apresentam características de aprisionamento e precipitação de elétrons em ambientes magnéticos simplificados. Neste trabalho, nos propusemos a separar a emissão dos elétrons aprisionados da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação apenas a partir da emissão em microondas, melhorando portanto o controle sobre o conjunto de parâmetros inferidos. A emissão em microondas da população em precipitação é bastante fraca e portanto da nossa base de dados de 130 explosões observadas pelo Rádio Polarímetro de Nobeyama, em sete freqüências, apenas para 32 foi possível separar as duas componentes de emissão com uma boa razão sinal/ruído. A partir de estudos das escalas de tempo das emissões devidas à variação gradual da emissão no aprisionamento e da variação rápida da emissão dos elétrons em precipitação foi possível obter a separação utilizando um filtro temporal nas emissões resultantes. Em nossa análise destas explosões estudamos os espectros girossincrotrônicos da emissão gradual, a qual associamos provir do topo dos arcos magnéticos e da emissão de variação rápida associada aos elétrons em precipitação. Estes espectros foram calculados e dos quais inferimos que a indução magnética efetiva do topo e dos pés foi em média, Btopo = 236 G e Bpés = 577 G, inferidas das freqüências de pico dos espectros em ntopo = 11,8 GHz e npés = 14,6 GHz com leve anisotropia (pequeno alargamento espectral). O índice espectral da distribuição não-térmica de elétrons d, inferido do índice espectral de fótons da emissão em regime opticamente fino, foi de dtopo = 3,3 e dpés = 3,9. Estes parâmetros são típicos da maioria das análises realizadas em ambiente único de

  16. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  17. [Expression of TREM-1 in patients with invasive cervical cancer and precursor lesions].

    PubMed

    Anaya-Prado, Roberto; Norzgaray-Ibarra, Fabiola Geovanna; Bravo-Cuéllar, Alejandro; Pérez-Avila, Carlos Eduardo; Schadegg-Peña, Daniel; Anaya-Fernández, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: se ha demostrado que la glicoproteína TREM-1 pertenece a la superfamilia de las inmunoglobulinas que induce la secreción de varias citocinas proinflamatorias. El objetivo de este trabajo fue medir la expresión de TREM-1 en pacientes con cáncer cervical. Métodos: en este estudio transversal analítico incluimos 4 grupos de pacientes: GI: mujeres con lesión intraepitelial (LI) escamosa de bajo grado (n = 15 p/g); GII: pacientes con LI escamosa de alto grado (n = 9 p/g); GIII: pacientes con cáncer cervical invasor (n = 9 p/g), y GIV: pacientes sanas (n = 15 p/g). En todas las pacientes se midió la expresión de TREM-1 y el Índice Medio de Fluorescencia (IMF) en neutrófilos y monocitos, así como los niveles de leucocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos. Usamos t de Student para muestras independientes. Para estas mismas variables, aplicamos prueba de suma de rangos de Mann-Whitney, ANOVA y Turkey. Para las variables cualitativas se utilizó la prueba de Chi cuadrada. Resultados: los porcentaje de expresión de TREM-1 en neutrófilos y monocitos, además del IMF en neutrófilos en los 4 grupos, no fue significativamente diferente. El IMF de TREM-1 en monocitos fue significativamente diferente al comparar el grupo II y grupo III frente al grupo IV (p < 0.02). Tampoco hubo diferencia significativa al comparar los valores promedio de leucocitos, neutrófilos y monocitos en los diferentes grupos. Conclusión: este estudio documenta una mayor expresión de TREM-1 en monocitos de pacientes con cáncer avanzado.

  18. Vínculos sobre um modelo de quartessência de Chaplygin usando observações do satélite chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, R. S.

    2003-08-01

    Observações de Supernovas do tipo Ia mostram que a expansão do Universo está acelerando. Segundo as equações de Einstein uma componente com pressão negativa (energia escura) é necessária para explicar a aceleração cósmica. Além da energia escura é usualmente admitido que no Universo há também uma matéria exótica com pressão zero, que é chamada de matéria escura. Essa componente possui um papel fundamental na formação de estruturas no Universo. Recentemente tem se explorado a possibilidade de que matéria e energia escura poderiam ser unificadas através de uma única componente, que tem sido denominada de quartessência. Um exemplo de fluido com essas características é o Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado, que possui uma equação de estado da forma p = -A/ra. Inicialmente consideramos o caso especial a = 1 (gás de Chaplygin) e vinculamos parâmetros do modelo utilizando observações em raios-X do satélite Chandra da fração de massa de gás em aglomerados de galáxias. Uma comparação dos vínculos obtidos com esse teste com outros testes, tais como supernovas e idade do Universo, mostra que esse teste é bastante restritivo. Exibiremos ainda resultados para o caso em que a curvatura é nula e o parâmetro a está compreendido no intervalo -1 < a 1.

  19. Prospect of HIP application in aerospace and power plant industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boris, B.I.; Genrikh, G.S.; Oleg, F.Ch.

    1996-12-31

    Technology used in production of PM superalloy disks and shafts for military and civil aircraft engines was proposed in published works of Academicians A.F. Bewlov, A.I. Tselicov, Professor N.F. Anoshkin, their disciples and associates about 20 years ago. This technology determined progress in this field for all preceding years and played a remarkable role in both aviation material science and aerospace. This technology contributed to successful development of gas turbine engines for such dazzling specimens of Soviet aircraft and space vehicles as MiG-29, MiG-31, IL-096, TU-204, IL-114, Energia-Buran rocket-space shuttle system, etc.

  20. Synchronous Generators with Superconductive Excitation Windings,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-27

    Rozyci English pages: 23 B Distribution/_____ Source-: Gospodarka Paliwami i Energia , Vol. 24, aAvailability Cadeg Nr.4(263), 1976, pp. 12-17 1i vi~aIIand...1I. In industrially advanced countries the unit power of synchronous gene - rators doubles over a period of 7 to 10 years. It can be assumed that if the...not occur in a superconductor. However, in the loss balance one must take into account the expenditure of energy required for abstraction of heat

  1. Estatística de lentes gravitacionais e o gás de chaplygin generalizado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A. L. S.

    2003-08-01

    A estatística de lentes gravitacionais constitui uma poderosa ferramenta utilizada na obtenção de vínculos sobre parâmetros cosmológicos, principalmente sobre modelos com uma constante cosmológica. Embora de forma às vezes controversa, antes de 1998, a análise tradicional mostrava que modelos com o parâmetro de densidade da matéria da ordem da unidade são preferidos. Esse resultado começou a ser questionado, alguns anos atrás, com as indicações, advindas da análise de supernovas com alto valor de desvio para o vermelho, de que nosso Universo está acelerando. Atualmente há enorme interesse em saber qual é a natureza da componente responsável pela aceleração cósmica. Energia escura é a denominação usual dessa componente e sua característica principal é possuir pressão negativa. Nos modelos cosmológicos tradicionais, além da energia escura, considera-se também uma outra componente de origem desconhecida. Ela é denominada matéria escura e possui pressão nula. Mais recentemente modelos unificadores em que energia escura e matéria escura são manifestações distintas de um mesmo fluido (altas densidades matéria escura, baixas densidades energia escura) foram sugeridos. Um desses modelos é conhecido como Gás de Chaplygin Generalizado que é o modelo que investigaremos. Em nosso trabalho apresentamos vínculos sobre parâmetros desse modelo usando a estatística de lentes gravitacionais. Usamos observações de quasares na faixa do visível e consideramos extinção em nosso estudo. Análises semelhantes anteriores com esse tipo de objetos e que não consideram extinção são inconsistentes. Comparação dos vínculos obtidos através de lentes gravitacionais com outros advindos de outros testes será também apresentada.

  2. Experimental optimization of the FireFly 600 photovoltaic off-grid system.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyson, William Earl; Orozco, Ron; Ralph, Mark E.; Brown, Marlene Laura; King, David L.; Hund, Thomas D.

    2003-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation and experimental optimization of the FireFly{trademark} 600 off-grid photovoltaic system manufactured by Energia Total, Ltd. was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories in May and June of 2001. This evaluation was conducted at the request of the manufacturer and addressed performance of individual system components, overall system functionality and performance, safety concerns, and compliance with applicable codes and standards. A primary goal of the effort was to identify areas for improvement in performance, reliability, and safety. New system test procedures were developed during the effort.

  3. Dollar Summary of Prime Contract Awards by Contractor, State or Country, and Place, FY83, Part 2 (Gillespie Delorenzo Asla & Assocs-Planning Analysis Corp).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    BURLINGTON MASS 85 85 85 85 N L AVIATION LTD UN KINGDOM 2,558 273 2,285 2,556 273 2,285 M L ENERGIA INC PRINCETON NEW JERSEY 28 28 28 28 M M L...155 155 PIPE INC PORTSMOUTH VIRGINIA 588 588 743 743 PIPE INSTALLATION CORP ATCO ILw jE6EY 42 42 42 42 PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE INC FORT BRAGG NCAR...107 107 PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE INC LANGLEY AFB VIRGINIA 205 161 44 PIPELINE RENOVATION SERVICE INC NORFOLK VIRGINIA 248 248 560 268 248 44

  4. East Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-23

    Mezögazdasäg, erdögazdäl- kodäs, vizgazdälkodäs 2,5% LfKözlekedes, tävközles 0,9% Lakossag 8,1% LEgyeb 9,6% -Ipar78,9% (2)VILLAM0S- ENERGIA ...1970’s centered around renovation of the completely used up infrastructure and the obsolete, dangerous buildings. It turned out, however, that the... renovation . [Question] But reconstruction began in 1976.... [Answer] Right. But this did not prove successful. The reason partly was that it began

  5. U.S.-Latin American Nuclear Relations: From Commitment to Defiance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    CountryStatisticsLandingPage.aspx (accessed 15 September 2012); Irma Argüello, “La Energía Nuclear en América Latina: Entre el Desarrollo Económico y los Riesgos de Proliferación...NPSGlobal, Fall 2010, available at: http://npsglobal.org/esp/analisis/1101-energia-nuclear-america- latina- desarrollo -economico-riesgos...September 2012). 7 See Irma Argüello, La Energía Nuclear en América Latina: Entre el Desarrollo Económico y los Riesgos de Proliferación

  6. New sources of debt

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.

    1996-04-01

    Financing of power projects in Latin America is discussed in this article. Financial arrangements for a cogeneration project in Chile and a generating plant in Argentina are outlined. The Chilean project, Petropower Energia Limitada, is a subsidiary of Foster Wheeler Corporation and Chile`s state owned oil company. The Central Termica Patagonia generating plant in Argentina will be built by Amoco Power Resources Corporation in partnership with Camuzzi Argentina. Very brief descriptions of funding for projects in Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil, and Ecuador are also provided.

  7. Unifying dose specification between clinical BNCT centers in the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, K. J.; Binns, P. J.; Harling, O. K.; Kiger, W. S. III; Gonzalez, S. J.; Casal, M. R.; Longhino, J.; Larrieu, O. A. Calzetta; Blaumann, H. R.

    2008-04-15

    A dosimetry intercomparison between the boron neutron capture therapy groups of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Argentina was performed to enable combined analyses of NCT patient data between the different centers. In-air and dose versus depth measurements in a rectangular water phantom were performed at the hyperthermal neutron beam facility of the RA-6 reactor, Bariloche. Calculated dose profiles from the CNEA treatment planning system NCTPlan that were calibrated against in-house measurements required normalizations of 1.0 (thermal neutrons), 1.13 (photons), and 0.74 (fast neutrons) to match the dosimetry of MIT.

  8. Expedition 38 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-07

    General Director of the Russian Federal Space Agency, Roscosmos, Oleg Ostapenko, left, and, President of RSC Energia, Designer General V.A.Lapota, right, assist Expedition 38 Soyuz Commander Mikhail Tyurin of Roscosmos, as he and fellow crew members, Flight Engineer Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, behind Tyurin, and, Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA, far back, walk to the soyuz rocket for their launch to the International Space Station, Thursday, Nov. 7, 2013, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Tyurin, Wakata, and, Mastracchio will launch in their Soyuz TMA-11M spacecraft to the International Space Station to begin a six-month mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  9. PIRS Images

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    JSC2001-E-26680 --- One of a series of three photos of the next station module that will launch--the Russian Docking Compartment, named Pirs, the Russian word for pier. The module is planned for launch from Baikonur Sept. 14, and to dock with the station on Sept. 16. It will serve as a Russian airlock for the station and also will provide a docking port for Soyuz or Progress craft arriving at the station. This image shows the Pirs under construction at Energia in Moscow.

  10. jsc2011e027535

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-03-21

    At the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Expedition 27 Flight Engineer Ron Garan of NASA (left), Soyuz Commander Alexander Samokutyaev (center) and Flight Engineer Andrey Borisenko (right) are greeted upon their arrival March 21, 2011 by RSC-Energia Vice-President Nikolai Zelenchikov after their flight to the launch site from Star City, Russia. The trio, and their backups, Anatoly Ivanishin, Anton Shkaplerov and Dan Burbank are in the final weeks of training for their launch April 5 (April 4, U.S. time) on the Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft to the International Space Station. Credit: NASA/Victor Zelentsov

  11. Expedition 9 Soyuz Rollout

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-16

    Alexander Zelenschikov, the Deputy Chief Designer of RSC-Energia, stands outside a processing facility at the Baikonur Cosmodrome as the Soyuz TMA-4 capsule and its booster rocket start the rollout to the launch pad on Saturday, April 17, 2004, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, in preparation for the launch of the Expedition 9 crew and a European researcher to the International Space Station April 19. The Soyuz vehicle is transported to the launch pad horizontally on a railcar from its processing hangar in a process that takes about 2.5 hours to complete. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. Expedition 32 Preflight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-15

    Expedition 32 Flight Engineer Sunita Williams, right, Soyuz Commander Yuri Malenchenko and JAXA Flight Engineer Akihiko Hoshide, left, receive a formal go for launch from Vitaly Alexandrovich Lopota, President of Energia, left, and Vladimir Popovkin, Director of Roscosmos prior to their launch onboard the Soyuz TMA-05M on Sunday, July 15, 2012 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft with Malenchenko, Williams and Hoshide onboard launched at 8:40 a.m. later that morning Kazakhstan time. Photo Credit: (NASA/Victor Zelentsov)

  13. PIRS Images

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    JSC2001-E-26679 --- One of a series of three photos of the next station module that will launch--the Russian Docking Compartment, named Pirs, the Russian word for pier. The module is planned for launch from Baikonur Sept. 14, and to dock with the station on Sept. 16. It will serve as a Russian airlock for the station and also will provide a docking port for Soyuz or Progress craft arriving at the station. This image shows the Pirs under construction at Energia in Moscow.

  14. Expedition 31 Crew Prepares For Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-15

    Expedition 31 Flight Engineer Joe Acaba, left, Soyuz Commander Gennady Padalka, and, Flight Engineer Sergei Revin, right, receive a formal go for launch from Vitaly Alexandrovich Lopota, President of Energia, left, and Vladimir Popovkin, Director of Roscosmos prior to their launch onboard the Soyuz TMA-04M on Tuesday, May 15, 2012 at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. The Soyuz spacecraft with Padalka, Revin, and Acaba onboard, launched at 9:01 a.m. Kazakhstan time on Tuesday, May 15. Photo Credit: (NASA/GCTC/Andrey Shelepin)

  15. jsc2011e215337

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-08

    The three crewmembers who will round out the Expedition 30 crew on the International Space Station are greeted by Nikolai Zelinchikov of Soyuz spacecraft manufacturer RSC-Energia upon their arrival in Baikonur, Kazakhstan Dec. 8, 2011 for final pre-launch preparations. From left to right are NASA Flight Engineer Don Pettit, Soyuz Commander Oleg Kononenko, Flight Engineer Andre Kuipers of the European Space Agency and Zelinchikov. Pettit, Kononenko and Kuipers will launch to the station on Dec. 21 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on the Soyuz TMA-03M spacecraft. Courtesy: NASA

  16. Expedition 33 Prelaunch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-23

    Expedition 33/34 Russian Cosmonaut and Soyuz Commander Oleg Novitskiy is escorted to the Soyuz rocket by President of the S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia Vitaly Lopota, prior to his launch onboard a Soyuz TMA-06M spacecraft with fellow crew members, NASA Astronaut and Flight Engineer Kevin Ford, and, Russian Cosmonaut and Flight Engineer Evgeny Tarelkin, Tuesday, October 23, 2012, in Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Launch of the Soyuz rocket will send Ford, Novitskiy and Tarelkin on a five-month mission aboard the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. ANL progress on the cooperation with CNEA for the Mo-99 production : base-side digestion process.

    SciTech Connect

    Gelis, A. V.; Quigley, K. J.; Aase, S. B.; Bakel, A. J.; Leyva, A.; Regalbuto, M. C.; Vandegrift, G. F.; Chemical Engineering

    2004-01-01

    Conversion from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) targets for the Mo-99 production requires certain modifications of the target design, the digestion and the purification processes. ANL is assisting the Argentine Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) to overcome all the concerns caused by the conversion to LEU foil targets. A new digester with stirring system has been successfully applied for the digestion of the low burn-up U foil targets in KMnO4 alkaline media. In this paper, we report the progress on the development of the digestion procedure with stirring focusing on the minimization of the liquid radioactive waste.

  18. Terminology and Assessment Methods of Solid Propellant Rocket Exhaust Signatures (Methodes d’Evaluation des Signatures des Propulseurs a Propergol Solide)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    11 69D-80tJ0 Mu~nchcn 80 Spain Mr D,M. Barreiros Dr R. Dirscherl Departemento Energia y Deutsche Aerospace Propulsion Abteilung VAR 331 INTA Postfach... Solar scattering from less thtan a factor at I1) for smokte bmoke a Search lightl effert Near infrared S Glood S Poor P lrobably figir but relatively...rotational systems 8.01 to00o or solar aind earthishine regioni lredictiolls cai be made to a (1 Molecular Ilybrlde relatioii factor or 5 (I F. I [CI 1120) a

  19. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  20. Solar system exploration - Some thoughts on techniques and technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Some techniques and technologies for proposed interplanetary missions are described. Methods for reducing the effect of zero gravity on humans during missions to Mars and the moon, and the need for launch vehicles with increased lift capability are discussed. The use of nuclear power, liquid oxygen from the moon, and helium 3 as propellants for spacecraft is examined. The development and capabilities of the Shuttle Z vehicle are considered. Attention is given to the Space Station Freedom and Energia. A launch vehicle concept which utilizes the Shuttle Z for a mission to Mars is presented.

  1. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  2. Practical methods for near-term piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.; Weaver, David B.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ways of using near-term technologies for direct and semidirect manned Mars missions. A notable feature of the present schemes is the in situ propellant production of CH4/O2 and H2O on the Martian surface in order to reduce surface consumable and return propellant requirements. Medium-energy conjunction class trajectories are shown to be optimal for such missions. Attention is given to the backup plans and abort philosophy of these missions. Either the Russian Energia B or U.S. Saturn VII launch vehicles may be used.

  3. A methodology for selective removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. L.; Odonoghue, P. J.; Chambers, E. J.; Raney, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Earth-orbiting objects, large enough to be tracked, were surveyed for possible systematic debris removal. Based upon the statistical collision studies of others, it was determined that objects in orbits approximately 1000 km above the Earth's surface are at greatest collisional risk. Russian C-1B boosters were identified as the most important target of opportunity for debris removal. Currently, more than 100 in tact boosters are orbiting the Earth with apogees between 950 km and 1050 km. Using data provided by Energia USA, specific information on the C-1B booster, in terms of rendezvous and capture strategies, was discussed.

  4. Catalog of known hot springs and thermal place names for Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    Thermal place names were compiled from all 1:50,000 topographic quadrangle maps for the Republic of Honduras as of July 1986, from other published maps, and from several sources of unpublished data. Known hot spring sites include those visited by Empresa Nacional de Energia Electrica (Honduras) geologists, sites visited by Los Alamos geologists in 1985, and other sites known to R.C. Finch. The number of known hot spring sites in Honduras with temperatures >30/sup 0/C is 125. In addition, 56 thermal sites are suspected on the basis of thermal place names. The total number of geothermal sites, known and suspected, is 181.

  5. Space Vehicle Flight Mechanics (La Mecanique du Vol des Vehicules Spatiaux)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    a Russian transport payloads back and forth version of the NASA Shuttle, with to, say a 300 km orbit, is the Energia booster. The vehicle...rotation de la Terre -1 tour/jour sld6ral, et test alors iheure siddrale de Greenwich. Un calcul assez fastidieux, d~tail16 dans le livre de Kaula (6...tranafert tri-impulsionnel, une impulsion aasez importante (1a premibre) eat d~ livr ~e au voisinage du pd ig6e de l’orbite GTO, ci qui pourrait slavdrer g

  6. A panchromatic view of the evolution of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusso, E.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.

    2008-10-01

    Verranno presentati i risultati preliminari di uno studio sistematico delle distribuzioni di energia spettrale (SED) di un campione statisticamente significativo di alcune centinaia di AGN (sia di tipo 1 che di tipo 2) selezionati dalla survey XMM-COSMOS. La vasta mole di dati disponibili sull'intero spettro elettromagnetico permette di calcolare le SED medie per diversi intervalli di redshift e luminosita'. Una stima affidabile della SED e' di fondamentale importanza per il calcolo della luminosita' bolometrica e quindi per lo studio della fisica dei processi di accrescimento su SMBH, per la loro evoluzione con il tempo cosmico.

  7. Elevated temperature testing of Mir 1 cooperative solar array photovoltaic panel module

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, M.T.; Brisco, H.N.

    1995-12-31

    The Mir 1 Cooperative Solar Array project supplies the Russians, Rocket Space Corporation-Energia (RSC-E) with US photovoltaic panel modules (PPMs) based on the International Space Station Alpha`s (ISSA) solar array technology developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC). The PPMs are integrated into the Russian module frame assemblies (MFA) and deployment mechanisms, and will replace solar arrays on the current Mir 1 Station. The replacement solar arrays will generate 6.5 kW beginning of life power (BOL). This paper documents LMSC`s effort in the diagnosis of the PPMs` performance degradation after completion of the development tests at RSC-E.

  8. LAPAROSCOPICALLY ASSISTED ANORECTOPLASTY AND THE USE OF THE BIPOLAR DEVICE TO SEAL THE RECTAL URINARY FISTULA.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Robson Azevedo; Boscollo, Adriana Cartafina Perez

    2016-01-01

    dentro do complexo muscular do elevador do ânus com mínima dissecção. Não há consenso na literatura sobre o melhor tratamento dessa fístula. Avaliar a anorretoplastia laparoscópica e o selamento bipolar da fístula retourinária. Ela foi realizada de acordo com a descrição original de Georgeson1. Utilizou-se o acesso infraumbilical com portal de 10 mm para a ótica de 30º. O pneumoperitônio foi estabelecido com pressão de 8-10 cm de H2O. Dois trocárteres adicionais de 5 mm foram colocados à direita e à esquerda da cicatriz umbilical. A dissecção foi iniciada na reflexão peritoneal usando Ligasure(r). Com a redução do calibre do reto distalmente, foi identificada a fístula para a o trato urinário. O local do novo ânus foi definido por meio da localização do complexo muscular do esfíncter anal externo, utilizando-se estimulador eletro muscular externamente. Por fim, foi confeccionada uma anastomose entre o reto e o novo local do ânus. Uma sonda uretral de Foley foi deixada durante sete dias. Sete meninos foram operados, seis com fístula retoprostática e um retovesical. O período de seguimento variou de um a quatro anos. Os dois últimos pacientes operados foram submetidos ao selamento bipolar da fístula entre o reto e a uretra, sem suturas ou ligadura cirúrgica com pontos. No seguimento em longo prazo não houve evidências de fístulas urinárias. Há benefícios da anorretoplastia laparoscópica para o tratamento de anomalia anorretal. O uso de uma fonte de energia bipolar que promova o selamento da fístula retourinária propiciou redução significativa do tempo cirúrgico e tornou o procedimento mais elegante.

  9. Results of in-flight operation of scientific payload on micro-satellite “Kolibri-2000”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Stanislav I.; Afanasyev, Yuri V.; Eismont, Natan A.; Grachev, Egor A.; Grigoryan, Oleg R.; Grushin, Valery A.; Lysakov, Dmitri S.; Nozdrachev, Mikhail N.

    2005-01-01

    The realization of Russian-Australian scientific—educational micro-satellite "Kolibri-2000" (weight of 20.5 kg, http://www.kolibri2000.ru 20 March, 2002), delivered into an orbit by "Progress M1-7", was the first item in the Program of Scientific—Educational Micro-Satellite (PSEMS' 2002-2007, http://iki.cosmos.ru/kollibri/mission1_e.htm) and designate the starting point of a series at perspective scientific—educational micro-satellites (SEMS, http://www.energia.ru/english/energia/sci-education/microsat/microsat-02.html). In the "Kolibri-2000" project, several schools equipped by School Center of Reception of the Information (SCRI), participated, including Russian schools (Obninsk http://ftschool.obninsk.org) and two Australian schools in Sydney, Knox Grammar School ( www.knox.nsw.edu.au) and Ravenswood School for Girls ( www.ravenswood.nsw.edu.au). The results of the "Kolibri-2000" first measurements on the orbit near the International Space Station will be submitted in this paper which include the ionosphere reaction during the April 2002 events, and address as understanding of the coupling and feedback in the Sun-Earth interaction.

  10. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., technicians with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia, maneuver a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). The Strehla has been the focus for two Shuttle crews, STS-96 who are at KSC for a Crew Equipment Interface Test, and STS-101, for payload familiarization. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  11. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir on display at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Representatives of RSC Energia in Russia and other onlookers in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility examine an oxygen generator which the Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry to the Russian Mir Space Station on Mission STS-84. Sergei Romanov, second from right in the white shirt, is the spokesperson for generator manufacturer RSC Energia. The nearly 300-pound generator will be strapped down on the inside surface of a SPACEHAB Double Module for the trip to Mir. It will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff. It will be the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking.

  12. KSC-97pc654

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-04-16

    Representatives of RSC Energia in Russia and other onlookers in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility examine an oxygen generator which the Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry to the Russian Mir Space Station on Mission STS-84. Sergei Romanov, second from right in the white shirt, is the spokesperson for generator manufacturer RSC Energia. The nearly 300-pound generator will be strapped down on the inside surface of a SPACEHAB Double Module for the trip to Mir. It will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff. It will be the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking

  13. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  14. Market assessment of PFBC ash use

    SciTech Connect

    Bland, A. E.; Brown, T. H., Western Research Institute

    1998-01-01

    Pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) of coal is undergoing demonstration in the United States, as well as throughout the world. American Electric Power`s (AEP`s) bubbling PFBC 70 MWe Tidd demonstration program in Ohio and pilot-scale development at Foster Wheeler Energia Oy 10 MWth circulating PFBC at Karhula, Finland, have demonstrated the advantages of PFBC technology. Further technology development in the US is planned with the deployment of the technology at the MacIntosh Clean Coal project in Lakeland, Florida. Development of uses for solid wastes from PFBC coal-fired power systems is being actively pursued as part of the demonstration of PFBC technologies. Ashes collected from Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, operating on (1) low sulfur subbituminous and (2) high sulfur bituminous coal; and ash from the AEP`s high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at Western Research Institute (WRI).

  15. A Dynamical Study of the Formation of Peculiar Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, T. K.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Un estudlo de la formaci6n de diferentes tipos de galaxias peculiares (interactuantes) es conducido en base de la dina'mioa de la colisi6n lievando a su formaci6n usando la aproximaci6n impulsiva. Los resultados indican la existencia de una relaci6n caracteristica en base del camblo de la energia interna durante la colisi6n, cual determina el tipo de la galaxia peculiar formado. La relacion es analisada y valores criticos del camblo de Ia energia interna, ilevando a la interacci6n entre galaxias de varias intensidades y la formaci6n consecuente de varios tipos de sistemas peculiares es discutido. ABSTRACT. A study of the formation of different types of peculiar (interacting) galaxies is conducted based on the dynamics of the collision leading to their formation, using the impulsive approximation. Results indicate the existance of a characteristic relationship, based on the internal energy changes during the collision, governing the type of peculiar galaxy formed. The relationship is analysed and critical values of internal energy changes, leading to galaxy interaction of varying intensities and consequent formation of different types of peculiar galaxies is discussed. Key words: GALAXIES-DYNAMICS -- GALAXIES-FORMATION

  16. KSC-99pp0349

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-03-25

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., technicians with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia, maneuver a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). The Strehla has been the focus for two Shuttle crews, STS-96 who are at KSC for a Crew Equipment Interface Test, and STS-101, for payload familiarization. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999

  17. Retrieval of Mir Solar Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    1999-01-01

    A Russian solar array panel removed in November 1997 from the non-articulating photovoltaic array on the Mir core module was returned to Earth on STS-89 in January 1998. The panel had been exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for 10 years prior to retrieval. The retrieval provided a unique opportunity to study the effects of the LEO environment on a functional solar array. To take advantage of this opportunity, a team composed of members from RSC-Energia (Russia), the Boeing Company, and the following NASA Centers--Johnson Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Langley Research Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Lewis Research Center--was put together to analyze the array. After post-retrieval inspections at the Spacehab Facility at Kennedy in Florida, the array was shipped to Lewis in Cleveland for electrical performance tests, closeup photodocumentation, and removal of selected solar cells and blanket material. With approval from RSC-Energia, five cell pairs and their accompanying blanket and mesh material, and samples of painted handrail materials were selected for removal on the basis of their ability to provide degradation information. Sites were selected that provided different sizes and shapes of micrometeoroid impacts and different levels of surface contamination. These materials were then distributed among the team for round robin testing.

  18. Enterprise: an International Commercial Space Station Option

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounge, John M.

    2002-01-01

    In December 1999, the U.S. aerospace company SPACEHAB, Inc., (SPACEHAB) and the Russian aerospace company Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (RSC-Energia), initiated a joint project to establish a commercial venture on the International Space Station (ISS). The approach of this venture is to use private capital to build and attach a commercial habitable module (the "Enterprise Module") to the Russian Segment of the ISS. The module will become an element of the Russian Segment; in return, exclusive rights to use this module for commercial business will be granted to its developers. The Enterprise Module has been designed as a multipurpose module that can provide research accommodation, stowage and crew support services. Recent NASA budget decisions have resulted in the cancellation of NASA's ISS habitation module, a significant delay in its new ISS crew return vehicle, and a mandate to stabilize the ISS program. These constraints limit the ISS crew size to three people and result in very little time available for ISS research support. Since research activity is the primary reason this Space Station is being built, the ISS program must find a way to support a robust international research program as soon as possible. The time is right for a commercial initiative incorporating the Enterprise Module, outfitted with life support systems, and commercially procured Soyuz vehicles to provide the capability to increase ISS crew size to six by the end of 2005.

  19. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., technicians with DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia, maneuver a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, which is to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). The Strehla has been the focus for two Shuttle crews, STS-96 who are at KSC for a Crew Equipment Interface Test, and STS-101, for payload familiarization. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Russian cargo crane; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler Aerospace and RSC Energia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  20. STS-84 oxygen generator for Mir on display at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Representatives of RSC Energia in Russia and other onlookers in the SPACEHAB Payload Processing Facility examine an oxygen generator which the Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry to the Russian Mir Space Station on Mission STS-84. Sergei Romanov, second from right in the white shirt, is the spokesperson for generator manufacturer RSC Energia. The nearly 300-pound generator will be strapped down on the inside surface of a SPACEHAB Double Module for the trip to Mir. It will replace one of two Mir units that have been malfunctioning recently. The generator functions by electrolysis, which separates water into its oxygen and hydrogen components. The hydrogen is vented and the oxygen is used for breathing by the Mir crew. The generator is 4.2 feet in length and 1.4 feet in diameter. STS-84, which is planned to include a Mir crew exchange of astronaut C. Michael Foale for Jerry M. Linenger, is targeted for a May 15 liftoff. It will be the sixth Shuttle-Mir docking.

  1. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  2. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  3. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  4. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  5. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  6. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  7. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  8. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  9. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  10. Prevalência de infecção por Helicobacter pylori em uma comunidade indígena em São Paulo e fatores associados: estudo transversalPrevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in an indigenous community in São Paulo and associated factors: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roque, Juliana Rejane da Silva; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Rodrigues, Douglas; Rech, Patrícia; Kawakami, Elisabete

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is unevenly distributed among different populations. The aim here was to evaluate the factors associated with Helicobacter pylori infection among children up to five years of age living in a high-risk community. Cross-sectional study in an indigenous community of Guarani Mbya ethnicity, Tekoa Ytu and Tekoa Pyau villages, Jaraguá district, city of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. 74 children aged 0.4 to 4.9 years (mean 2.9 ± 1.3 years; median 3.1), and 145 family members (86 siblings, 43 mothers and 16 fathers) were evaluated for Helicobacter pylori infection using the validated 13C-urea breath test. Clinical and demographic data were collected. The prevalence was 8.3% among children aged 1-2 years and reached 64.3% among those aged 4-5 years (P = 0.018; overall 31.1%). The prevalence was 76.7% among siblings and 89.8% among parents. There was a negative association with previous use of antibiotics in multivariate analysis adjusted for age (odds ratio, OR: 0.07; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.01 to 0.66; P = 0.02). The prevalence was higher among males (OR: 1.55), and was associated with maternal infection (OR: 1.81), infection of both parents (OR: 1.5), vomiting (OR: 1.28), intestinal parasitosis (OR: 2.25), previous hospitalization (OR: 0.69) and breastfeeding (OR: 1.87). The prevalence was high among subjects older than three years of age, thus suggesting that the incidence of infection was higher over the first three years of life. Previous use of antibiotics was inversely associated with current Helicobacter pylori infection.

  11. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  12. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  13. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  14. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  15. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  16. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  17. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  18. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  19. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  20. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.