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Sample records for fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis

  1. Quantification and characterization of enzymatically produced hyaluronan with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Kooy, Floor K; Ma, Muyuan; Beeftink, Hendrik H; Eggink, Gerrit; Tramper, Johannes; Boeriu, Carmen G

    2009-01-15

    Hyaluronan (HA) is a polysaccharide with high-potential medical applications, depending on the chain length and the chain length distribution. Special interest goes to homogeneous HA oligosaccharides, which can be enzymatically produced using Pasteurella multocida hyaluronan synthase (PmHAS). We have developed a sensitive, simple, and fast method, based on fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE), for characterization and quantification of polymerization products. A chromatographic pure fluorescent template was synthesized from HA tetrasaccharide (HA4) and 2-aminobenzoic acid. HA4-fluor and HA4 were used as template for PmHAS-mediated polymerization of nucleotide sugars. All products, fluorescent and nonfluorescent, were analyzed with gel electrophoresis and quantified using lane densitometry. Comparison of HA4- and HA4-fluor-derived polymers showed that the fluorophore did not negatively influence the PmHAS-mediated polymerization. Only even-numbered oligosaccharide products were observed using HA4-fluor or HA4 as template. The fluorophore intensity was linearly related to its concentration, and the limit of detection was determined to be 7.4pmol per product band. With this assay, we can now differentiate oligosaccharides of size range DP2 (degree of polymerization 2) to approximately DP400, monitor the progress of polymerization reactions, and measure subtle differences in polymerization rate. Quantifying polymerization products enables us to study the influence of experimental conditions on HA synthesis.

  2. Quantification of hyaluronan (HA) using a simplified fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) procedure.

    PubMed

    Midura, Ronald J; Cali, Valbona; Lauer, Mark E; Calabro, Anthony; Hascall, Vincent C

    2018-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) exhibits numerous important roles in physiology and pathologies, and these facts necessitate an ability to accurately and reproducibly measure its quantities in tissues and cell cultures. Our group previously reported a rigorous and analytical procedure to quantify HA (and chondroitin sulfate, CS) using a reductive amination chemistry and separation of the fluorophore-conjugated, unsaturated disaccharides unique to HA and CS on high concentration acrylamide gels. This procedure is known as fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and has been adapted for the detection and quantification of all glycosaminoglycan types. While this previous FACE procedure is relatively straightforward to implement by carbohydrate research investigators, many nonglycoscience laboratories now studying HA biology might have difficulties establishing this prior FACE procedure as a routine assay for HA. To address this need, we have greatly simplified our prior FACE procedure for accurate and reproducible assessment of HA in tissues and cell cultures. This chapter describes in detail this simplified FACE procedure and, because it uses an enzyme that degrades both HA and CS, investigators will also gain additional insight into the quantities of CS in the same samples dedicated for HA analysis. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of molecular mass values of chondroitin sulfates by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE).

    PubMed

    Buzzega, Dania; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2010-03-11

    Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) was applied to determine the molecular mass (M) values of various chondroitin sulfate (CS) samples. After labeling with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (ANTS), FACE was able to resolve each CS sample as a discrete band depending on the M value. After densitometric acquisition, the migration distance of each CS standard was acquired and the third grade polynomial calibration standard curve was determined by plotting the logarithms of the M values as a function of migration ratio. Purified CS samples of different origin and the European Pharmacopeia CS standard were analyzed by both FACE and conventional high-performance size-exclusion liquid chromatography (HPSEC) methods. The molecular weight value on the top of the chromatographic peak (M(p)), the number-average M(n), weight-average M(w), and polydispersity (M(w)/M(n)) were examined by both techniques and found to be quite similar. This study demonstrates that FACE analysis is a suitable, sensitive and simple method for the determination of the M values of CS macromolecules with possible utilization in virtually any kind of research and development such as quality control laboratories. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis for the determination of molecular mass of heparins and low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparins.

    PubMed

    Buzzega, Dania; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2008-11-01

    We report the use of fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) to determine the molecular mass (M) values of heparins (Heps) and low-molecular-weight (LMW)-Hep derivatives. Hep are labeled with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid and FACE is able to resolve each fraction as a discrete band depending on their M. After densitometric acquisition, the migration distance of each Hep standard is acquired and the third-grade polynomial calibration standard curve is determined by plotting the logarithms of the M values as a function of migration ratio. Purified Hep samples having different properties, pharmaceutical Heps and various LMW-Heps were analyzed by both FACE and conventional high-performance size-exclusion liquid chromatography (HPSEC) methods. The molecular weight value on the top of the chromatographic peak (Mp), the number-average Mn, weight-average Mw and polydispersity (Mw/Mn) were examined by both techniques and found to be similar. This approach offers certain advantages over the HPSEC method. The derivatization process with 8-aminonaphthalene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid is complete after 4 h so that many samples may be analyzed in a day also considering that multiple samples can be run simultaneously and in parallel and that a single FACE analysis requires approx. 15 min. Furthermore, FACE is a very sensitive method as it requires approx. 5-10 microg of Heps, about 10-100-fold lower than samples and standards used in HPSEC evaluation. Finally, the utilization of mini-gels allows the use of very low amounts of reagents with neither expensive equipment nor any complicated procedures having to be applied. This study demonstrates that FACE analysis is a sensitive method for the determination of the M values of Heps and LMW-Heps with possible utilization in virtually any kind of research and development such as quality control laboratories due to its rapid, parallel analysis of multiple samples by means of common and simple largely used

  5. A novel approach for the quantitation of carbohydrates in mash, wort, and beer with RP-HPLC using 1-naphthylamine for precolumn derivatization.

    PubMed

    Rakete, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A

    2013-04-24

    A novel universal method for the determination of reducing mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides in complex matrices on RP-HPLC using 1-naphthylamine for precolumn derivatization with sodium cyanoborhydride was established to study changes in the carbohydrate profile during beer brewing. Fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection enabled very sensitive analyses of beer-relevant carbohydrates. Mass spectrometry additionally allowed the identification of the molecular weight and thereby the degree of polymerization of unknown carbohydrates. Thus, carbohydrates with up to 16 glucose units were detected. Comparison demonstrated that the novel method was superior to fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). The results proved the HPLC method clearly to be more powerful in regard to sensitivity and resolution. Analogous to FACE, this method was designated fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate HPLC (FAC-HPLC).

  6. Determination of the action modes of cellulases from hydrolytic profiles over a time course using fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Peipei; Li, Dandan; Chen, Guanjun; Gao, Peiji; Wang, Lushan

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is a sensitive and simple method for the separation of oligosaccharides. It relies on labeling the reducing ends of oligosaccharides with a fluorophore, followed by PAGE. Concentration changes of oligosaccharides following hydrolysis of a carbohydrate polymer could be quantitatively measured continuously over time using the FACE method. Based on the quantitative analysis, we suggested that FACE was a relatively high-throughput, repeatable, and suitable method for the analysis of the action modes of cellulases. On account of the time courses of their hydrolytic profiles, the apparent processivity was used to show the different action modes of cellulases. Cellulases could be easily differentiated as exoglucanases, β-glucosidases, or endoglucanases. Moreover, endoglucanases from the same glycoside hydrolases family had a variety of apparent processivity, indicating the different modes of action. Endoglucanases with the same binding capacities and hydrolytic activities had similar oligosaccharide profiles, which aided in their classification. The hydrolytic profile of Trichoderma reesei Cel12A, an endoglucanases from T. reesei, contained glucose, cellobiose, and cellotriose, which revealed that it may have a new glucosidase activity, corresponding to that of EC 3.2.1.74. A hydrolysate study of a T. reesei Cel12A-N20A mutant demonstrated that the FACE method was sufficiently sensitive to detect the influence of a single-site mutation on enzymatic activity. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Separation of negatively charged carbohydrates by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Linhardt, R J; Pervin, A

    1996-01-12

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has recently emerged as a highly promising technique consuming an extremely small amount of sample and capable of the rapid, high-resolution separation, characterization, and quantitation of analytes. CE has been used for the separation of biopolymers, including acidic carbohydrates. Since CE is basically an analytical method for ions, acidic carbohydrates that give anions in weakly acid, neutral, or alkaline media are often the direct objects of this method. The scope of this review is limited to the use of CE for the analysis of carbohydrates containing carboxylate, sulfate, and phosphate groups as well as neutral carbohydrates that have been derivatized to incorporate strongly acidic functionality, such as sulfonate groups.

  8. Small-scale enzymatic digestion of glycoproteins and proteoglycans for analysis of oligosaccharides by LC-MS and FACE gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Ruby P; Whitelock, John M; Roubin, Rebecca H; Packer, Nicolle H; Karlsson, Niclas G

    2009-01-01

    Structural characterization of oligosaccharides from proteoglycans and other glycoproteins is greatly enhanced through the use of mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis. Sample preparation for these sensitive techniques often requires enzymatic treatments to produce oligosaccharide sequences for subsequent analysis. This chapter describes several small-scale methods for in-gel, on-blot, and in-solution enzymatic digestions in preparation for graphitized carbon liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, with specific applications indicated for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and N-linked oligosaccharides. In addition, accompanying procedures for oligosaccharide reduction by sodium borohydride, sample desalting via carbon microcolumn, desialylation by sialidase enzyme treatment, and small-scale oligosaccharide species fractionation are included. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is another useful method to isolate derivatized oligosaccharides. Overall, the modularity of these techniques provides ease and flexibility for use in conjunction with mass spectrometric and electrophoretic tools for glycomic research studies.

  9. Analysis of carbohydrate deficient transferrin by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Prasad, R; Stout, R L; Coffin, D; Smith, J

    1997-09-01

    We report a capillary zone electrophoresis method to separate the various sialylated isoforms of transferrin. The separation is carried out under nondenaturing conditions and at basic pH. Under these conditions, transferrin exhibits two major and three minor peaks. Plasma samples from a population consuming varying amounts of alcohol at different intervals were studied. A cut-off value of 3% carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT: disialo, monosialo, and asialo transferrin), results in a clinical sensitivity of 88% in a population consuming at least 70 g/day alcohol for a minimum of two weeks. The sensitivity dropped significantly in a population consuming less than 70 g/day. This confirms previous reports of CDT as a specific marker for significant and chronic use of alcohol. Capillary electrophoresis offers an alternative method with respect to analysis time and throughput in the clinical laboratory.

  10. Cyanochrome fluorophores

    DOEpatents

    Ulijasz, Andrew T.; Vierstra, Richard D.

    2016-06-14

    Genetically-engineered cyanochrome fluorophore molecules (fluorophores) with increased fluorescence and with absorbing fluorescence in the blue and green (blue/green) portion of the light spectrum are provided. These fluorophores are derived from the domains of phytochromes, and in particular cyanobacterial phytochromes. Methods for generating these fluorophores and various applications of these fluorophores are also provided.

  11. Determination of the modes of action and synergies of xylanases by analysis of xylooligosaccharide profiles over time using fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weili; Zhang, Huaiqiang; Tian, Li; Liu, Shijia; Wu, Xiuyun; Li, Fuli; Wang, Lushan

    2016-07-01

    The structure of xylan, which has a 1,4-linked β-xylose backbone with various substituents, is much more heterogeneous and complex than that of cellulose. Because of this, complete degradation of xylan needs a large number of enzymes that includes GH10, GH11, and GH3 family xylanases together with auxiliary enzymes. Fluorescence-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) is able to accurately differentiate unsubstituted and substituted xylooligosaccharides (XOS) in the heterogeneous products generated by different xylanases and allows changes in concentrations of specific XOS to be analyzed quantitatively. Based on a quantitative analysis of XOS profiles over time using FACE, we have demonstrated that GH10 and GH11 family xylanases immediately degrade xylan into sizeable XOS, which are converted into smaller XOS in a much lower speed. The shortest substituted XOS produced by hydrolysis of the substituted xylan backbone by GH10 and GH11 family xylanases were MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 and MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 , respectively. The unsubstituted xylan backbone was degraded into xylose, xylobiose, and xylotriose by both GH10 and GH11 family xylanases; the product profiles are not family-specific but, instead, depend on different subsite binding affinities in the active sites of individual enzymes. Synergystic action between xylanases and β-xylosidase degraded MeGlcA(2) Xyl4 into xylose and MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 but further degradation of MeGlcA(2) Xyl3 required additional enzymes. Synergy between xylanases and β-xylosidase was also found to significantly accelerate the conversion of XOS into xylose. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Dual-mode fluorophore-doped nickel nitrilotriacetic acid-modified silica nanoparticles combine histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Jeyakumar, M; Katzenellenbogen, John A

    2007-10-31

    We present the first example of a fluorophore-doped nickel chelate surface-modified silica nanoparticle that functions in a dual mode, combining histidine-tagged protein purification with site-specific fluorophore labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine (TMR)-doped silica nanoparticles, estimated to contain 700-900 TMRs per ca. 23 nm particle, were surface modified with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), producing TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+. Silica-embedded TMR retains very high quantum yield, is resistant to quenching by buffer components, and is modestly quenched and only to a certain depth (ca. 2 nm) by surface-attached Ni2+. When exposed to a bacterial lysate containing estrogen receptor alpha ligand binding domain (ERalpha) as a minor component, these beads showed very high specificity binding, enabling protein purification in one step. The capacity and specificity of these beads for binding a his-tagged protein were characterized by electrophoresis, radiometric counting, and MALDI-TOF MS. ERalpha, bound to TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni++ beads in a site-specific manner, exhibited good activity for ligand binding and for ligand-induced binding to coactivators in solution FRET experiments and protein microarray fluorometric and FRET assays. This dual-mode type TMR-SiO2-NTA-Ni2+ system represents a powerful combination of one-step histidine-tagged protein purification and site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophore species.

  13. Molecular glycopathology by capillary electrophoresis: Analysis of the N-glycome of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded mouse tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Donczo, Boglarka; Szarka, Mate; Tovari, Jozsef; Ostoros, Gyorgyi; Csanky, Eszter; Guttman, Andras

    2017-06-01

    Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection was used to analyze endoglycosidase released and fluorophore-labeled N-glycans from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) mouse tissue samples of lung, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and intestine. The FFPE samples were first deparaffinized followed by solubilization and glycoprotein retrieval. PNGase F mediated release of the N-linked oligosaccharides was followed by labeling with aminopyrene trisulfonate. After CE-LIF glycoprofiling of the FFPE mouse tissues, the N-glycan pool of the lung specimen was subject to further investigation by exoglycosidase array based carbohydrate sequencing. Structural assignment of the oligosaccharides was accomplished by the help of the GUcal software and the associated database, based on the mobility shifts after treatments with the corresponding exoglycosidase reaction mixtures. Sixteen major N-linked carbohydrate structures were sequenced from the mouse lung FFPE tissue glycome and identified, as high mannose (3) neutral biantennary (3) sialylated monoantennary (1) and sialylated bianennary (9) oligosaccharides. Two of these latter ones also possessed alpha(1-3) linked galactose residues. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantification of Carbohydrates in Grape Tissues Using Capillary Zone Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lu; Chanon, Ann M.; Chattopadhyay, Nabanita; Dami, Imed E.; Blakeslee, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars play an important role in freezing tolerance in both herbaceous and woody plants, functioning in both the reduction of freezing-induced dehydration and the cryoprotection of cellular constituents. The quantification of soluble sugars in plant tissues is, therefore, essential in understanding freezing tolerance. While a number of analytical techniques and methods have been used to quantify sugars, most of these are expensive and time-consuming due to complex sample preparation procedures which require the derivatization of the carbohydrates being analyzed. Analysis of soluble sugars using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) under alkaline conditions with direct UV detection has previously been used to quantify simple sugars in fruit juices. However, it was unclear whether CZE-based methods could be successfully used to quantify the broader range of sugars present in complex plant extracts. Here, we present the development of an optimized CZE method capable of separating and quantifying mono-, di-, and tri-saccharides isolated from plant tissues. This optimized CZE method employs a column electrolyte buffer containing 130 mM NaOH, pH 13.0, creating a current of 185 μA when a separation voltage of 10 kV is employed. The optimized CZE method provides limits-of-detection (an average of 1.5 ng/μL) for individual carbohydrates comparable or superior to those obtained using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and allows resolution of non-structural sugars and cell wall components (structural sugars). The optimized CZE method was successfully used to quantify sugars from grape leaves and buds, and is a robust tool for the quantification of plant sugars found in vegetative and woody tissues. The increased analytical efficiency of this CZE method makes it ideal for use in high-throughput metabolomics studies designed to quantify plant sugars. PMID:27379118

  15. Synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of cyclopenta[b]naphthalene solvatochromic fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Erica; Kocsis, Laura S; Brummond, Kay M

    2012-08-01

    The synthesis and photophysical properties of a series of naphthalene-containing solvatochromic fluorophores are described within. These novel fluorophores are prepared using a microwave-assisted dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reaction of styrene, followed by a palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction to install an electron donating amine group. The new fluorophores are structurally related to Prodan. Photophysical properties of the new fluorophores were studied and intriguing solvatochromic behavior was observed. For most of these fluorophores, high quantum yields (60-99%) were observed in methylene chloride in addition to large Stokes shifts (95-226 nm) in this same solvent. As the solvent polarity increased, so did the observed Stokes shift with one derivative displaying a Stokes shift of ~300 nm in ethanol. All fluorophore emission maxima, and nearly all absorption maxima were significantly red-shifted when compared to Prodan. Shifting the absorption and emission maxima of a fluorophore into the visible region increases its utility in biological applications. Moreover, the cyclopentane portion of the fluorophore structure provides an attachment point for biomolecules that will minimize disruptions of the photophysical properties.

  16. Carbohydrate conjugation through microwave-assisted functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes using perfluorophenyl azides.

    PubMed

    Kong, Na; Shimpi, Manishkumar R; Ramström, Olof; Yan, Mingdi

    2015-03-20

    Carbohydrate-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were synthesized using microwave-assisted reaction of perfluorophenyl azide with the nanotubes. The results showed that microwave radiation provides a rapid and effective means to covalently attach carbohydrates to SWNTs, producing carbohydrate-SWNT conjugates for biorecognition. The carbohydrate-functionalized SWNTs were furthermore shown to interact specifically with cognate carbohydrate-specific proteins (lectins), resulting in predicted recognition patterns. The carbohydrate-presenting SWNTs constitute a new platform for sensitive protein- or cell recognition, which pave the way for glycoconjugated carbon nanomaterials in biorecognition applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The characteristics of transferrin variants by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin tests using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gilsung; Kim, Juwon; Yoon, Kap Joon; Lee, Jong-Han

    2018-04-17

    Transferrin is the major plasma transport protein for iron. We aimed to investigate the characteristics of transferrin variant by carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) test using capillary zone electrophoresis. We retrospectively analyzed the CDT tests of 2449 patients from March 2009 to May 2017 at a tertiary hospital in Korea. CDT was quantified using a Capillarys 2 system (Sebia, Lisses, France) by capillary zone electrophoresis. The characteristics of variant transferrin patterns using electropherogram of CDT tests were analyzed. Seventy-seven (3.1%) patients were classified as variant transferrin. Mean age of these patients was 51.8 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 3.5:1. The most common variants were the BC variants (n = 37), followed by the CD variants (n = 27), unclear patterns (n = 7), BD variants (n = 3), CC variants (n = 2), misclassification (n = 1). In the variant Tf group, the most common disease was alcoholic liver cirrhosis (n = 22, 28.6%), followed by the toxic effects of substances (n = 17, 22.1%), and mental and behavioral disorders attributable to alcohol (n = 11, 14.3%). Nonvariant group showed a predominance of the toxic substance effects (n = 880, 37.1%), a personal history of suicide attempts (n = 634, 26.7%), and mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol (n = 336, 14.2%). We analyzed the basic characteristics of variant transferrin by CDT tests using capillary zone electrophoresis. The prevalence of variant transferrin was 3.1% of the study subjects. Male patients, alcohol abusers, and liver cirrhosis patients predominated in the variant transferrin population. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate variant transferrin in clinical practice. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A G-Quadruplex-Containing RNA Activates Fluorescence in a GFP-Like Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng; Shelke, Sandip A.; Evans, Molly E.; Koldobskaya, Yelena; Rice, Phoebe A.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Spinach is an in vitro selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence.Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP, and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2 and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially pre-formed binding site for the fluorophore.The fluorophore binds in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers. PMID:24952597

  19. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  20. A G-quadruplex-containing RNA activates fluorescence in a GFP-like fluorophore

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hao; Suslov, Nikolai B.; Li, Nan-Sheng

    2014-08-21

    Spinach is an in vitro–selected RNA aptamer that binds a GFP-like ligand and activates its green fluorescence. Spinach is thus an RNA analog of GFP and has potentially widespread applications for in vivo labeling and imaging. We used antibody-assisted crystallography to determine the structures of Spinach both with and without bound fluorophore at 2.2-Å and 2.4-Å resolution, respectively. Spinach RNA has an elongated structure containing two helical domains separated by an internal bulge that folds into a G-quadruplex motif of unusual topology. The G-quadruplex motif and adjacent nucleotides comprise a partially preformed binding site for the fluorophore. The fluorophore bindsmore » in a planar conformation and makes extensive aromatic stacking and hydrogen bond interactions with the RNA. Our findings provide a foundation for structure-based engineering of new fluorophore-binding RNA aptamers.« less

  1. A Diversity-Oriented Library of Fluorophore-Modified Receptors Constructed from a Chemical Library of Synthetic Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shun; Tamura, Tomoki; Das, Raj Kumar; Nakata, Eiji; Chang, Young-Tae; Morii, Takashi

    2017-11-16

    The practical application of biosensors can be determined by evaluating the sensing ability of fluorophore-modified derivatives of a receptor with appropriate recognition characteristics for target molecules. One of the key determinants for successfully obtaining a useful biosensor is wide variation in the fluorophores attached to a given receptor. Thus, using a larger fluorophore-modified receptor library provides a higher probability of obtaining a practically useful biosensor. However, no effective method has yet been developed for constructing such a diverse library of fluorophore-modified receptors. Herein, we report a method for constructing fluorophore-modified receptors by using a chemical library of synthetic fluorophores with a thiol-reactive group. This library was converted into a library of fluorophore-modified adenosine-binding ribonucleopeptide (RNP) receptors by introducing the fluorophores to the Rev peptide of the RNP complex by alkylation of the thiol group. This method enabled the construction of 263 fluorophore-modified ATP-binding RNP receptors and allowed the selection of suitable receptor-based fluorescent sensors that target ATP. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Screening method of carbohydrate-binding proteins in biological sources by capillary affinity electrophoresis and its application to determination of Tulipa gesneriana agglutinin in tulip bulbs.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Kazuki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Oda, Yasuo; Masuko, Takashi; Kaku, Hanae; Shibuya, Naoto; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2004-09-01

    We developed capillary affinity electrophoresis (CAE) to analyze the molecular interaction between carbohydrate chains and proteins in solution state. A mixture of oligosaccharides derived from a glycoprotein was labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS), and used as glycan library without isolation. Interaction of a carbohydrate-binding protein with each oligosaccharide in the mixture could be simultaneously observed, and relative affinities of oligosaccharides toward the protein were accurately determined. In this study, we applied CAE to detect the presence of lectins in some plants (Japanese elderberry bark and tulip bulb). In the crude extract of the elderberry bark, binding activity toward sialo-carbohydrate chains could be easily detected. We also examined the presence of lectins in the crude extract of tulip bulbs and determined the detailed carbohydrate-binding specificity of Tulipa gesneriana agglutinin (TGA), one of the lectins from tulip bulbs. Kinetic studies demonstrated that TGA showed novel carbohydrate-binding specificity and preferentially recognized triantennary oligosaccharides with Gal residues at nonreducing termini and a Fuc residue linked through alpha(1-6) linkage at chitobiose portion of the reducing termini but not tetraantennary carbohydrates. The results described here indicate that CAE will be a valuable method for both screening of lectins in natural sources and determination of their detailed carbohydrate-binding specificities.

  3. Grapevine tissues and phenology differentially affect soluble carbohydrates determination by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniela; Berli, Federico; Bottini, Rubén; Piccoli, Patricia N; Silva, María F

    2017-09-01

    Soluble carbohydrates distribution depends on plant physiology and, among other important factors, determines fruit yield and quality. In plant biology, the analysis of sugars is useful for many purposes, including metabolic studies. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) proved to be a powerful green separation technique with minimal sample preparation, even in complex plant tissues, that can provide high-resolution efficiency. Matrix effect refers to alterations in the analytical response caused by components of a sample other than the analyte of interest. Thus, the assessment and reduction of the matrix factor is fundamental for metabolic studies in different matrices. The present study evaluated the source and levels of matrix effects in the determination of most abundant sugars in grapevine tissues (mature and young leaves, berries and roots) at two phenological growth stages. Sucrose was the sugar that showed the least matrix effects, while fructose was the most affected analyte. Based on plant tissues, young leaves presented the smaller matrix effects, irrespectively of the phenology. These changes may be attributed to considerable differences at chemical composition of grapevine tissues with plant development. Therefore, matrix effect should be an important concern for plant metabolomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantum dots assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates: qualitative and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Aisha; Ju, Huangxian

    2016-04-01

    A quantum dots (QDs) assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric (QDA-LDI-MS) strategy was proposed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of a series of carbohydrates. The adsorption of carbohydrates on the modified surface of different QDs as the matrices depended mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonding, which led to higher MS intensity than those with conventional organic matrix. The effects of QDs concentration and sample preparation method were explored for improving the selective ionization process and the detection sensitivity. The proposed approach offered a new dimension to the application of QDs as matrices for MALDI-MS research of carbohydrates. It could be used for quantitative measurement of glucose concentration in human serum with good performance. The QDs served as a matrix showed the advantages of low background, higher sensitivity, convenient sample preparation and excellent stability under vacuum. The QDs assisted LDI-MS approach has promising application to the analysis of carbohydrates in complex biological samples. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Reducing the background fluorescence in mice receiving fluorophore/inhibitor DNA duplexes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Minmin; Liu, Xinrong; Liu, Guozheng; Dou, Shuping; Cheng, Dengfeng; Liu, Yuxia; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2011-02-07

    In principle, a DNA duplex consisting of an antisense fluorophore-conjugated major strand hybridized to a shorter complementary inhibitor-conjugated minor strand should provide fluorescence only in the tumor after intravenous administration if designed to remain intact except in the presence in tumor of its mRNA target. While we have obtained impressive tumor images in mice using this approach, there remains some background fluorescence. In this study, tissue homogenates of selected mouse organs were incubated with a test duplex and the kinetics of duplex dissociation in normal tissues were measured. In this manner we were able to identify the liver as the likely major source responsible for the duplex dissociation providing this fluorescence background. Thereafter liver homogenates were used to screen a series of duplex candidates with variable-length minor strands, and dissociation was measured by gel electrophoresis. The selected fluorophore/inhibitor duplex with improved stability displayed an insignificant (P > 0.05) background fluorescence after administration to SKH-1 normal mice and apparently without affecting target mRNA binding in vitro in cell culture or in vivo in tumor bearing mice.

  6. Chemoselective Reactions for the Synthesis of Glycoconjugates from Unprotected Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Villadsen, Klaus; Martos-Maldonado, Manuel C; Jensen, Knud J; Thygesen, Mikkel B

    2017-04-04

    Glycobiology is the comprehensive biological investigation of carbohydrates. The study of the role and function of complex carbohydrates often requires the attachment of carbohydrates to surfaces, their tagging with fluorophores, or their conversion into natural or non-natural glycoconjugates, such as glycopeptides or glycolipids. Glycobiology and its "omics", glycomics, require easy and robust chemical methods for the construction of these glycoconjugates. This review gives an overview of the rapidly expanding field of chemical reactions that selectively convert unprotected carbohydrates into glycoconjugates through the anomeric position. The discussion is divided in terms of the anomeric bond type of the newly formed glycoconjugates, including O-, N-, S-, and C-glycosides. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Recent advances in capillary electrophoresis separation of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article illustrates the basis and applications of methodologies for the analysis of simple and complex carbohydrates by means of CE. After a description of the most common and novel approaches useful for the analysis and characterization of carbohydrates, this review covers the recent advances in CE separation of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Various CE techniques are also illustrated for the study of carbohydrates derived from complex glyco-derivatives such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, essential for biopharmaceutical and glycoproteomics applications as well as for biomarker detection. Most glycans have no significant UV absorption, and derivatization with fluorophore groups prior to separation usually results in higher sensitivity and an improved electrophoretic profile. We also discuss the recent applications and separations by CE of derivatized simple and more complex carbohydrates with different chromophoric active tags. Overall, this review aims to give an overview of the most recent state-of-the-art techniques used in carbohydrate analysis by CE. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Chemical characterization of detrital sugar chains with peptides in oceanic surface particulate organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukasaki, A.; Nishida, T.; Tanoue, E.

    2016-02-01

    For better understanding of the dynamics of organic matter in the ocean interior, particulate organic matter (POM) in oceanic surface water is a key material as a starting material in food chain and biological carbon pump, and the source of dissolved organic matter. POM consists of a mixture of non-living POM (detritus) and small amount of living POM (organisms). Particulate combined amino acids (PCAAs) are one of the major components of POM and the most important source of nitrogen and carbon for heterotrophic organisms in marine environments. In our previous studies of molecular-level characterization of PCAAs using electrophoretic separation (SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) with specific detection of protein/peptide and sugar chains, we reported that most of PCAAs existed as small-sized peptide chains with carbohydrate-rich remnants. Although carbohydrates are one of the major carbon components of POM, the details of molecular-level structures including sugar chains are unknown. In this study, we applied electrophoretic separation for sugar chains (FACE: fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis) to the POM samples collected from the surface water of the Pacific Ocean. The results showed that sugar chains with various degree of polymerization were detected in POM. The possible roles of such sugar chains in marine biogeochemical cycle of organic matter are discussed in the presentation.

  9. Electrophoresis as a management tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, R.P.; Chapman, J.A.; Noe, L.A.; Henny, C.J.

    1974-01-01

    The theme of this 1974 Northeast Fish and Wildlife Conference is 'A New Era'. Indeed, it is a new era for improved techniques to assist in management of our fish and wildlife resources for the maximum benefit of all. In some cases, the new techniques are primarily used in research.on fish and wildlife, and the results from the research are used to aid management and enforcement agencies in the decision-making process. One of the newer techniques that is being applied to problems in fisheries and wildlife is electrophoresis. In this paper, we review briefly the techniques of electrophoresis and illustrate research problems in wildlife and fisheries where the use of electrophoresis is now assisting or may potentially aid in management decisions.

  10. In vitro study of prebiotic properties of levan-type exopolysaccharides from Lactobacilli and non-digestible carbohydrates using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Bello, F D; Walter, J; Hertel, C; Hammes, W P

    2001-07-01

    Batch cultures inoculated with human faeces were used to study the prebiotic properties of levan-type exopolysaccharides (EPS) from Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis as well as levan, inulin, and fructooligosaccharide (FOS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rDNA fragments generated by PCR with universal primers was used to analyse the cultures. Characteristic changes were revealed in the composition of the gut bacteria during fermentation of the carbohydrates. An enrichment of Bifidobacterium spp. was found for the EPS and inulin but not for levan and FOS. The bifidogenic effect of the EPS was confirmed by culturing on selective medium. In addition, the use of EPS and FOS resulted in enhanced growth of Eubacterium biforme and Clostridium perfringens, respectively.

  11. Carbohydrate-Assisted Combustion Synthesis To Realize High-Performance Oxide Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Binghao; Zeng, Li; Huang, Wei; Melkonyan, Ferdinand S; Sheets, William C; Chi, Lifeng; Bedzyk, Michael J; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Owing to high carrier mobilities, good environmental/thermal stability, excellent optical transparency, and compatibility with solution processing, thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on amorphous metal oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are promising alternatives to those based on amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and low-temperature (<600 °C) poly-silicon (LTPS). However, solution-processed display-relevant indium-gallium-tin-oxide (IGZO) TFTs suffer from low carrier mobilities and/or inferior bias-stress stability versus their sputtered counterparts. Here we report that three types of environmentally benign carbohydrates (sorbitol, sucrose, and glucose) serve as especially efficient fuels for IGZO film combustion synthesis to yield high-performance TFTs. The results indicate that these carbohydrates assist the combustion process by lowering the ignition threshold temperature and, for optimal stoichiometries, enhancing the reaction enthalpy. IGZO TFT mobilities are increased to >8 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) on SiO2/Si gate dielectrics with significantly improved bias-stress stability. The first correlations between precursor combustion enthalpy and a-MO densification/charge transport are established.

  12. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry: Mechanistic Studies and Methods for Improving the Structural Identification of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yin-Hung; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is one of the most widely used soft ionization methods for biomolecules, the lack of detailed understanding of ionization mechanisms restricts its application in the analysis of carbohydrates. Structural identification of carbohydrates achieved by MALDI mass spectrometry helps us to gain insights into biological functions and pathogenesis of disease. In this review, we highlight mechanistic details of MALDI, including both ionization and desorption. Strategies to improve the ion yield of carbohydrates are also reviewed. Furthermore, commonly used fragmentation methods to identify the structure are discussed. PMID:28959517

  13. Metallo-Phthalocyanine Near-IR Fluorophores: Oligonucleotide Conjugates and Their Applications in PCR Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nesterova, Irina V.; Verdree, Vera T.; Pakhomov, Serhii; Strickler, Karen L.; Allen, Michael W.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Water soluble, metallo-pthalocyanine (MPc) near-IR fluorophores were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as highly stable and sensitive reporters for fluorescence assays. Their conjugation to oligonucleotides was achieved via succinimidyl ester-amino coupling chemistry with the conditions for conjugation extensively examined and optimized. In addition, various conjugate purification and isolation techniques were evaluated as well. Results showed that under proper conditions and following purification using reverse-phase ion-pair chromatography, labeling efficiencies near 80% could be achieved using ZnPc (Zn phthalocyanine) as the labeling fluorophore. Absorption and fluorescence spectra accumulated for the conjugates indicated that the intrinsic fluorescence properties of the MPc’s were not significantly altered by covalent attachment to oligonucleotides. As an example of the utility of MPc reporters, we used the MPc–oligonucleotide conjugates as primers for PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplifications with the products sorted via electrophoresis and detected using near-IR fluorescence (λex = 680 nm). The MPc dyes were found to be more chemically stable under typical thermal cycling conditions used for PCR compared to the carbocyanine-based near-IR reporter systems typically used and produced single and narrow bands in the electrophoretic traces, indicative of producing a single PCR product during amplification. PMID:18030995

  14. Characterization of carbohydrates using highly fluorescent 2-aminobenzoic acid tag following gel electrophoresis of glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Anumula, K R; Du, P

    1999-11-15

    Application of the most sensitive fluorescent label 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) for characterization of carbohydrates from the glycoproteins ( approximately 15 pmol) separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is described. AA label is used for the determination of both monosaccharide composition and oligosaccharide map. For the monosaccharide determination, bands containing the glycoprotein of interest are excised from the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane blots, hydrolyzed in 20% trifluoroacetic acid, derivatized, and analyzed by C-18 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. For the oligosaccharide mapping, bands were digested with peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) in order to release the N-linked oligosaccharides, derivatized, and analyzed by normal-phase anion-exchange chromatography. For convenience, the PNGase F digestion was performed in 1:100 diluted ammonium hydroxide overnight. The oligosaccharide yield from ammonium hydroxide-PNGase F digestion was better or equal to all the other reported procedures, and the presumed "oligosaccharide-amine" product formed in the reaction mixture did not interfere with labeling of the oligosaccharides under the conditions used for derivatization. Sequencing of oligosaccharides can be performed using the same mapping method following treatment with an array of glycosidases. In addition, the mapping method is useful for determining the relative and simultaneous distribution of sialic acid and fucose. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  15. Photoacoustic imaging of fluorophores using pump-probe excitation

    PubMed Central

    Märk, Julia; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Theiss, Christoph; Dortay, Hakan; Friedrich, Thomas; Laufer, Jan

    2015-01-01

    A pump-probe technique for the detection of fluorophores in tomographic PA images is introduced. It is based on inducing stimulated emission in fluorescent molecules, which in turn modulates the amount of thermalized energy, and hence the PA signal amplitude. A theoretical model of the PA signal generation in fluorophores is presented and experimentally validated on cuvette measurements made in solutions of Rhodamine 6G, a fluorophore of known optical and molecular properties. The application of this technique to deep tissue tomographic PA imaging is demonstrated by determining the spatial distribution of a near-infrared fluorophore in a tissue phantom. PMID:26203378

  16. Reconstruction of fluorophore concentration variation in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanxuan; Liu, Fei; Zuo, Simin; Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Guanglei; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (DFMT) is a potential approach for drug delivery, tumor detection, diagnosis, and staging. The purpose of DFMT is to quantify the changes of fluorescent agents in the bodies, which offer important information about the underlying physiological processes. However, the conventional method requires that the fluorophore concentrations to be reconstructed are stationary during the data collection period. As thus, it cannot offer the dynamic information of fluorophore concentration variation within the data collection period. In this paper, a method is proposed to reconstruct the fluorophore concentration variation instead of the fluorophore concentration through a linear approximation. The fluorophore concentration variation rate is introduced by the linear approximation as a new unknown term to be reconstructed and is used to obtain the time courses of fluorophore concentration. Simulation and phantom studies are performed to validate the proposed method. The results show that the method is able to reconstruct the fluorophore concentration variation rates and the time courses of fluorophore concentration with relative errors less than 0.0218.

  17. Determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk by capillary electrophoresis in combination with graphene-cobalt microsphere hybrid paste electrodes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peipei; Sun, Motao; He, Peimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A graphene-cobalt microsphere (CoMS) hybrid paste electrode was developed for the determination of carbohydrates in honey and milk in combination with capillary electrophoresis (CE). The performance of the electrodes was demonstrated by detecting mannitol, sucrose, lactose, glucose, and fructose after CE separation. The five analytes were well separated within 9 min in a 40 cm long capillary at a separation voltage of 12 kV. The electrodes exhibited pronounced electrocatalytic activity, lower detection potentials, enhanced signal-to-noise characteristics, and higher reproducibility. The relation between peak current and analyte concentration was linear over about three orders of magnitude. The proposed method had been employed to determine lactose in bovine milk and glucose and fructose in honey with satisfactory results. Because only electroactive substances in the samples could be detected on the paste electrode, the electropherograms of both food samples were simplified to some extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Capillary Electrophoresis Profiles and Fluorophore Components of Humic Acids in Nebraska Corn and Philippine Rice Soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As humic substances represent relatively high molecular mass polyelectrolytes containing aromatic, aliphatic and heterocyclic subunits, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become an attractive method for “finger-print” characterization of humic acids. In addition, fluorescence excitation-emission ma...

  19. Improved fluorescent labeling of chitin oligomers: Chitinolytic properties of acidic mammalian chitinase under somatic tissue pH conditions.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Satoshi; Kimura, Masahiro; Kato, Naoki; Kashimura, Akinori; Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Kanayama, Naoto; Ohno, Misa; Honda, Shotaro; Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Bauer, Peter O; Oyama, Fumitaka

    2017-05-15

    Acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) has been implicated in various pathophysiological conditions including asthma, allergic inflammation and food processing. AMCase is most active at pH 2.0, and its activity gradually decreases to up to pH 8. Here we analyzed chitin degradation by AMCase in weak acidic to neutral conditions by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis established originally for oligosaccharides analysis. We found that specific fragments with slower-than-expected mobility as defined by chitin oligosaccharide markers were generated at pH 5.0∼8.0 as by-products of the reaction. We established an improved method for chitin oligosaccharides suppressing this side reaction by pre-acidification of the fluorophore-labeling reaction mixture. Our improved method specifically detects chitin oligosaccharides and warrants quantification of up to 50nmol of the material. Using this strategy, we found that AMCase produced dimer of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc) at strong acidic to neutral condition. Moreover, we found that AMCase generates (GlcNAc) 2 as well as (GlcNAc) 3 under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential effect of ultrasound on carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Bera, Smritilekha; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Martin, Jacob T; Singh, Man

    2015-06-17

    The use of ultrasound has emerged as one of the most useful alternative energy sources for the synthesis of carbohydrate-derived biologically and pharmaceutically potential compounds. Spectacular advances have been made in the field of sonication-assisted organic reactions, which are known for producing superior yields, enhanced reactivity of the reactant, improved stereoselectivity, and shortened reaction times. Orthogonal protection-deprotection reactions and/or modification and manipulation of functional groups in carbohydrates are common synthetic steps in carbohydrate chemistry. These reaction steps can be driven by the ultrasonic energy generated by acoustic cavitation via the formation and subsequent collapse of ultrasound-induced bubbles. The ultrasound-assisted synthesis of differently functionalised monosaccharides is useful in a wide variety of applications of carbohydrate chemistry such as the glycosylation of oligosaccharides, one pot domino reactions, thioglycoside syntheses, azidoglycoside syntheses, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions, and syntheses of natural products. This review article covers ultrasound-mediated reactions on carbohydrates that have been described in the literature since 2000. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mapping absolute tissue endogenous fluorophore concentrations with chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhang; Reilley, Michael; Li, Run; Xu, Min

    2017-06-01

    We report chemometric wide-field fluorescence microscopy for imaging the spatial distribution and concentration of endogenous fluorophores in thin tissue sections. Nonnegative factorization aided by spatial diversity is used to learn both the spectral signature and the spatial distribution of endogenous fluorophores from microscopic fluorescence color images obtained under broadband excitation and detection. The absolute concentration map of individual fluorophores is derived by comparing the fluorescence from "pure" fluorophores under the identical imaging condition following the identification of the fluorescence species by its spectral signature. This method is then demonstrated by characterizing the concentration map of endogenous fluorophores (including tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin adenine dinucleotide) for lung tissue specimens. The absolute concentrations of these fluorophores are all found to decrease significantly from normal, perilesional, to cancerous (squamous cell carcinoma) tissue. Discriminating tissue types using the absolute fluorophore concentration is found to be significantly more accurate than that achievable with the relative fluorescence strength. Quantification of fluorophores in terms of the absolute concentration map is also advantageous in eliminating the uncertainties due to system responses or measurement details, yielding more biologically relevant data, and simplifying the assessment of competing imaging approaches.

  2. Single tag for total carbohydrate analysis.

    PubMed

    Anumula, Kalyan Rao

    2014-07-15

    Anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-AA) has the remarkable property of reacting rapidly with every type of reducing carbohydrate. Reactivity of 2-AA with carbohydrates in aqueous solutions surpasses all other tags reported to date. This unique capability is attributed to the strategically located -COOH which accelerates Schiff base formation. Monosaccharides, oligosaccharides (N-, O-, and lipid linked and glycans in secretory fluids), glycosaminoglycans, and polysaccharides can be easily labeled with 2-AA. With 2-AA, labeling is simple in aqueous solutions containing proteins, peptides, buffer salts, and other ingredients (e.g., PNGase F, glycosidase, and transferase reaction mixtures). In contrast, other tags require relatively pure glycans for labeling in anhydrous dimethyl sulfoxide-acetic acid medium. Acidic conditions are known to cause desialylation, thus requiring a great deal of attention to sample preparation. Simpler labeling is achieved with 2-AA within 30-60 min in mild acetate-borate buffered solution. 2-AA provides the highest sensitivity and resolution in chromatographic methods for carbohydrate analysis in a simple manner. Additionally, 2-AA is uniquely qualified for quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry in the negative mode. Analyses of 2-AA-labeled carbohydrates by electrophoresis and other techniques have been reported. Examples cited here demonstrate that 2-AA is the universal tag for total carbohydrate analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of the 2-aminobenzoic acid tag for oligosaccharide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Prickett, T; Potts, M; Helm, R F

    2000-08-18

    Gel electrophoresis of fluorophore labeled saccharides provides a rapid and reliable method to screen enzymatic and/or chemical treatments of polysaccharides and glycoconjugates, as well as a sensitive and efficient microscale method to separate and purify oligosaccharides for further analysis. A simple and inexpensive method of derivatization and analysis using 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) is described and applied to the extracellular polysaccharide released by the desiccation tolerant cyanobacterium Nostoc commune DRH-1. The results of these analyses suggest a possible protective functionality of two pendent groups, as well as a potential relationship between these groups and the desiccation tolerance of the organism.

  4. Comparison of Lipoprotein Electrophoresis and Apolipoprotein E Genotyping in Investigating Dysbetalipoproteinemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Farhan; El-Kadiki, Alia; Gibbons, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Dysbetalipoproteinemia is often associated with apolipoprotein E2E2 homozygosity; however, lipoprotein electrophoresis may also be used to assist in the diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare apolipoprotein E (apo E) genotyping and lipoprotein electrophoresis in investigating dysbetalipoproteinemia. Data were collected over a three-year period from a lipid clinic in a tertiary referral centre and reviewed for apo E genotyping and lipoprotein electrophoresis. Sixty-two patients had both apo E genotyping and lipoprotein electrophoresis. Of these, 16 patients showed broad beta band on electrophoresis. However, only 3 of them had apo E2E2 homozygosity on genotyping. Lipoprotein electrophoresis and apo E genotyping results showed poor concordance. This was primarily due to visual interpretation error of lipoprotein electrophoresis which may over diagnose dysbetalipoproteinemia.

  5. Characterization of amylose nanoparticles prepared via nanoprecipitation: Influence of chain length distribution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yanjiao; Yang, Jingde; Ren, Lili; Zhou, Jiang

    2018-08-15

    The influence of chain length distribution of amylose on size and structure of the amylose nanoparticles (ANPs) prepared through nanoprecipitation was investigated. Amylose with different chain length distributions was obtained by β-amylase treating amylose paste for different times and measured by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE). ANPs prepared via precipitation were characterized by using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Results showed that the β-amylase treatments led to decrease in chain length of amylose, and it was the most important factor affecting size of ANPs. When hydrolysis degree of amylose was 52.8%, mean size of ANPs decreased from 206.4 nm to 102.7 nm. All the ANPs displayed a V-type crystalline structure and the effect of amylose chain length on crystallinity of the precipitated ANPs was negligible in the investigated range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Natural Fluorophores in Pine Needles

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nari

    2018-01-01

    Many plant tissues fluoresce due to the natural fluorophores present in cell walls or within the cell protoplast or lumen. While lignin and chlorophyll are well-known fluorophores, other components are less well characterized. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of fresh or fixed vibratome-cut sections of radiata pine needles revealed the presence of suberin, lignin, ferulate, and flavonoids associated with cell walls as well as several different extractive components and chlorophyll within tissues. Comparison of needles in different physiological states demonstrated the loss of chlorophyll in both chlorotic and necrotic needles. Necrotic needles showed a dramatic change in the fluorescence of extractives within mesophyll cells from ultraviolet (UV) excited weak blue fluorescence to blue excited strong green fluorescence associated with tissue browning. Comparisons were made among fluorophores in terms of optimal excitation, relative brightness compared to lignin, and the effect of pH of mounting medium. Fluorophores in cell walls and extractives in lumens were associated with blue or green emission, compared to the red emission of chlorophyll. Autofluorescence is, therefore, a useful method for comparing the histology of healthy and diseased needles without the need for multiple staining techniques, potentially aiding visual screening of host resistance and disease progression in needle tissue. PMID:29393922

  7. Spectroscopic identification of individual fluorophores using photoluminescence excitation spectra.

    PubMed

    Czerski, J; Colomb, W; Cannataro, F; Sarkar, S K

    2018-01-25

    The identity of a fluorophore can be ambiguous if other fluorophores or nonspecific fluorescent impurities have overlapping emission spectra. The presence of overlapping spectra makes it difficult to differentiate fluorescent species using discrete detection channels and unmixing of spectra. The unique absorption and emission signatures of fluorophores provide an opportunity for spectroscopic identification. However, absorption spectroscopy may be affected by scattering, whereas fluorescence emission spectroscopy suffers from signal loss by gratings or other dispersive optics. Photoluminescence excitation spectra, where excitation is varied and emission is detected at a fixed wavelength, allows hyperspectral imaging with a single emission filter for high signal-to-background ratio without any moving optics on the emission side. We report a high throughput method for measuring the photoluminescence excitation spectra of individual fluorophores using a tunable supercontinuum laser and prism-type total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. We used the system to measure and sort the photoluminescence excitation spectra of individual Alexa dyes, fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), and fluorescent polystyrene beads. We used a Gaussian mixture model with maximum likelihood estimation to objectively separate the spectra. Finally, we spectroscopically identified different species of fluorescent nanodiamonds with overlapping spectra and characterized the heterogeneity of fluorescent nanodiamonds of varying size. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2018 Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Size dependent studies of metal nanoparticles with bio-fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Ajeetkumar; Ballary, Steffy; George, Sajan D.; Chidangil, Santhosh

    2017-06-01

    Interaction of noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) with fluorophores has been an important research area in the field of material science and biomedical field. In the proximity of a metal nanoparticle, there is a quenching or enhancement in the intrinsic fluorescence of the fluorophore . The conditional quenching of the fluorescence can be used for negative sensing whereas enhancement in the fluorescence can be used to gain greater sensitivity and high signal to noise ratio in the molecular sensing/imaging. The current work deals with the systematic studies to understand the fluorescence quenching for few bio-fluorophores (NADH and FAD) when interacted with different sized silver nano-particles of (10nm, 40nm and 100nm). Home assembled Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) set-up was used to study the fluorescence quenching of NADH and FAD for different sized silver nanoparticles.

  9. Phosphonated Near-Infrared Fluorophores for Biomedical Imaging of Bone**

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Hoon; Wada, Hideyuki; Bao, Kai; Gravier, Julien; Yadav, Yogesh; Laramie, Matt; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V.

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method for creating targeted contrast agents is to conjugate separate targeting and fluorophore domains. In this study we report a new strategy based on incorporation of targeting moieties into the non-resonant structure of pentamethine and heptamethine indocyanines. Using the known affinity of phosphonates for bone minerals as a model system, we have synthesized two families of bifunctional molecules that target bone without the need for a traditional bisphosphonate. With peak fluorescence emission at ≈ 700 nm or ≈ 800 nm, these molecules can be used for FLARE dual-channel imaging. Longitudinal FLARE studies in mice demonstrate that phosphonated near-infrared fluorophores remain stable in bone for over 5 weeks, and histological analysis demonstrates incorporation into bone matrix. Taken together, we describe a new strategy for creating ultracompact, targeted, near-infrared fluorophores for various bioimaging applications. PMID:25139079

  10. An Efficient Site-Specific Method for Irreversible Covalent Labeling of Proteins with a Fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaquan; Hanne, Jeungphill; Britton, Brooke M; Shoffner, Matthew; Albers, Aaron E; Bennett, Jared; Zatezalo, Rachel; Barfield, Robyn; Rabuka, David; Lee, Jong-Bong; Fishel, Richard

    2015-11-19

    Fluorophore labeling of proteins while preserving native functions is essential for bulk Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) interaction and single molecule imaging analysis. Here we describe a versatile, efficient, specific, irreversible, gentle and low-cost method for labeling proteins with fluorophores that appears substantially more robust than a similar but chemically distinct procedure. The method employs the controlled enzymatic conversion of a central Cys to a reactive formylglycine (fGly) aldehyde within a six amino acid Formylglycine Generating Enzyme (FGE) recognition sequence in vitro. The fluorophore is then irreversibly linked to the fGly residue using a Hydrazinyl-Iso-Pictet-Spengler (HIPS) ligation reaction. We demonstrate the robust large-scale fluorophore labeling and purification of E.coli (Ec) mismatch repair (MMR) components. Fluorophore labeling did not alter the native functions of these MMR proteins in vitro or in singulo. Because the FGE recognition sequence is easily portable, FGE-HIPS fluorophore-labeling may be easily extended to other proteins.

  11. Capillary Electrophoresis of Mono- and Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Toppazzini, Mila; Coslovi, Anna; Rossi, Marco; Flamigni, Anna; Baiutti, Edi; Campa, Cristiana

    2016-01-01

    This chapter reports an overview of the recent advances in the analysis of mono- and oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis (CE); furthermore, relevant reviews and research articles recently published in the field are tabulated. Additionally, pretreatments and procedures applied to uncharged and acidic carbohydrates (i.e., monosaccharides and lower oligosaccharides carrying carboxylate, sulfate, or phosphate groups) are described.Representative examples of such procedures are reported in detail, upon describing robust methodologies for the study of (1) neutral oligosaccharides derivatized by reductive amination and by formation of glycosylamines; (2) sialic acid derivatized with 2-aminoacridone, released from human serum immunoglobulin G; (3) anomeric couples of neutral glycosides separated using borate-based buffers; (4) unsaturated, underivatized oligosaccharides from lyase-treated alginate.

  12. Detection of Chlorogenic Acid in Honeysuckle Using Infrared-Assisted Extraction Followed by Capillary Electrophoresis with UV Detector

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhuxing; Zang, Shuliang; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a novel infrared-assisted extraction method coupled capillary electrophoresis (CE) is employed to determine chlorogenic acid from a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), honeysuckle. The effects of pH and the concentration of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, IR irradiation time, and anhydrous ethanol in the extraction concentration were investigated. The optimal conditions were as follows: extraction time, 30 min; extraction solvent, 80% (v/v) ethanol in water solution; and 50 mmol/L borate buffer (pH 8.7) was used as the running buffer at a separation voltage of 16 kV. The samples were injected electrokinetically at 16 kV for 8 s. Good linearity (r2 > 0.9996) was observed over the concentration ranges investigated, and the stability of the solutions was high. Recoveries of the chlorogenic acid were from 95.53% to 106.62%, and the relative standard deviation was below 4.1%. By using this novel IR-assisted extraction method, a higher extraction efficiency than those extracted with conventional heat-reflux extraction was found. The developed IR-assisted extraction method is simple, low-cost, and efficient, offering a great promise for the quick determination of active compounds in TCM. The results indicated that IR-assisted extraction followed by CE is a reliable method for quantitative analysis of active ingredient in TCM. PMID:22291060

  13. Determination of monosaccharides derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic Acid by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Abo, Mitsuru; He, Li-Ping; Sato, Kae; Okubo, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Reducing monosaccharides were derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) through reductive amination using sodium cyanoborohydride as a reductant, and the derivatives were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection using 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 5.5) or 150 mM sodium borate-50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) running buffer. The derivatives of monosaccharides, which are major components of various carbohydrate materials, were completely separated within 25 min.

  14. Modulation sensing of fluorophores in tissue: a new approach to drug compliance monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abugo, Omoefe O.; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    1999-10-01

    We describe a method to detect the presence of fluorophores in scattering media, including intralipid suspensions and chicken muscle covered with skin. The fluorophores were rhodamine 800 (Rb800) and indocyanine green (IcG), both of which can be excited at long wavelengths where there is minimal absorption by tissues. These fluorophores were dissolved in intralipid or in chicken muscle under skin. A method to approximate the fluorophore concentration in such samples was developed using a long lifetime reference fluorophores in a polymer film placed immediately on the illuminated surface of the sample. Because of the long lifetime of the reference film, the modulation of its emission at low frequencies near 2 MHz is near zero. Since the lifetime of Rh800 and IcG are below 2 ns the modulation of the combined emission is a measure of the intensity of the fluorophore (Rh800 or IcG) relative to the long lifetime reference. Using this method we were able to measure the concentration-dependent intensities of Rh800 and IcG in an intralipid suspension. Additionally, micromolar concentrations of these probes could be detected in chicken muscles, even when the muscle was covered with a layer of chicken skin. The presence of an India ink absorber in the intralipid had only a moderate effect on the modulation values. We suggest the use of this transdermal detection of long-wavelength fluorophores as a noninvasive method to monitor patient compliance when taking medicines used for treatment of chronic diseases such as AIDS or tuberculosis.

  15. Quantification of Carbohydrates and Related Materials Using Sodium Ion Adducts Produced by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Seong Hoon; Kim, Myung Soo

    2016-11-01

    The utility of sodium ion adducts produced by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization for the quantification of analytes with multiple oxygen atoms was evaluated. Uses of homogeneous solid samples and temperature control allowed the acquisition of reproducible spectra. The method resulted in a direct proportionality between the ion abundance ratio I([A + Na]+)/I([M + Na]+) and the analyte concentration, which could be used as a calibration curve. This was demonstrated for carbohydrates, glycans, and polyether diols with dynamic range exceeding three orders of magnitude.

  16. Inter/intramolecular Cherenkov radiation energy transfer (CRET) from a fluorophore with a built-in radionuclide.

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Yann; Collin, Bertrand; Decréau, Richard A

    2014-06-28

    The Cherenkov radiation (CR) from [(18)F]-FDG, [(177)Lu]-LuCl3 and [(90)Y]-YCl3 was detected and CR energy transfer (CRET) to several fluorophores was examined. Subsequent fluorescence emission was found to be a function of the position of absorption bands with respect to the CR peak, energy of emitted particles, radionuclide/fluorophore loading, and fluorophore brightness. A variant of the best fluorophore with a built-in radionuclide was synthesized to achieve inter- and intra-molecular CRET.

  17. Beyond the margins: real-time detection of cancer using targeted fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ray R.; Schroeder, Alexandra B.; Grudzinski, Joseph J.; Rosenthal, Eben L.; Warram, Jason M.; Pinchuk, Anatoly N.; Eliceiri, Kevin W.; Kuo, John S.; Weichert, Jamey P.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, synergistic innovations in imaging technology have resulted in a revolution in which a range of biomedical applications are now benefiting from fluorescence imaging. Specifically, advances in fluorophore chemistry and imaging hardware, and the identification of targetable biomarkers have now positioned intraoperative fluorescence as a highly specific real-time detection modality for surgeons in oncology. In particular, the deeper tissue penetration and limited autofluorescence of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging improves the translational potential of this modality over visible-light fluorescence imaging. Rapid developments in fluorophores with improved characteristics, detection instrumentation, and targeting strategies led to the clinical testing in the early 2010s of the first targeted NIR fluorophores for intraoperative cancer detection. The foundations for the advances that underline this technology continue to be nurtured by the multidisciplinary collaboration of chemists, biologists, engineers, and clinicians. In this Review, we highlight the latest developments in NIR fluorophores, cancer-targeting strategies, and detection instrumentation for intraoperative cancer detection, and consider the unique challenges associated with their effective application in clinical settings. PMID:28094261

  18. Proximity-Induced Covalent Labeling of Proteins with a Reactive Fluorophore-Binding Peptide Tag.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Murat; Nacheva, Lora; Jäschke, Andres

    2015-08-19

    Labeling of proteins with fluorescent dyes in live cells enables the investigation of their roles in biological systems by fluorescence microscopy. Because the labeling procedure should not disturb the native function of the protein of interest, it is of high importance to find the optimum labeling method for the problem to be studied. Here, we developed a rapid one-step method to covalently and site-specifically label proteins with a TexasRed fluorophore in vitro and in live bacteria. To this end, a genetically encodable TexasRed fluorophore-binding peptide (TR512) was converted into a reactive tag (ReacTR) by adjoining a cysteine residue which rapidly reacts with N-α-chloroacetamide-conjugated TexasRed fluorophore owing to the proximity effect; ReacTR tag first binds to the TexasRed fluorophore and this interaction brings the nucleophilic cysteine and the electrophilic N-α-chloroacetamide groups in close proximity. Our method has several advantages over existing methods: (i) it utilizes a peptide tag much smaller than fluorescent proteins, the SNAP, CLIP, or HaLo tags; (ii) it allows for labeling of proteins with a small, photostable, red-emitting TexasRed fluorophore; (iii) the probe used is very easy to synthesize; (iv) no enzyme is required to transfer the fluorophore to the peptide tag; and (v) labeling yields a stable covalent product in a very fast reaction.

  19. Selective Activation of N,N'-Diacyl Rhodamine Pro-fluorophores Paired with Releasing Enzyme, Porcine Liver Esterase (PLE).

    PubMed

    Abney, Kristopher K; Ramos-Hunter, Susan J; Romaine, Ian M; Godwin, J Shawn; Sulikowski, Gary A; Weaver, Charles David

    2018-04-21

    This study reports the synthesis and testing of a family of rhodamine pro-fluorophores and an enzyme capable of converting pro-fluorophores to Rhodamine 110. We prepared a library of simple N,N'-diacyl rhodamines and investigated Porcine Liver Esterase (PLE) as an enzyme to activate rhodamine-based pro-fluorophores. A PLE-expressing cell line generated an increase in fluorescence rapidly upon pro-fluorophore addition demonstrating the rhodamine pro-fluorophores are readily taken up and fluorescent upon PLE-mediated release. Rhodamine pro-fluorophore amides trifluoroacetamide (TFAm) and proponamide (PAm) appeared to be the best substrates using a cell-based assay using PLE expressing HEK293. Our pro-fluorophore series showed diffusion into live cells and resisted endogenous hydrolysis. The use of our engineered cell line containing the exogenous enzyme PLE demonstrated the rigorousness of amide masking when compared to cells not containing PLE. This simple and selective pro-fluorophore rhodamine pair with PLE offers the potential to be used in vitro and in vivo fluorescence based assays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A generalized model on the effects of nanoparticles on fluorophore fluorescence in solution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nanoparticles (NP) can modify fluorophore fluorescence in solution through multiple pathways that include fluorescence inner filter effect (IFE), dynamic and static quenching, surface enhancement, and fluorophore quantum yield variation associated with structural and conformational modifications ind...

  1. Photoluminescence properties of polystyrene-hosted fluorophore thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Harris, Katherine; Huang, Mengbing

    2016-12-01

    We report on a photo-luminescence study of four different fluorophores: Coumarin 6, 2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO), 1,4-Bis(5-phenyl-2-oxazolyl)benzene (POPOP) and Para-terpehnyl (PTP), doped in a polystyrene-based thin film. All of the samples are prepared by spin coating from a non-polar polymer solution at various concentrations. Their emission spectra and transient properties are characterized by photoluminescence measurements. Red-shifts in the emission spectra are observed for all four types of fluorophores as their concentration increases. We explain this phenomenon based on concentration dependence of solvatochromic effects and the results show good agreement with existing literature. We also show that the singlet-singlet annihilation processes are possibly a prevalent mechanism in the high concentration regime that affects the steady state and transient emission characteristics of the fluors. With the exception of PTP, photoluminescence quenching occurs as the fluorophore concentration in the polymer is increased. Rate equations for excited state decay mechanisms are analysed by considering different radiative and non-radiative energy transfer mechanisms. The results show consistency with our experimental observations. PTP shows the best photoluminescence results as an efficient fluor in the thin film, whereas PPO shows the strongest concentration dependent quenching and an anomalous lifetime distribution.

  2. Fluorescence fibre-optic confocal microscopy of skin in vivo: microscope and fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Suihko, Christian; Swindle, Lucinda D; Thomas, Steven G; Serup, Jørgen

    2005-11-01

    Fibre-optic confocal imaging in vivo is a new approach in the assessment of human skin. The objective is to describe a novel instrument and its operation and use in combination with fluorophores. The Stratum is a fibre-optic fluorescence confocal microscope especially developed for the study of skin and mucous membranes. The system is flexible and any body site can be studied with a hand-held scanner. The light source is a 488 nm argon ion laser. Horizontal (en face) images of the epidermis and outer dermis are produced with cellular resolution. Magnification is approximately 1000 x . Fluorescein sodium is routinely used as fluorophore (intradermal injection or application to the skin surface). This fluorophore is safe for human use in vivo, but other substances (rhodamine B, Acridine Orange, green fluorescent protein, curcumin) have also been studied. The instrument produces sharp images of epidermal cell layers from the epidermal surface to the sub-papillary dermis, with sub-cellular resolution. The scanner is flexible in use. The technique of intradermal fluorophore injection requires some skill. We consider this fibre-optic instrument a potentially important tool in skin research for non-invasive optical biopsy of primarily the epidermis. Present use is focussed on research applications, where the fluorophore distribution in the skin may illustrate morphological changes in the epidermis.

  3. Supramolecular delivery of photoactivatable fluorophores in developing embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Tang, Sicheng; Sansalone, Lorenzo; Thapaliya, Ek Raj; Baker, James D.; Raymo, Françisco M.

    2017-02-01

    The identification of noninvasive strategies to monitor dynamics within living organisms in real time is essential to elucidate the fundamental factors governing a diversity of biological processes. This study demonstrates that the supramolecular delivery of photoactivatable fluorophores in Drosophila melanogaster embryos allows the real-time tracking of translocating molecules. The designed photoactivatable fluorophores switch from an emissive reactant to an emissive product with spectrally-resolved fluorescence, under moderate blue-light irradiation conditions. These hydrophobic fluorescent probes can be encapsulated within supramolecular hosts and delivered to the cellular blastoderm of the embryos. Thus, the combination of supramolecular delivery and fluorescence photoactivation translates into a noninvasive method to monitor dynamics in vivo and can evolve into a general chemical tool to track motion in biological specimens.

  4. Novel ionic liquid matrices for qualitative and quantitative detection of carbohydrates by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoyong; Shen, Shanshan; Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2017-09-08

    Analysis of carbohydrates based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is still challenging and researchers have been devoting themselves to efficient matrices discovery. In the present study, the design, synthesis, qualitative and quantitative performance of non-derivative ionic liquid matrices (ILMs) were reported. DHB/N-methylaniline (N-MA) and DHB/N-ethylaniline (N-EA), performing best for carbohydrate detection, have been screened out. The limit of detection for oligosaccharide provided by DHB/N-MA and DHB/N-EA were as low as 10 fmol. DHB/N-MA and DHB/N-EA showed significantly higher ion generation efficiency than DHB. The comparison of capacity to probe polysaccharide between these two ILMs and DHB also revealed their powerful potential. Their outstanding performance were probably due to lower proton affinities and stronger UV absorption at λ = 355 nm. What is more, taking DHB/N-MA as an example, quantitative analysis of fructo-oligosaccharide mixtures extracted and identified from rice noodles has been accomplished sensitively using an internal standard method. Overall, DHB/N-MA and DHB/N-EA exhibited excellent performance and might be significant sources as the carbohydrate matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. L-shaped benzimidazole fluorophores: synthesis, characterization and optical response to bases, acids and anions.

    PubMed

    Lirag, Rio Carlo; Le, Ha T M; Miljanić, Ognjen Š

    2013-05-14

    Nine L-shaped benzimidazole fluorophores have been synthesized, computationally evaluated and spectroscopically characterized. These "half-cruciform" fluorophores respond to bases, acids and anions through changes in fluorescence that vary from moderate to dramatic.

  6. Fluorophore-based sensor for oxygen radicals in processing plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Faraz A.; Shohet, J. Leon, E-mail: shohet@engr.wisc.edu; Sabat, Grzegorz

    2015-11-15

    A high concentration of radicals is present in many processing plasmas, which affects the processing conditions and the properties of materials exposed to the plasma. Determining the types and concentrations of free radicals present in the plasma is critical in order to determine their effects on the materials being processed. Current methods for detecting free radicals in a plasma require multiple expensive and bulky instruments, complex setups, and often, modifications to the plasma reactor. This work presents a simple technique that detects reactive-oxygen radicals incident on a surface from a plasma. The measurements are made using a fluorophore dye thatmore » is commonly used in biological and cellular systems for assay labeling in liquids. Using fluorometric analysis, it was found that the fluorophore reacts with oxygen radicals incident from the plasma, which is indicated by degradation of its fluorescence. As plasma power was increased, the quenching of the fluorescence significantly increased. Both immobilized and nonimmobilized fluorophore dyes were used and the results indicate that both states function effectively under vacuum conditions. The reaction mechanism is very similar to that of the liquid dye.« less

  7. Screening photoswitching properties of synthesized BODIPY-based fluorophores for multispectral superresolution microscopy (MSSRM) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittel, Amy M.; Saldivar, Isaac S.; Nan, Xiaolin; Gibbs, Summer L.

    2016-02-01

    Single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) utilizes photoswitchable fluorophores to detect biological entities with 10-20 nm resolution. Multispectral superresolution microscopy (MSSRM) extends SMLM functionality by improving its spectral resolution up to 5 fold facilitating imaging of multicomponent cellular structures or signaling pathways. Current commercial fluorophores are not ideal for MSSRM as they are not designed to photoswitch and do not adequately cover the visible and far-red spectral regions required for MSSRM imaging. To obtain optimal MSSRM spatial and spectral resolution, fluorophores with narrow emission spectra and controllable photoswitching properties are necessary. Herein, a library of BODIPY-based fluorophores was synthesized and characterized to create optimal photoswitchable fluorophores for MSSRM. BODIPY was chosen as the core structure as it is photostable, has high quantum yield, and controllable photoswitching. The BODIPY core was modified through the addition of various aromatic moieties, resulting in a spectrally diverse library. Photoswitching properties were characterized using a novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based film methodology to isolate single molecules. The PVA film methodology enabled photoswitching assessment without the need for protein conjugation, greatly improving screening efficiency of the BODIPY library. Additionally, image buffer conditions were optimized for the BODIPY-based fluorophores through systematic testing of oxygen scavenger systems, redox components, and additives. Through screening the photoswitching properties of BODIPY-based compounds in PVA films with optimized imaging buffer we identified novel fluorophores well suited for SMLM and MSSRM.

  8. Fluorophore labeling of a cell-penetrating peptide induces differential effects on its cellular distribution and affects cell viability.

    PubMed

    Birch, Ditlev; Christensen, Malene Vinther; Staerk, Dan; Franzyk, Henrik; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2017-12-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides constitute efficient delivery vectors, and studies of their uptake and mechanism of translocation typically involve fluorophore-labeled conjugates. In the present study, the influence of a number of specific fluorophores on the physico-chemical properties and uptake-related characteristics of penetratin were studied. An array of seven fluorophores belonging to distinct structural classes was examined, and the impact of fluorophore labeling on intracellular distribution and cytotoxicity was correlated to the physico-chemical properties of the conjugates. Exposure of several mammalian cell types to fluorophore-penetratin conjugates revealed a strong structure-dependent reduction in viability (1.5- to 20-fold lower IC 50 values as compared to those of non-labeled penetratin). Also, the degree of less severe effects on membrane integrity, as well as intracellular distribution patterns differed among the conjugates. Overall, neutral hydrophobic fluorophores or negatively charged fluorophores conferred less cytotoxicity as compared to the effect exerted by positively charged, hydrophobic fluorophores. The latter conjugates, however, exhibited less membrane association and more clearly defined intracellular distribution patterns. Thus, selection of the appropriate flurophore is critical. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental validation of a theoretical model of dual wavelength photoacoustic (PA) excitation in fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märk, Julia; Theiss, Christoph; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Laufer, Jan

    2015-03-01

    Fluorophores, such as exogenous dyes and genetically expressed proteins, exhibit radiative relaxation with long excited state lifetimes. This can be exploited for PA detection based on dual wavelength excitation using pump and probe wavelengths that coincide with the absorption and emission spectra, respectively. While the pump pulse raises the fluorophore to a long-lived excited state, simultaneous illumination with the probe pulse reduces the excited state lifetime due to stimulated emission (SE).This leads to a change in thermalized energy, and hence PA signal amplitude, compared to single wavelength illumination. By introducing a time delay between pump and probe pulses, the change in PA amplitude can be modulated. Since the effect is not observed in endogenous chromophores, it provides a contrast mechanism for the detection of fluorophores via PA difference imaging. In this study, a theoretical model of the PA signal generation in fluorophores was developed and experimentally validated. The model is based on a system of coupled rate equations, which describe the spatial and temporal changes in the population of the molecular energy levels of a fluorophore as a function of pump-probe energy and concentration. This allows the prediction of the thermalized energy distribution, and hence the time-resolved PA signal amplitude. The model was validated by comparing its predictions to PA signals measured in solutions of rhodamine 6G, a well-known laser dye, and Atto680, a NIR fluorophore.

  10. Optical detection of two-color-fluorophore barcode for nanopore DNA sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Sychugov, I.; Schmidt, T.; Linnros, J.

    2015-06-01

    A simple schematic on parallel optical detection of two-fluorophore barcode for single-molecule nanopore sensing is presented. The chosen two fluorophores, ATTO-532 and DY-521-XL, emitting in well-separated spectrum range can be excited at the same wavelength. A beam splitter was employed to separate signals from the two fluorophores and guide them to the same CCD camera. Based on a conventional microscope, sources of background in the nanopore sensing system, including membranes, compounds in buffer solution, and a detection cell was characterized. By photoluminescence excitation measurements, it turned out that silicon membrane has a negligible photoluminescence under the examined excitation from 440 nm to 560 nm, in comparison with a silicon nitrite membrane. Further, background signals from the detection cell were suppressed. Brownian motion of 450 bps DNA labelled with single ATTO-532 or DY-521-XL was successfully recorded by our optical system.

  11. Long-term direct visualization of passively transferred fluorophore-conjugated antibodies.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jeffrey R; Carias, Ann M; Bastian, Arangaserry R; Cianci, Gianguido C; Kiser, Patrick F; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J

    2017-11-01

    The use of therapeutic antibodies, delivered by intravenous (IV) instillation, is a rapidly expanding area of biomedical treatment for a variety of conditions. However, little is known about how the antibodies are anatomically distributed following infusion and the underlying mechanism mediating therapeutic antibody distribution to specific anatomical sites remains to be elucidated. Current efforts utilize low resolution and sensitivity methods such as ELISA and indirect labeling imaging techniques, which often leads to high background and difficulty in assessing biodistribution. Here, using the in vivo non-human primate model, we demonstrate that it is possible to utilize the fluorophores Cy5 and Cy3 directly conjugated to antibodies for direct visualization and quantification of passively transferred antibodies in plasma, tissue, and in mucosal secretions. Antibodies were formulated with 1-2 fluorophores per antibody to minimally influence antibody function. Fluorophore conjugated Gamunex-C (pooled human IgG) were tested for binding to protein A, via surface plasmon resonance, and showed similar levels of binding when compared to unlabeled Gamunex-C. In order to assess the effect fluorophore labeling has on turnover and localization, rhesus macaques were IV infused with either labeled or unlabeled Gamunex-C. Plasma, vaginal Weck-Cel fluid, cervicovaginal mucus, and vaginal/rectal tissue biopsies were collected up to 8weeks. Similar turnover and biodistribution was observed between labeled and unlabeled antibodies, showing that the labeling process did not have an obvious deleterious effect on localization or turnover. Cy5 and Cy3 labeled antibodies were readily detected in the same pattern regardless of fluorophore. Tissue distribution was measured in macaque vaginal and rectal biopsies. The labeled antibody in macaque biopsies was found to have similar biodistribution pattern to endogenous antibodies in macaque and human tissues. In the vaginal and rectal mucosa

  12. ATOTA-a very promising green fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doan, Hung The

    Despite the fact that fluorescence community nowadays has invested in developing near-infrared probes, green fluorescence dyes like fluorescein and substitutes are still among the most widely used fluorophores for labeling in cellular imaging and biomedical research. Trioxatriangulenium dye ATOTA + is a very promising green fluorophore with high extinction coefficient and outstanding fluorescence quantum yield. This study focuses on characterizing ATOTA+'s fundamental spectroscopic properties, including fluorescence and orientation of the transition moments. ATOTA's aggregation in aqueous solution and lipid bilayer membrane are also investigated. ATOTA+ has absorption maxima between 470 nm and 476 nm and emission maxima between 496 nm and 511 nm depending on the solvent. The molar extinction coefficient varies from 135,000 mol-1cm-1 in nonpolar dichloromethane to above 90,000 mol-1cm-1 in polar solvents such as methanol. The quantum yield of ATOTA+ is close to 1 in nonpolar DCM and decreases to 0.44 in polar DMF. ATOTA+'s fluorescence lifetimes vary between 3.25 ns in aprotic low polarity triacetin to 1.66 ns in polar DMF. Furthermore, both radiative and non-radiative rates are affected by solvent polarity. ATOTA+ has very low water solubility due to the presence of 6 diethyl substitutions, and forms H-aggregates with a blue-shifted absorption maxima around 450 nm and red-shifted emission maxima of 580 nm respectively with fluorescence lifetime above 20 ns. The excitation anisotropy approaches 0.35 at red edge of the absorption spectrum and shape of polarization spectrum suggests the presence of overlapping transition moments in a S0-S1 band which is confirmed by linear dichroism in stretched PVA film. In DMPC lipid vesicles, ATOTA + forms a tight ion pair with a counter anion and localizes in the hydrocarbon interior. Overall we conclude that ATOTA+ will be a highly useful and superior member of the green fluorophore family.

  13. Resolving fluorophores by unmixing multispectral fluorescence tomography with independent component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Huangsheng; Zhang, Guanglei; He, Wei; Liu, Fei; Guang, Huizhi; Zhang, Yue; Bai, Jing; Luo, Jianwen

    2014-09-01

    It is a challenging problem to resolve and identify drug (or non-specific fluorophore) distribution throughout the whole body of small animals in vivo. In this article, an algorithm of unmixing multispectral fluorescence tomography (MFT) images based on independent component analysis (ICA) is proposed to solve this problem. ICA is used to unmix the data matrix assembled by the reconstruction results from MFT. Then the independent components (ICs) that represent spatial structures and the corresponding spectrum courses (SCs) which are associated with spectral variations can be obtained. By combining the ICs with SCs, the recovered MFT images can be generated and fluorophore concentration can be calculated. Simulation studies, phantom experiments and animal experiments with different concentration contrasts and spectrum combinations are performed to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only provide the spatial information of fluorophores, but also recover the actual reconstruction of MFT images.

  14. Nonnegative matrix factorization: a blind sources separation method to extract content of fluorophores mixture media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Kenneth J.; Chen, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The fluorophores of malignant human breast cells change their compositions that may be exposed in the fluorescence spectroscopy and blind source separation method. The content of the fluorophores mixture media such as tryptophan, collagen, elastin, NADH, and flavin were varied according to the cancer development. The native fluorescence spectra of these key fluorophores mixture media excited by the selective excitation wavelengths of 300 nm and 340 nm were analyzed using a blind source separation method: Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF). The results show that the contribution from tryptophan, NADH and flavin to the fluorescence spectra of the mixture media is proportional to the content of each fluorophore. These data present a possibility that native fluorescence spectra decomposed by NMF can be used as potential native biomarkers for cancer detection evaluation of the cancer.

  15. Role of carbohydrate in multimeric structure of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gralnick, H R; Williams, S B; Rick, M E

    1983-01-01

    The carbohydrate moiety of the factor VIII/von Willebrand (vW) factor protein is important in the expression of vW factor activity and the intravascular survival of the protein. Studies of normal human factor VIII/vW factor protein indicate that there is a requirement of a full complement of penultimate galactose for the maintenance of a normal multimeric structure. Release of penultimate galactose by beta-galactosidase or modification by galactose oxidase results in loss of the largest molecular weight multimers and increased numbers of intermediate and smaller multimers. In contrast, terminal galactose on the factor VIII/vW factor protein does not appear to play a significant role in the maintenance of the multimer organization. The abnormalities in multimeric structure and molecular size were demonstrated by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide/agarose gel electrophoresis, NaDodSO4/glyoxyl-agarose electrophoresis, and sucrose density ultracentrifugation. These studies indicate that the penultimate galactose plays a role in the maintenance of the largest multimers of the factor VIII/vW factor protein. This may explain why, in some patients with variant forms of vW disease, a carbohydrate abnormality also may affect the multimeric structure of the plasma factor VIII/vW factor protein. Images PMID:6601805

  16. Development of Fluorophore-Labeled Thailanstatin Antibody-Drug Conjugates for Cellular Trafficking Studies.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Chethana; Finley, James E; Bessire, Andrew J; Zhong, Xiaotian; Musto, Sylvia; Graziani, Edmund I

    2017-04-19

    As the antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) field grows increasingly important for cancer treatment, it is vital for researchers to establish a firm understanding of how ADCs function at the molecular level. To gain insight into ADC uptake, trafficking, and catabolism-processes that are critical to ADC efficacy and toxicity-imaging studies have been performed with fluorophore-labeled conjugates. However, such labels may alter the properties and behavior of the ADC under investigation. As an alternative approach, we present here the development of a "clickable" ADC bearing an azide-functionalized linker-payload (LP) poised for "click" reaction with alkyne fluorophores; the azide group represents a significantly smaller structural perturbation to the LP than most fluorophores. Notably, the clickable ADC shows excellent potency in target-expressing cells, whereas the fluorophore-labeled product ADC suffers from a significant loss of activity, underscoring the impact of the label itself on the payload. Live-cell confocal microscopy reveals robust uptake of the clickable ADC, which reacts selectively in situ with a derivatized fluorescent label. Time-course trafficking studies show greater and more rapid net internalization of the ADCs than the parent antibody. More generally, the application of chemical biology tools to the study of ADCs should improve our understanding of how ADCs are processed in biological systems.

  17. Chemoselective Alteration of Fluorophore Scaffolds as a Strategy for the Development of Ratiometric Chemodosimeters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinqi; Lesiak, Lauren; Lai, Rui; Beck, Jon R; Zhao, Jia; Elowsky, Christian G; Li, Hui; Stains, Cliff I

    2017-04-03

    Ratiometric sensors generally couple binding events or chemical reactions at a distal site to changes in the fluorescence of a core fluorophore scaffold. However, such approaches are often hindered by spectral overlap of the product and reactant species. We provide a strategy to design ratiometric sensors that display dramatic spectral shifts by leveraging the chemoselective reactivity of novel functional groups inserted within fluorophore scaffolds. As a proof-of-principle, fluorophores containing a borinate (RF 620 ) or silanediol (SiOH2R) functionality at the bridging position of the xanthene ring system are developed as endogenous H 2 O 2 sensors. Both these fluorophores display far-red to near-infrared excitation and emission prior to reaction. Upon oxidation by H 2 O 2 both sensors are chemically converted to tetramethylrhodamine, producing significant (≥66 nm) blue-shifts in excitation and emission maxima. This work provides a new concept for the development of ratiometric probes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Quantitative Experimental Determination of Primer-Dimer Formation Risk by Free-Solution Conjugate Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Samantha M.; Leitner, Thomas; Barron, Annelise E.

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcodes are short, unique ssDNA primers that “mark” individual biomolecules. To gain better understanding of biophysical parameters constraining primer-dimer formation between primers that incorporate barcode sequences, we have developed a capillary electrophoresis method that utilizes drag-tag-DNA conjugates to quantify dimerization risk between primer-barcode pairs. Results obtained with this unique free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) approach are useful as quantitatively precise input data to parameterize computation models of dimerization risk. A set of fluorescently labeled, model primer-barcode conjugates were designed with complementary regions of differing lengths to quantify heterodimerization as a function of temperature. Primer-dimer cases comprised two 30-mer primers, one of which was covalently conjugated to a lab-made, chemically synthesized poly-N-methoxyethylglycine drag-tag, which reduced electrophoretic mobility of ssDNA to distinguish it from ds primer-dimers. The drag-tags also provided a shift in mobility for the dsDNA species, which allowed us to quantitate primer-dimer formation. In the experimental studies, pairs of oligonucleotide primer-barcodes with fully or partially complementary sequences were annealed, and then separated by free-solution conjugate CE at different temperatures, to assess effects on primer-dimer formation. When less than 30 out of 30 basepairs were bonded, dimerization was inversely correlated to temperature. Dimerization occurred when more than 15 consecutive basepairs formed, yet non-consecutive basepairs did not create stable dimers even when 20 out of 30 possible basepairs bonded. The use of free-solution electrophoresis in combination with a peptoid drag-tag and different fluorophores enabled precise separation of short DNA fragments to establish a new mobility shift assay for detection of primer-dimer formation. PMID:22331820

  19. Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice

    PubMed Central

    Feeks, James A.; Hunter, Jennifer J.

    2017-01-01

    In vivo cellular scale fluorescence lifetime imaging of the mouse retina has the potential to be a sensitive marker of retinal cell health. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescence lifetime imaging of extrinsic fluorophores using adaptive optics fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (AOFLIO). We recorded AOFLIO images of inner retinal cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and capillaries labeled with fluorescein. We demonstrate that AOFLIO can be used to differentiate spectrally overlapping fluorophores in the retina. With further refinements, AOFLIO could be used to assess retinal health in early stages of degeneration by utilizing lifetime-based sensors or even fluorophores native to the retina. PMID:28663886

  20. Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice.

    PubMed

    Feeks, James A; Hunter, Jennifer J

    2017-05-01

    In vivo cellular scale fluorescence lifetime imaging of the mouse retina has the potential to be a sensitive marker of retinal cell health. In this study, we demonstrate fluorescence lifetime imaging of extrinsic fluorophores using adaptive optics fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (AOFLIO). We recorded AOFLIO images of inner retinal cells labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and capillaries labeled with fluorescein. We demonstrate that AOFLIO can be used to differentiate spectrally overlapping fluorophores in the retina. With further refinements, AOFLIO could be used to assess retinal health in early stages of degeneration by utilizing lifetime-based sensors or even fluorophores native to the retina.

  1. Extraction of bioactive carbohydrates from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts using microwave assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; García-Sarrió, M Jesús; Alonso-Rodriguez, Belén; Ramos, Lourdes; Sanz, M Luz

    2016-04-01

    Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) methods using water as solvent have been optimized by means of a Box-Behnken and 3(2) composite experimental designs, respectively, for the effective extraction of bioactive carbohydrates (inositols and inulin) from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) external bracts. MAE at 60 °C for 3 min of 0.3 g of sample allowed the extraction of slightly higher concentrations of inositol than PLE at 75 °C for 26.7 min (11.6 mg/g dry sample vs. 7.6 mg/g dry sample). On the contrary, under these conditions, higher concentrations of inulin were extracted with the latter technique (185.4 mg/g vs. 96.4 mg/g dry sample), considering two successive extraction cycles for both techniques. Both methodologies can be considered appropriate for the simultaneous extraction of these bioactive carbohydrates from this particular industrial by-product. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that these techniques are applied for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Tasks were undertaken in support of two objectives. They are: (1) to carry out electrophoresis experiments on cells in microgravity; and (2) assess the feasibility of using purified kidney cells from embryonic kidney cultures as a source of important cell products. Investigations were carried out in the following areas: (1) ground based electrophoresis technology; (2) cell culture technology; (3) electrophoresis of cells; (4) urokinase assay research; (5) zero-g electrophoresis; and (6) flow cytometry.

  3. Investigation of common fluorophores for the detection of nitrated explosives by fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Melissa S; McGuffin, Victoria L

    2008-03-03

    Previous studies have indicated that nitrated explosives may be detected by fluorescence quenching of pyrene and related compounds. The use of pyrene, however, invokes numerous health and waste disposal hazards. In the present study, ten safer fluorophores are identified for quenching detection of target nitrated compounds. Initially, Stern-Volmer constants are measured for each fluorophore with nitrobenzene and 4-nitrotoluene to determine the sensitivity of the quenching interaction. For quenching constants greater than 50 M(-1), sensitivity and selectivity are investigated further using an extended set of target quenchers. Nitromethane, nitrobenzene, 4-nitrotoluene, and 2,6-dinitrotoluene are chosen to represent nitrated explosives and their degradation products; aniline, benzoic acid, and phenol are chosen to represent potential interfering compounds. Among the fluorophores investigated, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red demonstrate the greatest sensitivity and selectivity for nitrated compounds. Correlation of the quenching rate constants for these fluorophores to Rehm-Weller theory suggests an electron-transfer quenching mechanism. As a result of the large quenching constants, purpurin, malachite green, and phenol red are the most promising for future detection of nitrated explosives via fluorescence quenching.

  4. Fluorescence in nanobiotechnology: sophisticated fluorophores for novel applications.

    PubMed

    Hötzer, Benjamin; Medintz, Igor L; Hildebrandt, Niko

    2012-08-06

    Nanobiotechnology is one of the fastest growing and broadest-ranged interdisciplinary subfields of the nanosciences. Countless hybrid bio-inorganic composites are currently being pursued for various uses, including sensors for medical and diagnostic applications, light- and energy-harvesting devices, along with multifunctional architectures for electronics and advanced drug-delivery. Although many disparate biological and nanoscale materials will ultimately be utilized as the functional building blocks to create these devices, a common element found among a large proportion is that they exert or interact with light. Clearly continuing development will rely heavily on incorporating many different types of fluorophores into these composite materials. This review covers the growing utility of different classes of fluorophores in nanobiotechnology, from both a photophysical and a chemical perspective. For each major structural or functional class of fluorescent probe, several representative applications are provided, and the necessary technological background for acquiring the desired nano-bioanalytical information are presented. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Darrell; Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data.

  6. Using Carbohydrate Interaction Assays to Reveal Novel Binding Sites in Carbohydrate Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Casper; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Lewińska, Anna; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate active enzymes often contain auxiliary binding sites located either on independent domains termed carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) or as so-called surface binding sites (SBSs) on the catalytic module at a certain distance from the active site. The SBSs are usually critical for the activity of their cognate enzyme, though they are not readily detected in the sequence of a protein, but normally require a crystal structure of a complex for their identification. A variety of methods, including affinity electrophoresis (AE), insoluble polysaccharide pulldown (IPP) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been used to study auxiliary binding sites. These techniques are complementary as AE allows monitoring of binding to soluble polysaccharides, IPP to insoluble polysaccharides and SPR to oligosaccharides. Here we show that these methods are useful not only for analyzing known binding sites, but also for identifying new ones, even without structural data available. We further verify the chosen assays discriminate between known SBS/CBM containing enzymes and negative controls. Altogether 35 enzymes are screened for the presence of SBSs or CBMs and several novel binding sites are identified, including the first SBS ever reported in a cellulase. This work demonstrates that combinations of these methods can be used as a part of routine enzyme characterization to identify new binding sites and advance the study of SBSs and CBMs, allowing them to be detected in the absence of structural data. PMID:27504624

  7. A simple and versatile design concept for fluorophore derivatives with intramolecular photostabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Jasper H. M.; Oelerich, Jens; Huang, Jingyi; Smit, Jochem H.; Aminian Jazi, Atieh; Galiani, Silvia; Kolmakov, Kirill; Guoridis, Giorgos; Eggeling, Christian; Herrmann, Andreas; Roelfes, Gerard; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    Intramolecular photostabilization via triple-state quenching was recently revived as a tool to impart synthetic organic fluorophores with `self-healing' properties. To date, utilization of such fluorophore derivatives is rare due to their elaborate multi-step synthesis. Here we present a general strategy to covalently link a synthetic organic fluorophore simultaneously to a photostabilizer and biomolecular target via unnatural amino acids. The modular approach uses commercially available starting materials and simple chemical transformations. The resulting photostabilizer-dye conjugates are based on rhodamines, carbopyronines and cyanines with excellent photophysical properties, that is, high photostability and minimal signal fluctuations. Their versatile use is demonstrated by single-step labelling of DNA, antibodies and proteins, as well as applications in single-molecule and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. We are convinced that the presented scaffolding strategy and the improved characteristics of the conjugates in applications will trigger the broader use of intramolecular photostabilization and help to emerge this approach as a new gold standard.

  8. A simple and versatile design concept for fluorophore derivatives with intramolecular photostabilization

    PubMed Central

    van der Velde, Jasper H. M.; Oelerich, Jens; Huang, Jingyi; Smit, Jochem H.; Aminian Jazi, Atieh; Galiani, Silvia; Kolmakov, Kirill; Gouridis, Giorgos; Eggeling, Christian; Herrmann, Andreas; Roelfes, Gerard; Cordes, Thorben

    2016-01-01

    Intramolecular photostabilization via triple-state quenching was recently revived as a tool to impart synthetic organic fluorophores with ‘self-healing’ properties. To date, utilization of such fluorophore derivatives is rare due to their elaborate multi-step synthesis. Here we present a general strategy to covalently link a synthetic organic fluorophore simultaneously to a photostabilizer and biomolecular target via unnatural amino acids. The modular approach uses commercially available starting materials and simple chemical transformations. The resulting photostabilizer–dye conjugates are based on rhodamines, carbopyronines and cyanines with excellent photophysical properties, that is, high photostability and minimal signal fluctuations. Their versatile use is demonstrated by single-step labelling of DNA, antibodies and proteins, as well as applications in single-molecule and super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. We are convinced that the presented scaffolding strategy and the improved characteristics of the conjugates in applications will trigger the broader use of intramolecular photostabilization and help to emerge this approach as a new gold standard. PMID:26751640

  9. Eco-friendly ionic liquid assisted capillary electrophoresis and α-acid glycoprotein-assisted liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of anticancer drugs in human fluids.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Hady, Deia; Albishri, Hassan M; Rengarajan, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the current work, two eco-friendly analytical methods based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were developed for simultaneous determination of the most commonly used anticancer drugs for Hodgkin's disease: methotrexate (MTX), vinblastine, chlorambucil and dacarbazine. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 12.5 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 0.1 µmol/L 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide (BMImBr) ionic liquid (IL) was used for CE measurements at 250 nm detection wavelength, 20 kV applied voltage and 25 °C. The rinsing protocol was significantly improved to reduce the adsorption of IL on the interior surface of capillary. Moreover, RPLC method was developed on α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column. Mobile phase was 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (100% v/v) and flow rate at 0.1 mL/min. As AGP is a chiral column, it was successfully separated l-MTX from its enantiomer impurity d-MTX. Good linearity of quantitative analysis was achieved with coefficients of determinations (r(2) ) >0.995. The stability of drugs measurements was investigated with adequate recoveries up to 24 h storage time under ambient temperature. The limits of detection were <50 and 90 ng/mL by CE and RPLC, respectively. The using of short-chain IL as an additive in BGE achieved 600-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with conventional Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE). Therefore, for the first time, the proposed methods were successfully applied to determine simultaneously the analytes in human plasma and urine samples at clinically relevant concentrations with fast and simple pretreatments. Developed IL-assisted CE and RPLC methods were also applied to measure MTX levels in patients' samples over time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Choosing the right fluorophore for single-molecule fluorescence studies in a lipid environment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenfu; Yomo, Dan; Gradinaru, Claudiu

    2017-07-01

    Nonspecific interactions between lipids and fluorophores can alter the outcomes of single-molecule spectroscopy of membrane proteins in live cells, liposomes or lipid nanodiscs and of cytosolic proteins encapsulated in liposomes or tethered to supported lipid bilayers. To gain insight into these effects, we examined interactions between 9 dyes that are commonly used as labels for single-molecule fluorescence (SMF) and 6 standard lipids including cationic, zwitterionic and anionic types. The diffusion coefficients of dyes in the absence and presence of set amounts of lipid vesicles were measured by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The partition coefficients and the free energies of partitioning for different fluorophore-lipid pairs were obtained by global fitting of the titration FCS curves. Lipids with different charges, head groups and degrees of chain saturation were investigated, and interactions with dyes are discussed in terms of hydrophobic, electrostatic and steric contributions. Fluorescence imaging of individual fluorophores adsorbed on supported lipid bilayers provides visualization and additional quantification of the strength of dye-lipid interaction in the context of single-molecule measurements. By dissecting fluorophore-lipid interactions, our study provides new insights into setting up single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy experiments with minimal interference from interactions between fluorescent labels and lipids in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Carbohydrate-protein interactions: molecular modeling insights.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Serge; Tvaroška, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The article reviews the significant contributions to, and the present status of, applications of computational methods for the characterization and prediction of protein-carbohydrate interactions. After a presentation of the specific features of carbohydrate modeling, along with a brief description of the experimental data and general features of carbohydrate-protein interactions, the survey provides a thorough coverage of the available computational methods and tools. At the quantum-mechanical level, the use of both molecular orbitals and density-functional theory is critically assessed. These are followed by a presentation and critical evaluation of the applications of semiempirical and empirical methods: QM/MM, molecular dynamics, free-energy calculations, metadynamics, molecular robotics, and others. The usefulness of molecular docking in structural glycobiology is evaluated by considering recent docking- validation studies on a range of protein targets. The range of applications of these theoretical methods provides insights into the structural, energetic, and mechanistic facets that occur in the course of the recognition processes. Selected examples are provided to exemplify the usefulness and the present limitations of these computational methods in their ability to assist in elucidation of the structural basis underlying the diverse function and biological roles of carbohydrates in their dialogue with proteins. These test cases cover the field of both carbohydrate biosynthesis and glycosyltransferases, as well as glycoside hydrolases. The phenomenon of (macro)molecular recognition is illustrated for the interactions of carbohydrates with such proteins as lectins, monoclonal antibodies, GAG-binding proteins, porins, and viruses. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Development in electrophoresis: instrumentation for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein separation and application of capillary electrophoresis in micro-bioanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Aoshuang

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation begins with a general introduction of topics related to this work. The following chapters contain three scientific manuscripts, each presented in a separate chapter with accompanying tables, figures, and literature citations. The final chapter summarizes the work and provides some prospective on this work. This introduction starts with a brief treatment of the basic principles of electrophoresis separation, followed by a discussion of gel electrophoresis and particularly polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for protein separation, a summary of common capillary electrophoresis separation modes, and a brief treatment of micro-bioanalysis application of capillary electrophoresis, and ends with an overview of proteinmore » conformation and dynamics.« less

  13. “Ultra-high resolution optical trap with single fluorophore sensitivity”

    PubMed Central

    Comstock, Matthew J; Ha, Taekjip; Chemla, Yann R

    2013-01-01

    We present a single-molecule instrument that combines a timeshared ultra-high resolution dual optical trap interlaced with a confocal fluorescence microscope. In a demonstration experiment, individual single-fluorophore labeled DNA oligonucleotides were observed to bind and unbind to complementary DNA suspended between two trapped beads. Simultaneous with the single-fluorophore detection, coincident angstrom-scale changes in tether extension could be clearly observed. Fluorescence readout allowed us to determine the duplex melting rate as a function of force. The new instrument will enable the simultaneous measurement of angstrom-scale mechanical motion of individual DNA-binding proteins (e.g., single base pair stepping of DNA translocases) along with the detection of fluorescently labeled protein properties (e.g., internal configuration). PMID:21336286

  14. Arylphorin from Manduca sexta: carbohydrate structure and immunological studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, R O; Anderson, D R; Grimes, W J; Law, J H

    1985-11-15

    The major hemolymph protein in the last larval stage of Manduca sexta is a hexameric glycoprotein, arylphorin (Mr = 450,000). Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified arylphorin reveals the presence of two subunits, A1 and A2. Both subunits are glycosylated and have apparent Mr = 77,000 and 72,000, respectively. Pronase digestion of arylphorin yielded a single major glycopeptide. 250 MHz NMR spectroscopy of arylphorin glycopeptide revealed a Man9GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide structure similar to that observed in mammalian glycoproteins. Endoglycosidase-H treatment of arylphorin was employed to remove covalently linked carbohydrate residues. The carbohydrate removal lowered the apparent Mr of subunits A1 and A2 to 72,000 and 69,000, respectively, indicating that the difference in arylphorin subunit size is not due to levels of glycosylation. Immunoblotting experiments with anti-arylphorin antiserum and Bombyx mori storage proteins indicated cross reactivity with the corresponding arylphorin of this insect. Preparation of subunit A2 monospecific antibodies, followed by immunoblotting of arylphorin showed a close immunological relationship between subunits A1 and A2.

  15. Affinity in electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, Niels H H

    2009-06-01

    The journal Electrophoresis has greatly influenced my approaches to biomolecular affinity studies. The methods that I have chosen as my main tools to study interacting biomolecules--native gel and later capillary zone electrophoresis--have been the topic of numerous articles in Electrophoresis. Below, the role of the journal in the development and dissemination of these techniques and applications reviewed. Many exhaustive reviews on affinity electrophoresis and affinity CE have been published in the last few years and are not in any way replaced by the present deliberations that are focused on papers published by the journal.

  16. Fluorophore Metal-Organic Complexes: High-Throughput Optical Screening for Aprotic Electrochemical Systems.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hyeon; Choi, Chang Hyuck; Lee, Seung Yong; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2017-02-13

    Combinatorial optical screening of aprotic electrocatalysts has not yet been achieved primarily due to H + -associated mechanisms of fluorophore modulation. We have overcome this problem by using fluorophore metal-organic complexes. In particular, eosin Y and quinine can be coordinated with various metallic cations (e.g., Li + , Na + , Mg 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Al 3+ ) in aprotic solvents, triggering changes in their fluorescent properties. These interactions have been used in a reliable screening method to determine oxygen reduction/evolution reaction activities of 100 Mn-based binary catalysts for the aprotic Li-air battery.

  17. Implementing biological logic gates using gold nanoparticles conjugated to fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnoy, Eran A.; Popovtzer, Rachela; Fixler, Dror

    2018-02-01

    We describe recent research in which we explored biologically relevant logic gates using gold nanoparticles (GNPs) conjugated to fluorophores and tracing the results remotely by time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). GNPs have a well-known effect on nearby fluorophores in terms of their fluorescence intensity (FI - increase or decrease) as well as fluorescence lifetime (FLT). We have designed a few bio-switch systems in which the FLIMdetected fluorescence varies after biologically relevant stimulation. Some of our tools include fluorescein diacetate (FDA) which can be activated by either esterases or pH, peptide chains cleavable by caspase 3, and the polymer polyacrylic acid which varies in size based on surrounding pH. After conjugating GNPs to chosen fluorophores, we have successfully demonstrated the logic gates of NOT, AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and XOR by imaging different stages of activation. These logic gates have been demonstrated both in solutions as well as within cultured cells, thereby possibly opening the door for nanoparticulate in vivo smart detection. While these initial probes are mainly tools for intelligent detection systems, they lay the foundation for logic gates functioning in conjunction so as to lead to a form of in vivo biological computing, where the system would be able to release proper treatment options in specific situations without external influence.

  18. Choice of Illumination System & Fluorophore for Multiplex Immunofluorescence on FFPE Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Ria E. B.; Kluth, David C.; Bellamy, Christopher O. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of novel dyes and alternative light sources to facilitate complex tissue immunofluorescence studies such as multiplex labelling has not been matched by reports critically evaluating the considerations and relative benefits of these new tools, particularly in combination. Product information is often limited to wavelengths used for older fluorophores (FITC, TRITC & corresponding Alexa dyes family). Consequently, novel agents such as Quantum dots are not widely appreciated or used, despite highly favourable properties including extremely bright emission, stability and potentially reduced tissue autofluorescence at the excitation wavelength. Using spectral analysis, we report here a detailed critical appraisal and comparative evaluation of different light sources and fluorophores in multiplex immunofluorescence of clinical biopsy sections. The comparison includes mercury light, metal halide and 3 different LED-based systems, using 7 Qdots (525, 565, 585, 605, 625, 705), Cy3 and Cy5. We discuss the considerations relevant to achieving the best combination of light source and fluorophore for accurate multiplex fluorescence quantitation. We highlight practical limitations and confounders to quantitation with filter-based approaches. PMID:27632367

  19. Identification of proteins in a human pleural exudate using two-dimensional preparative liquid-phase electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, C L; Puchades, M; Westman, A; Blennow, K; Davidsson, P

    1999-01-01

    Pleural effusion may occur in patients suffering from physical trauma or systemic disorders such as infection, inflammation, or cancer. In order to investigate proteins in a pleural exudate from a patient with severe pneumonia, we used a strategy that combined preparative two-dimensional liquid-phase electrophoresis (2-D LPE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and Western blotting. Preparative 2-D LPE is based on the same principles as analytical 2-D gel electrophoresis, except that the proteins remain in liquid phase during the entire procedure. In the first dimension, liquid-phase isoelectric focusing allows for the enrichment of proteins in liquid fractions. In the Rotofor cell, large volumes (up to 55 mL) and protein amounts (up to 1-2 g) can be loaded. Several low abundance proteins, cystatin C, haptoglobin, transthyretin, beta2-microglobulin, and transferrin, were detected after liquid-phase isoelectric focusing, through Western blotting analysis, in a pleural exudate (by definition, >25 g/L total protein). Direct MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of proteins in a Rotofor fraction is demonstrated as well. MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of a tryptic digest of a continuous elution sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) fraction confirmed the presence of cystatin C. By applying 2-D LPE, MALDI-TOF-MS, and Western blotting to the analysis of this pleural exudate, we were able to confirm the identity of proteins of potential diagnostic value. Our findings serve to illustrate the usefulness of this combination of methods in the analysis of pathological fluids.

  20. Protein Electrophoresis/Immunofixation Electrophoresis

    MedlinePlus

    ... underlying disease. Follow-up tests may include, for example, albumin , immunoelectrophoresis, serum free light chains , quantitative immunoglobuins , ... the disease and the effectiveness of treatment. Some examples of when an electrophoresis test may be ordered ...

  1. Optically modulated fluorescence bioimaging: visualizing obscured fluorophores in high background.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Jablonski, Amy E; Dickson, Robert M

    2014-05-20

    Fluorescence microscopy and detection have become indispensible for understanding organization and dynamics in biological systems. Novel fluorophores with improved brightness, photostability, and biocompatibility continue to fuel further advances but often rely on having minimal background. The visualization of interactions in very high biological background, especially for proteins or bound complexes at very low copy numbers, remains a primary challenge. Instead of focusing on molecular brightness of fluorophores, we have adapted the principles of high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy to improve the sensitivity and signal discrimination in fluorescence bioimaging. Utilizing very long wavelength transient absorptions of kinetically trapped dark states, we employ molecular modulation schemes that do not simultaneously modulate the background fluorescence. This improves the sensitivity and ease of implementation over high-energy photoswitch-based recovery schemes, as no internal dye reference or nanoparticle-based fluorophores are needed to separate the desired signals from background. In this Account, we describe the selection process for and identification of fluorophores that enable optically modulated fluorescence to decrease obscuring background. Differing from thermally stable photoswitches using higher-energy secondary lasers, coillumination at very low energies depopulates transient dark states, dynamically altering the fluorescence and giving characteristic modulation time scales for each modulatable emitter. This process is termed synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) microscopy. By understanding and optically controlling the dye photophysics, we selectively modulate desired fluorophore signals independent of all autofluorescent background. This shifts the fluorescence of interest to unique detection frequencies with nearly shot-noise-limited detection, as no background signals are collected. Although the fluorescence brightness is

  2. Photophysical Behaviors of Single Fluorophores Localized on Zinc Oxide Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy has now been widely used to investigate complex dynamic processes which would normally be obscured in an ensemble-averaged measurement. In this report we studied photophysical behaviors of single fluorophores in proximity to zinc oxide nanostructures by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC). Single fluorophores on ZnO surfaces showed enhanced fluorescence brightness to various extents compared with those on glass; the single-molecule time trajectories also illustrated pronounced fluctuations of emission intensities, with time periods distributed from milliseconds to seconds. We attribute fluorescence fluctuations to the interfacial electron transfer (ET) events. The fluorescence fluctuation dynamics were found to be inhomogeneous from molecule to molecule and from time to time, showing significant static and dynamic disorders in the interfacial electron transfer reaction processes. PMID:23109903

  3. Exogenous near-infrared fluorophores and their applications in cancer diagnosis: biological and clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Uselman, Ryan R; Yee, Douglas

    2011-05-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging is a rapidly growing research field which has the potential to be an important imaging modality in cancer diagnosis. Various exogenous NIR fluorophores have been developed for the technique, including small molecule fluorophores and nanoparticles. NIRF imaging has been used in animal models for the detection of cancer overthe last twenty years and has in recent years been used in human clinical trials. This article describes the types and characteristics of exogenous fluorophores available for in vivo fluorescent cancer imaging. The article also discusses the progression of NIRF cancer imaging over recent years and its future challenges, from both a biological and clinical perspective. in The review also looks at its application for lymph node mapping, tumor targeting and characterization, and tumor margin definition for surgical guidance. NIRF imaging is not in routine clinical cancer practice; yet, the authors predict that techniques using NIR fluorophores for tumor margin definition and lymph node mapping will enter clinical practice in the near future. The authors also anticipate that NIRF imaging research will lead to the development of flurophores with 'high brightness' that will overcome the limited penetration of this modality and be better suited for non invasive tumor targeting.

  4. Toehold-mediated internal control to probe the near-field interaction between the metallic nanoparticle and the fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Y. S.; Yung, L. Y. L.

    2014-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are known to alter the emission of vicinal fluorophores through the near-field interaction, leading to either fluorescence quenching or enhancement. Much ambiguity remains in the experimental outcome of such a near-field interaction, particularly for bulk colloidal solution. It is hypothesized that the strong far-field interference from the inner filter effect of the MNPs could mask the true near-field MNP-fluorophore interaction significantly. Thus, in this work, a reliable internal control capable of decoupling the near-field interaction from far-field interference is established by the use of the DNA toehold concept to mediate the in situ assembly and disassembly of the MNP-fluorophore conjugate. A model gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-Cy3 system is used to investigate our proposed toehold-mediated internal control system. The maximum fluorescence enhancement is obtained for large-sized AuNP (58 nm) separated from Cy3 at an intermediate distance of 6.8 nm, while fluorescence quenching is observed for smaller-sized AuNP (11 nm and 23 nm), which is in agreement with the theoretical values reported in the literature. This work shows that the toehold-mediated internal control design can serve as a central system for evaluating the near-field interaction of other MNP-fluorophore combinations and facilitate the rational design of specific MNP-fluorophore systems for various applications.Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are known to alter the emission of vicinal fluorophores through the near-field interaction, leading to either fluorescence quenching or enhancement. Much ambiguity remains in the experimental outcome of such a near-field interaction, particularly for bulk colloidal solution. It is hypothesized that the strong far-field interference from the inner filter effect of the MNPs could mask the true near-field MNP-fluorophore interaction significantly. Thus, in this work, a reliable internal control capable of decoupling the near

  5. Photoluminescence from Amino-Containing Polymer in the Presence of CO2: Carbamato Anion Formed as a Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guan; Lay, Chee Leng; Tan, Beng Hong; He, Chaobin; Liu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    Organic photoluminescent materials are important to many applications especially for diagnosis and detection, and most of organic photoluminescent materials contain fluorophores with extended conjugated structures. Recently some of amino-containing polymers without fluorophores with extended conjugated structure are observed to be photoluminescent, and one possible cause of the photoluminescence is oxidation of the amines. Here we show that photoluminescence can be produced by exposing a typical amino-containing polymer, polyethylenimine, to carbon dioxide. We demonstrate that carbamato anion formed via the reaction between the amine and carbon dioxide is a fluorophore; and the loosely-bound protonated water molecule can increase UV absorption but reduce the photoluminescence emission. Also carbamato anion shows solvent- and excitation wavelength-dependent emission of photoluminescence. The photoluminescence profile of carbamoto anion was discussed. These results will facilitate the understanding of photoluminescence observed from amino-containing materials and the design of new fluorophores. PMID:24067377

  6. Kidney Cell Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated, ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry was provided and cells returned from space flight were analyzed. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. The protocol established and utilized is given.

  7. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2010-07-01

    Carbohydrate feeding has been shown to be ergogenic, but recently substantial advances have been made in optimizing the guidelines for carbohydrate intake during prolonged exercise. It was found that limitations to carbohydrate oxidation were in the absorptive process most likely because of a saturation of carbohydrate transporters. By using a combination of carbohydrates that use different intestinal transporters for absorption it was shown that carbohydrate delivery and oxidation could be increased. Studies demonstrated increases in exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates of up to 65% of glucose: fructose compared with glucose only. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates reach values of 1.75 g/min whereas previously it was thought that 1 g/min was the absolute maximum. The increased carbohydrate oxidation with multiple transportable carbohydrates was accompanied by increased fluid delivery and improved oxidation efficiency, and thus the likelihood of gastrointestinal distress may be diminished. Studies also demonstrated reduced fatigue and improved exercise performance with multiple transportable carbohydrates compared with a single carbohydrate. Multiple transportable carbohydrates, ingested at high rates, can be beneficial during endurance sports in which the duration of exercise is 3 h or more.

  8. Environment-sensitive fluorophores with benzothiadiazole and benzoselenadiazole structures as candidate components of a fluorescent polymeric thermometer.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Seiichi; Kimura, Kohki; Gota, Chie; Okabe, Kohki; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Inada, Noriko; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji

    2012-07-27

    An environment-sensitive fluorophore can change its maximum emission wavelength (λ(em)), fluorescence quantum yield (Φ(f)), and fluorescence lifetime in response to the surrounding environment. We have developed two new intramolecular charge-transfer-type environment-sensitive fluorophores, DBThD-IA and DBSeD-IA, in which the oxygen atom of a well-established 2,1,3-benzoxadiazole environment-sensitive fluorophore, DBD-IA, has been replaced by a sulfur and selenium atom, respectively. DBThD-IA is highly fluorescent in n-hexane (Φ(f) =0.81, λ(em) =537 nm) with excitation at 449 nm, but is almost nonfluorescent in water (Φ(f) =0.037, λ(em) =616 nm), similarly to DBD-IA (Φ(f) =0.91, λ(em) =520 nm in n-hexane; Φ(f) =0.027, λ(em) =616 nm in water). A similar variation in fluorescence properties was also observed for DBSeD-IA (Φ(f) =0.24, λ(em) =591 nm in n-hexane; Φ(f) =0.0046, λ(em) =672 nm in water). An intensive study of the solvent effects on the fluorescence properties of these fluorophores revealed that both the polarity of the environment and hydrogen bonding with solvent molecules accelerate the nonradiative relaxation of the excited fluorophores. Time-resolved optoacoustic and phosphorescence measurements clarified that both intersystem crossing and internal conversion are involved in the nonradiative relaxation processes of DBThD-IA and DBSeD-IA. In addition, DBThD-IA exhibits a 10-fold higher photostability in aqueous solution than the original fluorophore DBD-IA, which allowed us to create a new robust molecular nanogel thermometer for intracellular thermometry. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Molecular engineering of a dual emission near-infrared ratiometric fluorophore for the detection of pH at the organism level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo-Lin; Jiang, Chuang; Li, Kun; Liu, Yan-Hong; Xie, Yongmei; Yu, Xiao-Qi

    2015-07-07

    A near-infrared ratiometric fluorophore (NIR-HBT) was rationally designed and constructed by expanding both the excitation and emission wavelength of the classical ratiometric fluorophore 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)phenol (HBT) into the near-infrared region. The NIR-HBT was easily synthesized by incorporating the HBT module into the hemicyanine skeleton and showed evident NIR ratiometric fluorophore characteristics. Further application of the new fluorophore for pH detection demonstrated that NIR-HBT possesses superior overall analytical performance and NIR-HBT was successfully applied for detection of acidosis caused by inflammation in living animal tissue, which indicated the potential application value of NIR-HBT in biological imaging and sensing.

  10. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm2. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of this method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm-1), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.

  11. Nonnegative constraint analysis of key fluorophores within human breast cancer using native fluorescence spectroscopy excited by selective wavelength of 300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Yang; Sordillo, Laura A.; Alfano, Robert R.

    2015-03-01

    Native fluorescence spectroscopy offers an important role in cancer discrimination. It is widely acknowledged that the emission spectrum of tissue is a superposition of spectra of various salient fluorophores. In this study, the native fluorescence spectra of human cancerous and normal breast tissues excited by selected wavelength of 300 nm are used to investigate the key building block fluorophores: tryptophan and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The basis spectra of these key fluorophores' contribution to the tissue emission spectra are obtained by nonnegative constraint analysis. The emission spectra of human cancerous and normal tissue samples are projected onto the fluorophore spectral subspace. Since previous studies indicate that tryptophan and NADH are key fluorophores related with tumor evolution, it is essential to obtain their information from tissue fluorescence but discard the redundancy. To evaluate the efficacy of for cancer detection, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier is used to evaluate the sensitivity, and specificity. This research demonstrates that the native fluorescence spectroscopy measurements are effective to detect changes of fluorophores' compositions in tissues due to the development of cancer.

  12. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1980-01-01

    The following aspects of kidney cell electrophoresis are discussed: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characterization of kidney cells.

  13. Recent advances in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang; Egen, Ned B.; Couasnon, Pascal; Sammons, David W.

    1987-01-01

    Various approaches for preparative electrophoresis, and three new instruments for preparative electrophoresis are discussed. Consideration is given to isoelectric focusing, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis, three gel-based electrophoresis methods. The design, functions, and performance of the Elphor VaP 21 device of Hannig (1982), the shear-stabilized BIOSTREAM separator of Thompson (1983), and the recycling isoelectric focusing device are described.

  14. Kidney cell electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.

    1979-01-01

    A kidney cell electrophoresis technique is described in four parts: (1) the development and testing of electrophoresis solutions; (2) optimization of freezing and thawing; (3) procedures for evaluation of separated kidney cells; and (4) electrophoretic mobility characteristics of kidney cells.

  15. Interactive fluorophore and quencher pairs for labeling fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization probes.

    PubMed

    Marras, Salvatore A E

    2008-03-01

    The use of fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization probes that generate a fluorescence signal only when they bind to their target enables real-time monitoring of nucleic acid amplification assays. Real-time nucleic acid amplification assays markedly improves the ability to obtain qualitative and quantitative results. Furthermore, these assays can be carried out in sealed tubes, eliminating carryover contamination. Fluorescent nucleic acid hybridization probes are available in a wide range of different fluorophore and quencher pairs. Multiple hybridization probes, each designed for the detection of a different nucleic acid sequence and each labeled with a differently colored fluorophore, can be added to the same nucleic acid amplification reaction, enabling the development of high-throughput multiplex assays. In order to develop robust, highly sensitive and specific real-time nucleic acid amplification assays it is important to carefully select the fluorophore and quencher labels of hybridization probes. Selection criteria are based on the type of hybridization probe used in the assay, the number of targets to be detected, and the type of apparatus available to perform the assay. This article provides an overview of different aspects of choosing appropriate labels for the different types of fluorescent hybridization probes used with different types of spectrofluorometric thermal cyclers currently available.

  16. Experimental recovery of intrinsic fluorescence and fluorophore concentration in the presence of hemoglobin: spectral effect of scattering and absorption on fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du Le, Vinh Nguyen; Patterson, Michael S.; Farrell, Thomas J.; Hayward, Joseph E.; Fang, Qiyin

    2015-12-01

    The ability to recover the intrinsic fluorescence of biological fluorophores is crucial to accurately identify the fluorophores and quantify their concentrations in the media. Although some studies have successfully retrieved the fluorescence spectral shape of known fluorophores, the techniques usually came with heavy computation costs and did not apply for strongly absorptive media, and the intrinsic fluorescence intensity and fluorophore concentration were not recovered. In this communication, an experimental approach was presented to recover intrinsic fluorescence and concentration of fluorescein in the presence of hemoglobin (Hb). The results indicated that the method was efficient in recovering the intrinsic fluorescence peak and fluorophore concentration with an error of 3% and 10%, respectively. The results also suggested that chromophores with irregular absorption spectra (e.g., Hb) have more profound effects on fluorescence spectral shape than chromophores with monotonic absorption and scattering spectra (e.g., black India ink and polystyrene microspheres).

  17. Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley; Hedeker, Donald; Pagoto, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    Rationale The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination. Objectives . To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing. Methods Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m=27.64, SD=2.59) women (ages 18–45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate:protein ≥ 6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better. Results Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria following the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage, but no differential effect on vigor. Conclusion For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight. PMID:18273603

  18. Understanding carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions by means of glyconanotechnology.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Jesus M; Penadés, Soledad

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction is a reliable and versatile mechanism for cell adhesion and recognition. Glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters at the cell membrane are mainly involved in this interaction. To investigate carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction an integrated strategy (Glyconanotechnology) was developed. This strategy includes polyvalent tools (gold glyconanoparticles) mimicking GSL clustering at the cell membrane as well as analytical techniques such as AFM, TEM, and SPR to evaluate the interactions. The results obtained by means of this strategy and current status are presented.

  19. Optical tomography of fluorophores in dense scattering media based on ultrasound-enhanced chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Masaki, E-mail: masaki@tohtech.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Naoto; Sato, Akihiro

    This letter proposes and demonstrates ultrasound-combined optical imaging in dense scattering media. A peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence system that includes fluorophores to chemically excite the pigment is stimulated by ultrasound irradiation with power of less than 0.14 W/cm{sup 2}. Using focused ultrasound, the chemiluminescence is selectively spatially enhanced, which leads to imaging of the pigment when embedded in a light-scattering medium via scanning of the focal point. The ultrasonically enhanced intensity of the chemiluminescence depends on the base intensity of the chemiluminescence without the applied ultrasound irradiation, which thereby enables quantitative determination of the fluorophore concentration. The authors demonstrate the potential of thismore » method to resolve chemiluminescent targets in a dense scattering medium that is comparable to biological tissue. An image was acquired of a chemiluminescent target that included indocyanine green as the fluorophore embedded at a depth of 20 mm in an Intralipid-10% 200 ml/l solution scattering medium (the reduced scattering coefficient was estimated to be approximately 1.3 mm{sup −1}), indicating the potential for expansion of this technique for use in biological applications.« less

  20. Quantum dots versus organic fluorophores in fluorescent deep-tissue imaging--merits and demerits.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Gadjeva, Veselina

    2008-12-01

    The use of fluorescence in deep-tissue imaging is rapidly expanding in last several years. The progress in fluorescent molecular probes and fluorescent imaging techniques gives an opportunity to detect single cells and even molecular targets in live organisms. The highly sensitive and high-speed fluorescent molecular sensors and detection devices allow the application of fluorescence in functional imaging. With the development of novel bright fluorophores based on nanotechnologies and 3D fluorescence scanners with high spatial and temporal resolution, the fluorescent imaging has a potential to become an alternative of the other non-invasive imaging techniques as magnetic resonance imaging, positron-emission tomography, X-ray, computing tomography. The fluorescent imaging has also a potential to give a real map of human anatomy and physiology. The current review outlines the advantages of fluorescent nanoparticles over conventional organic dyes in deep-tissue imaging in vivo and defines the major requirements to the "perfect fluorophore". The analysis proceeds from the basic principles of fluorescence and major characteristics of fluorophores, light-tissue interactions, and major limitations of fluorescent deep-tissue imaging. The article is addressed to a broad readership - from specialists in this field to university students.

  1. Heat capacity changes in carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate complexes.

    PubMed

    Chavelas, Eneas A; García-Hernández, Enrique

    2009-05-13

    Carbohydrates are crucial for living cells, playing myriads of functional roles that range from being structural or energy-storage devices to molecular labels that, through non-covalent interaction with proteins, impart exquisite selectivity in processes such as molecular trafficking and cellular recognition. The molecular bases that govern the recognition between carbohydrates and proteins have not been fully understood yet. In the present study, we have obtained a surface-area-based model for the formation heat capacity of protein-carbohydrate complexes, which includes separate terms for the contributions of the two molecular types. The carbohydrate model, which was calibrated using carbohydrate dissolution data, indicates that the heat capacity contribution of a given group surface depends on its position in the saccharide molecule, a picture that is consistent with previous experimental and theoretical studies showing that the high abundance of hydroxy groups in carbohydrates yields particular solvation properties. This model was used to estimate the carbohydrate's contribution in the formation of a protein-carbohydrate complex, which in turn was used to obtain the heat capacity change associated with the protein's binding site. The model is able to account for protein-carbohydrate complexes that cannot be explained using a previous model that only considered the overall contribution of polar and apolar groups, while allowing a more detailed dissection of the elementary contributions that give rise to the formation heat capacity effects of these adducts.

  2. In vitro RNA release from a human rhinovirus monitored by means of a molecular beacon and chip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Victor U; Bliem, Christina; Gösler, Irene; Fedosyuk, Sofiya; Kratzmeier, Martin; Blaas, Dieter; Allmaier, Günter

    2016-06-01

    Liquid-phase electrophoresis either in the classical capillary format or miniaturized (chip CE) is a valuable tool for quality control of virus preparations and for targeting questions related to conformational changes of viruses during infection. We present an in vitro assay to follow the release of the RNA genome from a human rhinovirus (common cold virus) by using a molecular beacon (MB) and chip CE. The MB, a probe that becomes fluorescent upon hybridization to a complementary sequence, was designed to bind close to the 3' end of the viral genome. Addition of Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid), a well-known additive for reduction of bleaching and blinking of fluorophores in fluorescence microscopy, to the background electrolyte increased the sensitivity of our chip CE set-up. Hence, a fast, sensitive and straightforward method for the detection of viral RNA is introduced. Additionally, challenges of our assay will be discussed. In particular, we found that (i) desalting of virus preparations prior to analysis increased the recorded signal and (ii) the MB-RNA complex signal decreased with the time of virus storage at -70 °C. This suggests that 3'-proximal sequences of the viral RNA, if not the whole genome, underwent degradation during storage and/or freezing and thawing. In summary, we demonstrate, for two independent virus batches, that chip electrophoresis can be used to monitor MB hybridization to RNA released upon incubation of the native virus at 56 °C. Graphical Abstract Schematic of the study strategy: RNA released from HRV-A2 is detected by chip electrophoresis through the increase in fluorescence after genom complexation to a cognate molecular beacon.

  3. Improved Electrophoresis Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Several proposed modifications are expected to improve performance of a continous-flow electrophoresis cell. Changes would allow better control of buffer flow and would increase resolution by suppressing thermal gradients. Improved electrophoresis device would have high resolution and be easy to operate. Improvements would allow better flow control and heat dissipation.

  4. Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    A new high resolution apparatus designed for space was built as a laboratory prototype. Using a moving wall with a low zeta potential coating, the major sources of flow distortion for an electrophoretic sample stream are removed. Highly resolved fractions, however, will only be produced in space because of the sensitivity of this chamber to buoyancy-induced convection in the laboratory. The second and third flights of the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Corporation continuous flow electrophoresis system carried samples developed at MSFC intended to evaluate the broad capabilities of free flow electrophoresis in a reduced gravity environment. Biological model materials, hemoglobin and polystyrene latex microspheres, were selected because of their past use as electrophoresis standards and as visible markers for fluid flow due to electroosmosis, spacecraft acceleration or other factors. The dependence of the separation resolution on the properties of the sample and its suspension solution was assessed.

  5. Ionoluminescence properties of polystyrene-hosted fluorophore films induced by helium ions of energy 50-350 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subha; Huang, Mengbing

    2017-10-01

    We report on measurements and analysis of ionoluminescence properties of pure polystyrene films and polystyrene films doped with four types of fluorophores in low kinetic energies (50-350 keV) of ion irradiation. We have developed a theoretical model to understand the experimentally observed ionoluminescence behaviors in terms of scintillation yield from individual ion tracks, photophysical energy transfer mechanisms, and irradiation-induced defects. A comparison of the model and experimental results suggests that singlet up-conversion resulting from triplet-triplet annihilation processes may be responsible for enhanced singlet emission of the fluorophores at high ion beam flux densities. Energy transfer from the polystyrene matrix to the fluorophore molecules has been identified as an effective pathway to increasing the fluorescence efficiency in the doped scintillator films.

  6. Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... include sugars added during food processing and refining. Complex carbohydrates include whole grain breads and cereals, starchy vegetables and legumes. Many of the complex carbohydrates are good sources of fiber. For a healthy ...

  7. Separation of charge-regulated polyelectrolytes by pH-assisted diffusiophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jyh-Ping; Hsu, Yen-Rei; Shang-Hung, Hsieh; Tseng, Shiojenn

    2017-03-29

    The potential of separating colloidal particles through simultaneous application of a salt gradient and a pH gradient, or pH-assisted diffusiophoresis, is evaluated by considering the case of spherical polyelectrolytes (PEs) having different equilibrium dissociation constants in an aqueous solution with KCl as the background salt. The simulation results gathered reveal that the dependence of the particle velocity on pH is more sensitive than that in pH-assisted electrophoresis, where an electric field and a pH gradient are applied simultaneously. This implies that the separation efficiency of pH-assisted diffusiophoresis can be better than that of pH-assisted electrophoresis. In particular, two types of PE having different equilibrium dissociation constants can be separated effectively by applying the former by enhancing/reducing their diffusiophoretic velocities.

  8. Electrophoresis in space.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J; Hymer, W C; Morrison, D R; Kobayashi, H; Seaman, G V; Weber, G

    1999-01-01

    Programs for free flow electrophoresis in microgravity over the past 25 years are reviewed. Several studies accomplished during 20 spaceflight missions have demonstrated that sample throughput is significantly higher in microgravity than on the ground. Some studies have shown that resolution is also increased. However, many cell separation trials have fallen victim to difficulties associated with experimenting in the microgravity environment such as microbial contamination, air bubbles in electrophoresis chambers, and inadequate facilities for maintaining cells before and after separation. Recent studies suggest that the charge density of cells at their surface may also be modified in microgravity. If this result is confirmed, a further cellular mechanism of "sensing" the low gravity environment will have been found. Several free fluid electrophoresis devices are now available. Most have been tried at least once in microgravity. Newer units not yet tested in spaceflight have been designed to accommodate problems associated with space processing. The USCEPS device and the Japanese FFEU device are specifically designed for sterile operations, whereas the Octopus device is designed to reduce electroosmotic and electrohydrodynamic effects, which become dominant and detrimental in microgravity. Some of these devices will also separate proteins by zone electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, or isoelectric focusing in a single unit. Separation experiments with standard test particles are useful and necessary for testing and optimizing new space hardware. A cohesive free fluid electrophoresis program in the future will obviously require (1) flight opportunities and funding, (2) identification of suitable cellular and macromolecular candidate samples, and (3) provision of a proper interface of electrophoresis processing equipment with biotechnological facilities--equipment like bioreactors and protein crystal growth chambers. The authors feel that such capabilities will lead to

  9. Cobalamin-fluorophores' photochemistry and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Zachary Lewis

    As science focuses on the finer details of complex processes occurring in biology, the need for tools responsive to researcher control have become critical to communicate with cellular functions in both a spatial and temporal manner. To this end, light responsive "caging groups" have been used to generate molecular constructs with which researchers can activate using directed irradiation to elicit biological responses where and when they want. This advancement in molecular control has greatly improved our ability to study biological systems in their dynamically intricate form. Most of these photoresponsive moieties perform well within a petri dish, but their application is limited in vivo. Current photochemical tools require high energy light for their activation. Dermal tissue contains bio chromophores that absorb this light and prevents its penetration to less than a few millimeters making photoactivation impossible. However, tissue has an "optical window" in the red and near infrared (600 -- 1000 nm) where light penetrates efficiently to clinically relevant depths. Therefore, researchers have sought long wavelength responsive caging groups but have had little success to date. Herein, I report the development of an entire class of red and near infrared responsive (600 -- 800 nm) caging groups based on Vitamin B12 or cobalamin. Upon modification with a fluorophore antenna, these metal complexes can capture long wavelength light to perform photochemical work in the form of bond scission reactions. The effect is compatible with a range of fluorophores covering the entire near infrared spectrum, and bond scission proceeds rapidly with extremely high efficiencies. In this work, the initial development and characterization of these molecules as photoactivateable groups will be discussed. Furthermore, I will demonstrate how these molecules can be applied for clinical applications, such as drug delivery and tissue scaffold formation, to provide safer and less invasive

  10. Carbohydrate Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiller, James N.

    Carbohydrates are important in foods as a major source of energy, to impart crucial textural properties, and as dietary fiber which influences physiological processes. Digestible carbohydrates, which are converted into monosaccharides, which are absorbed, provide metabolic energy. Worldwide, carbohydrates account for more than 70% of the caloric value of the human diet. It is recommended that all persons should limit calories from fat (the other significant source) to not more than 30% and that most of the carbohydrate calories should come from starch. Nondigestible polysaccharides (all those other than starch) comprise the major portion of dietary fiber (Sect. 10.5). Carbohydrates also contribute other attributes, including bulk, body, viscosity, stability to emulsions and foams, water-holding capacity, freeze-thaw stability, browning, flavors, aromas, and a range of desirable textures (from crispness to smooth, soft gels). They also provide satiety. Basic carbohydrate structures, chemistry, and terminology can be found in references (1, 2).

  11. A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and immune modulation.

    PubMed

    Maglinao, Maha; Eriksson, Magdalena; Schlegel, Mark K; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Johannssen, Timo; Götze, Sebastian; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd

    2014-02-10

    Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in innate immunity represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-antigens. The primary interaction of an antigen-presenting cell and a pathogen shapes the following immune response. Therefore, the identification of CLR ligands that can either enhance or modulate the immune response is of interest. We have developed a screening platform based on glycan arrays to identify immune modulatory carbohydrate ligands of CLRs. A comprehensive library of CLRs was expressed by fusing the extracellular part of each respective CLR, the part containing the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 molecules. CLR-Fc fusion proteins display the CRD in a dimeric form, are properly glycosylated, and can be detected by a secondary antibody with a conjugated fluorophore. Thus, they are valuable tools for high-throughput screening. We were able to identify novel carbohydrate binders of CLRs using the glycan array technology. These CLR-binding carbohydrates were then covalently attached to the model antigen ovalbumin. The ovalbumin neoglycoconjugates were used in a dendritic cell/T cell co-culture assay to stimulate transgenic T cells in vitro. In addition, mice were immunized with these conjugates to analyze the immune modulatory properties of the CLR ligands in vivo. The CLR ligands induced an increased Th1 cytokine production in vitro and modulated the humoral response in vivo. The platform described here allows for the identification of CLR ligands, as well as the evaluation of each ligand's cell-specific targeting and immune modulatory properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long wave fluorophore sensor compounds and other fluorescent sensor compounds in polymers

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, Joseph C.; Heiss, Aaron M.; Noronha, Glenn; Vachon, David J.; Lane, Stephen M.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Peyser, Thomas A.; Van Antwerp, William Peter; Mastrototaro, John Joseph

    2004-07-20

    Fluorescent biosensor molecules, fluorescent biosensors and systems, as well as methods of making and using these biosensor molecules and systems are described. Embodiments of these biosensor molecules exhibit fluorescence emission at wavelengths greater than about 650 nm. Typical biosensor molecules include a fluorophore that includes an iminium ion, a linker moiety that includes a group that is an anilinic type of relationship to the fluorophore and a boronate substrate recognition/binding moiety, which binds glucose. The fluorescence molecules modulated by the presence or absence of polyhydroxylated analytes such as glucose. This property of these molecules of the invention, as well as their ability to emit fluorescent light at greater than about 650 nm, renders these biosensor molecules particularly well-suited for detecting and measuring in-vivo glucose concentrations.

  13. Diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, and barium strontium titanium oxide nanoparticles as matrixes for direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis of carbohydrates in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Yousef; Giudicessi, Silvana L; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2010-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of diamond, titanium dioxide, titanium silicon oxide, barium strontium titanium oxide, and silver (Ag) were examined for their potential as MALDI matrixes for direct laser desorption/ionization of carbohydrates, especially fructans, from plant tissue. Two sample preparation methods including solvent-assisted and solvent-free (dry) NPs deposition were performed and compared. All examined NPs except for Ag could desorb/ionize standard sucrose and fructans in positive and in negative ion mode. Ag NPs yielded good signals only for nonsalt-doped samples that were measured in the negative ion mode. In the case of in vivo studies, except for Ag, all NPs studied could desorb/ionize carbohydrates from tissue in both the positive and negative ion modes. Furthermore, compared to the results obtained with soluble sugars extracted from plant tissues, fructans with higher molecular weight intact molecular ions could be detected when the plant tissues were directly profiled. The limit of detection (LOD) of fructans and the ratios between signal intensities and fructan concentrations were analyzed. NPs had similar LODs for standard fructan triose (1-kestose) in the positive ion mode and better LODs in the negative ion mode when compared with the common crystalline organic MALDI matrixes used for carbohydrates (2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and nor-harmane) or carbon nanotubes. Solvent-free NP deposition on tissues partially improves the signal acquisition. Although lower signal-to-noise ratio sugar signals were acquired from the tissues when compared to the solvent-assisted method, the reproducibility averaged over all sample was more uniform.

  14. Activatable Optical Imaging with a Silica-Rhodamine Based Near Infrared (SiR700) Fluorophore: A comparison with cyanine based dyes

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Thomas E.; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Koide, Yuichiro; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Choyke, Peter L.; Nagano, Tetsuo; Urano, Yasuteru; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging is emerging as an important tool to visualize tumors. However, there are many potential choices among the available fluorophores. Optical imaging probes that emit in the visible range can image superficial tumors with high quantum yields, however, if deeper imaging is needed then near infrared (NIR) fluorophores are necessary. Most commercially available NIR fluorophores are cyanine based and are prone to non-specific binding and relatively limited photostability. Silica-containing rhodamine (SiR) fluorophores represent a new class of NIR fluorophores, which permit photoactivation via H-dimer formation as well as demonstrate improved photostability. This permits higher tumor-to-background ratios (TBRs) to be achieved over longer periods of time. Here, we compared an avidin conjugated with SiR700 (Av-SiR700) to similar compounds based on cyanine dyes (Av-Cy5.5 and Av-Alexa Fluor 680) in a mouse tumor model of ovarian cancer metastasis. We found that the Av-SiR700 probe demonstrated superior quenching enabling activation after binding-internalization to the target cell. As a result, Av-SiR700 had higher TBRs compared to Av-Cy5.5, and better biostability compared to Av-Alexa Fluor 680. PMID:22034863

  15. Energy and carbohydrate for training and recovery.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Loucks, Anne B; Broad, Nick

    2006-07-01

    Soccer players should achieve an energy intake that provides sufficient carbohydrate to fuel the training and competition programme, supplies all nutrient requirements, and allows manipulation of energy or nutrient balance to achieve changes in lean body mass, body fat or growth. Although the traditional culture of soccer has focused on carbohydrate intake for immediate match preparation, top players should adapt their carbohydrate intake on a daily basis to ensure adequate fuel for training and recovery between matches. For players with a mobile playing style, there is sound evidence that dietary programmes that restore and even super-compensate muscle glycogen levels can enhance activity patterns during matches. This will presumably also benefit intensive training, such as twice daily practices. As well as achieving a total intake of carbohydrate commensurate with fuel needs, the everyday diet should promote strategic intake of carbohydrate and protein before and after key training sessions to optimize the adaptations and enhance recovery. The achievement of the ideal physique for soccer is a long-term goal that should be undertaken over successive years, and particularly during the off-season and pre-season. An increase in lean body mass or a decrease in body fat is the product of a targeted training and eating programme. Consultation with a sports nutrition expert can assist soccer players to manipulate energy and nutrient intake to meet such goals. Players should be warned against the accidental or deliberate mismatch of energy intake and energy expenditure, such that energy availability (intake minus the cost of exercise) falls below 125 kJ (30 kcal) per kilogram of fat-free mass per day. Such low energy availability causes disturbances to hormonal, metabolic, and immune function.

  16. Efficient Quenching of Oligomeric Fluorophores on a DNA Backbone

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, James N.; Teo, Yin Nah; Kool, Eric T.

    2008-01-01

    The quenching properties of a series of oligodeoxyribosides bearing fluorophore ‘bases’ is described. Sequences of adjacent, π-stacked pyrenes exhibit stronger electronic interactions visible in both absorbance and emission spectra than pyrenes that are insulated by intervening adenines. Quenching by N, N′-dimethyl-4,4′-bipyridinium dichloride is efficient for excimer-and exciplex-forming oligomers, with Stern-Volmer constants comparable to conjugated polymer “superquenching” schemes. PMID:18027944

  17. Crosslines, fluorophores in the AGE-related cross-linked proteins.

    PubMed

    Ienaga, K; Nakamura, K; Hochi, T; Nakazawa, Y; Fukunaga, Y; Kakita, H; Nakano, K

    1995-01-01

    We can summarize our results as follows: (1) A pair of fluorescent crosslines were isolated from the Maillard reaction mixture; (2) AGE-proteins contained crossline-like structures, and (3) crossline-like immunoreactivities were accumulated in renal tissues of diabetic rats. From these results we concluded that fluorophores in AGE proteins have crossline-like structures and we had the first indication that XLs could be markers for renal disorders.

  18. Molecular-Barrier-Enhanced Aromatic Fluorophores in Cocrystals with Unity Quantum Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Ye, Huanqing; Liu, Guangfeng; Liu, Sheng; Casanova, David; Ye, Xin; Tao, Xutang; Zhang, Qichun; Xiong, Qihua

    2018-02-12

    Singlet-triplet conversion in organic light-emitting materials introduces non-emissive (dark) and long-lived triplet states, which represents a significant challenge in constraining the optical properties. There have been considerable attempts at separating singlets and triplets in long-chain polymers, scavenging triplets, and quenching triplets with heavy metals; nonetheless, such triplet-induced loss cannot be fully eliminated. Herein, a new strategy of crafting a periodic molecular barrier into the π-conjugated matrices of organic aromatic fluorophores is reported. The molecular barriers effectively block the singlet-to-triplet pathway, resulting in near-unity photoluminescence quantum efficiency (PLQE) of the organic fluorophores. The transient optical spectroscopy measurements confirm the absence of the triplet absorption. These studies provide a general approach to preventing the formation of dark triplet states in organic semiconductors and bring new opportunities for the development of advanced organic optics and photonics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  20. Colloidal lenses allow high-temperature single-molecule imaging and improve fluorophore photostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Jerrod J.; Stavrakis, Stavros; Quake, Stephen R.

    2010-02-01

    Although single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy was first demonstrated at near-absolute zero temperatures (1.8 K), the field has since advanced to include room-temperature observations, largely owing to the use of objective lenses with high numerical aperture, brighter fluorophores and more sensitive detectors. This has opened the door for many chemical and biological systems to be studied at native temperatures at the single-molecule level both in vitro and in vivo. However, it is difficult to study systems and phenomena at temperatures above 37 °C, because the index-matching fluids used with high-numerical-aperture objective lenses can conduct heat from the sample to the lens, and sustained exposure to high temperatures can cause the lens to fail. Here, we report that TiO2 colloids with diameters of 2 µm and a high refractive index can act as lenses that are capable of single-molecule imaging at 70 °C when placed in immediate proximity to an emitting molecule. The optical system is completed by a low-numerical-aperture optic that can have a long working distance and an air interface, which allows the sample to be independently heated. Colloidal lenses were used for parallel imaging of surface-immobilized single fluorophores and for real-time single-molecule measurements of mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes at 70 °C. Fluorophores in close proximity to TiO2 also showed a 40% increase in photostability due to a reduction of the excited-state lifetime.

  1. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because ofmore » their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and

  2. The mechanism and regularity of quenching the effect of bases on fluorophores: the base-quenched probe method.

    PubMed

    Mao, Huihui; Luo, Guanghua; Zhan, Yuxia; Zhang, Jun; Yao, Shuang; Yu, Yang

    2018-04-30

    The base-quenched probe method for detecting single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relies on real-time PCR and melting-curve analysis, which might require only one pair of primers and one probe. At present, it has been successfully applied to detect SNPs of multiple genes. However, the mechanism of the base-quenched probe method remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the possible mechanism of fluorescence quenching by DNA bases in aqueous solution using spectroscopic techniques. It showed that the possible mechanism might be photo-induced electron transfer. We next analyzed electron transfer or transmission between DNA bases and fluorophores. The data suggested that in single-stranded DNA, the electrons of the fluorophore are transferred to the orbital of pyrimidine bases (thymine (T) and cytosine (C)), or that the electron orbitals of the fluorophore are occupied by electrons from purine bases (guanine (G) and adenine (A)), which lead to fluorescence quenching. In addition, the electrons of a fluorophore excited by light can be transmitted along double-stranded DNA, which gives rise to stronger fluorescence quenching. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the quenching efficiency of bases is in the order of G > C ≥ A ≥ T and the capability of electron transmission of base-pairs in double-stranded DNA is in the order of CG[combining low line] ≥ GC[combining low line] > TA[combining low line] ≥ AT[combining low line] (letters representing bases on the complementary strand of the probe are bold and underlined), and the most common commercial fluorophores including FAM, HEX, TET, JOE, and TAMRA could be influenced by bases and are in line with this mechanism and regularity.

  3. Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence enhanced by oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores in the presence of various surfactants.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshiya, Jiro; Takigawa, Setsuko

    2014-11-01

    The effect of several surfactants on peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) using oligophenylenevinylene fluorophores was investigated. Among several oligophenylenevinylenes consisting of stilbene units, linearly conjugated ones, such as distyrylbenzene and distyrylstilbene, effectively enhanced PO-CL efficiency. Various effects of anionic, cationic, amphoteric and non-ionic surfactants on the CL efficiency of PO-CL were determined using three oxalates and the distyrylbenzene fluorophore. Anionic and non-ionic surfactants effectively enhanced CL efficiency, in contrast to the negative effect of cationic and amphoteric surfactants. Non-ionic surfactants were also effective in CL reactions of oxalates bearing dodecyl ester groups by the hydrophobic interaction between their alkyl chains. Considering these results, the surfactants not only increase the concentrations of water-insoluble interacting species in the hydrophobic micelle cores, but also control rapid degradation of the oxalates by alkaline hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Kidney cell electrophoresis, continuing task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    Materials and procedures for microgravity electrophoresis of living human embryonic kidney cells were evaluated to provide ground support in the form of analytical cell electrophoresis and flow cytometry. Preflight culture media, electrophoresis buffer, fraction collection media, temperature profiles, and urokinase assay procedures were tested prior to flight. Electrophoretic mobility distributions of aliquots of the cell population to be fractionated in flight were obtained. Cells were prepared in suspension prior to flight in electrophoresis buffer and 10% calf serum. Electrophoretic separation proceeded in electrophoresis buffer without serum in the Continuous Flow Electrophoretic Separator, and fractions were collected into sample bags containing culture medium and concentrated serum. Fractions that yielded enough progeny cells were analyzed for morphology and electrophoretic mobility distributions. It is noted that the lowest mobility fraction studied produced higher mobility progeny while the other fractions produced progeny cells with mobilities related to the fractions from which they were collected.

  5. Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) Fluorophore Exhibits a Highly Ratiometric Fluorescent Response to Zn2+ in vitro and in Human Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Hassan; Gong, Weitao; Guo, Huimin; Watkinson, Michael; Ma, Hua; Wajahat, Ali; Ning, Guiling

    2017-09-21

    Two novel organic fluorophores, containing bis-naphthylamide and quinoline motifs, have been designed and synthesized. One of the fluorophores contains an isobutylene unit and exhibits a significant aggregation-induced emission (AIE) and a remarkable highly selective ratiometric fluorescence response towards Zn 2+ in solution as well as in human liver cancer cells. The AIE behavior of this fluorophore was fully verified by fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy, quantum yield calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which revealed an intricate crystal packing system. Conversely, a fluorophore that lacks the isobutylene moiety did not exhibit any significant fluorescent properties as a result of its more flexible molecular structure that presumably allows free intramolecular rotational processes to occur. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Cocinero, Emilio J; Çarçabal, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Although carbohydrates represent one of the most important families of biomolecules, they remain under-studied in comparison to the other biomolecular families (peptides, nucleobases). Beyond their best-known function of energy source in living systems, they act as mediator of molecular recognition processes, carrying molecular information in the so-called "sugar code," just to name one of their countless functions. Owing to their high conformational flexibility, they encode extremely rich information conveyed via the non-covalent hydrogen bonds within the carbohydrate and with other biomolecular assemblies, such as peptide subunits of proteins. Over the last decade there has been tremendous progress in the study of the conformational preferences of neutral oligosaccharides, and of the interactions between carbohydrates and various molecular partners (water, aromatic models, and peptide models), using vibrational spectroscopy as a sensitive probe. In parallel, other spectroscopic techniques have recently become available to the study of carbohydrates in the gas phase (microwave spectroscopy, IRMPD on charged species).

  7. Electrophoresis of biological materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of biological products was studied for electrophoresis in space. Free flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and isotachophoresis are described. The candidates discussed include: immunoglobulins and gamma globulins; isolated islet of langerhans from pancreas; bone marrow; tumor cells; kidney cells, cryoprecipitate; and column separated cultures.

  8. Electrophoresis demonstration on Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Free fluid electrophoresis, a process used to separate particulate species according to surface charge, size, or shape was suggested as a promising technique to utilize the near zero gravity condition of space. Fluid electrophoresis on earth is disturbed by gravity-induced thermal convection and sedimentation. An apparatus was developed to demonstrate the principle and possible problems of electrophoresis on Apollo 14 and the separation boundary between red and blue dye was photographed in space. The basic operating elements of the Apollo 14 unit were used for a second flight demonstration on Apollo 16. Polystyrene latex particles of two different sizes were used to simulate the electrophoresis of large biological particles. The particle bands in space were extremely stable compared to ground operation because convection in the fluid was negligible. Electrophoresis of the polystyrene latex particle groups according to size was accomplished although electro-osmosis in the flight apparatus prevented the clear separation of two particle bands.

  9. Theoretical investigation of low detection sensitivity for underivatized carbohydrates in ESI and MALDI.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jien-Lian; Lee, Chuping; Lu, I-Chung; Chien, Chia-Lung; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Hu, Wei-Ping; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2016-12-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mainly generate protonated ions from peptides and proteins but sodiated (or potassiated) ions from carbohydrates. The ion intensities of sodiated (or potassiated) carbohydrates generated by ESI and MALDI are generally lower than those of protonated peptides and proteins. Ab initio calculations and transition state theory were used to investigate the reasons for the low detection sensitivity for underivatized carbohydrates. We used glucose and cellobiose as examples and showed that the low detection sensitivity is partly attributable to the following factors. First, glucose exhibits a low proton affinity. Most protons generated by ESI or MALDI attach to water clusters and matrix molecules. Second, protonated glucose and cellobiose can easily undergo dehydration reactions. Third, the sodiation affinities of glucose and cellobiose are small. Some sodiated glucose and cellobiose dissociate into the sodium cations and neutral carbohydrates during ESI or MALDI process. The increase of detection sensitivity of carbohydrates in mass spectrometry by various methods can be rationalized according to these factors. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Förster resonance energy transfer: Role of diffusion of fluorophore orientation and separation in observed shifts of FRET efficiency

    DOE PAGES

    Wallace, Bram; Atzberger, Paul J.; D’Auria, Sabato

    2017-05-19

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used single-molecule technique for measuring nanoscale distances from changes in the non-radiative transfer of energy between donor and acceptor fluorophores. For macromolecules and complexes this observed transfer efficiency is used to infer changes in molecular conformation under differing experimental conditions. But, sometimes shifts are observed in the FRET efficiency even when there is strong experimental evidence that the molecular conformational state is unchanged. Here, we investigate ways in which such discrepancies can arise from kinetic effects. We show that significant shifts can arise from the interplay between excitation kinetics, orientation diffusion ofmore » fluorophores, separation diffusion of fluorophores, and non-emitting quenching.« less

  11. Förster resonance energy transfer: Role of diffusion of fluorophore orientation and separation in observed shifts of FRET efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a widely used single-molecule technique for measuring nanoscale distances from changes in the non-radiative transfer of energy between donor and acceptor fluorophores. For macromolecules and complexes this observed transfer efficiency is used to infer changes in molecular conformation under differing experimental conditions. However, sometimes shifts are observed in the FRET efficiency even when there is strong experimental evidence that the molecular conformational state is unchanged. We investigate ways in which such discrepancies can arise from kinetic effects. We show that significant shifts can arise from the interplay between excitation kinetics, orientation diffusion of fluorophores, separation diffusion of fluorophores, and non-emitting quenching. PMID:28542211

  12. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A; Seeberger, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases-malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma , and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development.

  13. Parasite Carbohydrate Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Jaurigue, Jonnel A.; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is an efficient means of combating infectious disease burden globally. However, routine vaccines for the world's major human parasitic diseases do not yet exist. Vaccines based on carbohydrate antigens are a viable option for parasite vaccine development, given the proven success of carbohydrate vaccines to combat bacterial infections. We will review the key components of carbohydrate vaccines that have remained largely consistent since their inception, and the success of bacterial carbohydrate vaccines. We will then explore the latest developments for both traditional and non-traditional carbohydrate vaccine approaches for three of the world's major protozoan parasitic diseases—malaria, toxoplasmosis, and leishmaniasis. The traditional prophylactic carbohydrate vaccine strategy is being explored for malaria. However, given that parasite disease biology is complex and often arises from host immune responses to parasite antigens, carbohydrate vaccines against deleterious immune responses in host-parasite interactions are also being explored. In particular, the highly abundant glycosylphosphatidylinositol molecules specific for Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Leishmania spp. are considered exploitable antigens for this non-traditional vaccine approach. Discussion will revolve around the application of these protozoan carbohydrate antigens for vaccines currently in preclinical development. PMID:28660174

  14. Techniques For Focusing In Zone Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Twitty, Garland E.; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    In two techniques for focusing in zone electrophoresis, force of applied electrical field in each charged particle balanced by restoring force of electro-osmosis. Two techniques: velocity-gradient focusing (VGF), suitable for rectangular electrophoresis chambers; and field-gradient focusing (FGF), suitable for step-shaped electrophoresis chambers.

  15. Multicolor Super-Resolution Fluorescence Imaging via Multi-Parameter Fluorophore Detection

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Mark; Dempsey, Graham T; Chen, Kok Hao; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the complexity of the cellular environment will benefit from the ability to unambiguously resolve multiple cellular components, simultaneously and with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. Multicolor super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques have been developed to achieve this goal, yet challenges remain in terms of the number of targets that can be simultaneously imaged and the crosstalk between color channels. Herein, we demonstrate multicolor stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) based on a multi-parameter detection strategy, which uses both the fluorescence activation wavelength and the emission color to discriminate between photo-activatable fluorescent probes. First, we obtained two-color super-resolution images using the near-infrared cyanine dye Alexa 750 in conjunction with a red cyanine dye Alexa 647, and quantified color crosstalk levels and image registration accuracy. Combinatorial pairing of these two switchable dyes with fluorophores which enhance photo-activation enabled multi-parameter detection of six different probes. Using this approach, we obtained six-color super-resolution fluorescence images of a model sample. The combination of multiple fluorescence detection parameters for improved fluorophore discrimination promises to substantially enhance our ability to visualize multiple cellular targets with sub-diffraction-limit resolution. PMID:22213647

  16. Training of carbohydrate estimation for people with diabetes using mobile augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Domhardt, Michael; Tiefengrabner, Martin; Dinic, Radomir; Fötschl, Ulrike; Oostingh, Gertie J; Stütz, Thomas; Stechemesser, Lars; Weitgasser, Raimund; Ginzinger, Simon W

    2015-05-01

    Imprecise carbohydrate counting as a measure to guide the treatment of diabetes may be a source of errors resulting in problems in glycemic control. Exact measurements can be tedious, leading most patients to estimate their carbohydrate intake. In the presented pilot study a smartphone application (BE(AR)), that guides the estimation of the amounts of carbohydrates, was used by a group of diabetic patients. Eight adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 were recruited for the study. At the beginning of the study patients were introduced to BE(AR) in sessions lasting 45 minutes per patient. Patients redraw the real food in 3D on the smartphone screen. Based on a selected food type and the 3D form created using BE(AR) an estimation of carbohydrate content is calculated. Patients were supplied with the application on their personal smartphone or a loaner device and were instructed to use the application in real-world context during the study period. For evaluation purpose a test measuring carbohydrate estimation quality was designed and performed at the beginning and the end of the study. In 44% of the estimations performed at the end of the study the error reduced by at least 6 grams of carbohydrate. This improvement occurred albeit several problems with the usage of BE(AR) were reported. Despite user interaction problems in this group of patients the provided intervention resulted in a reduction in the absolute error of carbohydrate estimation. Intervention with smartphone applications to assist carbohydrate counting apparently results in more accurate estimations. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  18. 5-HMF and carbohydrates content in stingless bee honey by CE before and after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Biluca, Fabíola C; Della Betta, Fabiana; de Oliveira, Gabriela Pirassol; Pereira, Lais Morilla; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to assess 5-hydroximethylfurfural and carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, and sucrose) in 13 stingless bee honey samples before and after thermal treatment using a capillary electrophoresis method. The methods were validated for the parameters of linearity, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. A factorial design was implemented to determine optimal thermal treatment conditions and then verify the postprocedural 5-HMF formation, but once 5-HMF were carbohydrate levels ranged from 48.59% to 69.36%. In the same conditions of thermal treatment, Apis mellifera honey presented higher 5-HMF content than stingless bee honey. Results suggest that a high temperature related to briefer thermal treatment could be an efficient way to extend shelf life without affecting 5-HMF content in stingless bee honey. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. DNA-Templated Molecular Silver Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Petty, Jeffrey T.; Story, Sandra P.; Hsiang, Jung-Cheng; Dickson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Conductive and plasmon-supporting noble metals exhibit an especially wide range of size-dependent properties, with discrete electronic levels, strong optical absorption, and efficient radiative relaxation dominating optical behavior at the ~10-atom cluster scale. In this Perspective, we describe the formation and stabilization of silver clusters using DNA templates and highlight the distinct spectroscopic and photophysical properties of the resulting hybrid fluorophores. Strong visible to near-IR emission from DNA-encapsulated silver clusters ranging in size from 5–11 atoms has been produced and characterized. Importantly, this strong Ag cluster fluorescence can be directly modulated and selectively recovered by optically controlling the dark state residence, even when faced with an overwhelming background. The strength and sequence sensitivity of the oligonucleotide-Ag interaction suggests strategies for fine tuning and stabilizing cluster-based emitters in a host of sensing and biolabeling applications that would benefit from brighter, more photostable, and quantifiable emitters in high background environments. PMID:23745165

  20. Quantitative detection of multiple fluorophore sites as a tool for diagnosis and monitoring disease progression in salivary glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gannot, Israel; Bonner, Robert F.; Gannot, Gallya; Fox, Philip C.; You, Joon S.; Waynant, Ronald W.; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.

    1997-08-01

    A series of fluorescent surface images were obtained from physical models of localized fluorophores embedded at various depths and separations in tissue phantoms. Our random walk theory was applied to create an analytical model of multiple flurophores embedded in tissue-like phantom. Using this model, from acquired set of surface images, the location of the fluorophores was reconstructed and compared it to their known 3-D distributions. A good correlation was found, and the ability to resolve fluorophores as a function of depth and separation was determined. In parallel in in-vitro study, specific coloring of sections of minor salivary glands was also demonstrated. These results demonstrate the possibility of using inverse methods to reconstruct unknown locations and concentrations of optical probes specifically bound to infiltrating lymphocytes in minor salivary glands of patients with Sjogren's syndrome.

  1. Application of Genetic Algorithm (GA) Assisted Partial Least Square (PLS) Analysis on Trilinear and Non-trilinear Fluorescence Data Sets to Quantify the Fluorophores in Multifluorophoric Mixtures: Improving Quantification Accuracy of Fluorimetric Estimations of Dilute Aqueous Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Keshav

    2018-03-01

    Excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) and total synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (TSFS) are the 2 fluorescence techniques that are commonly used for the analysis of multifluorophoric mixtures. These 2 fluorescence techniques are conceptually different and provide certain advantages over each other. The manual analysis of such highly correlated large volume of EEMF and TSFS towards developing a calibration model is difficult. Partial least square (PLS) analysis can analyze the large volume of EEMF and TSFS data sets by finding important factors that maximize the correlation between the spectral and concentration information for each fluorophore. However, often the application of PLS analysis on entire data sets does not provide a robust calibration model and requires application of suitable pre-processing step. The present work evaluates the application of genetic algorithm (GA) analysis prior to PLS analysis on EEMF and TSFS data sets towards improving the precision and accuracy of the calibration model. The GA algorithm essentially combines the advantages provided by stochastic methods with those provided by deterministic approaches and can find the set of EEMF and TSFS variables that perfectly correlate well with the concentration of each of the fluorophores present in the multifluorophoric mixtures. The utility of the GA assisted PLS analysis is successfully validated using (i) EEMF data sets acquired for dilute aqueous mixture of four biomolecules and (ii) TSFS data sets acquired for dilute aqueous mixtures of four carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mixtures. In the present work, it is shown that by using the GA it is possible to significantly improve the accuracy and precision of the PLS calibration model developed for both EEMF and TSFS data set. Hence, GA must be considered as a useful pre-processing technique while developing an EEMF and TSFS calibration model.

  2. Carbohydrates as allergens.

    PubMed

    Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Complex carbohydrates are effective inducers of Th2 responses, and carbohydrate antigens can stimulate the production of glycan-specific antibodies. In instances where the antigen exposure occurs through the skin, the resulting antibody production can contain IgE class antibody. The glycan-stimulated IgE may be non-specific but may also be antigen specific. This review focuses on the production of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants, the recently identified IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), as well as discusses practical implications of carbohydrates in allergy. In addition, the biological effects of carbohydrate antigens are reviewed in setting of receptors and host recognition.

  3. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential regulation of thyrotropin subunit apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.; Weintraub, B.D.

    1985-04-01

    The regulation of TSH apoprotein and carbohydrate biosynthesis by thyroid hormone was studied by incubating pituitaries from normal and hypothyroid (3 weeks post-thyroidectomy) rats in medium containing (/sup 14/C)alanine and (/sup 3/H) glucosamine. After 6 h, samples were sequentially treated with anti-TSH beta to precipitate TSH and free TSH beta, anti-LH beta to clear the sample of LH and free LH beta, then anti-LH alpha to precipitate free alpha-subunit. Total proteins were acid precipitated. All precipitates were subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, which were then sliced and assayed by scintillation spectrometry. In hypothyroid pituitaries plus medium, (/supmore » 14/C)alanine incorporation in combined and free beta-subunits was 26 times normal and considerably greater than the 3.4-fold increase seen in total protein; combined and free alpha-subunits showed no specific increase in apoprotein synthesis. (/sup 3/H)Glucosamine incorporation in combined alpha- and beta-subunits in hypothyroid samples was 13 and 21 times normal, respectively, and was greater than the 1.9-fold increase in total protein; free alpha-subunit showed no specific increase in carbohydrate synthesis. The glucosamine to alanine ratio, reflecting relative glycosylation of newly synthesized molecules, was increased in hypothyroidism for combined alpha-subunits, but not for combined beta-subunits, free alpha-subunits, or total proteins. In summary, short term hypothyroidism selectively stimulated TSH beta apoprotein synthesis and carbohydrate synthesis of combined alpha- and beta-subunits. Hypothyroidism also increased the relative glycosylation of combined alpha-subunit. Thus, thyroid hormone deficiency appears to alter the rate-limiting step in TSH assembly (i.e. beta-subunit synthesis) as well as the carbohydrate structure of TSH, which may play important roles in its biological function.« less

  5. Supramolecular gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyoshi, Takanori; Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a frequent technique used to separate exceptionally large DNA fragments. In a typical continuous field electrophoresis, it is challenging to separate DNA fragments larger than 20 kbp because they migrate at a comparable rate. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop a novel matrix for the electrophoresis. Here, we describe the electrophoresis of large DNA fragments up to 166 kbp using a supramolecular gel matrix and a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. C 3 -symmetric tris-urea self-assembled into a supramolecular hydrogel in tris-boric acid-EDTA buffer, a typical buffer for DNA electrophoresis, and the supramolecular hydrogel was used as a matrix for electrophoresis to separate large DNA fragments. Three types of DNA marker, the λ-Hind III digest (2 to 23 kbp), Lambda DNA-Mono Cut Mix (10 to 49 kbp), and Marker 7 GT (10 to 165 kbp), were analyzed in this study. Large DNA fragments of greater than 100 kbp showed distinct mobility using a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. A comparative study of three different synthesis routes for hydrophilic fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahabi, Shakiba; Treccani, Laura; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of fluorophore-doped silica nanoparticles (FDS NPs) with two conventional approaches, Stöber and microemulsion, as well as a novel amino acid-catalyzed seeds regrowth technique (ACSRT) is presented. The efficiency of each applied synthesis route toward incorporation of selected hydrophilic fluorophores, including rhodamine B isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate, without and with an amine-containing crosslinker, into silica matrix was systematically studied. Our results clearly highlight the advantages of ACSRT to obtain FDS NPs with a remarkable encapsulation efficiency, high quantum yield, and enhanced stability against bleaching and dye leaking due to efficient embedding of the dyes inside silica network even without the amine-containing silane reagent. Moreover, evaluation of photostability of FDNPs internalized in human bone cells demonstrates the merits of ACSRT.

  7. Electrophoresis for biological production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    Preparative electrophoresis may provide a unique method for meeting ever more stringent purity requirements. Prolonged near zero gravity in space may permit the operation of preparative electrophoresis equipment with 100 times greater throughput than is currently available. Some experiments with influenza Virus Antigen, Erythropoietin and Antihemophaliac Factor, along with process and economic projections, are briefly reviewed.

  8. Copolymers For Capillary Gel Electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Changsheng; Li, Qingbo

    2005-08-09

    This invention relates to an electrophoresis separation medium having a gel matrix of at least one random, linear copolymer comprising a primary comonomer and at least one secondary comonomer, wherein the comonomers are randomly distributed along the copolymer chain. The primary comonomer is an acrylamide or an acrylamide derivative that provides the primary physical, chemical, and sieving properties of the gel matrix. The at least one secondary comonomer imparts an inherent physical, chemical, or sieving property to the copolymer chain. The primary and secondary comonomers are present in a ratio sufficient to induce desired properties that optimize electrophoresis performance. The invention also relates to a method of separating a mixture of biological molecules using this gel matrix, a method of preparing the novel electrophoresis separation medium, and a capillary tube filled with the electrophoresis separation medium.

  9. Carbohydrates in Supramolecular Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Delbianco, Martina; Bharate, Priya; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-02-24

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of biological processes. The ability of sugars to form a large number of hydrogen bonds has made them important components for supramolecular chemistry. We discuss recent advances in the use of carbohydrates in supramolecular chemistry and reveal that carbohydrates are useful building blocks for the stabilization of complex architectures. Systems are presented according to the scaffold that supports the glyco-conjugate: organic macrocycles, dendrimers, nanomaterials, and polymers are considered. Glyco-conjugates can form host-guest complexes, and can self-assemble by using carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions and other weak interactions such as π-π interactions. Finally, complex supramolecular architectures based on carbohydrate-protein interactions are discussed.

  10. The Cutting Edge of Affinity Electrophoresis Technology

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Eiji; Kinoshita-Kikuta, Emiko; Koike, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Affinity electrophoresis is an important technique that is widely used to separate and analyze biomolecules in the fields of biology and medicine. Both quantitative and qualitative information can be gained through affinity electrophoresis. Affinity electrophoresis can be applied through a variety of strategies, such as mobility shift electrophoresis, charge shift electrophoresis or capillary affinity electrophoresis. These strategies are based on changes in the electrophoretic patterns of biological macromolecules that result from interactions or complex-formation processes that induce changes in the size or total charge of the molecules. Nucleic acid fragments can be characterized through their affinity to other molecules, for example transcriptional factor proteins. Hydrophobic membrane proteins can be identified by means of a shift in the mobility induced by a charged detergent. The various strategies have also been used in the estimation of association/disassociation constants. Some of these strategies have similarities to affinity chromatography, in that they use a probe or ligand immobilized on a supported matrix for electrophoresis. Such methods have recently contributed to profiling of major posttranslational modifications of proteins, such as glycosylation or phosphorylation. Here, we describe advances in analytical techniques involving affinity electrophoresis that have appeared during the last five years. PMID:28248262

  11. RESOLFT nanoscopy with photoswitchable organic fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jiwoong; Hwang, Jihee; Park, Jaewan; Han, Gi Rim; Han, Kyu Young; Kim, Seong Keun

    2015-12-01

    Far-field optical nanoscopy has been widely used to image small objects with sub-diffraction-limit spatial resolution. Particularly, reversible saturable optical fluorescence transition (RESOLFT) nanoscopy with photoswitchable fluorescent proteins is a powerful method for super-resolution imaging of living cells with low light intensity. Here we demonstrate for the first time the implementation of RESOLFT nanoscopy for a biological system using organic fluorophores, which are smaller in size and easier to be chemically modified. With a covalently-linked dye pair of Cy3 and Alexa647 to label subcellular structures in fixed cells and by optimizing the imaging buffer and optical parameters, our RESOLFT nanoscopy achieved a spatial resolution of ~74 nm in the focal plane. This method provides a powerful alternative for low light intensity RESOLFT nanoscopy, which enables biological imaging with small organic probes at nanoscale resolution.

  12. Electrophoresis for genotyping: microtiter array diagonal gel electrophoresis on horizontal polyacrylamide gels, hydrolink, or agarose.

    PubMed

    Day, I N; Humphries, S E

    1994-11-01

    Electrophoresis of DNA has been performed traditionally in either an agarose or acrylamide gel matrix. Considerable effort has been directed to improved quality agaroses capable of high resolution, but for small fragments, such as those from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and post-PCR digests, acrylamide still offers the highest resolution. Although agarose gels can easily be prepared in an open-faced format to gain the conveniences of horizontal electrophoresis, acrylamide does not polymerize in the presence of air and the usual configurations for gel preparation lead to electrophoresis in the vertical dimension. We describe here a very simple device and method to prepare and manipulate horizontal polyacrylamide gels (H-PAGE). In addition, the open-faced horizontal arrangement enables loading of arrays of wells. Since many procedures are undertaken in standard 96-well microtiter plates, we have also designed a device which preserves the exact configuration of the 8 x 12 array and enables electrophoresis in tracks following a 71.6 degrees diagonal between wells (MADGE, microtiter array diagonal gel electrophoresis), using either acrylamide or agarose. This eliminates almost all of the staff time taken in setup, loading, and recordkeeping and offers high resolution for genotyping pattern recognition. The nature and size of the gels allow direct stacking of gels in one tank, so that a tank used typically to analyze 30-60 samples can readily be used to analyze 1000-2000 samples. The gels would also enable robotic loading. Electrophoresis allows analysis of size and charge, parameters inaccessible to liquid-phase methods: thus, genotyping size patterns, variable length repeats, and haplotypes is possible, as well as adaptability to typing of point variations using protocols which create a difference detectable by electrophoresis.

  13. Carbohydrate terminology and classification.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J H; Stephen, A M

    2007-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates are a group of chemically defined substances with a range of physical and physiological properties and health benefits. As with other macronutrients, the primary classification of dietary carbohydrate is based on chemistry, that is character of individual monomers, degree of polymerization (DP) and type of linkage (alpha or beta), as agreed at the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Consultation in 1997. This divides carbohydrates into three main groups, sugars (DP 1-2), oligosaccharides (short-chain carbohydrates) (DP 3-9) and polysaccharides (DP> or =10). Within this classification, a number of terms are used such as mono- and disaccharides, polyols, oligosaccharides, starch, modified starch, non-starch polysaccharides, total carbohydrate, sugars, etc. While effects of carbohydrates are ultimately related to their primary chemistry, they are modified by their physical properties. These include water solubility, hydration, gel formation, crystalline state, association with other molecules such as protein, lipid and divalent cations and aggregation into complex structures in cell walls and other specialized plant tissues. A classification based on chemistry is essential for a system of measurement, predication of properties and estimation of intakes, but does not allow a simple translation into nutritional effects since each class of carbohydrate has overlapping physiological properties and effects on health. This dichotomy has led to the use of a number of terms to describe carbohydrate in foods, for example intrinsic and extrinsic sugars, prebiotic, resistant starch, dietary fibre, available and unavailable carbohydrate, complex carbohydrate, glycaemic and whole grain. This paper reviews these terms and suggests that some are more useful than others. A clearer understanding of what is meant by any particular word used to describe carbohydrate is essential to progress in translating the growing knowledge of the

  14. Sequential ordering among multicolor fluorophores for protein labeling facility via aggregation-elimination based β-lactam probes.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Kalyan K; Mizukami, Shin; Watanabe, Shuji; Kikuchi, Kazuya

    2011-05-01

    Development of protein labeling techniques with small molecules is enthralling because this method brings promises for triumph over the limitations of fluorescent proteins in live cell imaging. This technology deals with the functionalization of proteins with small molecules and is anticipated to facilitate the expansion of various protein assay methods. A new straightforward aggregation and elimination-based technique for a protein labeling system has been developed with a versatile emissive range of fluorophores. These fluorophores have been applied to show their efficiency for protein labeling by exploiting the same basic principle. A genetically modified version of class A type β-lactamase has been used as the tag protein (BL-tag). The strength of the aggregation interaction between a fluorophore and a quencher plays a governing role in the elimination step of the quencher from the probes, which ultimately controls the swiftness of the protein labeling strategy. Modulation in the elimination process can be accomplished by the variation in the nature of the fluorophore. This diversity facilitates the study of the competitive binding order among the synthesized probes toward the BL-tag labeling method. An aggregation and elimination-based BL-tag technique has been explored to develop an order of color labeling from the equimolar mixture of the labeling probe in solutions. The qualitative and quantitative determination of ordering within the probes toward labeling studies has been executed through SDS-PAGE and time-dependent fluorescence intensity enhancement measurements, respectively. The desirable multiple-wavelength fluorescence labeling probes for the BL-tag technology have been developed and demonstrate broad applicability of this labeling technology to live cell imaging with coumarin and fluorescein derivatives by using confocal microscopy.

  15. Axial rotation of sliding actin filaments revealed by single-fluorophore imaging.

    PubMed

    Sase, I; Miyata, H; Ishiwata, S; Kinosita, K

    1997-05-27

    In the actomyosin motor, myosin slides along an actin filament that has a helical structure with a pitch of approximately 72 nm. Whether myosin precisely follows this helical track is an unanswered question bearing directly on the motor mechanism. Here, axial rotation of actin filaments sliding over myosin molecules fixed on a glass surface was visualized through fluorescence polarization imaging of individual tetramethylrhodamine fluorophores sparsely bound to the filaments. The filaments underwent one revolution per sliding distance of approximately 1 microm, which is much greater than the 72 nm pitch. Thus, myosin does not "walk" on the helical array of actin protomers; rather it "runs," skipping many protomers. Possible mechanisms involving sequential interaction of myosin with successive actin protomers are ruled out at least for the preparation described here in which the actin filaments ran rather slowly compared with other in vitro systems. The result also indicates that each "kick" of myosin is primarily along the axis of the actin filament. The successful, real-time observation of the changes in the orientation of a single fluorophore opens the possibility of detecting a conformational change(s) of a single protein molecule at the moment it functions.

  16. Selective enhancement of carbohydrate ion abundances by diamond nanoparticles for mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Lin; Wang, Chia-Chen; Lai, Yin-Hung; Lee, Hsun; Lin, Jia-Der; Lee, Yuan Tseh; Wang, Yi-Sheng

    2013-04-16

    Diamond nanoparticles (DNPs) were incorporated into matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) samples to enhance the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer to carbohydrates. The DNPs optimize the MALDI sample morphology and thermalize the samples for thermally labile compounds because they have a high thermal conductivity, a low extinction coefficient in UV-vis spectral range, and stable chemical properties. The best enhancement effect was achieved when matrix, DNP, and carbohydrate solutions were deposited and vacuum-dried consecutively to form a trilayer sample morphology. It allows the direct identification of underivatized carbohydrates mixed with equal amount of proteins because no increase in the ion abundance of proteins was achieved. For dextran with an average molecular weight of 1500, the trilayer method typically improves the sensitivity by 79- and 7-fold in comparison to the conventional dried-droplet and thin-layer methods, respectively.

  17. Carbohydrate-Aromatic Interactions in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Kieran L; Bartlett, Gail J; Diehl, Roger C; Agirre, Jon; Gallagher, Timothy; Kiessling, Laura L; Woolfson, Derek N

    2015-12-09

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions play pivotal roles in health and disease. However, defining and manipulating these interactions has been hindered by an incomplete understanding of the underlying fundamental forces. To elucidate common and discriminating features in carbohydrate recognition, we have analyzed quantitatively X-ray crystal structures of proteins with noncovalently bound carbohydrates. Within the carbohydrate-binding pockets, aliphatic hydrophobic residues are disfavored, whereas aromatic side chains are enriched. The greatest preference is for tryptophan with an increased prevalence of 9-fold. Variations in the spatial orientation of amino acids around different monosaccharides indicate specific carbohydrate C-H bonds interact preferentially with aromatic residues. These preferences are consistent with the electronic properties of both the carbohydrate C-H bonds and the aromatic residues. Those carbohydrates that present patches of electropositive saccharide C-H bonds engage more often in CH-π interactions involving electron-rich aromatic partners. These electronic effects are also manifested when carbohydrate-aromatic interactions are monitored in solution: NMR analysis indicates that indole favorably binds to electron-poor C-H bonds of model carbohydrates, and a clear linear free energy relationships with substituted indoles supports the importance of complementary electronic effects in driving protein-carbohydrate interactions. Together, our data indicate that electrostatic and electronic complementarity between carbohydrates and aromatic residues play key roles in driving protein-carbohydrate complexation. Moreover, these weak noncovalent interactions influence which saccharide residues bind to proteins, and how they are positioned within carbohydrate-binding sites.

  18. DNA gel electrophoresis: the reptation model(s).

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary W

    2009-06-01

    DNA gel electrophoresis has been the most important experimental tool to separate DNA fragments for several decades. The introduction of PFGE in the 1980s and capillary gel electrophoresis in the 1990s made it possible to study, map and sequence entire genomes. Explaining how very large DNA molecules move in a gel and why PFGE is needed to separate them has been an active field of research ever since the launch of the journal Electrophoresis. This article presents a personal and historical overview of the development of the theory of gel electrophoresis, focusing on the reptation model, the band broadening mechanisms, and finally the factors that limit the read length and the resolution of electrophoresis-based sequencing systems. I conclude with a short discussion of some of the questions that remain unanswered.

  19. Surface Charge Measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison: A Comparison of Laser Doppler Electrophoresis and Micro-Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ja'afar, Fairuzeta; Leow, Chee Hau; Garbin, Valeria; Sennoga, Charles A; Tang, Meng-Xing; Seddon, John M

    2015-11-01

    Microbubble (MB) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a promising tool for targeted molecular imaging. It is important to determine the MB surface charge accurately as it affects the MB interactions with cell membranes. In this article, we report the surface charge measurement of SonoVue, Definity and Optison. We compare the performance of the widely used laser Doppler electrophoresis with an in-house micro-electrophoresis system. By optically tracking MB electrophoretic velocity in a microchannel, we determined the zeta potentials of MB samples. Using micro-electrophoresis, we obtained zeta potential values for SonoVue, Definity and Optison of -28.3, -4.2 and -9.5 mV, with relative standard deviations of 5%, 48% and 8%, respectively. In comparison, laser Doppler electrophoresis gave -8.7, +0.7 and +15.8 mV with relative standard deviations of 330%, 29,000% and 130%, respectively. We found that the reliability of laser Doppler electrophoresis is compromised by MB buoyancy. Micro-electrophoresis determined zeta potential values with a 10-fold improvement in relative standard deviation. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Preclinical Evaluation of Robotic-Assisted Sentinel Lymph Node Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Qin, Zhengtao; Hickey, Sean A.; Hall, David J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal substance to provide convenient and accurate targeting for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping during robotic-assisted surgery has yet to be found. We used an animal model to determine the ability of the FireFly camera system to detect fluorescent SLNs after administration of a dual-labeled molecular imaging agent. Methods We injected the footpads of New Zealand White rabbits with 1.7 or 8.4 nmol of tilmanocept labeled with 99mTc and a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW. One and 36 h after injection, popliteal lymph nodes, representing the SLNs, were dissected with the assistance of the FireFly camera system, a fluorescence-capable endoscopic imaging system. After excision of the paraaortic lymph nodes, which represented non-SLNs, we assayed all lymph nodes for radioactivity and fluorescence intensity. Results Fluorescence within all popliteal lymph nodes was easily detected by the FireFly camera system. Fluorescence within the lymph channel could be imaged during the 1-h studies. When compared with the paraaortic lymph nodes, the popliteal lymph nodes retain greater than 95% of the radioactivity at both 1 and 36 h after injection. At both doses (1.7 and 8.4 nmol), the popliteal nodes had higher (P < 0.050) optical fluorescence intensity than the paraaortic nodes at the 1- and 36-h time points. Conclusion The FireFly camera system can easily detect tilmanocept labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore at least 36 h after administration. This ability will permit image acquisition and subsequent verification of fluorescence-labeled SLNs during robotic-assisted surgery. PMID:25024425

  1. 77 FR 9678 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Photosensitizing Antibody-Fluorophore Conjugates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ...), anti-HER2 (Trastuzumab, for breast cancer) and anti-PSMA antibody (huJ591, for prostate cancer...-fluorophore conjugate for imaging and photo-immunotherapy of cancer'' and may be further limited to certain types of cancer and/or specific platforms. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive...

  2. Dietary intakes, attitudes toward carbohydrates of postmenopausal women following low carbohydrate diets.

    PubMed

    Winham, Donna M; Collins, Courtney B; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2009-01-01

    Middle-aged women have the highest levels of obesity and comprise the largest group of dieters. Few investigators have examined how women apply weight-loss diet principles in an unsupervised setting. Dietary intakes and attitudes toward carbohydrates were examined in women who were self-reported low carbohydrate dieters (SRLCDs); these intakes and attitudes were compared with those of women who were following their normal diet (non-dieters [NDs]). A convenience sample of 29 postmenopausal women aged 45 to 65 was recruited. Data were obtained by interview, questionnaire, and direct anthropometric measurement. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Although total energy and protein intakes were similar, SRLCDs consumed significantly more fat and less carbohydrate (expressed as a percentage of total energy) and more cholesterol and less fibre than did NDs. Both groups had unfavourable attitudes toward carbohydrates. The SRLCDs ate more fat than recommended. Women who are considering following a low carbohydrate diet need to know the nutritional risks of unbalanced self-designed low carbohydrate diets. Negative attitudes toward carbohydrates were not confined to dieters. Nutrition education is necessary to help consumers understand basic nutrition principles and to be more skeptical of fad diets.

  3. Digestion and Absorption of Carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbohydrates are the major dietary sources of energy for humans. While most dietary carbohydrates are derived from multiple botanical sources, lactose and trehalose are the only animal-derived carbohydrates. Digestion of starch, the carbohydrate most abundantly consumed by humans, depends on the c...

  4. Bioprocessing: Prospects for space electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    The basic principles of electrophoresis are reviewed in light of its past contributions to biology and medicine. The near-zero gravity environment of orbiting spacecraft may present some unique advantages for a variety of processes, by abolishing the major source of convection in fluids. As the ground-based development of electrophoresis was heavily influenced by the need to circumvent the effects of gravity, this process should be a prime candidate for space operation. Nevertheless, while a space facility for electrophoresis may overcome the limitations imposed by gravity, it will not necessarily overcome all problems inherent in electrophoresis. These are, mainly, electroosmosis and the dissipation of the heat generated by the electric field. The NASA program has already led to excellent coatings to prevent electroosmosis, while the need for heat dissipation will continue to impose limits on the actual size of equipment. It is also not excluded that, once the dominant force of gravity is eliminated, disturbances in fluid stability may originate from weaker forces, such as surface tension.

  5. Glycemic index and glycemic load of carbohydrates in the diabetes diet.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kate; Barclay, Alan; Colagiuri, Stephen; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-04-01

    Medical nutrition therapy is the first line of treatment for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes and plays an essential part in the management of type 1 diabetes. Although traditionally advice was focused on carbohydrate quantification, it is now clear that both the amount and type of carbohydrate are important in predicting an individual's glycemic response to a meal. Diets based on carbohydrate foods that are more slowly digested, absorbed, and metabolized (i.e., low glycemic index [GI] diets) have been associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, whereas intervention studies have shown improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycated hemoglobin concentrations in people with diabetes following a low GI diet. Research also suggests that low GI diets may assist with weight management through effects on satiety and fuel partitioning. These findings, together with the fact that there are no demonstrated negative effects of a low GI diet, suggest that the GI should be an important consideration in the dietary management and prevention of diabetes.

  6. Ratiometric fluorescent sensing of pH values in living cells by dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jin; Ying, Le; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Quan, Ke; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Zhou, Qifeng; Wang, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    We designed a new ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe for sensing pH values in living cells. Briefly, the nanoprobe consists of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP), short single-stranded oligonucleotides, and dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif sequences. The short oligonucleotides are designed to bind with the i-motif sequences and immobilized on the AuNP surface via Au-S bond. At neutral pH, the dual fluorophores are separated, resulting in very low fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. At acidic pH, the i-motif strands fold into a quadruplex structure and leave the AuNP, bringing the dual fluorophores into close proximity, resulting in high FRET efficiency, which could be used as a signal for pH sensing. The nanoprobe possesses abilities of cellular transfection, enzymatic protection, fast response and quantitative pH detection. The in vitro and intracellular applications of the nanoprobe were demonstrated, which showed excellent response in the physiological pH range. Furthermore, our experimental results suggested that the nanoprobe showed excellent spatial and temporal resolution in living cells. We think that the ratiometric sensing strategy could potentially be applied to create a variety of new multicolor sensors for intracellular detection.

  7. Internalization and Subcellular Trafficking of Poly-l-lysine Dendrimers Are Impacted by the Site of Fluorophore Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Avaritt, Brittany R; Swaan, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Internalization and intracellular trafficking of dendrimer-drug conjugates play an important role in achieving successful drug delivery. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the endocytosis mechanisms and subcellular localization of poly-l-lysine (PLL) dendrimers in Caco-2 cells. We also investigated the impact of fluorophore conjugation on cytotoxicity, uptake, and transepithelial transport. Oregon green 514 (OG) was conjugated to PLL G3 at either the dendrimer periphery or the core. Chemical inhibitors of clathrin-, caveolin-, cholesterol-, and dynamin-mediated endocytosis pathways and macropinocytosis were employed to establish internalization mechanisms, while colocalization with subcellular markers was used to determine dendrimer trafficking. Cell viability, internalization, and uptake were all influenced by the site of fluorophore conjugation. Uptake was found to be highly dependent on cholesterol- and dynamin-mediated endocytosis as well as macropinocytosis. Dendrimers were trafficked to endosomes and lysosomes, and subcellular localization was impacted by the fluorophore conjugation site. The results of this study indicate that PLL dendrimers exploit multiple pathways for cellular entry, and internalization and trafficking can be impacted by conjugation. Therefore, design of dendrimer-drug conjugates requires careful consideration to achieve successful drug delivery.

  8. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects.

    PubMed

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J

    2010-08-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate-protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery.

  9. Carbohydrate Loading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csernus, Marilyn

    Carbohydrate loading is a frequently used technique to improve performance by altering an athlete's diet. The objective is to increase glycogen stored in muscles for use in prolonged strenuous exercise. For two to three days, the athlete consumes a diet that is low in carbohydrates and high in fat and protein while continuing to exercise and…

  10. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  11. Fluorophore-conjugated antibodies for imaging and resection of GI tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouvet, Michael; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-03-01

    Negative surgical margins are critical to prevent recurrence in cancer surgery. This is because with current technology in many cases negative margins are impossible due the inability of the surgeon to detect the margin. Our laboratory has developed fluorophore-labeled monoclonal antibodies to aid in cancer visualization in orthotopic nude mouse models of human gastrointestinal (GI) cancer in order to achieve negative margins in fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS). The technologies described herein have the potential to change the paradigm of surgical oncology to engender significantly improved outcomes.

  12. Aromatically C6- and C9-Substituted Phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole Blue Fluorophores: Structure-Property Relationship and Electroluminescent Application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Yuan, Yi; Xiong, Yuan; Rogach, Andrey L; Tong, Qing-Xiao; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2017-08-09

    In this study, a series of aromatically substituted phenanthro[9,10-d]imidazole (PI) fluorophores at C6 and C9 (no. 6 and 9 carbon atoms) have been synthesized and systematically characterized by theoretical, thermal, photophysical, electrochemical, and electroluminescent (EL) studies. C6 and C9 modifications have positive influences on the thermal properties of the new materials. Theoretical calculations suggest that the C6 and the C9 positions of PI are electronically different. Theoretical and experimental evidences of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) between two identical moieties attaching to the C6 and the C9 positions are observed. Photophysical properties of the fluorophores are greatly influenced by size and conjugation extent of the substituents as well as linking steric hindrance. It is found that the C6 and C9 positions afford moderate conjugated extension compared to the C2 modification. Moreover, ICT characteristics of the new fluorophores increase as the size of the substituted aromatic group, and are partially influenced by steric hindrance, with the anthracene and the pyrene derivatives having the strongest ICT excited properties. EL performances of the fluorophores were evaluated as host emitters or dopants in organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Most of the devices showed significantly improved efficiencies compared to the OLED using the nonmodified emitter. Among all the devices, a 5 wt % TPI-Py doped device exhibited excellent performances with an external quantum efficiency >5% at 1000 cd/m 2 and a deep-blue color index of (0.155, 0.065), which are comparable to the most advanced deep-blue devices. Our study can give useful information for designing C6/C9-modificated PI fluorophores and provide an efficient approach for constructing high-performance deep-blue OLEDs.

  13. Analysis of Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Interactions Using Sugar-Functionalized Silicon Nanoparticles for Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chian-Hui; Hütter, Julia; Hsu, Chien-Wei; Tanaka, Hidenori; Varela-Aramburu, Silvia; De Cola, Luisa; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-01-13

    Protein-carbohydrate binding depends on multivalent ligand display that is even more important for low affinity carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions. Detection and analysis of these low affinity multivalent binding events are technically challenging. We describe the synthesis of dual-fluorescent sugar-capped silicon nanoparticles that proved to be an attractive tool for the analysis of low affinity interactions. These ultrasmall NPs with sizes of around 4 nm can be used for NMR quantification of coupled sugars. The silicon nanoparticles are employed to measure the interaction between the cancer-associated glycosphingolipids GM3 and Gg3 and the associated kD value by surface plasmon resonance experiments. Cell binding studies, to investigate the biological relevance of these carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, also benefit from these fluorescent sugar-capped nanoparticles.

  14. Learning about Carbohydrates

    MedlinePlus

    ... added sugar and doesn't contain important nutrients. Complex carbohydrates: These are also called starches. Starches include grain ... pasta, and rice. As with simple sugars, some complex carbohydrate foods are better choices than others. Refined (say: ...

  15. Carbohydrates and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Teens / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... Los carbohidratos y la diabetes Carbs and Blood Sugar Keeping your blood sugar levels on track means ...

  16. In situ analysis of plant tissue underivatized carbohydrates and on-probe enzymatic degraded starch by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry by using carbon nanotubes as matrix.

    PubMed

    Gholipour, Yousef; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa

    2008-12-15

    Underivatized carbohydrates of tulip bulb and leaf tissues were characterized in situ by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) by using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as matrix. Two sample preparation methods--(i) depositing CNTs on the fresh tissue slices placed on the probe and (ii) locating semitransparent tissues on a dried layer of CNTs on the probe--were examined. Furthermore, practicability of in situ starch analysis by MALDI-TOF MS was examined by detection of glucose originated from on-probe amyloglucosidase-catalyzed degradation of starch on the tissue surface. Besides, CNTs could efficiently desorb/ionize natural mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides extracted from tulip bulb tissues as well as glucose resulting from starch enzymatic degradation in vitro. These results were compared with those obtained by in situ MALDI-TOF MS analysis of similar tissues. Positive ion mode showed superior signal reproducibility. CNTs deposited under semitransparent tissue could also desorb/ionize neutral carbohydrates, leading to nearly complete elimination of matrix cluster signals but with an increase in tissue-originated signals. Furthermore, several experiments were carried out to compare the efficiency of 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, nor-harmane, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, and CNTs as matrices for MALDI of neutral carbohydrates from the intact plant tissue surface and for enzymatic tissue starch degradation; these results are discussed in brief. Among matrices studied, the lowest laser power was needed to acquire carbohydrate signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and resolution when CNTs were used.

  17. A Triple-Fluorophore-Labeled Nucleic Acid pH Nanosensor to Investigate Non-viral Gene Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David R; Routkevitch, Denis; Rui, Yuan; Mosenia, Arman; Wahlin, Karl J; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Zack, Donald J; Green, Jordan J

    2017-07-05

    There is a need for new tools to better quantify intracellular delivery barriers in high-throughput and high-content ways. Here, we synthesized a triple-fluorophore-labeled nucleic acid pH nanosensor for measuring intracellular pH of exogenous DNA at specific time points in a high-throughput manner by flow cytometry following non-viral transfection. By including two pH-sensitive fluorophores and one pH-insensitive fluorophore in the nanosensor, detection of pH was possible over the full physiological range. We further assessed possible correlation between intracellular pH of delivered DNA, cellular uptake of DNA, and DNA reporter gene expression at 24 hr post-transfection for poly-L-lysine and branched polyethylenimine polyplex nanoparticles. While successful transfection was shown to clearly depend on median cellular pH of delivered DNA at the cell population level, surprisingly, on an individual cell basis, there was no significant correlation between intracellular pH and transfection efficacy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported instance of high-throughput single-cell analysis between cellular uptake of DNA, intracellular pH of delivered DNA, and gene expression of the delivered DNA. Using the nanosensor, we demonstrate that the ability of polymeric nanoparticles to avoid an acidic environment is necessary, but not sufficient, for successful transfection. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Dietary Carbohydrate and Protein Levels on Carbohydrate Metabolism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasker, Denise Ann

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this dissertation was to investigate the impact of changing dietary carbohydrate (CARB) intakes within recommended dietary guidelines on metabolic outcomes specifically associated with glycemic regulations and carbohydrate metabolism. This research utilized both human and animal studies to examine changes in metabolism across a wide…

  19. Alkynyl-naphthalimide Fluorophores: Gold Coordination Chemistry and Cellular Imaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Langdon-Jones, Emily E; Lloyd, David; Hayes, Anthony J; Wainwright, Shane D; Mottram, Huw J; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Pope, Simon J A

    2015-07-06

    A range of fluorescent alkynyl-naphthalimide fluorophores has been synthesized and their photophysical properties examined. The fluorescent ligands are based upon a 4-substituted 1,8-naphthalimide core and incorporate structural variations (at the 4-position) to tune the amphiphilic character: chloro (L1), 4-[2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethanol] (L2), 4-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethylamino] (L3), piperidine (L4), morpholine (L5), 4-methylpiperidine (L6), and 4-piperidone ethylene ketal (L7) variants. The amino-substituted species (L2-L7) are fluorescent in the visible region at around 517-535 nm through a naphthalimide-localized intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), with appreciable Stokes' shifts of ca. 6500 cm(-1) and lifetimes up to 10.4 ns. Corresponding two-coordinate Au(I) complexes [Au(L)(PPh3)] were isolated, with X-ray structural studies revealing the expected coordination mode via the alkyne donor. The Au(I) complexes retain the visible fluorescence associated with the coordinated alkynyl-naphthalimide ligand. The ligands and complexes were investigated for their cytotoxicity across a range of cell lines (LOVO, MCF-7, A549, PC3, HEK) and their potential as cell imaging agents for HEK (human embryonic kidney) cells and Spironucleus vortens using confocal fluorescence microscopy. The images reveal that these fluorophores are highly compatible with fluorescence microscopy and show some clear intracellular localization patterns that are dependent upon the specific nature of the naphthalimide substituent.

  20. Sequential Superresolution Imaging of Multiple Targets Using a Single Fluorophore

    PubMed Central

    Lidke, Diane S.; Lidke, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence superresolution (SR) microscopy, or fluorescence nanoscopy, provides nanometer scale detail of cellular structures and allows for imaging of biological processes at the molecular level. Specific SR imaging methods, such as localization-based imaging, rely on stochastic transitions between on (fluorescent) and off (dark) states of fluorophores. Imaging multiple cellular structures using multi-color imaging is complicated and limited by the differing properties of various organic dyes including their fluorescent state duty cycle, photons per switching event, number of fluorescent cycles before irreversible photobleaching, and overall sensitivity to buffer conditions. In addition, multiple color imaging requires consideration of multiple optical paths or chromatic aberration that can lead to differential aberrations that are important at the nanometer scale. Here, we report a method for sequential labeling and imaging that allows for SR imaging of multiple targets using a single fluorophore with negligible cross-talk between images. Using brightfield image correlation to register and overlay multiple image acquisitions with ~10 nm overlay precision in the x-y imaging plane, we have exploited the optimal properties of AlexaFluor647 for dSTORM to image four distinct cellular proteins. We also visualize the changes in co-localization of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and clathrin upon EGF addition that are consistent with clathrin-mediated endocytosis. These results are the first to demonstrate sequential SR (s-SR) imaging using direct stochastic reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and this method for sequential imaging can be applied to any superresolution technique. PMID:25860558

  1. A high quantum yield molecule-protein complex fluorophore for near-infrared II imaging

    PubMed Central

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Diao, Shuo; Ma, Zhuoran; Zhang, Zhe; Zhu, Shoujun; Wang, Joy; Lozano, Alexander X.; Fan, Quli; Chew, Leila; Zhu, Mark; Cheng, Kai; Hong, Xuechuan; Dai, Hongjie; Cheng, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) allows visualization of deep anatomical features with an unprecedented degree of clarity. NIR-II fluorophores draw from a broad spectrum of materials spanning semiconducting nanomaterials to organic molecular dyes, yet unfortunately all water-soluble organic molecules with >1,000 nm emission suffer from low quantum yields that have limited temporal resolution and penetration depth. Here, we report tailoring the supramolecular assemblies of protein complexes with a sulfonated NIR-II organic dye (CH-4T) to produce a brilliant 110-fold increase in fluorescence, resulting in the highest quantum yield molecular fluorophore thus far. The bright molecular complex allowed for the fastest video-rate imaging in the second NIR window with ∼50-fold reduced exposure times at a fast 50 frames-per-second (FPS) capable of resolving mouse cardiac cycles. In addition, we demonstrate that the NIR-II molecular complexes are superior to clinically approved ICG for lymph node imaging deep within the mouse body. PMID:28524850

  2. A high quantum yield molecule-protein complex fluorophore for near-infrared II imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Diao, Shuo

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) allows visualization of deep anatomical features with an unprecedented degree of clarity. NIR-II fluorophores draw from a broad spectrum of materials spanning semiconducting nanomaterials to organic molecular dyes, yet unfortunately all water-soluble organic molecules with 41,000 nm emission suffer from low quantum yields that have limited temporal resolution and penetration depth. We report tailoring the supramolecular assemblies of protein complexes with a sulfonated NIR-II organic dye (CH-4T) to produce a brilliant 110-fold increase in fluorescence, resulting in the highest quantum yield molecular fluorophore thus far. The bright molecular complex allowed for themore » fastest video-rate imaging in the second NIR window with B50-fold reduced exposure times at a fast 50 frames-per-second (FPS) capable of resolving mouse cardiac cycles. Additionally, we demonstrate that the NIR-II molecular complexes are superior to clinically approved ICG for lymph node imaging deep within the mouse body.« less

  3. A high quantum yield molecule-protein complex fluorophore for near-infrared II imaging

    DOE PAGES

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Diao, Shuo; ...

    2017-05-19

    Fluorescence imaging in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) allows visualization of deep anatomical features with an unprecedented degree of clarity. NIR-II fluorophores draw from a broad spectrum of materials spanning semiconducting nanomaterials to organic molecular dyes, yet unfortunately all water-soluble organic molecules with 41,000 nm emission suffer from low quantum yields that have limited temporal resolution and penetration depth. We report tailoring the supramolecular assemblies of protein complexes with a sulfonated NIR-II organic dye (CH-4T) to produce a brilliant 110-fold increase in fluorescence, resulting in the highest quantum yield molecular fluorophore thus far. The bright molecular complex allowed for themore » fastest video-rate imaging in the second NIR window with B50-fold reduced exposure times at a fast 50 frames-per-second (FPS) capable of resolving mouse cardiac cycles. Additionally, we demonstrate that the NIR-II molecular complexes are superior to clinically approved ICG for lymph node imaging deep within the mouse body.« less

  4. Development of a fast capillary electrophoresis method for determination of carbohydrates in honey samples.

    PubMed

    Rizelio, Viviane Maria; Tenfen, Laura; da Silveira, Roberta; Gonzaga, Luciano Valdemiro; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Fett, Roseane

    2012-05-15

    In this study, the determination of fructose, glucose and sucrose by capillary electrophoresis (CE) was investigated. The tendency of the analyte to undergo electromigration dispersion and the buffer capacity were evaluated using the Peakmaster(®) software and considered in the optimization of the background electrolyte, which was composed of 20 mmol L(-1) sorbic acid, 0.2 mmol L(-1) CTAB and 40 mmol L(-1) NaOH at pH 12.2. Under optimal CE conditions, the separation of the substances investigated was achieved in less than 2 min. The detection limits for the three analytes were in the range of 0.022 and 0.029 g L(-1) and precision measurements within 0.62-4.69% were achieved. The proposed methodology was applied in the quantitative analysis by direct injection of in honey samples to determine the main sugars presents. The samples were previously dissolved in deionized water and filtered with no other sample treatment. The mean values for fructose, glucose and sucrose were in the ranges of 33.65-45.46 g 100g(-1), 24.63-35.06 g 100g(-1) and <0.22-1.32 g 100g(-1), respectively. The good analytical performance of the method makes it suitable for implementation in food laboratories for the routine analysis of honey samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The combination of gas-phase fluorophore technology and automation to enable high-throughput analysis of plant respiration.

    PubMed

    Scafaro, Andrew P; Negrini, A Clarissa A; O'Leary, Brendan; Rashid, F Azzahra Ahmad; Hayes, Lucy; Fan, Yuzhen; Zhang, You; Chochois, Vincent; Badger, Murray R; Millar, A Harvey; Atkin, Owen K

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration in the dark ( R dark ) is a critical plant physiological process, and hence a reliable, efficient and high-throughput method of measuring variation in rates of R dark is essential for agronomic and ecological studies. However, currently methods used to measure R dark in plant tissues are typically low throughput. We assessed a high-throughput automated fluorophore system of detecting multiple O 2 consumption rates. The fluorophore technique was compared with O 2 -electrodes, infrared gas analysers (IRGA), and membrane inlet mass spectrometry, to determine accuracy and speed of detecting respiratory fluxes. The high-throughput fluorophore system provided stable measurements of R dark in detached leaf and root tissues over many hours. High-throughput potential was evident in that the fluorophore system was 10 to 26-fold faster per sample measurement than other conventional methods. The versatility of the technique was evident in its enabling: (1) rapid screening of R dark in 138 genotypes of wheat; and, (2) quantification of rarely-assessed whole-plant R dark through dissection and simultaneous measurements of above- and below-ground organs. Variation in absolute R dark was observed between techniques, likely due to variation in sample conditions (i.e. liquid vs. gas-phase, open vs. closed systems), indicating that comparisons between studies using different measuring apparatus may not be feasible. However, the high-throughput protocol we present provided similar values of R dark to the most commonly used IRGA instrument currently employed by plant scientists. Together with the greater than tenfold increase in sample processing speed, we conclude that the high-throughput protocol enables reliable, stable and reproducible measurements of R dark on multiple samples simultaneously, irrespective of plant or tissue type.

  6. Characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents.

    PubMed

    Li, Wentao; Xu, Zixiao; Wu, Qian; Li, Yan; Shuang, Chendong; Li, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on the characterization of fluorescent-dissolved organic matter and identification of specific fluorophores in textile effluents. Samples from different textile wastewater treatment plants were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography and size exclusion chromatography as well as fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra. Despite the highly heterogeneous textile effluents, the fluorescent components and their physicochemical properties were found relatively invariable, which is beneficial for the combination of biological and physicochemical treatment processes. The humic-like substance with triple-excitation peaks (excitation (Ex) 250, 310, 365/emission (Em) 460 nm) presented as the specific fluorescence indicator in textile effluents. It was also the major contributor to UV absorbance at 254 nm and resulted in the brown color of biologically treated textile effluents. By spectral comparison, the specific fluorophore in textile effluents could be attributed to the intermediate structure of azo dyes 1-amino-2-naphthol, which was transferred into the special humic-like substances during biological treatment.

  7. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    PubMed

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  8. Simulating Electrophoresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moertel, Cheryl; Frutiger, Bruce

    1996-01-01

    Describes a DNA fingerprinting simulation that uses vegetable food coloring and plastic food containers instead of DNA and expensive gel electrophoresis chambers. Allows students to decipher unknown combinations of dyes in a method similar to that used to decipher samples of DNA in DNA fingerprint techniques. (JRH)

  9. Preclinical evaluation of robotic-assisted sentinel lymph node fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Qin, Zhengtao; Hickey, Sean A; Hall, David J; Kane, Christopher J; Vera, David R

    2014-09-01

    An ideal substance to provide convenient and accurate targeting for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping during robotic-assisted surgery has yet to be found. We used an animal model to determine the ability of the FireFly camera system to detect fluorescent SLNs after administration of a dual-labeled molecular imaging agent. We injected the footpads of New Zealand White rabbits with 1.7 or 8.4 nmol of tilmanocept labeled with (99m)Tc and a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW. One and 36 h after injection, popliteal lymph nodes, representing the SLNs, were dissected with the assistance of the FireFly camera system, a fluorescence-capable endoscopic imaging system. After excision of the paraaortic lymph nodes, which represented non-SLNs, we assayed all lymph nodes for radioactivity and fluorescence intensity. Fluorescence within all popliteal lymph nodes was easily detected by the FireFly camera system. Fluorescence within the lymph channel could be imaged during the 1-h studies. When compared with the paraaortic lymph nodes, the popliteal lymph nodes retain greater than 95% of the radioactivity at both 1 and 36 h after injection. At both doses (1.7 and 8.4 nmol), the popliteal nodes had higher (P < 0.050) optical fluorescence intensity than the paraaortic nodes at the 1- and 36-h time points. The FireFly camera system can easily detect tilmanocept labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore at least 36 h after administration. This ability will permit image acquisition and subsequent verification of fluorescence-labeled SLNs during robotic-assisted surgery. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Mathematical models of continuous flow electrophoresis: Electrophoresis technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, Dudley A.

    1986-01-01

    Two aspects of continuous flow electrophoresis were studied: (1) the structure of the flow field in continuous flow devices; and (2) the electrokinetic properties of suspended particles relevant to electrophoretic separations. Mathematical models were developed to describe flow structure and stability, with particular emphasis on effects due to buoyancy. To describe the fractionation of an arbitrary particulate sample by continuous flow electrophoresis, a general mathematical model was constructed. In this model, chamber dimensions, field strength, buffer composition, and other design variables can be altered at will to study their effects on resolution and throughput. All these mathematical models were implemented on a digital computer and the codes are available for general use. Experimental and theoretical work with particulate samples probed how particle mobility is related to buffer composition. It was found that ions on the surface of small particles are mobile, contrary to the widely accepted view. This influences particle mobility and suspension conductivity. A novel technique was used to measure the mobility of particles in concentrated suspensions.

  11. The carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML): an XML description of carbohydrate structures.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Kameyama, Akihiko; Nakaya, Shuuichi; Ito, Hiromi; Sato, Takashi; Shikanai, Toshihide; Takahashi, Yoriko; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2005-04-15

    Bioinformatics resources for glycomics are very poor as compared with those for genomics and proteomics. The complexity of carbohydrate sequences makes it difficult to define a common language to represent them, and the development of bioinformatics tools for glycomics has not progressed. In this study, we developed a carbohydrate sequence markup language (CabosML), an XML description of carbohydrate structures. The language definition (XML Schema) and an experimental database of carbohydrate structures using an XML database management system are available at http://www.phoenix.hydra.mki.co.jp/CabosDemo.html kikuchi@hydra.mki.co.jp.

  12. Compensating for Electro-Osmosis in Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    Simple mechanical adjustment eliminates transverse velocity component. New apparatus for moving-wall electrophoresis increases degree of collimation of chemical species in sample stream. Electrophoresis chamber set at slight angle in horizontal plane to adjust angle between solution flow and wall motion. Component of velocity created cancels electro-osmotic effect.

  13. Synthesis of carbohydrate-based surfactants

    DOEpatents

    Pemberton, Jeanne E.; Polt, Robin L.; Maier, Raina M.

    2016-11-22

    The present invention provides carbohydrate-based surfactants and methods for producing the same. Methods for producing carbohydrate-based surfactants include using a glycosylation promoter to link a carbohydrate or its derivative to a hydrophobic compound.

  14. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyancy-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chambers are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrohydrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field have not been considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  15. Preparative electrophoresis for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    A premise of continuous flow electrophoresis is that removal of buoyance-induced thermal convection caused by axial and lateral temperature gradients results in ideal performance of these instruments in space. Although these gravity dependent phenomena disturb the rectilinear flow in the separation chamber when high voltage gradients or thick chamber are used, distortion of the injected sample stream due to electrodynamic effects cause major broadening of the separated bands. The electrophoresis separation process is simple, however flow local to the sample filament produced by the applied electric field were not considered. These electrohydrodynamic flows distort the sample stream and limit the separation. Also, electroosmosis and viscous flow combine to further distort the process. A moving wall concept is being proposed for space which will eliminate and control the disturbances. The moving wall entrains the fluid to move as a rigid body and produces a constant residence time for all samples distributed across the chamber thickness. The moving wall electrophoresis chamber can only be operated in space because there is no viscous flow in the chamber to stabilize against thermal convection.

  16. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  17. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1998-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  18. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, A.N.; Benson, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a cationic chain. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye. 10 figs.

  19. Rating of CCl(4)-induced rat liver fibrosis by blood serum glycomics.

    PubMed

    Desmyter, Liesbeth; Fan, Ye-Dong; Praet, Marleen; Jaworski, Tomasz; Vervecken, Wouter; De Hemptinne, Bernard; Contreras, Roland; Chen, Cuiying

    2007-07-01

    Non-invasive staging of human liver fibrosis is a desirable objective that remains under extensive evaluation. Animal model systems are often used for studying human liver disease and screening antifibrotic compounds. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential use of serum N-glycan profiles to evaluate liver fibrosis in a rat model. Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis were induced in rats by oral administration of CCl(4). Liver injury was assessed biochemically (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] activity, aspartate aminotransferase [AST] activity and total bilirubin) and histologically. The N-glycan profile (GlycoTest) was performed using DNA sequencer-assisted-fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis technology. In parallel, the effect of cotreatment with antifibrotic interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was studied. The biopsy scoring system showed that CCl(4) induced early fibrosis (F < 1-2) in rats after 3 weeks of treatment, and cirrhosis (F4) after 12 weeks. Significant increases in ALT activity, AST activity and total bilirubin levels were detected only after 12 weeks of CCl(4) treatment. GlycoTest showed three glycans were significantly altered in the CCl(4)-goup. Peak 3 started at week 6, at an early stage in fibrosis development (F < 1-2), whereas peaks 4 and 5 occurred at week 9, at which time mild liver fibrosis (F = 1-2) had developed. The changes in the CCl(4)-IFN-gamma group were intermediate between the CCl(4)- and the control groups. The GlycoTest is much more sensitive than biochemical tests for evaluating liver fibrosis/cirrhosis in the rat model. The test can also be used as a non-invasive marker for screening and monitoring the antifibrotic activity of potential therapeutic compounds.

  20. Method development for the determination of coumarin compounds by capillary electrophoresis with indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiping; Tang, Jianghong; Wang, Shumin; Zhou, Lei; Hu, Zhide

    2007-04-27

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect laser-induced fluorescence detection (ILIFD) method is described for the simultaneous determination of esculin, esculetin, isofraxidin, genistein, naringin and sophoricoside. The baseline separation was achieved within 5 min with running buffer (pH 9.4) composed of 5mM borate, 20% methanol (v/v) as organic modifier, 10(-7)M fluorescein sodium as background fluorophore and 20 kV of applied voltage at 30 degrees C of cartridge temperature. Good linearity relationships (correlation coefficients >0.9900) between the second-order derivative peak-heights (RFU) and concentrations of the analytes (mol L(-1)) were obtained. The detection limits for all analytes in second-order derivative electrophoregrams were in the range of 3.8-15 microM. The RSD data of intra-day for migration times and second-order derivative peak-height were less than 0.95 and 5.02%, respectively. This developed method was applied to the analysis of the courmin compounds in herb plants with recoveries in the range of 94.7-102.1%. In this work, although the detection sensitivity was lower than that of direct LIF, yet the method would extend the application range of LIF detection.

  1. Carbohydrates and Diabetes (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Carbohydrates and Diabetes KidsHealth / For Parents / Carbohydrates and Diabetes ... many kids with diabetes take to stay healthy. Carbohydrates and Blood Sugar The two main forms of ...

  2. DNA ELECTROPHORESIS AT SURFACES

    SciTech Connect

    RAFAILOVICH, MIRIAM; SOKOLOV, JONATHAN; GERSAPPE, DILIP

    2003-09-01

    During this year we performed two major projects: I. We developed a detailed theoretical model which complements our experiments on surface DNA electrophoresis. We found that it was possible to enhance the separation of DNA chains by imposing a chemical nanoscale pattern on the surface. This approach utilized the surface interaction effect of the DNA chains with the substrate and is a refinement to our previous method in which DNA chains were separated on homogeneous flat surfaces. By introducing the nano-patterns on the surface, the conformational changes of DNA chains of different lengths can be amplified, which results in themore » different friction strengths with the substrate surface. Our results also show that, when compared to the DNA electrophoresis performed on homogeneous flat surfaces, nanopatterned surfaces offer a larger window in choosing different surface interactions to achieve separation. II. In collaboration with a large international manufacturer of skin care products we also embarked on a project involving photo toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles, which are a key ingredient in sunscreen and cosmetic lotions. The results clearly implicated the nanoparticles in catalyzing damage to chromosomal DNA. We then used this knowledge to develop a polymer/anti-oxidant coating which prevented the photocatalytic reaction on DNA while still retaining the UV absorptive properties of the nanoparticles. The standard gel electrophoresis was not sufficient in determining the extent of the DNA damage. The conclusions of this study were based predominantly on analysis obtained with the surface electrophoresis method.« less

  3. Preparative electrophoresis of living lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanoss, C. J.; Bigazzi, P. E.; Gillman, C. F.; Allen, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    Vertical liquid columns containing low molecular weight dextran density gradients can be used for preparative lymphocyte electrophoresis on earth, in simulation of 0 gravity conditions. Another method that has been tested at 1 G, is the electrophoresis of lymphocytes in a upward direction in vertical columns. By both methods up to 10 to the 7th power lymphocytes can be separated at one time in a 30 cm glass column of 8 mm inside diameter, at 12 v/cm, in 2 hours. Due to convection and sedimentation problems, the separation at 1 G is less than ideal, but it is expected that at 0 gravity electrophoresis will prove to be a uniquely powerful cell separation tool. The technical feasibility of electrophoresing inert particles at 0 G has been proven earlier, during the flight of Apollo 16.

  4. Bleaching/blinking assisted localization microscopy for superresolution imaging using standard fluorescent molecules.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Dylan T; Sengupta, Prabuddha; Dai, Yuhai; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Kachar, Bechara

    2011-12-27

    Superresolution imaging techniques based on the precise localization of single molecules, such as photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), achieve high resolution by fitting images of single fluorescent molecules with a theoretical Gaussian to localize them with a precision on the order of tens of nanometers. PALM/STORM rely on photoactivated proteins or photoswitching dyes, respectively, which makes them technically challenging. We present a simple and practical way of producing point localization-based superresolution images that does not require photoactivatable or photoswitching probes. Called bleaching/blinking assisted localization microscopy (BaLM), the technique relies on the intrinsic bleaching and blinking behaviors characteristic of all commonly used fluorescent probes. To detect single fluorophores, we simply acquire a stream of fluorescence images. Fluorophore bleach or blink-off events are detected by subtracting from each image of the series the subsequent image. Similarly, blink-on events are detected by subtracting from each frame the previous one. After image subtractions, fluorescence emission signals from single fluorophores are identified and the localizations are determined by fitting the fluorescence intensity distribution with a theoretical Gaussian. We also show that BaLM works with a spectrum of fluorescent molecules in the same sample. Thus, BaLM extends single molecule-based superresolution localization to samples labeled with multiple conventional fluorescent probes.

  5. Proton Induced Modulation of ICT and PET Processes in an Imidazo-phenanthroline Based BODIPY Fluorophores.

    PubMed

    Thakare, Shrikant S; Chakraborty, Goutam; Kothavale, Shantaram; Mula, Soumyaditya; Ray, Alok K; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2017-11-01

    BODIPY fluorophores linked with an imidazo-phenanthroline donor at α and β positions have been synthesized. Intriguing intramolecular charge transfer phenomenon is observed in both the dyes which has been extensively investigated using UV-vis absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. H-bonding and intrinsic polarity of the solvents has modulated the absorption and emission bands of these fluorophores strongly causing significant increase in the Stokes shifts. In spite of having difference only in terms of the position of donor subunit, the photophysics of these dyes are not only significantly different from each other, but contradictory too. Interestingly, acidochromic studies revealed the shuttling mechanism between ICT and PET processes for BDP 2. Quantum chemical calculations have been employed further to support experimental findings. DFT and TD-DFT method of analysis have been used to optimize ground and excited state geometries of the synthesized dyes.

  6. High-resolution of particle contacts via fluorophore exclusion in deep-imaging of jammed colloidal packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyeyune-Nyombi, Eru; Morone, Flaviano; Liu, Wenwei; Li, Shuiqing; Gilchrist, M. Lane; Makse, Hernán A.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the structural properties of random packings of jammed colloids requires an unprecedented high-resolution determination of the contact network providing mechanical stability to the packing. Here, we address the determination of the contact network by a novel strategy based on fluorophore signal exclusion of quantum dot nanoparticles from the contact points. We use fluorescence labeling schemes on particles inspired by biology and biointerface science in conjunction with fluorophore exclusion at the contact region. The method provides high-resolution contact network data that allows us to measure structural properties of the colloidal packing near marginal stability. We determine scaling laws of force distributions, soft modes, correlation functions, coordination number and free volume that define the universality class of jammed colloidal packings and can be compared with theoretical predictions. The contact detection method opens up further experimental testing at the interface of jamming and glass physics.

  7. Free-Flow Open-Chamber Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Free-flow open-chamber electrophoresis variant of free-flow electrophoresis performed in chamber with open ends and in which velocity of electro-osmotic flow adjusted equal to and opposite mean electrophoretic velocity of sample. Particles having electrophoretic mobilities greater than mean mobility of sample particles move toward cathode, those with mobilities less move toward anode. Technique applied to separation of components of mixtures of biologically important substances. Sensitivity enhanced by use of tapered chamber.

  8. Exponential increase in postprandial blood-glucose exposure with increasing carbohydrate loads using a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio.

    PubMed

    Marran, K J; Davey, B; Lang, A; Segal, D G

    2013-04-10

    Postprandial glucose excursions contribute significantly to average blood glucose, glycaemic variability and cardiovascular risk. Carbohydrate counting is a method of insulin dosing that balances carbohydrate load to insulin dose using a fixed ratio. Many patients and current insulin pumps calculate insulin delivery for meals based on a linear carbohydrate-to-insulin relationship. It is our hypothesis that a non-linear relationship exists between the amounts of carbohydrate consumed and the insulin required to cover it. To document blood glucose exposure in response to increasing carbohydrate loads on fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratios. Five type 1 diabetic subjects receiving insulin pump therapy with good control were recruited. Morning basal rates and carbohydrate- to-insulin ratios were optimised. A Medtronic glucose sensor was used for 5 days to collect data for area-under-the-curve (AUC) analysis, during which standardised meals of increasing carbohydrate loads were consumed. Increasing carbohydrate loads using a fixed carbohydrate-to-insulin ratio resulted in increasing glucose AUC. The relationship was found to be exponential rather than linear. Late postprandial hypoglycaemia followed carbohydrate loads of >60 g and this was often followed by rebound hyperglycaemia that lasted >6 hours. A non-linear relationship exists between carbohydrates consumed and the insulin required to cover them. This has implications for control of postprandial blood sugars, especially when consuming large carbohydrate loads. Further studies are required to look at the optimal ratios, duration and type of insulin boluses required to cover increasing carbohydrate loads.

  9. Capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization mass spectrometry interface

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Richard D.; Severs, Joanne C.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an interface between a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary end and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end, for transporting an anolyte sample from a capillary electrophoresis separation capillary to a electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary. The interface of the present invention has: (a) a charge transfer fitting enclosing both of the capillary electrophoresis capillary end and the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry emitter capillary end; (b) a reservoir containing an electrolyte surrounding the charge transfer fitting; and (c) an electrode immersed into the electrolyte, the electrode closing a capillary electrophoresis circuit and providing charge transfer across the charge transfer fitting while avoiding substantial bulk fluid transfer across the charge transfer fitting. Advantages of the present invention have been demonstrated as effective in providing high sensitivity and efficient analyses.

  10. Two Electrophoresis Experiments for Freshmen in the Health Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabson, G. Dana; Waugh, David S.

    1986-01-01

    Describes procedures involved with paper electrophoresis separation of amino acids, gel electrophoresis separation of DNA, and design of an electrophoresis tank. Describes experiments using paper (amino acids) and gel (deoxyribonucleic acid fragments). Provides material lists, procedures, and discussion. (JM)

  11. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    PubMed

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  12. Ionization techniques in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: principles, design, and application.

    PubMed

    Hommerson, Paul; Khan, Amjad M; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W

    2011-01-01

    A major step forward in the development and application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) was its coupling to ESI-MS, first reported in 1987. More than two decades later, ESI has remained the principal ionization technique in CE-MS, but a number of other ionization techniques have also been implemented. In this review the state-of-the-art in the employment of soft ionization techniques for CE-MS is presented. First the fundamentals and general challenges of hyphenating conventional CE and microchip electrophoresis with MS are outlined. After elaborating on the characteristics and role of ESI, emphasis is put on alternative ionization techniques including sonic spray ionization (SSI), thermospray ionization (TSI), atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI), atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) and continuous-flow fast atom bombardment (CF-FAB). The principle of each ionization technique is outlined and the experimental set-ups of the CE-MS couplings are described. The strengths and limitations of each ionization technique with respect to CE-MS are discussed and the applicability of the various systems is illustrated by a number of typical examples. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  14. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugghe, Adronie; Hesta, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus. PMID:29140289

  15. Solution conformation of carbohydrates: a view by using NMR assisted by modeling.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dolores; Canales-Mayordomo, Angeles; Cañada, F Javier; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Structural elucidation of complex carbohydrates in solution is not a trivial task. From the NMR view point, the limited chemical shift dispersion of sugar NMR spectra demands the combination of a variety of NMR techniques as well as the employment of molecular modeling methods. Herein, a general protocol for assignment of resonances and determination of inter-proton distances within the saccharides by homonuclear and heteronuclear experiments (i.e., (1)H and (13)C) is described. In addition, several computational tools and procedures for getting a final ensemble of geometries that represent the structure in solution are presented.

  16. Investigation of porous silicon nanopowders functionalized by antibiotic Kanamycin, fluorophore Indocyanine Green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalova, K.; Somov, P. A.; Spivak, Yu M.

    2017-11-01

    Porous silicon nanopowders for target drug delivery were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching in a hydrofluoric acid solution using the monocrystalline silicon n-type conductivity. Porous silicon powders were obtained by sonification of porous silicon layers. The powders were functionalized by antibiotic Kanamycin and fluorophore Indocyanine Green by the passive adsorption method. The peculiarities of absorption spectra in 190-600 nm region were revealed for functionalized porous silicon powders dispersions in water.

  17. Fluorophore-labeling of core-crosslinked polymeric micelles for multimodal in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yang; Kunjachan, Sijumon; Wu, Zhuojun; Gremse, Felix; Moeckel, Diana; van Zandvoort, Marc; Kiessling, Fabian; Storm, Gert; van Nostrum, Cornelus F.; Hennink, Wim E.; Lammers, Twan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To enable multimodal in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging of the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM). Materials & Methods mPEG-b-p(HPMAm-Lac)-based polymeric micelles, core-crosslinked via cystamine and covalently labeled with two fluorophores (Dy-676/488) were synthesized. The CCPM were intravenously injected in CT26 tumor-bearing mice. Results Upon intravenous injection, the CCPM accumulated in CT26 tumors reasonably efficiently, with values reaching ~4 %ID at 24 hours. Ex vivo TPLSM confirmed efficient extravasation of the iCCPM out of tumor blood vessels and deep penetration into the tumor interstitium. Conclusions CCPM were labeled with multiple fluorophores, and they exemplify that combining different in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging techniques is highly useful for analyzing the biodistribution and tumor accumulation of nanomedicines. PMID:25929568

  18. Crucial breakthrough of second near-infrared biological window fluorophores: design and synthesis toward multimodal imaging and theranostics

    DOE PAGES

    He, Shuqing; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle; ...

    2018-01-01

    Recent advances in the chemical design and synthesis of fluorophores in the second near-infrared biological window (NIR-II) for multimodal imaging and theranostics are summarized and highlighted in this review article.

  19. Crucial breakthrough of second near-infrared biological window fluorophores: design and synthesis toward multimodal imaging and theranostics

    SciTech Connect

    He, Shuqing; Song, Jun; Qu, Junle

    Recent advances in the chemical design and synthesis of fluorophores in the second near-infrared biological window (NIR-II) for multimodal imaging and theranostics are summarized and highlighted in this review article.

  20. Recovering fluorophore concentration profiles from confocal images near lateral refractive index step changes.

    PubMed

    Jonášová, Eleonóra Parelius; Bjørkøy, Astrid; Stokke, Bjørn Torger

    2016-12-01

    Optical aberrations due to refractive index mismatches occur in various types of microscopy due to refractive differences between the sample and the immersion fluid or within the sample. We study the effects of lateral refractive index differences by fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy due to glass or polydimethylsiloxane cuboids and glass cylinders immersed in aqueous fluorescent solution, thereby mimicking realistic imaging situations in the proximity of these materials. The reduction in fluorescence intensity near the embedded objects was found to depend on the geometry and the refractive index difference between the object and the surrounding solution. The observed fluorescence intensity gradients do not reflect the fluorophore concentration in the solution. It is suggested to apply a Gaussian fit or smoothing to the observed fluorescence intensity gradient and use this as a basis to recover the fluorophore concentration in the proximity of the refractive index step change. The method requires that the reference and sample objects have the same geometry and refractive index. The best results were obtained when the sample objects were also used for reference since small differences such as uneven surfaces will result in a different extent of aberration.

  1. 5-thiomannosides block the biosynthesis of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides and mimic class I congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Zandberg, Wesley F; Gao, Ningguo; Kumarasamy, Jayakanthan; Lehrman, Mark A; Seidah, Nabil G; Pinto, B Mario

    2012-02-13

    In a cell-based assay for novel inhibitors, we have discovered that two glycosides of 5-thiomannose, each containing an interglycosidic nitrogen atom, prevented the correct zymogen processing of the prohormone proopiomelanocortinin (POMC) and the transcription factor sterol-regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) in mouse pituitary cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, respectively. In the case of SREBP-2, these effects were correlated with the altered N-linked glycosylation of subtilisin/kexin-like isozyme-1 (SKI-1), the protease responsible for SREBP-2 processing under sterol-limiting conditions. Further examination of the effects of these compounds in CHO cells showed that they cause extensive protein hypoglycosylation in a manner similar to type I congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) since the remaining N-glycans in treated cells were complete (normal) structures. The under-glycosylation of glycoproteins in 5-thiomannoside-treated cells is now shown to be caused by the compromised biosynthesis of the dolichol-linked oligosaccharide (DLO) N-glycosylation donor, although the nucleotide sugars required for the synthesis of DLOs were neither reduced under these conditions, nor were their effects reversed upon the addition of exogenous mannose. Analysis of DLO intermediates by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis demonstrated that 5-thiomannose-containing glycosides block DLO biosynthesis most likely at a stage prior to the GlcNAc(2) Man(3) intermediate, on the cytosolic face of the endoplasmic reticulum. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. In vivo determination of optical properties and fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Narasimhan; Kovacic, Dianne; Migden, Michael F.; Reichenberg, Jason S.; Nguyen, Tri H.; Tunnell, James W.

    2009-02-01

    Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques have widely been used as noninvasive tools for early cancer detection in several organs including the cervix, oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. Using a combined DOS/LIF approach, one can simultaneously measure the morphology and biochemical composition of tissue and use these features to diagnose malignancy. We report for the first time to our knowledge both the optical properties and native fluorophore characteristics of non-melanoma skin cancer in the UV-visible range. We collected in vivo diffuse reflectance and intrinsic fluorescence measurements from 44 skin lesions on 37 patients. The skin sites were further categorized into three groups of non-melanoma skin cancer according to histopathology: 1) pre-cancerous actinic keratosis 2) malignant squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 3) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). We used a custom-built probe-based clinical system that collects both white light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence in the wavelength range of 350-700 nm. We extracted the blood volume fraction, oxygen saturation, blood vessel size, tissue microarchitecture and melanin content from diffuse reflectance measurements. In addition, we determined the native fluorophore contributions of NADH, collagen and FAD from laser-induced fluorescence for all groups. The scattering from tissue decreased with progression from clinically normal to precancerous actinic keratosis to malignant SCC. A similar trend was observed for clinically normal skin and malignant BCC. Statistically significant differences were observed in the collagen contributions, which were lower in malignant SCC and BCC as compared to normal skin. Our data demonstrates that the mean optical properties and fluorophore contributions of normal, benign and malignant nonmelanoma cancers are significantly different from each other and can potentially be used as biomarkers for the early detection of skin cancer.

  3. Imaging of Lymph Flow in Breast Cancer Patients after Microdose Administration of a Near-Infrared Fluorophore: Feasibility Study1

    PubMed Central

    Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Sharma, Ruchi; Rasmussen, John C.; Marshall, Milton V.; Wendt, Juliet A.; Pham, Hoang Q.; Bonefas, Elizabeth; Houston, Jessica P.; Sampath, Lakshmi; Adams, Kristen E.; Blanchard, Darlene Kay; Fisher, Ronald E.; Chiang, Stephen B.; Elledge, Richard; Mawad, Michel E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively demonstrate the feasibility of using indocyanine green, a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore at the minimum dose needed for noninvasive optical imaging of lymph nodes (LNs) in breast cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping (SLNM). Materials and Methods Informed consent was obtained from 24 women (age range, 30–85 years) who received intradermal subcutaneous injections of 0.31–100 μg indocyanine green in the breast in this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant, dose escalation study to find the minimum microdose for imaging. The breast, axilla, and sternum were illuminated with NIR light and the fluorescence generated in the tissue was collected with an NIR-sensitive intensified charged-coupled device. Lymphoscintigraphy was also performed. Resected LNs were evaluated for the presence of radioactivity, blue dye accumulation, and fluorescence. The associations between the resected LNs that were fluorescent and (a) the time elapsed between NIR fluorophore administration and resection and (b) the dosage of NIR fluorophores were tested with the Spearman rank and Pearson product moment correlation tests, respectively. Results Lymph imaging consistently failed with indocyanine green microdosages between 0.31 and 0.77 μg. When indocyanine green dosages were 10 μg or higher, lymph drainage pathways from the injection site to LNs were imaged in eight of nine women; lymph propulsion was observed in seven of those eight. When propulsion in the breast and axilla regions was present, the mean apparent velocities ranged from 0.08 to 0.32 cm/sec, the time elapsed between “packets” of propelled fluid varied from 14 to 92 seconds. In patients who received 10 μg of indocyanine green or more, a weak negative correlation between the fluorescence status of resected LNs and the time between NIR fluorophore administration and LN resection was found. No statistical association was found between the fluorescence status of resected LNs and the dose of

  4. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Assisted Heating on Carbohydrate Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Postprandial Glycemic Response in Oat Meals

    PubMed Central

    Olędzki, Remigiusz

    2018-01-01

    Minimally processed cereal breakfast products from whole grain entered the market due to consumer demand of more nutritional food with more controlled sugar release. However, the subsequent processing of such products with different cooking methods in the consumer’s kitchen may lead to significant differentiation of their nutritional value. Therefore, the evaluation of the impact of frequently used cooking methods on a final quality of breakfast cereals meal is needed. The present study investigates how the two different methods of heating, conventional and microwave (MW) assisted, affect the carbohydrate content, profile and resulting glycemic index of so prepared food as well as the antioxidant activity of meals. Two products available on the market—oat bran and flakes—were used. The highest starch content in fluid phase of oatmeal was detected in samples heated for 3 min with microwaves, regardless the type. The lowest starch content was obtained for 5 min MW heated flakes sample. The total content of glucose was about 1.5 times lower in bran vs. flakes oatmeal. The highest β-glucan content in fluid fraction was also observed for bran meal but its release was independent of applied conditions. PMID:29443904

  5. Computational design of a red fluorophore ligase for site-specific protein labeling in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Daniel S.; Nivon, Lucas G.; Richter, Florian

    In this study, chemical fluorophores offer tremendous size and photophysical advantages over fluorescent proteins but are much more challenging to target to specific cellular proteins. Here, we used Rosetta-based computation to design a fluorophore ligase that accepts the red dye resorufin, starting from Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase. X-ray crystallography showed that the design closely matched the experimental structure. Resorufin ligase catalyzed the site-specific and covalent attachment of resorufin to various cellular proteins genetically fused to a 13-aa recognition peptide in multiple mammalian cell lines and in primary cultured neurons. We used resorufin ligase to perform superresolution imaging of themore » intermediate filament protein vimentin by stimulated emission depletion and electron microscopies. This work illustrates the power of Rosetta for major redesign of enzyme specificity and introduces a tool for minimally invasive, highly specific imaging of cellular proteins by both conventional and superresolution microscopies.« less

  6. Computational design of a red fluorophore ligase for site-specific protein labeling in living cells

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Daniel S.; Nivon, Lucas G.; Richter, Florian; ...

    2014-10-13

    In this study, chemical fluorophores offer tremendous size and photophysical advantages over fluorescent proteins but are much more challenging to target to specific cellular proteins. Here, we used Rosetta-based computation to design a fluorophore ligase that accepts the red dye resorufin, starting from Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase. X-ray crystallography showed that the design closely matched the experimental structure. Resorufin ligase catalyzed the site-specific and covalent attachment of resorufin to various cellular proteins genetically fused to a 13-aa recognition peptide in multiple mammalian cell lines and in primary cultured neurons. We used resorufin ligase to perform superresolution imaging of themore » intermediate filament protein vimentin by stimulated emission depletion and electron microscopies. This work illustrates the power of Rosetta for major redesign of enzyme specificity and introduces a tool for minimally invasive, highly specific imaging of cellular proteins by both conventional and superresolution microscopies.« less

  7. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2485 Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. (a) Identification. An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma...

  8. 21 CFR 862.2485 - Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. 862... Instruments § 862.2485 Electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use. (a) Identification. An electrophoresis apparatus for clinical use is a device intended to separate molecules or particles, including plasma...

  9. A systematic study of chemogenomics of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jiangyong; Luo, Fang; Chen, Lirong; Yuan, Gu; Xu, Xiaojie

    2014-03-04

    Chemogenomics focuses on the interactions between biologically active molecules and protein targets for drug discovery. Carbohydrates are the most abundant compounds in natural products. Compared with other drugs, the carbohydrate drugs show weaker side effects. Searching for multi-target carbohydrate drugs can be regarded as a solution to improve therapeutic efficacy and safety. In this work, we collected 60 344 carbohydrates from the Universal Natural Products Database (UNPD) and explored the chemical space of carbohydrates by principal component analysis. We found that there is a large quantity of potential lead compounds among carbohydrates. Then we explored the potential of carbohydrates in drug discovery by using a network-based multi-target computational approach. All carbohydrates were docked to 2389 target proteins. The most potential carbohydrates for drug discovery and their indications were predicted based on a docking score-weighted prediction model. We also explored the interactions between carbohydrates and target proteins to find the pathological networks, potential drug candidates and new indications.

  10. Dyes designed for high sensitivity detection of double-stranded DNA

    DOEpatents

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Benson, Scott C.

    1994-01-01

    Novel fluorescent dyes are provided, characterized by having a fluorophore joined to a polycationic chain of at least two positive charges. The dyes are found to provide for high enhancement upon binding to nucleic acid and have strong binding affinities to the nucleic acid, as compared to the fluorophore without the polycationic chain. The dyes find use in detection of dsDNA in gel electrophoresis and solution at substantially higher sensitivities using substantially less dye.

  11. Benefits and hazards of dietary carbohydrate.

    PubMed

    Connor, William E; Duell, P Barton; Connor, Sonja L

    2005-11-01

    Since the dawn of civilization, carbohydrate has comprised the largest source of energy in the diet for most populations. The source of the carbohydrate has been from plants in the form of complex carbohydrate high in fiber. Only in affluent cultures has sugar contributed so much of the total energy. When carbohydrate is consumed as a major component of a plant-based diet, a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet is associated with low plasma levels of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, less coronary heart disease, less diabetes, and less obesity. Very low-carbohydrate (ketogenic) diets may provide short-term solutions but do not lead to a long-term solution for most people.

  12. Renewable Hydrogen Carrier - Carbohydrate: Constructing the Carbon-Neutral Carbohydrate Economy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-31

    temperature. High fructose corn syrup , low-cost sucrose replacement, is made by stabilized glucose isomerase, which can work at ~60 °C for even about two...sustainable production, high -density storage, costly infrastructure, to eliminating safety concern. The use of renewable carbohydrate as a high -density...100% selectivity of enzymes, modest reaction conditions, and high -purity of generated hydrogen, carbohydrate is a promising hydrogen carrier for end

  13. Getting the Most out of Electrophoresis Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvihill, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    At Oklahoma City Community College, they have developed gel electrophoresis activities that support active learning of many scientific concepts, including: pH, electrolysis, oxidation reduction, electrical currents, potentials, conductivity, molarity, gel electrophoresis, DNA and protein separation, and DNA fingerprinting. This article presents…

  14. Functional interaction analysis of GM1-related carbohydrates and Vibrio cholerae toxins using carbohydrate microarray.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang Sup; Seo, Jeong Hyun; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2012-08-07

    The development of analytical tools is important for understanding the infection mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria or viruses. In the present work, a functional carbohydrate microarray combined with a fluorescence immunoassay was developed to analyze the interactions of Vibrio cholerae toxin (ctx) proteins and GM1-related carbohydrates. Ctx proteins were loaded onto the surface-immobilized GM1 pentasaccharide and six related carbohydrates, and their binding affinities were detected immunologically. The analysis of the ctx-carbohydrate interactions revealed that the intrinsic selectivity of ctx was GM1 pentasaccharide ≫ GM2 tetrasaccharide > asialo GM1 tetrasaccharide ≥ GM3trisaccharide, indicating that a two-finger grip formation and the terminal monosaccharides play important roles in the ctx-GM1 interaction. In addition, whole cholera toxin (ctxAB(5)) had a stricter substrate specificity and a stronger binding affinity than only the cholera toxin B subunit (ctxB). On the basis of the quantitative analysis, the carbohydrate microarray showed the sensitivity of detection of the ctxAB(5)-GM1 interaction with a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 2 ng mL(-1) (23 pM), which is comparable to other reported high sensitivity assay tools. In addition, the carbohydrate microarray successfully detected the actual toxin directly secreted from V. cholerae, without showing cross-reactivity to other bacteria. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the functional carbohydrate microarray is suitable for analyzing toxin protein-carbohydrate interactions and can be applied as a biosensor for toxin detection.

  15. CH/π Interactions in Carbohydrate Recognition.

    PubMed

    Spiwok, Vojtěch

    2017-06-23

    Many carbohydrate-binding proteins contain aromatic amino acid residues in their binding sites. These residues interact with carbohydrates in a stacking geometry via CH/π interactions. These interactions can be found in carbohydrate-binding proteins, including lectins, enzymes and carbohydrate transporters. Besides this, many non-protein aromatic molecules (natural as well as artificial) can bind saccharides using these interactions. Recent computational and experimental studies have shown that carbohydrate-aromatic CH/π interactions are dispersion interactions, tuned by electrostatics and partially stabilized by a hydrophobic effect in solvated systems.

  16. Molecular simulations of carbohydrates and protein-carbohydrate interactions: motivation, issues and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Elisa; Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the 3D structure of oligosaccharides, their conjugates and analogs is particularly challenging for traditional experimental methods. Molecular simulation methods provide a basis for interpreting sparse experimental data and for independently predicting conformational and dynamic properties of glycans. Here, we summarize and analyze the issues associated with modeling carbohydrates, with a detailed discussion of four of the most recently developed carbohydrate force fields, reviewed in terms of applicability to natural glycans, carbohydrate–protein complexes and the emerging area of glycomimetic drugs. In addition, we discuss prospectives and new applications of carbohydrate modeling in drug discovery. PMID:20594934

  17. Isolation of carbohydrate-metabolizing, extremely halophilic bacteria.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomlinson, G. A.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    Four previously unrecognized strains of extremely halophilic bacteria that utilize carbohydrates have been isolated. Gas production proved an unreliable index of carbohydrate metabolism; therefore, carbohydrate utilization was measured by determining acid formation and sugar disappearance during growth. By these procedures, carbohydrate utilization was readily detected. The results suggest that carbohydrate dissimilation by extremely halophilic bacteria may be more common than previously thought and that the apparent rarity of carbohydrate-metabolizing halophiles may be an artifact of the isolation procedures used.

  18. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    SciTech Connect

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  19. Single-molecule imaging at high fluorophore concentrations by local activation of dye

    DOE PAGES

    Geertsema, Hylkje J.; Mangel, Walter F.; Schulte, Aartje C.; ...

    2015-02-17

    Single-molecule fluorescence microscopy is a powerful approach to observe biomolecular interactions with high spatial and temporal resolution. Detecting fluorescent signals from individual, labeled proteins above high levels of background fluorescence remains challenging, however. For this reason, the concentrations of labeled proteins in in vitro assays are often kept low compared to their in vivo concentrations. Here, we present a new fluorescence imaging technique by which single fluorescent molecules can be observed in real time at high, physiologically relevant concentrations. The technique requires a protein and its macromolecular substrate to be labeled each with a different fluorophore. Then, making use ofmore » short-distance energy-transfer mechanisms, the fluorescence from only those proteins bound to their substrate are selectively activated. This approach is demonstrated by labeling a DNA substrate with an intercalating stain, exciting the stain, and using energy transfer from the stain to activate the fluorescence of only those labeled DNA-binding proteins bound to the DNA. Such an experimental design allowed us to observe the sequence-independent interaction of Cy5-labeled interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) with DNA and the sliding via one-dimensional diffusion of Cy5-labeled adenovirus protease (pVIc-AVP) on DNA in the presence of a background of hundreds of nM Cy5 fluorophore.« less

  20. A reversible ratiometric sensor for intracellular Cu2+ imaging: metal coordination-altered FRET in a dual fluorophore hybrid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncong; Zhu, Chengcheng; Cen, Jiajie; Li, Jing; He, Weijiang; Jiao, Yang; Guo, Zijian

    2013-09-07

    ICT fluorophore benzoxadiazole with its electron-donating group modified as a Cu(2+) chelator was conjugated with coumarin to construct a new ratiometric sensor with reversible intracellular Cu(2+) imaging ability.

  1. Ink-native electrophoresis: an alternative to blue-native electrophoresis more suitable for in-gel detection of enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Keisuke; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki; Kameshita, Isamu; Ishida, Atsuhiko

    2013-09-15

    Blue-native electrophoresis (BNE) is a useful technique for analyzing protein complexes, but the Coomassie brilliant blue (CBB) dye used in BNE often hampers in-gel detection of enzymatic activity. Here we report an improved method, termed ink-native electrophoresis (INE), in which Pelikan 4001 fountain pen ink is used as a charge-shifting agent instead of CBB. INE is more suitable than BNE for in-gel detection of protein kinase activity after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), and its performance in protein complex separation is comparable to that of conventional BNE. INE may provide a powerful tool to isolate and analyze various protein complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Micro/Nanoscale Parallel Patterning of Functional Biomolecules, Organic Fluorophores and Colloidal Nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    We describe the design and optimization of a reliable strategy that combines self-assembly and lithographic techniques, leading to very precise micro-/nanopositioning of biomolecules for the realization of micro- and nanoarrays of functional DNA and antibodies. Moreover, based on the covalent immobilization of stable and versatile SAMs of programmable chemical reactivity, this approach constitutes a general platform for the parallel site-specific deposition of a wide range of molecules such as organic fluorophores and water-soluble colloidal nanocrystals. PMID:20596482

  3. Carbohydrate Strategies for Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Schlabach, Gretchen

    1994-01-01

    Prevention of injury involves identifying risk factors that would predispose one to injury and developing strategies to attenuate or eliminate their presence. Because muscle glycogen depletion is associated with fatigue and injury, it should be treated as a possible risk factor. Muscle glycogen stores are derived almost entirely from carbohydrate intake. Because there is a limited capacity to store muscle glycogen, and because muscle glycogen is the predominant fuel in exercise of moderate to severe intensity, the nutritional focus should be on carbohydrate consumption. Easy-to-follow nutritional strategies should be employed that will maximize muscle glycogen stores and delay the onset of fatigue. Individuals involved in activities lasting less than 60 minutes need to consume an adequate amount of carbohydrate daily and a pre-event meal before the start of the activity. However, individuals participating in activities longer than 60 minutes or participating in activities requiring repeated bouts of high intensity exercise need to: 1) consume an adequate amount of carbohydrate daily, 2) practice carbohydrate loading, 3) consume the pre-event meal, and 4) ingest carbohydrates immediately before, during, and after the activity. PMID:16558287

  4. Fabrication of Carbohydrate Microarrays by Boronate Formation.

    PubMed

    Adak, Avijit K; Lin, Ting-Wei; Li, Ben-Yuan; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The interactions between soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans and protein receptors are essential to many biological processes and cellular recognition events. Carbohydrate microarrays provide opportunities for high-throughput quantitative analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. Over the past decade, various techniques have been implemented for immobilizing glycans on solid surfaces in a microarray format. Herein, we describe a detailed protocol for fabricating carbohydrate microarrays that capitalizes on the intrinsic reactivity of boronic acid toward carbohydrates to form stable boronate diesters. A large variety of unprotected carbohydrates ranging in structure from simple disaccharides and trisaccharides to considerably more complex human milk and blood group (oligo)saccharides have been covalently immobilized in a single step on glass slides, which were derivatized with high-affinity boronic acid ligands. The immobilized ligands in these microarrays maintain the receptor-binding activities including those of lectins and antibodies according to the structures of their pendant carbohydrates for rapid analysis of a number of carbohydrate-recognition events within 30 h. This method facilitates the direct construction of otherwise difficult to obtain carbohydrate microarrays from underivatized glycans.

  5. Decision peptide-driven: a free software tool for accurate protein quantification using gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hugo M; Reboiro-Jato, Miguel; Glez-Peña, Daniel; Nunes-Miranda, J D; Fdez-Riverola, Florentino; Carvallo, R; Capelo, J L

    2010-09-15

    The decision peptide-driven tool implements a software application for assisting the user in a protocol for accurate protein quantification based on the following steps: (1) protein separation through gel electrophoresis; (2) in-gel protein digestion; (3) direct and inverse (18)O-labeling and (4) matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, MALDI analysis. The DPD software compares the MALDI results of the direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments and quickly identifies those peptides with paralleled loses in different sets of a typical proteomic workflow. Those peptides are used for subsequent accurate protein quantification. The interpretation of the MALDI data from direct and inverse labeling experiments is time-consuming requiring a significant amount of time to do all comparisons manually. The DPD software shortens and simplifies the searching of the peptides that must be used for quantification from a week to just some minutes. To do so, it takes as input several MALDI spectra and aids the researcher in an automatic mode (i) to compare data from direct and inverse (18)O-labeling experiments, calculating the corresponding ratios to determine those peptides with paralleled losses throughout different sets of experiments; and (ii) allow to use those peptides as internal standards for subsequent accurate protein quantification using (18)O-labeling. In this work the DPD software is presented and explained with the quantification of protein carbonic anhydrase. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Combination probes with intercalating anchors and proximal fluorophores for DNA and RNA detection

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jieqiong; Wilson, Adam; El-Sagheer, Afaf H.; Brown, Tom

    2016-01-01

    A new class of modified oligonucleotides (combination probes) has been designed and synthesised for use in genetic analysis and RNA detection. Their chemical structure combines an intercalating anchor with a reporter fluorophore on the same thymine nucleobase. The intercalator (thiazole orange or benzothiazole orange) provides an anchor, which upon hybridisation of the probe to its target becomes fluorescent and simultaneously stabilizes the duplex. The anchor is able to communicate via FRET to a proximal reporter dye (e.g. ROX, HEX, ATTO647N, FAM) whose fluorescence signal can be monitored on a range of analytical devices. Direct excitation of the reporter dye provides an alternative signalling mechanism. In both signalling modes, fluorescence in the unhybridised probe is switched off by collisional quenching between adjacent intercalator and reporter dyes. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA and RNA targets are identified by differences in the duplex melting temperature, and the use of short hybridization probes, made possible by the stabilisation provided by the intercalator, enhances mismatch discrimination. Unlike other fluorogenic probe systems, placing the fluorophore and quencher on the same nucleobase facilitates the design of short probes containing multiple modifications. The ability to detect both DNA and RNA sequences suggests applications in cellular imaging and diagnostics. PMID:27369379

  7. Electrophoresis operations in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Application of electrophoresis in space processing is described. Spaceborne experiments in areas such as biological products and FDA approved drugs are discussed. These experiments will be carried on shuttle payloads.

  8. Continuous-flow electrophoresis: Membrane-associated deviations of buffer pH and conductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolka, A. J. K.; Mcguire, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    The deviations in buffer pH and conductivity which occur near the electrode membranes in continuous-flow electrophoresis were studied in the Beckman charged particle electrophoresis system and the Hanning FF-5 preparative electrophoresis instrument. The nature of the membranes separating the electrode compartments from the electrophoresis chamber, the electric field strength, and the flow rate of electrophoresis buffer were all found to influence the formation of the pH and conductivity gradients. Variations in electrode buffer flow rate and the time of electrophoresis were less important. The results obtained supported the hypothesis that a combination of Donnan membrane effects and the differing ionic mobilities in the electrophoresis buffer was responsible for the formation of the gradients. The significance of the results for the design and stable operation of continuous-flow electrophoresis apparatus was discussed.

  9. Near-infrared laser-induced fluorescence detection in capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    McWhorter, S; Soper, S A

    2000-04-01

    As capillary electrophoresis continues to focus on miniaturization, either through reducing column dimensions or situating entire electrophoresis systems on planar chips, advances in detection become necessary to meet the challenges posed by these electrophoresis platforms. The challenges result from the fact that miniaturization requires smaller load volumes, demanding highly sensitive detection. In addition, many times multiple targets must be analyzed simultaneously (multiplexed applications), further complicating detection. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence offers an attractive alternative to visible fluorescence for critical applications in capillary electrophoresis due to the impressive limits of detection that can be generated, in part resulting from the low background levels that are observed in the NIR. Advances in instrumentation and fluorogenic labels appropriate for NIR monitoring have led to a growing number of examples of the use of NIR fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis. In this review, we will cover instrumental components used to construct ultrasensitive NIR fluorescence detectors, including light sources and photon transducers. In addition, we will discuss various types of labeling dyes appropriate for NIR fluorescence and finally, we will present several applications that have used NIR fluorescence in capillary electrophoresis, especially for DNA sequencing and fragment analysis.

  10. Differentiation of ocular fundus fluorophores by fluorescence lifetime imaging using multiple excitation and emission wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M.; Schweitzer, D.; Schenke, S.; Becker, W.; Bergmann, A.

    2006-10-01

    Ocular fundus autofluorescence imaging has been introduced into clinical diagnostics recently. It is in use for the observation of the age pigment lipofuscin, a precursor of age - related macular degeneration (AMD). But other fluorophores may be of interest too: The redox pair FAD - FADH II provides information on the retinal energy metabolism, advanced glycation end products (AGE) indicate protein glycation associated with pathologic processes in diabetes as well as AMD, and alterations in the fluorescence of collagen and elastin in connective tissue give us the opportunity to observe fibrosis by fluorescence imaging. This, however, needs techniques able to differentiate particular fluorophores despite limited permissible ocular exposure as well as excitation wavelength (limited by the transmission of the human ocular lens to >400 nm). We present an ophthalmic laser scanning system (SLO), equipped with picosecond laser diodes (FWHM 100 ps, 446 nm or 468 nm respectively) and time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) in two emission bands (500 - 560 nm and 560 - 700 nm). The decays were fitted by a bi-exponential model. Fluorescence spectra were measured by a fluorescence spectrometer fluorolog. Upon excitation at 446 nm, the fluorescence of AGE, FAD, and lipofuscin were found to peak at 503 nm, 525 nm, and 600 nm respectively. Accordingly, the statistical distribution of the fluorescence decay times was found to depend on the different excitation wavelengths and emission bands used. The use of multiple excitation and emission wavelengths in conjunction with fluorescence lifetime imaging allows us to discriminate between intrinsic fluorophores of the ocular fundus. Taken together with our knowledge on the anatomical structure of the fundus, these findings suggest an association of the short, middle and long fluorescence decay time to the retinal pigment epithelium, the retina, and connective tissue respectively.

  11. Urine protein electrophoresis test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine protein electrophoresis; UPEP; Multiple myeloma - UPEP; Waldenström macroglobulinemia - UPEP; Amyloidosis - UPEP ... special paper and apply an electric current. The proteins move and form visible bands. These reveal the ...

  12. Fluid flow electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    Four areas relating to free-flow electrophoresis in space were investigated. The first was the degree of improvement over earthbound operations that might be expected. The second area of investigation covered the problems in developing a flowing buffer electrophoresis apparatus. The third area of investigation was the problem of testing on the ground equipment designed for use in space. The fourth area of investigation was the improvement to be expected in space for purification of biologicals. The results of some ground-based experiments are described. Other studies included cooling requirements in space, fluid sealing techniques, and measurement of voltage drop across membranes.

  13. Predicting water-soluble carbohydrates and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in cool-season grasses with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grazing animals may require a high or low total nonstructural carbohydrate diet for optimal health and production. Understanding how nonstructural carbohydrates fluctuate in Kentucky pastures and being able to quantify and monitor nonstructural carbohydrates in a timely manner will greatly aid in m...

  14. Measurement of fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield in tissue-simulating phantoms using three diffusion models of steady-state spatially resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Kevin R; Farrell, Thomas J; Patterson, Michael S

    2003-12-21

    Steady-state diffusion theory models of fluorescence in tissue have been investigated for recovering fluorophore concentrations and fluorescence quantum yield. Spatially resolved fluorescence, excitation and emission reflectance Carlo simulations, and measured using a multi-fibre probe on tissue-simulating phantoms containing either aluminium phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate (AlPcS4), Photofrin meso-tetra-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphine dihydrochloride The accuracy of the fluorophore concentration and fluorescence quantum yield recovered by three different models of spatially resolved fluorescence were compared. The models were based on: (a) weighted difference of the excitation and emission reflectance, (b) fluorescence due to a point excitation source or (c) fluorescence due to a pencil beam excitation source. When literature values for the fluorescence quantum yield were used for each of the fluorophores, the fluorophore absorption coefficient (and hence concentration) at the excitation wavelength (mu(a,x,f)) was recovered with a root-mean-square accuracy of 11.4% using the point source model of fluorescence and 8.0% using the more complicated pencil beam excitation model. The accuracy was calculated over a broad range of optical properties and fluorophore concentrations. The weighted difference of reflectance model performed poorly, with a root-mean-square error in concentration of about 50%. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that there are some situations where the weighted difference of reflectance is as accurate as the other two models, although this was not confirmed experimentally. Estimates of the fluorescence quantum yield in multiple scattering media were also made by determining mu(a,x,f) independently from the fitted absorption spectrum and applying the various diffusion theory models. The fluorescence quantum yields for AlPcS4 and TPPS4 were calculated to be 0.59 +/- 0.03 and 0.121 +/- 0.001 respectively using the point source model, and 0.63 +/- 0.03 and 0

  15. From 'pleasure to chemistry': the experience of carbohydrate counting with and without carbohydrate restriction for people with Type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, Pip; Krebs, Jeremy; Gilmour, Jean; Hanna, Aoife; Parry-Strong, Amber

    2015-12-01

    Matching carbohydrate intake with insulin dosage is recommended management for people with Type 1 diabetes. However, international interest in restricted carbohydrate diets is growing. General practitioners and practice nurses need to know how to advise people with Type 1 diabetes regarding low-carbohydrate diets. This study aimed to explore the carbohydrate counting experiences of people with Type 1 diabetes in a trial with and without a diet restricted to 75 g of carbohydrate per day. Eight participants were interviewed by focus group or interview 12 weeks after a carbohydrate counting course with individual dietary choice or the same course with information on restricted carbohydrate eating and a daily maximum intake of 75 g of carbohydrate. Data were analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Themes included the need for insulin management skills, impact of the dietary experience, and need for dietary knowledge. The restricted-carbohydrate group encountered mealtime insulin resistance and difficulty managing insulin dosages when transitioning on and off the low-carbohydrate diet. The diet impacted on mood, feelings of satiety and it was reported that food changed from being 'a pleasure to chemistry'. Both groups described feeling empowered to manage their diabetes as a result of the carbohydrate counting course. Participants reported increased knowledge and challenging insulin management. The restricted-carbohydrate group reported mealtime insulin resistance and a strong dietary impact. Extra health professional support may be required, especially at dietary transition periods. More research is warranted into the reported mealtime insulin resistance.

  16. Discovery and design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, Laura; Araújo, Ana C; Bini, Davide; Gabrielli, Luca; Russo, Laura; Shaikh, Nasrin

    2010-08-01

    Till now, the importance of carbohydrates has been underscored, if compared with the two other major classes of biopolymers such as oligonucleotides and proteins. Recent advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry have imparted a strong interest in the study of this enormous family of biomolecules. Carbohydrates have been shown to be implicated in recognition processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion and cell-intruder recognition phenomena. In addition, carbohydrates are recognized as differentiation markers and as antigenic determinants. Due to their relevant biological role, carbohydrates are promising candidates for drug design and disease treatment. However, the growing number of human disorders known as congenital disorders of glycosylation that are being identified as resulting from abnormalities in glycan structures and protein glycosylation strongly indicates that a fast development of glycobiology, glycochemistry and glycomedicine is highly desirable. The topics give an overview of different approaches that have been used to date for the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; this includes the use of native synthetic carbohydrates, the use of carbohydrate mimics designed on the basis of their native counterpart, the use of carbohydrates as scaffolds and finally the design of glyco-fused therapeutics, one of the most recent approaches. The review covers mainly literature that has appeared since 2000, except for a few papers cited for historical reasons. The reader will gain an overview of the current strategies applied to the design of carbohydrate-based therapeutics; in particular, the advantages/disadvantages of different approaches are highlighted. The topic is presented in a general, basic manner and will hopefully be a useful resource for all readers who are not familiar with it. In addition, in order to stress the potentialities of carbohydrates, several examples of carbohydrate-based marketed therapeutics are given

  17. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    PubMed

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  18. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus . We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes.

  19. Carbohydrates digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster (Panulirus argus): biochemical indication for limited carbohydrate utilization

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    As other spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus is supposed to use preferentially proteins and lipids in energy metabolism, while carbohydrates are well digested but poorly utilized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary carbohydrate level on digestion and metabolism in the spiny lobster P. argus. We used complementary methodologies such as post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites, as well as measurements of α-amylase expression and activity in the digestive tract. Lobsters readily digested and absorbed carbohydrates with a time-course that is dependent on their content in diet. Lobster showed higher levels of free glucose and stored glycogen in different tissues as the inclusion of wheat flour increased. Modifications in intermediary metabolism revealed a decrease in amino acids catabolism coupled with a higher use of free glucose as carbohydrates rise up to 20%. However, this effect seems to be limited by the metabolic capacity of lobsters to use more than 20% of carbohydrates in diets. Lobsters were not able to tightly regulate α-amylase expression according to dietary carbohydrate level but exhibited a marked difference in secretion of this enzyme into the gut. Results are discussed to highlight the limitations to increasing carbohydrate utilization by lobsters. Further growout trials are needed to link the presented metabolic profiles with phenotypic outcomes. PMID:29114440

  20. Carbohydrates and Endothelial Function: Is a Low-Carbohydrate Diet or a Low-Glycemic Index Diet Favourable for Vascular Health?

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk. PMID:25954727

  1. Carbohydrates and endothelial function: is a low-carbohydrate diet or a low-glycemic index diet favourable for vascular health?

    PubMed

    Jovanovski, Elena; Zurbau, Andreea; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular in both media and clinical research settings. Although they may improve some metabolic markers, their effects on arterial function remain unclear. Endothelial dysfunction is the well-established response to cardiovascular risk factors and a pivotal feature that precedes atherosclerotic diseases. It has been demonstrated that a high carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia and subsequent oxidative stress acutely worsen the efficacy of the endothelial vasodilatory system. Thus, in theory, a carbohydrate restricted diet may preserve the integrity of the arterial system. This review attempts to provide insight on whether low-carbohydrate diets have a favorable or detrimental impact on vascular function, or it is perhaps the quality of carbohydrate that should direct dietary recommendations. Research to date suggests that diets low in carbohydrate amount may negatively impact vascular endothelial function. Conversely, it appears that maintaining recommended carbohydrate intake with utilization of low glycemic index foods generates a more favorable vascular profile. Understanding these relationships will aid in deciphering the diverging role of modulating quantity and quality of carbohydrates on cardiovascular risk.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis of inorganic anions.

    PubMed

    Kaniansky, D; Masár, M; Marák, J; Bodor, R

    1999-02-26

    This review deals with the separation mechanisms applied to the separation of inorganic anions by capillary electrophoresis (CE) techniques. It covers various CE techniques that are suitable for the separation and/or determination of inorganic anions in various matrices, including capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography, electrochromatography and capillary isotachophoresis. Detection and sample preparation techniques used in CE separations are also reviewed. An extensive part of this review deals with applications of CE techniques in various fields (environmental, food and plant materials, biological and biomedical, technical materials and industrial processes). Attention is paid to speciations of anions of arsenic, selenium, chromium, phosphorus, sulfur and halogen elements by CE.

  3. Further improvement of hydrostatic pressure sample injection for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Zhang, Qingquan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-12-01

    Hydrostatic pressure sample injection method is able to minimize the number of electrodes needed for a microchip electrophoresis process; however, it neither can be applied for electrophoretic DNA sizing, nor can be implemented on the widely used single-cross microchip. This paper presents an injector design that makes the hydrostatic pressure sample injection method suitable for DNA sizing. By introducing an assistant channel into the normal double-cross injector, a rugged DNA sample plug suitable for sizing can be successfully formed within the cross area during the sample loading. This paper also demonstrates that the hydrostatic pressure sample injection can be performed in the single-cross microchip by controlling the radial position of the detection point in the separation channel. Rhodamine 123 and its derivative as model sample were successfully separated.

  4. Hyper-Assembly of Self-Assembled Glycoclusters Mediated by Specific Carbohydrate-Carbohydrate Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yanaka, Saeko; Sato, Sota; Fujita, Makoto; Kato, Koichi

    2017-05-04

    Hybridization of a self-assembled, spherical complex with oligosaccharides containing Lewis X, a functional trisaccharide displayed on various cell surfaces, yielded well-defined glycoclusters. The self-assembled glycoclusters exhibited homophilic hyper-assembly in aqueous solution in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner through specific carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, offering a structural scaffold for functional biomimetic systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Accuracy of Carbohydrate Counting in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Wanda E.

    2016-01-01

    In Brief This study investigates carbohydrate counting accuracy in patients using insulin through a multiple daily injection regimen or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. The average accuracy test score for all patients was 59%. The carbohydrate test in this study can be used to emphasize the importance of carbohydrate counting to patients and to provide ongoing education. PMID:27621531

  6. Versatile derivatives of carbohydrate-binding modules for imaging of complex carbohydrates approaching the molecular level of resolution.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shi-You; Xu, Qi; Ali, Mursheda K; Baker, John O; Bayer, Edward A; Barak, Yoav; Lamed, Raphael; Sugiyama, Junji; Rumbles, Garry; Himmel, Michael E

    2006-10-01

    The innate binding specificity of different carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) offers a versatile approach for mapping the chemistry and structure of surfaces that contain complex carbohydrates. We have employed the distinct recognition properties of a double His-tagged recombinant CBM tagged with semiconductor quantum dots for direct imaging of crystalline cellulose at the molecular level of resolution, using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. In addition, three different types of CBMs from families 3, 6, and 20 that exhibit different carbohydrate specificities were each fused with either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or red fluorescent protein (RFP) and employed for double-labeling fluorescence microscopy studies of primary cell walls and various mixtures of complex carbohydrate target molecules. CBM probes can be used for characterizing both native complex carbohydrates and engineered biomaterials.

  7. Analysis of electrophoresis performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, G. O.

    1984-01-01

    The SAMPLE computer code models electrophoresis separation in a wide range of conditions. Results are included for steady three dimensional continuous flow electrophoresis (CFE), time dependent gel and acetate film experiments in one or two dimensions and isoelectric focusing in one dimension. The code evolves N two dimensional radical concentration distributions in time, or distance down a CFE chamber. For each time or distance increment, there are six stages, successively obtaining the pH distribution, the corresponding degrees of ionization for each radical, the conductivity, the electric field and current distribution, and the flux components in each direction for each separate radical. The final stage is to update the radical concentrations. The model formulation for ion motion in an electric field ignores activity effects, and is valid only for low concentrations; for larger concentrations the conductivity is, therefore, also invalid.

  8. Self-Healing Organic Fluorophore of Cyanine-Conjugated Amphiphilic Polypeptide for Near-Infrared Photostable Bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Tuanwei; Liu, Le; Jing, Titao; Ruan, Zheng; Yuan, Pan; Yan, Lifeng

    2018-05-02

    Photobleaching and biotoxicity are the main bottlenecks for organic fluorescent dyes applied in real-time dynamic monitoring of living cells. Here, an unnatural amino acid, 4-nitro-3-phenyl-l-alanine (NPA), was used as a scaffold to covalently link a near-infrared fluorophore Cy5.5 and an amphiphilic polypeptide, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]- block-poly[2-amino-N 4 -(2-diisopropylamino-ethyl)-l-aspartic acid] (P(OEGMA) 21 -P(Asp) 16 -iPr), was then conjugated for increasing the photostability and improving the biocompatibility simultaneously. The protective agent of NPA can service as an effective triplet state quenching by intramolecular electron transfer between Cy5.5 and NPA. The less sensitivity of the electron-transfer process for molecular oxygen makes it an ideal photostabilized strategy for fluorophores applied in live-cell imaging. Bonding to copolymer is a common way for hydrophobic dyes to expand their application in biomedical imaging and increase their functionality, depending on the delivery system. The results indicate that Cy5.5-NPA-linked polypeptide copolymer exhibited an enhanced photostability and an excellent biocompatibility, which means this scaffolding strategy has a potential application in fluorescence-guided surgery, lived-cell imaging, and super-resolution microscopy.

  9. Probing protein-lipid interactions by FRET between membrane fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusova, Valeriya M.; Gorbenko, Galyna P.; Deligeorgiev, Todor; Gadjev, Nikolai

    2016-09-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful fluorescence technique that has found numerous applications in medicine and biology. One area where FRET proved to be especially informative involves the intermolecular interactions in biological membranes. The present study was focused on developing and verifying a Monte-Carlo approach to analyzing the results of FRET between the membrane-bound fluorophores. This approach was employed to quantify FRET from benzanthrone dye ABM to squaraine dye SQ-1 in the model protein-lipid system containing a polycationic globular protein lysozyme and negatively charged lipid vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. It was found that acceptor redistribution between the lipid bilayer and protein binding sites resulted in the decrease of FRET efficiency. Quantification of this effect in terms of the proposed methodology yielded both structural and binding parameters of lysozyme-lipid complexes.

  10. Characterizing carbohydrate-protein interactions by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bewley, Carole A.; Shahzad-ul-Hussan, Syed

    2013-01-01

    Interactions between proteins and soluble carbohydrates and/or surface displayed glycans are central to countless recognition, attachment and signaling events in biology. The physical chemical features associated with these binding events vary considerably, depending on the biological system of interest. For example, carbohydrate-protein interactions can be stoichiometric or multivalent, the protein receptors can be monomeric or oligomeric, and the specificity of recognition can be highly stringent or rather promiscuous. Equilibrium dissociation constants for carbohydrate binding are known to vary from micromolar to millimolar, with weak interactions being far more prevalent; and individual carbohydrate binding sites can be truly symmetrical or merely homologous, and hence, the affinities of individual sites within a single protein can vary, as can the order of binding. Several factors, including the weak affinities with which glycans bind their protein receptors, the dynamic nature of the glycans themselves, and the non-equivalent interactions among oligomeric carbohydrate receptors, have made NMR an especially powerful tool for studying and defining carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we describe those NMR approaches that have proven to be the most robust in characterizing these systems, and explain what type of information can (or cannot) be obtained from each. Our goal is to provide to the reader the information necessary for selecting the correct experiment or sets of experiments to characterize their carbohydrate-protein interaction of interest. PMID:23784792

  11. Preparation of water-soluble glycoconjugated poly(acrylamide) for NMR analyses of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Trinh Anh; Trung, Phan Nghia; Dinh, Bui Long; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2014-05-01

    Oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates are important biopolymers not only as carriers of information in cell-cell interactions but also as markers of cellular differentiation, aging, and malignant alteration. Molecular interactions where carbohydrates are involved are usually considered as weak interactions, so the study and evaluation of these interactions is still in its infancy. The evidences and studies of carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions (CCI) will be confirming the importance of this mechanism for specific cell adhesion and communication. Their development will go hand in hand with the development of new and more sensitive techniques to study weak interactions. Recently, synthetic glycopolymers with functions similar to those of such natural carbohydrates and with specific pendant saccharide moieties were used as a solution for enhancement CCI when forming polyvalent interactions. Carbohydrates are ubiquitous components of cell wall membranes and occur as glycolipids, glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and capsular polysaccharides. As such they can participate in forefront intramolecular and intracellular events. Apart from their recognized roles in the physicochemical properties of glycolipids and glycoproteins. In this study, we designed trisaccharide monomers for free radical polymerization. Subsequently, the trisaccharide unit for chemical conjugation was synthesized from galactosamine in good yield. For further NMR analyses of CCI, glycopolymers composed of these sugar derivatives will be provided.

  12. Identification of endogenous fluorophores in the photoreceptors using autofluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lingling; Qu, Junle; Niu, Hanben

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present our investigation on the identification of endogenous fluorophores in photoreceptors using autofluorescence spectroscopy, which is performed with an inverted laser scanning confocal microscope equipped with an Argon ion laser and a GreNe laser. In our experiments, individual cones and rods are clearly resolved even in freshly prepared retina samples, without slicing or labeling. The experiment results show that autofluorescence spectrum of the photoreceptors has three peaks approximately at 525nm, 585nm and 665nm. Furthermore, the brightest autofluorescence originates from the photoreceptor outer segments. We can, therefore, come to a conclusion that the peaks at 525nm, 585nm are corresponding to FAD and A2-PE, respectively, which are distributed in the photoreceptor outer segments.

  13. Applications of space-electrophoresis in medicine. [for cellular separations in molecular biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of electrophoresis is reviewed and potential advances realizable in the field of biology and medicine from a space electrophoresis facility are examined. The ground-based applications of electrophoresis: (1) characterization of an ionized species; (2) determination of the quantitative composition of a complex mixture; and (3) isolation of the components of a mixture, separation achieved on the basis of the difference in transport rates is reviewed. The electrophoresis of living cells is considered, touching upon the following areas: the separation of T and B lymphocytes; the genetic influence on mouse lymphocyte mobilities; the abnormal production of specific and monoclonal immunoproteins; and the study of cancer. Schematic diagrams are presented of three types of electrophoresis apparatus: the column assembly for the static electrophoresis experiment on the Apollo-Soyuz mission, the continuous flow apparatus used in the same mission and a miniaturized electrophoresis apparatus.

  14. Exploiting Uniformly 13C-Labeled Carbohydrates for Probing Carbohydrate-Protein Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nestor, Gustav; Anderson, Taigh; Oscarson, Stefan; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2017-05-03

    NMR of a uniformly 13 C-labeled carbohydrate was used to elucidate the atomic details of a sugar-protein complex. The structure of the 13 C-labeled Manα(1-2)Manα(1-2)ManαOMe trisaccharide ligand, when bound to cyanovirin-N (CV-N), was characterized and revealed that in the complex the glycosidic linkage torsion angles between the two reducing-end mannoses are different from the free trisaccharide. Distances within the carbohydrate were employed for conformational analysis, and NOE-based distance mapping between sugar and protein revealed that Manα(1-2)Manα(1-2)ManαOMe is bound more intimately with its two reducing-end mannoses into the domain A binding site of CV-N than with the nonreducing end unit. Taking advantage of the 13 C spectral dispersion of 13 C-labeled carbohydrates in isotope-filtered experiments is a versatile means for a simultaneous mapping of the binding interactions on both, the carbohydrate and the protein.

  15. Microchip electrophoresis for wine analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, M Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The present critical review provides a summary of representative articles describing the analysis of wine by microchip electrophoresis. Special emphasis has been given to those compounds able to provide background information to achieve the differentiation of wines according to botanical origin, provenance, vintage and quality or assure wine authentication. This review focuses on capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchips dedicated to the analysis of wine covering all the contributions concerning this area. The most relevant compounds in wine analysis such as phenols, organic acids, inorganic species, aldehydes, sugars, alcohols, and neuroactive amines were considered. Moreover, a special section is dedicated to the potential of CE microchip for wine classification. Indeed, potential directions for the future are discussed.

  16. Multivalent interaction based carbohydrate biosensors for signal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Chalagalla, Srinivas; Li, Tiehai; Sun, Xue-long; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Peng; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2010-01-01

    Multivalent interaction between boronic acids immobilized on Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) sensor surface and the carbohydrates modified Au - nanoparticle (AuNP) has been demonstrated for the development of a sensitive carbohydrate biosensor. Briefly, a boronic acid - containing polymer (boropolymer) as multivalent carbohydrate receptor was oriented immobilized on the cysteamine coated electrode through isourea bond formation. Carbohydrates were conjugated to AuNPs to generate a multivalent carbohydrates moiety to amplify the response signal. Thus, the binding of the carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs to the boropolymer surface are multivalent which could simultaneously increase the binding affinity and specificity. We systematically studied the binding between five carbohydrate conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer. Our studies show that the associate constant (Ka) was in the order of fucose < glucose < mannose < galactose < maltose. A linear response in the range from 23 µM to 3.83 mM was observed for mannose conjugated AuNPs and the boropolymer recognition elements, with the lower detection limit of 1.5 µM for the carbohydrate analytes. Furthermore, the multivalent binding between carbohydrates and boronic acids are reversible and allow the regeneration of boropolymer surface by using 1M acetic acid so as to sequentially capture and release the carbohydrate analytes. PMID:20863680

  17. 3-Aminoquinoline/p-coumaric acid as a MALDI matrix for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Yuko; Funakoshi, Natsumi; Takeyama, Kohei; Hioki, Yusaku; Nishikaze, Takashi; Kaneshiro, Kaoru; Kawabata, Shin-Ichirou; Iwamoto, Shinichi; Tanaka, Koichi

    2014-02-18

    Glycosylation and phosphorylation are important post-translational modifications in biological processes and biomarker research. The difficulty in analyzing these modifications is mainly their low abundance and dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups. One solution in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry is to improve matrices for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides by increasing the sensitivity and suppressing dissociation of the labile regions. Recently, a liquid matrix 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA), introduced by Kolli et al. in 1996, has been reported to increase sensitivity for carbohydrates or phosphopeptides, but it has not been systematically evaluated for glycopeptides. In addition, 3-AQ/CHCA enhances the dissociation of labile regions. In contrast, a liquid matrix 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidium (TMG, G) salt of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA) was reported to suppress dissociation of sulfate groups or sialic acids of carbohydrates. Here we introduce a liquid matrix 3-AQ/CA for glycopeptides, carbohydrates, and phosphopeptides. All of the analytes were detected as [M + H](+) or [M - H](-) with higher or comparable sensitivity using 3-AQ/CA compared with 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB). The sensitivity was increased 1- to 1000-fold using 3-AQ/CA. The dissociation of labile regions such as sialic acids or phosphate groups and the fragmentation of neutral carbohydrates were suppressed more using 3-AQ/CA than using 3-AQ/CHCA or 2,5-DHB. 3-AQ/CA was thus determined to be an effective MALDI matrix for high sensitivity and the suppression of dissociation of labile regions in glycosylation and phosphorylation analyses.

  18. Gel Electrophoresis on a Budget to Dye for

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Julie H.

    2010-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important tools used in molecular biology and has facilitated the entire field of genetic engineering by enabling the separation of nucleic acids and proteins. However, commercial electrophoresis kits can cost up to $800 for each setup, which is cost prohibitive for most classroom budgets. This article…

  19. Fluorescence lifetime imaging with time-gated detection of hyaluronidase using a long lifetime azadioxatriangulenium (ADOTA) fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chib, Rahul; Requena, Sebastian; Mummert, Mark; Strzhemechny, Yuri M.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Borejdo, Julian; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fudala, Rafal

    2016-12-01

    A fluorescence lifetime imaging probe with a long lifetime was used in combination with time-gating for the detection of hyaluronidase using hyaluronic acid as the probe template. This probe was developed by heavily labeling hyaluronic acid with long lifetime azadioxatriangulenium fluorophores (ADOTA). We used this probe to image hyaluronidase produced by DU-145 prostate cancer cells.

  20. Force fields and scoring functions for carbohydrate simulation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiuming; Chen, Zhaoqiang; Cossins, Benjamin P; Xu, Zhijian; Shao, Qiang; Ding, Kai; Zhu, Weiliang; Shi, Jiye

    2015-01-12

    Carbohydrate dynamics plays a vital role in many biological processes, but we are not currently able to probe this with experimental approaches. The highly flexible nature of carbohydrate structures differs in many aspects from other biomolecules, posing significant challenges for studies employing computational simulation. Over past decades, computational study of carbohydrates has been focused on the development of structure prediction methods, force field optimization, molecular dynamics simulation, and scoring functions for carbohydrate-protein interactions. Advances in carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions can be largely attributed to enhanced computational algorithms, application of quantum mechanics, and the increasing number of experimental structures determined by X-ray and NMR techniques. The conformational analysis of carbohydrates is challengeable and has gone into intensive study in elucidating the anomeric, the exo-anomeric, and the gauche effects. Here, we review the issues associated with carbohydrate force fields and scoring functions, which will have a broad application in the field of carbohydrate-based drug design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of solution pH and electrical parameters on hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by a plasma-assisted electrophoresis technique.

    PubMed

    Nie, X; Leyland, A; Matthews, A; Jiang, J C; Meletis, E I

    2001-12-15

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings can be deposited using a hybrid process of plasma electrolysis and electrophoresis, called plasma-assisted electrophoretic deposition (PEPD). HA aqueous suspensions with various pH values were prepared using a modified ultrasonic cleaning bath as an agitator/stirrer. Both DC and unbalanced AC power supplies were used to bias the titanium alloy substrate materials employed in this work. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to observe and analyze coating morphology and microstructure. It was shown that the morphology and composition of the calcium phosphate coatings were significantly influenced by solution pH values; the level of "pure" HA in the coatings' composition corresponded to both solution pH and the type of power supply employed. Loss of hydroxyl radials (i.e., dehydroxylation), which degrades the performance of the hydroxyapatite coating in terms of long-term chemical and mechanical stability, can be virtually eliminated by a combination of high pH and unbalanced AC plasma power. In addition, the underlying TiO2 coatings used to support the HA layer (preproduced by plasma electrolysis process) have a nanoscaled (10-20 nm) polycrystalline structure. TEM studies also revealed a dense, continuous amorphous titania layer (10 nm in thickness) at the interface between the Ti alloy substrate and the TiO2 layer, which may play a role in improving the corrosion resistance of the substrate. Such a nanophase TiO2 layer (if used as a coating alone) may also provide a further improvement in osteoinductive properties, compared to a conventional TiO2 coating on the Ti alloy substrate. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 57: 612-618, 2001

  2. DNA DAMAGE QUANTITATION BY ALKALINE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS.

    SciTech Connect

    SUTHERLAND,B.M.; BENNETT,P.V.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2004-03-24

    Physical and chemical agents in the environment, those used in clinical applications, or encountered during recreational exposures to sunlight, induce damages in DNA. Understanding the biological impact of these agents requires quantitation of the levels of such damages in laboratory test systems as well as in field or clinical samples. Alkaline gel electrophoresis provides a sensitive (down to {approx} a few lesions/5Mb), rapid method of direct quantitation of a wide variety of DNA damages in nanogram quantities of non-radioactive DNAs from laboratory, field, or clinical specimens, including higher plants and animals. This method stems from velocity sedimentation studies of DNAmore » populations, and from the simple methods of agarose gel electrophoresis. Our laboratories have developed quantitative agarose gel methods, analytical descriptions of DNA migration during electrophoresis on agarose gels (1-6), and electronic imaging for accurate determinations of DNA mass (7-9). Although all these components improve sensitivity and throughput of large numbers of samples (7,8,10), a simple version using only standard molecular biology equipment allows routine analysis of DNA damages at moderate frequencies. We present here a description of the methods, as well as a brief description of the underlying principles, required for a simplified approach to quantitation of DNA damages by alkaline gel electrophoresis.« less

  3. Affinity capillary electrophoresis for studying interactions in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Olabi, Mais; Stein, Matthias; Wätzig, Hermann

    2018-05-10

    Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) analyzes noncovalent interactions between ligands and analytes based on changes in their electrophoretic mobility. This technique has been widely used to investigate various biomolecules, mainly proteins, polysaccharides and hormones. ACE is becoming a technique of choice to validate high throughput screening results, since it is very predictively working in realistic and relevant media, e.g. in body fluids. It is highly recommended to incorporate ACE as a powerful analytical tool to properly prepare animal testing and preclinical studies. The interacting molecules can be found free in solution or can be immobilized to a solid support. Thus, ACE is classified in two modes, free solution ACE and immobilized ACE. Every ACE mode has advantages and disadvantages. Each can be used for a variety of applications. This review covers literature of scopus and SciFinder data base in the period from 2016 until beginning 2018, including the keywords "affinity capillary electrophoresis", "immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis", "immunoassay capillary electrophoresis" and "immunosorbent capillary electrophoresis". More than 200 articles have been found and 112 have been selected and thoroughly discussed. During this period, the data processing and the underlying calculations in mobility shift ACE (ms ACE), frontal analysis ACE (FA ACE) and plug-plug kinetic capillary electrophoresis (ppKCE) as mostly applied free solution techniques have substantially improved. The range of applications in diverse free solution and immobilized ACE techniques has been considerably broadened. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Association between Carbohydrate Intake and Serum Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yunsheng; Chiriboga, David E.; Olendzki, Barbara C.; Li, Wenjun; Leung, Katherine; Hafner, Andrea R.; Li, Youfu; Ockene, Ira S.; Hebert, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Background The effect of dietary carbohydrate on blood lipids has received considerable attention in light of the current trend in lowering carbohydrate intake for weight loss. Objectives To evaluate the association between carbohydrate intake and serum lipids. Methods Blood samples and 24-hour dietary and physical activity recall interviews were obtained from each subject at quarterly intervals for five consecutive quarters between 1994 and 1998 from 574 healthy adults in Central Massachusetts. Relationships between serum lipids and dietary carbohydrate factors were assessed using linear mixed models and adjusting for other risk factors known to be related to blood lipids. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal results were reported. Results Cross-sectional analysis results from this study suggest that higher total carbohydrate intake, percentage of calories from carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI) and/or glycemic load (GL) are related to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and higher serum triacylglycerol levels, while higher total carbohydrate intake and/or GL are related to lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. In a one-year longitudinal analysis, GL was positively associated with total and LDL-C levels, and there was an inverse association between percentage of calories from carbohydrate and HDL-C levels. Conclusions Results suggest that there is a complex and predominantly unfavorable effect of increased intake of highly processed carbohydrate on lipid profile, which may have implications for metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Further studies in the form of randomized controlled trials are required to investigate these associations and determine the implications for lipid management. PMID:16582033

  5. [Carbohydrate metabolism in children with pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Tadzhidinova, M G; Aksenova, V A; Fateev, I I; Sevost'ianova, T A; Makinskiĭ, A I

    1998-01-01

    Examining carbohydrate metabolism in 59 children with pulmonary tuberculosis ascertained that to get tuberculosis naturally resulted in lower tissue sensitivity to insulin and in hyperinsulinemia. Effective treatment of children improves carbohydrate metabolism. However, there is no normalization of carbohydrate metabolism even in clinical cure.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5'-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  7. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won, E-mail: jshin@govst.edu; Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523-1872; Bernstein, Elliot R., E-mail: erb@lamar.colostate.edu

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate,more » rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.« less

  9. [Diet and civilization diseases--carbohydrate aspects].

    PubMed

    Haslbeck, M

    1990-01-01

    Carbohydrates are a major component of our food, they are important as body energy stores and they play an important role in cellular structures. In the present paper a classification of food carbohydrates, of dietary fibers and sweeteners is presented and the major physiological effects are discussed. Furthermore, the significance of carbohydrates for the etiology and the treatment of nutrition related diseases which are closely related to the development of arteriosclerosis is outlined. Carbohydrates are beside fat the major determinants of the daily caloric intake. This illustrates their impact on the development of obesity with its predominant role as a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, the role of sugar consumption in the relation to dental caries is stressed. Also the central role of carbohydrate consumption for the treatment of diabetes mellitus is described. Problems of the diabetes diet, the role of the dietary fiber in the treatment of different diseases and the necessity of sweetness in nutrition are discussed in greater detail.

  10. Push-pull fluorophores based on imidazole-4,5-dicarbonitrile: a comparison of spectral properties in solution and polymer matrices.

    PubMed

    Danko, Martin; Hrdlovič, Pavol; Kulhánek, Jiří; Bureš, Filip

    2011-07-01

    Spectral properties of novel type of fluorophores consist of a π-conjugated system end-capped with an electron-donating N,N-dimethylaminophenyl group and an electron-withdrawing imidazole-4,5-dicarbonitrile moiety were examined. An additional π-linker separating these two structural units comprises simple bond (B1P), phenyl (B2B), styryl (B3S) and ethynylphenyl (B4A) moieties. The absorption and fluorescence spectra were taken in cyclohexane, chloroform, acetonitrile, methanol and in polymer matrices such as polystyrene, poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(vinylchloride). The longest-wavelength absorption band was observed in the range of 300 to 400 nm. Intense fluorescence with quantum yields of 0.2 to 1.0 was observed in cyclohexane, chloroform and in polymer matrices within the range of 380 to 500 nm. The fluorescence was strongly quenched in neat acetonitrile and methanol. The fluorescence lifetimes are in the range of 1-4 ns for all measured fluorophores. The large Stokes shift (4,000 to 8,000 cm(-1)) indicates a large difference in the spatial arrangement of the chromophore in the absorbing and the emitting states. The observed fluorescence of all fluorophores in chloroform was quenched by 1-oxo-2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-hydroxy piperidine by the diffusion-controlled bimolecular rate (cca 2 × 10(10) L mol(-1) s(-1)). Polar solvents such as acetonitrile and methanol quenched the fluorescence as well but probably via a different mechanism. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  11. A turn-on near-infrared fluorescent chemosensor for selective detection of lead ions based on a fluorophore-gold nanoparticle assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaozhen; Sun, Junyong; Gao, Feng

    2015-06-21

    A turn-on fluorescent chemosensor of Pb(2+) in the near-infrared (NIR) region, which is based on the Pb(2+)-tuned restored fluorescence of a weakly fluorescent fluorophore-gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) assembly, has been reported. In this fluorophore-AuNP assembly, NIR fluorescent dye brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) molecules act as fluorophores and are used for signal transduction of fluorescence, while AuNPs act as quenchers to quench the nearby fluorescent BCB molecules via electron transfer. In the presence of Pb(2+), fluorescent BCB molecules detached from AuNPs and restored their fluorescence due to the formation of a chelating complex between Pb(2+) and glutathione confined on AuNPs. Under the optimal conditions, the present BCB-AuNP assembly is capable of detecting Pb(2+) with a concentration ranging from 7.5 × 10(-10) to 1 × 10(-8) mol L(-1) (0.16-2.1 ng mL(-1)) and a detection limit of 0.51 nM (0.11 ng mL(-1)). The present BCB-AuNP assembly can be used in aqueous media for the determination of Pb(2+) unlike common organic fluorescent reagents, and also shows advantages of NIR fluorescence spectrophotometry such as less interference, lower detection limit, and higher sensitivity. Moreover, the present method was successfully applied for the detection of Pb(2+) in water samples with satisfactory results.

  12. Decarbonylation and dehydrogenation of carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Andrews, Mark A.; Klaeren, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Carbohydrates, especially aldose or ketose sugars, including those whose carbonyl group is masked by hemi-acetal or hemi-ketal formation, are decarbonylated by heating the feed carbohydrate together with a transition metal complex in a suitable solvent. Also, primary alcohols, including sugar alditols are simultaneously dehydrogenated and decarbonylated by heating a mixture of rhodium and ruthenium complexes and the alcohol and optionally a hydrogen acceptor in an acceptable solvent. Such defarbonylation and/or dehydrogenation of sugars provides a convenient procedure for the synthesis of certain carbohydrates and may provide a means for the conversion of biomass into useful products.

  13. Fructose-maltodextrin ratio in a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution differentially affects exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rate, gut comfort, and performance.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Wendy J; Rowlands, David S

    2011-01-01

    Solutions containing multiple carbohydrates utilizing different intestinal transporters (glucose and fructose) show enhanced absorption, oxidation, and performance compared with single-carbohydrate solutions, but the impact of the ratio of these carbohydrates on outcomes is unknown. In a randomized double-blind crossover, 10 cyclists rode 150 min at 50% peak power, then performed an incremental test to exhaustion, while ingesting artificially sweetened water or one of three carbohydrate-salt solutions comprising fructose and maltodextrin in the respective following concentrations: 4.5 and 9% (0.5-Ratio), 6 and 7.5% (0.8-Ratio), and 7.5 and 6% (1.25-Ratio). The carbohydrates were ingested at 1.8 g/min and naturally (13)C-enriched to permit evaluation of oxidation rate by mass spectrometry and indirect calorimetry. Mean exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates were 1.04, 1.14, and 1.05 g/min (coefficient of variation 20%) in 0.5-, 0.8-, and 1.25-Ratios, respectively, representing likely small increases in 0.8-Ratio of 11% (90% confidence limits; ± 4%) and 10% (± 4%) relative to 0.5- and 1.25-Ratios, respectively. Comparisons of fat and total and endogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates between solutions were unclear. Relative to 0.5-Ratio, there were moderate improvements to peak power with 0.8- (3.6%; 99% confidence limits ± 3.5%) and 1.25-Ratio (3.0%; ± 3.7%) but unclear with water (0.4%; ± 4.4%). Increases in stomach fullness, abdominal cramping, and nausea were lowest with the 0.8- followed by the 1.25-Ratio solution. At high carbohydrate-ingestion rate, greater benefits to endurance performance may result from ingestion of 0.8- to 1.25-Ratio fructose-maltodextrin solutions. Small perceptible improvements in gut comfort favor the 0.8-Ratio and provide a clearer suggestion of mechanism than the relationship with exogenous carbohydrate oxidation.

  14. Carbohydrates as indicators of biogeochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, E. V.; Romankevich, E. A.

    2012-05-01

    A method is presented to study the carbohydrate composition of marine objects involved into sedimento- and diagenesis (plankton, particulate matter, benthos, and bottom sediments). The analysis of the carbohydrates is based upon the consecutive separation of their fractions with different solvents (water, alkali, and acid). The ratio of the carbohydrate fractions allows one to evaluate the lability of the carbohydrate complex. It is also usable as an indicator of the biogeochemical processes in the ocean, as well of the genesis and the degree of conversion of organic matter in the bottom sediments and nodules. The similarity in the monosaccharide composition is shown for dissolved organic matter and aqueous and alkaline fractions of seston and particulate matter.

  15. Dietary carbohydrates and glucose metabolism in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Parillo, M; Riccardi, G

    1995-12-01

    Dietary carbohydrates represent one of the major sources of energy for the human body. However, the main (if not the only) therapy for diabetes since ancient times has been based on reducing dietary carbohydrates drastically because of their effects on blood glucose levels. The introduction of insulin in the 1920s and then of oral hypoglycaemic drugs led to various studies evaluating the biochemical characteristics of carbohydrates and their effects on glucose metabolism in diabetic patients. This review considers the role of dietary carbohydrates in the diet of diabetic patients in the light of the most recent studies and provides a short summary of the biochemistry of carbohydrates and the physiology of carbohydrate digestion.

  16. Effect of structural modifications of ganglioside GM2 on intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction and enzymatic susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Kiso, Makoto; Ishida, Hideharu; Mauri, Laura; Raimondi, Laura; Bernardi, Anna; Sonnino, Sandro

    2008-01-01

    Summary The effect of inter-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction on basic cell biological processes has been well documented and appreciated. In contrast, very little is known about the intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction. The presence of an interaction between the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac in GM2 detected by NMR spectroscopy represents a well-defined intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction. This intriguing interaction is responsible for the GM2-epitope, GalNAcβ1Π4(Neu5Acα2Π3)Gal-, to exhibit a rigid and compact conformation. We hypothesized that this compact conformation may be the cause for both the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac in GM2 to be refractory to enzymatic hydrolysis and the GM2 activator protein is able to interact with the compact trisaccharide GM2-epitope, rendering the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac accessible to β-hexosaminidase A and sialidase. We have used a series of structurally modified GM2 to study the effect of modifications of sugar chains on the conformation and enzymatic susceptibility of this ganglioside. Our hypothesis was borne out by the fact that when the GalNAcβ1Π4Gal linkage in GM2 was converted to the GalNAcβ1Π6Gal, both the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac became susceptible to β-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator protein. We hope our work will engender interest in identifying other intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interactions in glycoconjugates. PMID:17967427

  17. Effect of structural modifications of ganglioside GM2 on intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction and enzymatic susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Teh; Li, Su-Chen; Kiso, Makoto; Ishida, Hideharu; Mauri, Laura; Raimondi, Laura; Bernardi, Anna; Sonnino, Sandro

    2008-03-01

    The effect of inter-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction on basic cell biological processes has been well documented and appreciated. In contrast, very little is known about the intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction. The presence of an interaction between the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac in GM2 detected by NMR spectroscopy represents a well-defined intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interaction. This intriguing interaction is responsible for the GM2-epitope, GalNAcbeta1-->4(Neu5Acalpha2-->3)Gal-, to exhibit a rigid and compact conformation. We hypothesized that this compact conformation may be the cause for both the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac in GM2 to be refractory to enzymatic hydrolysis and the GM2 activator protein is able to interact with the compact trisaccharide GM2-epitope, rendering the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac accessible to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase. We have used a series of structurally modified GM2 to study the effect of modifications of sugar chains on the conformation and enzymatic susceptibility of this ganglioside. Our hypothesis was borne out by the fact that when the GalNAcbeta1-->4Gal linkage in GM2 was converted to the GalNAcbeta1-->6Gal, both the GalNAc and the Neu5Ac became susceptible to beta-hexosaminidase A and sialidase, respectively, without GM2 activator protein. We hope our work will engender interest in identifying other intra-molecular carbohydrate-to-carbohydrate interactions in glycoconjugates.

  18. The role of dietary carbohydrates in organismal aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dongyeop; Son, Heehwa G; Jung, Yoonji; Lee, Seung-Jae V

    2017-05-01

    Carbohydrates are essential nutrients that are used as a primary source of energy. Carbohydrate utilization should be properly controlled, as abnormal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism is associated with diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and stroke. These metabolic syndromes have become a serious problem in developed countries, and there is an increased need for research examining the influence of carbohydrates on animal physiology. Diets enriched in glucose, a major carbohydrate, are also associated with accelerated aging in several model organisms, including yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Genetic factors that mediate the effects of high glucose diets on aging have been identified during the last decade, mostly through the use of C. elegans. In this review, we describe studies that determine the effects of carbohydrate-enriched diets on aging by focusing on the mechanisms through which evolutionarily conserved pathways mediate the lifespan-altering effects of glucose in C. elegans. These include the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1, sterol-regulatory element-binding protein, and AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. We also discuss the effects of various carbohydrates and carbohydrate-derived metabolites on aging in model organisms and cultured mammalian cells. Finally, we discuss how dietary carbohydrates influence health and aging in humans.

  19. Affinity Electrophoresis Using Ligands Attached To Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Alstine, James M.; Snyder, Robert S.; Harris, J. M.; Brooks, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    In new technique, reduction of electrophoretic mobilities by addition of polyethylene glycol to ligands increases electrophoretic separabilities. In immuno-affinity electrophoresis, modification of ligands extends specificity of electrophoretic separation to particles having surface electric-charge structures otherwise making them electrophoretically inseparable. Modification of antibodies by polyethylene glycol greatly reduces ability to aggregate while enhancing ability to affect electrophoretic mobilities of cells. In hydrophobic-affinity electrophoresis, addition of polyethylene glycol reduces tendency toward aggregation of cells or macromolecules.

  20. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  1. Apparatus for electrophoresis separation

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Norman L.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus is disclosed for simultaneously performing electrophoresis separations on a plurality of slab gels containing samples of protein, protein subunits or nucleic acids. A reservoir of buffer solution is divided into three compartments by two parallel partitions having vertical slots spaced along their length. A sheet of flexible, electrically insulative material is attached to each partition and is provided with vertical slits aligned with the slots. Slab-gel holders are received within the slots with the flexible material folded outwardly as flaps from the slits to overlay portions of the holder surfaces and thereby act as electrical and liquid seals. An elongated, spaghetti-like gel containing a sample of specimen that was previously separated by isoelectric focusing techniques is vertically positioned along a marginal edge portion of the slab gel. On application of an electrical potential between the two outer chambers of buffer solution, a second dimensional electrophoresis separation in accordance with molecular weight occurs as the specimen molecules migrate across the slab gel.

  2. Myosin conformational states determined by single fluorophore polarization

    PubMed Central

    Warshaw, David M.; Hayes, Eric; Gaffney, Donald; Lauzon, Anne-Marie; Wu, Junru; Kennedy, Guy; Trybus, Kathleen; Lowey, Susan; Berger, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Muscle contraction is powered by the interaction of the molecular motor myosin with actin. With new techniques for single molecule manipulation and fluorescence detection, it is now possible to correlate, within the same molecule and in real time, conformational states and mechanical function of myosin. A spot-confocal microscope, capable of detecting single fluorophore polarization, was developed to measure orientational states in the smooth muscle myosin light chain domain during the process of motion generation. Fluorescently labeled turkey gizzard smooth muscle myosin was prepared by removal of endogenous regulatory light chain and re-addition of the light chain labeled at cysteine-108 with the 6-isomer of iodoacetamidotetramethylrhodamine (6-IATR). Single myosin molecule fluorescence polarization data, obtained in a motility assay, provide direct evidence that the myosin light chain domain adopts at least two orientational states during the cyclic interaction of myosin with actin, a randomly disordered state, most likely associated with myosin whereas weakly bound to actin, and an ordered state in which the light chain domain adopts a finite angular orientation whereas strongly bound after the powerstroke. PMID:9653135

  3. Temporal and mechanistic tracking of cellular uptake dynamics with novel surface fluorophore-bound nanodiamonds.

    PubMed

    Schrand, Amanda M; Lin, Jonathan B; Hens, Suzanne Ciftan; Hussain, Saber M

    2011-02-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) offer promise for a multitude of biological applications including cellular probes at the bio-interface for targeted delivery of anticancer substances, Raman and fluorescent-based imaging and directed cell growth. Nanodiamonds (NDs), in particular, have several advantages compared to other carbon-based nanomaterials - including a rich surface chemistry useful for chemical conjugation, high biocompatibility with little reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, physical and chemical stability that affords sterilization, high surface area to volume ratio, transparency and a high index of refraction. The visualization of ND internalization into cells is possible via photoluminescence, which is produced by direct dye conjugation or high energy irradiation that creates nitrogen vacancy centers. Here, we explore the kinetics and mechanisms involved in the intracellular uptake and localization of novel, highly-stable, fluorophore-conjugated NDs. Examination in a neuronal cell line (N2A) shows ND localization to early endosomes and lysosomes with eventual release into the cytoplasm. The addition of endocytosis and exocytosis inhibitors allows for diminished uptake and increased accumulation, respectively, which further corroborates cellular behavior in response to NDs. Ultimately, the ability of the NDs to travel throughout cellular compartments of varying pH without degradation of the surface-conjugated fluorophore or alteration of cell viability over extended periods of time is promising for their use in biomedical applications as stable, biocompatible, fluorescent probes.

  4. Green emission fluorophores in eyes with atrophic age-related macular degeneration: a colour fundus autofluorescence pilot study.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Enrico; Lei, Jianqin; Balasubramanian, Siva; Uji, Akihito; Cozzi, Mariano; Sarao, Valentina; Lanzetta, Paolo; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Sadda, SriniVas R

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the presence of short-wave fluorophores within regions of age-related macular degeneration (AMD)-associated macular atrophy (MA) area. This is a prospective, observational, cross-sectional case series. 25 eyes (18 patients) with late AMD and clinically identified MA were enrolled. Eyes were imaged using a confocal light-emitting diode blue-light fundus autofluorescence (FAF) device (EIDON, CenterVue, Padua, Italy) with 450 nm excitation wavelength and the capability for 'colour' FAF imaging, including both the individual red and green components of the emission spectrum. To produce images with a high contrast for isolating the green component, the red component was subtracted from the total FAF image. The main outcome measure was the presence of green emission fluorescence component (GEFC) within the MA area. Volume spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) scans were obtained through the macula and the OCT was correlated with the MA lesions identified on the FAF images, including regions of increased GEFC. Of the investigated eyes, 11 out of 25 (44.0 %) showed the absence of GEFC in the MA area, whereas 14 eyes (56.0%) were characterised by GEFC within the MA area. The presence and distribution of GEFC in the MA area correlated with the presence of hyper-reflective material over Bruch's membrane on the corresponding SD-OCT scans. Short-wave fluorophores, which contribute to the GEFC, are present in the MA area and appear to correspond to residual debris or drusenoid material. Short-wavelength fluorophores revealed by colour FAF imaging may warrant further study. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Regulation of low-density lipoprotein subfractions by carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Philipp A; Berneis, Kaspar

    2012-07-01

    This article aims at reviewing the recent findings that have been made concerning the crosstalk of carbohydrate metabolism with the generation of small, dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, which are known to be associated with an adverse cardiovascular risk profile. Studies conducted during the past few years have quite unanimously shown that the quantity of carbohydrates ingested is associated with a decrease of LDL particle size and an increase in its density. Conversely, diets that aim at a reduction of carbohydrate intake are able to improve LDL quality. Furthermore, a reduction of the glycaemic index without changing the amount of carbohydrates ingested has similar effects. Diseases with altered carbohydrate metabolism, for example, type 2 diabetes, are associated with small, dense LDL particles. Finally, even the kind of monosaccharide the carbohydrate intake consists of is important concerning LDL particle size: fructose has been shown to alter the LDL particle subclass profile more adversely than glucose in many recent studies. LDL particle quality, rather than its quantity, is affected by carbohydrate metabolism, which is of clinical importance, in particular, in the light of increased carbohydrate consumption in today's world.

  6. Maximizing Aggregation of Organic Fluorophores to Prolong Fluorescence Lifetime for Two-Photon Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenbo; Guo, Lihong; Bai, Lei; Miao, Xiaofei; Ni, Yun; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Hui; Xie, Meng; Li, Lin; Lu, Xiaomei; Huang, Wei; Fan, Quli

    2018-05-28

    Two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging (TP-FLIM) not only permits imaging deep inside the tissues with precise spatial manipulation but also circumvents tissue autofluorescence, holding tremendous promise in molecular imaging. However, the serious lack of suitable contrast agents with long fluorescence lifetime and efficient two-photon absorption (TPA) greatly limits the advance of TP-FLIM. This study reports a simple approach to fabricate water-soluble organic semiconducting nanoparticles [thioxanthone (TXO) NPs] with ultralong fluorescence lifetime and efficient TPA for in vivo TP-FLIM. The approach utilizes the aggregation of a specifically selected thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) fluorophore to prolong its fluorescence lifetime. Encapsulating the TADF fluorophore within an amphiphilic copolymer not only maximizes its aggregation but also obtains TXO NPs with efficient TPA. Importantly, as-prepared TXO NPs exhibit a considerably long fluorescence lifetime at a magnitude of 4.2 µs, which is almost 1000 times larger than that of existing organic contrast agents. Moreover, such long fluorescence lifetime is almost oxygen-inert, readily realizing both in vitro and in vivo TP-FLIM. This work may set valuable guidance for designing organic semiconducting materials with ultralong fluorescence lifetimes to fulfill the potential of FLIM. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. k-Space Image Correlation Spectroscopy: A Method for Accurate Transport Measurements Independent of Fluorophore Photophysics

    PubMed Central

    Kolin, David L.; Ronis, David; Wiseman, Paul W.

    2006-01-01

    We present the theory and application of reciprocal space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS). This technique measures the number density, diffusion coefficient, and velocity of fluorescently labeled macromolecules in a cell membrane imaged on a confocal, two-photon, or total internal reflection fluorescence microscope. In contrast to r-space correlation techniques, we show kICS can recover accurate dynamics even in the presence of complex fluorophore photobleaching and/or “blinking”. Furthermore, these quantities can be calculated without nonlinear curve fitting, or any knowledge of the beam radius of the exciting laser. The number densities calculated by kICS are less sensitive to spatial inhomogeneity of the fluorophore distribution than densities measured using image correlation spectroscopy. We use simulations as a proof-of-principle to show that number densities and transport coefficients can be extracted using this technique. We present calibration measurements with fluorescent microspheres imaged on a confocal microscope, which recover Stokes-Einstein diffusion coefficients, and flow velocities that agree with single particle tracking measurements. We also show the application of kICS to measurements of the transport dynamics of α5-integrin/enhanced green fluorescent protein constructs in a transfected CHO cell imaged on a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope using charge-coupled device area detection. PMID:16861272

  8. No influence of high- and low-carbohydrate diet on the oral glucose tolerance test in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Buhling, Kai J; Elsner, Eva; Wolf, Christiane; Harder, Thomas; Engel, Barbara; Wascher, Cornelia; Siebert, Gerda; Dudenhausen, Joachim W

    2004-04-01

    Our objective was to determine the influence of the carbohydrate content of the diet preceding the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in pregnancy on the test results and to evaluate the necessity of the recommended preparatory high-carbohydrate diet. Thirty-four women from our outpatient clinic were enrolled in this prospective study. After giving informed consent, each women underwent a 90-min lesson (supervised by a dietary assistant) covering the carbohydrate, protein and fat content of different foods. Women were then randomized and in a crossover design started a diet with either a low or a high carbohydrate content. We were aiming at a carbohydrate intake of 40% in the low-carbohydrate week (LCH) and 50% in the high-carbohydrate week (HCH). Compliance was monitored by a detailed food diary which the women kept and which included the weight of the foods they consumed. The actual dietary intakes as calculated from the food diaries showed that the mean caloric intake was 1801 +/- 314 kcal in the LCH and 2118 +/- 312 kcal in the HCH week (<0.001). During the LCH diet, CH intake was 39 +/- 6.1% and 49 +/- 6.6% in the HCH week (P < 0.001). The carbohydrate intake per kilogram bodyweight was 30 +/- 5.3 kcal vs. 35 +/- 5.2 kcal (P < 0.001). The number of patients diagnosed with gestational diabetes was two in the LCH and three in the HCH week (not significant). The sum of the OGTT values (fasting, 1 h and 2 h) after the LCH was 18.9 +/- 2.1 mmol/l vs. 18.8 +/- 2.1 mmol/l after the HCH (P = 0.51). No differences could be found in both groups regarding the fasting, 1-h, or 2-h glucose values. Including patients with a CH difference of at least 5%, 10%, and 15% carbohydrate between the weeks, we still did not observe any differences in the OGTT sum. We also looked at a possible influence of the CH content of the diet on the day before the test and of the last meal before the OGTT results and observed there was none. This is the first study which has observed the

  9. Aminooxylated Carbohydrates: Synthesis and Applications.

    PubMed

    Pifferi, Carlo; Daskhan, Gour Chand; Fiore, Michele; Shiao, Tze Chieh; Roy, René; Renaudet, Olivier

    2017-08-09

    Among other classes of biomolecules, carbohydrates and glycoconjugates are widely involved in numerous biological functions. In addition to addressing the related synthetic challenges, glycochemists have invested intense efforts in providing access to structures that can be used to study, activate, or inhibit these biological processes. Over the past few decades, aminooxylated carbohydrates have been found to be key building blocks for achieving these goals. This review provides the first in-depth overview covering several aspects related to the syntheses and applications of aminooxylated carbohydrates. After a brief introduction to oxime bonds and their relative stabilities compared to related C═N functions, synthetic aspects of oxime ligation and methodologies for introducing the aminooxy functionality onto both glycofuranosyls and glycopyranosyls are described. The subsequent section focuses on biological applications involving aminooxylated carbohydrates as components for the construcion of diverse architectures. Mimetics of natural structures represent useful tools for better understanding the features that drive carbohydrate-receptor interaction, their biological output and they also represent interesting structures with improved stability and tunable properties. In the next section, multivalent structures such as glycoclusters and glycodendrimers obtained through oxime ligation are described in terms of synthetic design and their biological applications such as immunomodulators. The second-to-last section discusses miscellaneous applications of oxime-based glycoconjugates, such as enantioselective catalysis and glycosylated oligonucleotides, and conclusions and perspectives are provided in the last section.

  10. Serum protein fractionation using supported molecular matrix electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Weijie; Matsuno, Yu-ki; Kameyama, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    Supported molecular matrix electrophoresis (SMME), in which a hydrophilic polymer such as PVA serves as a support within a porous PVDF membrane, was recently developed. This method is similar to cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis but differs in the compatibility to glycan analysis of the separated bands. In this report, we describe the first instance of the application of SMME to human serum fractionation, and demonstrate the differences with serum fractionation by cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis. The SMME membrane exhibited almost no EOF during electrophoresis, unlike the cellulose acetate membrane, but afforded comparative results for serum fractionation. The visualization of each fraction was achieved by conventional staining with dye such as Direct Blue-71, and objective quantification was obtained by densitometry after inducing membrane transparency with 1-nonene. Immunostaining was also achieved. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of both N-linked and O-linked glycans from the separated bands was demonstrated. Serum fractionation and glycan profiling of each fraction using SMME will enable novel insights into the relationships between various glycosylation profiles and disease states. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A Universal Protocol for Photochemical Covalent Immobilization of Intact Carbohydrates for the Preparation of Carbohydrate Microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2010-01-01

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, non-reducing sugars such as alditols and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging. PMID:21138274

  12. A universal protocol for photochemical covalent immobilization of intact carbohydrates for the preparation of carbohydrate microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huibin; Zhang, Yiming; Yuan, Xun; Chen, Yi; Yan, Mingdi

    2011-01-19

    A universal photochemical method has been established for the immobilization of intact carbohydrates and their analogues, and for the fabrication of carbohydrate microarrays. The method features the use of perfluorophenyl azide (PFPA)-modified substrates and the photochemical reaction of surface azido groups with printed carbohydrates. Various aldoses, ketoses, nonreducing sugars such as alditols, and their derivatives can be directly arrayed on the PFPA-modified chips. The lectin-recognition ability of arrayed mannose, glucose, and their oligo- and polysaccharides were confirmed using surface plasmon resonance imaging and laser-induced fluorescence imaging.

  13. Stereochemical Control in Carbohydrate Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Rhys; Northcote, Peter T.; Harvey, Joanne E.; Dangerfield, Emma M.; Stocker, Bridget L.

    2008-01-01

    Carbohydrates, in the form of glycoconjugates, have recently been shown to control a wide range of cellular processes. Accordingly, students interested in the study of organic chemistry and biomedical sciences should be exposed to carbohydrate chemistry. To this end, we have developed a sequence of experiments that leads the student from the…

  14. Electrophoresis for Under Five Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumetta, Vincent J.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.

    1994-01-01

    Equipped with a little more than batteries, food-dye, and sieving media, teachers can demonstrate an essential process used in biochemical research. An activity is provided to aid in helping students to understand electrophoresis. (ZWH)

  15. Carbohydrate Counting

    MedlinePlus

    ... help you manage your blood glucose. It sounds complex, but with time you and your diabetes care team can figure out the right balance for you. How Much Carbohydrate? A great place to start may be to ...

  16. Crystal Structures of the Mango-II RNA Aptamer Reveal Heterogeneous Fluorophore Binding and Guide Engineering of Variants with Improved Selectivity and Brightness.

    PubMed

    Trachman, Robert J; Abdolahzadeh, Amir; Andreoni, Alessio; Cojocaru, Razvan; Knutson, Jay R; Ryckelynck, Michael; Unrau, Peter J; Ferré-D'Amaré, Adrian R

    2018-05-24

    Several RNA aptamers that bind small molecules and enhance their fluorescence have been successfully used to tag and track RNAs in vivo, but these genetically encodable tags have not yet achieved single-fluorophore resolution. Recently, Mango-II, an RNA that binds TO1-Biotin with ∼1 nM affinity and enhances its fluorescence by >1500-fold, was isolated by fluorescence selection from the pool that yielded the original RNA Mango. We determined the crystal structures of Mango-II in complex with two fluorophores, TO1-Biotin and TO3-Biotin, and found that despite their high affinity, the ligands adopt multiple distinct conformations, indicative of a binding pocket with modest stereoselectivity. Mutational analysis of the binding site led to Mango-II(A22U), which retains high affinity for TO1-Biotin but now discriminates >5-fold against TO3-biotin. Moreover, fluorescence enhancement of TO1-Biotin increases by 18%, while that of TO3-Biotin decreases by 25%. Crystallographic, spectroscopic, and analogue studies show that the A22U mutation improves conformational homogeneity and shape complementarity of the fluorophore-RNA interface. Our work demonstrates that even after extensive functional selection, aptamer RNAs can be further improved through structure-guided engineering.

  17. Quantum confined Stark effect in organic fluorophores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xihong; Anderson, John; Tepper, Gary; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Nayak, Saroj

    2008-03-01

    Fluorescent molecules have widely been used to detect and visualize structure and processes in biological samples due to its extraordinary sensitivity. However, the emission spectra of flurophores are usually broad and the accurate identification is difficult. Recently, experiments show that energy shifts by Stark effect can be used to aid the identification of organic molecules [1]. Stark effect originates from the shifting/splitting of energy levels when a molecule is under an external electric field, which shows a shift/splitting of a peak in absorption/emission spectra. The size of the shift depends on the magnitude of the external field and the molecular structure. In this talk we will show our theoretical study of the peak shifts on emission spectra for a series of organic fluorophores such as tyrosine, tryptophan, rhodamine123 and coumarin314 using density functional theory. We find that a particular peak shift is determined by the local dipole moments of molecular orbitals rather than the global dipole moment of the molecule. These molecular-specific shifts in emission spectra may enable to improve molecular identification in biosensors. Our results will be compared with experimental data. [1]Unpublished, S. Sarkar, B. Kanchibotla, S. Bandyopadhyay, G. Tepper, J. Edwards, J. Anderson, and R. Kessick.

  18. Alteration of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of a C-type lectin CEL-I mutant with an EPN carbohydrate-binding motif.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Ishimine, Tomohiro; Baba, Tomohiro; Kimura, Masanari; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro

    2013-07-01

    CEL-I is a Gal/GalNAc-specific C-type lectin isolated from the sea cucumber Cucumaria echinata. This lectin is composed of two carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) with the carbohydrate-recognition motif QPD (Gln-Pro- Asp), which is generally known to exist in galactose-specific C-type CRDs. In the present study, a mutant CEL-I with EPN (Glu-Pro-Asn) motif, which is thought to be responsible for the carbohydrate-recognition of mannose-specific Ctype CRDs, was produced in Escherichia coli, and its effects on the carbohydrate-binding specificity were examined using polyamidoamine dendrimer (PD) conjugated with carbohydrates. Although wild-type CEL-I effectively formed complexes with N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-PD but not with mannose-PD, the mutant CEL-I showed relatively weak but definite affinity for mannose-PD. These results indicated that the QPD and EPN motifs play a significant role in the carbohydrate-recognition mechanism of CEL-I, especially in the discrimination of galactose and mannose. Additional mutations in the recombinant CEL-I binding site may further increase its specificity for mannose, and should provide insights into designing novel carbohydrate-recognition proteins.

  19. A comparison of low-carbohydrate vs. high-carbohydrate diets: energy restriction, nutrient quality and correlation to body mass index.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Shanthy A; Spence, Joseph T

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate free-living adults' diets that ranged from very low to high amounts of carbohydrate for their energy content, nutritional quality and correlation to Body Mass Index. Adults ages 19 years and older, who had complete dietary intake data on day-1 of the USDA's 1994 to 1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-1996), were divided into four groups--very low, low, moderate and high carbohydrate--based on the percent total energy from carbohydrate. Mean energy, nutrient, food intakes and Body Mass Index values were compared among the groups. SUDAAN software package was used for the data analysis and pair-wise mean comparisons (p < 0.05). The high-carbohydrate diet was lower in energy and energy density (number of kilocalories per gram of total amount of food consumed) than the other three diets. Macronutrient composition varied significantly among all the four groups. Nutrient density (amount of nutrient per 1,000 kilocalories of energy consumed) of vitamin A, carotene, vitamin C, folate, calcium, magnesium and iron increased and that of vitamin B12 and zinc decreased with an increase in the percent total energy from carbohydrate. The high-carbohydrate group ate more of low-fat foods, grain products and fruits. This group also had the lowest sodium intake. Adults eating a high-carbohydrate diet are more likely to have Body Mass Index values below 25. A study of diets of free-living adults in the U.S. showed that diets high in carbohydrate were both energy restrictive and nutritious and may be adopted for successful weight management.

  20. Using Gel Electrophoresis To Illustrate Protein Diversity and Isoelectric Point.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Mark; Vanable, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the differences in protein structures by focusing on isoelectric point with an experiment that is observable under certain pH levels in gel electrophoresis. Explains the electrophoresis procedure and reports results of the experiments. (YDS)

  1. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used : SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis : CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines.

  2. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity.

    PubMed

    Warda, Alicja K; Siezen, Roland J; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P; Nierop Groot, Masja N; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates on body weight and blood lipids: the CARMEN study. The Carbohydrate Ratio Management in European National diets.

    PubMed

    Saris, W H; Astrup, A; Prentice, A M; Zunft, H J; Formiguera, X; Verboeket-van de Venne, W P; Raben, A; Poppitt, S D; Seppelt, B; Johnston, S; Vasilaras, T H; Keogh, G F

    2000-10-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of changes in dietary carbohydrate/fat ratio and simple vs complex carbohydrates. Randomized controlled multicentre trial (CARMEN), in which subjects were allocated for 6 months either to a seasonal control group (no intervention) or to one of three experimental groups: a control diet group (dietary intervention typical of the average national intake); a low-fat high simple carbohydrate group; or a low-fat high complex carbohydrate group. Three hundred and ninety eight moderately obese adults. The change in body weight was the primary outcome; changes in body composition and blood lipids were secondary outcomes. Body weight loss in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate and low-fat high complex carbohydrate groups was 0.9 kg (P < 0.05) and 1.8 kg (P < 0.001), while the control diet and seasonal control groups gained weight (0.8 and 0.1 kg, NS). Fat mass changed by -1.3kg (P< 0.01), -1.8kg (P< 0.001) and +0.6kg (NS) in the low-fat high simple carbohydrate, low-fat high complex carbohydrate and control diet groups, respectively. Changes in blood lipids did not differ significantly between the dietary treatment groups. Our findings suggest that reduction of fat intake results in a modest but significant reduction in body weight and body fatness. The concomitant increase in either simple or complex carbohydrates did not indicate significant differences in weight change. No adverse effects on blood lipids were observed. These findings underline the importance of this dietary change and its potential impact on the public health implications of obesity.

  4. pH responsive label-assisted click chemistry triggered sensitivity amplification for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of carbohydrate antigen 24-2.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yun; Zhao, Lihua; Ma, Zhanfang

    2018-05-15

    Sensitivity amplification strategy by implementing click chemistry in the construction of biosensing interface can efficiently improve the performance of immunosensor. Herein, we developed a sandwich-type amperometric immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of carbohydrate antigen 24-2 (CA 242) based on pH responsive label-assisted click chemistry triggered sensitivity amplification strategy. The sensitivity of amperometric immunosensor relies on the current response differences (ΔI) caused by per unit concentration target analyte. The pH responsive Cu 2+ -loaded polydopamine (CuPDA) particles conjugated with detection antibodies were employed as labels, which can release Cu(II) ions by regulating pH. In the presence of ascorbic acid (reductant), Cu(II) ions were reduced to Cu(I) ions. Azide-functionalized double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) as signal enhancer was immobilized on the substrate through Cu + -catalyzed azide/alkyne cycloaddition reaction. With the help of the click reaction, the ΔI caused by target was elevated prominently, resulting in sensitivity amplification of the immunosensor. Under optimal condition, the proposed immunosensor exhibited excellent performance with linear range from 0.0001 to 100 U mL -1 and ultralow detection limit of 20.74 μU mL -1 . This work successfully combines click chemistry with pH-responsive labels in sandwich-type amperometric immunosensor, providing a promising sensitivity amplification strategy to construct immunosensing platform for analysis of other tumor marker. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  6. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  7. Carbohydrate Nutrition and Team Sport Performance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian

    2015-11-01

    The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.

  8. Separation of saccharides derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid by capillary electrophoresis and their structural consideration by nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Sato, Kae; Abo, Mitsuru; Okubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Sunao

    2003-03-01

    Saccharides including mono- and disaccharides were quantitatively derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA). These derivatives were then separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection using 50mM sodium phosphate buffer as the running electrolyte solution. In particular, the saccharide derivatives with the same molecular weight as 2-AA aldohexoses (mannose and glucose) and 2-AA aldopentoses (ribose and xylose) were well separated. The underlying reasons for separation were explored by studying their structural data using 1H and 13C NMR. It was found that the configurational difference between their hydroxyl group at C2 or C3 could cause the difference in Stokes' radii between their molecules and thus lead to different electrophoretic mobilities. The correlation between the electrophoretic behavior of these carbohydrate derivatives and their structures was studied utilizing the calculated molecular models of the 2-AA-labeled mannose, glucose, ribose, and xylose.

  9. Neurobiologic basis of craving for carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Tamara; Santander, Jaime; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Ana María

    2014-03-01

    There is a relationship between emotional disorders, obesity, and craving for carbohydrates. This relationship complicates the success of treatments aimed at combatting obesity, which is considered to be the epidemic of the twenty-first century. We conducted a review of the neurobiologic basis for carbohydrate craving, with the hope that this understanding will enable the design of more efficient therapeutic strategies. We conducted a non-systematic literature search in PubMed using MeSH. Research on the basis of carbohydrate craving is varied, but may be grouped into five main areas: the serotonergic system, palatability and hedonic response, the motivational system, stress response systems, and gene-environment interaction. The models that integrate motivational systems with palatability and hedonic response studies are the ones that we believe can best explain both craving for carbohydrates and related addictive phenomena. Research has contributed to a greater understanding of the neurobiologic basis of carbohydrate craving. The latter, in turn, contributes to an understanding of the implications, challenges, and possible therapies that might be put in place to cope with this phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic computer simulations of electrophoresis: three decades of active research.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Wolfgang; Caslavska, Jitka; Breadmore, Michael C; Mosher, Richard A

    2009-06-01

    Dynamic models for electrophoresis are based upon model equations derived from the transport concepts in solution together with user-inputted conditions. They are able to predict theoretically the movement of ions and are as such the most versatile tool to explore the fundamentals of electrokinetic separations. Since its inception three decades ago, the state of dynamic computer simulation software and its use has progressed significantly and Electrophoresis played a pivotal role in that endeavor as a large proportion of the fundamental and application papers were published in this periodical. Software is available that simulates all basic electrophoretic systems, including moving boundary electrophoresis, zone electrophoresis, ITP, IEF and EKC, and their combinations under almost exactly the same conditions used in the laboratory. This has been employed to show the detailed mechanisms of many of the fundamental phenomena that occur in electrophoretic separations. Dynamic electrophoretic simulations are relevant for separations on any scale and instrumental format, including free-fluid preparative, gel, capillary and chip electrophoresis. This review includes a historical overview, a survey of current simulators, simulation examples and a discussion of the applications and achievements of dynamic simulation.

  11. Carbohydrate-based vaccine adjuvants - discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Qiu, Liying; Wang, Xiaoli; Zou, Xiaopeng; Lu, Mengji; Yin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The addition of a suitable adjuvant to a vaccine can generate significant effective adaptive immune responses. There is an urgent need for the development of novel po7tent and safe adjuvants for human vaccines. Carbohydrate molecules are promising adjuvants for human vaccines due to their high biocompatibility and good tolerability in vivo. The present review covers a few promising carbohydrate-based adjuvants, lipopolysaccharide, trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate, QS-21 and inulin as examples, which have been extensively studied in human vaccines in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. The authors discuss the current status, applications and strategies of development of each adjuvant and different adjuvant formulation systems. This information gives insight regarding the exciting prospect in the field of carbohydrate-based adjuvant research. Carbohydrate-based adjuvants are promising candidates as an alternative to the Alum salts for human vaccines development. Furthermore, combining two or more adjuvants in one formulation is one of the effective strategies in adjuvant development. However, further research efforts are needed to study and develop novel adjuvants systems, which can be more stable, potent and safe. The development of synthetic carbohydrate chemistry can improve the study of carbohydrate-based adjuvants.

  12. Interaction of albumins and heparinoids investigated by affinity capillary electrophoresis and free flow electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mozafari, Mona; El Deeb, Sami; Krull, Friederike; Wildgruber, Robert; Weber, Gerhard; Reiter, Christian G; Wätzig, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    A fast and precise affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) method has been applied to investigate the interactions between two serum albumins (HSA and BSA) and heparinoids. Furthermore, different free flow electrophoresis methods were developed to separate the species which appears owing to interaction of albumins with pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) under different experimental conditions. For ACE experiments, the normalized mobility ratios (∆R/R f ), which provided information about the binding strength and the overall charge of the protein-ligand complex, were used to evaluate the binding affinities. ACE experiments were performed at two different temperatures (23 and 37°C). Both BSA and HSA interact more strongly with PPS than with unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins. For PPS, the interactions can already be observed at low mg/L concentrations (3 mg/L), and saturation is already obtained at approximately 20 mg/L. Unfractionated heparin showed almost no interactions with BSA at 23°C, but weak interactions at 37°C at higher heparin concentrations. The additional signals also appeared at higher concentrations at 37°C. Nevertheless, in most cases the binding data were similar at both temperatures. Furthermore, HSA showed a characteristic splitting in two peaks especially after interacting with PPS, which is probably attributable to the formation of two species or conformational change of HSA after interacting with PPS. The free flow electrophoresis methods have confirmed and completed the ACE experiments. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Healthy carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional foods include dietary fiber consisting of health-promoting carbohydrates. We have produced novel prebiotics from orange peel and observed that they extend the shelf life of probiotic bacteria in synbiotics. Some pectic-oligosaccharides and xyloglucan-oligosaccharides also have anti-adhesi...

  14. Application of Microchip Electrophoresis for Clinical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsushiro, Shouki; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. In addition, the analysis has expanded to an analytical field like not only the analysis of DNA but also the analysis of RNA, the protein, the sugar chain, and the cellular function, etc. In this report, we showed that high-performance monitoring systems for human blood glucose levels and α-amylase activity in human plasma using microchip electrophoresis.

  15. Constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection in combination with in-capillary derivatization for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Na; Zhou, Lei; Zhu, Zaifang; Zhang, Huige; Zhou, Ximin; Chen, Xingguo

    2009-05-15

    In this work, a novel method combining constant pressure-assisted head-column field-amplified sample injection (PA-HC-FASI) with in-capillary derivatization was developed for enhancing the sensitivity of capillary electrophoresis. PA-HC-FASI uses an appropriate positive pressure to counterbalance the electroosmotic flow in the capillary column during electrokinetic injection, while taking advantage of the field amplification in the sample matrix and the water of the "head column". Accordingly, the analytes were stacked at the stationary boundary between water and background electrolyte. After 600s PA-HC-FASI, 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole as derivatization reagent was injected, followed by an electrokinetic step (5kV, 45s) to enhance the mixing efficiency of analytes and reagent plugs. Standing a specified time of 10min for derivatization reaction under 35 degrees C, then the capillary temperature was cooled to 25 degrees C and the derivatives were immediately separated and determined under 25 degrees C. By investigating the variables of the presented approach in detail, on-line preconcentration, derivatization and separation could be automatically operated in one run and required no modification of current CE commercial instrument. Moreover, the sensitivity enhancement factor of 520 and 800 together with the detection limits of 16.32 and 6.34pg/mL was achieved for model compounds: glufosinate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, demonstrating the high detection sensitivity of the presented method.

  16. Extended length microchannels for high density high throughput electrophoresis systems

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    2000-01-01

    High throughput electrophoresis systems which provide extended well-to-read distances on smaller substrates, thus compacting the overall systems. The electrophoresis systems utilize a high density array of microchannels for electrophoresis analysis with extended read lengths. The microchannel geometry can be used individually or in conjunction to increase the effective length of a separation channel while minimally impacting the packing density of channels. One embodiment uses sinusoidal microchannels, while another embodiment uses plural microchannels interconnected by a via. The extended channel systems can be applied to virtually any type of channel confined chromatography.

  17. [Current concepts of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates].

    PubMed

    Luz, S dos S; de Campos, P L; Ribeiro, S M; Tirapegui, J

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review recent aspects of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates that are the main source of energy in human diets. Recent researches have found that starch is not largely hydrolysed and absorbed in the small bowel but one part of it is resistant to digestion. Several food factors may be responsible for digestion and absorption velocity and totality of carbohydrates. Therefore, carbohydrate classification must be based not only on molecular size to express the real carbohydrates utilization as an energy source by humans. In agreement with molecular size of carbohydrate, its classification can be: a) monosaccharides; b) disaccharides; c) oligosaccharides; d) polysaccharides. In agreement with carbohydrate digestibility or availability, its classification can be: a) digestible carbohydrates; b) undigestable carbohydrates (NSP). Carbohydrate digestibility can be altered by several factors like: Intrinsic factors: a) physical structure; b) molecular physical distribution; c) physical state of food; d) food antinutrients. Extrinsics factors: a) chewing; b) transit time of food; c) amount of starch present; d) diet antinutrients. Under influence of this factors, process of digestion happen by enzymatic activity a long the gastrointestinal tract. Salivary and pancreatic amylase; glycosidases of the duodenal enterocyte brush border (lactase, sacarase and maltase), whose activity happen by close interaction of digestive breakdown with transport. The summarized pathways of the absorptive process: 1. movement from the bulk phase of the lumenal or mucosal fluid to enterocyte surface; 2. movement across the brush border membrane through specific transporters: a) SGLT1; b) GLUT 5; c) passive diffusion. 3. movement across the basolateral membrane by the GLUT 2.

  18. Computational modeling of carbohydrate recognition in protein complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Toyokazu

    2017-11-01

    To understand the mechanistic principle of carbohydrate recognition in proteins, we propose a systematic computational modeling strategy to identify complex carbohydrate chain onto the reduced 2D free energy surface (2D-FES), determined by MD sampling combined with QM/MM energy corrections. In this article, we first report a detailed atomistic simulation study of the norovirus capsid proteins with carbohydrate antigens based on ab initio QM/MM combined with MD-FEP simulations. The present result clearly shows that the binding geometries of complex carbohydrate antigen are determined not by one single, rigid carbohydrate structure, but rather by the sum of averaged conformations mapped onto the minimum free energy region of QM/MM 2D-FES.

  19. Carbohydrate Polymers for Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Sizovs, Antons; McLendon, Patrick M.; Srinivasachari, Sathya

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates have been investigated and developed as delivery vehicles for shuttling nucleic acids into cells. In this review, we present the state of the art in carbohydrate-based polymeric vehicles for nucleic acid delivery, with the focus on the recent successes in preclinical models, both in vitro and in vivo. Polymeric scaffolds based on the natural polysaccharides chitosan, hyaluronan, pullulan, dextran, and schizophyllan each have unique properties and potential for modification, and these results are discussed with the focus on facile synthetic routes and favorable performance in biological systems. Many of these carbohydrates have been used to develop alternative types of biomaterials for nucleic acid delivery to typical polyplexes, and these novel materials are discussed. Also presented are polymeric vehicles that incorporate copolymerized carbohydrates into polymer backbones based on polyethylenimine and polylysine and their effect on transfection and biocompatibility. Unique scaffolds, such as clusters and polymers based on cyclodextrin (CD), are also discussed, with the focus on recent successes in vivo and in the clinic. These results are presented with the emphasis on the role of carbohydrate and charge on transfection. Use of carbohydrates as molecular recognition ligands for cell-type specific delivery is also briefly reviewed. We contend that carbohydrates have contributed significantly to progress in the field of non-viral DNA delivery, and these new discoveries are impactful for developing new vehicles and materials for treatment of human disease. PMID:21504102

  20. Linking Bacillus cereus Genotypes and Carbohydrate Utilization Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Warda, Alicja K.; Siezen, Roland J.; Boekhorst, Jos; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H. J.; de Jong, Anne; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Nierop Groot, Masja N.; Abee, Tjakko

    2016-01-01

    We characterised carbohydrate utilisation of 20 newly sequenced Bacillus cereus strains isolated from food products and food processing environments and two laboratory strains, B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. cereus ATCC 14579. Subsequently, genome sequences of these strains were analysed together with 11 additional B. cereus reference genomes to provide an overview of the different types of carbohydrate transporters and utilization systems found in B. cereus strains. The combined application of API tests, defined growth media experiments and comparative genomics enabled us to link the carbohydrate utilisation capacity of 22 B. cereus strains with their genome content and in some cases to the panC phylogenetic grouping. A core set of carbohydrates including glucose, fructose, maltose, trehalose, N-acetyl-glucosamine, and ribose could be used by all strains, whereas utilisation of other carbohydrates like xylose, galactose, and lactose, and typical host-derived carbohydrates such as fucose, mannose, N-acetyl-galactosamine and inositol is limited to a subset of strains. Finally, the roles of selected carbohydrate transporters and utilisation systems in specific niches such as soil, foods and the human host are discussed. PMID:27272929

  1. Analysis of Soluble Proteins in Natural Cordyceps sinensis from Different Producing Areas by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis and Two-dimensional Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Hong; Zuo, Hua-Li; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Feng-Qin; Hu, Yuan-Jia; Qian, Zheng-Ming; Li, Wen-Jia; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Background: As one of the bioactive components in Cordyceps sinensis (CS), proteins were rarely used as index components to study the correlation between the protein components and producing areas of natural CS. Objective: Protein components of 26 natural CS samples produced in Qinghai, Tibet, and Sichuan provinces were analyzed and compared to investigate the relationship among 26 different producing areas. Materials and Methods: Proteins from 26 different producing areas were extracted by Tris-HCl buffer with Triton X-100, and separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Results: The SDS-PAGE results indicated that the number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 CS samples was a bit different. However, the 2-DE results showed that the numbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obviously different and showed certain association with producing areas. Conclusions: Based on the expression values of matched protein spots, 26 batches of CS samples can be divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by hierarchical cluster analysis. SUMMARY The number of protein bands and optical density curves of proteins in 26 Cordyceps sinensis samples were a bit different on the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein profilesNumbers and abundance of protein spots in protein profiles of 26 samples were obvious different on two-dimensional electrophoresis mapsTwenty-six different producing areas of natural Cordyceps sinensis samples were divided into two main categories (Tibet and Qinghai) by Hierarchical cluster analysis based on the values of matched protein spots. Abbreviations Used: SDS-PAGE: Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, 2-DE: Two-dimensional electrophoresis, Cordyceps sinensis: CS, TCMs: Traditional Chinese medicines PMID:28250651

  2. Carbohydrates, pollinators, and cycads

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J

    2015-01-01

    Cycad biology, ecology, and horticulture decisions are not supported by adequate research, and experiments in cycad physiology in particular have been deficient. Our recent report on free sugar content in a range of cycad taxa and tissues sets the stage for developing continued carbohydrate research. Growth and development of cycad pollen, mediation of the herbivory traits of specialist pollinators, and support of expensive strobilus behavioral traits are areas of cycad pollination biology that would benefit from a greater understanding of the role of carbohydrate relations. PMID:26479502

  3. Wood adhesives containing proteins and carbohydrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years there has been resurgent interest in using biopolymers as sustainable and environmentally friendly ingredients in wood adhesive formulations. Among them, proteins and carbohydrates are the most commonly used. In this chapter, an overview is given of protein-based and carbohydrate-...

  4. The long underestimated carbonyl function of carbohydrates – an organocatalyzed shot into carbohydrate chemistry.

    PubMed

    Mahrwald, R

    2015-09-21

    The aggressive and strong development of organocatalysis provides several protocols for the convenient utilization of the carbonyl function of unprotected carbohydrates in C-C-bond formation processes. These amine-catalyzed mechanisms enable multiple cascade-protocols for the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate-derived compound classes. Several, only slightly different protocols, have been developed for the application of 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds in the stereoselective chain-elongation of unprotected carbohydrates and the synthesis of highly functionalized C-glycosides of defined configuration. In addition, C-glycosides can also be accessed by amine-catalyzed reactions with methyl ketones. By a one-pot cascade reaction of isocyanides with unprotected aldoses and amino acids access to defined configured glycopeptide mimetics is achieved. Depending on the reaction conditions different origins to control the installation of configuration during the bond-formation process were observed.

  5. Improved Intraoperative Visualization of Nerves through a Myelin-Binding Fluorophore and Dual-Mode Laparoscopic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cotero, Victoria E; Kimm, Simon Y; Siclovan, Tiberiu M; Zhang, Rong; Kim, Evgenia M; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Gondo, Tatsuo; Scardino, Peter T; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Laudone, Vincent P; Tan Hehir, Cristina A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to visualize and spare nerves during surgery is critical for avoiding chronic morbidity, pain, and loss of function. Visualization of such critical anatomic structures is even more challenging during minimal access procedures because the small incisions limit visibility. In this study, we focus on improving imaging of nerves through the use of a new small molecule fluorophore, GE3126, used in conjunction with our dual-mode (color and fluorescence) laparoscopic imaging instrument. GE3126 has higher aqueous solubility, improved pharmacokinetics, and reduced non-specific adipose tissue fluorescence compared to previous myelin-binding fluorophores. Dosing and kinetics were initially optimized in mice. A non-clinical modified Irwin study in rats, performed to assess the potential of GE3126 to induce nervous system injuries, showed the absence of major adverse reactions. Real-time intraoperative imaging was performed in a porcine model. Compared to white light imaging, nerve visibility was enhanced under fluorescence guidance, especially for small diameter nerves obscured by fascia, blood vessels, or adipose tissue. In the porcine model, nerve visualization was observed rapidly, within 5 to 10 minutes post-intravenous injection and the nerve fluorescence signal was maintained for up to 80 minutes. The use of GE3126, coupled with practical implementation of an imaging instrument may be an important step forward in preventing nerve damage in the operating room.

  6. A step towards personalized sports nutrition: carbohydrate intake during exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker

    2014-05-01

    There have been significant changes in the understanding of the role of carbohydrates during endurance exercise in recent years, which allows for more specific and more personalized advice with regard to carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. The new proposed guidelines take into account the duration (and intensity) of exercise and advice is not restricted to the amount of carbohydrate; it also gives direction with respect to the type of carbohydrate. Studies have shown that during exercise lasting approximately 1 h in duration, a mouth rinse or small amounts of carbohydrate can result in a performance benefit. A single carbohydrate source can be oxidized at rates up to approximately 60 g/h and this is the recommendation for exercise that is more prolonged (2-3 h). For ultra-endurance events, the recommendation is higher at approximately 90 g/h. Carbohydrate ingested at such high ingestion rates must be a multiple transportable carbohydrates to allow high oxidation rates and prevent the accumulation of carbohydrate in the intestine. The source of the carbohydrate may be a liquid, semisolid, or solid, and the recommendations may need to be adjusted downward when the absolute exercise intensity is low and thus carbohydrate oxidation rates are also low. Carbohydrate intake advice is independent of body weight as well as training status. Therefore, although these guidelines apply to most athletes, they are highly dependent on the type and duration of activity. These new guidelines may replace the generic existing guidelines for carbohydrate intake during endurance exercise.

  7. Association of carbohydrate and fat intake with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Lee, Hye-Sun; Lee, Ji-Won

    2018-04-01

    In Asia, dietary pattern has been changed with increased intake of refined carbohydrates, sugar, and saturated fat, while the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is on the rise. However, it remains unclear whether a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet is more metabolically harmful, and the optimal amount of carbohydrates and fat has not been determined. The aim of our study was to examine the role of carbohydrate and fat intake in MetS in a Korean population. Data were obtained from a large, population-based, cross-sectional study (6737 males and 8845 females). The subjects were divided into nine groups based on carbohydrate and fat proportion, and multiple logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for confounding variables. Regardless of fat intake, the risk of MetS significantly increased in males with higher carbohydrate proportions (of total energy intake). In females, the risk of MetS was significantly elevated only in those with both the highest carbohydrate proportion and lowest fat proportion. A high carbohydrate proportion was associated with a higher prevalence of MetS in males, and a high carbohydrate proportion combined with a low fat proportion was associated with MetS in females. Our results indicate that reduction of excessive carbohydrate intake paired with an adequate fat intake, taking into consideration optimal types of fat, is useful for MetS prevention. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the optimal types and amounts of carbohydrate and fat proportions as well as the mechanism underlying these relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. Red and near-infrared fluorophores inspired by chlorophylls: consideration of practical brightness in multicolor flow cytometry and biomedical sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Hu, Gongfang; Liu, Rui; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2018-02-01

    Demands in flow cytometry for increased multiplexing (for detection of multiple antigens) and brightness (for detection of rare entities) require new fluorophores (i.e., "colors") with spectrally distinct fluorescence outside the relatively congested visible spectral region. Flow cytometry fluorophores typically must function in aqueous solution upon bioconjugation and ideally should exhibit a host of photophysical features: (i) strong absorption, (ii) sizable Stokes shift, (iii) modest if not strong fluorescence, and (iv) narrow fluorescence band. Tandem dyes have long been pursued to achieve a large effective Stokes shift, increased brightness, and better control over the excitation and emission wavelengths. Here, the attractive photophysical features of chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls - Nature's chosen photoactive pigments for photosynthesis - are described with regards to use in flow cytometry. A chlorophyll (or bacteriochlorophyll) constitutes an intrinsic tandem dye given the red (or near-infrared) fluorescence upon excitation in the higher energy ultraviolet (UV) or visible absorption bands (due to rapid internal conversion to the lowest energy state). Synthetic (bacterio)chlorins are available with strong absorption (near-UV molar absorption coefficient ɛ(λexc) 105 M-1cm-1), modest fluorescence quantum yield (Φf = 0.05-0.30), and narrow fluorescence band (10-25 nm) tunable from 600-900 nm depending on synthetic design. The "relative practical brightness" is given by intrinsic brightness [ɛ(λexc) x Φf] times ηf, the fraction of the fluorescence band that is captured by an emission filter in a multicolor experiment. The spectroscopic features of (bacterio)chlorins are evaluated quantitatively to illustrate practical brightness for this novel class of fluorophores in a prospective 8-color panel.

  9. Developments in coupled solid-phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ramautar, Rawi; Somsen, Govert W; de Jong, Gerhardus J

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the design and application of coupled solid-phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-CE) systems reported in the literature between July 2013 and June 2015 is provided in this paper. The present article is a continuation of our previous review papers on this topic which covered the time period 2000-2013 (Electrophoresis 2008, 29, 108-128; Electrophoresis 2010, 31, 44-54; Electrophoresis 2012, 33, 243-250; Electrophoresis 2014, 35, 128-137). The use of in-line and on-line SPE-CE approaches is treated and outlined in this review. Recent advancements, such as, for example, the use of aptamers as affinity material for in-line SPE-CE, the use of a bead string design for in-line fritless SPE-CE, and new interfacing techniques for the on-line coupling of SPE to CE, are outlined. Selected examples demonstrate the applicability of the coupled SPE-CE systems for biomedical, pharmaceutical, environmental, and food studies. A complete overview of the recent SPE-CE studies is given in table format, providing information on sample type, SPE sorbent, coupling mode, detection mode, and LOD. Finally, some general conclusions and perspectives are provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ratcheted electrophoresis of Brownian particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalik, Mikołaj; Bishop, Kyle J. M., E-mail: kjmbishop@engr.psu.edu

    2016-05-16

    The realization of nanoscale machines requires efficient methods by which to rectify unbiased perturbations to perform useful functions in the presence of significant thermal noise. The performance of such Brownian motors often depends sensitively on their operating conditions—in particular, on the relative rates of diffusive and deterministic motions. In this letter, we present a type of Brownian motor that uses contact charge electrophoresis of a colloidal particle within a ratcheted channel to achieve directed transport or perform useful work against an applied load. We analyze the stochastic dynamics of this model ratchet to show that it functions under any operatingmore » condition—even in the limit of strong thermal noise and in contrast to existing ratchets. The theoretical results presented here suggest that ratcheted electrophoresis could provide a basis for electrochemically powered, nanoscale machines capable of transport and actuation of nanoscale components.« less

  11. Automatic multiple-sample applicator and electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for performing electrophoresis and a multiple-sample applicator is described. Electrophoresis is a physical process in which electrically charged molecules and colloidal particles, upon the application of a dc current, migrate along a gel or a membrane that is wetted with an electrolyte. A multiple-sample applicator is provided which coacts with a novel tank cover to permit an operator either to depress a single button, thus causing multiple samples to be deposited on the gel or on the membrane simultaneously, or to depress one or more sample applicators separately by means of a separate button for each applicator.

  12. One strike against low-carbohydrate diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is intense controversy over whether low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets are more efficacious for weight management. Using precise methodology, Hall et al. (2015) demonstrated that a low-carbohydrate diet promoted greater fat oxidation than an isocaloric low-fat diet but, in contrast to popular s...

  13. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatographymore » relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.« less

  14. Health Effects of Low-Carbohydrate Diets: Where Should New Research Go?

    PubMed Central

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Aebersold, Karin; Conlon, Beth; Isasi, Carmen R.; Ostrovsky, Natania W.

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the metabolic effects of restricting carbohydrate intake in weight and diabetes management. However, the American Diabetes Association has noted that weight and metabolic improvements can be achieved with low carbohydrate, low fat (implicitly higher carbohydrate), or a Mediterranean style diet (usually an intermediate level of carbohydrate). Our paper addresses variability in the definition for low or restricted carbohydrate, the effects of carbohydrate restriction on diabetes-related health outcomes, strategies for restricting carbohydrate intake, and potential genetic variability in response to dietary carbohydrate restriction. Issues for future research are also addressed. PMID:23266565

  15. Dynamic Fluctuations of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions Promote Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Voynov, Vladimir; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Kayser, Veysel; Helk, Bernhard; Forrer, Kurt; Zhang, Heidi; Fritsch, Cornelius; Heine, Holger; Trout, Bernhardt L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein-carbohydrate interactions are important for glycoprotein structure and function. Antibodies of the IgG class, with increasing significance as therapeutics, are glycosylated at a conserved site in the constant Fc region. We hypothesized that disruption of protein-carbohydrate interactions in the glycosylated domain of antibodies leads to the exposure of aggregation-prone motifs. Aggregation is one of the main problems in protein-based therapeutics because of immunogenicity concerns and decreased efficacy. To explore the significance of intramolecular interactions between aromatic amino acids and carbohydrates in the IgG glycosylated domain, we utilized computer simulations, fluorescence analysis, and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that the surface exposure of one aromatic amino acid increases due to dynamic fluctuations. Moreover, protein-carbohydrate interactions decrease upon stress, while protein-protein and carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions increase. Substitution of the carbohydrate-interacting aromatic amino acids with non-aromatic residues leads to a significantly lower stability than wild type, and to compromised binding to Fc receptors. Our results support a mechanism for antibody aggregation via decreased protein-carbohydrate interactions, leading to the exposure of aggregation-prone regions, and to aggregation. PMID:20037630

  16. The effect of dietary carbohydrate on gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Keng-Liang; Kuo, Chung-Mou; Yao, Chih-Chien; Tai, Wei-Chen; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Lim, Chee-Sang; Chiu, Yi-Chun

    2018-01-12

    Acid changes in gastroesophageal reflux with vary component in the food have less been studied, especially carbohydrate. We plan to clarify the effect of different carbohydrate density on low esophageal acid and reflux symptoms of patients with gastroesophgeal reflux disease. Twelve patients (52 ± 12 years old; five female) with gastroesophageal reflux disease were recruited for the prospective crossover study. Each patient was invited for panendoscope, manometry and 24 h pH monitor. The two formulated liquid meal, test meal A: 500 ml liquid meal (containing 84.8 g carbohydrate) and B: same volume liquid meal (but 178.8 g carbohydrate) were randomized supplied as lunch or dinner. Reflux symptoms were recorded. There are significant statistic differences in more Johnson-DeMeester score (p = 0.019), total reflux time (%) (p = 0.028), number of reflux periods (p = 0.026) and longest reflux (p = 0.015) after high carbohydrate diet than low carbohydrate. Total reflux time and number of long reflux periods more than 5 min are significant more after high carbohydrate diet. More acid reflux symptoms are found after high carbohydrate diet. High carbohydrate diet could induce more acid reflux in low esophagus and more reflux symptoms in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2015-07-14

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1-2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30-60 g/h in the form of a 6%-7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a game

  18. The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid.

    PubMed

    Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2013-11-01

    Carbohydrate and fat are the two primary fuel sources oxidized by skeletal muscle tissue during prolonged (endurance-type) exercise. The relative contribution of these fuel sources largely depends on the exercise intensity and duration, with a greater contribution from carbohydrate as exercise intensity is increased. Consequently, endurance performance and endurance capacity are largely dictated by endogenous carbohydrate availability. As such, improving carbohydrate availability during prolonged exercise through carbohydrate ingestion has dominated the field of sports nutrition research. As a result, it has been well-established that carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged (>2 h) moderate-to-high intensity exercise can significantly improve endurance performance. Although the precise mechanism(s) responsible for the ergogenic effects are still unclear, they are likely related to the sparing of skeletal muscle glycogen, prevention of liver glycogen depletion and subsequent development of hypoglycemia, and/or allowing high rates of carbohydrate oxidation. Currently, for prolonged exercise lasting 2-3 h, athletes are advised to ingest carbohydrates at a rate of 60 g·h⁻¹ (~1.0-1.1 g·min⁻¹) to allow for maximal exogenous glucose oxidation rates. However, well-trained endurance athletes competing longer than 2.5 h can metabolize carbohydrate up to 90 g·h⁻¹ (~1.5-1.8 g·min⁻¹) provided that multiple transportable carbohydrates are ingested (e.g. 1.2 g·min⁻¹ glucose plus 0.6 g·min⁻¹ of fructose). Surprisingly, small amounts of carbohydrate ingestion during exercise may also enhance the performance of shorter (45-60 min), more intense (>75 % peak oxygen uptake; VO(₂peak)) exercise bouts, despite the fact that endogenous carbohydrate stores are unlikely to be limiting. The mechanism(s) responsible for such ergogenic properties of carbohydrate ingestion during short, more intense exercise bouts has been suggested to reside in the central nervous

  19. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Carbohydrate Modification on Glycoproteins from Seeds of Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Hu, Xiao-Chun; Cai, Zhi-Peng; Voglmeir, Josef; Liu, Li

    2017-09-06

    Recent progress in the relationship between carbohydrate cross-reactive determinants (CCDs) and allergic response highlights the importance of carbohydrate moieties in the innate immune system. Previous research pointed out that the protein allergen in Ginkgo biloba seeds is glycosylated, and the oligosaccharides conjugated to these proteins might also contribute to the allergy. The aim of this study was to analyze carbohydrate moieties, especially N-linked glycans, of glycoproteins from Ginkgo seeds originating from different places for detailed structures, to enable further research on the role played by N-glycans in Ginkgo-caused allergy. Results of monosaccharide composition and immunoblotting assays indicated the existence of N-glycans. Detailed structural elucidation of the N-glycans was further carried out by means of hydrophilic interaction ultraperformance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). In total, 14 out of 16 structures detected by UPLC were confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS and tandem mass spectrometry, among which complex-type N-glycans bearing Lewis A determinants and high-mannose-type N-glycans were identified from Ginkgo seeds for the first time. Precise quantification of N-glycans was performed by use of an external standard, and both the absolute amount of each N-glycan and the percentage of different types of N-glycan showed significant diversity among the samples without any pattern of geographic variation.

  20. Carbohydrates and T cells: A sweet twosome

    PubMed Central

    Avci, Fikri Y.; Li, Xiangming; Tsuji, Moriya; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates as T cell-activating antigens have been generating significant interest. For many years, carbohydrates were thought of as T-independent antigens, however, more recent research had demonstrated that mono- or oligosaccharides glycosidically-linked to peptides can be recognized by T cells. T cell recognition of these glycopeptides depends on the structure of both peptide and glycan portions of the antigen. Subsequently, it was discovered that natural killer T cells recognized glycolipids when presented by the antigen presenting molecule CD1d. A transformative insight into glycan-recognition by T cells occurred when zwitterionic polysaccharides were discovered to bind to and be presented by MHCII to CD4+ T cells. Based on this latter observation, the role that carbohydrate epitopes generated from glycoconjugate vaccines had in activating helper T cells was explored and it was found that these epitopes are presented to specific carbohydrate recognizing T cells through a unique mechanism. Here we review the key interactions between carbohydrate antigens and the adaptive immune system at the molecular, cellular and systems levels exploring the significant biological implications in health and disease. PMID:23757291

  1. Very low-carbohydrate versus isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet in dietary obese rats.

    PubMed

    Axen, Kathleen V; Axen, Kenneth

    2006-08-01

    The effects of a very low-carbohydrate (VLC), high-fat (HF) dietary regimen on metabolic syndrome were compared with those of an isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC), low-fat (LF) regimen in dietary obese rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, made obese by 8 weeks ad libitum consumption of an HF diet, developed features of the metabolic syndrome vs. lean control (C) rats, including greater visceral, subcutaneous, and hepatic fat masses, elevated plasma cholesterol levels, impaired glucose tolerance, and fasting and post-load insulin resistance. Half of the obese rats (VLC) were then fed a popular VLC-HF diet (Weeks 9 and 10 at 5% and Weeks 11 to 14 at 15% carbohydrate), and one-half (HC) were pair-fed an HC-LF diet (Weeks 9 to 14 at 60% carbohydrate). Energy intakes of pair-fed VLC and HC rats were less than C rats throughout Weeks 9 to 14. Compared with HC rats, VLC rats exhibited impaired insulin and glycemic responses to an intraperitoneal glucose load at Week 10 and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels but retarded loss of hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat at Week 14. VLC, HC, and C rats no longer differed in body weight, plasma cholesterol, glucose tolerance, or fasting insulin resistance at Week 14. Progressive decreases in fasting insulin resistance in obese groups paralleled concomitant reductions in hepatic, retroperitoneal, and total body fat. When energy intake was matched, the VLC-HF diet provided no advantage in weight loss or in improving those components of the metabolic syndrome induced by dietary obesity and may delay loss of hepatic and visceral fat as compared with an HC-LF diet.

  2. Sensitive Carbohydrate Detection using Surface Enhanced Raman Tagging

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Yanney, Michael; Hsiao, Cheng-Te; Wu, Wells W.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Zou, Sige; Sygula, Andrzej; Zhang, Dongmao

    2010-01-01

    Glycomic analysis is an increasingly important field in biological and biomedical research as glycosylation is one of the most important protein post-translational modifications. We have developed a new technique to detect carbohydrates using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) by designing and applying a Rhodamine B derivative as the SERS tag. Using a reductive amination reaction, the Rhodamine-based tag (RT) was successfully conjugated to three model carbohydrates (glucose, lactose and glucuronic acid). SERS detection limits obtained with 632 nm HeNe laser were ~1 nM in concentration for all the RT-carbohydrate conjugates and ~10 fmol in total sample consumption. The dynamic range of the SERS method is about 4 orders of magnitude, spanning from 1 nM to 5 µM. Ratiometric SERS quantification using isotope-substituted SERS internal references also allows comparative quantifications of carbohydrates labeled with RT and deuterium/hydrogen substituted RT tags, respectively. In addition to enhancing the SERS detection of the tagged carbohydrates, the Rhodamine tagging facilitates fluorescence and mass spectrometric detection of carbohydrates. Current fluorescence sensitivity of RT-carbohydrates is ~ 3 nM in concentration while the mass spectrometry (MS) sensitivity is about 1 fmol that was achieved with linear ion trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS instrument. Potential applications that take advantage of the high SERS, fluorescence and MS sensitivity of this SERS tagging strategy are discussed for practical glycomic analysis where carbohydrates may be quantified with a fluorescence and SERS technique, and then identified with ESI-MS techniques. PMID:21082777

  3. Preoperative oral carbohydrates and postoperative insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Nygren, J; Soop, M; Thorell, A; Sree Nair, K; Ljungqvist, O

    1999-04-01

    Infusions of carbohydrates before surgery have been shown to reduce postoperative insulin resistance. Presently, we investigated the effects of a carbohydrate drink, given shortly before surgery, on postoperative insulin sensitivity. Insulin sensitivity and glucose turnover ([6, 6,(2)H(2)]-D-glucose) were measured using hyper-insulinemic, normoglycemic clamps before and after elective surgery. Sixteen patients undergoing total hip replacement were randomly assigned to preoperative oral carbohydrate administration (CHO-H, n = 8) or the same amount of a placebo drink (placebo, n = 8) before surgery. Insulin sensitivity was measured before and immediately after surgery. Patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were studied before surgery and 24 h postoperatively (CHO-C (n = 7), and fasted (n = 7), groups). The fasted group underwent surgery after an overnight fast. In both studies, the CHO groups received 800 ml of an isoosmolar carbohydrate rich beverage the evening before the operation (100g carbohydrates), as well as another 400 ml (50g carbohydrates) 2 h before the initiation of anesthesia. Immediately after surgery, insulin sensitivity was reduced 37% in the placebo group (P < 0.05 vs. preoperatively) while no significant change was found in the CHO-H group (-16%, p = NS). During clamps performed 24h postoperatively, insulin sensitivity and whole-body glucose disposal was reduced in both groups, but the reduction was greater compared to that in the CHO-C group (-49 +/- 6% vs. -26 +/- 8%, P> 0.05 fasted vs. CHO-C). Patients given a carbohydrate drink shortly before elective surgery displayed less reduced insulin sensitivity after surgery as compared to patients undergoing surgery after an overnight fast. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  4. High resolution clear native electrophoresis for in-gel functional assays and fluorescence studies of membrane protein complexes.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Ilka; Karas, Michael; Schägger, Hermann

    2007-07-01

    Clear native electrophoresis and blue native electrophoresis are microscale techniques for the isolation of membrane protein complexes. The Coomassie Blue G-250 dye, used in blue native electrophoresis, interferes with in-gel fluorescence detection and in-gel catalytic activity assays. This problem can be overcome by omitting the dye in clear native electrophoresis. However, clear native electrophoresis suffers from enhanced protein aggregation and broadening of protein bands during electrophoresis and therefore has been used rarely. To preserve the advantages of both electrophoresis techniques we substituted Coomassie dye in the cathode buffer of blue native electrophoresis by non-colored mixtures of anionic and neutral detergents. Like Coomassie dye, these mixed micelles imposed a charge shift on the membrane proteins to enhance their anodic migration and improved membrane protein solubility during electrophoresis. This improved clear native electrophoresis offers a high resolution of membrane protein complexes comparable to that of blue native electrophoresis. We demonstrate the superiority of high resolution clear native electrophoresis for in-gel catalytic activity assays of mitochondrial complexes I-V. We present the first in-gel histochemical staining protocol for respiratory complex III. Moreover we demonstrate the special advantages of high resolution clear native electrophoresis for in-gel detection of fluorescent labeled proteins labeled by reactive fluorescent dyes and tagged by fluorescent proteins. The advantages of high resolution clear native electrophoresis make this technique superior for functional proteomics analyses.

  5. Carbohydrate Recognition by Boronolectins, Small Molecules, and Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cheng, Yunfeng; Reid, Suazette; Li, Minyong; Wang, Binghe

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrates are known to mediate a large number of biological and pathological events. Small and macromolecules capable of carbohydrate recognition have great potentials as research tools, diagnostics, vectors for targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents, and therapeutic agents. However, this potential is far from being realized. One key issue is the difficulty in the development of “binders” capable of specific recognition of carbohydrates of biological relevance. This review discusses systematically the general approaches that are available in developing carbohydrate sensors and “binders/receptors,” and their applications. The focus is on discoveries during the last five years. PMID:19291708

  6. Physicochemical Characterization of Iron Carbohydrate Colloid Drug Products.

    PubMed

    Zou, Peng; Tyner, Katherine; Raw, Andre; Lee, Sau

    2017-09-01

    Iron carbohydrate colloid drug products are intravenously administered to patients with chronic kidney disease for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Physicochemical characterization of iron colloids is critical to establish pharmaceutical equivalence between an innovator iron colloid product and generic version. The purpose of this review is to summarize literature-reported techniques for physicochemical characterization of iron carbohydrate colloid drug products. The mechanisms, reported testing results, and common technical pitfalls for individual characterization test are discussed. A better understanding of the physicochemical characterization techniques will facilitate generic iron carbohydrate colloid product development, accelerate products to market, and ensure iron carbohydrate colloid product quality.

  7. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  8. Highly Emissive Whole Rainbow Fluorophores Consisting of 1,4-Bis(2-phenylethynyl)benzene Core Skeleton: Design, Synthesis, and Light-Emitting Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ochi, Takanori; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yoshida, Zen-ichi

    2015-08-13

    To create the whole-rainbow-fluorophores (WRF) having the small Δλem (the difference of λem between a given fluorophore and nearest neighboring fluorophore having the same core skeleton) values (<20 nm) in full visible region (λem: 400-650 nm), the high log ε (>4.5), and the high Φf (>0.6), we investigated molecular design, synthesis, and light-emitting characteristics of the π-conjugated molecules (D/A-BPBs) consisting of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPB) modified by donor groups (OMe, SMe, NMe2, and NPh2) and an acceptor group (CN). As a result, synthesized 20 D/A-BPBs (1a-5d) were found to be the desired WRF. To get the intense red fluorophore (Φf > 0.7, λem > 610 nm), we synthesized new compounds (5e-5i) and elucidated their photophysical properties in CHCl3 solution. As a result, 5h, in which a 4-cyanophenyl group is introduced to the para-position of two benzene rings in the terminal NPh2 group of 5d, was found to be the desired intense red fluorophore (log ε = 4.56, Φf = 0.76, λem = 611 nm). The intramolecular charge-transfer nature of the S1 state of WRF (1a-5d) was elucidated by the positive linear relationship between optical transition energy (νem) from the S1 state to the S0 state and HOMO(D)-LUMO(A) difference, and the molecular orbitals calculated with the DFT method. It is demonstrated that our concept (Φf = 1/(exp(-Aπ) + 1)) connected with the relationship between Φf and magnitude (Aπ) of π conjugation length in the S1 state can be applied to WRF (1a-5d). It is suggested that the prediction of Φf from a structural model can be achieved by the equation Φf = 1/(exp(-((ν̃a - ν̃f)(1/2) × a(3/2)) + 1), where ν̃a and ν̃f are the wavenumber (cm(-1)) of absorption and fluorescence peaks, respectively, and a is the calculated molecular radius. From the viewpoint of application of WRF to various functional materials, the light-emitting characteristics of 1a-5i in doped polymer films were examined. It was demonstrated that 1a-5

  9. Magnetic field effects on exciplex-forming systems: the effect on the locally excited fluorophore and its dependence on free energy.

    PubMed

    Kattnig, Daniel R; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Grampp, Günter

    2011-02-28

    This study addresses magnetic field effects in exciplex forming donor-acceptor systems. For moderately exergonic systems, the exciplex and the locally excited fluorophore emission are found to be magneto-sensitive. A previously introduced model attributing this finding to excited state reversibility is confirmed. Systems characterised by a free energy of charge separation up to approximately -0.35 eV are found to exhibit a magnetic field effect on the fluorophore. A simple three-state model of the exciplex is introduced, which uses the reaction distance and the asymmetric electron transfer reaction coordinate as pertinent variables. Comparing the experimental emission band shapes with those predicted by the model, a semi-quantitative picture of the formation of the magnetic field effect is developed based on energy hypersurfaces. The model can also be applied to estimate the indirect contribution of the exchange interaction, even if the perturbative approach fails. The energetic parameters that are essential for the formation of large magnetic field effects on the exciplex are discussed.

  10. Single Benzene Green Fluorophore: Solid-State Emissive, Water-Soluble, and Solvent- and pH-Independent Fluorescence with Large Stokes Shifts.

    PubMed

    Beppu, Teruo; Tomiguchi, Kosuke; Masuhara, Akito; Pu, Yong-Jin; Katagiri, Hiroshi

    2015-06-15

    Benzene is the simplest aromatic hydrocarbon with a six-membered ring. It is one of the most basic structural units for the construction of π conjugated systems, which are widely used as fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for imaging applications and displays because of their enhanced spectroscopic signal. Presented herein is 2,5-bis(methylsulfonyl)-1,4-diaminobenzene as a novel architecture for green fluorophores, established based on an effective push-pull system supported by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. This compound demonstrates high fluorescence emission and photostability and is solid-state emissive, water-soluble, and solvent- and pH-independent with quantum yields of Φ=0.67 and Stokes shift of 140 nm (in water). This architecture is a significant departure from conventional extended π-conjugated systems based on a flat and rigid molecular design and provides a minimum requirement for green fluorophores comprising a single benzene ring. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. WURCS 2.0 Update To Encapsulate Ambiguous Carbohydrate Structures.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Masaaki; Aoki-Kinoshita, Kiyoko F; Aoki, Nobuyuki P; Yamada, Issaku; Narimatsu, Hisashi

    2017-04-24

    Accurate representation of structural ambiguity is important for storing carbohydrate structures containing varying levels of ambiguity in the literature and databases. Although many representations for carbohydrates have been developed in the past, a generalized but discrete representation format did not exist. We had previously developed the Web3 Unique Representation of Carbohydrate Structures (WURCS) in an attempt to define a generalizable and unique linear representation for carbohydrate structures. However, it lacked sufficient rules to uniquely describe ambiguous structures. In this work, we updated WURCS to handle such ambiguous monosaccharide structures. In particular, to handle structural ambiguity around (potential) carbonyl groups incidental to the carbohydrate analysis, we defined a representation of backbone carbons containing atomic-level ambiguity. As a result, we show that WURCS 2.0 can represent a wider variety of carbohydrate structures containing ambiguous monosaccharides, such as those whose ring closure is undefined or whose anomeric information is only known. This new format provides a representation of carbohydrates that was not possible before, and it is currently being used by the International Glycan Structure Repository GlyTouCan.

  12. Monitoring refolding of tailspike endorhamnosidase using capillary electrophoresis-laser induced tryptophan fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, P.K.; Lee, Cheng S.; King, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    The use of capillary electrophoresis equipped with laser-induced tryptophan fluorescence detection is presented for monitoring the refolding pathway of phage P22 tailspike endorhamnosidase. Upon initiation of refolding, tailspike polypeptides rapidly fold into structured monomeric intermediates with a high content of secondary structure. These monomeric species associate to form the triple-chain defined folding intermediates, the protrimers. Conversion of the protrimer into the native, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resistant tailspike protein is the rate-limiting step in the refolding pathway. Refolding kinetics and yield measured by capillary electrophoresis are in good agreement with those obtained via native gel electrophoresis, SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresismore » (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence spectrophotometry. To enhance separation resolution between protrimer and native protein in capillary electrophoresis, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) is investigated for the introduction of a sieving separation mechanism. The increased viscosity of the electrophoresis buffer may also play a role in resolution enhancement.« less

  13. The gel electrophoresis markup language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2010-09-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.

  14. A functional glycoprotein competitive recognition and signal amplification strategy for carbohydrate-protein interaction profiling and cell surface carbohydrate expression evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yangzhong; Chen, Zhuhai; Liu, Yang; Li, Jinghong

    2013-07-01

    A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and infections. In this work, a sensitive biosensor for carbohydrate-lectin profiling and in situ cell surface carbohydrate expression was designed by taking advantage of a functional glycoprotein of glucose oxidase acting as both a multivalent recognition unit and a signal amplification probe. Combining the gold nanoparticle catalyzed luminol electrogenerated chemiluminescence and nanocarrier for active biomolecules, the number of cell surface carbohydrate groups could be conveniently read out. The apparent dissociation constant between GOx@Au probes and Con A was detected to be 1.64 nM and was approximately 5 orders of magnitude smaller than that of mannose and Con A, which would arise from the multivalent effect between the probe and Con A. Both glycoproteins and gold nanoparticles contribute to the high affinity between carbohydrates and lectin. The as-proposed biosensor exhibits excellent analytical performance towards the cytosensing of K562 cells with a detection limit of 18 cells, and the mannose moieties on a single K562 cell were determined to be 1.8 × 1010. The biosensor can also act as a useful tool for antibacterial drug screening and mechanism investigation. This strategy integrates the excellent biocompatibility and multivalent recognition of glycoproteins as well as the significant enzymatic catalysis and gold nanoparticle signal amplification, and avoids the cell pretreatment and labelling process. This would contribute to the glycomic analysis and the understanding of complex native glycan-related biological processes.A simple and sensitive carbohydrate biosensor has been suggested as a potential tool for accurate analysis of cell surface carbohydrate expression as well as carbohydrate-based therapeutics for a variety of diseases and

  15. Fluorescence Detection In Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarner, Susan

    1988-04-01

    Fluorescence detection is in common usage in forensic science laboratories for the visualization of three enzyme markers. The fluorogenic substrates, 4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate, 4-methylutbel-liveryl acetate, and fluorecein diacetate, are acted upon by the enzymes Erythrocyte Acid Phospha, tase, Esterase-D, and Carbonic Anhydrase-III, respectively, to produce compounds visible to the analyst when viewed with transmitted UV light at 365 nm. Additionally, the choice of fluorogenic corn, pounds may help detect a specific enzyme from a related enzyme. One of the responsibilities of a forensic science laboratory may be the analysis of blood for genetically controlled polymorphic enzymes and protein markers. The genetic markers are said to be polymorphic because each exhibits types which can be differentiated and allows for the inclusion or exclusion of possible-donors of the blood. Each genetic marker can be separated into these recognizable types by electrophoresis, a technique which separates compounds based on electrical charges. Electrophoresis is conducted by placing a portion or extract of each bloodstain into a support medium which will conduct electricity. This is known as a plate or membrane. By controlling the pH of the buffer and the potential that is applied to the plate, the analyst can achieve separation of the types within an enzyme marker. The types appear as differing patterns of bands. Once the bloodstain has been subjected to electrophoresis, the enzymes must be visualized. This is generally best accomplished by using the specific activity of the enzyme. For the enzymes described in the present work, the visualization is performed by over-layering the plate with a piece of filter paper that 'has been saturated with the appropriate non-fluorescent substrate and buffer. The bands of enzyme, which is now in discrete patterns, will act upon the non-fluorescent substrate to create a fluorescent compound. The plate is then viewed with transmitted UV

  16. Characterization of UV fluorophores for application to luminescent solar concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellier, Kaitlin; Carter, Sue

    The implementation of solar as an alternative energy source faces many challenges, including the competition for space with agriculture and the environmental impacts of solar farms in deserts. As a solution to these problems, the Carter Lab has developed Luminescent Solar Concentrator (LSC) panels for applications to greenhouses. These panels utilize a luminescent dye compatible with the spectrum used in photosynthesis for the plants below and front-facing PV cells, achieving power enhancement of greater than 20% compared with the cells alone. To increase this enhancement, additional portions of the unused spectrum must be harvested. In this talk, we will discuss the characterization of UV absorbing fluorophores, including spectra, quantum yield, and the enhancement of light output and power generation. We will also address the combination of these UV dyes with the original LSC dye in low and high concentration, and the FRET efficiency and potential applications associated with high concentration films.

  17. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  18. Effect of body temperature on chondroitinase ABC's ability to cleave chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans.

    PubMed

    Tester, Nicole J; Plaas, Anna H; Howland, Dena R

    2007-04-01

    Chondroitinase ABC (Ch'ase ABC) is a bacterial lyase that degrades chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate, and hyaluronan glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This enzyme has received significant attention as a potential therapy for promoting central nervous system and peripheral nervous system repair based on its degradation of CS GAGs. Determination of the stability of Ch'ase ABC activity at temperatures equivalent to normal (37 degrees C) and elevated (39 degrees C) body temperatures is important for optimizing its clinical usage. We report here data obtained from examining enzymatic activity at these temperatures across nine lots of commercially available protease-free Ch'ase ABC. CS GAG degrading activity was assayed by using 1) immunohistochemical detection of unsaturated disaccharide stubs generated by digestion of proteoglycans in tissue sections and 2) fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to separate and quantify unsaturated disaccharide digestion products. Our results indicate that there is a significant effect of lot and time on enzymatic thermostability. Average enzymatic activity is significantly decreased at 1 and 3 days at 39 degrees C and 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, the average activity seen after 1 day was significantly different between the two temperatures. Addition of bovine serum albumin as a stabilizer significantly preserved enzymatic activity at 1 day, but not 3 days, at 39 degrees C. These results show that the CS GAG degrading activity of Ch'ase ABC is significantly decreased with incubation at body temperature over time and that all lots do not show equal thermostability. These findings are important for the design and interpretation of experimental and potential clinical studies involving Ch'ase ABC. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Alterations of the serum N-glycan profile in female patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Christina; Pfister, Sophia; Bürkle, Alexander; Vanhooren, Valerie; Libert, Claude; Salinas-Manrique, Juan; Dietrich, Detlef E; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Karabatsiakis, Alexander

    2018-07-01

    Glycans are short chains of saccharides linked to glycoproteins that are known to be involved in a wide range of inflammatory processes. As depression has been consistently associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, we asked whether patients with Major Depressive Disorder show alterations in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins that might be linked to associated changes in inflammatory processes. In a study cohort of 21 female patients with an acute depressive episode and 21 non-depressed female control subjects aged between 50 and 69 years, we analyzed the serum N-glycan profile by DNA Sequencer Adapted-Fluorophore Assisted Carbohydrate Electrophoresis (DSA-FACE) and assessed the serum levels of interleukin (IL)- 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and C-reactive protein (CRP) by chemiluminescence immunoassays and nephelometry. Compared to controls, MDD patients showed significant differences in the serum levels of several N-glycan structures. Alterations in the serum N-glycan profile were associated with depressive symptom severity and exploratory analyses revealed that they were most pronounced in MDD patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse. Furthermore, MDD patients showed higher levels of IL-6 and a trend for higher CRP levels, which were also associated with similar alterations in the serum N-glycan profile as those characteristic for MDD patients. The relatively small sample size and the presence of potential confounders (e.g., BMI, smoking, medication). The results offer the first evidence that specific differences in the N-glycosylation pattern of serum proteins constitute a so far unrecognized level of biological alterations that might be involved in the immune changes associated with MDD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Examination of synovial fluid and serum following intravenous injections of hyaluronan for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Canapp, S O; Cross, A R; Brown, M P; Lewis, D D; Hernandez, J; Merritt, K A; Tran-Son-Tay, R

    2005-01-01

    A randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial was performed to determine the effects of intravenous (i.v.) administration of hyaluronan sodium (HA) on serum glycosaminoglycans (GAG) concentrations, synovial fluid (SF) hyaluronan concentrations and viscosity in dogs treated for unilateral rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. Twenty-two dogs undergoing tibial plateau leveling osteotomy were used in this study. Synovial fluid from both stifles and serum were collected prior to surgery and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks following surgery. Dogs received either 1.0 ml (10 mg) of sodium hyaluronate (treatment group 1; n = 10) or equal volume of 0.9% NaCl (treatment group 2; n = 12), i.v. immediately, 2 and 4 weeks following surgery. Synovial fluid viscosity was evaluated using a magnetically driven, acoustically tracked, translating-ball rheometer. Synovial fluid HA disaccharide content was measured by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis. Serum GAG concentrations were measured by alcian blue spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed using a Wilcoxon sign rank test (p < 0.05). Mean +/- SD viscosity (cP) was significantly higher (p = 0.011) in SF obtained from the intact stifle (450 +/- 604.1) than injured (54.8 +/- 60.8) prior to surgery. Mean +/- SD HA concentrations (ug/ml) were significantly higher (p = 0.02) in synovial fluid obtained from the injured stifles (281.4 +/- 145.9) than intact stifles (141.6 +/- 132.5). No significant difference was noted within or between treatment groups in SF viscosity, HA concentrations, or serum GAG concentrations at any time following surgery. Stifles with cranial cruciate ligament insufficiency had significant alterations in SF viscosity and HA concentrations.

  1. Functional characterization of three (GH13) branching enzymes involved in cyanobacterial starch biosynthesis from Cyanobacterium sp. NBRC 102756.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Koide, Keiichi; Hayashi, Mari; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sawada, Takayuki; Ohdan, Takashi; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Nakamura, Yasunori; Fujita, Naoko; Suzuki, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    Starch and glycogen are widespread storage polysaccharides in bacteria, plants, and animals. Recently, some cyanobacteria were found to accumulate water-insoluble α-glucan similar to amylopectin rather than glycogen, the latter of which is more commonly produced in these organisms. The amylopectin-producing species including Cyanobacterium sp. NBRC 102756 invariably have three branching enzyme (BE) homologs, BE1, BE2, and BE3, all belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 13. Multiple BE isoforms in prokaryotes have not been previously studied. In the present work, we carried out functional characterization of these enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were all active, although the specific activity of BE3 was much lower than those of BE1 and BE2. After the incubation of the enzymes with amylopectin or amylose, the reaction products were analyzed by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate capillary electrophoresis method. BE1 and BE2 showed similar chain-length preference to BEIIb isoform of rice (Oryza sativa L.), while the catalytic specificity of BE3 was similar to that of rice BEI. These results indicate that starch-producing cyanobacteria have both type-I BE (BE3) and type-II BEs (BE1 and BE2) in terms of chain-length preferences, as is the case of plants. All BE isoforms were active against phosphorylase limit dextrin, in which outer branches had been uniformly diminished to 4 glucose residues. Based on its catalytic properties, BE3 was assumed to have a role to transfer the glucan chain bearing branch(es) to give rise to a newly growing unit, or cluster as observed in amylopectin molecule. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of pore sizes and relative porosity in porous nanoshell architectures using dextran retention with single monomer resolution and proton permeation

    PubMed Central

    Muhandiramlage, Thusitha P.; Cheng, Zhiliang; Roberts, David L.; Keogh, John P.; Hall, Henry K.; Aspinwall, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Unilamellar phospholipid vesicles prepared using the polymerizable lipid bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine (bis-SorbPC) yield three-dimensional nanoarchitectures that are highly permeable to small molecules. The resulting porous phospholipid nanoshells (PPNs) are potentially useful for a range of biomedical applications including nanosensors and nanodelivery vehicles for cellular assays and manipulations. The uniformity and size distribution of the pores, key properties for sensor design and utilization, has not previously been reported. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) was utilized to assess the nominal molecular weight cutoff limit (NMCL) of the PPN via analysis of retained dextran with single monomer resolution. The NMCL of PPNs prepared from pure bis-SorbPC was equivalent to a 1800 Da linear dextran, corresponding to a maximum pore diameter of 2.6 nm. Further investigation of PPNs prepared using binary mixtures of bis-SorbPC and dioleylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) revealed a similar NMCL when the bis-SorbPC content exceeded 30 mol %, whereas different size-dependent permeation was observed below this composition. Below 30 mol % bis-SorbPC, dextran retention provided insufficient mass resolution (162 Da) to observe porosity on the experimental time scale; however, proton permeability showed a marked enhancement for bis-SorbPC ≥ 10 mol %. Combined these data suggest that the NMCL for native pores in bis-SorbPC PPNs results from an inherent property within the lipid assembly that can be partially disrupted by dilution of bis-SorbPC below a critical value for domain formation. Additionally, the analytical method described herein should prove useful for the challenging task of elucidating porosity in a range of three-dimensional nanomaterials. PMID:23083108

  3. Perceived hunger is lower and weight loss is greater in overweight premenopausal women consuming a low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M; Coleman, Mary Dean; Volpe, Joanne J; Hosig, Kathy W

    2005-09-01

    The impact of a low-carbohydrate/high-protein diet compared with a high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet on ratings of hunger and cognitive eating restraint were examined. Overweight premenopausal women consumed a low-carbohydrate/high-protein (n=13) or high-carbohydrate/low-fat diet (n=15) for 6 weeks. Fasting body weight (BW) was measured and the Eating Inventory was completed at baseline, weeks 1 to 4, and week 6. All women experienced a reduction in BW (P<.01), although relative BW loss was greater in the low-carbohydrate/high-protein vs high-carbohydrate/low-fat group at week 6 (P<.05). Based on Eating Inventory scores, self-rated hunger decreased (P<.03) in women in the low-carbohydrate/high-protein but not in the high-carbohydrate/low-fat group from baseline to week 6. In both groups, self-rated cognitive eating restraint increased (P<.01) from baseline to week 1 and remained constant to week 6. Both diet groups reported increased cognitive eating restraint, facilitating short-term weight loss; however, the decrease in hunger perception in the low-carbohydrate/high-protein group may have contributed to a greater percentage of BW loss.

  4. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Lindsay B.; Rollo, Ian; Stein, Kimberly W.; Jeukendrup, Asker E.

    2015-01-01

    Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports) are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h). Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1) potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2) the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3) what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports). Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before and during a

  5. The visible touch: in planta visualization of protein-protein interactions by fluorophore-based methods

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Riyaz A; Lahaye, Thomas; Panstruga, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Non-invasive fluorophore-based protein interaction assays like fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC, also referred to as "split YFP") have been proven invaluable tools to study protein-protein interactions in living cells. Both methods are now frequently used in the plant sciences and are likely to develop into standard techniques for the identification, verification and in-depth analysis of polypeptide interactions. In this review, we address the individual strengths and weaknesses of both approaches and provide an outlook about new directions and possible future developments for both techniques. PMID:16800872

  6. A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in aprotic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bo; Dong, Hai; Ramström, Olof

    2014-05-01

    A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in nonpolar solvents is reported, in which complexes form at the B-faces of β-D-pyranosides with H1-, H3-, and H5-cis patterns similar to carbohydrate-π interactions. The complexation effect was evaluated for a range of carbohydrate structures; it resulted in either 1:1 carbohydrate-anion complexes, or 1:2 complex formation depending on the protection pattern of the carbohydrate. The interaction was also evaluated with different anions and solvents. In both cases it resulted in significant binding differences. The results indicate that complexation originates from van der Waals interactions or weak CH⋅⋅⋅A(-) hydrogen bonds between the binding partners and is related to electron-withdrawing groups of the carbohydrates as well as increased hydrogen-bond-accepting capability of the anions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  7. Integrated circuit-based instrumentation for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Behnam, M; Kaigala, G V; Khorasani, M; Martel, S; Elliott, D G; Backhouse, C J

    2010-09-01

    Although electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection has tremendous potential in lab on chip-based point-of-care disease diagnostics, the wider use of microchip electrophoresis has been limited by the size and cost of the instrumentation. To address this challenge, the authors designed an integrated circuit (IC, i.e. a microelectronic chip, with total silicon area of <0.25 cm2, less than 5 mmx5 mm, and power consumption of 28 mW), which, with a minimal additional infrastructure, can perform microchip electrophoresis with LIF detection. The present work enables extremely compact and inexpensive portable systems consisting of one or more complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) chips and several other low-cost components. There are, to the authors' knowledge, no other reports of a CMOS-based LIF capillary electrophoresis instrument (i.e. high voltage generation, switching, control and interface circuit combined with LIF detection). This instrument is powered and controlled using a universal serial bus (USB) interface to a laptop computer. The authors demonstrate this IC in various configurations and can readily analyse the DNA produced by a standard medical diagnostic protocol (end-labelled polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product) with a limit of detection of approximately 1 ng/microl (approximately 1 ng of total DNA). The authors believe that this approach may ultimately enable lab-on-a-chip-based electrophoretic instruments that cost on the order of several dollars.

  8. Simple carbohydrates (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrates are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, ...

  9. Carbohydrate recognition: A minimalistic approach to binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubik, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Synthetic receptors with properties resembling those of carbohydrate-binding proteins are known, but they are structurally rather complex. Elaborate structures are, however, not always required to bind carbohydrates in water -- much simpler compounds can be just as effective.

  10. Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    synthesized in normal amounts but accumu- lated intracellularly, with transport to the cell surface being greatly de - layed. Glycoprotein E2 isolated from...UNcLA ,F E 2 Role of Carbohydrate in Glycoprotein Traffic and Secretion JAMES B. PARENT I. Introduction I!. Evidence for Intracellular Transport Signals...Ill. Oligosaccharide Biosynthesis IV. Role of Carbohydrate in Protein Solubility. Structure, and Stability V. Evidence for Carbohydrate Transport

  11. A study of cell electrophoresis as a means of purifying growth hormone secreting cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, Lindsay D.; Hymer, W. C.; Kunze, M. Elaine; Marks, Gary M.; Lanham, J. Wayne

    1983-01-01

    Growth hormone secreting cells of the rat anterior pituitary are heavily laden with granules of growth hormone and can be partialy purified on the basis of their resulting high density. Two methods of preparative cell electrophoresis were investigated as methods of enhancing the purification of growth hormone producing cells: density gradient electrophoresis and continuous flow electrophoresis. Both methods provided a two- to four-fold enrichment in growth hormone production per cell relative to that achieved by previous methods. Measurements of electrophoretic mobilities by two analytical methods, microscopic electrophoresis and laser-tracking electrophoresis, revealed very little distinction between unpurified anterior pituitary cell suspensions and somatotroph-enriched cell suspensions. Predictions calculated on the basis of analytical electrophoretic data are consistent with the hypothesis that sedimentation plays a significant role in both types of preparative electrophoresis and the electrophoretic mobility of the growth hormone secreting subpopulation of cells remains unknown.

  12. A novel single fluorophore-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotide probe for fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection based on the inherent quenching ability of deoxyguanosine bases and competitive strand-displacement reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingwei; Tian, Jingqi; Li, Hailong; Wang, Lei; Sun, Xuping

    2012-01-01

    We develop a novel single fluorophore-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotide (OND) probe for rapid, nanostructure-free, fluorescence-enhanced nucleic acid detection for the first time. We further demonstrate such probe is able to well discriminate single-base mutation in nucleic acid. The design takes advantage of an inherent quenching ability of guanine bases. The short strand of the probe is designed with an end-labeled fluorophore that is placed adjacent to two guanines as the quencher located on the long opposite strand, resulting in great quenching of dye fluorescence. In the presence of a target complementary to the long strand of the probe, a competitive strand-displacement reaction occurs and the long strand forms a more stable duplex with the target, resulting in the two strands of the probe being separated from each other. As a consequence of this displacement, the fluorophore and the quencher are no longer in close proximity and dye fluorescence increases, signaling the presence of target.

  13. Carbohydrates and sports practice: a Twitter virtual ethnography

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz; Castillo, Carlos Alberto

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Although carbohydrates consumption is a key factor to enhance sport performance, intake levels seem questioned by some amateur athletes, leading to develop an irrational aversion to carbohydrate known as “carbophobia”. On the other hand, food is the origin of virtual communities erected as a source of knowledge and a way to exchange information. Despite this, very few studies have analysed the influence of social media in eating behaviours. Objectives: To know the conceptualizations about carbohydrates intake and eating patterns related to carbophobia expressed in amateur athletes’ Twitter accounts. Methods: Qualitative research designed from Hine’s Virtual Ethnography. Virtual immersion was used for data collection in Twitter open accounts in a theoretical sample of tweets from amateur athletes. Discourse analysis of narrative information of tweets was carried out through open, axial and selective coding process and the constant comparison method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories that offered a picture of conceptualizations of carbohydrates: carbohydrates as suspects or guilty from slowing down training, carbophobia as a lifestyle, carbophobia as a religion and finally the love/hate relationship with carbohydrates. Conclusions: Low-carbohydrate diet is considered a healthy lifestyle in some amateur athletes. The results of this study show the power of virtual communication tools such as Twitter to support, promote and maintain uncommon and not necessarily healthy eating behaviours. Future studies should focus on the context in which these practices appear.

  14. Saturated fat, carbohydrate, and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Siri-Tarino, Patty W; Sun, Qi; Hu, Frank B; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-03-01

    A focus of dietary recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and treatment has been a reduction in saturated fat intake, primarily as a means of lowering LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, the evidence that supports a reduction in saturated fat intake must be evaluated in the context of replacement by other macronutrients. Clinical trials that replaced saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat have generally shown a reduction in CVD events, although several studies showed no effects. An independent association of saturated fat intake with CVD risk has not been consistently shown in prospective epidemiologic studies, although some have provided evidence of an increased risk in young individuals and in women. Replacement of saturated fat by polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat lowers both LDL and HDL cholesterol. However, replacement with a higher carbohydrate intake, particularly refined carbohydrate, can exacerbate the atherogenic dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance and obesity that includes increased triglycerides, small LDL particles, and reduced HDL cholesterol. In summary, although substitution of dietary polyunsaturated fat for saturated fat has been shown to lower CVD risk, there are few epidemiologic or clinical trial data to support a benefit of replacing saturated fat with carbohydrate. Furthermore, particularly given the differential effects of dietary saturated fats and carbohydrates on concentrations of larger and smaller LDL particles, respectively, dietary efforts to improve the increasing burden of CVD risk associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia should primarily emphasize the limitation of refined carbohydrate intakes and a reduction in excess adiposity.

  15. Validation of lignocellulosic biomass carbohydrates determination via acid hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengfei; Runge, Troy M

    2014-11-04

    This work studied the two-step acid hydrolysis for determining carbohydrates in lignocellulosic biomass. Estimation of sugar loss based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards or analysis of sugar derivatives was investigated. Four model substrates (starch, holocellulose, filter paper and cotton) and three levels of acid/material ratios (7.8, 10.3 and 15.4, v/w) were studied to demonstrate the range of test artifacts. The method for carbohydrates estimation based on acid hydrolyzed sugar standards having the most satisfactory carbohydrate recovery and relative standard deviation. Raw material and the acid/material ratio both had significant effect on carbohydrate hydrolysis, suggesting the acid to have impacts beyond a catalyst in the hydrolysis. Following optimal procedures, we were able to reach a carbohydrate recovery of 96% with a relative standard deviation less than 3%. The carbohydrates recovery lower than 100% was likely due to the incomplete hydrolysis of substrates, which was supported by scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carbohydrate absorption from one serving of fruit juice in young children: age and carbohydrate composition effects.

    PubMed

    Nobigrot, T; Chasalow, F I; Lifshitz, F

    1997-04-01

    To test the hypotheses that: the efficiency of carbohydrate absorption in childhood increases with age, and decreased carbohydrate absorption occurs more frequently with juices containing more fructose than glucose and/or sorbitol than with juices which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. One hundred and four healthy children were recruited from the Ambulatory Center at Maimonides Children's Center. They were assigned to one of three age groups: approximately 1, 3 and 5 years of age. Each child received one age-specific dose (by randomization) of one of four juices: a) pear juice which contains fructose in excess to glucose and a large amount of sorbitol; b) apple juice which is similar to pear juice in its fructose to glucose ratio but contains four times less sorbitol than pear juice; c) white grape juice or d) purple grape juice both of which contain equal amounts of fructose and glucose and are sorbitol-free. Breath hydrogen excretion (BH2) was utilized as the index of carbohydrate absorption. It was measured in fasting children and at 30-minute intervals for 3 hours after drinking the single serving of juice. Multiple breath hydrogen related parameters were quantified and results were expressed as: BH2 peak, area under the curve, and degree of carbohydrate malabsorption. After the test, parents completed a questionnaire and recorded signs and symptoms of intestinal malabsorption for 24 hours. Pear juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher among children 1 and 3 years of age as compared to the levels achieved after the other juices. Apple juice related BH2 levels were significantly higher only among the youngest age group of children. There was no significant difference in carbohydrate absorption among the 5 year old children regardless of the juice consumed. Incomplete carbohydrate absorption (BH2 peak above 20 ppm) occurred more frequently after pear juice consumption (84%) than after apple juice (41%) or grape juice

  17. Carbohydrate Dehydration Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolson, David A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the impact of various factors on the "charring reaction" of a carbohydrate with concentrated sulfuric acid including the type of sugar, the degree of fineness of the sugar crystals, and the amount of water added. (JRH)

  18. Inquiry-Based Approach to a Carbohydrate Analysis Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkbeil, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of an unknown carbohydrate in an inquiry-based learning format has proven to be a valuable and interesting undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment. Students are given a list of carbohydrates and a list of references for carbohydrate analysis. The references contain a variety of well-characterized wet chemistry and instrumental techniques for carbohydrate identification, but the students must develop an appropriate sequential protocol for unknown identification. The students are required to provide a list of chemicals and procedures and a flow chart for identification before the lab. During the 3-hour laboratory period, they utilize their accumulated information and knowledge to classify and identify their unknown. Advantages of the inquiry-based format are (i) students must be well prepared in advance to be successful in the laboratory, (ii) students feel a sense of accomplishment in both designing and carrying out a successful experiment, and (iii) the carbohydrate background information digested by the students significantly decreases the amount of lecture time required for this topic.

  19. Impact of Carbohydrate Restriction on Healthy Adolescent Development.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Hannah M; Duriancik, David M

    2017-09-01

    Carbohydrate-restricted diets are known for their impact on weight loss; however, research is still required to determine if low-carbohydrate diets are safe for adolescents. Carbohydrates directly stimulate an insulin response, and studies have recently shown that insulin and binding to respective insulin receptors (IRs) are critical in Kisspeptin (Kiss1) neuronal development. These neurons directly stimulate gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which activates the pituitary-gonadal axis during puberty. This information suggests that carbohydrate restriction may delay pubertal development in adolescents due to the impact on insulin and Kiss1 transcription. Studies have observed disturbed insulin metabolism in Type I Diabetics leading to delayed puberty, along with overfeeding stimulating early pubertal onset. Additionally, recent clinical trials bred female mice with IR deletions on Kiss1 neurons and observed delayed vaginal opening and estrus. Current animal research suggests low carbohydrate intake may delay pubertal onset, however additional research is required to determine outcome in human subjects. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  20. Whey or Casein Hydrolysate with Carbohydrate for Metabolism and Performance in Cycling.

    PubMed

    Oosthuyse, T; Carstens, M; Millen, A M E

    2015-07-01

    The protein type most suitable for ingestion during endurance exercise is undefined. This study compared co-ingestion of either 15 g/h whey or casein hydrolysate with 63 g/h fructose: maltodextrin (0.8:1) on exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, exercise metabolism and performance. 2 h postprandial, 8 male cyclists ingested either: carbohydrate-only, carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate or placebo-water in a crossover, double-blind design during 2 h of exercise at 60%W max followed by a 16-km time trial. Data were evaluated by magnitude-based inferential statistics. Exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, measured from (13)CO2 breath enrichment, was not substantially influenced by co-ingestion of either protein hydrolysate. However, only co-ingestion of carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate substantially decreased (98% very likely decrease) total carbohydrate oxidation (mean±SD, 242±44; 258±47; 277±33 g for carbohydrate-casein, carbohydrate-whey and carbohydrate-only, respectively) and substantially increased (93% likely increase) total fat oxidation (92±14; 83±27; 73±19 g) compared with carbohydrate-only. Furthermore, only carbohydrate-casein hydrolysate ingestion resulted in a faster time trial (-3.6%; 90% CI: ±3.2%) compared with placebo-water (95% likely benefit). However, neither protein hydrolysate enhanced time trial performance when compared with carbohydrate-only. Under the conditions of this study, ingesting carbohydrate-casein, but not carbohydrate-whey hydrolysate, favourably alters metabolism during prolonged moderate-strenuous cycling without substantially altering cycling performance compared with carbohydrate-only. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Determination of carbohydrates in medicinal plants--comparison between TLC, mf-MELDI-MS and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Sultana, Tahira; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Bonn, Guenther K

    2011-01-01

    Quality control in the pharmaceutical and phytopharmaceutical industries requires fast and reliable methods for the analysis of raw materials and final products. This study evaluates different analytical approaches in order to recognise the most suitable technique for the analysis of carbohydrates in herbal drug preparations. The specific focus of the study is on thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), and a newly developed mass spectrometric method, i.e. matrix free material enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS). Samples employed in the study were standards and microwave-assisted water extracts from Quercus. TLC analysis proved the presence of mono-, di- and trisaccharides within the biological sample and hinted at the existence of an unknown carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree. After evaluation of different derivatisation techniques, GC-MS confirmed data obtained via TLC for mono- to trisaccharides, delivering additionally quantified values under a considerable amount of time. A carbohydrate of higher oligomerisation degree could not be found. The application of mf-MELDI-MS further confirmed the presence of carbohydrates up to trisaccharides, also hinting at the presence of a form of tetrasaccharide. Besides this information, mf-MELDI-MS delivered further data about other substances present in the extract. Quantitative determination resulted in 1.750, 1.736 and 0.336 mg/mL for glucose, sucrose and raffinose respectively. Evaluation of all three techniques employed, clearly proved the heightened performance of mf-MELDI-MS for the qualitative analysis of complex mixtures, as targets do not need modification and analysis requires only a few minutes. In addition, GC-MS is suitable for quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diets on Fertility Hormones and Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McGrice, Melanie; Porter, Judi

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: Medical interventions including assisted reproductive technologies have improved fertility outcomes for many sub-fertile couples. Increasing research interest has investigated the effect of low carbohydrate diets, with or without energy restriction. We aimed to systematically review the published literature to determine the extent to which low carbohydrate diets can affect fertility outcomes; (2) Methods: The review protocol was registered prospectively with Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42016042669) and followed Preferred Reporting Items For Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Infertile women were the population of interest, the intervention was low carbohydrate diets (less than 45% total energy from carbohydrates), compared to usual diet (with or without co-treatments). Four databases were searched from date of commencement until April 2016; a supplementary Google scholar search was also undertaken. Title and abstract, then full text review, were undertaken independently and in duplicate. Reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews were checked to ensure that all relevant studies were identified for inclusion. Quality assessment was undertaken independently by both authors using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. Outcome measures were improved fertility outcomes defined by an improvement in reproductive hormones, ovulation rates and/or pregnancy rates; (3) Results: Seven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the evidence synthesis. Interventions were diverse and included a combination of low carbohydrate diets with energy deficit or other co-treatments. Study quality was rated as positive for six studies, suggesting a low risk of bias, with one study rated as neutral. Of the six studies which reported changes in reproductive hormones, five reported significant improvements post intervention; (4) Conclusion: The findings of these

  3. Occurrence of Double Monoclonal Bands on Protein Electrophoresis: An Unusual Finding.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vishrut K; Bhagat, Priyanka; Bansal, Frainey; Chhabra, Seema

    2016-06-01

    Various techniques of protein electrophoresis are used for detection of monoclonal proteins/paraproteins in serum and/or urine of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. These are detected as the so-called 'M' bands (monoclonal bands) on serum protein electrophoresis and/or immunofixation electrophoresis. In most cases, a single M-band is detected. However, more than one M-band can be detected in the samples of a minor proportion of patients. This condition is termed as 'double gammopathy' or 'biclonal gammopathy'. A knowledge of such an unusual occurrence is essential for recognition and appropriate interpretation of this entity.

  4. Gel Electrophoresis of Gold-DNA Nano-Conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrino, T.; Sperling, R.A.; Alivisatos, A.P.

    2006-01-10

    Single stranded DNA of different lengths and different amounts was attached to colloidal phosphine stabilized Au nanoparticles. The resulting conjugates were investigated in detail by a gel electrophoresis study based on 1200 gels. We demonstrate how these experiments help to understand the binding of DNA to Au particles. In particular we compare specific attachment of DNA via gold-thiol bonds with nonspecific adsorption of DNA. The maximum number of DNA molecules that can be bound per particle was determined. We also compare several methods to used gel electrophoresis for investigating the effective diameter of DNA-Au conjugates, such as using a calibrationmore » curve of particles with known diameters and Ferguson plots.« less

  5. Numerical simulation of electrophoresis separation processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganjoo, D. K.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    A new Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation has been proposed for transient convection-diffusion problems. Most Petrov-Galerkin formulations take into account the spatial discretization, and the weighting functions so developed give satisfactory solutions for steady state problems. Though these schemes can be used for transient problems, there is scope for improvement. The schemes proposed here, which consider temporal as well as spatial discretization, provide improved solutions. Electrophoresis, which involves the motion of charged entities under the influence of an applied electric field, is governed by equations similiar to those encountered in fluid flow problems, i.e., transient convection-diffusion equations. Test problems are solved in electrophoresis and fluid flow. The results obtained are satisfactory. It is also expected that these schemes, suitably adapted, will improve the numerical solutions of the compressible Euler and the Navier-Stokes equations.

  6. Versatile electrophoresis-based self-test platform.

    PubMed

    Guijt, Rosanne M

    2015-03-01

    Lab on a Chip technology offers the possibility to extract chemical information from a complex sample in a simple, automated way without the need for a laboratory setting. In the health care sector, this chemical information could be used as a diagnostic tool for example to inform dosing. In this issue, the research underpinning a family of electrophoresis-based point-of-care devices for self-testing of ionic analytes in various sample matrices is described [Electrophoresis 2015, 36, 712-721.]. Hardware, software, and methodological chances made to improve the overall analytical performance in terms of accuracy, precision, detection limit, and reliability are discussed. In addition to the main focus of lithium monitoring, new applications including the use of the platform for veterinary purposes, sodium, and for creatinine measurements are included. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Focus on Nutrition: Cats and carbohydrates: implications for health and disease.

    PubMed

    Laflammme, Dottie

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that high-carbohydrate diets contribute to the development of feline diabetes and obesity. The evidence does not support this. Healthy cats efficiently digest and metabolize properly processed starches and complex carbohydrates. Dietary carbohydrate can efficiently meet cats' cellular requirement for carbohydrate (glucose), sparing protein that would otherwise be needed for gluconeogenesis. Excess calories, regardless of source, contribute to obesity and obesity-related problems, but low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets pose a greater risk for obesity. The increasing prevalence of feline diabetes appears to be due to obesity and aging rather than to dietary carbohydrates. However, once cats become diabetic, consumption of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet may be beneficial.

  8. Chiral reagents in glycosylation and modification of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao-Yuan; Blaszczyk, Stephanie A; Xiao, Guozhi; Tang, Weiping

    2018-02-05

    Carbohydrates play a significant role in numerous biological events, and the chemical synthesis of carbohydrates is vital for further studies to understand their various biological functions. Due to the structural complexity of carbohydrates, the stereoselective formation of glycosidic linkages and the site-selective modification of hydroxyl groups are very challenging and at the same time extremely important. In recent years, the rapid development of chiral reagents including both chiral auxiliaries and chiral catalysts has significantly improved the stereoselectivity for glycosylation reactions and the site-selectivity for the modification of carbohydrates. These new tools will greatly facilitate the efficient synthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. In this tutorial review, we will summarize these advances and highlight the most recent examples.

  9. Carbohydrates and Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wurtman, Richard J.; Wurtman, Judith J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the symptoms, such as appetite change and mood fluctuation, basic mechanisms, and some treatments of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), Carbohydrate-Craving Obesity (CCO) and Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). Provides several tables and diagrams, and three reading references. (YP)

  10. Degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate during sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Anqi

    2015-09-01

    Degradation of protein and carbohydrate is vital for sludge anaerobic digestion performance. However, few studies focused on degradation properties of protein and carbohydrate. This study investigated detailed degradation properties of sludge protein and carbohydrate in order to gain insight into organics removal during anaerobic digestion. Results showed that carbohydrate was more efficiently degraded than protein and was degraded prior to protein. The final removal efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were 49.7% and 32.2%, respectively. The first 3 days were a lag phase for protein degradation since rapid carbohydrate degradation in this phase led to repression of protease formation. Kinetics results showed that, after initial lag phase, protein degradation followed the first-order kinetic with rate constants of 0.0197 and 0.0018 d(-1) during later rapid degradation phase and slow degradation phase, respectively. Carbohydrate degradation also followed the first-order kinetics with a rate constant of 0.007 d(-1) after initial quick degradation phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of carbohydrate anomers using ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, J; Hahm, H S; Seeberger, P H; Pagel, K

    2015-10-08

    Carbohydrates are ubiquitous biological polymers that are important in a broad range of biological processes. However, owing to their branched structures and the presence of stereogenic centres at each glycosidic linkage between monomers, carbohydrates are harder to characterize than are peptides and oligonucleotides. Methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to characterize glycosidic linkages, but this technique requires milligram amounts of material and cannot detect small amounts of coexisting isomers. Mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can provide information on carbohydrate composition and connectivity for even small amounts of sample, but it cannot be used to distinguish between stereoisomers. Here, we demonstrate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry--a method that separates molecules according to their mass, charge, size, and shape--can unambiguously identify carbohydrate linkage-isomers and stereoisomers. We analysed six synthetic carbohydrate isomers that differ in composition, connectivity, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified, and relative concentrations of the minor isomer as low as 0.1 per cent can be detected. In addition, the analysis is rapid, and requires no derivatization and only small amounts of sample. These results indicate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry is an effective tool for the analysis of complex carbohydrates. This method could have an impact on the field of carbohydrate synthesis similar to that of the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography on the field of peptide assembly in the late 1970s.

  12. Identification of carbohydrate anomers using ion mobility-mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, J.; Hahm, H. S.; Seeberger, P. H.; Pagel, K.

    2015-10-01

    Carbohydrates are ubiquitous biological polymers that are important in a broad range of biological processes. However, owing to their branched structures and the presence of stereogenic centres at each glycosidic linkage between monomers, carbohydrates are harder to characterize than are peptides and oligonucleotides. Methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to characterize glycosidic linkages, but this technique requires milligram amounts of material and cannot detect small amounts of coexisting isomers. Mass spectrometry, on the other hand, can provide information on carbohydrate composition and connectivity for even small amounts of sample, but it cannot be used to distinguish between stereoisomers. Here, we demonstrate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry--a method that separates molecules according to their mass, charge, size, and shape--can unambiguously identify carbohydrate linkage-isomers and stereoisomers. We analysed six synthetic carbohydrate isomers that differ in composition, connectivity, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified, and relative concentrations of the minor isomer as low as 0.1 per cent can be detected. In addition, the analysis is rapid, and requires no derivatization and only small amounts of sample. These results indicate that ion mobility-mass spectrometry is an effective tool for the analysis of complex carbohydrates. This method could have an impact on the field of carbohydrate synthesis similar to that of the advent of high-performance liquid chromatography on the field of peptide assembly in the late 1970s.

  13. Agarose gel electrophoresis for the separation of DNA fragments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei Yun; Costumbrado, John; Hsu, Chih-Yuan; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2012-04-20

    Agarose gel electrophoresis is the most effective way of separating DNA fragments of varying sizes ranging from 100 bp to 25 kb(1). Agarose is isolated from the seaweed genera Gelidium and Gracilaria, and consists of repeated agarobiose (L- and D-galactose) subunits(2). During gelation, agarose polymers associate non-covalently and form a network of bundles whose pore sizes determine a gel's molecular sieving properties. The use of agarose gel electrophoresis revolutionized the separation of DNA. Prior to the adoption of agarose gels, DNA was primarily separated using sucrose density gradient centrifugation, which only provided an approximation of size. To separate DNA using agarose gel electrophoresis, the DNA is loaded into pre-cast wells in the gel and a current applied. The phosphate backbone of the DNA (and RNA) molecule is negatively charged, therefore when placed in an electric field, DNA fragments will migrate to the positively charged anode. Because DNA has a uniform mass/charge ratio, DNA molecules are separated by size within an agarose gel in a pattern such that the distance traveled is inversely proportional to the log of its molecular weight(3). The leading model for DNA movement through an agarose gel is "biased reptation", whereby the leading edge moves forward and pulls the rest of the molecule along(4). The rate of migration of a DNA molecule through a gel is determined by the following: 1) size of DNA molecule; 2) agarose concentration; 3) DNA conformation(5); 4) voltage applied, 5) presence of ethidium bromide, 6) type of agarose and 7) electrophoresis buffer. After separation, the DNA molecules can be visualized under uv light after staining with an appropriate dye. By following this protocol, students should be able to: Understand the mechanism by which DNA fragments are separated within a gel matrix Understand how conformation of the DNA molecule will determine its mobility through a gel matrix Identify an agarose solution of appropriate

  14. Dietary Carbohydrates and Childhood Functional Abdominal Pain.

    PubMed

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Shulman, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) affect a large number of children throughout the world. Carbohydrates (which provide the majority of calories consumed in the Western diet) have been implicated both as culprits for the etiology of symptoms and as potential therapeutic agents (e.g., fiber) in childhood FGIDs. In this review, we detail how carbohydrate malabsorption may cause gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., bloating) via the physiologic effects of both increased osmotic activity and increased gas production from bacterial fermentation. Several factors may play a role, including: (1) the amount of carbohydrate ingested; (2) whether ingestion is accompanied by a meal or other food; (3) the rate of gastric emptying (how quickly the meal enters the small intestine); (4) small intestinal transit time (the time it takes for a meal to enter the large intestine after first entering the small intestine); (5) whether the meal contains bacteria with enzymes capable of breaking down the carbohydrate; (6) colonic bacterial adaptation to one's diet, and (7) host factors such as the presence or absence of visceral hypersensitivity. By detailing controlled and uncontrolled trials, we describe how there is a general lack of strong evidence supporting restriction of individual carbohydrates (e.g., lactose, fructose) for childhood FGIDs. We review emerging evidence suggesting that a more comprehensive restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) may be effective. Finally, we review how soluble fiber (a complex carbohydrate) supplementation via randomized controlled intervention trials in childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders has demonstrated efficacy. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Pyrrolic tripodal receptors for carbohydrates. Role of functional groups and binding geometry on carbohydrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Cacciarini, Martina; Nativi, Cristina; Norcini, Martina; Staderini, Samuele; Francesconi, Oscar; Roelens, Stefano

    2011-02-21

    The contribution from several H-bonding groups and the impact of geometric requirements on the binding ability of benzene-based tripodal receptors toward carbohydrates have been investigated by measuring the affinity of a set of structures toward octyl β-D-glucopyranoside, selected as a representative monosaccharide. The results reported in the present study demonstrate that a judicious choice of correct geometry and appropriate functional groups is critical to achieve the complementary hydrogen bonding interactions required for an effective carbohydrate recognition.

  16. Joachim kohn (1912-1987) and the origin of cellulose acetate electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Richard M

    2005-10-01

    The year 2006 marks the 50th anniversary of the discovery of cellulose acetate (CA) electrophoresis by Joachim Kohn, a pathologist at Queen Mary's Hospital in Roehampton, London. During a career in pathology that began in 1950 and spanned 37 years, Kohn published more than 50 papers in clinical laboratory medicine. He was the first to report the use of CA microbiology filters as solid supports for zone electrophoresis and the separation of hemoglobin phenotypes on CA membranes. Kohn also invented a new electrophoresis chamber and an 8-position stamp applicator especially for use with CA membranes. Beginning in 1957, Kohn pioneered the development of CA techniques for immunoelectrophoresis, counter immunoelectrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion, protein blotting, and immunofixation. He also designed a transport dressing for burn patients and was the first person to describe the use of an enzyme-based dipstick for measuring fingerstick blood glucose concentrations. This short review highlights Kohn's discovery of CA electrophoresis and his contributions to the development of this procedure.

  17. Electrophoresis for the analysis of heparin purity and quality

    PubMed Central

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Suwan, Jiraporn; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007–2008 produced a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional methods for the analysis of heparin purity. As a consequence, a wide variety of innovative analytical approaches have been developed for the quality assurance and purity of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. This review discusses recent developments in electrophoresis techniques available for the sensitive separation, detection, and partial structural characterization of heparin contaminants. In particular, this review summarizes recent publications on heparin quality and related impurity analysis using electrophoretic separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) of intact polysaccharides and hexosamines derived from their acidic hydrolysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the separation of heparin samples without and in the presence of its relatively specific depolymerization process with nitrous acid treatment. PMID:22736353

  18. Carbohydrate intake and tennis: are there benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, M S

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrate supplementation in prolonged aerobic exercise has been shown to be effective in improving performance and deferring fatigue. However, there is confounding evidence with regard to carbohydrate supplementation and tennis performance, which may be due to the limited number of studies on this topic. This evidence based review, using database searches of Medline and SPORTDiscus, summarises the limited relevant literature to determine if carbohydrate supplementation benefits tennis performance, and, if so, the appropriate amounts and timing. Although more research is required, it appears that it may be beneficial in tennis sessions lasting more than 90 minutes. PMID:16632561

  19. pdb-care (PDB carbohydrate residue check): a program to support annotation of complex carbohydrate structures in PDB files.

    PubMed

    Lütteke, Thomas; von der Lieth, Claus-W

    2004-06-04

    Carbohydrates are involved in a variety of fundamental biological processes and pathological situations. They therefore have a large pharmaceutical and diagnostic potential. Knowledge of the 3D structure of glycans is a prerequisite for a complete understanding of their biological functions. The largest source of biomolecular 3D structures is the Protein Data Bank. However, about 30% of all 1663 PDB entries (version September 2003) containing carbohydrates comprise errors in glycan description. Unfortunately, no software is currently available which aligns the 3D information with the reported assignments. It is the aim of this work to fill this gap. The pdb-care program http://www.glycosciences.de/tools/pdb-care/ is able to identify and assign carbohydrate structures using only atom types and their 3D atom coordinates given in PDB-files. Looking up a translation table where systematic names and the respective PDB residue codes are listed, both assignments are compared and inconsistencies are reported. Additionally, the reliability of reported and calculated connectivities for molecules listed within the HETATOM records is checked and unusual values are reported. Frequent use of pdb-care will help to improve the quality of carbohydrate data contained in the PDB. Automatic assignment of carbohydrate structures contained in PDB entries will enable the cross-linking of glycobiology resources with genomic and proteomic data collections.

  20. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any unused glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen for use later. Complex carbohydrate foods provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber that are important to the ...

  1. Exonuclease III-assisted graphene oxide amplified fluorescence anisotropy strategy for ricin detection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xue; Tao, Jing; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Huang, Cheng Zhi; Zhen, Shu Jun

    2016-11-15

    Graphene oxide (GO) is an excellent fluorescence anisotropy (FA) amplifier. However, in the conventional GO amplified FA strategy, one target can only induce the FA change of one fluorophore on probe, which limits the detection sensitivity. Herein, we developed an exonuclease III (Exo III) aided GO amplified FA strategy by using aptamer as an recognition element and ricin B-chain as a proof-of-concept target. The aptamer was hybridized with a blocker sequence and linked onto the surface of magnetic beads (MBs). Upon the addition of ricin B-chain, blocker was released from the surface of MBs and hybridized with the dye-modified probe DNA on the surface of GO through the toehold-mediated strand exchange reaction. The formed blocker-probe DNA duplex triggered the Exo III-assisted cyclic signal amplification by repeating the hybridization and digestion of probe DNA, liberating the fluorophore with several nucleotides (low FA value). Thus, ricin B-chain could be sensitively detected by the significantly decreased FA. The linear range was from 1.0μg/mL to 13.3μg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 400ng/mL. This method improved the sensitivity of FA assay and it could be generalized to any kind of target detection based on the use of an appropriate aptamer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Carbohydrate CuAAC click chemistry for therapy and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Peng; Zeng, Ya-Li; Zang, Yi; Li, Jia; Field, Robert A; Chen, Guo-Rong

    2016-06-24

    Carbohydrates are important as signaling molecules and for cellular recognition events, therefore offering scope for the development of carbohydrate-mimetic diagnostics and drug candidates. As a consequence, the construction of carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds and sensors has become an active research area. While the advent of click chemistry has greatly accelerated the progress of medicinal chemistry and chemical biology, recent literature has seen an extensive use of such approaches to construct functionally diverse carbohydrate derivatives. Here we summarize some of the progress, covering the period 2010 to mid-2015, in Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition CuAAC "click chemistry" of carbohydrate derivatives, in the context of potential therapeutic and diagnostic tool development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Indium Triflate Catalyzed Peracetylation of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Bizier, Nicholas P.; Atkins, Shannon R.; Helland, Luke C.; Colvin, Shane F.; Twitchell, Joseph R.; Cloninger, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Peracetylation is a very common protection strategy that is widely implemented in carbohydrate synthesis. Here, a method for peracetylation of carbohydrates using catalytic In(OTf)3 in neat acetic anhydride is reported. In(OTf)3 has low toxicity and is mild and water tolerant, and the reactions are high yielding and efficient. Details regarding the scope and mechanism of the reaction are briefly discussed. PMID:18440500

  4. Metabolic response to high-carbohydrate and low-carbohydrate meals in a nonhuman primate model.

    PubMed

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Higgins, Paul B; Magkos, Faidon; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Voruganti, V Saroja; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Shade, Robert E; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Horton, Jay D; Omodei, Daniela; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2013-02-15

    We established a model of chronic portal vein catheterization in an awake nonhuman primate to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the metabolic response to low-carbohydrate/high-fat (LCHF; 20% carbohydrate and 65% fat) and high-carbohydrate/low-fat (HCLF; 65% carbohydrate and 20% fat) meal ingestion. Each meal was given 1 wk apart to five young adult (7.8 ± 1.3 yr old) male baboons. A [U-¹³C]glucose tracer was added to the meal, and a [6,6-²H₂]glucose tracer was infused systemically to assess glucose kinetics. Plasma areas under the curve (AUCs) of glucose, insulin, and C-peptide in the femoral artery and of glucose and insulin in the portal vein were higher (P ≤ 0.05) after ingestion of the HCLF compared with the LCHF meal. Compared with the LCHF meal, the rate of appearance of ingested glucose into the portal vein and the systemic circulation was greater after the HCLF meal (P < 0.05). Endogenous glucose production decreased by ∼40% after ingestion of the HCLF meal but was not affected by the LCHF meal (P < 0.05). Portal vein blood flow increased (P < 0.001) to a similar extent after consumption of either meal. In conclusion, a LCHF diet causes minimal changes in the rate of glucose appearance in both portal and systemic circulations, does not affect the rate of endogenous glucose production, and causes minimal stimulation of C-peptide and insulin. These observations demonstrate that LCHF diets cause minimal perturbations in glucose homeostasis and pancreatic β-cell activity.

  5. Characterization of Protein-Carbohydrate Interactions by NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Julie M; Langelaan, David N; Smith, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    Solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy can be used to monitor protein-carbohydrate interactions. Two-dimensional 1 H- 15 N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC)-based techniques described in this chapter can be used quickly and effectively to screen a set of possible carbohydrate binding partners, to quantify the dissociation constant (K d ) of any identified interactions, and to map the carbohydrate binding site on the structure of the protein. Here, we describe the titration of a family 32 carbohydrate binding module from Clostridium perfringens (CpCBM32) with the monosaccharide N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), in which we calculate the apparent dissociation of the interaction, and map the GalNAc binding site onto the structure of CpCBM32.

  6. Computational carbohydrate chemistry: what theoretical methods can tell us

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Computational methods have had a long history of application to carbohydrate systems and their development in this regard is discussed. The conformational analysis of carbohydrates differs in several ways from that of other biomolecules. Many glycans appear to exhibit numerous conformations coexisting in solution at room temperature and a conformational analysis of a carbohydrate must address both spatial and temporal properties. When solution nuclear magnetic resonance data are used for comparison, the simulation must give rise to ensemble-averaged properties. In contrast, when comparing to experimental data obtained from crystal structures a simulation of a crystal lattice, rather than of an isolated molecule, is appropriate. Molecular dynamics simulations are well suited for such condensed phase modeling. Interactions between carbohydrates and other biological macromolecules are also amenable to computational approaches. Having obtained a three-dimensional structure of the receptor protein, it is possible to model with accuracy the conformation of the carbohydrate in the complex. An example of the application of free energy perturbation simulations to the prediction of carbohydrate-protein binding energies is presented. PMID:9579797

  7. RAPID IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS BY CONTINUOUS PARTICLE ELECTROPHORESIS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MICROORGANISMS, IDENTIFICATION), (*ELECTROPHORESIS, MICROORGANISMS), MOBILITY, PH FACTOR, OPTICAL SCANNING, ESCHERICHIA COLI, SHIGELLA FLEXNERI, BACILLUS CEREUS, SERRATIA MARCESCENS , BACILLUS SUBTILIS

  8. High Carbohydrate-Fiber Nutrition for Running and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battinelli, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    The roles of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and fiber in producing energy for health and exercise are discussed. Long-distance runners should have a high intake of complex carbohydrates and fiber. (PP)

  9. Separation of biogenic materials by electrophoresis under zero gravity (L-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuroda, Masao

    1993-01-01

    Electrophoresis separates electrically charged materials by imposing a voltage between electrodes. Though free-flow electrophoresis is used without carriers such as colloids to separate and purify biogenic materials including biogenic cells and proteins in blood, its resolving power and separation efficiency is very low on Earth due to sedimentation, flotation, and thermal convection caused by the specific gravity differences between separated materials and buffer solutions. The objective of this experiment is to make a comparative study of various electrophoresis conditions on the ground and in zero-gravity in order to ultimately develop a method for separating various important 'vial' components which are difficult to separate on the ground.

  10. Role of preoperative carbohydrate loading: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bilku, D K; Dennison, A R; Hall, T C; Metcalfe, M S; Garcea, G

    2014-01-01

    Surgical stress in the presence of fasting worsens the catabolic state, causes insulin resistance and may delay recovery. Carbohydrate rich drinks given preoperatively may ameliorate these deleterious effects. A systematic review was undertaken to analyse the effect of preoperative carbohydrate loading on insulin resistance, gastric emptying, gastric acidity, patient wellbeing, immunity and nutrition following surgery. All studies identified through PubMed until September 2011 were included. References were cross-checked to ensure capture of cited pertinent articles. Overall, 17 randomised controlled trials with a total of 1,445 patients who met the inclusion criteria were identified. Preoperative carbohydrate drinks significantly improved insulin resistance and indices of patient comfort following surgery, especially hunger, thirst, malaise, anxiety and nausea. No definite conclusions could be made regarding preservation of muscle mass. Following ingestion of carbohydrate drinks, no adverse events such as apparent or proven aspiration during or after surgery were reported. Administration of oral carbohydrate drinks before surgery is probably safe and may have a positive influence on a wide range of perioperative markers of clinical outcome. Further studies are required to determine its cost effectiveness.

  11. Palladium/Carbon dioxide cooperative catalysis for the production of diketone derivatives from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Audemar, Maïté; De Oliveira Vigier, Karine; Clacens, Jean-Marc; De Campo, Floryan; Jérôme, François

    2014-08-01

    The one-pot production of industrially valuable diketone derivatives from carbohydrates is achieved through a bifunctional catalytic process. In particular, Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation of HMF in water and under CO2 affords 1-hydroxypentane-2,5-dione with up to 77% yield. The process is also eligible starting from fructose and inulin, affording 1-hydroxyhexane-2,5-dione with 36% and 15% yield, respectively. The key of the process is reversible in situ formation of carbonic acid, which is capable of assisting Pd/C during the hydrogenation reaction by promoting the dehydration of carbohydrates and the ring-opening of furanic intermediates. Interestingly, by changing the reaction medium from H2 O to a H2 O/THF mixture (1:9), it is possible to switch the selectivity of the reaction and to produce 2,5-hexanadione with 83% yield. Within the framework of sustainable chemistry, reactions presented in this report show 100% carbon economy, involve CO2 to generate acidity, require water as a solvent, and are conducted under rather low hydrogen pressures (10 bar). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Design, development, test, and evaluation of an automated analytical electrophoresis apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, P. A.; Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    An Automated Analytical Electrophoresis Apparatus (AAEA) was designed, developed, assembled, and preliminarily tested. The AAEA was demonstrated to be a feasible apparatus for automatically acquiring, displaying, and storing (and eventually analyzing) electrophoresis mobility data from living blood cells. The apparatus and the operation of its major assemblies are described in detail.

  13. A new approach to electrophoresis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1990-01-01

    Previous electrophoresis experiments performed in space are reviewed. There is sufficient data available from the results of these experiments to show that they were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. Redesigning laboratory chambers and operating procedures developed on Earth for space without understanding both the advantages and disadvantages of the microgravity environment has yielded poor separations of both cells and proteins. However, electrophoreris is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  14. Old but Still Relevant: High Resolution Electrophoresis and Immunofixation in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Aroonima; Mishra, Jyoti; Chandramohan, Jagan; Sharma, Atul; Raina, Vinod; Kumar, Rajive; Soni, Sushant; Chopra, Anita

    2016-03-01

    High resolution electrophoresis (HRE) and immunofixation (IFX) of serum and urine are integral to the diagnostic work-up of multiple myeloma. Unusual electrophoresis patterns are common and may be misinterpreted. Though primarily the responsibility of the hematopathologist, clinicians who are responsible for managing myelomas may benefit from knowledge of these. In this review article we intend to discuss the patterns and importance of electrophoresis in present day scenario. Patterns of HRE and IFX seen in our laboratory over the past 15 years were studied. Monoclonal proteins are seen on HRE as sharply defined bands, sometimes two, lying from γ- to α-globulin regions on a background of normal, increased or decreased polyclonal γ-globulins, showing HRE to be a rapid and dependable method of detecting M-protein in serum or urine. Immunofixation complements HRE and due to its greater sensitivity, is able to pick up small or light chain bands, not apparent on electrophoresis, including biclonal disease even when electrophoresis shows only one M-band. Special features liable to misinterpretation are discussed. Familiarity with the interpretation of the varied patterns seen in health and disease is essential for providing dependable laboratory support in the management of multiple myeloma.

  15. Carbohydrate Analysis: Can We Control the Ripening of Bananas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deal, S. Todd; Farmer, Catherine E.; Cerpovicz, Paul F.

    2002-04-01

    We have developed an experiment for nutritional/introductory biochemistry courses that focuses on carbohydrate analysis--specifically, the carbohydrates found in bananas and the change in carbohydrate composition as the banana ripens. Pairs of students analyze the starch and reducing sugar content of green, ripe, and overripe bananas. Using the techniques and knowledge gained from these analyses, they then investigate the influence of various storage methods on the ripening process. While this experiment was developed for an introductory-level biochemistry lab, it can easily be adapted for use in other laboratory programs that seek to teach the fundamentals of carbohydrate analysis.

  16. Carbohydrate phenotyping of human and animal milk glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Anki; Kacskovics, Imre; Breimer, Michael E; Hammarström, Lennart; Holgersson, Jan

    2005-03-01

    Breast-milk has a well-known anti-microbial effect, which is in part due to the many different carbohydrate structures expressed. This renders it a position as a potential therapeutic for treatment of infection by different pathogens, thus avoiding the drawbacks of many antibiotics. The plethora of carbohydrate epitopes in breast-milk is known to differ between species, with human milk expressing the most complex one. We have investigated the expression of protein-bound carbohydrate epitopes in milk from man, cow, goat, sheep, pig, horse, dromedary and rabbit. Proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and the presence of carbohydrate epitopes on milk proteins were analysed by Western blotting using different lectins and carbohydrate-specific antibodies. We show that ABH, Lewis (Le)x, sialyl-Lex, Lea, sialyl-Lea and Leb carbohydrate epitopes are expressed mainly on man, pig and horse milk proteins. The blood group precursor structure H type 1 is expressed in all species investigated, while only pig, dromedary and rabbit milk proteins carry H type 2 epitopes. These epitopes are receptors for Helicobacter pylori (Leb and sialyl-Lex), enteropathogenic (H type 1, Lea and Lex) and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (heat-stable toxin; H type 1 and 2), and Campylobacter jejuni (H type 2). Thus, milk from these animals or their genetically modified descendants could have a therapeutic effect by inhibiting pathogen colonization and infection.

  17. Structural analysis and localization of the carbohydrate moieties of a soluble human interferon gamma receptor produced in baculovirus-infected insect cells.

    PubMed Central

    Manneberg, M.; Friedlein, A.; Kurth, H.; Lahm, H. W.; Fountoulakis, M.

    1994-01-01

    A soluble form of the human interferon gamma receptor that is required for the identification of interferon gamma antagonists was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The protein carried N-linked carbohydrate and showed a heterogeneity on denaturing polyacrylamide gels. We investigated the utilization of the potential sites for N-linked glycosylation and the structure of the carbohydrate moieties of this soluble receptor. Amino acid sequence analysis and ion spray mass spectrometry revealed that of the five potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, Asn17 and Asn69 were always utilized, whereas Asn62 and Asn162 were utilized in approximately one-third of the protein population. Asn223 was never found to be glycosylated. The soluble receptor was treated with N-glycosidase F and the oligosaccharides released were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry, which showed that the protein carried six types of short carbohydrate chains. The predominant species was a hexasaccharide of molecular mass 1,039, containing a fucose subunit linked to the proximal N-acetylglucosamine residue: [formula: see text] PMID:8142896

  18. Autofluorescence Imaging With Near-Infrared Excitation:Normalization by Reflectance to Reduce Signal From Choroidal Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Cideciyan, Artur V.; Swider, Malgorzata; Jacobson, Samuel G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We previously developed reduced-illuminance autofluorescence imaging (RAFI) methods involving near-infrared (NIR) excitation to image melanin-based fluorophores and short-wavelength (SW) excitation to image lipofuscin-based flurophores. Here, we propose to normalize NIR-RAFI in order to increase the relative contribution of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluorophores. Methods. Retinal imaging was performed with a standard protocol holding system parameters invariant in healthy subjects and in patients. Normalized NIR-RAFI was derived by dividing NIR-RAFI signal by NIR reflectance point-by-point after image registration. Results. Regions of RPE atrophy in Stargardt disease, AMD, retinitis pigmentosa, choroideremia, and Leber congenital amaurosis as defined by low signal on SW-RAFI could correspond to a wide range of signal on NIR-RAFI depending on the contribution from the choroidal component. Retinal pigment epithelium atrophy tended to always correspond to high signal on NIR reflectance. Normalizing NIR-RAFI reduced the choroidal component of the signal in regions of atrophy. Quantitative evaluation of RPE atrophy area showed no significant differences between SW-RAFI and normalized NIR-RAFI. Conclusions. Imaging of RPE atrophy using lipofuscin-based AF imaging has become the gold standard. However, this technique involves bright SW lights that are uncomfortable and may accelerate the rate of disease progression in vulnerable retinas. The NIR-RAFI method developed here is a melanin-based alternative that is not absorbed by opsins and bisretinoid moieties, and is comfortable to view. Further development of this method may result in a nonmydriatic and comfortable imaging method to quantify RPE atrophy extent and its expansion rate. PMID:26024124

  19. Electrophoresis for the analysis of heparin purity and quality.

    PubMed

    Volpi, Nicola; Maccari, Francesca; Suwan, Jiraporn; Linhardt, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    The adulteration of raw heparin with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate (OSCS) in 2007-2008 produced a global crisis resulting in extensive revisions to the pharmacopeia monographs and prompting the FDA to recommend the development of additional methods for the analysis of heparin purity. As a consequence, a wide variety of innovative analytical approaches have been developed for the quality assurance and purity of unfractionated and low-molecular-weight heparins. This review discusses recent developments in electrophoresis techniques available for the sensitive separation, detection, and partial structural characterization of heparin contaminants. In particular, this review summarizes recent publications on heparin quality and related impurity analysis using electrophoretic separations such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) of intact polysaccharides and hexosamines derived from their acidic hydrolysis, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) for the separation of heparin samples without and in the presence of its relatively specific depolymerization process with nitrous acid treatment. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Synthesis of hydrogel via click chemistry for DNA electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Finetti, Chiara; Sola, Laura; Elliott, Jim; Chiari, Marcella

    2017-09-01

    This work introduces a novel sieving gel for DNA electrophoresis using a classical click chemistry reaction, the copper (I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), to cross-link functional polymer chains. The efficiency of this reaction provides, under mild conditions, hydrogels with near-ideal network connectivity and improved physical properties. Hydrogel formation via click chemistry condensation of functional polymers does not involve the use of toxic monomers and UV initiation. The performance of the new hydrogel in the separation of double stranded DNA fragments was evaluated in the 2200 TapeStation system, an analytical platform, recently introduced by Agilent that combines the advantages of CE in terms of miniaturization and automation with the simplicity of use of slab gel electrophoresis. The click gel enables addition of florescent dyes prior to electrophoresis with considerable improvement of resolution and separation efficiency over conventional cross-linked polyacrylamide gels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Baroreflex sensitivity in acute hypoxia and carbohydrate loading.

    PubMed

    Klemenc, Matjaž; Golja, Petra

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia decreases baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and can be a sufficient cause for syncope in healthy individuals. Carbohydrate loading enhances efferent sympathetic activity, which affects cardiac contractility, heart rate and vascular resistance, the main determinants of blood pressure. Thus, in both normoxia and hypoxia, carbohydrate loading may be more than simply metabolically beneficial, as it may affect blood pressure regulation. We hypothesised that carbohydrate loading will, in both normoxia and hypoxia, alter the regulation of blood pressure, as reflected in a change in baroreflex sensitivity. Fourteen subjects participated in two experiments, composed of a 15-min normoxic period, after which the subjects ingested water or an equal amount of water with carbohydrates. A 30-min rest period was then followed by a 10-min second normoxic and a 30-min hypoxic period. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored continuously during the experiment to determine BRS. Despite an increased sympathetic activation, reflected in increased heart rate (P < 0.001) BRS was lower (P < 0.01) after carbohydrate loading, as compared to the water experiment, in both normoxic [23.7 (12.4) versus 28.8 (13.8) ms/mmHg] and hypoxic [16.8 (11.0) versus 24.3 (12.3) ms/mmHg] phases of the present study. As BRS was decreased in acute hypoxic exposure, the results confirm that hypoxia interferes with blood pressure regulation. However, although oral carbohydrate loading induced sympathoexcitation, it did not improve blood pressure regulation in hypoxia, as evident from the BRS data. Baroreflex effects of other forms of carbohydrate loading, not causing postprandial blood shifts to digestive system, should therefore be investigated.

  2. Hepatocyte heterogeneity in the metabolism of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Jungermann, K; Thurman, R G

    1992-01-01

    Periportal and perivenous hepatocytes possess different amounts and activities of the rate-generating enzymes of carbohydrate and oxidative energy metabolism and thus different metabolic capacities. This is the basis of the model of metabolic zonation, according to which periportal cells catalyze predominantly the oxidative catabolism of fatty and amino acids as well as glucose release and glycogen formation via gluconeogenesis, and perivenous cells carry out preferentially glucose uptake for glycogen synthesis and glycolysis coupled to liponeogenesis. The input of humoral and nervous signals into the periportal and perivenous zones is different; gradients of oxygen, substrates and products, hormones and mediators and nerve densities exist which are important not only for the short-term regulation of carbohydrate metabolism but also for the long-term regulation of zonal gene expression. The specialization of periportal and perivenous hepatocytes in carbohydrate metabolism has been well characterized. In vivo evidence is provided by the complex metabolic situation termed the 'glucose paradox' and by zonal flux differences calculated on the basis of the distribution of enzymes and metabolites. In vitro evidence is given by the different flux rates determined with classical invasive techniques, e.g. in periportal-like and perivenous-like hepatocytes in cell culture, in periportal- and perivenous-enriched hepatocyte populations and in perfused livers during orthograde and retrograde flow, as well as with noninvasive techniques using miniature oxygen electrodes, e.g. in livers perfused in either direction. Differences of opinion in the interpretation of studies with invasive and noninvasive techniques by the authors are discussed. The declining gradient in oxygen concentrations, the decreasing glucagon/insulin ratio and the different innervation could be important factors in the zonal expression of the genes of carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes. While it is clear that

  3. Role of gravity in preparative electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental formulas of electrophoresis are derived microscopically and applied to the problem of isotachophoresis. A simple physical model of the isotachophoresis front is proposed. The front motion and structure are studied in the simplified case without convection, diffusion and non-electric external forces.

  4. Meal frequency of pre-exercise carbohydrate feedings.

    PubMed

    Chryssanthopoulos, C; Petridou, A; Maridaki, M; Mougios, V

    2008-04-01

    This study compared the effect of single and multiple carbohydrate feedings before exercise on biochemical and physiological responses during exercise. Eight males performed 3 runs for 1 h at 70 % VO(2max) after consuming a meal containing 2.5 g carbohydrate per kg body mass in a single dose 3 h before exercise (SF), the same meal in 5 equal doses at 3, 2.5, 2, 1.5, and 1 h before exercise (MF), or a liquid placebo 3 h before exercise (P). RER and carbohydrate oxidation rates were higher in SF and MF compared to P trials, but there was no difference between SF and MF trials. Pre-exercise insulin was 2.0- and 3.4- fold higher in SF and MF, respectively, compared to P, and 1.7-fold higher in MF compared to SF. Glycerol and NEFA were higher in P compared to SF and MF trials before and at the end of exercise. In conclusion, a carbohydrate meal containing 2.5 g . kg(-1) ingested in doses over 3 h before running produced higher hyperinsulinemia pre-exercise than that produced when the meal was consumed in a single dose. Nevertheless, estimated carbohydrate utilization and adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise after multiple feedings seemed to be as high as after a single feeding.

  5. An alternative assay to discover potential calmodulin inhibitors using a human fluorophore-labeled CaM protein.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Martín; Figueroa, Mario; Rodríguez-Sotres, Rogelio; Mata, Rachel; Sosa-Peinado, Alejandro

    2009-04-01

    This article describes the development of a new fluorescent-engineered human calmodulin, hCaM M124C-mBBr, useful in the identification of potential calmodulin (CaM) inhibitors. An hCaM mutant containing a unique cysteine residue at position 124 on the protein was expressed, purified, and chemically modified with the fluorophore monobromobimane (mBBr). The fluorophore-labeled protein exhibited stability and functionality to the activation of calmodulin-sensitive cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE1) similar to wild-type hCaM. The hCaM M124C-mBBr is highly sensitive to detecting inhibitor interaction given that it showed a quantum efficiency of 0.494, approximately 20 times more than the value for wild-type hCaM, and a large spectral change ( approximately 80% quenching) when the protein is in the presence of saturating inhibitor concentrations. Two natural products previously shown to act as CaM inhibitors, malbrancheamide (1) and tajixanthone hydrate (2), and the well-known CaM inhibitor chlorpromazine (CPZ) were found to quench the hCaM M124C-mBBr fluorescence, and the IC(50) values were comparable to those obtained for the wild-type protein. These results support the use of hCaM M124C-mBBr as a fluorescence biosensor and a powerful analytical tool in the high-throughput screening demanded by the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  6. Labeling proteins inside living cells using external fluorophores for microscopy.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kai Wen; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Ren, Pin; Youn, Yeoan; Deng, Xiang; Ge, Pinghua; Lee, Sang Hak; Belmont, Andrew S; Selvin, Paul R

    2016-12-09

    Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial enzyme which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG's to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology. When combined with Oxyrase, a cell-friendly photostabilizer, a ~20x improvement in fluorescence photostability is achieved. By adding in glutathione, fluorophores are made to blink, enabling super-resolution fluorescence with 20-30 nm resolution over a long time (~30 min) under continuous illumination. Example applications in conventional and super-resolution imaging of native and transfected cells include p65 signal transduction activation, single molecule tracking of kinesin, and specific labeling of a series of nuclear and cytoplasmic protein complexes.

  7. The case for low carbohydrate diets in diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Arora, Surender K; McFarlane, Samy I

    2005-07-14

    A low fat, high carbohydrate diet in combination with regular exercise is the traditional recommendation for treating diabetes. Compliance with these lifestyle modifications is less than satisfactory, however, and a high carbohydrate diet raises postprandial plasma glucose and insulin secretion, thereby increasing risk of CVD, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes. Moreover, the current epidemic of diabetes and obesity has been, over the past three decades, accompanied by a significant decrease in fat consumption and an increase in carbohydrate consumption. This apparent failure of the traditional diet, from a public health point of view, indicates that alternative dietary approaches are needed. Because carbohydrate is the major secretagogue of insulin, some form of carbohydrate restriction is a prima facie candidate for dietary control of diabetes. Evidence from various randomized controlled trials in recent years has convinced us that such diets are safe and effective, at least in short-term. These data show low carbohydrate diets to be comparable or better than traditional low fat high carbohydrate diets for weight reduction, improvement in the dyslipidemia of diabetes and metabolic syndrome as well as control of blood pressure, postprandial glycemia and insulin secretion. Furthermore, the ability of low carbohydrate diets to reduce triglycerides and to increase HDL is of particular importance. Resistance to such strategies has been due, in part, to equating it with the popular Atkins diet. However, there are many variations and room for individual physician planning. Some form of low carbohydrate diet, in combination with exercise, is a viable option for patients with diabetes. However, the extreme reduction of carbohydrate of popular diets (<30 g/day) cannot be recommended for a diabetic population at this time without further study. On the other hand, the dire objections continually raised in the literature appear to have very little scientific

  8. Low carbohydrate diets may increase risk of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Tania A; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Mosley, Bridget S; Meyer, Robert E

    2018-01-25

    Folic acid fortification significantly reduced the prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in the United States. The popularity of "low carb" diets raises concern that women who intentionally avoid carbohydrates, thereby consuming fewer fortified foods, may not have adequate dietary intake of folic acid. To assess the association between carbohydrate intake and NTDs, we analyzed data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study from 1,740 mothers of infants, stillbirths, and terminations with anencephaly or spina bifida (cases), and 9,545 mothers of live born infants without a birth defect (controls) conceived between 1998 and 2011. Carbohydrate and folic acid intake before conception were estimated from food frequency questionnaire responses. Restricted carbohydrate intake was defined as ≤5th percentile among controls. Odds ratios were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, education, alcohol use, folic acid supplement use, study center, and caloric intake. Mean dietary intake of folic acid among women with restricted carbohydrate intake was less than half that of other women (p < .01), and women with restricted carbohydrate intake were slightly more likely to have an infant with an NTD (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.67). This is the first study to examine the association between carbohydrate intake and NTDs among pregnancies conceived postfortification. We found that women with restricted carbohydrate intake were 30% more likely to have an infant with anencephaly or spina bifida. However, more research is needed to understand the pathways by which restricted carbohydrate intake might increase the risk of NTDs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reversible switching of fluorophore property based on intrinsic conformational transition of adenylate kinase during its catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Akira; Hirota, Shun; Matsuo, Takashi

    2013-07-17

    Adenylate kinase shows a conformational transition (OPEN and CLOSED forms) during substrate binding and product release to mediate the phosphoryl transfer between ADP and ATP/AMP. The protein motional characteristics will be useful to construct switching systems of fluorophore properties caused by the catalytic cycle of the enzyme. This paper demonstrates in situ reversible switching of a fluorophore property driven by the conformational transition of the enzyme. The pyrene-conjugated mutant adenylate kinase is able to switch the monomer/excimer emission property of pyrene on addition of ADP or P(1)P(5)-di(adenosine-5')pentaphosphate (Ap5A, a transition state analog). The observation under the dilute condition (~0.1 μM) indicates that the emission spectral change was caused by the motion of a protein molecule and not led by protein-protein interactions through π-π stacking of pyrene rings. The switching can be reversibly conducted by using hexokinase-coupling reaction. The fashion of the changes in emission intensities at various ligand concentrations is different between ADP, Mg(2+)-bound ADP, and Mg(2+)-bound Ap5A. The emission property switching is repeatable by a sequential addition of a substrate in a one-pot process. It is proposed that the property of a synthetic molecule on the enzyme surface is switchable in response to the catalytic cycle of adenylate kinase.

  10. [Specific problems posed by carbohydrate utilization in the rainbow trout].

    PubMed

    Bergot, F

    1979-01-01

    Carbohydrate incorporation in trout diets arises problems both at digestive and metabolic levels. Digestive utilization of carbohydrate closely depends on their molecular weight. In addition, in the case of complex carbohydrates (starches), different factors such as the level of incorporation, the amount consumed and the physical state of starch influence the digestibility. The measurement of digestibility in itself is confronted with methodological difficulties. The way the feces are collected can affect the digestion coefficient. Dietary carbohydrates actually serve as a source of energy. Nevertheless, above a certain level in the diet, intolerance phenomena may appear. The question that arises now is to establish the optimal part that carbohydrates can take in the metabolizable energy of a given diet.

  11. Development of bufferless gel electrophoresis chip for easy preparation and rapid DNA separation.

    PubMed

    Oleksandrov, Sergiy; Aman, Abdurazak; Lim, Wanyoung; Kim, Younghee; Bae, Nam Ho; Lee, Kyoung G; Lee, Seok Jae; Park, Sungsu

    2018-02-01

    This work presents a handy, fast, and compact bufferless gel electrophoresis chip (BGEC), which consists of precast agarose gel confined in a disposable plastic body with electrodes. It does not require large volumes of buffer to fill reservoirs, or the process of immersing the gel in the buffer. It withstands voltages up to 28.4 V/cm, thereby allowing DNA separation within 10 min with a similar separation capability to the standard gel electrophoresis. The results suggest that our BGEC is highly suitable for in situ gel electrophoresis in forensic, epidemiological settings and crime scenes where standard gel electrophoresis equipment cannot be brought in while quick results are needed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Defined presentation of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Mark K; Hütter, Julia; Eriksson, Magdalena; Lepenies, Bernd; Seeberger, Peter H

    2011-12-16

    A new method for the spatially defined alignment of carbohydrates on a duplex DNA scaffold is presented. The use of an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-ester phosphoramidite along with carbohydrates containing an alkylamine linker allows for on-column labeling during solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. This modification method during solid-phase synthesis only requires the use of minimal amounts of complex carbohydrates. The covalently attached carbohydrates are presented in the major groove of the B-form duplex DNA as potential substrates for murine type II C-type lectin receptors mMGL1 and mMGL2. CD spectroscopy and thermal melting revealed only minimal disturbance of the overall helical structure. Surface plasmon resonance and cellular uptake studies with bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells were used to assess the capability of these carbohydrate-modified duplexes to bind to mMGL receptors. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis: Principles and misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Blackney, Donna M; Foley, Joe P

    2017-03-01

    Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is suppressed to allow all ions to reach the detector quickly. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the effective length that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. This review discusses the principles, applications, and limitations of dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis. Common misconceptions regarding DOI-CE are clarified. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Dietary carbohydrates and triacylglycerol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Roche, H M

    1999-02-01

    There is a growing body of scientific evidence which demonstrates that plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, especially in the postprandial state, is an important risk factor in relation to the development of CHD. Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with a number of adverse metabolic risk factors, including the preponderance of small dense LDL, low HDL-cholesterol concentrations and elevated factor VII activity. Traditionally, a low-fat high-carbohydrate diet was used to prevent CHD because it effectively reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations, but this dietary regimen increases plasma TAG concentrations and reduces HDL-cholesterol concentrations. There is substantial epidemiological evidence which demonstrates that high plasma TAG and low plasma HDL concentrations are associated with an increased risk of CHD. Thus, there is reason for concern that the adverse effects of low-fat high-carbohydrate diets on TAG and HDL may counteract or negate the beneficial effect of reducing LDL-cholesterol concentrations. Although there have been no prospective studies to investigate whether reduced fat intake has an adverse effect on CHD, there is strong epidemiological evidence that reducing total fat intake is not protective against CHD. On the other hand, high-fat diets predispose to obesity, and central obesity adversely affects TAG metabolism. There is substantial evidence that in free-living situations low-fat high-carbohydrate diets lead to weight loss, which in turn will correct insulin resistance and plasma TAG metabolism. Clearly there is a need for prospective studies to resolve the issue as to whether low-fat high-carbohydrate diets play an adverse or beneficial role in relation to the development of CHD.

  15. doGlycans-Tools for Preparing Carbohydrate Structures for Atomistic Simulations of Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Carbohydrate Polymers for GROMACS.

    PubMed

    Danne, Reinis; Poojari, Chetan; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Rissanen, Sami; Lolicato, Fabio; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-10-23

    Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological molecules and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell-cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models. Here we present tools that fill this gap. Applications where the tools discussed in this paper are particularly useful include, among others, the preparation of structures for glycolipids, nanocellulose, and glycans linked to glycoproteins. The molecular structures and simulation files generated by the tools are compatible with GROMACS.

  16. doGlycans–Tools for Preparing Carbohydrate Structures for Atomistic Simulations of Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Carbohydrate Polymers for GROMACS

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrates constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group of biological molecules and macromolecules. In cells they are involved in, e.g., energy storage, signaling, and cell–cell recognition. All of these phenomena take place in atomistic scales, thus atomistic simulation would be the method of choice to explore how carbohydrates function. However, the progress in the field is limited by the lack of appropriate tools for preparing carbohydrate structures and related topology files for the simulation models. Here we present tools that fill this gap. Applications where the tools discussed in this paper are particularly useful include, among others, the preparation of structures for glycolipids, nanocellulose, and glycans linked to glycoproteins. The molecular structures and simulation files generated by the tools are compatible with GROMACS. PMID:28906114

  17. VARIATION IN THE GROUP-SPECIFIC CARBOHYDRATE OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Maclyn

    1956-01-01

    Soil organisms have been isolated which elaborate induced enzymes capable of attacking group A and variant (V) streptococcal carbohydrates. The V enzyme hydrolyzes V carbohydrate extensively to dialyzable split products with resultant total loss of precipitating activity with homologous antisera. The split products inhibit the reaction between intact V carbohydrate and its antiserum: evidence is presented which indicates that rhamnose oligosaccharides are responsible for the inhibitory effect. The serological specificity of the V carbohydrate thus appears to be primarily dependent on a rhamnose-rhamnose linkage. The effect of the A enzyme on A carbohydrate is characterized by the removal of 50 to 70 per cent of the total glucosamine in the form of free N-acetyl-glucosamine. As a result of this treatment, the residual carbohydrate loses its reactivity with specific group A antisera and at the same time develops markedly increased cross-reactivity with V antisera. This cross-reactivity is in turn eliminated by treatment with V enzyme. The evidence suggests that the specificity of group A carbohydrate is determined to a large extent by side chains of N-acetyl-glucosamine which also serve to mask underlying rhamnose-rhamnose linkages with V specificity. PMID:13367334

  18. Mathematical Models of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saville, D. A.; Snyder, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Development of high resolution continuous flow electrophoresis devices ultimately requires comprehensive understanding of the ways various phenomena and processes facilitate or hinder separation. A comprehensive model of the actual three dimensional flow, temperature and electric fields was developed to provide guidance in the design of electrophoresis chambers for specific tasks and means of interpreting test data on a given chamber. Part of the process of model development includes experimental and theoretical studies of hydrodynamic stability. This is necessary to understand the origin of mixing flows observed with wide gap gravitational effects. To insure that the model accurately reflects the flow field and particle motion requires extensive experimental work. Another part of the investigation is concerned with the behavior of concentrated sample suspensions with regard to sample stream stability particle-particle interactions which might affect separation in an electric field, especially at high field strengths. Mathematical models will be developed and tested to establish the roles of the various interactions.

  19. Fractionation of mineral species by electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, J. D.; Herren, B. J.; Tipps, R. W.; Snyder, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The fractionation of fine-grained aggregates into their major components is a problem in many scientific areas including earth and planetary science. Electrophoresis, the transport of electrically charged particles, immersed in a suspension medium, by a direct current field (Bier, 1959), was employed in this study as a means of separating simulated lunar soil into its constituent minerals. In these tests, conducted in a static analytical cylindrical microelectrophoresis apparatus, samples of simulated lunar soil and samples of pure mineral constituents were placed in the chamber; the electrophoretic mobilities of the lunar soil and the individual mineral constituents were measured. In most of the suspension buffers employed separability was indicated, on the basis of differences in mobility, for all the constituent mineral species except ilmenite and pyroxene, which were not efficiently separable in any of the buffers. Although only a few suspension media were employed, the success of this initial study suggests that electrophoresis may be an important mineral fractionation option in fine-grained aggregate processing.

  20. Multiple-Transportable Carbohydrate Effect on Long-Distance Triathlon Performance.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, David S; Houltham, Stuart D

    2017-08-01

    The ingestion of multiple (2:1 glucose-fructose) transportable carbohydrate in beverages at high rates (>78 g·h) during endurance exercise enhances exogenous carbohydrate oxidation, fluid absorption, gut comfort, and performance relative to glucose alone. However, during long-distance endurance competition, athletes prefer a solid-gel-drink format, and the effect size of multiple-transportable carbohydrate is unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on triathlon competition performance when ingested within bars, gels, and drinks. A double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted within two national-body sanctioned half-ironman triathlon races held 3 wk apart in 74 well-trained male triathletes (18-60 yr; >2 yr competition experience). Carbohydrate comprising glucose/maltodextrin-fructose (2:1 ratio) or standard isocaloric carbohydrate (glucose/maltodextrin only) was ingested before (94 g) and during the cycle (2.5 g·km) and run (7.8 g·km) sections, averaging 78.6 ± 6.6 g·h, partitioned to bars (25%), gels (35%), and drink (40%). Postrace, 0- to 10-unit Likert-type scales were completed to assess gut comfort and energy. The trial returned low dropout rate (9%), high compliance, and sensitivity (typical error 2.2%). The effect of multiple-transportable carbohydrate on performance time was -0.53% (95% confidence interval = -1.30% to 0.24%; small benefit threshold = -0.54%), with likelihood-based risk analysis supporting adoption (benefit-harm ratio = 48.9%:0.3%; odds ratio = 285:1). Covariate adjustments for preexercise body weight and heat stress had negligible impact performance. Multiple-transportable carbohydrate possibly lowered nausea during the swim and bike; otherwise, effects on gut comfort and perceived energy were negligible. Multiple-transportable (2:1 maltodextrin/glucose-fructose) compared with single-transportable carbohydrate ingested in differing format provided a small benefit to long

  1. Low-Fat Versus Low-Carbohydrate Weight Reduction Diets

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Una; Spence, Michelle; Courtney, C. Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C.; Ennis, Cieran N.; McCance, David R.; McEneny, Jane; Bell, Patrick M.; Young, Ian S.; Hunter, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Low-fat hypocaloric diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes in those at risk. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the benefits of weight reduction. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated a low-fat (20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) versus a low-carbohydrate (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) weight reduction diet in 24 overweight/obese subjects ([mean ± SD] BMI 33.6 ± 3.7 kg/m2, aged 39 ± 10 years) in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. All food was weighed and distributed, and intake was calculated to produce a 500 kcal/day energy deficit. Insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by meal tolerance test. Body composition, adipokine levels, and vascular compliance by pulse-wave analysis were also measured. RESULTS Significant weight loss occurred in both groups (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups (P = 0.40). Peripheral glucose uptake increased, but there was no difference between groups (P = 0.28), and suppression of endogenous glucose production was also similar between groups. Meal tolerance–related insulin secretion decreased with weight loss with no difference between groups (P = 0.71). The change in overall systemic arterial stiffness was, however, significantly different between diets (P = 0.04); this reflected a significant decrease in augmentation index following the low-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low-carbohydrate group. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content. The difference in augmentation index may imply a negative effect of low-carbohydrate diets on vascular risk. PMID:19720791

  2. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Adriana C.; Williams, Christina D.; Allott, Emma H.; Howard, Lauren E.; Grant, Delores J.; McPhail, Megan; Sourbeer, Katharine N.; Pao-Hwa, Lin; Boffetta, Paolo; Hoyo, Cathrine; Freedland, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reported associations between dietary carbohydrate and prostate cancer (PC) risk are poorly characterized by race. METHODS We analyzed the association between carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and PC risk in a study of white (N=262) and black (N=168) veterans at the Durham VA Hospital. Cases were 156 men with biopsy-confirmed PC and controls (N=274) had a PSA test but were not recommended for biopsy. Diet was assessed before biopsy with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression models were used to estimate PC risk. RESULTS In multivariable analyses, higher carbohydrate intake, measured as percent of energy from carbohydrates, was associated with reduced PC risk (3rd vs. 1st tertile, OR=0.41, 95%CI 0.21–0.81, p=0.010), though this only reached significance in white men (p-trend=0.029). GI was unrelated to PC risk among all men, but suggestively linked with reduced PC risk in white men (p-trend=0.066) and increased PC risk in black men (p-trend=0.172), however the associations were not significant. Fiber intake was not associated with PC risk (all p-trends >0.55). Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with reduced risk of high-grade (p-trend=0.016), but not low-grade PC (p-trend=0.593). CONCLUSIONS Higher carbohydrate intake may be associated with reduced risk of overall and high-grade PC. Future larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:25417840

  3. Dietary strategies for the management of cardiovascular risk: role of dietary carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Ian A

    2014-05-01

    Carbohydrate-rich foods are an essential component of the diet, providing the glucose that is continuously required by the nervous system and some other cells and tissues in the body for normal function. There is some concern that too much carbohydrate or certain types of carbohydrate such as fructose or the high glycaemic index carbohydrate foods that produce large, rapid increases in blood glucose may be detrimental to health. This review considers these issues and also summarises the public health advice currently available in Europe and the USA concerning dietary carbohydrates. The UK Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition is currently reviewing carbohydrates and health, and the subsequent report should help clarify some of the concerns regarding carbohydrates and health.

  4. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  5. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  6. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  7. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  8. [The sequential use of local vacuum magnetotherapy and papaverine electrophoresis with sinusoidal modulated currents in impotence].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I V; Bogomol'nyĭ, V A

    1997-01-01

    105 patients with chronic nonspecific prostatitis were examined and treated with papaverin electrophoresis using sinusoidal modulated currents (SMC) and local vacuum magnetotherapy (LVMT). Papaverin SMC electrophoresis and LVMT stimulated cavernous circulation. The highest stimulation was achieved at successive use of LVMT and the electrophoresis. LVMT followed by the electrophoresis maintained good cavernous circulation for 5-6 hours after the procedure in the course of which several spontaneous erections were observed.

  9. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Delivery of fluorophores by calcium phosphate-coated nanoliposomes and interaction with Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rivero Berti, Ignacio; Dell' Arciprete, María Laura; Dittler, María Laura; Miñan, Alejandro; Fernández Lorenzo de Mele, Mónica; Gonzalez, Mónica

    2016-06-01

    The delivery capacity and mechanical stability of calcium phosphate (CaP) coated 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DOPA) liposomes free and adsorbed on bacterial surface was investigated introducing either acridine orange (AO) or 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridinio)porphyrin (TMP) in the aqueous core of the liposomes. The obtained nanomaterials were thoroughly characterized by electron and optical microscopy and by fluorescence techniques. Distribution of the AO and TMP molecules between the aqueous liposomes core and the outer solution was demonstrated by the band shifts and broadening of the excitation-emission matrices and the modified Stern-Volmer model for fluorescence quenching. In aqueous suspensions, c.a. 40% of AO was released to the outer solution while only a small percentage of TMP was observed to reach the outer liposome surface. The nanoliposomes adhesion capacity and the leaking of fluorophore molecules to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilms were further evaluated. A close interaction between liposomes and S. aureus biofilm was evidenced by TEM and SEM imaging. Epifluorescence experiments demonstrated that CaP-coated liposomes have good biofilm staining capability after two hours incubation of the biofilms with the liposomes, thus supporting an important release of the fluorophores when in contact with the biofilm. Altogether, the obtained results strongly suggest that CaP-coated liposomes are capable of activating drug release when in presence of S. aureus biofilms and smears. The studies herein presented, indicate that CaP-coated liposomes are potential vehicles for the selective delivery of drugs to S. aureus biofilms, as is the case of the singlet oxygen photosensitizer TMP, a well known photodynamic antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. One-step synthesis of carbohydrate esters as antibacterial and antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    AlFindee, Madher N; Zhang, Qian; Subedi, Yagya Prasad; Shrestha, Jaya P; Kawasaki, Yukie; Grilley, Michelle; Takemoto, Jon Y; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom

    2018-02-01

    Carbohydrate esters are biodegradable, and the degraded adducts are naturally occurring carbohydrates and fatty acids which are environmentally friendly and non-toxic to human. A simple one-step regioselective acylation of mono-carbohydrates has been developed that leads to the synthesis of a wide range of carbohydrate esters. Screening of these acylated carbohydrates revealed that several compounds were active against a panel of bacteria and fungi, including Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum. Unlike prior studies on carbohydrate esters that focus only on antibacterial applications, our compounds are found to be active against both bacteria and fungi. Furthermore, the synthetic methodology is suitable to scale-up production for a variety of acylated carbohydrates. The identified lead compound, MAN014, can be used as an antimicrobial in applications such as food processing and preservation and for treatment of bacterial and fungal diseases in animals and plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lignocentric analysis of a carbohydrate-producing lignocellulosic biorefinery process.

    PubMed

    Narron, Robert H; Han, Qiang; Park, Sunkyu; Chang, Hou-Min; Jameel, Hasan

    2017-10-01

    A biologically-based lignocellulosic biorefinery process for obtaining carbohydrates from raw biomass was investigated across six diverse biomasses (three hardwoods & three nonwoods) for the purpose of decoding lignin's influence on sugar production. Acknowledging that lignin could positively alter the economics of an entire process if valorized appropriately, we sought to correlate the chemical properties of lignin within the process to the traditional metrics associated with carbohydrate production-cellulolytic digestibility and total sugar recovery. Based on raw carbohydrate, enzymatic recovery ranged from 40 to 64% w/w and total recovery ranged from 70 to 87% w/w. Using nitrobenzene oxidation to quantify non-condensed lignin structures, it was found that raw hardwoods bearing increasing non-condensed S/V ratios (2.5-5.1) render increasing total carbohydrate recovery from hardwood biomasses. This finding indicates that the chemical structure of hardwood lignin influences the investigated biorefinery process' ability to generate carbohydrates from a given raw hardwood feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Laforin, a dual specificity phosphatase that dephosphorylates complex carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Worby, Carolyn A; Gentry, Matthew S; Dixon, Jack E

    2006-10-13

    Laforin is the only phosphatase in the animal kingdom that contains a carbohydrate-binding module. Mutations in the gene encoding laforin result in Lafora disease, a fatal autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder, which is diagnosed by the presence of intracellular deposits of insoluble complex carbohydrates known as Lafora bodies. We demonstrate that laforin interacts with proteins known to be involved in glycogen metabolism and rule out several of these proteins as potential substrates. Surprisingly, we find that laforin displays robust phosphatase activity against a phosphorylated complex carbohydrate. Furthermore, this activity is unique to laforin, since several other phosphatases are unable to dephosphorylate polysaccharides. Finally, fusing the carbohydrate-binding module of laforin to the dual specific phosphatase VHR does not result in the ability of this phosphatase to dephosphorylate polysaccharides. Therefore, we hypothesize that laforin is unique in its ability to utilize a phosphorylated complex carbohydrate as a substrate and that this function may be necessary for the maintenance of normal cellular glycogen.

  14. Carbohydrate and fat: considerations for energy and more

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Historically, carbohydrates and fats were valued on their caloric contributions to diets. Feeding recommendations for these feed fractions now address inclusion levels, as well as consideration of the positive and negative effects of specific types of these nutrients. Feed carbohydrate characterizat...

  15. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polysaccharides from hazelnut skin.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Tuncay; Tavman, Şebnem

    2016-03-01

    In this study ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) of polysaccharides from hazelnut skin has been studied. Optimum sonication time has been evaluated depending on responses such as amount of carbohydrate and dried sample and thermogravimetric analysis. Chemical and structural properties of extracted material have been determined by Fourier transform spectroscopy attenuated-total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Pretreated hazelnut skin powders were extracted in distilled water. Mixture was sonicated by ultrasonic processor probe for 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min. The results of UAE showed that maximum ethanol insoluble extracts in 60 min and the highest dry matter content could be obtained in 120 min extraction. Although total carbohydrate content of ethanol insoluble dry extract decreased with time, total carbohydrate in ethanol soluble fraction increased. Polysaccharides extracted from hazelnut skin were assumed to be pectic polysaccharide according to the literature survey of FTIR analysis result. Application time of UAE has an important effect on extraction of polysaccharide from hazelnut skin. This affect could be summarized by enhancing extraction yield up to critical level. Decrease of the yield in ethanol insoluble part could be explained by polymer decomposition. Most suitable model was hyperbolic model by having the lowest root mean square error and the highest R(2) values. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Dietary carbohydrates, components of energy balance, and associated health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Harry A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2017-10-01

    The role of dietary carbohydrates in the development of obesity and associated metabolic dysfunction has recently been questioned. Within the last decade, the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition carried out a comprehensive evaluation of the role of dietary carbohydrates in human health. The current review aims to complement and extend this report by providing specific consideration of the effects of the component parts of energy balance, their interactions, and their culmination on energy storage and health. PubMed was searched for all published trials that had a minimum follow-up period of 3 months and were designed to manipulate dietary carbohydrate intake, irrespective of resultant differences in absolute carbohydrate dose (grams per day). Dietary carbohydrate manipulation has little effect on the individual components of energy balance that have been assessed. However, the role of dietary carbohydrates in influencing physical activity has yet to be assessed using gold-standard measurement tools. Moreover, adherence to a diet of modified carbohydrate content has not been found to result in a consistent pattern of changes in weight or indirect measures of metabolic health. However, certain markers of cardiovascular disease risk (ie, blood triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) may respond positively to a reduction in dietary carbohydrates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Does Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Running Improve Performance? A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Wilson, PB. Does carbohydrate intake during endurance running improve performance? A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3539-3559, 2016-Previous review articles assessing the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise have not focused on running. Given the popularity of distance running and the widespread use of carbohydrate supplements, this article reviewed the evidence for carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running. The criteria for inclusion were (a) experimental studies reported in English language including a performance task, (b) moderate-to-high intensity exercise >60 minutes (intermittent excluded), and (c) carbohydrate ingestion (mouth rinsing excluded). Thirty studies were identified with 76 women and 505 men. Thirteen of the 17 studies comparing a carbohydrate beverage(s) with water or a placebo found a between-condition performance benefit with carbohydrate, although heterogeneity in protocols precludes clear generalizations about the expected effect sizes. Additional evidence suggests that (a) performance benefits are most likely to occur during events >2 hours, although several studies showed benefits for tasks lasting 90-120 minutes; (b) consuming carbohydrate beverages above ad libitum levels increases gastrointestinal discomfort without improving performance; (c) carbohydrate gels do not influence performance for events lasting 16-21 km; and (d) multiple saccharides may benefit events >2 hours if intake is ≥1.3 g·min Given that most participants were fasted young men, inferences regarding women, adolescents, older runners, and those competing in fed conditions are hampered. Future studies should address these limitations to further elucidate the role of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running.

  18. The Gel Electrophoresis Markup Language (GelML) from the Proteomics Standards Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J. Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The Human Proteome Organisation’s Proteomics Standards Initiative (HUPO-PSI) has developed the GelML data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for mass spectrometry data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications. PMID:20677327

  19. Efficient Cleavage of Lignin–Carbohydrate Complexes and Ultrafast Extraction of Lignin Oligomers from Wood Biomass by Microwave‐Assisted Treatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongzhuang; Chen, Wenshuai; Xia, Qinqin; Guo, Bingtuo; Wang, Qingwen; Liu, Shouxin; Liu, Yixing; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for the production of biobased value‐added fuels, chemicals, and materials, but its effective exploitation by an energy‐efficient and environmentally friendly strategy remains a challenge. Herein, a facile approach for efficiently cleaving lignin–carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast fractionation of components from wood by microwave‐assisted treatment with deep eutectic solvent is reported. The solvent was composed of sustainable choline chloride and oxalic acid dihydrate, and showed a hydrogen‐bond acidity of 1.31. Efficient fractionation of lignocellulose with the solvent was realized by heating at 80 °C under 800 W microwave irradiation for 3 min. The extracted lignin showed a low molecular weight of 913, a low polydispersity of 1.25, and consisted of lignin oligomers with high purity (ca. 96 %), and thus shows potential in downstream production of aromatic chemicals. The other dissolved matter mainly comprised glucose, xylose, and hydroxymethylfurfural. The undissolved material was cellulose with crystal I structure and a crystallinity of approximately 75 %, which can be used for fabricating nanocellulose. Therefore, this work promotes an ultrafast lignin‐first biorefinery approach while simultaneously keeping the undissolved cellulose available for further utilization. This work is expected to contribute to improving the economics of overall biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:28054749

  20. Carbohydrate Counting and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of cooked nonstarchy vegetables or a cup of raw vegetables has only about 5 grams of carbohydrate. ... help you find added sugars, such as sugar, raw sugar, brown sugar, and invert sugar—a mixture ...